The relationship between diffusion coefficients and exposure temperature was evaluated in isolated stratum corneum (SC). Due to the difficulty in measuring a diffusion coefficient directly, the movement of chemicals into and across the dermal barrier is often described as a function (the permeability constant) of the diffusion coefficient. The permeability constant also depends on the skin: chemical partition coefficient and the path length of diffusion. In the idealized expression of diffusion...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Caracci, M. C., GEOCENTERS INC NEWTON CENTRE MA, *DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT,...
We study the fewelectron eigenspectrum of a carbonnanotube double quantum dot with spinorbit coupling. Exact calculation are combined with a simple model to provide an intuitive and accurate description of singleparticle and interaction effects. For symmetric dots and weak magnetic fields, the twoelectron ground state is antisymmetric in the spinvalley degree of freedom and is not a pure spinsinglet state. When double occupation of one dot is favored by increasing the detuning between...
Topics: DTIC Archive, COLORADO UNIV AT BOULDER, *CARBON NANOTUBES, *QUANTUM DOTS, EIGENVALUES, ENERGY GAPS,...
We have performed fundamental experimental and theoretical studies of insensitive energetic materials (FOX 7, HMX, RDX, TATB and PETN) with the aim of betterascertaining their behavior under extreme conditions as well as seeking to understand more about what makes them relatively stable in the hope of designing better explosives in the future. We have also developed novel methods to study these important materials which we feel will aid future studies of insensitive munitions.
Topics: DTIC Archive, NEVADA UNIV LAS VEGAS HIGH PRESSURE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CENTER, *CRYSTALS,...
We study the equation of state of sodium using the molecular dynamics technique whereby the classical motion of a system of ions is solved with the aid of computers. The interaction potential between pairs of sodium ions consists of coulomb and BornMayer repulsion terms and an effective ionion interaction derived from pseudopotential theory. This theory includes the effects of electron gas screening, exchange, and correlation. We use a model pseudopotential with parameters fit to experimental...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Swanson,Richard E, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHTPATTERSON AFB OH, *MELTS, *SODIUM,...
Work during this period was concerned with: (1) development of a new method for the derivation of the state equations of motion for the control of flexible spacecraft in terms of quasicoordinates; and (2) development of a method for the control of spacecraft in the form of articulated flexible multi bodies. (edc)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Meirovitch, Leonard, VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG DEPT OF...
A compilation has been made of numerous topics in the theory of compressiblefluid dynamics. The presentation is designed as a guide for students as well as a source of reference material for the research worker. The choice of material has been influenced by the needs and projects at the Los Alamos Scientific laboratory, where much of the theoretical work in fluid dynamics is carried out by numerical techniques on highspeed electronic computers. There is, however, no discussion of the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Harlow, Francis H, LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LAB NM, *COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, *FLUID DYNAMICS,...
TOODY is a two dimensional (plane or axisymmetric), multimaterial, Lagrangian wave propagation computer code. It was written by Sandia Laboratories in the late 1960's. The Air Force Armament Laboratory's (AFATL) TOODY is that version updated extensively by both Sandia and the Air Force. The purpose of this report is to document changes made to the code by Sandia and the Air Force and to provide input/output details.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Osborn,John J, AIR FORCE ARMAMENT LAB EGLIN AFB FL, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS, *HYDRODYNAMIC...
We evaluate the Belllatticemodel for water by exploring the parameter space by means of the Cluster Variation method of Kihuchi. We use ten order parameters to describe the different occupation of tetrahedrons in the lattice, with and without hydrogen bonds. The phase diagrams are represented in the densitytemperature plane and in the pressure temperature plane. An explanation is given as to why there are first order terminal points in the metastable region. We discuss the 180 degree rule...
Topics: DTIC Archive, VAN Royen,Eddy, CATHOLIC UNIV OF AMERICA WASHINGTON DC DEPT OF PHYSICS, *HYDROGEN...
Research efforts on the formation and analysis of polymer carbon electrodes to serve as oxygen electrodes and on the synthesis of porphyrins and porphyrazines for study as oxygen reduction catalysts in conjunction with polymer carbon electrodes are described. The report also presents a very simple but highly accurate model of detonation which ignores viscosity, diffusion, and heat conduction. The salient features of the model are unimolecular reaction, kinetics with starvation, balance laws,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Eyring,Henry, UTAH UNIV SALT LAKE CITY, *CORROSION, *FUEL CELLS, *DETONATIONS,...
The dilatational and shear velocities and the equation of state for an isotropic material under high hydrostatic pressures by the methods of continuum mechanics using the theory of small deformation superposed on a finite strain have been derived. The strain energy density of the material is taken to fourth order in terms of the strain invariants.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hussain,Moayyed A, ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND WATERVLIET NY BENET...
We studied a pressed and sintered reactive composite of 74 wt% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, or Teflon) and 26 wt% aluminum powder. A model, which we call JCP, was developed to relate the yield strength of this material to the equivalent plastic strain, total strain rate, and temperature. The model was fit to Instron compression data at 0.1/s strain rate and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) compression data at approximately 2900/s strain rate. The SHPB database included initial temperatures...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Raftenberg, M N, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD WEAPONS AND MATERIALS...
Many equations of mathematical physics take the form of nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. With small dissipative effects neglected, typically smooth solutions must develop discontinuities (shocks) in finite time. Reincorporating dissipation helps select those discontinuities which are physically relevant. For this purpose, many different sorts of dissipation will do; in particular, the physical viscosity is typically degenerate and not convenient. In this paper the author...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Pego,Robert L, WISCONSIN UNIVMADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER, *FLUID DYNAMICS,...
This report presents a complete mathematical derivation of governing equations for twophase (gassolid) interior ballistic flows. The derivation is based on instantaneous weighted volume averaging of local conservation equations, and it contains a complete discussion of errors that are introduced by the averaging. Initial conditions and boundary conditions that are consistent with the averaging procedure are discussed. The final form of the equations is chosen to facilitate their numerical...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Celmins, A K, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *GAS FLOW,...
The effects of water in close contact with detonating high explosives have been studied experimentally by numerous researchers, such as Eriksson (1974), Keenan & Wager (1992) and etc. These tests series had demonstrated that when water was stored closed to the high explosives, both the maximum overpressure and impulse density could be reduced significantly. This reduction has been attributed to the loss of energy from the shock into breaking up the water into droplets and the process of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AGENCY FOR SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH (SINGAPORE) INSTITUTE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE...
The first onorbit experiment of the Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) for tethered satellites will collect telemetry data for tether length, rate of deployment, and tether tension. The postflight analysis will use this data to reconstruct the deployment history and determine dynamic characteristics such as tether shape and payload position. Linearized observability analysis has determined that these measurements are adequate to define states for a twomass tether model, and two state...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, DEPLOYMENT, EQUATIONS OF STATE,...
A method is presented for the solution in momentum space of the bound state problem with a linear potential in r space. The potential is unbounded at large r leading to a singularity at small q. The singularity is integrable, when regulated by exponentially screening the rspace potential, and is removed by a subtraction technique. The limit of zero screening is taken analytically, and the numerical solution of the subtracted integral equation gives eigenvalues and wave functions in good...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COULOMB POTENTIAL, EQUATIONS OF STATE, INTEGRAL EQUATIONS,...
The purpose of this research has been to develop new semiempirical techniques to describe ceramics, alloys, and metal/ceramic interfaces with applications in mind that support the materials aspects of the high speed civil transport program (HSCT). HSCT requires methods that aid in the design of alloys and ceramics for new high strength, high temperature applications. Current theoretical methods are not capable of carrying out this mission. Hence, new accurate and more efficient theoretical...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CERAMIC BONDING, CERAMICS, DEFECTS, EQUATIONS OF STATE, METAL...
We explore the practicability of optimal shape design for flows modeled by the Euler equations. We define a functional whose minimum represents the optimality condition. The gradient of the functional with respect to the geometry is calculated with the Lagrange multipliers, which are determined by solving a costate equation. The optimization problem is then examined by comparing the performance of several gradientbased optimization algorithms. In this formulation, the flow field can be...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, EMBEDDING, EULER EQUATIONS OF...
The entropy rate admissibility criterion for solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is numerically analyzed. The following admissibility criterion for solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is proposed: a weak solution is admissible if the total entropy decays with the highest possible rate. The equivalence of this criterion and viscosity criterion is established for the single equation and the system of equations of one dimensional nonlinear elasticity.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENTROPY, EQUATIONS OF STATE, HEAT TRANSFER, THERMOCHEMISTRY,...
A second computer program was developed for the simulation of an n  C3F7I iodine laser. The computer program is given in Appendix A and a typical output from the computer program is illustrated in Appendix B.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, IODINE LASERS,...
Carbon dioxiderich inclusions commonly occur in the banded charnockites and khondalites of southern Kerala as well as in the incipient charnockites formed by desiccation of gneisses along oriented zones. The combined high density fluid inclusion isochores and the range of thermometric estimates from mineral assemblages indicate entrapment pressures in the range of 5.4 to 6.1 Kbar. The CO2 equation of state barometry closely compares with the 5 plus or minus 1 Kbar estimate from mineral phases...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON DIOXIDE, CARBON ISOTOPES, CORDIERITE, GNEISS, INDIA,...
Observational data obtained by the Voyager space probes to the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have provided valuable information, which is used to refine the picture of the nature of the interiors of these planets. Major results from the Voyager missions include observations of substantial magnetic fields and improved models of internal density distributions. The goal is to obtain equations of state and electrical conductivity data for planetary gases (H2 and He) and the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, DENSITY DISTRIBUTION, HIGH PRESSURE,...
The research and development work on Fountain Effect Pump Systems (FEP systems) has been of interest in the competition between mechanical pumps for He II and FEP units. The latter do not have moving parts. In the course of the work, the energetics have been addressed using one part of a simple fourchangesofstate cycle. One option is the FEP ideal change of state at constant chemical potential (mu). The other option is the twostate sequence muP with a d mu=0 state change followed by an...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EQUATIONS OF STATE, FLUID DYNAMICS, MECHANICAL DEVICES,...
FORTRAN computer programs were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of Freon 14 and air for isentropic expansion from given plenum conditions. Thermodynamic properties for air are calculated with equations derived from the BeattieBridgeman nonstandard equation of state and, for Freon 14, with equations derived from the RedlichQuang nonstandard equation of state. These two gases are used in scale model testing of model rocket nozzle flow fields which requires simulation of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, FORTRAN, FREON, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES,...
Densitywave profile shapes are influenced by several effects. By solving viscous fluid equations, the nonlinear effects of the gas and its gravitational interaction with the stars can be analyzed. The stars are treated through a linear theory developed by Lin and coworkers. Short wavelength gravitational forces are important in determining the gas density profile shape. With the inclusion of disk finite thickness effects, the gas gravitational field remains important, but is significantly...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EQUATIONS OF STATE, GAS DENSITY, GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS,...
Work continued on the improvement of 16Inch Shock Tunnel. This comprised studies of ways of improving driver gas ignition, an improved driver gas mixing system, an axial translation system for the driver tube, improved diaphragm materials (carbon steel vs. stainless steel), a copper liner for the part of the driven tube near the nozzle, the use of a buffer gas between the driver and driven gases, the use of N2O in the driven tube, the use of a converging driven tube, operation of the facility...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLOW...
In this paper, several attitude estimation designs are developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. A contingency attitude determination mode is required in the event of a primary sensor failure. The final design utilizes a full sixthorder Kalman filter. However, due to initial software concerns, the need to investigate simpler designs was required. The algorithms presented in this paper can be utilized in place of a full Kalman filter, and require less...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, ATTITUDE (INCLINATION), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Voskoboinikov, I M, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *DETONATION...
Numerical bifurcation techniques were developed for studying the multiplicity, stability, and oscillatory dynamics of the nonadiabatic tubular reactor with a single A yields B reaction. The techniques illustrate the existence of one, three, five, or seven steady states and bifurcating periodic solutions. We present numerical procedures for computing the Hopf bifurcation formulas which can determine the stability and location of the oscillation without integrating the parabolic partial...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Heinemann,Robert F, WISCONSIN UNIVMADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER, *REACTION...
A generalized formulation of the equations of motion of an arbitrary fluid are developed for the purpose of defining a common iterative algorithm for computational procedures. The method makes use of the equations of motion in conservation form with separate pseudotime derivatives used for defining the numerical flux for a Riemann solver and the convergence algorithm. The partial differential equations are complemented by an thermodynamic and caloric equations of state of a complexity...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBOMACHINERY, IDEAL GAS, LIQUID OXYGEN, ALGORITHMS,...
Dynamic deployment analyses of folded inflatable tubes are conducted to investigate modeling issues related to the deployment of solar sail booms. The analyses are necessary because ground tests include gravity effects and may poorly represent deployment in space. A control volume approach, available in the LSDYNA nonlinear dynamic finite element code, and the ideal gas law are used to simulate the dynamic inflation deployment process. Three deployment issues are investigated for a tube...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPLOYMENT, SIMULATION, INFLATABLE STRUCTURES, LOW WEIGHT,...
The two most common approaches used to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances are fundamental (or characteristic) equations of state (Helmholtz and Gibbs functions) and a piecemeal approach that is described in Adebiyi and Russell (1992). This paper neither presents a different method to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances nor validates the aforementioned approaches. Rather its purpose is to present a method to generate property tables from existing property...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, INTERPOLATION, EQUATIONS OF STATE,...
Two pressure chambers, for compression experiments with liquids from zero to 2.2 GPa pressure, are described. The experimentally measured compressions are then compared to theoretical values given by an isothermal model of equation of state recently introduced for solids. The model describes the pressure and bulk modulus as a function of compression for different types of lubricants with a very high accuracy up to the pressure limit of the high pressure chamber used (2.2 GPa). In addition the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPRESSIBILITY, ELASTOHYDRODYNAMICS, LUBRICANTS,...
Variational methods (VM) sensitivity analysis employed to derive the costate (adjoint) equations, the transversality conditions, and the functional sensitivity derivatives. In the derivation of the sensitivity equations, the variational methods use the generalized calculus of variations, in which the variable boundary is considered as the design function. The converged solution of the state equations together with the converged solution of the costate equations are integrated along the domain...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS, DERIVATION, DESIGN ANALYSIS,...
A perturbation technique which is particularly well suited for high pressures is used to calculate thermodynamic properties for a simple liquid whose molecules interact via a Buckingham (exp6) potential. There is good agreement between computations and experiments for moderate temperature isotherms for liquid nitrogen. A calculation of the shock Hugoniot of liquid nitrogen exhibits excellent agreement with experimental data. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Jones,Hermenzo D, NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER SILVER SPRING MD, *PERTURBATION...
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Missioncritical events are defined in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Flight Project Practices as those sequences of events which must succeed in order to attain mission goals. These are dependent on the particular operational concept and design reference mission, and are especially important when committing to irreversible events. Critical events include main engine cutoff (MECO) after launch; engine cutoff or parachute deployment on entry, descent, and landing (EDL); orbital insertion;...
Topics: STELLAR MASS, NEUTRON STARS, MATTER (PHYSICS), MASSIVE STARS, ASTROPHYSICS, EQUATIONS OF STATE,...
A study was made of the reaction history of hydrogenair mixtures under adiabatic, iosbaric conditions. An elaborate chemistry was treated with a view toward establishing rather accurate reaction histories. In the future, simplified chemical models will be considered which will permit approximate analyses of the nonequilibrium behavior of hydrogenair mixtures under flow conditions as, for example, in exhaust nozzles and mixing regions. The results presented for a variety of initial...
Topics: DTIC Archive, LIBBY, P A, GENERAL APPLIED SCIENCE LABS INC HEMPSTEAD NY, *REACTION KINETICS, *AIR,...
A perturbation technique which is particularly well suited for high pressures is used to calculate thermodynamic properties for a simple liquid whose molecules interact via a Buckingham (exp6) potential. There is good agreement between computations and experiments for moderate temperature isotherms for liquid nitrogen. A calculation of the shock Hugoniot of liquid nitrogen exhibits excellent agreement with experimental data. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Jones,Hermenzo D, NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER SILVER SPRING MD, *PERTURBATION...
This work has been based entirely on studies of bulk semiconducting alloy glasses mainly from Ge, Te, As, Se combinations. Known amounts of the desired constitutients (five 9's pure) are crushed, then weighed out in an inert gas atmosphere. They are then placed in a quartz ampoule, sealed off under forepump vacuum, and placed in a rocking tube furnace. Heating cycles depend on the material used but generally involved temperatures near 800C and periods of approximately one day. Samples were...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Thompson, James C, TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN, *AMORPHOUS MATERIALS, *SEMICONDUCTORS,...
Experimental pressurevolumetemperature data for a polyurethane elastomer above Tg are fitted to equation of state theories. The cell and hole theories, as applied to polymer liquids, both represent the data fairly well for appropriate choice of P*, V*, and T*; the characteristic pressure, volume, and temperature scaling parameters, respectively. P*, V*, and T* are found to obey a semiemperical equation which holds for a large number of polymers, and, by fitting the data to the hole theory, it...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Questad,D L, RUTGERS  THE STATE UNIV PISCATAWAY NJ HIGH PRESSURE MATERIALS RESEARCH...
This research program has emphasized innovative computations and theory that support and enhance each other. A coherent approach was used that depends upon abstracting important mathematical concepts and computational methods from individual applications to a wide range of applications involving complex continua, including wave refractions, flows in elastic and plastic media, and complex fluid mixing. Adaptive computational methods were developed for flows with discontinuities and were...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Glimm, James, STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT STONY BROOK DEPT OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS AND...
In previously reported computational studies of fuse opening switches and other exploding metallic foils, apparent inaccuracies in the constitutive relations for the fuse material limited the accuracy of the modeling. In this paper, we use recently developed constitutive property models to reexamine experiments that used flux compression generators to deliver 2535 MA to a copper fuse. Based upon this preliminary study, it is difficult to conclude that the newly developed models offer...
Topics: DTIC Archive, LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LAB NM, *PARTICLE ACCELERATORS, *SWITCHES, EQUATIONS OF STATE,...
A perturbation technique which is particularly well suited for high pressures is used to calculate thermodynamic properties for a simple liquid whose molecules interact via a Buckingham (exp6) potential. There is good agreement between computations and experiments for moderate temperature isotherms for liquid nitrogen. A calculation of the shock Hugoniot of liquid nitrogen exhibits excellent agreement with experimental data. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Jones,Hermenzo D, NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER SILVER SPRING MD, *PERTURBATION...
The effects of buried mine explosions in various soil media are investigated by numerical hydrocode simulations. Tabular equations of state (EOS) for dry and wet sand are constructed. These (EOS) are used in CTH calculations of a steel plate suspended over the detonation of a TNT explosive charge buried in both media. Wet sand imparts significantly higher momentum to the plate than dry sand. Calculations in both two and three spatial dimensions are compared.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kerley, Gerald I, KERLEY PUBLISHING CO ALBUQUERQUE NM, *BURIED OBJECTS, *LAND MINES,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SHEAR, RALPH E, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *EXPLOSIVES,...
The partition function for a twodimensional plasma is evaluated within the random phase approximation. The periodic boundary conditions are fully taken into account by including the periodic image interactions. In the guidingcenter limit, the negative temperature threshold energy is evaluated, and a value different from previous calculations results. When an identical random phase evaluated, and a value different from previous calculations results. When an identical random phase evaluation is...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PLASMA PHYSICS, APPROXIMATION, BOUNDARY...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, KINETIC ENERGY,...
The ChapmanJouguet pressures and reaction product isentropic exponents of fifteen pure and mixed explosives were measured. Smear camera shadowgraphs were made of cylindrical shock waves these explosives transmit into water. From these measurements and the water shock Hugoniot, the coordinates of the intersection point were determined in the pressurevelocity plane between the water shock wave and the rarefaction wave reflected back into the detonation products. The isentrope passing through...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL ORDNANCE LAB WHITE OAK MD, *EXPLOSION EFFECTS, MEASUREMENT, WATER, SHOCK WAVES,...
The statistical equations for a compressible gas are developed in a general form. All the properties (density, velocity, pressure, internal energy and temperature; also viscosity, heat conductivity, and specific heats) are considered to be turbulent and are separated into macroscopic quantities and fluctuations. Freedom is retained to make the most convenient definitions of these separations at a later stage. First a complete set of equations is derived from the general form, taking as the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIXMARSEILLE UNIV (FRANCE) INST DE MECANIQUE STATISTIQUE DE LA TURBULENCE,...
Intermolecular potential functions and certain means by which they can be obtained from experiment were studied as the first step in the evaluation and development of a high density equation of state. The second virial coefficient was found to be a poor method for reduced temperatures (on the (12, 6) scale) greater than 2.0 while transport coefficients were found to be poor in the range 1.5 T* (12,6) 5.0. Experimental second virial coefficient data was fitted to 40 intermolecular potential...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Klein, Max, NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS GAITHERSBURG MD, *EQUATIONS OF STATE,...