\"Human body motion tracking using inertial sensors requires an attitude estimation filter capable of tracking in all orientations. One way to represent orientation is to use Euler angles, but they have singularities and therefore are not suitable for human body tracking applications. Quaternions can be used to represent orientation without incurring singularities. A quaternion-based Kalman filter has been designed for this purpose and implemented in this thesis. Also, a new suboptimal...

Topics: Kalman filtering, Quaternions, Human locomotion, Factor analysis

The performance of a sensor blending scheme for two different band-width sensors is significantly improved when a Kalman filter is used to blend the outputs vice classical control methods. This Kalman filter signal blender is designed and implemented in a computer program developed for this thesis. Several tracking scenarios are simulated and analyzed. These scenarios are representative of the input expected into the sensors on a Space Based Laser.

Topics: Kalman filtering, Lasers, Computer programs., Kalman filter, adaptive gating, sensor blending

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Jun 18, 2019
06/19

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Brown, Robert Grover

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Topics: Kalman filtering, Random noise theory, Signal theory (Telecommunication)

An algorithm has been developed for real-time forecasting of precipitation storm cell movement over water. The key to the algorithm is the Kalman filter tracking model which is continually updating the mean value and error covariance matrix of a cell's centroid position from past measurements. The algorithm was developed and applied to precipitation cells to evaluate the advantages of utilizing an optimal recursive processing program to assist in making short term tactical forecasts. This...

Topics: Kalman filtering, Precipitation forecasting

Typescript

Topics: Aerodynamic measurements, Kalman filtering

The well-known alpha beta filter achieves its best performance when measurement outliers are rare. Two modifications of the alpha beta filter are presented for improving its performance when outliers are commonplace. The alpha beta mu filter uses a drag coefficient to ensure that the target motion model has a finite asymptotic velocity variance. Although the alpha beta filter mu is less sensitive to outliers than the alpha beta filter, it does not directly address the problem of large spurious...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIV NEWPORT RI, *PROBABILITY, DRAG, KALMAN FILTERING,...

This paper presents a heuristic fuzzy position estimation technique for autonomous underwater vehicle navigation. The heuristic estimator performs asynchronous data fusion of all sensor measurements based on their relative confidence levels, and then nonlinearly combines the fused information with the INS estimates via fuzzy filtering techniques. In this paper, the basis and implementation of the estimator will be described, and navigation results will be presented based on the heuristic...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, *AUTONOMOUS...

One of the challenges associated with defending against ballistic missiles is to discriminate the object of interest among multiple closely-spaced objects (CSOs) that travel on a ballistic trajectory. The discrimination process typically involves the identification and tracking of the object of interest. One approach that can improve discrimination performance is to employ multiple sensors. Multiple-sensor correlation and discrimination involves the integration of sensor measurements collected...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS MD, *ANTIMISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS, *BALLISTIC TRAJECTORIES,...

Unmanned systems, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), are developing technologies that are becoming increasingly important. This thesis provides a model for generating a common operational picture (COP) for unmanned systems that is applicable in today's technology, and presents results and analysis based on simulation studies. This thesis specifically investigates a swarm versus swarm unmanned systems scenario in which opposing teams of UAVs approach each other. Different methodologies...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MULTIPLE TARGETS, *REMOTELY PILOTED VEHICLES,...

This report presents the results of investigations in using a medium-to-high accuracy inertial navigation system (INS) and a geodetic quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver on an airborne platform to determine the gravity disturbance vector along the trajectory of an aircraft. The main products of these investigations consist of derivations of alternative algorithms to estimate the horizontal gravity vector components given that the INS's under consideration have different types of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Jekeli, Christopher, OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS DEPT OF CIVILENGINEERING, *ALGORITHMS,...

A Kalman filter and smoother which uses data from position measuring instrumentation to estimate changes in position, velocity, and acceleration is derived in detailed analytic form. The filtering and smoothing characteristics are shown to be completely determined by a single nondimensional parameter, which itself is a simple function of the input parameters to the filter. The concept of the bandwidth of the filter and the smoother is examined, and analytic expressions are derived for the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Billard, B., ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LAB ADELAIDE (AUSTRALIA), *SIGNAL PROCESSING,...

This report describes the results and progress for research on the topics: statistical image recognition, statistical image models, and a comparative evaluation of image processing techniques. Publications and current research activities with this project are also described in detail. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Chen ,C H, SOUTHEASTERN MASSACHUSETTS UNIV NORTH DARTMOUTH DEPT OF ELECTRICAL...

THIS PAPER ADDRESSES THE ISSUE OF TARGET TRACKING WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A SET OF SOUND SPEED PARAMETERS THAT ARE PARTIALLY OR COMPLETELY UNKNOWN. It explores the case where these parameters are augmented to the target state in an extended Kalman filter. The filter processes measurements of sound time-of-arrival difference and Doppler difference from a set of spatially displaced sensors. For scenarios involving up to three sensors it has been found that biased target position estimates and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Alspach,D L, ORINCON CORP LA JOLLA CA, *KALMAN FILTERING, *ACOUSTIC ARRAYS, *ACOUSTIC...

This research is concerned with various aspects of stochastic and adaptive systems. Topics covered include: linear and non-linear state estimation, stochastic control and adaptive control.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Athans,Michael, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR INFORMATION AND DECISION...

Multiple model Kalman Filter (KF) techniques are used extensively for Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation (MMAE), Multiple Model Adaptive Control (MMAC), and Distributed Kalman Filter (DKF) applications to determine Bayesian- blended optimal estimates of states, uncertain parameters, and optimal control signals. Multiple model methods are used for sensor management, Failure Detection and Isolation (FDI), and other Guidance and Control (G and C) applications. A simulation tool called the Multiple...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Nielsen, Robert L, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF...

This research involves the development of an adaptive control law for a space based two-link robotic manipulator. Non-adaptive controllers are first obtained utilizing feedback linearization techniques. A direct adaptive controller is then developed through the linear parameterization of the system dynamics, and the implementation of a Kalman Filter based adaption law. The controllers are then simulated and compared for various levels of system parameter uncertainty. The adaptive controller is...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Janvier, IV, George, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *ADAPTIVE CONTROL...

Two modifications are described which have been developed for the single-target ship tracking algorithm of NRL Report 7969 and NRL Memorandum Report 3991. One modification improves the tracking response to strong target maneuvers, and the other allows the use of reports giving target bearing only. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Willman,W W, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *ALGORITHMS, *TRACKING, *OCEAN...

A sequential Extended Kalman Filter and Smoothing routine was developed to provide real time estimates of torpedo position and depth on the three dimensional underwater tracking range at the Naval Torpedo Station, Keyport, Washington. Inputs to the routine were acoustic pulse transit times from the target to receiving array elements which are non-linear functions of the position coordinates. These inputs were linearized and the filter gains and filtered estimates calculated on-line. By using a...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Isik,Mustafa, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *TORPEDOES, *KALMAN FILTERING,...

The problem of optimization of stochastic dynamic systems with random coefficients is discussed. Systems with both Wiener processes and uncertain random-process disturbances are dealt with, and these include certain bilinear stochastic systems. It is the purpose to study the optimal control and, to some extent, state estimation of such bilinear stochastic systems. By means of the stochastic Bellman equation, the optimal control of stochastic dynamic models with observable and unobservable...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lee,Man Hyung, OREGON STATE UNIV CORVALLIS DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER...

This report develops 10 different approaches to the target tracking problem based on bearing only observations. Its purpose is to form the basis for an extensive simulation study, aimed at achieving the best possible tracking performance for this tracking problem. Included in the report are also a proposed initialization routine for bearing only trackers, and a maneuver detection algorithm with a proposed action scheme following the maneuver detection.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Fagerlund, Svein, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR INFORMATION AND...

Estimation of an acoustic wave velocity in the ocean and its utilization to improve object localization are studied here. Time delay and/or Doppler shift are measured by the vertically deployed sensors in two-dimensional systems. Various sensor configurations (up to three sensors) are considered. The information rate grows very fast when the measurement equation includes Doppler shift (1DIP, 2DIP). The system is totally unobservable with one sensor (1D), but the system is observable when two or...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hwang, C S, OREGON STATE UNIV CORVALLIS DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING,...

This study was part of an ongoing effort at the Air Force Institute of Technology to design a tracking algorithm for use with the Air Force Weapons Laboratory's high energy laser weapon system. The purpose of this thesis was to take previously developed tracker algorithms and incorporate a multiple model adaptive filter algorithm into the existing structure. This approach was intended to provide adaptive expansion of the effective tracker field of view, which in turn would increase the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Suizu,R I, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING,...

The discrete-time Kalman filter is a conditional mean estimator of the states of a linear stochastic process, conditioned on the previous state and current measurements. It assumes that the states and noise inputs can be represented as jointly Gaussian random variables. The influence diagram is a decision analysis tool. Under certain conditions, it can represent continuous, jointly Gaussian random variables. The conditioning order of the random variables may be changed (using Bayes' rule) so...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Zeitz, III, Frederick H, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF...

Topics covered during this symposium include the following: (1) Comparison of at sea gradiometer test results with an independent gravity gradient reference; (2) Current GGSS performance expectation and error allocation; (3) Efficient processing of gradiometer output using a kalman filter; (4) On-going work in post-mission data processing algorithm development; (5) Three-axis super conducting gravity gradiometer; (6) Airborne gravity and comparison of gravity and gradient anomolies; (7)...

Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND HANSCOM AFB MA GEOPHYSICS LAB, *GRAVITY, *GRADIOMETERS,...

In this paper, we investigate the fundamental assumptions of popular target tracking algorithms. These assumptions rarely hold in the real world and can have significant effects on current tracking systems. These analyses provide motivation for new algorithms that overcome the difficulties in current algorithms, providing better target tracking systems.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Weaver, Scott, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SENSORS DIRECTORATE,...

One of the greatest challenges associated with the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is reliability, accuracy, and the high precision navigation system for its submerged operations. Data collected for later analysis can be meaningful if and only if, the precise location of the vehicle is known at the time the information is recorded. A reliable AUV must be able to determine its global position in the absence of external transmitting devices. Dead reckoning is unreliable because of current...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Nguyen, Thanh V, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF MECHANICAL...

A growing interest in formation flying satellites demands development and analysis of control and estimation algorithms for station-keeping and formation maneuvering. This thesis discusses the development of a discrete linear-quadratic- regulator control algorithm for formations in the vicinity of the L2 sun-earth libration point. The development of an appropriate Kalman filter is included as well. Simulations are created for the analysis of the station-keeping and various formation maneuvers...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hamilton, Nicholas H, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF...

This study examines the feasibility of identifying the dynamic parameters of autonomous land vehicles. Initially a simulation study is done using a simplified vehicle model and three different identification schemes. The parameter estimator which has the best characteristics is then used on an improved model to determine if this approach can be used to obtain the parameters of multi-wheeled vehicles. Contents: Survey of Previous Work; Least-Squares Identifier; Kalman Filter Identifier;...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kessler,James H , IV, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS,...

The success of the Strategic Defense Initiative depends directly on significant advances in both computer hardware and software development technologies. Parallel architectures and the Ada programming language have advantages that make them candidates for use in SDI command and control computer systems. This thesis examines those advantages in the context of an SDI-type application: The implementation of a Kalman filter tracking system. This research consists of three parts. The first is a set...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lemanski, Walter J, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF...

A Fortran program was developed to implement a Kalman Filter and Fixed Interval Smoothing Algorithm to optimally data tracks generated by the short base-line tracking ranges at the Naval Torpedo Station, Keyport, Washington. The program is designed to run on a personal computer and requires as input a data file consisting of X, Y, and Z position coordinates in sequential order. Data files containing the filtered and smoothed estimates are generated by the program. This algorithm uses a second...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Nicklas, Richard B, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

Report documents papers presented at second meeting of the coordinating group on modern control theory with emphasis on military systems and recommendations of participants. The second meeting of the Coordinating Group on Modern Control Theory brought into sharp focus both the wide range of applications of modern control theory to DOD weapon systems and a clear need for the services to investigate the full potential of optimal control and estimation theory in defending against highly...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cohen, H., ARMY MATERIEL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ACTIVITYABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD,...

At the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), a small AUV navigation system (SANS) was developed for research in support of shallow-water mine countermeasures and coastal environmental monitoring The objective of this thesis is to test and evaluate the SANS performance after tuning the filter gains through a series of testing procedures. The new version of SANS (SANS III) used new hardware components which were smaller, cheaper, and more reliable. A PC/l O4 computer provided more computing power and,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Arslan, Suat, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *UNDERWATER VEHICLES,...

Integrated GPS-navigation/fire control systems are described. On this foundation, descriptions are made of methods to simulate this type of system. In simulations, option is made for error and Kalman filter techniques. Simulation conditions are summarized in brief. In conjunction with this, results are given for two example cases.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Denglin, Cao, NATIONAL AIR INTELLIGENCE CENTER WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *COMPUTERIZED...

Physical processes often cannot be accurately modeled as purely deterministic mathematical processes because of the random aspects of their behavior. This unpredictable aspect is often statistically modeled as Gaussian white noise. This research developed an optimal estimator for parameters and states of systems driven by another type of noise, known as fractional Gaussian noise (FON) processes. These stochastic processes can model systems containing long-term, slowly decreasing time-correlated...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Chow, Winston C., NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER DAHLGREN DIV VA, *GAUSSIAN NOISE,...

Currently, the Space Defense Center (SDC) uses the position and velocity data of a satellite track to update the orbital elements of the satellite. An alternate approach would be to process the radar data at the tracking site and transmit two-body orbital elements to SDC as measurement updates. This would significantly reduce the data load at SDC. The truth model used in this study to evaluate performance and provide measurement updates to the filters includes the first four zonal harmonics and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Boden,Daryl G, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING,...

A mathematically rigorous analysis is performed of a scalar discrete-time stochastic optimal control problem. This problem differs from the standard linear-quadratic-Gaussian one only by the presence of a quadratic term in the state and process noise with a small coefficient. A certain formal approximation to the optimal control is shown to converge asymptotically in probability to an optimal control with respect to this coefficient. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Willman,Warren W, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *PERTURBATIONS, *CONTROL THEORY,...

This thesis considers the design of a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller for a ground-based adaptive-optics telescopes. The incoming aberrated image is reflected from a 97-element piezoelectric mirror, then measured with a Hartmann-type wavefront sensor. A Kalman filter processes the outputs of the wavefront sensor and obtains estimates of system states. A linear quadratic regulator processes these state estimates and determines an appropriate set of commands for the deformable mirror....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Von Bokern, Mark A, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSONAFB OH, *TEST AND...

As part of the 1987 expedition to the USS Monitor wreck site, conducted by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Navy, the Deep Submergence Laboratory undertook a three-dimensional sonar survey of the sunken ship. A downward-looking, mechanically-scanned profiling sonar (Mesotech 971) was mounted on the Navy's Deep Drone ROV, which was fitted with a good quality attitude measurement package. A real-time processor collected data from the sonar, from an external...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Stewart, W K, WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION MA, *STEADY STATE, REAL TIME,...

This report examines performance limits (Cramer-Rao bounds) on tracking a maneuvering target using bearing measurements from a single sensor on a maneuvering platform. An approximation to the Cramer-Rao bound for estimating the location, Velocity, and acceleration of a constant acceleration target with a prior distribution of the target's velocity and acceleration is derived for the case where the target and the sensor are coplanar. The bound is computed for members of a two-parameter family of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Gilson, W H, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB, *DETECTORS, *TARGET...

Homing missile guidance is formulated as an optimal stochastic control problem where the special nonlinear structure of the missile-target engagement is exploited. Since this stochastic control problem assumes a nested information pattern, the filter structure can be developed independently of the guidance scheme. However, the guidance scheme is dependent on and affects filter performance. Significant progress is being made on both the estimation problem and the guidance problem. Investigation...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Speyer, Jason L, TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN DEPT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING...

Research was carried out mainly in the areas of time series analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. The most important results in the first area apply to autoregressive and moving average processes. In the second area emphasis was on parameter consistency and elliptically contoured distributions. To estimate the parameters of the moving average model 16 different iterative procedures have been devised. These involve alternative parametrizations, time and frequency domain...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Anderson, Theodore W, STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS, *TIME SERIES ANALYSIS,...

A Trimble Advanced Navigation Sensor (TANS) Quadrex Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver processing unit and three antenna/preamplifier assemblies were flown aboard Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-51, as part of DTO 700-6, GPS On-orbit Demonstration (GOOD). The experiment was designed to quantify advantages and identify potential problem areas for Space Shuttle GPS operations using a low cost, commercial, space configured, GPS receiver. GPS data, including position, velocity, time, health, and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Rehwald, Jr , Stephen P, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *GLOBAL POSITIONING...

This paper presents a model-based algorithm for tracking feature points over a long sequence of monocular noisy images with the ability to include new feature points detected in successive frames. The trajectory for each feature point is modeled by a simple kinematic motion model. A probabilistic Data Association Filter is first designed to estimate the motion between two consecutive frames. A matching algorithm then identifies the corresponding point to subpixel accuracy and an Extended Kalman...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Yao, Yi-Sheng, MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK CENTER FOR AUTOMATION RESEARCH,...

In multi-target tracking problems such as those found in high-energy particle physics, fluid mechanics, and ballistic missile defense, the common objective is to separate the data into observations associated with individual targets and to use this data to estimate the targets' trajectories. In defense related applications, it is necessary to have algorithms which are computationally efficient, robust, and minimize data storage requirements. Recently developed approaches in the field of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kelso, Thomas S, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *AUTOMATIC TRACKING,...

The degree of uncertainty in a track's position provides an indication of how best to allocate sensor resources. In this paper, we discuss the use of this track parameter for two tasking activities. First, we consider determining resolution selection for electro-optical (EO) sensor tasks. Secondly, we integrate our knowledge of kinematics into the process of information-theoretic task selection. We consider the use of optimized selection of the resolution for imaging sensors such that we...

Topics: DTIC Archive, TOYON RESEARCH CORP GOLETA CA, *ELECTROOPTICS, *KINEMATICS, SYMPOSIA, OPTIMIZATION,...

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the performance of a commercial-off-the-shelf twelve channel Standard Positioning Service (SPS) based Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver using an eight state Kalman filter in a hostile radio frequency (RF) environment and to develop instructional tools for teaching RF interference on GPS receivers. The two types of jamming signals generated included Continuous Wave (CW) and Swept CW. Actual GPS and jamming signals were used in the research....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Johnston, Kenneth D., AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSONAFB OH, *GLOBAL...

In normal geometries of siting of the ground units, the Microwave Landing System (MLS) observations in the avionics of azimuth and elevation angles plus slant range from a Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) transponder yield a unique solution for the aircraft location. However, for some unconventional geometries of the ground units in a very few, preexisting installations, these observations can be consistent with two solutions for aircraft location within the MLS coverage volume. It appears...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Powell, Frederick D, MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA, *AVIONICS, POSITION(LOCATION), VOLUME,...

A candidate attitude control system design is presented for an aerocapture vehicle capable of a wide range of mass properties. The control system consists of three main elements: a robust control law based on the nonlinear sliding mode control techniques, a linear programming jet selection algorithm adaptable to changing mass properties, and a mass property identification algorithm based on an extended Kalman filter design. The mass property identification algorithm is capable of accurately...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bell, James R, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *ALGORITHMS, CONTROL...

We have constructed explicitly the most general class of finite dimensional filters which include both Kalman-Bucy filters and Benes filters as special cases. We also proved that if the state space dimension is less than three, then generically all finite dimensional filters must be those constructed by us from the Lie algebraic point of view. Without making any assumption on the drift term of the filtering system, we can write down the asymptotic solution to the famous Kolmogorov equation...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Yau, Stephen S, ILLINOIS UNIV AT CHICAGO CIRCLE DEPT OF MATHEMATICS STATISTICS AND...

This technical report develops a theoretical bit error rate expression for a Kalman filtering technique that is used for filtering narrowband interferers out of direct sequence spread spectrum signals. The approach is based on the digital phase-locked loop Kalman filter and is close to optimum in so far as demodulating an FM-type of interferer. Because the interference is assumed to be much stronger than either the signal or noise, the Kalman filter locks onto the interference and produces...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kozminchuk, Brian, DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT OTTAWA (ONTARIO), *SIGNAL...