Over the course of the last year, the study team received IRB approval and began recruiting participants at five of the six study sites (Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Ft. Bliss, Ft. Campbell, Ft. Carson, and Ft. Stewart). As of August 31, 2012, 368 total referrals across the five active sites had been received; 179 participants had been enrolled and randomized into the study (86 participants into the STEPS UP arm; 93 participants into the optimized usual care arm); 53 participants completed the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, RANDOM VARIABLES,...

Judea Pearl (2000) was the first to propose a definition of actual causation using causal models. A number of authors have suggested that an adequate account of actual causation must appeal not only to causal structure, but also to considerations of normality. In (Halpern & Hitchcock, 2011) we offer a definition of actual causation using extended causal models, which include information about both causal structure and normality. Extended causal models are potentially very complex. In this...

Topics: DTIC Archive, CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, *BAYES THEOREM, RANDOM VARIABLES

In the sixth quarter of the work effort, we focused on a) conducting experiments on real-world data sets using the developed algorithms, b) design/implementation of the Multiscale Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) algorithm and c) fine tuning and bug fixes for the randomized SVD and ANN algorithms. This report documents the current variants of the Multiscale SVD algorithms under development. The project is currently on track in the upcoming quarters, we will continue applying the developed...

Topics: DTIC Archive, APPLIED COMMUNICATION SCIENCES PISCATAWAY NJ, *ALGORITHMS, *VALUE, DATA BASES,...

Privacy is an important issue in data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose to use the randomized response techniques to conduct the data mining computation. Specifically, we present a method to build naive Bayesian classifiers from the disguised data. We conduct experiments to compare the accuracy of our classifier with the one built from the original undisguised data. Our results show that although the data are disguised, our method can still achieve fairly high accuracy.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Zhan, Zhijun, SYRACUSE UNIV NY, *INFORMATION SECURITY, COMPUTATIONS, RANDOM...

The classical Fatou inequality for non-negative measurable functions is intimately connected with problems of convergence of random variables (r.v.). The present paper focuses on the study of a modified form of the Fatou inequality which has important applications in the theory of convergence of r.v. We formulate our results in the language of probability.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Dvoretzky,A, STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS, *Inequalities, Convergence, Random...

The conference was held as scheduled. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference appear in a report distributed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Keywords: Stochastic processes, Conference, Probabilities, Stochastic flows, Random variables, Boltzman equations.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Griffeath, D, WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON, *SYMPOSIA, *STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, *EQUATIONS,...

The first problem considered in the paper is concerned with the assembly of independent components into parallel systems so as to maximize the expected number of system that perform satisfactorily. Associated with each component is a probability of it performing successfully. It is shown that an optimal assembly is obtained if the reliability of each assembled system can be made equal. If such equality is not attainable, then bounds are given so that the maximum expected number of systems that...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Derman, Cyrus, STANFORD UNIV CA, *RELIABILITY, ALGORITHMS, OPTIMIZATION, PROBABILITY,...

The little book edited by H. O. Ondar contains a collection of letters by A. Markov and A. A. Chuprov exchanged before 1913. In that year the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Moscow celebrated the bicentenary of the law of large numbers symbolized by Ars Conjectandi: the work of Jacob Bernoulli, the Markov/Chuprov correspondence, combined with some other material, provides an interesting perspective on the early history of the modern theory of probability. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Neyman,Jerzy, CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY STATISTICAL LAB, *HISTORY, *MARKOV PROCESSES,...

This is the final report for this study. We have completed all pre-and post assessment in all participants randomized to prazosin, placebo, or the behavioral sleep intervention. Two participants are currently completing the 4-month follow-up period. Data analysis for the acute treatment phase is currently underway, and the final analyses (which include 4-month follow-up data) will be initiated shortly. Recruitment has been more difficult than anticipated, but our enrollment rate (10% of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, PITTSBURGH UNIV PA, *INTERVENTION, *SLEEP, PLACEBOS, POPULATION, RANDOM VARIABLES,...

This paper extends the account of actual causation offered by Halpern and Pearl [2005]. We show that this account yields the wrong judgment in certain classes of cases. We offer a revised definition that incorporates consideration of defaults, typicality, and normality. The revised definition takes actual causation to be both graded and comparative. We then apply our definition to a number of cases.

Topics: DTIC Archive, CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, *DECISION MAKING, ERRORS, RANDOM...

The aim of this article is to apply some results of L. Schwartz's theory of radonifying maps to prove existence theorems for infinite dimensional valued random variables. As a consequence, we deduce some known results in this direction due to K. Ito, M. Perez-Abreu C., and T. Bojdecki and L.G. Gorostiza.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ramaswamy,S, NORTH CAROLINA UNIV AT CHAPEL HILL DEPT OF STATISTICS, *RANDOM VARIABLES

Wyners common information was originally defined for a pair of dependent discrete random variables. Its significance is largely reflected in, and also confined to, several existing interpretations in various source coding problems. This paper attempts to expand its practical significance by providing a new operational interpretation. In the context of the GrayWyner network, it is established that Wyners common information has a new lossy source coding interpretation. Specifically, it is...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Liu,Wei, Syracuse University Syracuse United States, information theory, random...

Both observational and laboratory studies suggest that human beings find it difficult to fabricate truly random numbers. Any sufficiently large set of nominally random number sequences, irrespective of its source, may be analyzed to determine if the criterion of randomness is satisfied. Statistical methods have, therefore, been applied forensically to detect anomalies in accounting data, scientific data sets, and voting data. As a case study, we apply methods developed by Beber and Scacco to...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *ELECTIONS, ANOMALIES, DETECTION, RANDOM VARIABLES,...

In this paper, we describe an algorithm for finding approximate nearest neighbors (ANN) in d-dimensional Euclidean space for each of N user-specified points {x(j)}. For each point x(j) , the scheme produces a list of k suspects , that have high probability of being the k closest points (nearest neighbors) in the Euclidean metric. Those of the suspects that are not among the true nearest neighbors, are close to being so.

Topics: DTIC Archive, YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, *ALGORITHMS, RANDOM VARIABLES,...

Ariyawansa and Zhu [3] have proposed a new class of optimization problems termed stochastic semidefinite programs (SSDPs) to handle data uncertainty in applications leading to (deterministic) semidefinite programs (DSDPs). For the case where the event space of the random variables in an SSDP is finite they have also derived a class of volumetric barrier decomposition algorithms, and proved polynomial complexity of the short-step and long-step members of the class [2]. When the event space of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, WASHINGTON STATE UNIV PULLMAN, *ALGORITHMS, *RANDOM VARIABLES, POLYNOMIALS,...

This project is focused on conducting the first randomized-controlled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in 54 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorders, and assessing the efficacy of this approach in comparison to an active Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) intervention.

Topics: DTIC Archive, PITTSBURGH UNIV PA, *MENTAL DISORDERS, ADULTS, CLINICAL TRIALS, COGNITION, RANDOM...

Topics: DTIC Archive, MARSAGLIA, GEORGE, BOEING SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABS SEATTLE WA, *RANDOM VARIABLES,...

The contractor will investigate two processes for the conversion of Cf3Br to Cf3I and perform a detailed analysis of the practical implementation of adapting these technologies to full scale production including reactor design (kinetic variables, heat and fluid flow characteristics and non-ideal flow, multiple step reactions, etc) and construction of the reactor itself.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kennedy, Eric, NEWCASTLE UNIV (AUSTRALIA), *FLAMES, *INHIBITION, *FLUID FLOW, RANDOM...

The fourth year of the Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) clinical trial has been complete. The research team was able to complete all Year 4 tasks with the exception of completing primary data analyses. Study follow-up data collection was completed late in Year 4, thus requiring a no cost extension to allow for the statistical team to complete the analyses for manuscript preparation. In Year 4 the research team reported 1 platform presentation at a national physical therapy...

Topics: DTIC Archive, FLORIDA UNIV GAINESVILLE, *CLINICAL TRIALS, *SPINAL COLUMN, *PAIN, PHYSICAL THERAPY,...

We investigate a route exploration problem with N agents dropped randomly on the interval [0,b] and discuss the impact of using multiple agents to perform this task. We consider both a discrete and a continuous description of the path to explore. Independently, we study an exploration problem with probabilistic agents having limited autonomy. In both problems , multi-agent scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on the number of agents necessary to obtain good performance.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Feron,Eric, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge United States, MULTIAGENT...

If X and Y are random variables such that P (X Y) = 1 and the conditional distribution of Y given X is binomial, then Moran (1952) showed that Y and (X-Y) are independent if X is Poisson. This document extends Moran's result to a more general type of conditional distribution of Y given X, using only partial independence of Y and X-Y. This provides a generalization of a recent results of Janardhan and Rao (1982) on the characterization of generalized Polya-Eggenberger distribution. A variant of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Alzaid,A A, PITTSBURGH UNIV PA CENTER FOR MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, *PROBABILITY...

Suppose the set x sub n is a p-th order autoregressive process with innovations in the domain of attraction of a stable law and the true order p unknown. The estimate of p,p-carat is chosen to minimize Akaike's Information Criterion over the integers 0,1,..., K. It is shown that p-carat is weakly consistent and the consistency is retained if K approaches infinity as N approaches infinity at a certain rate depending on the index of the stable law.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Knight, Keith, WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE DEPT OF STATISTICS, *REGRESSION ANALYSIS,...

An extreme point analysis has been performed on two natural definitions of positive quadrant dependence of three random variable. This analysis helps us to understand how much these two notions of dependence are different. Keywords: Upper positive quadrant dependence; Lower positive quadrant dependence; Convex set; Extreme points.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Subramanyam, K, PITTSBURGH UNIV PA CENTER FOR MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, *CONVEX SETS,...

Renyi (1959) defined the maximal correlation rho between a pair of random variables (U,W) as a certain formula where the supremum is taken over all functions of U and W with finite second moments. In this paper we derive the asymptotic distribution of the estimate of the Renyi correlation coefficient based on a sample of independent observations under the assumption that (U,W) are independent and assume only a finite number of values. (kr)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Sethuraman, Jayaram, FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE DEPT OF STATISTICS, *RANDOM...

The purpose of this multi-site study is to conduct a randomized controlled trial of the Caring Letters intervention to determine if the intervention is effective in preventing suicide and suicidal behaviors among Service Members and Veterans. The caring letters concept was originally developed and evaluated by Jerome Motto and colleagues in the 1970 s (1). In Motto s trial, civilian psychiatric inpatients were sent caring letters following discharge (initially monthly, decreasing to quarterly)...

Topics: DTIC Archive, GENEVA FOUNDATION TACOMA WA, *PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, *PSYCHIATRY, *SUICIDE, CONTROL,...

Percentiles and linear combinations of order statistics are statistics which are sometimes preferred to averages because they can be less sensitive to the presence of a few wild observations. It is well known that for large samples, both percentiles and linear combinations of order statistics resemble averages in that the appropriately normalized statistic is approximately normally distributed, with parameters which depend on the underlying distributions. This paper shows that percentiles and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Leurgans,Sue, WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER, *ORDER STATISTICS,...

Recently Church and Harris published a procedure for obtaining approximate confidence limits for P(X or = Y), under the assumptions that X and Y are independent normally distributed random variables. Their technique is illustrated by an application to a problem of determining the conditional probability that the sidewall of a combustible cartridge case, if ignited by smoldering residue after chambering, will be burned through prior to firing an artillery round in an automatic firing cycle. The...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Moore, James R, ABERDEEN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER MD, *RANDOM VARIABLES,...

This paper derives such an inequality for a large class of density functions and a large class fo convex sets. The most general results are given for the bivariate case. An extention to the n-dimensional case appears to be difficult except for some special cases such as the case of independent identically distributed random variables or when the underlying joint density is spherically symmetric. The class of convex sets considered includes D sub infinity and D sub 2 as special cases and special...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Shaked,Moshe, ARIZONA UNIV TUCSON, *INEQUALITIES, DENSITY, RANDOM VARIABLES,...

Although most people doing survey work would prefer to use random methods when drawing their samples, it is rarely practical. Instead they use a method involving every nth member of the population. This study compares the two methods. It was found that as long as the attribute being sampled is randomly distributed among the population the two methods give essentially the same results. However, if the attribute is not randomly distributed among the population the two methods give radically...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Sweetland, Anders, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *SAMPLING, DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS,...

A broad family of symmetric, thick tailed distributions, the small l- Laplace distributions, is described. These are natural generalizations of the Laplace distribution. A family of random coefficient Autoregressive Moving Average processes with small l-Laplace marginal distributions is constructed and its properties are explored. Extensions to ARIMA processes are considered. The first order autoregression with a standard Laplace marginal distribution is examined in detail and different...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Dewald, Lee S , Sr, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS,...

This paper discusses some problems connected with the concept of entropy. Keywords: Additivity theorems; Entropy; Information theory. Relative entropy is defined as h (xi:eta) + h(xi:eta) a measure of the random variables xi eta.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Rosenblatt-Roth, M, PITTSBURGH UNIV PA CENTER FOR MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, *INFORMATION...

Measures of residual risk are developed as extension of measures of risk. They view a random variable of interest in concert with an auxiliary random vector that helps to manage, predict and mitigate the risk in the original variable. Residual risk can be exemplified as a quantification of the improved situation faced by a hedging investor compared to that of a single-asset investor, but the notion reaches further with deep connections emerging with forecasting and generalized regression. We...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH, *REGRESSION...

While parametric uncertainty quantification for NDE models has been addressed in recent years, the problem of stochastic field parameters such as spatially distributed electrical conductivity has only been investigated minimally in the last year. In that work, the authors treated the field as a one-dimensional random process and Karhunen-Loeve methods were used to discretize this process to make it amenable to UQ methods such as ANOVA expansions. In the present work, we will treat the field as...

Topics: DTIC Archive, DAYTON UNIV RESEARCH INST OH, *EDDY CURRENTS, ANISOTROPY, CORRELATION, ELECTRICAL...

The Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) clinical trial has been successfully completed. With the no cost extension year the research team completed all remaining SOW tasks with particular attention paid to the primary data analyses. In the no cost extension year the research team presented data at a national physical therapy conference and 2 manuscripts were accepted for publication in J Ultrasound Med BMC and Musculoskelet Disord. Our primary analyses suggest that the core...

Topics: DTIC Archive, FLORIDA UNIV GAINESVILLE, *PAIN, *PREVENTION, ARMY PERSONNEL, ATTENTION, CLINICAL...

Mixture models are the term given to models that consist of a combination of independent functions creating the distribution of points within a set. We present a framework for automatically discovering and evaluating candidate models within unstructured data. Our abstraction of models enables us to seamlessly consider different types of functions as equally possible candidates. Our framework does not require an estimate of the number of underlying models, allows points to be probabilistically...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *HETEROGENEITY, *MIXTURES, DATA MINING, INFORMATION...

This expository report discusses fundamental aspects of the polynomial chaos method for representing the properties of second order stochastic processes. As originally developed by Norbert Weiner, a polynomial chaos represents key properties of a stochastic process through the application of finite series of orthogonal polynomials. The attendant polynomial expansion is used to describe the statistical properties of a stochastic process based upon an input uncertainty. The statistics of a random...

Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EGLIN AFB FL MUNITIONS DIR/ORDNANCE DIVISION, *STOCHASTIC...

A correspondence is obtained between the epochs of a Yule process and orders statistics from an exponential distribution. This correspondence is used to obtain some properties of the Yule process, which are in turn used to solve an optimatization problem. This problem involves the finding of an optimal evacuation time under a model in which individuals arrive to a contaminated area according to a Yule process with immigration.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Brown, Mark, GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIV WASHINGTON DC DEPT OF STATISTICS, *STATISTICAL...

The report is a nonmathematical paper intended for sophisticated but otherwise nonmathematical readers. The paper starts with the emphasis on stochastic models in Biology and Medicine which, because of the large variability among observations in these areas, are considered more appropriate than their deterministic analogs. Again, owing to the basic evolutionary characteristics of living things such as births and deaths, growth and decay etc., one is led in biology and medicine to many dynamic...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Puri, Prem S, PURDUE UNIV LAFAYETTE IN DEPT OF STATISTICS, *BIOMEDICINE, *STOCHASTIC...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Frishman, Fred, ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC, *ANALYSIS OF...

What then, asked St. Augustine, is time? If no one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain it to him who asks me, I do not know. We have learned a few things since St. Augustine, Einstein has taught us a lot. But still there are a lot of unanswered questions. In particular, how do you measure time? It intrigues me that we never measure time; we measure time differences, i.e. the time difference between two clocks. I know of no way to measure the time of a clock. I can measure the time...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS BOULDER CO, *PRECISION, *CLOCKS, PREDICTIONS, LAW...

Let Y1,...,Yn be n mutually independent, nonnegative random variables such that for each i=1,...,n,Yi has an absolutely continuous distribution function function F(x;0i) = F(0xi), where 0iO, and F(.) has support O,oo). We show that given Yi - Yi+1O for all i+1,...,n-1, the necessary and sufficient condition for the random variables Y1 - Y2,...,Yn-1-Yn and Yn to be conditionally mutually independent is that for each i+1,...,n,Yi has an exponential distribution. Characterization; Exponential...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Liang, TaChen, PURDUE UNIV LAFAYETTE IN DEPT OF STATISTICS, *EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS,...

A finite location mixture is represented as the sum of two independent random variables, and a finite scale mixture is represented as the product of two independent random variables. Using these representations, it is shown how to generate random samples from these mixtures, how to prove their identifiabilities, and how to estimate the unknown parameters.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Behboodian, Javad, STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS, *DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS,...

The authors consider several classical notions of partial orderings among life distributions which have been used to describe aging properties, tail domination, etc. They show that if a distribution G dominates another distribution F in one of these partial orderings, and if two moments of G agree with those of F, including the moment that describes the partial ordering, the G = F. This leads to a characterization of the exponential distribution among HNBUE and HNWUE life distribution classes,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bhattacharjee, Manish C, FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE DEPT OF STATISTICS,...

This document examines the paths of the stable fields that are the analogs of index-beta Gaussian fields. The author finds Holder conditions on their paths and finds the Hausdorff dimension of the image, graph, and level sets when we have local nondeterminism, generalizing the Gaussian results. Keywords: inversion; random variables.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Nolan, John P, NORTH CAROLINA UNIV AT CHAPEL HILL DEPT OF STATISTICS, *STOCHASTIC...

The sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions with different domains are usually defined only on their common domain. This paper extends these definitions so that the sum and other operations are essentially defined anywhere that at least one of the components is defined. This idea is applied to propositions and events, expressed as indicator functions, to define conditional propositions and conditional events as three-valued indicator functions that are undefined when their...

Topics: DTIC Archive, SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS CENTER SAN DIEGO CA, *FUNCTIONS(MATHEMATICS), RANDOM...

This grant funded planning activities for initiation of a randomized phase II trial to study androgen replacement in early phase hormone refractory prostate cancer. A grant was completed and submitted to the DOD. A clinical protocol was completed and submitted to the lRB. All regulatory and collaborative agreements were completed except for finalization of drug delivery process with the pharmaceutical collaborator when it was announced that the clinical trial grant was not funded.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Stadler, Walter M, CHICAGO UNIV IL, *REPLACEMENT, *ANDROGENS, *PROSTATE CANCER,...

The report is intended to describe an interim version of a computer program package for random number generation on the IBM System/360. The package, when called by a FORTRAN 4 program, will deliver either a single value or an array (of specified size) of single precision uniformly, normally, or exponentially distributed pseudo-random deviates, or a single value or an array of uniformly distributed integers between 1 and ((2 to the 31st power)-1). The package also has the ability (optional) to...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Learmonth, Gerard P, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

To any given random sample there may be assigned a number called its score and denoted by SC(r, (N sub os)), where r = the number of classes into which the space of the random variable has been divided and (N sub os) = the number of order statistics actually used. It is easily determined from the sample elements and offers some definite advantages as a test statistic for selecting the most probable population from which the given sample has been drawn. Its decision power tends with increasing r...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Weibull, Waloddi, WEIBULL (WALODDI) LAUSANNE (SWITZERLAND), *SAMPLING, STATISTICAL...

We report on the University of Lugano's participation in the Blog track of TREC 2008. In particular we describe our system for performing opinion retrieval and blog distillation. The 2008 Blog track continued on from the successful 2007 Blog track, including the same opinion retrieval and blog distillation activities. This year was our first participation in TREC and we participated in both opinion retrieval and blog distillation tasks. We aimed to test the effectiveness of learning methods in...

Topics: DTIC Archive, LUGANO UNIV (SWITZERLAND), *INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, RANDOM VARIABLES, VECTOR ANALYSIS,...

Given an m n matrix A and a positive integer k, we introduce a randomized procedure for the approximation of A with a matrix B of rank k. The procedure relies on applying A(T) to a collection of l random vectors, where l is an integer equal to or slightly greater than k; the scheme is efficient whenever A and A(T) can be applied rapidly to arbitrary vectors. The discrepancy B - A is of the same order as the (k + 1)st greatest singular value sigma k+1 of A, with negligible probability of even...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Martinsson, Per-Gunnar, YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE,...