This study was conducted in support of the Orbiter damage assessment activity that takes place for each Shuttle mission since STS-107 (STS - Space Transportation System). As part of the damage assessment activity, the state of boundary layer (laminar or turbulent) during reentry needs to be estimated in order to define the aerothermal environment on the Orbiter. Premature turbulence on the wing leading edge (WLE) is possible if a surface irregularity promotes early transition and the resulting...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITERS, BOUNDARY LAYERS, TURBULENT BOUNDARY...

The results of a systematic study of small perturbation transonic flows are presented. Both the flow over thin airfoils and the flow over wedges were investigated. Various numerical schemes were employed in the study. The prime goal of the research was to determine the efficiency of various numerical procedures by accurately evaluating the wave drag, both by computing the pressure integral around the body and by integrating the momentum loss across the shock. Numerical errors involved in the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUMERICAL FLOW VISUALIZATION, PERTURBATION, TRANSONIC FLOW,...

Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYPERSONIC SPEED, AIR DATA SYSTEMS, FLIGHT TESTS, WIND TUNNEL...

Compressible fluid flow problems were solved using an adaptive finite element method. Supersonic flow past a wedge and Prandtl-Meyer expansion were considered. Computational grids are presented.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, HIGH SPEED,...

A flight research program was conducted using a modified F-106B aircraft with an underwing-nacelle - engine installation to investigate installation effects on a wedge nozzle with retracted shrouds from Mach 0.70 to 1.10. These configurations simulated the subsonic flight geometries of a variable-geometry wedge nozzle design for Mach 2.70 operation. The nozzle was tested with a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine, and data were compared with that of 0.34-scale isolated wind tunnel model. Data are also...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTERNAL STORES, FLIGHT TESTS, NACELLES, NOZZLE GEOMETRY,...

Tests of the space shuttle external tank foam insulation were conducted in the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility Tunnel C. For these tests, Tunnel C was run at Mach 4 with a total temperature of 1440 F and a total pressure which varied from 30-100 psia. Cold wall heating rates were changed by varying the test article support wedge angle and by adding and removing a shock generator or a cylindrical protuberance. Selected results are presented to illustrate the test techniques and typical data...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC HEATING, EXTERNAL TANKS, HIGH TEMPERATURE TESTS,...

Two cases are considered. The first is concerned with mean flows of the Blasius type wherein the instabilities are represented by Tollmien-Schlichting waves. It is shown that the latter are generated fairly far downstream of the edge and are the result of a wave length reduction process that tunes the free stream disturbances to the Tollmien-Schlichting wave length. The other case is concerned with inflectional, uni-directional, transversely sheared mean flows. Such idealized flows provide a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BLASIUS FLOW, KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY, LEADING EDGES,...

The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AFTERBODIES, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, CARTESIAN COORDINATES,...

A study of the interaction of small amplitude, unsteady, freestream disturbances with a shock wave induced by a wedge in supersonic flow is presented. These disturbances may be acoustic waves, vorticity waves, or entropy waves (or indeed a combination of all three). Their interactions then generate behind the shock disturbances of all three classes, an aspect that is investigated in some detail, our motivation being to investigate possible mechanisms for boundary-layer receptivity, caused...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES,...

A computer program for calculating quasi-one-dimensional gas flow in axisymmetric and two-dimensional nozzles and rectangular channels is presented. Flow is assumed to start from a state of thermochemical equilibrium at a high temperature in an upstream reservoir. The program provides solutions based on frozen chemistry, chemical equilibrium, and nonequilibrium flow with finite reaction rates. Electronic nonequilibrium effects can be included using a two-temperature model. An approximate...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GAS DYNAMICS, NONEQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS, NOZZLE FLOW, USER...

Relaxation turbulence models have been intensively studied. The complete time dependent mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for flow into a two dimensional compression corner. A new numerical scheme has been incorporated into the developed computed code with an attendant order of magnitude reduction in computation time. Computed solutions are compared with experimental measurements of Law for supersonic flow. Details of the relaxation process have been studied; several...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, RELAXATION METHOD (MATHEMATICS),...

Numerical codes were developed to calculate the two dimensional flow field which results when supersonic flow encounters double wedge configurations whose angles are such that a type 4 pattern occurs. The flow field model included the shock interaction phenomena for a delta wing orbiter. Two numerical codes were developed, one which used the perfect gas relations and a second which incorporated a Mollier table to define equilibrium air properties. The two codes were used to generate theoretical...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, SUPERSONIC FLOW, TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOW,...

A wind tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the aeropropulsion performance (thrust minus drag) of an isolated, two-dimensional wedge nozzle with a simulated variable-wedge mechanism and a fixed cowl. The investigation was conducted statically and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel and at a Mach number of 2.01 in the Langley 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel. The ratio of exhaust jet total pressure to free-stream static pressure was varied...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CENTERBODIES, COWLINGS, EXHAUST NOZZLES, JET ENGINES, WEDGE...

The present work discusses the results of some experimental studies on the possibility of attenuating shock waves in a supersonic flow. The shock waves were formed by an external source of electrical energy. An electromechanical method is described that permits partial recovery of the expended energy.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTROMECHANICS, SHOCK WAVE ATTENUATION, SUPERSONIC FLOW,...

The effects of fin-leading-edge radius and sweep angle on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interactions were investigated in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The fin model leading edges, which represent cylindrical leading edges or struts on hypersonic vehicles, were varied from 0.25 inches to 0.75 inches in radius. A 9deg wedge generated a planar oblique shock at 16.7deg to the flow that intersected the fin bow shock, producing a shock-shock interaction that...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SHOCK WAVE INTERACTION, WEDGE FLOW, FINS, ANGLE OF ATTACK,...

Several aspects of the oscillating wedge are investigated to evaluate both the resulting trends for the wedge and methods of analyzing unsteady flows. An existing hypersonic small disturbance theory for an oscillating thin wedge is extended and applied. A perturbation method involving linearization about the known flow is then derived and discussed. Subsequently, a finite difference technique for calculating the complete unsteady flow field of the wedge in motion is presented and discussed in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW DISTRIBUTION, OSCILLATING FLOW, PERTURBATION THEORY,...

An experimental study of flow over a two-dimensional flat plate-wedge configuration is presented. The investigation encompasses a range of Reynolds numbers characteristics of conditions encountered by deep submersible oceanic vehicles. Flow separation, similar to that found on high speed aircraft control surfaces, is reported and discussed in light of the laminar or transitional nature of the separated shear layer. As discovered in previous high Mach number studies of plate-wedge or ramp...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER SEPARATION, SEPARATED FLOW, TWO DIMENSIONAL...

An experimental investigation of a nonaxisymmetric wedge nozzle was conducted at static conditions. The resulting data, in the form of detailed pressure distributions and oil flow photographs, expand the current nonaxisymmetric nozzle data base. An analytical investigation has been conducted to evaluate a two-dimensional, inviscid, time-dependent theory as a nonaxisymmetric nozzle performance predictor. For the range of nozzle pressure ratios investigated, results indicate good agreement...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXHAUST NOZZLES, PRESSURE MEASUREMENT, STATIC TESTS, WEDGE...

The linear response of an oblique overdriven detonation to impose free stream disturbances or to periodic movements of the wedge is examined. The free stream disturbances are assumed to be steady vorticity waves and the wedge motions are considered to be time periodic oscillations either about a fixed pivot point or along the plane of symmetry of the wedge aligned with the incoming stream. The detonation is considered to be a region of infinitesmal thickness in which a finite amount of heat is...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DETONATION, DETONATION WAVES, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, FLOW...

Testing of the Fission Power System (FPS) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is being conducted at NASA GRC. The TDU consists of three subsystems: the Reactor Simulator (RxSim), the Stirling Power Conversion Unit (PCU), and the Heat Exchanger Manifold (HXM). An Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) is used to drive the working fluid. A preliminary version of the TDU system (which excludes the PCU for now), is referred to as the RxSim subsystem and was used to conduct flow tests in Vacuum...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REACTORS, STIRLING CYCLE, RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCES, HEAT...

The aim is to develop a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of fluid flow in cylindrical seals and evaluation of the dynamic forces on the seals. This code is expected to serve as a scientific tool for detailed flow analysis as well as a check for the accuracy of the 2D industrial codes. The features necessary in the CFD code are outlined. The initial focus was to develop or modify and implement new techniques and physical models. These include collocated grid...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, CYLINDRICAL BODIES, FLUID FLOW,...