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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

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M. M. P. van Hulten; R. Middag; J. -C. Dutay; H. J. W. de Baar; M. Roy-Barman; M. Gehlen; A. Tagliabue; A. Sterl

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Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element, and its oxidised form is involved in the removal of trace elements from ocean waters. Recently, a large number of highly accurate Mn measurements have been obtained in the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans as part of the GEOTRACES programme. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with state-of-the-art modelling to give new insights into the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the ocean. To this end,...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.07128

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
R K P Zia; Jeffrey B Weiss; Dibyendu Mandal; Baylor Fox-Kemper

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Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic...

Topics: Biological Physics, Statistical Mechanics, Condensed Matter, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1610.02976

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Philip Sura

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Earth's atmosphere is in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, the large scale equator-to-pole temperature gradient is maintained by tropical heating, polar cooling, and a midlatitude meridional eddy heat flux predominantly driven by baroclinically unstable weather systems. Based on basic thermodynamic principles, it can be shown that the meridional heat flux, in combination with the meridional temperature gradient, acts to maximize entropy production of the atmosphere. In...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.05260

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
S. V. Prants; A. G. Andreev; M. V. Budyansky; M. Yu. Uleysky

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The seasonal and interannual variability of mesoscale circulation along the eastern coast of the Sakhalin Island in the Okhotsk Sea is investigated using AVISO velocity field and oceanographic data for the period from 1993 to 2016. It is found that mesoscale cyclones with the horizontal dimension of about 100 km occur there predominantly during summer, whereas anticyclones occur predominantly during fall and winter. The cyclones are generated due to the coastal upwelling forced by northward...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1610.08187

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Anton Bezuglov; Brian Blanton; Reinaldo Santiago

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During hurricane seasons, emergency managers and other decision makers need accurate and `on-time' information on potential storm surge impacts. Fully dynamical computer models, such as the ADCIRC tide, storm surge, and wind-wave model take several hours to complete a forecast when configured at high spatial resolution. Additionally, statically meaningful ensembles of high-resolution models (needed for uncertainty estimation) cannot easily be computed in near real-time. This paper discusses an...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Applications, Physics, Statistics, Neural and Evolutionary...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1609.07378

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Grigoris Katsiolides; Eike H. Müller; Robert Scheichl; Tony Shardlow; Michael B. Giles; David J. Thomson

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A common way to simulate the transport and spread of pollutants in the atmosphere is via stochastic Lagrangian dispersion models. Mathematically, these models describe turbulent transport processes with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The computational bottleneck is the Monte Carlo algorithm, which simulates the motion of a large number of model particles in a turbulent velocity field; for each particle, a trajectory is calculated with a numerical timestepping method. Choosing an...

Topics: Physics, Numerical Analysis, Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.07717

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Laura Fierce; Robert L. McGraw

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Sparse representations of atmospheric aerosols are needed for efficient regional- and global-scale chemical transport models. Here we introduce a new framework for representing aerosol distributions, based on the quadrature method of moments. Given a set of moment constraints, we show how linear programming, combined with an entropy-inspired cost function, can be used to construct optimized quadrature representations of aerosol distributions. The sparse representations derived from this...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.06422