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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Valery Liapidevskii; Denys Dutykh; Marguerite Gisclon

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In this study we investigate shallow turbidity density currents and underflows from mechanical point of view. We propose a simple hyperbolic model for such flows. On one hand, our model is based on very basic conservation principles. On the other hand, the turbulent nature of the flow is also taken into account through the energy dissipation mechanism. Moreover, the mixing with the pure water along with sediments entrainment and deposition processes are considered, which makes the problem...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.08024

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Erdal Yiğit; Alexander S. Medvedev

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Effects of subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) on the diurnal migrating tides are investigated from the mesosphere to the upper thermosphere for September equinox conditions, using a general circulation model coupled with the extended spectral nonlinear GW parameterization of Yi\u{g}it et al (2008). Simulations with GW effects cut-off above the turbopause and included in the entire thermosphere have been conducted. GWs appreciably impact the mean circulation and cool the thermosphere down by up...

Topics: Physics, Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Space Physics, Atmospheric...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.07401

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
D. Oks; P. D. Mininni; R. Marino; A. Pouquet

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Kraichnan seminal ideas on inverse cascades yielded new tools to study common phenomena in geophysical turbulent flows. In the atmosphere and the oceans, rotation and stratification result in a flow that can be approximated as two-dimensional at very large scales, but which requires considering three-dimensional effects to fully describe turbulent transport processes and non-linear phenomena. Motions can thus be classified into two classes: fast modes consisting of inertia-gravity waves, and...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.07319

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
M. J. Olascoaga; F. J. Beron-Vera; Y. Wang; J. Triñanes; P. Pérez-Brunius

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Ocean flows are routinely inferred from low-resolution satellite altimetry measurements of sea surface height (SSH) assuming a geostrophic balance. Recent nonlinear dynamical systems techniques have revealed that altimetry-inferred flows can support mesoscale eddies with material boundaries that do not filament for many months, thereby representing effective mechanisms for coherent transport. However, the significance of such coherent Lagrangian eddies is not free from uncertainty due to the...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Chaotic Dynamics, Nonlinear Sciences, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.06186

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Markus Gross

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Seven data sources are analyzed and combined to form a surface wind speed climatology for the Gulf of California.

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05922

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Pascal Marquet

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The paper "On the theory of storm" (Zur Sturmtheorie) is the last one Max Margules has published in 1906, just before to "bid farewell to Meteorology" (using his words). The lack of English translation of this paper might be filled by this attempt which can be certainly improved, however.

Topics: History and Philosophy of Physics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.06128

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Robert E. Kopp; Robert M. DeConto; Daniel A. Bader; Carling C. Hay; Radley M. Horton; Scott Kulp; Michael Oppenheimer; David Pollard; Benjamin H. Strauss

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Probabilistic sea-level projections have not yet integrated insights from physical ice-sheet models representing mechanisms, such as ice-shelf hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse, that can rapidly increase ice-sheet discharge. Here, we link a probabilistic framework for sea-level projections to a small ensemble of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) simulations incorporating these physical processes to explore their influence on projections of global-mean sea-level (GMSL) and relative sea-level (RSL)...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05597

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Jianing Zhang

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A stochastic method is introduced for geometric modeling aerosol surface roughness with random field and discrete differential geometry theory. Optical scattering properties are computed for randomly oriented spheroidal particles with uniformly random surface roughness. Invariant imbedding T-Matrix and geometric optics method are applied to compute light scattering properties of aerosol particles covered from Rayleigh to geometric optics region. We simulatied scattering phase matrix of model...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Chemical Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05821

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Naomi Murdoch; Balthasar Kenda; Taichi Kawamura; Aymeric Spiga; Philippe Lognonné; David Mimoun; William B. Banerdt

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The atmospheric pressure fluctuations on Mars induce an elastic response in the ground that creates a ground tilt, detectable as a seismic signal on the InSight seismometer SEIS. The seismic pressure noise is modeled using Large Eddy Simulations of the wind and surface pressure at the InSight landing site and a Green's function ground deformation approach that is subsequently validated via a detailed comparison with two other methods based on Sorrells' theory (Sorrels 1971; Sorrels et al....

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Geophysics, Physics, Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05664

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
F. Drullion; S. G. Sajjadi

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In this paper we demonstrate numerical computations of turbulent wind blowing over group of waves that are growing in time. The numerical model adopted for the turbulence model is based on differential second-moment model that was adopted for growing idealized waves by Drullion and Sajjadi (2014). The results obtained here demonstrate the formation of cat's-eye which appear asymmetrically over the waves within a group.

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05052

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3.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Qi Liu; Yawen Zhang; Qin Lv; Li Shang

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During summer, melt ponds have a significant influence on Arctic sea-ice albedo. The melt pond fraction (MPF) also has the ability to forecast the Arctic sea-ice in a certain period. It is important to retrieve accurate melt pond fraction (MPF) from satellite data for Arctic research. This paper proposes a satellite MPF retrieval model based on the multi-layer neural network, named MPF-NN. Our model uses multi-spectral satellite data as model input and MPF information from multi-site and...

Topics: Physics, Computing Research Repository, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Computer Vision and...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04281

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
V. P. Ruban

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A nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation with variable coefficients for surface waves on a large-scale steady nonuniform current has been derived without the assumption of a relative smallness of the velocity of the current. This equation can describe with good accuracy the loss of modulation stability of a wave coming to a counter current, leading to the formation of so called rogue waves. Some theoretical estimates are compared to the numerical simulation with the exact equations for a...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04016

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Marsha Berger; Jonathan Goodman

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This paper examines the questions of whether smaller asteroids that burst in the air over water can generate tsunamis that could pose a threat to distant locations. Such air burst-generated tsunamis are qualitatively different than the more frequently studied earthquake-generated tsunamis, and differ as well from impact asteroids. Numerical simulations are presented using the shallow water equations in several settings, demonstrating very little tsunami threat from this scenario. A model...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Dynamical Systems, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.03552

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
S. G. Sajjadi

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The original investigation of Lamb (1932, {\S}349) for the effect of viscosity on monochromatic surface waves is extended to account for second-order Stokes surface waves on deep water in the presence of surface tension. This extension is used to evaluate interfacial impedance for Stokes waves under the assumption that the waves are growing and hence the surface waves are unsteady. Thus, the previous investigation of Sajjadi et al. (2014) is further explored in that (i) the surface wave is...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.02353

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2.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Shahrdad G. Sajjadi; Sarena Robertson; Rebecca Harvey; Mary Brown

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The recent analytical of multi-layer analyses proposed by Sajjadi, Hunt and Drullion (2014) (SHD14) is solved numerically for atmospheric turbulent shear fows blowing over unsteady Stokes water waves, of low to moderate steepness. It is demonstrated that as the wave steepens further the inner layer exceeds the critical layer and beneath the cat's-eye there is a strong reverse flow which will then affect the surface drag, but at the surface the flow adjusts itself to the orbital velocity of the...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.01963

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Giovanni Dematteis; Tobias Grafke; Eric Vanden-Eijnden

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The appearance of rogue waves in deep sea is investigated using the modified nonlinear Schr\"odinger (MNLS) equation with random initial conditions that are assumed to be Gaussian distributed, with a spectrum approximating the JONSWAP spectrum obtained from observations of the North Sea. It is shown that by supplementing the incomplete information contained in the JONSWAP spectrum with the MNLS dynamics one can reliably estimate the probability distribution of the sea surface elevation far...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Dynamical Systems, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.01496

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Claire Burke; Peter Stott

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The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is important for bringing rainfall to large areas of China. Historically, variations in the EASM have had major impacts including flooding and drought. We present an analysis of the impact of anthropogenic climate change on EASM rainfall in Eastern China using a newly updated attribution system. Our results suggest that anthropogenic climate change has led to an overall decrease in total monsoon rainfall over the past 65 years, and an increased number of dry...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.00563

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Bernard Gottschalk

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Using parametric analysis (curve fitting) we find a persistent temperature bump, coincident with World War II (WW2), in eight independent time series, four land- and four ocean-based. We fit the data with a Gaussian on a quadratic background. Six parameters (constant, linear and quadratic background terms and the amplitude, position and width of the Gaussian) are free to vary. The mean fitted Gaussian amplitude is 0.339$\pm$ 0.065$\,^\circ$C, non-zero by 5.2$\sigma$ and therefore not...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.09281

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Elena Tolkova

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An extensive data set of water level measurements of the September 2015 Chilean tsunami in rivers in Japan and a new methodology for data processing are used to verify that tsunami dissipation in a river at each instant and locality depends on the tidally-modified wave-locked slope of the river surface. As deduced from the observations, a relatively small tsunami or ocean noise traveling at mild wave-locked slopes can propagate virtually without losses to the upstream locations where observed...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.09405

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2.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Adam S. Candy

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Geophysical model domains typically contain irregular, complex fractal-like boundaries and physical processes that act over a wide range of scales. Constructing geographically constrained boundary-conforming spatial discretizations of these domains with flexible use of anisotropically, fully unstructured meshes is a challenge. The problem contains a wide range of scales and a relatively large, heterogeneous constraint parameter space. Approaches are commonly ad hoc, model or application...

Topics: Geophysics, Physics, Fluid Dynamics, Computing Research Repository, Computational Geometry,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.08491

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Adam S. Candy; Julie D. Pietrzak

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The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model or application specific and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce...

Topics: Geophysics, Physics, Fluid Dynamics, Computing Research Repository, Computational Geometry,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.08504

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Martin Thomas Horsch; Stefan Becker; Michaela Heier; Jayant Kumar Singh; Felix Diewald; Ralf Müller; George Jackson; Jadran Vrabec; Hans Hasse

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The influence of the surface curvature on the surface tension of small droplets in equilibrium with a surrounding vapour, or small bubbles in equilibrium with a surrounding liquid, can be expanded as $\gamma(R) = \gamma_0 + c_1\gamma_0/R + O(1/R^2)$, where $R = R_\gamma$ is the radius of the surface of tension and $\gamma_0$ is the surface tension of the planar interface, corresponding to zero curvature. According to Tolman's law, the first-order coefficient in this expansion is assumed to be...

Topics: Physics, Condensed Matter, Soft Condensed Matter, Chemical Physics, Atomic and Molecular Clusters,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.08719

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
M. Abuladze; Z. Osmanov

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In this paper we consider the role of nonmodal instabilities in the dynamics of atmospheric tornadoes. For this purpose we consider the Euler equation, continuity equation and the equation of state and linearise them. As an example we study several different velocity profiles: the so-called Rankine vortex model; the Burgers-Rott vortex model; Sullivan and modified Sullivan vortex models. It has been shown that in the two dimensional Rankine vortex model no instability appears in the inner...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.07254

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Yue-Kin Tsang

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We show that some statistical properties of forced two-dimensional turbulence have an important sensitivity to the form of large-scale dissipation which is required to damp the inverse cascade. We consider three models of large-scale dissipation: linear "Ekman" drag, non-linear quadratic drag, and scale selective hypo-drag that damps only low-wavenumber modes. In all cases, the statistically steady vorticity field is dominated by almost axisymmetric vortices, and the probability...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.07000

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Bernard Gottschalk

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We fit 12 independent surface temperature time series (zones of latitude), 6 land- and 6 ocean-based, with a Gaussian (centered around WW2) on a quadratic background. The four polar zones are unusable. Each of the remaining 8 shows evidence of a 0.2-0.3 degree C bump, although one zone is dropped from the final analysis because of an aberrant fit. Thus, we find that a surface temperature increase around WW2 is a robust, statistically significant (5.2 sigma) feature of the data, and must either...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.06511

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Navid C. Constantinou

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"Eddy saturation" refers to a regime in which the total mass transport of an oceanic current is insensitive to the wind stress strength. Baroclinicity is currently believed to be key to the development of an eddy-saturated state. Here, we show that eddy saturation occurs in a barotropic flow over topography, without baroclinicity. We show that eddy saturation is a fundamental property of barotropic dynamics above topography. We demonstrate that the main factor controlling the...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.06594

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Saeed Moghimi; Jorge Ramirez; Juan M. Restrepo; Shankar C. Venkataramani

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We formulate a model for the mass exchange between oil at and below the sea surface. This is a particularly important aspect of modeling oil spills. Surface and subsurface oil have different chemical and transport characteristics and lumping them together would compromise the accuracy of the resulting model. Without observational or computational constraints, it is thus not possible to quantitatively predict oil spills based upon partial field observations of surface and/or sub-surface oil. The...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.05361

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Soumyabrata Dev; Shilpa Manandhar; Feng Yuan; Yee Hui Lee; Stefan Winkler

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The analysis of clouds in the earth's atmosphere is important for a variety of applications, viz. weather reporting, climate forecasting, and solar energy generation. In this paper, we focus our attention on the impact of cloud on the total solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface. We use weather station to record the total solar irradiance. Moreover, we employ collocated ground-based sky camera to automatically compute the instantaneous cloud coverage. We analyze the relationship between...

Topics: Physics, Computing Research Repository, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Computer Vision and...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.05591

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Graziela R. Keller; Zhipeng Wang; Aisheng Wu; Xiaoxiong Xiong

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Aqua MODIS, unlike its predecessor on board the Terra spacecraft, had always been thought to have been spared from significant deleterious impacts of electronic crosstalk on its imagery. However, recent efforts brought to our attention the presence of striping artifacts in Aqua MODIS images from band 24 (4.47$\mu$m), which upon further inspection proved to have a noticeable impact on the quality of the L1B product and to have been present since the beginning of the mission, in 2002. Using...

Topics: Astrophysics, Instrumentation and Detectors, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.04719

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
K. W. Bowman; J. Liu; A. A. Bloom; N. C. Parazoo; M. Lee; Z. Jiang; D. Menemenlis; M. M. Gierach; G. J. Collatz; K. R. Gurney; D. Wunch

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The El Ni\~{n}o Modoki in 2010 lead to historic droughts in Brazil. We quantify the global and Brazilian carbon response to this event using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) framework. Satellite observations of CO$_2$, CO, and solar induced fluorescence (SIF) are ingested into a 4D-variational assimilation system driven by carbon cycle models to infer spatially resolved carbon fluxes including net ecosystem exchange, biomass burning, and gross primary productivity (GPP). The...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.03778

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Chongsheng Cao; Jinkai Li; Edriss S. Titi

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In this paper, we consider the 3D primitive equations of oceanic and atmospheric dynamics with only horizontal eddy viscosities in the horizontal momentum equations and only vertical diffusivity in the temperature equation. Global well-posedness of strong solutions is established for any initial data such that the initial horizontal velocity $v_0\in H^2(\Omega)$ and the initial temperature $T_0\in H^1(\Omega)\cap L^\infty(\Omega)$ with $\nabla_HT_0\in L^q(\Omega)$, for some $q\in(2,\infty)$....

Topics: Physics, Geophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Analysis of PDEs, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.02512

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Alberto Alberello; Amin Chabchoub; Jason Monty; Filippo Nelli; Jung Lee; John Elsnab; Alessandro Toffoli

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Nonlinear wave interactions affect the evolution of steep wave groups, their breaking and the associated kinematic field. Laboratory experiments are performed to investigate the effect of the underlying focussing mechanism on the shape of the breaking wave and its velocity field. In this regard, it is found that the shape of the wave spectrum plays a substantial role. Broader underlying wave spectra leads to energetic plungers at a relatively low amplitude. For narrower spectra waves break at a...

Topics: Pattern Formation and Solitons, Physics, Nonlinear Sciences, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.01043

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Alexander Bihlo; Scott MacLachlan

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We formulate a general criterion for the exact preservation of the "lake at rest" solution in general mesh-based and meshless numerical schemes for the strong form of the shallow-water equations with bottom topography. The main idea is a careful mimetic design for the spatial derivative operators in the momentum flux equation that is paired with a compatible averaging rule for the water column height arising in the bottom topography source term. We prove consistency of the mimetic...

Topics: Physics, Numerical Analysis, Fluid Dynamics, Computational Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.07749

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Tomos W. David; Laure Zanna; David P. Marshall

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Understanding the statistics of ocean geostrophic turbulence is of utmost importance in understanding its interactions with the global ocean circulation and the climate system as a whole. Here, a study of eddy-mixing entropy in a forced-dissipative barotropic ocean model is presented. Entropy is a concept of fundamental importance in statistical physics and information theory; motivated by equilibrium statistical mechanics theories of ideal geophysical fluids, we consider the effect of forcing...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Statistical Mechanics, Condensed Matter, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.08041

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0.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Zhangping Wei; Huabin Shi; Cheng Li; Joseph Katz; Robert A. Dalrymple; Giuseppe Bilotta

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A two-phase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model has been developed on the basis of GPUSPH, which is an open-source implementation of the weakly compressible SPH method on graphics processing units, to investigate oil dispersion under breaking waves. By assuming that the multiple phases are immiscible, the two-phase model solves the same set of governing equations for both phases. Density in each phase is preserved by renormalization, and the harmonic mean of viscosities is used in the...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.07760

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Pierre Delplace; J. B. Marston; Antoine Venaille

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Symmetries and topology are central to an understanding of physics. Topology explains the precise quantization of the Hall effect and the protection of surface states in topological insulators against scattering by non-magnetic impurities or bumps. Recently topologically protected edge excitations have been found in artificial lattice structures that support classical waves of various types. However, the interplay between discrete symmetries and the topology of fluid waves has so far played...

Topics: Physics, Condensed Matter, Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.07583

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10.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Jakob Runge; Dino Sejdinovic; Seth Flaxman

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Detecting causal associations in time series datasets is a key challenge for novel insights into complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system or the human brain. Interactions in high-dimensional dynamical systems often involve time-delays, nonlinearity, and strong autocorrelations. These present major challenges for causal discovery techniques such as Granger causality leading to low detection power, biases, and unreliable hypothesis tests. Here we introduce a reliable and fast method...

Topics: Physics, Statistics, Applications, Methodology, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.07007

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Till J. W. Wagner; Alon A. Stern; Rebecca W. Dell; Ian Eisenman

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Although iceberg models have been used for decades, they have received far more widespread attention in recent years, in part due to efforts to explicitly represent icebergs in climate models. This calls for increased scrutiny of all aspects of typical iceberg models. An important component of iceberg models is the representation of iceberg capsizing, or rolling. Rolling occurs spontaneously when the ratio of iceberg width to height falls below a critical threshold. Here we examine previously...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.06870

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
A. G. O. Goulart; M. J. Lazo; J. M. S. Suarez; D. M. Moreira

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In the present work, we investigate the potential of fractional derivatives to model atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. We propose simple fractional differential equation models for the steady state spatial distribution of concentration of a non-reactive pollutant in Planetary Boundary Layer. We solve these models and we compare the solutions with a real experiment. We found that the fractional derivative models perform far better than the traditional Gaussian model and even better than...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.06345

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Mattia Serra; Pratik Sathe; Francisco Beron-Vera; George Haller

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The polar vortices play a crucial role in the formation of the ozone hole and can cause severe weather anomalies. Their boundaries, known as the vortex `edges', are typically identified via methods that are either frame-dependent or return non-material structures, and hence are unsuitable for assessing material transport barriers. Using two-dimensional velocity data on isentropic surfaces in the northern hemisphere, we show that elliptic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) identify the...

Topics: Physics, Nonlinear Sciences, Dynamical Systems, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Chaotic Dynamics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.05593

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Didier Clamond; Denys Dutykh

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This paper describes an efficient algorithm for computing steady two-dimensional surface gravity wave in irrotational motion. The algorithm complexity is O(N log N), N being the number of Fourier modes. The algorithm allows the arbitrary precision computation of waves in arbitrary depth, i.e., it works efficiently for Stokes, cnoidal and solitary waves, even for quite large steepnesses. The method is based on conformal mapping, Babenko equation rewritten in a suitable way, pseudo-spectral...

Topics: Physics, Numerical Analysis, Analysis of PDEs, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Classical Physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.04132

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Z. C. Feng; Y. Charles Li

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Short term unpredictability is discovered numerically for high Reynolds number fluid flows under periodic boundary conditions. Furthermore, the abundance of the short term unpredictability is also discovered. These discoveries support our theory that fully developed turbulence is constantly driven by such short term unpredictability.

Topics: Physics, Fluid Dynamics, Nonlinear Sciences, Analysis of PDEs, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.02993

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Yuri S. Djikaev; Eli Ruckenstein

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Using the formalism of the classical nucleation theory, we derive an expression for the reversible work $W_*$ of formation of a binary crystal nucleus in a liquid binary solution of non-stoichiometric composition (incongruent crystallization). Applied to the crystallization of aqueous nitric acid (NA) droplets, the new expression more adequately takes account of the effect of nitric acid vapor compared to the conventional expression of MacKenzie, Kulmala, Laaksonen, and Vesala (MKLV)...

Topics: Physics, Chemical Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.02500

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Aseel Farhat; Evelyn Lunasin; Edriss S. Titi

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In this paper we survey the various implementations of a new data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm based on spatial coarse mesh measurements. As a paradigm, we demonstrate the application of this algorithm to the 3D Leray-$\alpha$ subgrid scale turbulence model. Most importantly, we use this paradigm to show that it is not always necessary that one has to collect coarse mesh measurements of all the state variables, that are involved in the underlying evolutionary system, in order to recover...

Topics: Physics, Geophysics, Analysis of PDEs, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.01506

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Marc Wiedermann; Jonatan F. Siegmund; Jonathan F. Donges; Jürgen Kurths; Reik V. Donner

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The specific impacts of El Ni\~no's two flavors, East Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) El Ni\~no, have been studied intensively in recent years, mostly by applying linear statistical or composite analyses. These techniques, however, focus on average spatio-temporal patterns of climate variability and do not allow for a specific assessment of related extreme impacts. Here, we use event coincidence analysis to study the differential imprints of EP and CP types of both, El Ni\~no and La...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.00218

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1.0

Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Aidan Keane; Pablo E. Olmos Aguirre; Hannah Ferchland; Peter Clive; Daniel Gallacher

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An analytical wind turbine wake model is proposed to predict the wind velocity distribution for all distances downwind of a wind turbine, including the near-wake. This wake model augments the Jensen model and subsequent derivations thereof, and is a direct generalization of that recently proposed by Bastankhah and Porte-Agel. The model is derived by applying conservation of mass and momentum in the context of actuator disk theory, and assuming a distribution of the double-Gaussian type for the...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.00166

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Emil J. Zak; Jonathan Tennyson; Oleg L. Polyansky; Lorenzo Lodi; Nikolay F. Zobov; Sergei A. Tashkun; Valery I. Perevalov

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Remote sensing experiments require high-accuracy, preferably sub-percent, line intensities and in response to this need we present computed room temperature line lists for six symmetric isotopologues of carbon dioxide: $^{13}$C$^{16}$O$_2$, $^{14}$C$^{16}$O$_2$, $^{12}$C$^{17}$O$_2$, $^{12}$C$^{18}$O$_2$, $^{13}$C$^{17}$O$_2$ and $^{13}$C$^{18}$O$_2$, covering the range 0-8000 \cm. Our calculation scheme is based on variational nuclear motion calculations and on a reliability analysis of the...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics, Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Earth and...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.08267

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Hemant Khatri; Jai Sukhatme; Abhishek Kumar; Mahendra K. Verma

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Enstrophy, kinetic energy (KE) fluxes and spectra are estimated in different parts of the mid-latitudinal oceans via altimetry data. To begin with, using geostrophic currents derived from sea-surface height anomaly data provided by AVISO, we confirm the presence of a strong inverse flux of surface KE at scales larger than approximately 250 km. We then compute enstrophy fluxes to help develop a clearer picture of the underlying dynamics at smaller scales, i.e., 250 km to 100 km. Here, we observe...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.07966

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Alessio Turchi; Elena Masciadri; Luca Fini

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In this paper we quantify the performances of an automated weather forecast system implemented on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site at Mt. Graham (Arizona) in forecasting the main atmospheric parameters close to the ground. The system employs a mesoscale non-hydrostatic numerical model (Meso-Nh). To validate the model we compare the forecasts of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity close to the ground with the respective values measured by instrumentation...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics, Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics, Astrophysics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.07341

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

Jun 30, 2018
by
Hege-Beate Fredriksen; Martin Rypdal

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The temporal fluctuations in global mean surface temperature is an example of a geophysical quantity which can be described using the notions of long-range persistence and scale invariance/scaling, but this description has suffered from lack of a generally accepted physical explanation. Processes with these statistical signatures can arise from non-linear effects, for instance through cascade-like energy transfer in turbulent fluids, but they can also be produced by linear models with...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.07355