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Nov 12, 2013
11/13

by
Allen H. Olson, PhD

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Surface Charge Tomography (SCT) is a noninvasive technique for imaging electrical conductivity variations within a body. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the capability of SCT to detect and locate very small objects, to differentiate between neighboring objects, and to provide quantitative information on object size and location.

Topics: electrical impedance imaging, charge density, electric field, conductivity

(1) To investigate the rate of metal removal by the flocculation process, (2) To characterize the molecular components and charge density of the flocculant.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bender, Judith, CLARK ATLANTA UNIV GA, *METALS, *BACTERIA, *FLOCCULATION, REMOVAL,...

For the first time, charging and discharging of traps in the dielectric of state-of-the art RF MEMS capacitive switches were characterized in detail. Densities and time constants of different trap species were extracted under different control voltages. It was found that, while charging and discharging time constants are relatively independent of control voltage, steady-state charge densities increase exponentially with control voltage. A simple charge model was constructed to predict the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Yuan, Xiaobin, MEMTRONICS PLANO TX, *DIELECTRICS, *RADIOFREQUENCY,...

The effects water mist has on the overpressures produced by the detonation of 50 lb equivalent of high explosives (HE) TNT, Destex, and PBXN-109 in a chamber is reported. The overpressures for each charge density were measured with and without mist preemptively sprayed into the space. The impulse, initial blast wave, and quasi-static overpressure measured in the blast mitigation experiments were reduced by as much as (40%, 36%, and 35%) for 50 lbs TNT, (43%, 25%, and 33%) for 50 lbs TNT...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *WATER, *BLAST, *MIST, HIGH EXPLOSIVES, TNT,...

The dc dynamics of models of incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) conductivity was reduced to a purely static problem. The dc characteristics of the incommensurate chain have been determined. A microscopic understanding of differences in nonlinear electrical properties of different CDW materials has been obtained. The experimentally observed scaling of field- and frequency-dependent conductivities was shown to occur in classical systems and can therefore no longer be regarded as evidence of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Sneddon,L, BRANDEIS UNIV WALTHAM MASS DEPT OF PHYSICS, *CHARGE DENSITY, *WAVES,...

The general kinetic equation of the charge-charge structure factor of a fully ionized strongly hydrogen plasma is solved in three distinct collision approximations. These structure factors are necessary for the complete description of spectral line profiles in hot dense plasma environments. Equilibrium correlation functions necessary to these solutions are provided by solution of the hypernetter chain integral equation in which an effective pair potential has been used to take into account...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cauble,R, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *PLASMAS(PHYSICS), COMPUTERIZED...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Turner, M, ASPEN CENTER FOR PHYSICS CO, *ELECTRON TRANSPORT, *CONTINUUM MECHANICS,...

Multidisciplinary research focused on the systematic tuning of multiphase morphology on electro-active performance has served as the cornerstone of the fourth year ILEAD MURI program. This team-oriented focus provided collaborations among scientists and engineers with graduate student exchanges, real-time feedback, and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed publications. Synthetic chemists collaborated with morphologists to predict the design of novel electro-active materials. Unprecedented charged...

Topics: DTIC Archive, VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG, *POLYMERS, ACTUATORS, CHARGE...

Topics: DTIC Archive, WERNER, FRANK D., MINNESOTA UNIV ROSEMOUNT ROSEMOUNT AERONAUTICAL LABS, *CHARGE...

Wafer-level micro-encapsulation is an innovative, low-cost, wafer-level packaging methods for encapsulating RF MEMS switches. This zero-level packaging technique has demonstrated 0.04 dB package insertion loss at 35 GHz. This article overviews the processes, measurements, and testing methods used for determining the integrity and performance of individual encapsulated RF MEMS packages.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Yuan, Xiaobin, LEHIGH UNIV BETHLEHEM PA, *DIELECTRICS, *RADIOFREQUENCY,...

The results for an experimental study of a one wavelength MHD induction generator operating on a liquid flow are presented. First the design philosophy and the experimental generator design are summarized, including a description of the flow loop and instrumentation. Next a Fourier series method of treating the fact that the magnetic flux density produced by the stator is not a pure traveling sinusoid is described and some results summarized. This approach appears to be of interest after...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIQUID FLOW, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLOW, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC...

Graphene is a single atomic layer of carbon atoms arranged into a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice. Since its discovery in 2004 by physicists [1], single layer graphene has been produced by many different methods and sample quality has steadily improved [2]-[4].

Topics: DTIC Archive, Baatar, Chagaan, OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH ARLINGTON VA, *NANOTECHNOLOGY,...

Work performed over the past six years is described. Studies have ranged over a variety of halide based materials (principally fluorides) in which the oxygen in oxide ferroelectrics is replaced by fluorine. For these systems, the use of free ion wavefunctions to calculate Gordon-Kim parameter-free modified electron gas potentials leads, overall, to good agreement with experiment and predicts the existence of ferroelectric phases for certain of these systems that have yet to be synthesized. We...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hardy, John R., NEBRASKA UNIV LINCOLN, *PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS, *FERROELECTRIC...

The Report starts with a brief historical introduction to current investigations and a description of possible physical embodiments of the system. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the mathematical model of the system, the methods used in solving the corresponding integro-differential equations and some analytical solutions in the two accessible cases of a steady state and harmonic oscillations. The main body of the report is concerned with detailed analysis of the dynamical behavior...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lindsay, Peter A, KING'S COLL LONDON (UNITED KINGDOM), *DIODES, *CHAOS, *ION...

The steady-state distribution function is obtained for electrons initially emitted from a point source into a neutral gas and which subsequently drift under the influence of a uniform dc electric field while undergoing elastic collisions with the gas atoms. The usual approximations are retained of regarding the distribution function as almost spherical in velocity space and of regarding the fractional energy gain or loss by an electron upon collision as small. However, the terms in the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Parker, James H, WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP PITTSBURGH PA, *ELECTRON TRANSPORT,...

Bell System Technical Journal, 58: 9. November 1979 pp 2135-2141. Papers by Bell Laboratories Authors.

Topics: ieee, electron, silicon, amorphous, ion, surface, magnetic, gallium, aluminum, beam, transition...

The purpose of this work is to study the main parameters of silicon carbide thyristors. The switch on processes have been studied within the temperature range from 160K to 500K. It was found that turn on constant Tr is strongly temperature dependent (at T=495K Tr is as small as Tr=1.9 ns for 400V thyristor). The critical charge density in SiC thyristors has been measured for the fist time at T=300K-560K. Forward current voltage characteristics were studied up to very high current...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Levinshtein, M. E., RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ST PETERSBURG IOFFE...

This report discusses the dielectric properties of magnetoplasmas by first considering a plasma at rest and then causing acceleration by increasing the electric field, E, slowly. The polarization current is calculated, then gravity is added which causes a current to flow. It is found that under the J x B force, the plasma stops in time and then reverses its direction of flow. Finally, the study considers an alternate treatment which does not involve dielectric properties. (AN)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Johnson, Francis S., TEXAS UNIV AT DALLAS RICHARDSON, *PLASMAS(PHYSICS), *DIELECTRIC...

Errors in the determination of (N(D)-N(A)) for semiconductor epitaxial layers by the Hall method can result if corrections for carrier depletion are omitted in the calculations. Simple practical procedures are discussed to correct for carrier depletion that occurs in epitaxial layers at their free surfaces, and their interfaces with semi-insulating substrates. Theoretical estimates of carrier depletion in GaAs indicate that depletion regions can extend several microns into high purity epitaxial...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Chandra,Amitabh, CORNELL UNIV ITHACA N Y SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, *HALL...

The capabilities of the pulsed Langmuir probe technique have been expanded to operate in charged particle environments having spatial and temporal variations in plasma or reference-electrode potentials. this practice is implemented by logic circuitry which tracks local floating potentials and adjusts automatically the sweep center voltage to guarantee a complete current-voltage characteristic with minimum sweep voltage excursion. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Holmes,J C, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *LANGMUIR PROBES, *PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS,...

The application of the principle of energy-balance is an especially useful approach to problems for which a complete analytical solution is not possible but for which partial information can provide a thorough understanding of system dynamics. In this report the problem of N conducting bodies immersed in the electric field produced by a pair of electrodes is examined, and associated energy-balance equations are derived. These equations are applicable to a wide variety of problems. A theorem on...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bucher,William, BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABS ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *ELECTRIC FIELDS,...

A survey is presented of current research in the theory of gravitational radiation. The mathematical structure of gravitational radiation is stressed. Furthermore, the radiation problem is treated independently from other problems in gravitation. The development proceeds candidly through three points of view - scalar, rector, and tensor radiation theory - and the corresponding results are stated.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FIELD THEORY (PHYSICS), GRAVITATION THEORY, GRAVITATIONAL...

A preliminary study of the 100 eV to approx. 1 MeV plasma environment encountered by the P78-2 Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA) satellite during its initial operation period was conducted. Forty-four days of 10-min averages of the four moments of the electron and ion distribution functions calculated from the SC5 and SC9 energetic particle measurements were analyzed to determine occurrence frequency, local time variation, geomagnetic activity variation, and L-shell variation. The...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Mullen,E G, AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LAB HANSCOM AFB MA, *CHARGED PARTICLES, *CHARGE...

Auger line shape measurements for Ga and As have been made for the adsorption of H20 on cleaved GaAs(110) to determine the species-specific densities of states of Ga and As sites. The adsorption kinetics for H20 has been compared to that for 02. The Auger lineshapes at corresponding coverages are similar, indicating that the changes in the local charge distribution around Ga and As caused by H20 adsorption is similar to that caused by 02 adsorption.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Childs,K D, WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON, *Gallium arsenides, *Chemisorption, *Water,...

A Gerdien condenser system for measuring stratospheric charged particles densities is described. The system makes use of commercially available blowers to obtain the bulk gas flow through the condenser and a time of charge method for measuring collected currents. System modifications made over several balloon flights are described and the results of one flight are presented in some detail. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Sherman,C, AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LAB HANSCOM AFB MA, *CHARGED PARTICLES,...

A method of moments procedure is presented for solving the integral equation satisfied by the electrostatic charge distribution over arbitrary planar domains. This procedure is based on a representation of such domains as a collection of quadrilateral subdomains, using the Gordon-Hall and Zienkiewicz-Phillips subdivision techniques. All integrals are effectively evaluated over triangles, and rely on an expression which is derived for the potential at a point due to a constant charge...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Okon,Ephraim E, SYRACUSE UNIV NY DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING,...

Using linearly polarized plane electromagnetic radiation we irradiated finite length, conducting, circular cylinders at normal broadside incidence. These tubes were thin walled, open at both ends and empty. Measurements of the radial electric field component at the axis were made and the results are discussed. For tube dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the incident radiation measurements were also made of the internal and external charge densities and the exterior surface current...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Heckl,J P, STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT ALBANY, *ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING, FINITE...

The analysis employs a quasi-TEM model for uniform isolated transmission lines and for the even- and odd-mode transmission lines associated with coupled-line structures. The conductor and dielectric losses in these structures are then related to equivalent charge-density distributions, which are evaluated using a method-of-moments solution. The transmission lines treated by this which are evaluated using a method-of-moments solution. The transmission lines treated by this analysis may contain...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Spielman, Barry E., NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, *STRIP...

For a cyiindrically symmetric plasma column whose electron density N is a slowly varying, monotonically decreasing function of radius r, it is possible to calculate explicitly both the diffraction pattern from the knowledge of N(r) and, conversely, N(r) from the knowledge of the diffraction pattern. If the diffraction pattern is obtained experimentally, N(r) can be calculated by a cumbersome numerical procedure. Instead of doing this, the diffraction pattern can be approximated by one of a...

Topics: DTIC Archive, SHMOYS, J, POLYTECHNIC INST OF BROOKLYN NY MICROWAVE RESEARCH INST,...

This work investigates how the dielectric relaxation that occurs after optical absorption can raise the electrical field from below avalanche threshold to above threshold inside a simple GaAs photoconductor. The process of optically raising the electrical field above its initial value we call dynamic field enhancement. Trade-offs between optical intensity, doping, optical absorption depth, and sample thickness are discussed with respect to obtaining useful performance of a dynamically field...

Topics: DTIC Archive, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LAB CA, *AVALANCHE EFFECT(ELECTRONICS), *PHOTOCONDUCTORS,...

The contribution of electrically charged dislocation motion to dielectric relaxation was studied theoretically. Experimentally obtained data on charge density, dislocation density, and segment length and distribution described in Part I of this series were used to calculate dielectric relaxation spectra. The results indicate that the charged dislocation process can produce the observed audio frequency dielectric relaxation as well as the distribution of spectra. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Itagaki,Kazuhiko, COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH, *Ice,...

In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in the structure of an electrolyte at an electrode interface (the so-called electric double layer). If only the ions are taken onto account explicitly, with the solvent represented by a uniform dielectric medium of constant dielectric constant epsilon, the potential difference across the double layer is much smaller than is observed experimentally. This remains true even if the Poisson-Boltzmann theory of Gouy and Chapman (GC) is replaced...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Henderson, D, PUERTO RICO UNIV RIO PIEDRAS DEPT OF PHYSICS, *ELECTRODES,...

The two-dimensional metals K3Cu8S6 and Rb3Cu8S6 show anomalies in their temperature dependent electrical conductivities which suggest charge- density waves. The band structure calculation of the mixed-valence CDW compound K3Cu8S6 shows that the Fermi surface of the compound is mainly composed of sulfur p electrons. The results of the calculations are supported by XPS studies. Keywords: Charge-density waves/electrical conductivity/alloys; Band structure calculation/mixed-valence/fusion;...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ro, Hyekyeong, NORTH CAROLINA UNIV AT CHAPEL HILL DEPT OF CHEMISTRY, *ALLOYS,...

The motion of dislocations in single crystal ice under an electric field was observed by using X-ray topographic methods. Electric charge density on these dislocations was deduced from the amplitude and length of the dislocation segment under the known AC electrical field. The most likely linear charge density was about +5 x 10 to the minus 11th power c/m, although considerable variation is possible depending on the effective field acting on the dislocation lines. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Itagaki,Kazuhiko, COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH, *ELECTRIC...

The use of boron nitride (BN) as a substrate for graphene nanodevices has attracted much interest since the recent report that BN greatly improves the mobility of charge carriers in graphene compared to standard SiO2 substrates. We have explored the local microscopic properties of graphene on a BN substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy. We find that BN substrates result in extraordinarily flat graphene layers that display microscopic Moir e patterns arising from the relative orientation...

Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY DEPT OF PHYSICS, *BORON NITRIDES, *GRAPHENE, *MICROSCOPY,...

In the computation of electron residence time within the core cavity of Polywell(tm)/HEPS devices, it is necessary to determine the average time of transit of the electrons in the system across the system. This is needed in the EKXL code as a parameter in the basic code algorithm relating electron edge densities at successive time increments within each time interval computation. The time intervals are those periods over which the succession of linked steady- state solutions are obtained for...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bussard, Robert W, ENERGY/MATTER CONVERSION CORP MANASSAS VA, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

This report summarizes the research that was carried out under the Joint Services Electronics Program at the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, during the period April 1, 1987, through March 31, 1988. The current JSEP contract that began on October 1, 1986, contains 22 work units (Unit 3 of the new contract was withdrawn and Unit 6 has been replaced by Unit 24). In all, there are 9 units in Physical Electronics, 2 units in Electromagnetics, 10 units in...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Jenkins, William K, ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATED SCIENCE LAB, *ELECTRONICS,...

Magnetospheric effects associated with variations of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field are examined in light of recent recent experimental and theoretical results. Although the occurrence of magnetospheric substorms is statistically related to periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field, the details of the interaction are not understood. In particular, attempts to separate effects resulting directly from the interaction between the interplanetary and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH MAGNETOSPHERE, GEOMAGNETISM, INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC...

While it is common knowledge that ion beams are easily neutralized for both current and charge density using a variety of means, the precise process of neutralization remains unknown. With the increasing importance of electric propulsion, and in particular micropropulsion systems, this question is of significant importance. Additionally, it has bearing on thruster design, space instrument calibration, electrodynamic tethers, and ionospheric research. A review of the present state of knowledge...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Wheelock, Adrian, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB HANSCOM AFB MA SPACE VEHICLES DIRECTORATE,...

The stability of electric charge adsorbed on a fused quartz surface has been studied. In particular, the effects of electric field strength, radiation, and ambient gas pressure have been investigated. It is found that transfer to or from the surface of sufficient charge to neutralize an external electric field occurs readily under ultraviolet radiation. Evidence is presented that changes in surface charge in the presence of a gas ambient occur when the electric field at the surface exceeds the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Baird,D H, GTE LABS INC WALTHAM MASS, *QUARTZ, *CHARGE TRANSFER, ULTRAVIOLET...

Most cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning lowers negative charge to ground, but roughly 10% of flashes are reversed and transfer positive charge to ground. A small number of storms produce predominately (greater than 50%) positive CG lightning, and recent studies have associated the occurrence of tornadoes, hail, and microbursts with these positive storms. Much of this work has been centered on case studies. The use of case studies, however, is limited; the nature of case selection is subjective and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cabosky, Steven R, COLORADO STATE UNIV FORT COLLINS, *LIGHTNING, *THUNDERSTORMS,...

Studies of the collective excitation of two spatially separated electron and hole layers in strong magnetic fields indicate that the system undergoes a phase transition when the layer separation is larger than a critical value. Using the Hartree-Fock approximation, we find that this transition generates a novel excitonic density wave state, which has a lower energy than either a homogenous exciton fluid or a double charge-density wave state. The order parameters of the state satisfy a sum rule...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Chen, X M, TENNESSEE UNIV KNOXVILLE DEPT OF PHYSICS, *MAGNETIC FIELDS,...

The much-debated electronic structure of para-substituted nitrobenzene us studied by means of fully optimized geometric analysis of variously substituted nitrobenzenes in which the electronic character of the investigation concerns the electronic effects of Hammett sigma values. The investigation concerns the electronic effects of substituent to ring conjugation on six parameters: barrier to rotation of the NO2 group, C-N bond length, ring C-C bond lengths and substituent to ring bond lengths,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Barney, James R, NAVAL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS MD, *NITROBENZENES, NITRO RADICALS, SPECTRA,...

A combined molecular beam-mass spectrometer system has been used to detect the presence of stable ion clusters. It has been found that relative metastable peak intensities provide the best indication of stability, and this is supported by results from the study of water and argon ion clusters. Some preliminary results on an experimental and theoretical study of doubly charged water clusters are also presented and discussed. In particular, it is suggested that the water molecules in these...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Stace,Anthony J, SOUTHAMPTON UNIV (ENGLAND) DEPT OF CHEMISTRY, *Atmospheric...

A theoretical study of the possibility of finite momentum pairing in one- and two-dimensional superconductors was carried out. When the effects of zero momentum pairing, finite momentum pairing, and a charge density wave were simultaneously considered for a one-dimensional system, it was found that the relative phases of the complex gap parameters for each of the three types of order were important. The resulting energy gap was obtained, and the nature of the ground state was examined and found...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Allender,D W, KENT STATE UNIV OHIO, *Superconductors, *Metastable state,...

We have studied the properties of semiconductor heterojunctions using several novel analytical and experimental techniques. A new, and highly accurate means for measuring the properties of heterojunctions has been demonstrated, where the measurements of the band offset energies can be made even in the presence of high densities of interface charge. The techniques developed have been applied to study both InGaAs/InP as well as HgCdTe/CdTe heterojunctions, affording the most accurate measurements...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Forrest, Stephen R, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES, *DENSITY,...

Airborne electric field sensing and computing systems have been developed and flown on C-130, F-100F, RF4C, and U-2 aircraft for studies of shower, cloud, and thunderstorm charge centers. Examples are given of the proper separation of field components and aircraft charge during thunderstorm penetrations and during direct lightning strikes to the test aircraft. Techniques have been employed for roll compensation of the aircraft-fixed field components so that real-time vector displays indicating...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Fitzgerald,Donald R, AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LAB HANSCOM AFB MASS, *ATMOSPHERIC...

Auger line shape measurements have been made to extract the variation in the local charge distribution around Ga and As sites for chemisorption of oxygen on cleaved and sputter-etched GaAs(110). A significant variation with changing O coverage is observed in the Ga spectrum, with a much more subtle change in the As spectrum. Conclusions on the nature of the bonding and on the mechanism for adsorption at both low and high coverages are drawn from these spectra.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Childs,K D, WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON, *Semiconductors, *Gallium arsenides,...

The object of this research is to analyze the surface current and charge density induced on a finite cylinder situated above perfectly conducting ground plane due to an incident plane wave. This geometry can be used to investigate the mechanisms involved in problems such as a plane wave incident upon a parked aircraft and other similar problems. The Geometrical Theory of Diffraction is the method used to analyze this problem. The GTD solution is first applied to a two dimensional waveguide...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Greer,E D, OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS ELECTROSCIENCE LAB, *ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION,...

The use of surface-barrier diodes (also known as metal semiconductor and Schottky diodes) on GaAs is considered. As an experimental vehicle for the measurement of impurity densities, surface barrier diodes have been used to map the impurity profile in epitaxial GaAs films. Films produced by three substantially different processes have been examined and the results are shown. Employed as varactors, surface-barrier diodes on epitaxial GaAs are expected to exhibit cut-off frequencies slightly...

Topics: DTIC Archive, D'Asaro, L A, BELL TELEPHONE LABS INC NEW YORK, *VARACTOR DIODES, FREQUENCY,...