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International Journal of Human Resource 
Management and Research (IJHRMR) 

ISSN (P): 2249-6874; ISSN (E): 2249-7986 
Vol. 10, Issue 1, Feb 2020, 65-72 
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. 

ROLE OF WORK PLACE POLITICS IN EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE - WITH 
REFERENCE TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR 

GOWTHAM RAMKUMAR 

Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce (Aided), Madras Christian College, East Tambaram, 

Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India 

ABSTRACT 

The achievement of organizational objectives depends on employee performance. The performance of employees is 
dependent on many factors. While organization takes utmost efforts in motivating employees to make them achieve 
desired performance, a significant factor which impacts employee both physically and mentally is power and politics. The 
political behavior of organization and even employees themselves can hinder the growth of the organization. Power and 
politics can create an unhealthy work environment. An unhappy work environment can demotivate employees to perform 
their job and affect employee’s productivity. While positive political behavior can bring in good results, often 
organizations face adverse consequences due to political behavior among its employees. Power and politics make it 
difficult for organization to achieve employee retention. This research study seeks to study the impact of work place 
politics on employee performance and arrives at a meaningful conclusion which can be used as basis for further research 
in these areas. 

KEYWORDS: Work Place Politics, Employee Performance, Employee Retention & Organizational Objectives 

Received: Oct 21, 2019; Accepted: Nov 11, 2019; Published: Jan 22, 2020; Paper Id.: 1JHRMRFEB202010 

INTRODUCTION 

Power elements in organizations identify with political substances of intensity obtaining organizations and the 
particular political method in power securing. One point of view of political conduct is, enormous organizations 
resemble governments, as they are on a very basic level of political substances. Political conduct in the organization 
alludes to those exercises not required by one's formal job definition in the organizations. Political viewpoint of 
association leaves from the old style hopeful, discerning association. Four hypothesizes of intensity by Walter Nod 
center around political substances in the association. One, associations are made out of contending alliances. 
Second, different alliances look to ensure their interests and positions. Third, inconsistent power circulation has 
dehumanizing impact. Fourth, practicing power inside association. 

Hierarchical individuals embrace various methodologies to obtain control. Durkin recommended 
methodologies recorded underneath assistance to increase further bits of knowledge into power and legislative 
issues in the associations. 

• Keep up union with influential individuals - Alliances with individuals from other significant offices or of 
top administration or with manager's secretary or staff aide are basic to obtaining of intensity. 

• Grasp or Demolish - The controlling Machiavellian rule is that ranking directors in the assumed control 
over firms ought to be invited and supported or sacked. To make them feeble it is smarter to sack them 



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Gowtham Ramkumar 


than to minimize them. Whenever downsized, they join and battle back. 

• Partition and Rule - This is a well known methodology dependent on the suspicion however outlandish, that 
people separated will not themselves structure alliance. 

• Control characterized data Organizational individuals skilled in governmental issues control data in order to pick 
up power. 

• Make a snappy appearing - Looking great on some venture or assignment directly toward the start is to stand out 
enough to be noticed. When this positive consideration is picked up, control is procured to accomplish 
progressively troublesome and long-extend ventures. 

• Gather and Use IOUs - Do favors to others with clear understanding that they should pay consequently when 
inquired. 

• Keep away from definitive commitment - Also called Fabianism: Be moderate, yet sure to wind up dug in and 
gain collaboration and trust of others. 

• Advancement slowly and carefully - One little change can be a dependable balance for power searcher to utilize it 
as a premise to get other real things achieved. 

• Hang tight for an emergency - It depends on the supposition that things must deteriorate before they turn better. 
Emergency conditions bring more assets that encourage holding over emergency. 

• Consult Caution - This identifies with how to hold control instead of how to obtain it. For instance, remedies like 
participative administration and strengthening are to be taken with alert as they dissolve the power base of 
administrators. 

Thus from the above theoretical foundation it is clear that how power contributes to political behavior in the 
organizations. With this background, this paper seeks to study the relationship between politics and employee performance. 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

Salimaki and Jamsen (2010) found that perceptions of politics and fairness distinctively and interactively predicted whether 
the pay system was perceived as effective in achieving its objectives. The results of them also suggested that some forms of 
politics in performance appraisals (e.g. compression) might be perceived less detrimental than others (e.g. favoritism). 

Vigoda-Gadot and Meisler (2010) supported a moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship 
between organizational politics and emotional commitment, as well as between organizational politics and employees’ 
absenteeism. 

Chang et al. (2009) tested a model that links perceptions of organizational politics to job performance and 
“turnover intentions” (intentions to quit). Meta-analytic evidence supported significant, bivariate relationships 
between perceived politics and strain (0.48), turnover intentions (0.43), job satisfaction (20.57), affective 
commitment (20.54), task performance (20.20), and organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (20.16) 
and organizations (20.20). Additionally, results demonstrated that work attitudes mediated the effects of perceived 
politics on employee turnover intentions and that both attitudes and strain mediated the effects of perceived politics 


Impact Factor (JCC): 7.9089 


NAAS Rating: 3.38 



Role of Work Place Politics in Employee Performance - With 67 

Reference to Information Technology Sector 

on performance. Finally, from their findings exploratory analyses provided evidence that perceived politics represent 
a unique hindrance stressor. 

Chen and Fang (2008) investigated the complexities in the relationship between perceptions of organizational 
politics and performance ratings by examining the moderating effect of impression management on that relationship. 
Expectancy theory was employed to better understand the moderating effect. They proposed that two kinds of impression 
management tactics occurred: supervisor-focused and job-focused, respectively. Hierarchical moderated regression 
analysis of data revealed that the job-focused tactics exerted a significant moderating effect on the relationship between 
perceptions of organizational politics and performance ratings. When perceptions of organizational politics are low, 
employees who engage in high levels of job-focused impression management tactics are more likely to gain better ratings 
than those who employ low-level tactics (Chen and Fang, 2008). 

Nurse (2005) results confirmed the hypothesis that workers who believed that performers were not treated fairly 
as a result of performance appraisal would also agree that their expectations regarding development and advancement were 
not being met. We found significant, but relatively moderate relationships between perceptions about treatment of 
performers and their expectations about career advancement. 

Objectives of the Study 

The objectives of the study are as follows 

• To understand the employees perception about organizational politics. 

• To understand the employee perceptions about employee performance 

• To analyze cause and effect relationship between work place politics and employee performance 

• To offer suggestions on improving work environment. 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

The data required for this study is collected from both primary and secondary sources. 

Type of Research 

This research study is a quantitative research study. A quantitative research study is a study where a problem which is 
being studied by the researcher is supported by generating data which can be later converted into usable statistics giving 
meaningful conclusion. 

Sources of Data 
Primary Data 

Primary sources are the sources that are collected originally rather than being already made available. The data obtained 
from these sources are called primary data. The primary data for the study is collected through survey method using 
structured questionnaire. The primary data often is available in raw form which is then processed to make itself suitable for 
further analysis to arrive at meaningful conclusion. 

Secondary Data 

The secondary sources represent those data made available in a suitable form to lend itself for further analysis. Often they 


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Gowtham Ramkumar 


do not require any processing and can be used for analysis purpose. The Secondary data for the research is collected 
through journals, magazines and books relating to economic effects of taxes on the economy. 

Sampling Design 
Sample Size 

The sample size for the study is 100 respondents from Chennai city. The sample size for the study is arrived through G- 
power statistics 3.1 software which helps in determining the sample size based on the analytical tool used for the study. 

Sampling Technique 

This research study is based on simple random sampling method. This sampling technique gives each element an equal and 
independence chance of being selected rather than pre-determining the samples to be selected. 

Sampling Unit 

The sampling unit for the study is the employees of Information Technology sector in Chennai. Therefore, other sector 
employees do not represent the sampling unit for the study. 

Statistical Design 

The analysis for this study has been carried out through IBM SPSS Version 22 Software. The analytical tool used for the 
study were descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 


Table 1: Employee Perception towards Organizational Factors Contributing 
to Political Behavior in Work Place 


Descriptive Statistics 


N 

Minimum 

Maximum 

Mean 

Std. Deviation 

There is lack of promotion opportunities in the 
organizations 

100 

1.00 

5.00 

4.7500 

1.00000 

Level of trust in organization is low 

100 

1.00 

5.00 

3.5625 

1.63172 

There is lack of role clarity among employees in 
organization 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

4.3125 

.94648 

There is a centralized decision making more of an 
autocratic nature 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

4.3750 

.95743 

Management supports/ignores political behaviors 
of employees 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

4.5000 

.73030 

Valid N (listwise) 

100 






Interpretation 

Table 1 reveals the employee’s perceptions towards organizational factors contributing to political behavior in work place. 
From the above table it is clear that lack of promotion opportunities is the major factor which triggers political behavior in 
the work place. It is indicated by the highest mean score of 4.75. Followed by it, management either supporting or ignoring 
political behavior of employees is the second most factor influencing political behavior in organizations. It is supported by 
a mean score of 4.50. The other factors encouraging political behavior are lack of role clarity, centralized decision making 
and low level of trust among employees in the organization. The same is supported by mean scores of 4.3125, 4.3750 and 
3.5625 respectively. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 7.9089 


NAAS Rating: 3.38 




Role of Work Place Politics in Employee Performance - With 
Reference to Information Technology Sector 


69 


Table 2: Employee Perception towards Individual Factors Contributing to 
Political Behaviour in Work Place 


Descriptive Statistics 


N 

Minimum 

Maximum 

Mean 

Std. Deviation 

People with high need for power engagement in political 
behavior. 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

4.3125 

1.01448 

Individuals with internal locus of control exhibit high 
political behavior 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

3.6250 

.80623 

High performance measures creates political behavior 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

4.0000 

.81650 

Low success rate pushes an individual towards political 
behavior 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

3.9375 

.77190 

Perceived job alternatives allows individuals to engage in 
political behavior 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

3.8125 

.83417 

Valid N (listwise) 

100 






Interpretation 

Table 2 displays the employee perceptions towards organizational factors contributing to political behavior in work place. 
From the above table it is clear that people’s need for power is the major factor which triggers political behavior in work 
place. It is indicated by the highest mean score of 4.3125. Followed by it, high performance measures is the second most 
factor influencing political behavior in organizations. It is supported by a mean score of 4.00. The other factors 
encouraging political behavior are low success rate, perceived job alternatives and internal locus of control among 
employees in the organization. The same is supported by mean scores of 3.9375, 3.8125 and 3.6250 respectively. 


Table 3: Employee Perception towards Organizational Factors Affecting 
Productivity/Performance in Organization 


Descriptive Statistics 


N 

Minimum 

Maximum 

Mean 

Std. Deviation 

Downsizing Strategies by the Company 

100 

1.00 

5.00 

4.0000 

1.15470 

Organization’s Culture 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

3.8750 

.80623 

lob Design 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

4.1250 

.80623 

Resource Allocation 

100 

1.00 

5.00 

3.8125 

1.10868 

Valid N (listwise) 

100 






Interpretation 

Table 3 reveals the employee perceptions towards organization factors contributing to employee performance in work 
place. From the above table it is clear that Job Design is the major factor which contributes to employee performance. It is 
indicated by the highest mean score of 4.125. Followed by it. Downsizing strategies followed by organization is the second 
most factor influencing employee in organizations. It is supported by a mean score of 4.00. The other organizational factors 
contributing to employee performance are the organization’s culture and Resource allocation by organizations among 
employees in the organization. The same is supported by mean scores of 3.875 and 3.815 respectively. 


Table 4: Employee Perception on Managerial factors Affecting your 
Productivity/Performance in Organization 


Descriptive Statistics 


N 

Minimum 

Maximum 

Mean 

Std. Deviation 

Management Style 

100 

1.00 

5.00 

4.1250 

1.14746 

Organization’s commitment towards employee 

100 

1.00 

5.00 

3.5000 

.89443 

Performance Appraisal System 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

3.7500 

1.18322 

Career Development Opportunities by organization 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

3.6250 

.80623 

Valid N (listwise) 

100 






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Interpretation 

Table 4 reveals employee perceptions towards managerial factors contributing to employee performance in work place. 
From the above table it is clear that management style is the major factor which triggers political behavior in work place. It 
is indicated by the highest mean score of 4.125. Followed by it, performance appraisal system followed by organization is 
the second most factor influencing political behavior in organizations. It is supported by a mean score of 3.75. The other 
organizational factors contributing to employee performance are organizational commitment and career development 
opportunities by organizations among employees in the organization. The same is supported by mean scores of 3.500 and 
3.625 respectively. 


Table 5: Employee Perception on Individual Factors Affecting one’s 
Productivity/Performance in Organization 


Descriptive Statistics 


N 

Minimum 

Maximum 

Mean 

Std. Deviation 

Knowledge, Skills and Attitude of Employees 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

4.3750 

1.02470 

Work Life Balance 

100 

2.00 

4.00 

3.5625 

.62915 

Personal problems of Employees 

100 

2.00 

5.00 

3.7500 

.93095 

Personal Motivation and Commitment 

100 

3.00 

5.00 

3.6250 

.61914 

Valid N (listwise) 

100 






Interpretation 

Table 5 reveals the employee perceptions towards organizational factors contributing to employee performance in work 
place. From the above table it is clear that management style is the major factor which triggers political behavior in work 
place. It is indicated by the highest mean score of 4.125. Followed by it, performance appraisal system followed by 
organization is the second most factor influencing political behavior in organizations. It is supported by a mean score of 
3.75. The other organizational factors contributing to employee performance are organizational commitment and career 
development opportunities by organizations among employees in the organization. The same is supported by mean scores 
of 3.500 and 3.625 respectively. 

HYPOTHESIS 1 

H 0 - There is no significant relationship between workplace politics and employee performance. 

11 j - There is a significant relationship between workplace politics and employee performance. 

Table 6: The Model Summary 


Model Summary 5 

Model 

R 

R Square 

Adjusted R 
Square 

Std. Error of 
the Estimate 

Change Statistics 

Durbin-Watson 

R Square 
Change 

F Change 

Sig. F Change 

1 

.392 a 

.154 

.093 

3.88565 

.154 

2.542 

.133 

1.710 


a. Predictors: (Constant), Workplace politics 

b. Dependent Variable: Employee performance 


Table 6 reveals the results of the regression analysis to study the cause and effect relationship between work 
place politics and employee performance. The Employee performance is considered as the dependent variable and 
work place politics is considered as the independent variable. From the above table, it is clear that work place politics 
alone does not significantly determines employee performance. This is indicated by p-value of 0.133 indicating lower 


Impact Factor (JCC): 7.9089 


NAAS Rating: 3.38 





Role of Work Place Politics in Employee Performance - With 71 

Reference to Information Technology Sector 

level of significance acceptable at 1% level. It is also supported by the R square change which is 0.154, indicating 
that 15.4% of the variation in the employee performance is indicated by work place politics. Similarly, Durbin- 
Watson value is 1.710, which is more than 1 and not greater than 3, also supports this regression model. Factor R of 
multiple cross correlation of 39.2% indicate high cross correlation which is lesser than acceptable significance level. 


Table 6.1: The ANOYA 


ANOVA 3 

Model 

Sum of Squares 

df 

Mean Square 

F 

Sig. 

1 

Regression 

38.375 

1 

38.375 

2.542 

.133 b 

Residual 

211.375 

14 

15.098 



Total 

249.750 

15 





a. Dependent Variable: Employee performance 

b. Predictors: (Constant), Workplace politics 


Interpretation 

Table 6.1 reveals the results of ANOVA. The hypothesis is further tested by ANOVA table. Since the computed p-value 
0.133 is greater than the acceptable significance value of 0.01, it is concluded that work place politics has no significant 
influence in determining employee performance. Thus the alternate hypothesis is rejected and null hypothesis is accepted. 


Table 6.2: The Coefficients Table 


Coefficients 3 

Model 

Unstandardized Coefficients 

Standardized 

Coefficients 

t 

Sig. 

B 

Std. Error 

Beta 

1 

(Constant) 

32.573 

8.556 


3.807 

.002 

Work place politics 

.329 

.206 

.392 

1.594 

.133 


a. Dependent Variable: Employee performance 


Interpretation 

Table 6.2 reveals the co-efficient table of the regression analysis. From the above table, regression equation can be derived 

Y = 32.90 + 0.329X! 

Y is the Employee performance and X, work place politics. Thus based on the beta scores, it is clear that work 
place politics have positive relationship with employee performance. Thus it is clear that work place politics is influencing 
employee performance but less significant compared to other factors affecting employee performance. From the above 
table it is clear that work place politics influences employee performance with 32.9%. 

CONCLUSIONS 

From the results and discussions it is clear that, work place politics impacts employee performance but less significant in 
determining the success of the employee. It is also that management style, people’s need for power, lack of promotion 
opportunities contributes to the political behavior in the organization. Political behavior can emotionally influence the 
employee. Freshers will really find it difficult to tackle the political behaviours of the colleagues. Work place politics 
should be kept at the lowest level in order to enable the organization to achieve better results. 

SUGGESTIONS 

• Management should not encourage political intentions of the employees. 


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Gowtham Ramkumar 


• Performance Appraisal and Career Development policies have to be clearly communicated by the employees. 

• Senior employees should provide necessary support to junior employees. 

REFERENCES 

1. Chang, C.-H., Rosen, C. and Levy, P. (2009), “The relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employee 
attitudes, strain, and behavior: a meta-analytic examination ’ Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 52 No. 4, pp. 779-801. 

2. Salimaki, A. and Jamsen, S. (2010), “Perceptions of politics and fairness in merit pay’’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 
Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 229-51. 

3. Tyagi, R. Validation of employee’s trust in leader’s scale in Indian IT sector. 

4. Vigoda-Gadot, E. and Meisler, G. (2010), “Emotions in management and the management of emotions: the impact of 
emotional intelligence and organizational politics on public sector employees”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 70 No. 1, 
pp. 72-86. 

5. Nurse, L. (2005), “Performance appraisal, employee development and organizational justice: exploring the linkages”. 
International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 16 No. 7, pp. 1176-94. 

6. Sreedevi, A. A study on employees perception towards work environment and inter-personnel relationship. 

7. Menaria, S., & Shankar Chaudhary, A. (2017). Study on Work Life Balance of Moonlight Women Employees in IT Sector in 
Pune Region. International Journal of Business and General Management (IJBGM), 6(5), 71-76. 

8. Chen, Y.-Y. and Fang, W. (2008), “The moderating effect of impression management on the organizational politics- 
performance relationship”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 79 No. 3, pp. 263-77. 

AUTHOR PROFILE 



Mr. Gowtham Ramkumar, is a part time Research Scholar at SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 
Chennai. He also works as Assistant Professor in the Department of Commerce (Aided), Madras Christian College where 
he pursed his both Under graduation and Post-Graduation. His area of research interest includes Taxation, Accounting & 
Finance and Management. He has received two best paper awards in both the national conferences in which he had 
presented papers. He also serves as reviewer of notable national and international journals. Further, he is also a life 
member of many research promoting and academic organizations. As a young faculty and research scholar, he has 6 
citations to his profile and published around 30 papers in national journals. He is also providing statistical assistance for 
data analysis using SPSS and AMOS. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 7.9089 


NAAS Rating: 3.38