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H CENSUS ■ 1996 ■ RECENSEMENT 



Catalogue 92N0064XPE 



Questionnaire Content 

1 996 Census of Population 



S.AT!3TICS STATISTIOUE 
CANAUA CANADA 



OCT J 8 1996 



LIBRARY 
B I B L I O T H fe Q U E 




M Statistics Slalistique 
Canada Canada 



Questionnaire Content 

1996 Census of Population 



STATISTICS 
CANADA 



STATISTiOUE 
CANADA 



OCT 18 1996 



Lt BR AnV 
D ® IL II O T M fe Q U E 



"19. (1) A census of. population of Canada shall be taken by Statistics Canada in the month of June 
in the year 1971, and every fifth year thereafter in a month to be fixed by the Governor in Council." 

Statistics Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. S-19 



1996 Census Content Determination Project 

March 1996 



Acknowledgements 



The 1996 Census Content Determination Project at Statistics Canada would like to thank the following 

people for their contributions to this document: Rosalie Bambrick, Anne Gervais, Willa Rea, 

Patricia Schembari, and the subject-matter specialists at Statistics Canada. 



Table of Contents 

Page 



Introduction 



Basic Census and Coverage Questions 2 

Coverage Questions 3 

Postal Code 5 

Name 7 

Relationship to Person 1 10 

Date of Birth 13 

Sex 16 

Marital Status 18 

Common-law Status 20 

Activity Limitations 22 

Activity Limitations 23 

Long-term Disability 23 

Language 26 

Knowledge of English and French 27 

Knowledge of Other Language(s) 30 

Language Spoken at Home 33 

First Language Learned at Home 36 

Citizenship and Immigration 39 

Place of Birth 40 

Citizenship 43 

Landed Immigrant Status 46 

Year of Immigration 46 

Ethnic Origin 49 

Ethnic Origin 50 

Population Group 50 

Aboriginal Peoples 54 

Indian Band/First Nation Membership 54 

Registered Indian 54 

Mobility 58 

Place of Residence One Year Ago 59 

Place of Residence Five Years Ago 59 

Education 63 

Highest Level of Elementary or Secondary Schooling 64 

Years of Schooling (University) 64 

Years of Schooling (Other) 64 

School Attendance 64 

Degrees, Certificates and Diplomas 67 

Field of Specialization ". 67 



(vi) 

Table of Contents (Continued) 

Page 

Household Activities 70 

Unpaid Activities 71 

Labour Market Activities 74 

Hours Worked for Pay or Profit 75 

Absence from Job 75 

New Job Arrangements 75 

Recent Job Search 75 

Availability for Work 75 

Last Date of Work 78 

Class of Worker 80 

Incorporation Status 80 

Weeks Worked in 1995 83 

Full-time or Part-time Work 83 

Industry 85 

Name of Employer 86 

Kind of Business 86 

Occupation 88 

Kind of Work 89 

Most Important Duties 89 

Place of Work 92 

Place of Work ■ . 93 

Mode of Transportation 96 

Transportation to Work 97 

Income 99 

Income in 1995 ... 100 

Dwellings 1 04 

Household Maintainer(s) 105 

Owned or Rented 107 

Number of Rooms and Bedrooms 109 

Period of Construction Ill 

Need for Repairs 113 

Yearly Payments 115 

Shelter Costs - Renter ...;.... 115 

Shelter Costs - Owner 115 

Appendices 119. 

Appendix I - Abbreviations Used for Federal Government Departmen 1 20 



(vii) 

Table of Contents (Concluded) 

Page 

Appendix 2 - Statutory References to the Census 121 

A. Constitutional Law 121 

B. Historical Antecedents to the Statistics Act (R.S.C. 1985) 122 

C. Other Federal Statutes 123 

D. Provincial Statutes 125 



Introduction 



This document presents the questions included in the 1996 Census of Population and the reasons for 
their inclusion. 

The 1996 Census questions are grouped by topic. In some cases, questions are considered together, 
since the reasons these questions are asked, and the uses to which the information is put, are closely 
related. 

Information given in this document under "Selected Major Users" and "Legislative and Program 
Requirements" is based on written submissions received by Statistics Canada during the 1996 Census 
content consultation and input from in-house subject-matter specialists. 

The eventual user and program universe for data from individual questions is much larger but space 
does not permit the inclusion of all data users and requirements. 

For each question, or group of questions, the following are shown: 

1 . Selected Major Users 

2. Target Groups 

• Those sub-groups of the Canadian population uniquely identified by the question, e.g. , children 
are identified from the date of birth question. 

• Those sub-groups of the Canadian population around whom issues have arisen that are likely 
to be the subject of government policy and for whom the question can contribute information, 
e.g., children living in poverty. 

3. Legislative and Program Requirements 

• Refers to the legislation and program requirements in force when the 1996 Census of 
Population questions were published in the Canada Gazette (August 12, 1995). 

4. Purpose 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

1 



Basic Census and Coverage Questions 



"Let me emphasize that census population counts as well as 
the estimates of coverage error are very important to Finance 
Canada because they have major effects on federal transfers 
to provinces." 
Finance Canada 

"Demographic Characteristics - Our view is that the census 
content... contains sufficient depth and diversity to map the 
critically important trends." 
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

"The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the overall 

population totals is useful to us and we would like to see its 

continuation in 1996." 

Greater Vancouver Regional District, Strategic Planning 

Department 

"The inclusion of postal codes in the 2A database in addition 
to the 2B database would avoid having to resort to indirect 
and costly auxiliary conversion files and would allow us to 
provide a broader service to our clients right from the start. " 
Quebec Bureau of Statistics 

"Information technology is making it much easier to analyse 
administrative databases for policy and planning purposes. 
The standard geographic identifier for most population 
databases is the postal code. The collection of census 
information with the inclusion of the postal code would 
provide our government officials the opportunity to obtain 
statistical reports where the matching of geographies from 
our databases and the census would have a higher degree of 
accuracy. This would greatly enhance the quality of the 
analyses required to identify the needs of our population in 
the most cost effective manner. " 
New Brunswick Statistics Agency 



Coverage Questions 



STEP 1 
STEP 2 

STEP 3 

STEP 4 



STEPS 

STEP 6 
STEP? 



Begin here by printing your address 

List below all persons who usually live here as of May 14, 1996, even if they are 
temporarily away on business, at school or on vacation. 

Did you leave anyone out of Step 2 because you were not sure the person should 
be listed? 

Are ALL PERSONS in this household: government representatives of another 
country and their families; or members of the Armed Forces of another country 
and their families; or residents of another country visiting Canada, for example, 
on a business trip or on vacation? 

If ALL PERSONS in this household are staying here temporarily and have a usual 
home somewhere else in Canada, enter the total number of persons in this box. 
Do not complete this questionnaire. Mail it in the enclosed postage-paid envelope. 

Does anyone in this household OPERATE an agricultural operation? 

In Question 1 on the next page, copy the names from Step 2. 



Selected Major Users 

Not applicable 

Target Groups 

Not applicable 

Legislative and Program Requirements 

Not applicable 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Cen.su,s oC Population 

3 



Purpose 

These steps are coverage questions designed to ensure that all usual residents of Canada are enumerated 
in their usual residence during the 1996 Census and to ensure that foreign residents are not enumerated. 
The term "usual resident of Canada" includes Canadian citizens, landed immigrants and people who hold 
a student or employment authorization, a Minister's permit or who are refugee claimants, and who have 
a usual residence in Canada. The Canadian census also enumerates Canadian military and diplomatic 
personnel living outside Canada. 

The address is required so that Statistics Canada may ensure that each household is counted once and only 
once. The telephone number is used to contact a respondent if there is missing information on the census 
questionnaire. The postal code is discussed below in its own section. 

The question regarding the operation of a farm, ranch or other agricultural holding is a screening 
question, not a coverage question, designed to identify all agricultural operators, including those living 
in towns or in other urban centres, so that they can be included in the concurrent Census of Agriculture. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
4 



STEPl 



Postal Code 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Newfoundland 
Nova Scotia 
New Brunswick 
Quebec 
British Columbia 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Bibliothfeque de I'Universite Laval 

Compusearch 

Department of Family Studies, University of Manitoba 

Edmonton, City of 

Moncton, City of 

Ontario Regional Information Systems Working Group 

Richmond, City of 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 

Target Groups 

Not applicable 

Legislative and Program Requirements 

Not applicable 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

5 



Purpose 

The 1996 Census is the first time that the postal code is captured from all Canadian households. 
(Previously, it was only captured from 20% of households.) 

Possible benefits of the capture of the postal code from all the census questionnaires include: a more 
accurate Postal Code Conversion File (a file that links census geography with the postal code); better 
integration of census data with clients' data sets; more timely release of postal-code-based data; and, 
generally, improved relevance of census data to the needs of data users. 

The spectrum of users of postal-code-based data, already diverse, is continuing to expand. Government 
agencies at all levels use the postal code for activities such as linking administrative data files to the 
census database. The private sector uses census data by postal code to conduct analysis that identifies 
clients and markets. Cross-tabulating census data by postal codes is another way to present and 
disseminate census data. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
6 



Question 1 Name 

In the spaces provided, copy the names in the same order as in Step 2. 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Elections Canada 

Emergency Preparedness Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

National Advisory Council on Aging 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Solicitor General Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Transport Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Many municipalities and organizations 

Target Groups 

Not applicable 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

7 



Legislative Requirements 



Canada Council Act 

Canada Elections Act 

Canada Health Act 

Canada Pension Plan Act 

Canada Student Loans Act 

Constitution Act 

Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act 

Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Federal Post-Secondary 

Education and Health Contributions Act 
Railway Relocation and Crossing Act 



Purpose 

Although this question requires the respondent to provide personal names (also obtained in Step 2 and 
Step 3), this information is only requested to ensure that each person is counted once and only once, and 
is kept confidential. To ensure confidentiality, personal names are not entered into the census 
database. 

This question, together with the coverage questions, provides the basic data necessary to generate 
population counts for the nation, provinces, and smaller geographic areas such as municipalities, towns, 
villages, and Indian reserves. These counts provide an essential benchmark used to recalibrate the 
intercensal population estimates. 

Population counts and estimates play a vital role under the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and 
Federal Post-Secondary Education and Health Contributions Act in determining the amounts of federal- 
provincial/territorial transfers. Population data are also required under various other federal statutes to 
determine transfers, allocate funds among provinces/territories, or direct program funds to communities 
of specific sizes. 

Provincial governments also employ census population counts in determining transfers to regional and 
municipal governments, school boards and other local agencies. 

Since interprovincial and intraprovincial migration estimates derived from administrative files are more 
subject to error than other components of population growth, population estimates between censuses are 
affected and so, consequently, are annual intergovernmental transfer programs and the allocation of other 
funds to provinces and territories. It is therefore important to rebase population estimates at five-year 
intervals using data provided from this question. 

Population counts by small areas are also required for electoral boundary adjustments and electoral 
planning at all levels of government. Federally, the Constitution Act (formerly the British North America 
Act) and the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act require population counts for the purposes of defining 
federal electoral districts (FEDs). Population data are also required by the Chief Electoral Officer in 
order to determine costs associated with the holding of federal elections and related activities under the 
Canada Elections Act. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

8 



Statistics Canada, other federal departments, other levels of government and private sector survey-taking 
firms require census population counts, often together with other census socio-economic and demographic 
characteristics in order to design, stratify and weight their sample surveys and to interpret their results. 
The accuracy of survey results depends on correct and reliahle data about basic characteristics of the 
population typically obtained from the most recent census. 

Administrative information, an increasingly important data source, is also evaluated and benchmarked 
by reference to census data. 

Census results are also used to locate populations with specific characteristics (Aboriginal people, persons 
with disabilities, etc.) in order to carry out more detailed sample surveys of specific designated groups. 

The decision-making activities of private and crown corporations require information about population 
distributions. Questions such as where to locate a transmitting antenna for a radio station, whether to 
open a department store in a specific area, or the viability of air transport to a given locality are often 
answered by reference to basic census data in conjunction with other census variables. The quality of 
these answers will depend on the availability of current and accurate statistical information. 

The Canada Pension Plan Act and other federal pension legislation permit census records to be submitted 
as proof of age for those citizens otherwise unable to demonstrate their admissibility to these programs. 
Regular censuses will therefore facilitate access to pensions in the future. 

Answers obtained from Question 1 are also required by Statistics Canada in order to conduct its 
investigation of undercoverage of census population counts through the reverse record check procedure. 

Detailed population counts for small areas are also required for such activities as providing postal service, 
emergency planning, choosing sites for airports, and locating descent paths as well as for land use studies. 

Between 1951 and 1986, censuses have shown that the rate of population growth in Canada has declined, 
reaching an all-time low of 4.0% during 1981-86. However, the trend was reversed 
during 1986-91 when Canada's population increased by 7.9%. Also over the 1986-91 period, British 
Columbia retained its status as Canada's fastest growing province, exhibiting a population increase 
of 13.8%, whereas Saskatchewan experienced a loss of 2.0%. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

9 



Question 2 Relationship to Person 1 

For each person usually living here, describe his/her relationship to Person 1. 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Departement de demographie, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Family Studies, University of Manitoba 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 

Edmonton, City of 

Haldimand-Norfolk, Regional Municipality of 

Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Universite du Quebec 

Laval, Ville de 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Montreal, Ville de 

Regina, City of 

Richmond City of 

The December 9 Coalition 

Toronto City, of 

Vancouver, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
10 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• households, 

• economic families, 

• census families, 

• unattached individuals. 

This question provides an important characteristic for analysis of issues affecting: 

• women, 

• seniors, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• immigrants, 

• lone-parent families, 

• low income families. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD)* 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Child Tax Benefit (HRD/RC) 

Co-operative and Non-Profit Housing (CMHC) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

National Child Care Information Centre (HRD) 

National Housing Act 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Population, Household and Family Estimates Program (STC) 

Population, Household and Family Projections Program (STC) 

Spouse's Allowance (HRD) 

Women's Program (SWC) 



Purpose 

The purpose of this question is to permit the identification of census and economic families, through the 
application of standard definitions to the reported relationships and other characteristics, and, in general, 
to permit the analysis of the living arrangements of household members. 

The ability to produce family and household information for small areas is unique to the census and 
cannot be replicated or approximated using small-scale sample surveys. 



See Appendix 1, Abbreviations Used for Federal Government Departments, p. 119. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

1! 



Information derived from this question, alone or in combination with other census data, is required to 
analyse the need for, and to formulate, evaluate, and administer federal, provincial and local programs 
in the area of for example family income maintenance, day care, support for persons with disabilities and 
seniors living alone, and support to lone-parent families. When used in conjunction with socio-cultural 
variables, the question can tell us a great deal about changing family composition. 

Data on family and household formation and characteristics are also necessary to plan housing 
developments and project demand for such related services as electric, gas and telephone utilities, schools 
and medical facilities. Manufacturers and retailers require this information to plan shopping centres, and 
forecast demand for various consumer products. 

For the purposes of many types of market sector analyses, the family or household is the relevant unit 
of study. Small area trends in rates of family formation and dissolution and household size and 
composition have significant implications for the demand for many types of consumer products and 
services. 

Relationship to Person 1 is required for verification procedures such as the reverse record check and the 
overcoverage study. It is also used in the edit and imputation of the age, sex, marital status, and 
common-law variables. 

Recent censuses have shown that, in 1991, about 84% of Canadians, or some 23 million people, lived 
in families as husbands, wives, common-law spouses, lone parents or children. Husband-wife families 
still represented the majority (87.0%) of all families. Common-law couples accounted for a growing 
share of husband-wife families, increasing from 6.4% in 1981 to 11.3% in 1991. In 1991, there were 
nearly one million lone-parent families in Canada, representing 13% of all families. Four out of every 
five of these families were headed by a woman. The proportion of seniors living alone has risen 
from 18.4% in 1971 to 25.9% in 1991. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
12 



Question 3 Date of Birth 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Justice Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Montreal General Hospital 

Montreal, Ville de 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-group within the Canadian population: 
• various age groups. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

13 



This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting; 

• immigrants, 

• women, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• lone-parent families, 

• unemployed youth, 

• children living in poverty. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Advisory Services on Housing for Children and the Elderly (CMHC) 

Blind Persons Act 

"Brighter Futures" Initiative (HC) 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Elections Act 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canada Student Loans Act 

Canadian Centre on Health Statistics (STC) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Child Tax Benefit (HRD/RC) 

Children's Bureau (HC) 

Disabled Persons Act 

Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Federal Post-Secondary 

Education and Health Contributions Act 
Indian and Inuit Family and Children's Services 
National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 
National Child Care Information Centre (HRD) 
New Horizons (HC) 
Old Age Security Act 

Population, Household and Family Estimates Program (STC) 
Population, Household and Family Projections Program (STC) 
Spouse's Allowance (HRD) 
War Veterans Allowance Act 



Purpose 

The age variable is derived from this question. This indirect approach has proven to yield more accurate 
results than a direct question asking for the respondent's age on Census Day. 

Information on the age distribution of the population is perhaps the most critical to policy makers in their 
efforts to foresee and plan for the future. Age is the determining factor in the requirement for specific 
services such as day care, primary and secondary school attendance. It can also be used as a predictor 
of major life cycle events including entrance to the labour force, family formation and retirement. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
14 



For these reasons, age distribution information allows policy makers to assess present and future needs 
for day care facilities, schools, hospitals, nursing homes and other social services and facilities. It allows 
policy makers to forecast death and birth rates, ageing of the population structure, future labour force 
supply, and to anticipate funding requirements of pension plans. Census data on age distribution are a 
vital underpinning of Statistics Canada's own population estimates. 

Together with other census information, age data assist in determining whether income differentials 
between men and women or the general population and visible minorities are attributable to wage 
discrimination or experience in the labour force. There are, indeed, few areas of policy formulation and 
evaluation at any level of government for which data on the age distribution of the population are not 
vitally important. 



Questionnaire Contenl: 1996 Census of Population 

15 



Question 4 Sex 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Edmonton, City of 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Laval, Ville de 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Multiculturalism, B.C. 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• women, 

• men. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• lone-parent families, 

• seniors, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• women. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

16 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Employment Equity Act 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

Native Women's Program (HRD) 

Population, Household and Family Estimates Program (STC) 

Population, Household and Family Projections Program (STC) 

Spouse's Allowance (HRD) 

Women's Bureau (HRD) 

Women's Program (SWC) 



Purpose 

This variable is an important component of population estimates at all geographic levels. Regular, 
accurate census data on the sex structure of the population, are essential to maintain the accuracy of 
population estimates and of demographic indicators. 

The most important role of this variable, however, is to permit the analysis of other census characteristics 
by gender, not only for the population as a whole, but also for sub-groups within the total population, 
for example, Aboriginal women, elderly women, immigrant women, and lone-parent families headed by 
women. 

Together with age and income data, the question of income adequacy for elderly women can be 
illuminated, and policies and programs formulated and evaluated. Combined with labour force 
participation, age and family information, gender data allow the analysis of the determinants of labour 
force participation by women and therefore improved estimates of future labour supply. With 
occupational and educational data, the gender variable allows the formulation and evaluation of programs 
to encourage women for example to enter non-traditional occupations. The combination of demographic, 
education, labour force and income characteristics collected by the 1996 Census will permit evaluation 
of the extent of discriminatory employment income differentials between men and women. 



Questionnaire Conlent; 1996 Census of Population 

17 



Question 5 Marital Status 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Canadian Heritage 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Health Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Departement de demographic, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Family Studies, University of Manitoba 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Montreal, Ville de 

Richmond, City of 

The December 9 Coalition 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• single people, 

• married people, 

• divorced people, 

• widowed people, 

• separated people. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• seniors who live alone, 

• lone-parent families. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

18 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Child Tax Benefit (HRD/RC) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Law Reform Commission of Canada 

National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Population, Household and Family Estimates Program (STC) 

Population, Household and Family Projections Program (STC) 

Spouse's Allowance (HRD) 



Purpose 

Information on marital status (legal) is necessary, together with the data from Question 2 on the 
relationship to the reference person and Question 6 on common-law status, in constructing family data. 
All these data are also an important input into the preparation of population, family and household 
estimates. 

Marital status (legal) is an important variable in tracking the evolution of social institutions and mores. 
Together with data derived from Questions 2 and 6, it permits the investigation of the relative prevalence 
of legal marriage and cohabitation and the presence or absence of children in these living arrangements. 

In studies of lone-parent families, marital status (legal) data permit the division of such families into 
categories; separated, divorced, widowed or single. The combination of this information with economic 
data gives a picture of the relative economic well-being of male and female headed lone-parent families. 

This variable, when combined with age, permits researchers to identify the number and distribution of 
unattached seniors; an important sub-group for those developing social programs and services for the 
elderly. 

Since the marital status (legal) variable contributes to our ability to understand family structure in Canada, 
it is essential for a reassessment of many of our laws and social programs that were based on past trends 
regarding the composition and economic stability of families. Current statistical information about trends 
in the changing family structures of Canadians is necessary to develop effective policies and legislation. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Cen.su.s oC Populalion 

19 



Question 6 Common-law Status 

Is this person living with a common-law partner? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Canadian Heritage 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 
Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 
Calgary, City of 
. Canadian Ethnocultural Council 
Departement de demographic, Universite de Montreal 
Department of Family Studies, University of Manitoba 
Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 
Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 
Edmonton, City of 

Greek Orthodox Diocese of Toronto (Canada) 
Laval, Ville de 
Montreal, Ville de 
Richmond, City of 
The December 9 Coalition 
The Vanier Institute of the Family 
Vancouver, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

20 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-group within the Canadian population: 

• those in common-law relationships. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• seniors, 

• lone-parent families. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Child Tax Benefit (HRD/RC) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Law Reform Commission of Canada 

National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 

Population, Household and Family Estimates Program (STC) 

Population, Household and Family Projections Program (STC) 

Spouse's Allowance (HRD) 



Purpose 

The purpose of this question is to identify changing family structures and relationships. Data on 
common-law status will enhance researchers' and policy-makers' comprehension of the phenomenon of 
cohabitation and of its extent and prevalence in different regions of the country. Together with 
Question 5 on marital status and Question 2 on relationship to the reference person, data on common-law 
status are needed to construct family data. 

Information from this question is also an input into preparation of population, family, and household 
estimates. 

Together with census data on social and economic characteristics, this question will yield significant 
information on couples in common-law relationships, their ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, educational 
attainment and labour force participation. This question will also provide information on the differences 
in economic status between couples in common-law and legal marital relationships. 

This question was first asked as a separate question in 1991 . (Before this, the number of common-law 
unions had to be inferred or estimated from the relationship to Person 1 question.) 
Therefore, 1996 and 1991 common-law information is more comparable than data from previous 
censuses. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Cen.su.s of Population 

21 



Activity Limitations 



"Veterans Affairs Canada is pleased to note that disability 
indicators will be included in the 1996 long form. . .since age- 
specific disability information is useful in benchmarking 
veteran morbidity data against broader Canadian trends." 
Veterans Affairs Canada 

"...persons with disability, visible minorities and Aboriginal 
peoples: These blocks are the primary source of information 
for identifying employment equity groups. The information 
is used for the production of statistics necessary for the 
administration of the Employment Equity Act. " 
Human Resources Development Canada 



Question 7 Activity Limitations 



Is this person limited in the kind or amount of activity that he/she can do because 
of a long-term physical condition, mental condition or health problem? 



Question 8 Long-term Disability 

Does this person have any long-term disabilities or handicaps? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Justice Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on National Passenger Transportation 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Social Conditions 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census ol' Population 

23 



International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Multiculturalism, B.C. 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

Scarborough, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-group within the Canadian population: 

• persons with disabilities. 

These questions provide an important characteristic for analysis of issues affecting: 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• children, 

• seniors, 

• adults in the labour force. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Advisory Services on Housing for Handicapped (CMHC) 

Bureau on Rehabilitation (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Disabled and Handicapped Travellers (TC) 

Disabled Persons Participation Program (HRD) 

Disabled Persons Unit (HRD) 

Employment Equity Act 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

National Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (HRD) 

Services to Handicapped Persons (PSC) 

Special Measures and Initiative Program Recruitment (PSC) 

Status of Disabled Persons Secretariat (HRD) 

Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Program (HRD) 

Workers with Disabilities Fund (HRD) 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
24 



Purpose 

Statistics Canada's consultation with major users of census data indicates a general requirement for 
information about persons with disabilities for the administration and formulation of programs ranging 
from transportation and housing to communications and employment equity. Government departments 
at all levels require such data to ensure accessibility of existing government services. Inclusion of a 
disability question on the 1986 Census (the first census to have a disability question) was strongly 
recommended by the House of Commons Special Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped. 

These questions provide information on which to base more in depth studies of persons with disabilities. 
In 1986 and 1991, these questions identified respondents who went on to take part in the Health and 
Activity Limitation Survey (HALS). For 1996, no postcensal survey is planned. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

25 



Language 



"...given the mandate of this Ministry (Solicitor General 
Canada), in the areas of policing, security and corrections, 
we are interested in information on language and literacy, 
that may have an impact on the accessibility of services." 
Solicitor General Canada 

"Knowledge of languages other than English or French... 

should also be repeated for the 1996 Census as it is an 

extremely useftil indicator of current immigration trends, and 

may also facilitate Greater Vancouver's ability to attract 

commercial opportunities overseas." 

Greater Vancouver Regional District, Strategic Planning 

Department 

"23. Minority Language Education Rights 

(3) applies wherever in the province the number of children 
of citizens who have such a right is sufficient to warrant the 
provision of them out of public funds. " 
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 



Question 9 Knowledge of English and French 

Can this person speak English or French well enough to conduct a conversation? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Justice Canada 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Solicitor General Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon 

Northwest Territories 

Other 

Alliance Quebec 
Calgary, City of 
Canadian Ethnocultural Council 
Centre d'etudes acadiennes, Universite de Moncton 

Comite d'adaptation des ressources humaines de la francophonie canadienne 
(CARHFC) 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

27 



Conseil canadien de la cooperation 

Departement de demographic, Univcrsite dc Montreal 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 

Federation des communautes francophones et acadienne du Canada 

Federation des parents acadiens de la Nouvelle-Ecosse 

Federation des parents de I'lle-du-Prince-Edouard 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

Franco-Ontarian Education and Training Council 

German Canadian Congress 

Laval, Ville de 

Moncton, City of 

Montreal, Ville de 

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education 

Richmond, City of 

Scarborough, City of 

Serbian National Shield Society of Canada 

Societe nationale de I'Acadie 

T. Eaton Company 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• English speakers, 

• French speakers, 

• those who speak both official languages, 

• those who speak neither official language. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• immigrants, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• ethnic minorities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 

Canadian Multiculturalism Act 

Heritage Culture and Languages Program (CH) 

Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Office de la langue fran?aise (Quebec) 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Official Languages Act 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

28 



Purpose 

The response categories for this question show whether the respondent and other household members can 
converse in either, both or neither of Canada's official languages. The information obtained from this 
question is essential to the evaluation of federal and provincial government programs designed to promote 
bilingualism in the public service and the general population. 

In conjunction with data from the mother tongue and home language questions, the information on 
knowledge of official languages is used for the provision of services under the Official Languages Act. 
Small area language information is needed for the administration of the federal government's official 
languages policy in order to ensure that service in both official languages is available wherever numbers 
warrant. 

The question identifies the population that is unable to speak either official language. It is therefore used 
to assess the adaptation of new immigrants, to guide the provision of language training in Canada's 
official languages to those areas and groups where it is most required, and to determine the need to 
provide third language translation and interpretation in support of federal and provincial programs. 

Together with data on mother tongue and home language, information from the official language question 
allows the projection of future official language use by those currently speaking neither. The 
identification of any change in historical trends in adoption of one official language or the other, is also 
an important use of the data resulting from this question. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

29 



Question 10 Knowledge of Other Language(s) 



What language(s), other than English or French, can this person speaic well enough 
to conduct a conversation? 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Justice Canada 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Solicitor General Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon 

Northwest Territories 

Other 

Alliance Quebec 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Centre d'etudes acadiennes, Universite de Moncton 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
30 



Comite d'adaptation des ressources humaines de la francophonie canadienne 

(CARHFC) 
Conseil canadien de la cooperation 
Departement de demographie, Universite de Montreal 
Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 
Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 
Federation des communautes francophones et acadienne du Canada 
Federation des parents acadiens de la Nouvelle-Ecosse 
Federation des parents de I'lle-du-Prince-Edouard 
Four Directions Consulting Group 
Franco-Ontarian Education and Training Council 
German Canadian Congress 
Laval, Ville de 
Moncton, City of 
Montreal, Ville de 

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education 
Richmond, City of 
Scarborough, City of 
Serbian National Shield Society of Canada 
Societe nationale de I'Acadie 
T. Eaton Company 
Toronto, City of 
Vancouver, City of 
Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-group within the Canadian population: 

• linguistic groups. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• immigrants, 

• ethnic minorities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 
Canadian Multiculturalism Act 
Heritage Culture and Languages Program (CH) 
Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 
Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (C&I) 
Official Languages Act 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

31 



Purpose 

This question shows the number of Canadians who can converse in non-official languages. It also 
provides a measure of the retention of Aboriginal and heritage languages, thereby providing support for 
federal programs under the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and the Official Languages Act. 

Information from this question provides a good indication of language knowledge in Canada at the time 
of the census, regardless of the languages that individuals learned as mother tongue or used most often 
at home. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

32 



Question 11 Language Spoken at Home 

What language does this person speak most often at home? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon 

Northwest Territories 

Other 

Alliance Quebec 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Centre d'etudes acadiennes, Universite de Moncton 

Comite d'adaptation des ressources humaines de la francophonie canadienne 

(CARHFC) 
Conseil canadien de la cooperation 
Departement de demographic, Universite de Montreal 
Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 
Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 
Edmonton, City of 

Federation des communautes francophones et acadienne du Canada 
Federation des parents acadiens de la Nouvelle-Ecosse 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

33 



Federation des parents de I'lle-du-Prince-Edouard 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

Franco-Ontarian Education and Training Council 

Laval, Ville de 

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education 

Societe nationale de I'Acadie 

Spanish Speaking Community of Edmonton 

T. Eaton Company 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• linguistic minorities, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• immigrants, 

• ethnic minorities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Multiculturalism Act 
Office de la langue fran^aise (Quebec) 
Official Languages Act 



Purpose 



This question, first introduced to the census in 1971 on the recommendation of the Royal Commission 
on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, is vitally important in the assessment of the success of the federal 
government's official languages policies and programs, as it shows the current language use of Canadians. 

Together with census information on mother tongue, home language data permit the analysis of the 
assimilation of linguistic minorities in any area across Canada and, therefore, the analysis of the success 
or failure of federal programs designed to support language retention by linguistic minorities. Similarly, 
home language information permits the analysis of the extent to which federal programs designed to 
preserve the linguistic heritage of Aboriginal peoples have succeeded in maintaining Aboriginal languages 
as living languages. 

The 1996 Census home language information is also used to evaluate the success and impact of federal 
immigration policies. Together with census questions about immigration and the other language 
questions, home language data show the extent to which various immigrant groups retain the use of 
heritage languages. Information from the home language question also permits analysis of the official 
language adopted by new immigrants and how it varies by the province of residence. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
34 



Together with data on mother tongue, home language statistics are vitally important to the formulation 
and evaluation of multicultural programs and policies by identifying the location of population 
concentrations requiring services in a non-official language, and, in the longer term, by supporting the 
evaluation of the extent to which those policies and programs have succeeded in preserving the linguistic 
heritage of the Canadian population. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

35 



Question 12 First Language Learned at Home 

What is the language that this person first learned at home in childhood and still 
understands? 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Elections Canada 

Environment Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Justice Canada 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provincial and Territories 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Yukon 

Northwest Territories 

Other 

Alliance Quebec 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Centre d'etudes acadiennes, Universite de Moncton 

Comite d'adaptation des ressources humaines de la francophonie canadienne 

(CARHFC) 
Conseil canadien de la cooperation 



Questionnaire Content:. 1996 Census of Population 
36 



Departement de demographic, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 

Edmonton, City of 

Federation des communautes francophones et acadienne du Canada 

Federation des parents acadiens de la Nouvelle-Ecosse 

Federation des parents de I'lle-du-Prince-Edouard 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

Franco-Ontarian Education and Training Council 

Greek Orthodox Diocese of Toronto (Canada) 

Laval, Ville de 

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education 

Scarborough, City of 

Societe nationale de I'Acadie 

T. Eaton Company 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-group within the Canadian population: 

• linguistic groups. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• immigrants, 

• ethnic minorities, 

• linguistic minorities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 

Canadian Multiculturalism Act 

Heritage Culture and Languages Program (CH) 

Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Office de la langue frangaise (Quebec) 

Official Languages Act 



Purpose 

The purpose of the mother tongue question is to determine the first language learned at home in childhood 
by the respondents. It is asked of all census respondents. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Cen.sus of Population 

37 



Small area data on mother tongue are required to provide the information needed to administer the 
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms . In conjunction with other language variables, mother tongue 
data are used for the purpose of establishing bilingual districts. In addition, these data are required under 
the Charter of Rights and Freedoms minority language education rights clause to determine whether, in 
any given area, the number of children potentially admissible to minority language education warrants 
provision of that education out of public funds. 

The Charter also undertakes to support the multicultural character of the Canadian population and 
therefore current mother tongue data are necessary to determine the viability of cultural services to non- 
official minorities in given areas such as those envisioned in the culture retention programs of Canadian 
Heritage. Information from this question is important in measuring the success of policies and programs 
designed to preserve the linguistic heritage of Canada's Aboriginal peoples. 

Section 41 of the Official Languages Act commits the Government of Canada to "enhancing the vitality 
of the English and French linguistic minority communities in Canada and supporting and assisting their 
development; and fostering the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society." 
The mother tongue data are essential for identifying the minority linguistic communities and, in 
conjunction with other data, for monitoring their economic, social, and cultural development. 

The Commissioner of Official languages and data user groups have emphasized the importance of small 
area mother tongue data in the administration of the federal government's official languages policy. Both 
the Chief Electoral Officer and Statistics Canada itself use these data in their electoral and census 
activities respectively, activities which touch all Canadians, to ensure service in both official languages 
is available wherever numbers warrant. The same is, of course, true for many other federal and, in some 
cases, provincial government departments. Many provincial governments, municipalities, businesses and 
social service agencies have also indicated support for this question to guide their provision of services 
in official languages to the Canadian population. 

The results of previous censuses have shown that federal immigration policies, provincial government 
language policies and economic forces can significantly alter the geographic distribution of linguistic 
groups. Sound administration of government language policy therefore requires regular and frequent 
information for small areas regarding the current distribution of linguistic groups. 

Recent studies continue to show income disparities among linguistic groups. Mother tongue data will 
continue to be necessary, together with other census variables such as education, occupation and income, 
to determine the causes of these disparities and to design programs for their correction. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
38 



Citizenship and Immigration 



"One of our chief areas of interest is the adjustment of 
immigrants and we are interested in those questions which 
will furnish useful information in this regard." 
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 



Question 13 Place of Birth 

Where was this person born? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Social Conditions 

Association of Nigerian in Nova Scotia 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Chinese Canadian National Council 

Church of Jesus-Christ of the Latter-Day Saints 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

German Canadian Congress 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
40 



Greek Orthodox Diocese of Toronto (Canada) 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Richmond, City of 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• Canadian-born, 

• foreign-born. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• linguistic minorities, 

• ethnic groups, 

• visible minorities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 

Canadian Multiculturalism Act 

Employment Equity Act 

Immigration Act 

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (C&I) 

Independent, Sponsored and Refugee Immigration (C&I) 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 



Purpose 

The question on place of birth is particularly important for the formulation and evaluation of immigration 
policy. Census data are the only source of information available on the stock of immigrants living in 
Canada. Data on retention of immigrants by place of birth and period of immigration are important 
indicators of the adaptability of potential immigrants to Canada. Further information about the 
adaptability and integration of new immigrants can be obtained by comparing census characteristics (e.g., 
labour force activity) for new immigrants by place of birth to those of the general population. Analysis 
of the process of adaptation can be supported by considering data on the period of immigration. The data 
are also required to guide the administration of the Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program and 
the Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada program. 

While statistics from Citizenship and Immigration Canada (C&I) provide information about the initial 
destination of new immigrants, federal and provincial immigration program administrators and labour 
supply forecasters rely on census data to determine the subsequent mobility and adaptation of new 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

41 



immigrants. Census data on immigrant groups is important in analysing the extent of immigrant 
contribution to the labour force and to the economy; in accurately forecasting regional labour supply and 
the demand for health, education, and social services; and in meeting other objectives of immigration 
policy. 

Place-of-birth data also permit analysis of life time interprovincial migration of the Canadian-born by 
revealing the total stock of persons residing in their province or territory of birth. This information 
permits federal and provincial officials to calculate, for each province, the net migration (immigration 
minus emigration) of the Canadian-born and to analyse the characteristics of those entering or leaving the 
province relative to those remaining. This allows the analysis of the ability of a province to retain highly 
qualified members of the labour force trained at provincial or federal expense under regional development 
initiatives. 

As with other cultural variables such as mother tongue and ethnic origin, place of birth is important for 
the development of multicultural programs by allowing program managers to identify communities with 
high concentrations of certain nationalities. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
42 



Question 14 Citizenship 

Of what country is this person a citizen? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Social Conditions 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Greek Orthodox Diocese of Toronto (Canada) 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Richmond, City of 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

43 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• Canadian citizens (by birth or naturalization), 

• non-Canadian citizens, 

• multiple citizenship holders, 

• non-permanent residents. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• education rights of linguistic minorities, 

• adaptation of new immigrant groups. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Canadian Multiculturalism Act 

Citizenship Act 

Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Immigration Act 

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (C«&I) 

Independent, Sponsored and Refugee Immigration (C&I) 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 



Purpose 



Citizenship is a determinant of the rights available to elements of the Canadian population. Under the 
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canadian citizens are guaranteed minority language education 
rights. Legal opinions sought by Statistics Canada indicate that while the Charter does not require 
Statistics Canada to collect and make available data on citizenship and mother tongue of the Canadian 
population in support of this clause, such data would be admissible before the courts as pertinent to the 
issue of determining whether the number of children of citizens possessing minority language education 
rights warrants provision of minority language education out of public funds. It is therefore vitally 
important to maintain current census data to ensure these rights are applied in a fair and informed manner 
and are not denied for lack of reliable information. 

Citizenship is also a determinant of the right to vote in Canadian elections. Census data are therefore 
available to support electoral planning at all levels of government. The combination of citizenship and 
age data allows electoral program managers to determine the potential electorate and the success of voter 
enumeration in identifying eligible voters and to develop programs to encourage electoral participation 
where it is known to be weak. The efficient administration of elections requires detailed small area 
information on the potential electorate in defining polling areas. This information is also widely used by 
Canadian political parties and political scientists in the analysis of voter behaviour. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
44 



By identifying non-citizens and their characteristics, the 1996 Census will assist federal and provincial 
government planners in planning citizenship court facilities and administering programs of preparation 
for citizenship, indicating the areas and languages in which such programs are required. 

As indicated previously, the rate at which new immigrants apply for and obtain Canadian citizenship is 
considered to be an indicator of the adaptability of potential immigrants. Census data are consequently 
an important input to the determination of federal immigration policy and targets. 

Information from the country of citizenship question is also used to administer exchange programs 
between Canada and other countries. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

45 



Question 15 Landed Immigrant Status 

Is this person now, or has this person ever been, a landed immigrant? 

Question 16 Year of Immigration 

In what year did this person first become a landed immigrant? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages 

Revenue Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Prince Edward Island 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Social Conditions 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Greek Orthodox Diocese of Toronto (Canada) 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
46 



Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Richmond, City of 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 



These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• immigrants, 

• non-permanent residents. 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• the adaptation of new immigrant groups. 



• visible minorities, 

• ethnic groups. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 
Immigration Act 

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (C&I) 
Independent, Sponsored and Refugee Immigration (C&I) 
Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (C&I) 



Purpose 



Landed immigrant status (Question 15) was asked for the first time in 1991. This question, along with 
the citizenship question, permits census data users to identify the non-immigrant population (Canadian 
citizens by birth), the immigrant population (landed immigrants), and the non-permanent resident 
population (refugee claimants and holders of student authorizations, employment authorizations, and 
Minister's permits). Non-permanent residents were included in the census for the first time in 1991. 

Question 16 has been asked in some form since 1901 . In 1996, the question asks "In what year did this 
person first become a landed immigrant?" 

Information on immigration, when combined with data from other census questions, can be used to study 
the characteristics of Canada's immigrant population. Information on period of immigration is also 
important for studies of immigration trends. 

The technique used to determine the immigrant population changed between 1986 and 1991 . In 1986 the 
immigrant population was defined as those persons who were not Canadian citizens by birth. In 1991 
the direct question on landed immigrant status was used to identify the immigrant population. Persons 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Cen.sus of Population 

47 



who answered "yes" to this question were considered immigrants to Canada. Persons who answered "no" 
to this question and who also are not Canadian citizens by birth are considered to be non-permanent 
residents. The 1991 approach has been maintained for 1996. 

These questions are also intended to improve our understanding of coverage issues, since federal and 
provincial analysts and. users will be able to determine the number, location and characteristics of the 
three categories of respondents (the non-immigrant population, the immigrant population, and the non- 
permanent resident population). Since coverage affects census population counts, the results of these 
questions have implications for program and transfer payment delivery. 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada (C«&I) is required, when recommending immigration targets to 
Cabinet, to provide documentation on the integration and rate of assimilation of past immigrants in terms 
of their demographic, cultural, educational and occupational characteristics. The census provides a 
unique database to support these studies. 

Year or period of immigration data make it possible to study immigrant groups that came to Canada at 
a particular time. Analysis can thus take on a historical dimension: for example, determining the effects 
of world events and changes in Canadian immigration policy on the size and composition of the 
immigrant population. 

Year of immigration, together with administrative data from the period of initial immigration, allows 
program analysts to determine to what extent immigrants have remained in Canada and the characteristics 
of those leaving the country. Together with date-of-birth data, year-of-immigration information allow 
analysts to determine age at immigration and to assess the impact of age on the adaptation and integration 
of Canada's immigrants. In combination with census citizenship data, year-of-immigration data allow 
analysts to determine how slowly or quickly the immigrant population obtains Canadian citizenship. 

Census data also allow immigration and labour market analysts to assess the appropriateness of the 
occupational structure of recent immigration in terms of the requirements of the Canadian labour market. 

Various federal and provincial services to immigrants, such as the Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation 
Program and the Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada program, both provided by Citizenship 
and Immigration Canada, can employ census data to locate immigrant communities after initial entry and 
identify their nationality, ethnic origin and mother tongue to assist in the delivery of post-entry services. 

While the proportion of immigrants in Canada's population has remained at around 16% since 1951, their 
cultural and ethnic characteristics have not been constant. There is no reason to believe past trends in 
adaptation and integration of immigrants will remain valid. The 1996 Census will play a major role in 
supporting the analysis of the impact of recent immigration at the federal, provincial and municipal levels. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population. 

48 



Ethnic Origin 



"Our Employment Equity Branch is responsible for 
providing employers covered under the Legislated 
Employment Equity Program (LEEP) and the Federal 
Contractors Program (FCP) with labour market information 
on the four designated groups. Therefore, it is imperative 
that we are able to identify visible minorities on the 1996 
Census." 
Human Resources Development Canada 

"I am pleased that the 1996 Census would, for the first time, 
contain a direct question on 'race'. This would allow us to 
control for discrimination effects when we examine the 
performance of immigrants and will help us to study the 
impacts of immigration on racial tolerance." 
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 



Question 17 Ethnic Origin 

To which ethnic or cultural group(s) did this person's ancestors belong? 

Question 19 Population Group 

Is this person: White, Chinese, South Asian, Black, Arab/West Asian, Filipino, 
South East Asian, Latin American, Japanese, Korean or Other? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Justice Canada 

I*ublic Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Solicitor General Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Social Conditions 

African Training and Employment Centre 

Assembly of First Nations 

Association of Black Social Workers 

Association of Nigerians in Nova Scotia 

Battle River Regional Planning Commission 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
50 



Bibliotheque de I'Universite Laval 

Black United Front 

Burlington, City of 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Arab Federation 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Centre d'etudes acadiennes, Universite de Moncton 

Centre for the Study of Population, Florida State University 

Chinese Canadian National Council 

Coalition of Agencies Serving South Asians 

Compusearch 

Council of Yukon Indians 

Departement de demographie, Universite de Montreal 

Departement de sociologie, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Family Studies, University of Manitoba 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Saskatchewan 

Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 

East Preston Development Centre 

Edmonton, City of 

Estonian Central Council in Canada 

Federation des communautes francophones et acadienne du Canada 

Federation des parents acadiens de la Nouvelle-Ecosse 

Federation des parents de I'lle-du-Prince-Edouard 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

German Canadian Congress 

Greek Orthodox Diocese of Toronto (Canada) 

Halifax, City of 

Hispanic Council of Metro Toronto 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Inuit Tapirisat of Canada 

Jeunesse acadienne 

Kingsclear First Nation 

Latin American Community Centre 

Laval, Ville de 

Library of University of Manitoba 

Mana Research Limited 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Metis National Council 

Montreal General Hospital 

Montreal, Ville de 

Multicultural Association of Fredericton 

Multicultural Societies and Social Services Agencies 

Multiculturalism, B.C. 

National Association of Friendship Centres 

National Metis Association 

Native Council of Canada 

Native Women's Association 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

51 



Office of Population Research, Princeton University . 

Peel, Regional Municipality of 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

Scarborough, City of 

Serbian National Shield Society of Canada 

Societe nationale de I'Acadie 

Societe St-Thomas-d'Aquin 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver Society Immigrant/Visible Minority Women 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• ethnic and cultural groups, 

• visible minorities. 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• ethnic groups, 

• visible minorities, 

• immigrants, 

• linguistic minorities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 

Canadian Ethnic Studies Program (CH) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Canadian Multicultural Council (CH) 

Canadian Multiculturalism Act 

Citizenship and Canadian Identity Sector (CH) 

Employment Equity Act 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Heritage Cultures and Languages Program (CH) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

Official Languages Act 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
52 



Purpose 

These questions provide information on the ethnic origin of the Canadian population (Question 17) and 
visible minorities within Canada (Question 19). Question 17 differs from the question asked in 1991 in 
being open-ended (respondents write in their answer instead of ticking a choice from a list) and including 
the category "Canadian" among the examples. Question 19 is new for 1996 and answers the need for 
accurate information about visible minorities required by employment equity programs. 

These questions, cross-tabulated with other census variables, provide information needed for the analysis 
of employment and remuneration practices with respect to visible minorities and insight into their housing 
conditions, linguistic characteristics, education and living arrangements. This information is needed to 
support the implementation of employment equity programs. 

Data on ethnic origin and visible minorities, in combination with data from the four language questions, 
are important in the analysis of language retention and transfer and are, therefore, supported by federal 
agencies charged with the development and implementation of federal government official and heritage 
language programs. 

Formulation, administration and evaluation of multicultural programs at all levels of government require 
information on the ethnic composition of the population for various geographic areas. This use of 
ethnicity data has become more critical in view of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and the commitment 
in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to the "preservation and enhancement of the 
multicultural heritage of Canadians " . This is dependant on the ability to identify and locate various ethnic 
communities that is provided by census data from these questions. 

Federal immigration policy requires information on the adaptability of potential immigrants. Ethnic 
origin and membership in a visible minority group are dimensions of the issue of adaptability to Canadian 
society and are used together with other census data to guide immigration policy. 

Canadian businesses providing products and services to Canadian consumers also report a requirement 
for data on ethnic origins to support their marketing activities. In addition, community groups, hospitals 
and municipalities require data on ethnicity and visible minorities to develop culturally sensitive programs 
and services. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

53 



Question 18 Aboriginal Peoples 



Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, North American Indian, Metis or Inuit 
(Esicimo)? 



Question 20 Indian Band/First Nation Membership 

Is this person a member of an Indian Band/First Nation? 



Question 21 Registered Indian 



Is this person a Treaty Indian or a Registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act 
of Canada? 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Aifairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 
Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 
Advisory Committee on Social Conditions 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
54 



Assembly of First Nations 

Bibliotheque de I'Universite Laval 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Centre for the Study of Population, Florida State University 

Council of Yukon Indians 

Departement de sociologie, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Saskatchewan 

Edmonton, City of 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Inuit Tapirisat of Canada 

Kingsclear First Nation 

Laval, Ville de 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Metis National Council 

Multiculturalism, B.C. 

National Association of Friendship Centres 

National Metis Association 

Native Council of Canada 

Native Women's Association 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population: 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• Registered Indians, 

• First Nation peoples. 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• Aboriginal women, 

• Aboriginal persons with disabilities, 

• Aboriginal population living off reserve. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Aboriginal Business Canada Program (IC) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Community Workload Increase System (HC) 

Employment Equity Act 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Housing Assistance for Native and Senior Independence (CMHC) 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

55 



Indian Act 

Indian and Inuit Community Adult Education (INAC) 

Indian and Inuit Housing (INAC) 

Indian and Inuit Job Mobility (INAC) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

Native Women's Program (HRD) 

Rural and Native Housing Program (CMHC) 

Urban Native Non-Profit Housing Program (CMHC/Provinces) 



Purpose 



The purpose of these questions is to identify the Aboriginal population. In 1991 Registered Indians were 
identified on the census for the first time through a separate question. (Previously, the Aboriginal 
population was identified from the ethnic ancestry question.) For 1996, this question has been split into 
two parts (Questions 20 and 21) so that more accurate data may be obtained. Question 18 has also been 
added to identify those who indicate that they are Aboriginal persons as opposed to those who have 
Aboriginal ancestry. 

In light of constitutional guarantees to Aboriginal peoples and widespread commitments to employment 
equity and other programs targeted toward Aboriginal peoples, the 1996 Census must collect 
comprehensive data on the Aboriginal population and has, therefore, made these improvements to 
the 1991 Census questions. 

The Treaty and Registered Indian question permits the identification and location of this population and 
therefore the generation of counts by geographic area. Equally important however is the ability to 
tabulate other census data such as housing, education, income and occupation characteristics for this 
population sub-group. Together with Question 17 on ethnic origin and Question 18 where the respondent 
indicates whether he/she is an Aboriginal person, this question will provide similar social and economic 
information on Indians who are not registered under the Indian Act. 

These data are required to support analysis of on- and off-reserve populations, to guide employment 
equity programs in the areas of education, training and employment, and to ensure employment programs 
and services are available in communities with significant Indian populations. Census information is also 
required to evaluate the impact of existing programs. 

Together with the question on gender, these questions provide needed information concerning Aboriginal 
women to guide discussions with representatives of Aboriginal peoples about their health and welfare. 

The 1991 Census saw an improvement in the coverage of the Aboriginal population in that more Indian 
reserves participated in the census. Efforts to improve coverage continue for the 1996 Census. A new 
question (Question 18) on Aboriginal self-reporting has been added which should produce information 
similar to that obtained from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey carried out after the 1991 Census. Other 
improvements include: better liaison with Indian bands concerning various census issues and improved 
management of coverage related information about reserves. These are intended to ensure a measure of 
success by creating an environment of continuity and ensuring a link between data collection and the 
usefulness of the results of the census for Aboriginal communities. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
56 



The Aboriginal population is growing at a taster rate than the general population and will, therefore, soon 
represent a larger proportion of the labour force. The Aboriginal population also experience a higher 
incidence of disability than the general population. Census information from, for example, the labour 
force participation and disability questions, permit the implementation of federal programs designed to 
meet the needs of the Aboriginal population. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

57 



Mobility 



"(Mobility questions) supply essential information for the 
preparation of intercensal estimates used in the 
administTdtion of the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements 
Act and the Federal Post-Secondary Education and Health 
Contributions Act. " 
Human Resources Development Canada 

"The 1-year mobility question should be retained and 
released at the CSD level along with 5-year mobility. This 
would be useful because of the dynamic nature of the 
restructuring of the economy, especially in Ontario where we 
have had a boom which attracted migrants from across 
Canada followed by the worst of the recessionary impacts. 
Other sources do not provide the opportunity to cross- 
tabulate these data with other social and economic 
characteristics." 
City of Toronto, Planning and Development Department 

"The mobility information... is essential for us to be able to 

monitor movement into and out of official language minority 

communities." 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 



Question 22 Place of Residence One Year Ago 

Where did this person live 1 year ago, that is, on May 14, 1995? 

Question 23 Place of Residence Five Years Ago 

Where did this person live 5 years ago, that is, on May 14, 1991? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Elections Canada 

Environment Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Bibliotheque de I'Universite Laval 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Montreal, Ville de 

Ottawa-Carleton, Regional Municipality of 

Richmond, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

59 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• non-movers, 

• non-migrants (moved within a municipality), 

• internal migrants (moved within Canada), 

• external migrants (moved from outside Canada). 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• immigrants, 

• women, 

• seniors, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• unemployed youth. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canada Elections Act 

Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Federal Post-Secondary 

Education and Health Contributions Act 
Independent, Sponsored and Refugee Immigration (C&I) 
Indian and Inuit Job Mobility (INAC) 
National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 
Official Languages Program (CH) 

Population, Household and Family Estimates Program (STC) 
Population, Household and Family Projections Program (STC) 
Potential Housing Demand Model Program (CMHC) 
Status of Women Canada 



Purpose 

Migration is an important variable in determining population growth in Canada's regions. Administrative 
records are used to estimate migration in intercensal years, but they provide estimates that are prone to 
significant errors. These errors are one of the most important causes of inaccuracy in population 
estimates. It is therefore important to obtain regular benchmarks both to correct intercensal estimates and 
to develop improved procedures for calculating them. Transfer payments between levels of government 
depend on the accuracy of population estimates. Migration data, therefore, are assigned a high priority 
by Statistics Canada and Finance Canada because they are an essential determinant in the preparation of 
accurate population estimates for use in the administration of the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements 
and Federal Post-Secondary Education and Health Contribution Act. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
60 



Migration is a labour market's adjustment mechanism to interregional disparities in income and 
employment opportunities. Federal labour market analysts require migration data to assess the impact 
of barriers to labour mobility and to develop and evaluate human resource programs designed to enhance 
labour mobility. This information is also important to forecast regional labour supply and to determine 
the extent to which the automatic adjustment of the labour market is appropriate and sufficient to relieve 
regional supply and demand imbalances in specific occupational categories. 

Managers responsible for housing, education and social service programs at all levels of government 
require migration data together with demographic characteristics of migrants and their dependents to 
formulate housing programs and provide for health and educational facilities and other social services. 
This is equally true in the receiving region and in the region of origin. 

Immigration policy analysts require migration data to track the post-admission mobility of new immigrants 
and the extent to which this mobility is consistent with the original objectives of admission. Managers 
responsible for linguistic and cultural policies require migration data to assess the role of linguistic and 
cultural factors in migration decisions and to evaluate the impact of federal and provincial language and 
cultural policies and programs on present migration. The mobility-enhancing effects of federal and 
provincial language policies and programs toward linguistic minorities can also be assessed, as can the 
propensity of migrants to gravitate toward concentrations of population with similar linguistic and cultural 
characteristics. 

Mobility data are equally important with respect to other designated groups. They permit analysis of the 
effects of mobility on male and female participation in the labour force, the mobility of lone-parent 
families and Aboriginal peoples, and the post-retirement movements of seniors. 

Private sector users include companies involved in providing moving services, utilities, and real estate 
firms, who require the information to estimate their markets. 

Place of residence one year ago was asked for the first time in the 1991 Census, and is designed to 
enhance the traditional mobility data (place of residence five years ago) that has been collected 
since 1961, with the exception of the 1966 Census. For the 1996 Census, both mobility questions collect 
information about migration between municipalities. In 1991 , the question about place of residence one 
year ago only provided information about interprovincial moves. 

The question on one-year mobility collects migration data for the year preceding the census. The 
information collected provides a direct measure of the annual number of intermunicipal migrants by age, 
sex and marital status, thereby providing significant input into the preparation of population and migration 
estimates. For areas with highly transient populations such as the Northwest Territories, and for analysis 
of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants, such data are more relevant than 
information on long-term migration. 

Through comparison of one-year and five-year data, information on return and multiple migration can 
be obtained, and five-year migration rates can be decomposed into annual rates. In addition, since 
information from the one-year question is a better representation of the age distribution of migrants at 
the time of migration than information from the five-year question, it is important for enhancing annual 
migration estimates. There are no other fully developed direct sources of annual migration data 
to compare with esdmates. The one-year question provides a direct measure of the annual number of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

61 



migrants by age, sex and marital status that can be used to evaluate official estimates of annual migration 
based on administrative data. 

The five-year mobility question measures the residential mobility and migration patterns of the Canadian 
population between consecutive censuses and, together with other census questions, provides data on the 
demographic and socio-economic characteristics of movers and migrants. It provides important insights 
for policy makers into the social and economic causes and consequences of migration. In addition, it is 
required for the calibration of models used to produce population estimates. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
62 



Education 



"There is a strong consensus that the school attendance 
question should be asked every five years. This information 
is crucial for the Stay-in-School Initiative and it is important 
to have regular updates on this issue for the labour market 
development and training programs." 
Human Resources Development Canada 

"Retain school attendance question... every 5 years - This is 
of tremendous importance in relation to the "retooling" of 
the labour force and concerns over provincial budget." 
City of Toronto, Planning and Development Department 

"I would like to see the school attendance question asked on 
the 1996 Census in light of the changing patterns of school 
attendance among the general population and among the 
Aboriginal population. Other data concerning Aboriginal 
enrolment in post-secondary programs is piecemeal." 
Four Directions Consulting Group 



Question 24 Highest Level of Elementary or Secondary Schooling 

What is the highest grade (or year) of secondary (high school) or elementary school 
this person ever attended? 



Question 25 Years of Schooling (University) 

How many years of education has this person completed at university? 

Question 26 Years of Schooling (Other) 

How many years of schooling has this person ever completed at an institution other 
than a university, a secondary (high school) or an elementary school? 

Question 27 School Attendance 

In the past eight months (that is, since last September), was this person attending 
a school, college or university? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 
Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 
Environment Canada 
Foreign Affairs and International Trade 
Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 
Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 
Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 
Status of Women Canada 
' Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
64 



Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Delta, City of 

Departement de demographie, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Saskatchewan 

Edmonton, City of 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

Laval, Ville de 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Montreal General Hospital 

Oxford, County of 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Toronto, City of 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• those who did not complete secondary school, 

• secondary school graduates, 

• those who attended university, 

• graduates of other postsecondary institutions, 

• those currently attending school. 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• lone-parent families, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• women, 

• immigrants, 

• youth, 

• persons with disabilities. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

65 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada Student Loans Program (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Employment Equity Act 

Indian and Inuit Community Adult Education (INAC) 

Status of Women Canada 

Unemployment Insurance Employment Training (HRD) 



Purpose 

The first three questions serve to determine the level of schooling of Canadians aged 15 and over. 
Question 27 identifies those who are currently attending school, whether fiill or part time. 

Educational and human resource planners require these data to assess the extent of illiteracy in Canada 
and to plan the delivery of basic literacy and academic upgrading programs, to assess the market for 
continuing education programs (particularly important in the renewal and upgrading of skills of the 
working population) and to assess the need for vocational training programs. Data obtained from the 
school attendance question, when combined with other census information, provides data on participation 
in postsecondary education, continuing education and academic upgrading. This information is used to 
determine the need for, and location of, educational facilities. 

Labour market analysts at all levels of government require census data on level of schooling to determine 
the effect of education on labour productivity. Analysis of labour supply requires data, for large and 
small areas, on the effect of schooling on labour force participation, migration, and participation in 
postsecondary education. 

Level of schooling information is also required to plan regional development initiatives. It is used to 
assess whether the local labour supply has the skills necessary for the types of activity contemplated and, 
if not, whether local training programs could develop these skills. 

Program managers responsible for employment equity programs require 1996 Census level of schooling 
data to assess access to educational opportunities by the four designated groups: persons with disabilities. 
Aboriginal peoples, visible minorities and women. From this information, training programs can be 
designed and their effectiveness evaluated. The definition and evaluation of programs designed to increase 
designated group participation in non-traditional occupations require current data on educational 
attainment. Level of schooling data also plays a significant role in the analysis of income disparities 
between designated group members and the total population. 

The introduction of new technologies is creating new jobs and changing the way we perform old ones. 
Information about the educational attainment of Canadians is more important than ever to evaluate our 
adjustment to these changes. The design of cost-effective programs for upgrading the skills of Canadians 
to facilitate their transition to new industries and new technologies requires detailed knowledge of present 
educational attributes and their geographic distribution. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
66 



Question 28 Degrees, Certiflcates and Diplomas 

What certificates, diplomas or degrees has this person ever obtained? 

Question 29 Field of Specialization 

What was the major field of study or training of this person's highest degree, 
certificate or diploma (excluding secondary or high school graduation certificates)? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Edmonton, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Montreal, Ville de 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• graduates of postsecondary institutions and other educational institutions, 

• those with specialized degrees or training. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

67 



These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues aft'ecting: 

• women, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• youth, 

• immigrants, 

• lone parents, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• persons with disabilities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada Student Loans Program (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Employment Equity Act 

Federal Post-Secondary Education (HRD) 

Status of Women Canada 

Unemployment Insurance Employment Training (HRD) 



Purpose 



Economic planners at all levels of government have emphasized the need for data about the educational 
characteristics and attainment of Canadians in order to: assess the effectiveness of the education system; 
examine relationships between education and occupation, industry and income; forecast occupational 
imbalances; and guide immigration policies. 

Field of specialization data introduce another dimension into labour market models, and improve the 
analysis and forecasting of occupational distributions. This analysis is necessary to develop and 
implement appropriate immigration and labour policies and programs. It also enables policy makers to 
anticipate and respond to the economically motivated migration of Canadians. 

In particular, the development of high technology industries and the rate of technological change require 
more detailed information on the qualifications of human resources in Canada than can be obtained from 
Questions 24, 25, 26 and 27. The emergence of these new technologies and the decline of old ones 
require the retraining of people from one occupational category, or set of skills, to another. Census data 
can assess the magnitude of the need for retraining and guide the delivery of such programs. 

In considering regional development opportunities, census information on education enables federal and 
provincial agencies to look beyond the present occupations of members of the labour force to their 
potential occupations after retraining. Only a survey of the magnitude of the census can provide both the 
spatially specific data necessary for regional development policies and the degree of detail regarding areas 
of specialization for the Canadian population necessary for national and regional labour market and 
occupational forecasting models. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
68 



Definition and evaluation of employment equity and other programs designed to increase designated group 
participation in non-traditional occupations require current data on the educational qualifications and 
specializations of the designated groups and the general population. Census data can be used to measure 
the representation and availability of designated group members for occupational groups within the labour 
force. 

Finally, census information allows labour market analysts to evaluate whether income level and 
availability of jobs influence the choice of specialization of Canadians. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

69 



Household Activities 



"In addition to the educational value of collecting such data 
(on unpaid work), the results will be very useful for all 
federal departments in analysing the potential gender impact 
of their respective policies and programs." 
Status of Women Canada 

"(Unpaid work questions) will allow an exploration of the 
dynamics of interaction between the market and the 
household economy from a human resources perspective. 
This will improve public awareness of the value of unpaid 
work, and eventually contribute to a more equitable 
distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and 
women. " 
Human Resources Development Canada 



Question 30 Unpaid Activities 

Last week, how many hours did this person spend doing the following activities? 

(a) Doing unpaid housework, yard work or home maintenance for members of this 
household or others. 

(b) Looking after one or more of this person's own children, or the children of 
others, without pay. 

(c) Providing unpaid care or assistance to one or more seniors. 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Environment Canada 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

National Advisory Council on Aging 

Status of Women Canada 

Veterans Affairs Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

Newfoundland 
Prince Edward Island 
Nova Scotia 
New Brunswick 
Ontario 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Alliance for Home Managers 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Unpaid Work 

Mothers Are Women 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

71 



National Action Committee on the Status of Women 

National Statistics Council 

Oxford, County of 

Richmond City, of 

South East Asian Services 

Voice of Women 

Who Owns Women's Work 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-group within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• persons doing unpaid activities. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• the employed, 

• persons not in the labour force, 

• seniors, 

• children. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Farm Women's Bureau (Agr.) 
National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 
Status of Women Canada 
Women's Bureau (HRD) 



Purpose 

This question on unpaid work, new for the 1996 Census, has been developed by an interdepartmental 
committee made up of representatives from Statistics Canada, the National Advisory Council on Aging 
(Health Canada), the Voluntary Action Directorate (Canadian Heritage), Status of Women Canada, the 
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women and the Farm Women's Bureau (Agriculture and 
Agri-Food Canada). This committee was involved in focus group testing of the question and in the 
analysis of the test results of the 1993 National Census Test (NCT). 

The question seeks to measure the amount of unpaid time the Canadian population spends on housework 
or home maintenance, child care, and care of seniors. It has been developed in response to the requests 
of interest groups to measure the contribution of unpaid work to the Canadian economy. They argue that 
due to the value to society of these activities, a question should be included to give a fuller and more 
complete picture of both the market and non-market components of current Canadian society. They assert 
as well, that the topic should be included in the census as a gesture of recognition of the importance of 
such activities. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

72 



Those involved in the provision of services to the elderly argue that the activities of many Canadians who 
care for seniors are critical to the provision of services and to the well-being of the Canadian society. 
They assert that as Canadian society ages, information on who provides unpaid services, the type and 
range of activities undertaken and time devoted to such endeavours will be critical to the planning and 
revising of the social security net. 

These questions meet the needs of the data user community and address the concerns of those who wish 
to see unpaid work, undertaken by both men and women, recognized in the national census. When 
cross-tabulated by sex, age group, work force participation and other census variables, it will be possible 
to quantify the amount of time spent in household and care activities by various segments of the 
population. In addition, it will be possible to examine any geographic variances in the distribution of the 
number of hours spent doing housework/home maintenance or caring for children or seniors by, for 
example, men, women in the paid work force or by various members of the family or household. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

73 



Labour Market Activities 



"The Public Service Commission continues to have an 
interest in comparing labour force needs to the availability of 
qualified persons in the external labour market who are 
members of designated groups." 
Public Service Commission 

"(The census) is the primary source for labour market 
information. Very few information sources are able to 
supply labour market information at the local level." 
Human Resources Development Canada 

"The existing questions on labour force and place of work 
are sufficient and should be retained." 
Justice Canada 



Question 31 Hours Worked for Pay or Profit 

Last week, how many hours did this person spend working for pay or in self- 
employment? 



Question 32 Absence from Job 

Last week, was this person on temporary lay-off or absent from his/her job or 
business? 



Question 33 New Job Arrangements 



Last week, did this person have definite arrangements to start a new job within the 
next four weeks? 



Question 34 Recent Job Search 

Did this person look for paid work during the past four weeks? 

Question 35 Availability for Work 

Could this person have started a job last week had one been available? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Solicitor General of Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

75 



Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Labour Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Centre of Industrial Relations, University of Toronto 

Edmonton, City of 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Laval, Ville de 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• the employed, 

• the unemployed, 

• persons not in the labour force. 

These questions provide an important characteristic for analysis of issues affecting: 

• women, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• lone-parent families, 

• persons with disabilities, 

• seniors, 

• immigrants, 

• visible minorities, 

• unemployed youth. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canada Student Loans Program (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Canadian Occupational Projection System (HRD) 

Employment Operations Branch (HRD) 

Employment Policies (HRD) 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (C&I) 

Immigration Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Labour Market Services (HRD) 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
76 



Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Special Measures and Initiative Program Recruitment (PSC) 

Status of Women Canada 

Unemployment Insurance (HRD) 



Purpose 



The 1996 Census labour force activity questions parallel those used in Statistics Canada's monthly Labour 
Force Survey (LPS). The census includes the following people that are not covered in the LFS sample: 
those living in the territories, on Indian reserves, and in institutions, military camps and barracks, and 
Canadians living abroad. The labour force activity questions on the 1996 Census will also permit 
estimation of labour force characteristics for populations in small areas not possible with the limited 
sample of the monthly survey. 

Data on employment, unemployment and labour force participation by small areas are required to direct 
regional development initiatives to economically depressed areas. Program managers at all levels of 
government require labour force data to plan human resource training and educational programs and 
facilities. Managers responsible for income support programs such as unemployment insurance and 
provincial welfare programs require labour force data to assess local needs, the degree of dependence on 
these income sources and the impact of support levels on the community. Regional development planners 
and labour market analysts require accurate small area labour force and employment data to estimate 
regional productivity measures and develop productivity enhancing programs and to plan, together with 
the private sector, plant locations and expansions. 

Provincial and local day care programs require information on the labour force activity of households and 
families by small areas in order to assess the need for, and plan the delivery of, day care services. 
Agricultural program managers require data on the labour force activities of farm family members to 
better understand the sources and determinants of farm family incomes and lifestyles. 

Employment equity programs require information on labour force participation, occupation, income and 
unemployment for designated groups such as women, persons with disabilities. Aboriginal peoples, and 
visible minorities to assess the success of existing programs and to study the reasons for labour force 
inclusion or exclusion of members of these groups. Even large-scale sample surveys such as the Labour 
Force Survey cannot produce reliable estimates for small dispersed subpopulations such as Aboriginal 
peoples, visible minorities, and persons with disabilities. These labour force activity questions also 
provide information concerning number of hours worked that are necessary to understand the level of 
participation undertaken by such designated groups as youth, women, persons with disabilities, and heads 
of lone-parent families. 

In addition to completing and extending the information provided by the monthly Labour Force Survey, 
the 1996 Census questions will be essential for benchmarking and evaluating the estimates provided by 
that survey to assure the quality and reliability of the monthly estimates at the national, provincial and 
subprovincial levels. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

77 



Question 36 Last Date of Work 



When did this person last work for pay or in self-employment, even for a few 
days. 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Solicitor General of Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Edmonton, City of 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Laval, Ville de 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• the experienced labour force, 

• the inexperienced labour force. 

This question provides an important characteristic for analysis of issues affecting: 

• unemployed youth, 

• unemployed older workers, 

• those re-entering the work force, 

• persons not in the labour force. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
78 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canada Student Loans Program (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Canadian Occupational Projection System (HRD) 

Employment Operations Branch (HRD) 

Employment Policies (HRD) 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (C&I) 

Immigration Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Labour Market Services (HRD) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Special Measures and Initiative Program Recruitment (PSC) 

Status of Women Canada 

Unemployment Insurance (HRD) 



Purpose 



The first purpose of this question is administrative in that the question serves to screen out those persons 
who should not answer the remaining labour force questions. However it also serves to establish a larger 
universe for tabulations of industry and occupation data than the labour force in the reference week. This 
larger universe, the experienced labour force, includes the persons who have worked since the 1" of 
January of the year preceding the census, whether or not they were participating in the labour force in 
the reference week. 

This question allows labour market analysts to study such factors as seasonal employment in the 
assessment of total labour supply and to analyse the recent work experience of those not in the labour 
force in the reference week. The latter capability is important in determining the influence of such factors 
as gender, level of schooling and occupation on labour force attachment. 

Labour market analysts and program managers responsible for regional development programs require 
these data to isolate areas that could be assisted by development programs and to determine the stocks 
of experienced labour force by occupation to assist in forecasting and understanding occupational supply 
and demand imbalances. The latter information is important in planning educational and human resource 
retraining programs at all levels of government. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census ol" Population 

79 



Question 41 Class of Worker 

In this job or business, was this person mainly: 

• working for wages, salary, tips or commission? 

• working without pay for his/her spouse or another relative in a family farm or 
business? 

• self-employed without paid help (alone or in partnership)? 

• self-employed with paid help (alone or in partnership)? 

Question 42 Incorporation Status 

If self-employed, was this person's farm or business incorporated? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Solicitor General Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
80 



Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Labour Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Centre of Industrial Relations, University of Toronto 

Edmonton, City of 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Laval, Ville de 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• paid workers, 

• unpaid family workers, 

• the self-employed (with and without paid help). 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• small business owners, 

• women, 

• farm women, 

• immigrants. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canada Student Loans Program (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Canadian Occupational Projection System (HRD) 

Employment Operations Branch (HRD) 

Employment Policies (HRD) 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (C&I) 

Immigration Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Labour Market Services (HRD) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

National Advisory Council on Aging (HC) 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Special Measures and Initiative Program Recruitment (PSC) 

Status of Women Canada 

Unemployment Insurance (HRD) 



Questionnaire Content: . 1996 Census of Population 

81 



Purpose 

These questions serve to identify the class of worker for those who have worked since January 1 of the 
year preceding the census. 

Information derived from this question provides important insights into the importance of self-employment 
in various industries and in various occupational categories and the relative rewards of the self-employed 
and employees by occupation. These data are particularly important to managers responsible for small 
business development in understanding the role of small business and the characteristics associated with 
a high incidence of self-employment. The census provides the only available estimates of self- 
employment by detailed industry groups. 

Self-employment in many industrial and occupational categories presupposes access to capital. It has been 
suggested that women, youth and visible minorities do not enjoy equal access to the capital necessary to 
launch businesses. Class-of-worker data are therefore important to determine whether such biases exist, 
to design programs to redress the problem, to evaluate the success of such programs, and to target such 
programs on industries, occupations and areas where the need is greatest. 

Statistics Canada's System of National Accounts requires class-of-worker and income data to benchmark 
estimates of self-employment income in the National Income and Expenditure Accounts. The accuracy 
of this important measure of the economic well-being of the nation is to this extent dependent on census 
data. 

Finally, class-of-worker data are an aid in coding the occupation and industry questions. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

82 



Question 45 Weeks Worked in 1995 

In how many weeks did this person work in 1995? 

Question 46 Full-time or Part-time Work 

During most of those weeks, did this person work full time or part time? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canadian Heritage 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Solicitor General Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Edmonton, City of 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Laval, Ville de 



Target Groups 

These questions identify the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• full-time workers, 

• part-time workers, 

• seasonal workers, 

• fiill-year, full-time workers. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

83 



These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• women, 

• heads of lone-parent families, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• persons with disabilities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Federal Contractors Program (HRD) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

National Child Care Information Centre (HRD) 

Special Measures and Initiative Program Recruitment (PSC) 

Status of Women Canada 

Women's Bureau (HRD) 



Purpose 

These questions are vitally important for the analysis of employment income data. 

All users of income data, be they labour market analysts, regional development planners, or affirmative 
action program managers, require the information from these questions along with occupational and 
educational data to determine whether interregional and intergroup employment income disparities are 
attributable to different qualifications, employment characteristics, labour force experience or, possibly, 
discriminatory remuneration practices. The significance of employment income data would be impaired 
by the absence of these data and incomplete interpretation of income data could lead to misguided policies 
and programs. 

The availability of part-time or seasonal work may be an important determinant of the labour force 
participation of women, persons with disabilities, and heads of lone-parent families. Census data from 
these questions allow program managers to assess the incidence of part-time and seasonal work among 
such designated groups, and to design and evaluate programs to promote the increase of full-time 
employment where desirable. Together with other census information, this question allows program 
managers to analyse the spatial, industrial, occupational and other characteristics of part-time and seasonal 
workers. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
84 



Industry 



"From Agriculture Canada's point of view, it is essential that 
these questions concerning economic activity be retained." 
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 



Question 37 Name of Employer 

For whom did this person work? 

Question 38 Kind of Business 

What kind of business, industry or service was this? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 
Advisory Committee on Labour Statistics 
Calgary, City of 
Edmonton, City of 
Laval, Ville de 



Target Groups 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• women, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• Aboriginal peoples. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

86 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Human Rights Commission 
Canadian Multiculturalism Council (CH) 
Canadian Occupational Projection System (HRD) 
Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 
North American Free Trade Agreement (HRD) 
Status of Women Canada 



Purpose 

These questions are required for the determination of the industry of employment for the experienced 
labour force. The census is the only source of employment information by industry which provides the 
full range of industrial detail covering the entire labour force and producing these data for large and small 
areas alike. 

Information on type of industry is essential for analysis of the economic and industrial growth and 
structure of the country, the optimum utilization of human resources and planning regional and industrial 
support programs. Labour market program managers require industry data together with occupation 
information to forecast occupational demand based on industry growth trends and to plan and evaluate 
training programs. These data are also necessary to determine the requirements for retraining those being 
released by declining industries due to economic restructuring. Indeed, this information can be used to 
identify declining industries. Development of counselling materials to guide the young into expanding 
occupations and industries also requires industry information, as does the elaboration and evaluation of 
immigration policies. 

Managers of industrial support programs require industry data to estimate regional productivity measures 
and to evaluate the need for industrial support. Regional development program managers use industry 
data to evaluate the success of programs designed to enhance development in lagging regions and to track 
the long-term impact of specific development initiatives. Regional development planners also need 
information showing areas dependent on a single industry to assess the risk inherent in such economic 
and social dependency. 

In combination with disability data, industry information provides insight into the health status of 
employees of various industries to assist in the design and execution of occupational health programs. 

Employment equity programs require industry data to promote and evaluate programs designed to ensure 
equitable representation of designated groups such as women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, 
and Aboriginal peoples at all levels of the work place. 

The 1990s are, and will continue to be, a period of rapid change in the industrial and occupational 
structure of the nation as the economy adjusts to global economic restructuring and the impacts of the 
North American Free Trade Agreement. The 1996 Census data will provide invaluable insight into the 
adjustment of Canadians to these changes. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

87 



Occupation 



"(Information from the education questions) combined with 
occupation information and industry information from the 
labour market block, is essential for forecasting supply and 
demand in the workforce. " 
Human Resources Development Canada 



Question 39 Kind of Work 

What kind of work was this person doing? 

Question 40 Most Important Duties 

In this work, what were this person's most important duties or activities? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Advisory Committee on Labour Statistics 

Calgary, City of 

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity 

Laval, Ville de 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

89 



Target Groups 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• women, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• immigrants, 

• unemployed youth, 

• persons with disabilities. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Canadian Multicultural Council (CH) 

Canadian Occupational Projection System (HRD) 

Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (C&I) 

Indian and Inuit Job Mobility (INAC) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

Status of Women Canada 

Unemployment Insurance (HRD) 



Purpose 

These questions determine the occupation of the respondent. While the Labour Force Survey provides 
highly aggregated occupational data, only the census can provide occupational data by detailed industrial 
categories for both large and small areas. 

The information obtained from these questions, when combined with age, education, industry, and labour 
force activity data, allows planners at all levels of government to assess present and future occupational 
supply and demand. The conclusions drawn permit the federal and provincial governments to plan 
vocational, secondary and postsecondary education programs and admission quotas to meet labour force 
requirements. The administration and evaluation of federal government training and retraining programs 
such as the Unemployment Insurance employment training program require detailed current occupational 
and industrial data nationally, regionally and for small areas. Combined with income data, this same 
information permits the development of career guidance materials to inform young people of those 
occupations most required by Canadian industry and those offering the best economic prospects. 

The administration of immigration programs such as the Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program 
also requires an accurate and current appreciation of the occupational requirements of the labour market. 
Programs designed to match employment opportunities to qualified workers require precise information 
on the geographical distribution of the skilled labour force. This information can only be obtained from 
the census. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
90 



Regional development planners require occupation data to assess the ability of particular areas to provide 
the skills necessary to support development initiatives. Industry also uses this information in making 
plant location decisions. 

Employment equity programs require occupation data to develop, administer and evaluate programs 
designed to ensure equitable representation of women, persons with disabilities. Aboriginal peoples, and 
minorities in all occupational groups. Occupational information is also fundamental to the analysis of 
income disparities affecting designated groups and the administration of such programs as the Indian and 
Inuit Job Mobility Program and employment equity legislation. 

Government labour force planners are in agreement that the present pace of technological innovation, as 
indicated by such changes as the electronic office and robotics, will dramatically alter the industrial and 
occupational structure of the Canadian economy. To develop and administer programs designed to 
address current and future human resource requirements and to evaluate the consequences of technological 
change, these planners require regular and detailed readings of the evolution of the labour market. 

Private sector marketers consider occupation to be a key variable in determining the tendency to purchase 
a variety of consumer and business products. The occupation variable is, therefore, useful in targeting 
advertising and product promotion. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

91 



Place of Work 



"The uniform coverage of the place-of-work data for all 

parts of Canada and their high reliability give these data 

unparalleled value in decision-making for policies and 

investments." 

Council of Ministers Responsible for Transportation and 

Highway Safety / Conseil des ministres responsables des 

transports et de la securite routiere 

"I would like to take this opportunity of reaffirming 
Ontario's strong support for continuing the collection and 
processing of the place-of-work variable... these data are 
critical to our understanding of the growing need for 
transportation facilities and for the development of 
transportation policy." 
Province of Ontario, Ministry of Finance 

"The question on the place of work would have to be kept, 

especially in these times when we are increasingly 

preoccupied with urban expansion, its impact on the 

environment, energy savings,...." 

Universite du Quebec, Institut national de la recherche 

scientinque 

"...Place-of-work coding has incredible value beyond the 

field of transportation planning. The ability to profile the 

labour force at their place of work in addition to their place 

of residence is of vital importance to economic development 

initiatives." 

City of Toronto, Planning and Development Department 



Question 43 Place of Work 

At what address did this person usually work? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Emergency Preparedness Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Transport Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Baseline Research 

Burlington, City of 

Calgary, City of 

Canada Ethnocultural Council 

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce 

Canadian Institute of Planners 

Canadian Urban Transit Association 

Council of Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety 

Delcan International Corporation 

Delta, City of 

Departement de demographie, Universite de Montreal 

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto 

E. Fearnley Limited 

Edmonton, City of 

Halifax, City of 

Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Universite du Quebec 

Institute of Transportation Engineers 

Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

93 



Joint Program in Transportation, University of Yoric/Toronto 

Kelowna, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Mission, B.C., City of 

Moncton, City of 

Montreal General Hospital 

Montreal, Societe des transports de la Rive-Sud 

Montreal, Ville de 

Ontario Regional Information Systems Working Group 

Ontario Urban Transit Association 

Ottawa-Carleton, Regional Municipality of 

Ottawa-Carleton Regional Transit Commission, OC Transpo 

Oxford, County of 

Peel, Regional Municipality of 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

Scarborough, City of 

T. Eaton Company 

Toronto, City of 

Transportation Association of Canada 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 



Target Groups 



This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues effecting: 

• commuters, 

• home-based workers, 

• women, 

• persons with disabilities, 

• Aboriginal peoples. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



An Act to amend various legislative provisions respecting municipal finances 

(Quebec) 
Disabled and Handicapped Travellers (TC) 
Framework Convention on Climate Change (EC) 
Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 
National Transportation Act 
Unemployment Insurance Act 
Urban Transportation Assistance Program (TC) 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

94 



Purpose 

A large number of Canada's working population commute to places of work located away from their 
place of residence. Information from the place-of-work question enables us to understand more about 
the commuting phenomenon and its impact on the life of urban society. 

Place-of-work data are used to identify the need for transportation facilities and to locate public services 
such as schools, hospitals, day care and recreation facilities. Since the data show local and regional 
commuter flows, they allow provincial, regional and municipal urban planners and engineers to analyse 
traffic patterns, assess the needs for transportation networks, and plan modifications to existing 
transportation systems. 

Census place-of-work data represent a unique source of daytime demographic information as they enable 
commuting structures to be linked with other census data. In combining place-of-work data with other 
census data, analysts can identify concentrations of university graduates, professionals, part-time workers 
or other segments of the labour force of interest to business owners who can then locate retail and service 
outlets, not where the population lives, but where it works. 

Place-of-work data also identify the population who works at home, and the population who works outside 
Canada. The data therefore lend support to the analysis of such phenomena as employment in cottage 
industries, teleworking, home-based businesses, and the movement of workers across international 
borders. 

The data have a special importance in analysing the differential growth rates of industrialization within 
regions, and the phenomena of dispersion and decentralization of industry from central urban cores areas 
to more peripheral zones in major urban areas. 

Regional development planners and the business community use place-of-work data and the resulting 
commuting flows to establish the extent of labour markets. In particular, place-of-work information is 
necessary to assess the need of the available labour pool for training, so that it can support development 
initiatives. This ability to define labour market areas makes this question important in determining the 
service areas of labour-market-oriented services such as Canada Employment Centres. 

The delineation of census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census agglomerations (CAs) at Statistics 
Canada is dependent on place-of-work data to identify commuting flows between municipalities. CMAs 
are used by Human Resources Development Canada to define the economic regions used to administer 
the Unemployment Insurance Program. These areas are also used in the administration of other 
government programs and in the dissemination of statistics. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

95 



Mode of Transportation 



"As many of the Department's activities focus on air issues 
and ways of reducing emissions, particularly from vehicles, 
the transportation question will assist in planning in this 
area. " 
Environment Canada 

"Since not all cities are able to hold origin-destination 

surveys, and since data from these surveys must be validated 

anyway, the mode of transportation to place of work should 

also be asked...." 

Universite du Quebec, Institut national de la recherche 

scientifique 

"Add 'mode of transportation' - this is a very important 
question and should be available down to the sub-municipal 
level. Special transportation surveys are very difficult and 
expensive to administer across the commuter shed. The 
sample size for such surveys invariably leads to a 
questioning of geographic detail and stratification of high 
growth areas." 
City of Toronto, Planning and Development Department 



Question 44 Transportation to Work 

How did this person usually get to work? 

Selected M^or Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Emergency Preparedness Canada 

Environment Canada 

Health Canada 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Justice Canada 

Transport Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce 

Canadian Institute of Planners 

Canadian Urban Transit of Association 

Council of Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety 

Delcan International Corporation 

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto 

E. Fearnley Limited 

Edmonton, City of 

Federation des communautes francophones et acadienne du Canada 

Franco-Ontarian Education and Training Council 

Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Universite du Quebec 

Institute of Transportation Engineers 

Joint Program in Transportation, University of York/Toronto 

Laval, Ville de 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Montr6al, Societe des transports de la Rive-Sud 

Ontario Urban Transit Association 

Ottawa-Carleton, Regional Municipality of 

Ottawa-Carleton Regional Transit Commission, OC Transpo 

Oxford, County of 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

Scarborough, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

97 



Toronto, City of 

Transportation Association of Canada 

Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-group within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• those employed outside the home. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• commuters. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canadian Environmental Protection Act 

Energy Efficiency Act 

Framework Convention on Climate Change (EC) 

Fuel Consumption Standards (EC) 

Motor Vehicle Safety Act 

National Transportation Act 

NOx/VOC Management Plan (EC) 



Purpose 



This question, new for the 1996 Census, is being asked to provide national transportation data at the 
request of users from all levels of government as well as those in the private sector. Transportation 
information is important to transportation planners and engineers, transit commissions and market 
researchers. When used in combination with place-of-work data, information on main mode of 
transportation used to travel to work can be used to plan urban growth and transportation networks in 
urban, fringe and rural areas. The emerging need for analysis of transportation energy consumption and 
environmental impacts on a nation-wide basis provide fiirther impetus for this information. 

Uniform coverage in all parts of Canada and high reliability give mode-of-transportation information 
unparalleled value in decision making for transportation planning policy and investment. The information 
can also be used to calibrate surveys, such as a travel to work survey. In addition, it can be used to 
monitor Canadian , competitiveness and productivity by providing an indication of the efficiency and 
effectiveness of our transportation system. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
98 



Income 



"Income levels are one of the most used figures by our 
department. Individual income, household income, spousal 
income are important in determining recommendations." 
New Brunswick Statistics Agency 

"Data on income is very important in that it provides 
information both on the off-farm income as well as the total 
income of the farm family." 
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

"The existing questions on income are sufficient and should 
be retained." 
Justice Canada 

"The Department (City of Edmonton, Planning and 

Development Department) supports the retention of measures 

of income of individuals and households." 

City of Edmonton, Planning and Development 

Department 



Question 47 Income in 1995 



During the year ending December 31, 1995, did this person receive any income 
from the sources listed below? 

(a) Total wages and salaries 

(b) Net farm income 

(c) Net non-farm income from unincorporated business, professional practice, etc. 

(d) Old Age Security Pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement and Spouse's 
Allowance 

(e) Benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan 

(f) Benefits from Unemployment Insurance 

(g) Other income from government sources 

(h) Dividends, interest on bonds, deposits and savings certificates, and other 
investment income 

(i) Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities 

(j) Other money income 

TOTAL INCOME FROM ALL OF THE ABOVE SOURCES 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

Environment Canada 

Foreign Affairs and International Trade 

Human Resources Development Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Public Service Commission of Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Status of Women Canada 

Treasury Board of Canada 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

100 



Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

Baseline Research 

Bibliotheque de I'Universite Laval 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Ethnocultural Council 

Canadian Federation of Independent Business 

Compusearch 

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta 

Edmonton, City of 

Four Directions Consulting Group 

Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Universite du Quebec 

Laval, Ville de 

Ontario Urban Transit Association 

Regina, City of 

Richmond, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Toronto, City of 

Vancouver, City of 

Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Regional District 



Target Groups 

This question identifies the following sub-groups within the Canadian population aged 15 and over: 

• individual earnings, 

• family income levels, 

• household income levels. 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• lone-parent families, 

• low income families and individuals, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors, 

• persons with disabilities, 

• children, 

• women, 

• visible minorities, 

• linguistic minorities, 

• immigrants. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

101 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Age Exemptions (RC) 

Blind and Disabled Deductions (RC) 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Canadian Human Rights Act 

Canadian Human Rights Commission 

Child Care Deductions (RC) 

Child Tax Benefit (HRD/RC) 

Good and Services Tax Credit (RC) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Legislated Employment Equity Program (HRD) 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Provincial Income Supplements (Provinces/Territories) 

Provincial Taxation and Shelter Assistance Programs (Provinces/Territories) 

Quebec Family Allowance 

Quebec Pension Plan 

Social Assistance (Provinces and Municipalities) 

Spouse's Allowance (HRD) 

Unemployment Insurance (HRD) 

Veterans' Affairs Programs (VAC) 

Workers' Compensation Programs (Provinces) 



Purpose 



Income is a key indicator of economic well-being and therefore of intergroup and interregional disparities. 
The census is the only data source permitting measurement of incomes of individuals (including non-tax 
filers), families and households for small areas and for specific groups such as immigrants, linguistic 
minorities, and Aboriginal peoples. For many purposes, family incomes and household incomes are the 
most pertinent. 

Furthermore, the census is the only data source which has a sample size large enough to allow detailed 
cross-classifications to analyse the incomes of small but socially significant populations such as the elderly 
and lone-parent families. In addition, cross-classification enables analysts to consider such aspects as 
occupation, full- and part-time work, and level of education for any of these populations. 

Census income data permit a detailed examination of income levels within and among groups of 
individuals, families and households. The data on income sources (employment income, government 
transfer payments, investment income, and other income) allow analysis of income composition and the 
share of various groups in incomes generated by these sources. Census income information serves as an 
important benchmark and evaluation criterion for other income statistics. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
102 



Income data are necessary to formulate and evaluate income maintenance programs such as pension plans, 
unemployment insurance, and welfare. In particular, census information supports the study of the 
adequacy of the incomes of seniors. Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and lone-parent families. 
It allows the assessment of the economic dependency of a group or geographical area on government 
transfer payments and can guide development programs designed to redress such dependencies. Income 
information also supports analysis of such issues as the impact of unemployment insurance on the 
incentive to work. 

In combination with sex, age, occupation, education and other census data, income data are essential to 
the analysis of labour market rewards of men and women, the study of the application of the Canadian 
Human Rights Act principle of equal pay for work of equal value, and the study and resolution of such 
problems as the adequacy of incomes of elderly women and pensions for homemakers. These data also 
provide career planning information to students. Furthermore, these data are used extensively in disputes 
and litigations relating to loss of earnings as a result of accidents. Census income information permits 
the study of income differences with respect to ethno-cultural groups and visible or linguistic minorities, 
and enables these groups to analyse their relative position in Canadian society. Census income data are 
one of the most commonly used explanatory variables in the analysis of other socio-demographic 
variables. 

Family income information identifies low income families and, when tabulated with other census data, 
permits the study of the related factors (language skills, education, occupation, family characteristics) and 
consequences (housing adequacy, proportion of income spent on shelter costs). Finally, this body of 
information contributes to the development and targeting of social programs such as public housing. 

The business community also reports extensive use of income data in market analysis to determine the 
ability of particular areas to support retail or service outlets and to determine the potential market 
nationally, regionally or locally for consumer goods and services. Media advertising sales staff use 
census income and other information to establish how characteristics of their readership or audience, 
determined from their own sources, compare with the general population in order to solicit advertising 
aimed at their specific audience and estimate penetration of various subpopulations. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

103 



Dwellings 



"CMHC uses census data in support of its many roles and 
mandates; in developing policy advice for the federal 
government; in planning, delivering and evaluating 
programs; in analysing housing market trends, monitoring 
housing needs; projecting requirements; in managing its 
subsidised stock and real estate portfolio etc." 
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

"Although the information on number of bedrooms and 
dwelling condition may be available in some municipalities, 
the province (of Alberta) has no consistent or reliable data 
other than that provided by Statistics Canada. These 
questions assist us in determining the adequacy and 
renovation needs of the existing housing stock in Alberta. " 
Alberta Municipal Affairs 

"Lastly, with regard to our planning process, this 
information is needed at a disaggregated geographic level. 
We believe the census is the most appropriate and most 
credible vehicle available for the operations we have to 
conduct with this type of information. " 
Societe d'habitation du Quebec 



Question HI Household Maintainer(s) 

Who pays the rent or mortgage, taxes, electricity, etc., for this dwelling? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Environment Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 
National Housing Research Committee 
Toronto, City of 



Target Groups 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• lone-parent families, 

• low income families, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 

Canada Assistance Plan (HRD) 
Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 
Child Tax Benefit (HRD/RC) 
National Housing Act 
Research Programs (CMHC) 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

105 



Purpose 

Shelter is one of the basic necessities of life. Housing questions are asked in order to evaluate present 
conditions and future housing needs. The data compiled from these questions are used by federal 
departments and agencies concerned with the affordability of housing, municipal planners, provincial 
housing ministries, and members of the construction and real estate industries. 

For the 1996 Census, no housing questions are asked on the short questionnaire (Form 2A). Unlike 
earlier censuses, all of the housing questions in 1996 are asked on the long questionnaire (Form 2B) 
completed by 20% of households. 

The concept of "household maintainer" (Question HI) has become important in determining economic 
relationships between families and related individuals who are dependent or supportive. The 1991 Census 
marked the first time it was possible to identify more than one household maintainer. Together with 
Question 2 (Relationship to Person 1), this question can provide a picture of complex family living 
arrangements. It allows analysts to determine, for instance, whether the elderly are sharing a dwelling 
with their children, and, if so, which of the family units is assuming most or all of the responsibility for 
the upkeep of the dwelling. It is also possible to determine this relationship for younger families living 
with parents. Information from this question allows analysis of the prevalence of doubling up among 
lone-parent families and the incidence of absentee household maintainers. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
106 



Question 112 Owned or Rented 

Is this dwelling: 

- owned by you or a member of this household (even if it is still being paid for)? 

- rented (even if no cash rent is paid)? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 
Environment Canada 
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 
Revenue Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Demographic Statistics and Studies 
Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 
Co-operative Housing Federation of Canada 
Co-operative Housing Federation of Montreal 
National Housing Research Committee 
User's Group of York University 



Target Groups 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• low income families, 

• lone-parent families, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors, 

• immigrants. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

107 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



First Home Loan Insurance Program (CMHC) 

National Housing Act 

Housing Assistance for Native and Senior Independence (CMHC) 

Mortgage Loan Insurance Program (CMHC) 

Non-Profit Housing Program (CMHC/Provinces) 

Rent Supplement Program (CMHC/Provinces) 

RRSP for Home Buyers' Plan (CMHC) 

Rural and Native Housing Program (CMHC) 

Urban Native Non-Profit Housing Program (CMHC/Provinces) 

Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program (CMHC) 



Purpose 



Data on household tenure allow analysts to estimate the amount of rental and owned housing stock. 
Together with information on structural type (obtained by the enumerator), tenure data allow the 
evaluation of the adequacy of this housing stock to meet the needs of Canadians, especially low income 
groups. 

Tenure information is also used to assess the impact of government policies such as rent control on the 
stock of rental accommodation. It permits the evaluation of government housing initiatives and indicates 
the need for expansion or contraction of programs at the federal and provincial levels. 

Tenure data permit the analysis of trends towards increasing or declining home ownership. Other census 
information such as income or demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status) can then be used to 
help explain these trends. Understanding developing housing trends is important to the direction of funds 
towards programs such as consumer-targeted financing of condominium and traditional dwellings and 
developer-targeted financing of multi-unit residential rental projects. 

Unlike earlier censuses, in 1996, this question is only asked on the long questionnaire (Form 2B) 
completed by 20% of households. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
108 



Question H3 Number of Rooms and Bedrooms 

(a) How many rooms are there in this dwelling? 

(b) How many of these rooms are bedrooms? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

ARA Consulting Group 

Association provinciale des constructeurs d'habitation du Quebec 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Home Builders' Association 

Co-operative Housing Federation of Canada 

Edmonton, City of 

Halifax, City of 

Matsqui, District Municipality of 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Montreal, Ville de 

National Housing Research Committee 

Richmond, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

109 



Target Groups 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• low income families, 

• lone-parent families, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Housing Assistance for Native and Senior Independence (CMHC) 

National Housing Act 

Non-Profit Housing Program (CMHC/Provinces) 

Social Housing Portfolio Management (CMHC) 



Purpose 



Number of rooms and bedrooms in a dwelling, when related to household size, can be used to obtain a 
measure of crowding by housing authorities and agencies engaged in community planning and 
improvement projects. It is therefore an important indicator of housing conditions and quality of life. 
Crowding can be studied both by geographic area and in relation to designated groups such as the poor, 
new immigrants, the elderly or lone-parent families. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
110 



Question H4 Period of Construction 

When was this dwelling originally built? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Environment Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

ARA Consulting Group 

Association provincial des constructeurs d'habitation du Quebec 

Canadian Home Builders' Association 

Co-operative Housing Federation of Canada 

Edmonton, City of 

Metropolitan Toronto, Municipality of 

Montreal, Ville de 

National Housing Research Committee 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• low income families, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors, 

• lone-parent families. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

111 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada-Quebec Rehabilitation Assistance Program (CMHC/Quebec) 

Emergency Repair Program (CMHC) 

Public Housing Programs (CMHC) 

Research Programs (CMHC) 

Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program (CMHC) 

Rural and Native Housing Program (CMHC) 



Purpose 



Age of dwelling is an important variable in assessing the adequacy of the housing stock in general and, 
in particular, of the housing stock occupied by such designated groups as lone-parent families, new 
immigrants, seniors, and Aboriginal peoples. Information can also be derived on the life cycle of 
residential buildings, the need for new housing, areas of rapid expansion, and areas requiring renovation. 

Census data are required to formulate and evaluate housing renovation and renewal programs such as the 
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's (CMHC) Emergency Repair Program and Residential 
Rehabilitation Assistance Program and to direct fiinds to areas of acute need. 

Target group housing programs such as the Rural and Native Housing Program also require census data 
to locate target group members, assess housing needs and characteristics, and formulate and evaluate 
programs and policies designed to improve standards of housing. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
112 



Question H5 Need for Repairs 

Is this dwelling in need of any repairs? 

Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Environment Canada 

Finance Canada 

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Justice Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

ARA Consulting Group 

Association provinciale des constructeurs d'habitation du Quebec 

Calgary, City of 

Canadian Home Builders' Association 

Co-operative Housing Federation of Canada 

Edmonton, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Montreal, Ville de 

National Housing Research Committee 

Regina, City of 

The Vanier Institute of the Family 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

113 



Target Groups 

This question provides an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• low income families, 

• lone-parent families, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors. 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Canada-Quebec Rehabilitation Assistance Program (CMHC/Quebec) 

Core Need Analysis (CMHC) 

Emergency Repair Program (CMHC) 

National Housing Act 

Non-Profit Housing Program (CMHC/Provinces) 

Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program (CMHC) 

Rural and Native Housing Program (CMHC) 

Urban Native Non-Profit Housing Program (CMHC/Provinces) 



Purpose 



This question provides a measure of the condition of the housing stock. While the information obtained 
is based on a subjective assessment from the owner or tenant, the question provides a general indication 
of the state of building repair. 

For housing policy makers and program managers, the data collected by this question serve as a 
benchmark to measure the effectiveness of government programs aimed at restoring and renovating the 
housing stock. 

For the construction and home renovation industry, the question provides an indication of the size and 
location of potential markets. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
114 



Question H6 



Yearly Payments 

For this dwelling, what are the yearly payments (last 12 months) for: 

(a) electricity? 

(b) oil, gas, coal, wood, or other ftiels? 

(c) water and other municipal services? 



Question H7 Shelter Costs - Renter 

For RENTERS only: 

What is the monthly rent paid for this dwelling? 

Question H8 Shelter Costs - Owner 

For OWNERS only, answer parts (a) through (t): 

(a) What are the total regular monthly mortgage or loan payments for this 
dwelling? 

(b) Are the property taxes (municipal and school) included in the amount shown 
in part (a)? 

(c) What are the estimated yearly property taxes (municipal and school) for this 
dwelling? 

(d) If you were to sell this dwelling now, for how much would you expect to sell 
it? 

(e) Is this dwelling part of a registered condominium? 

(f) What are the monthly condominium fees? 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

115 



Selected Major Users 

Federal Agencies and Departments 

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Environment Canada 

Indian and Nortliern Affairs Canada 

Industry Canada 

Revenue Canada 

Provinces and Territories 

All provinces and territories 

Other 

Advisory Committee on Health Statistics 

ARA Consulting Group 

Association provincial des constructeurs d' habitation du Quebec 

Burlington, City of 

Canadian Home Builders' Association 

Co-operative Housing Federation of Canada 

Edmonton, City of 

Laval, Ville de 

Montreal, Ville de 

National Housing Research Committee 

Richmond, City of 

Toronto, City of 

User's Group of York University 

Vancouver, City of 



Target Groups 

These questions provide an important characteristic for the analysis of issues affecting: 

• low income families, 

• Aboriginal peoples, 

• seniors, 

• persons with disabilities, 

• immigrants. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 

116 



Legislative and Program Requirements 



Affordability Index (CMHC) 

Canada Pension Plan (HRD) 

Core Need Analysis (CMHC) 

First Home Loan Insurance Program (CMHC) 

Guaranteed Income Supplement (HRD) 

Housing Assistance for Native and Senior Independence (CMHC) 

Indian and Inuit Housing (INAC) 

National Housing Act 

Old Age Security (HRD) 

Rent Supplement Program (CMHC/Provinces) 

Social Housing Assistance (CMHC) 



Purpose 



Information on household expenditures for utilities, municipal services, rent, mortgages and property 
taxes is essential in estimating shelter costs. These costs, and their variations when related to different 
geographical areas, types of dwelling, household income, etc., provide meaningful input to the 
development, administration and evaluation of programs related to housing, welfare, and the provision 
of public utilities. 

Affordability of housing is an important issue with respect to many designated groups such as seniors, 
low income families, and Aboriginal peoples. With respect to home owning seniors, information from 
this question provides insight into aspects of their financial security, including factors such as their ability 
to pay taxes and related home ownership costs. 

The 1991 Census was the first time that question H8(t) (monthly condominium fees) was asked. This 
was implemented so that policy analysts and developers could identify households participating in this 
relatively recent form of home ownership and analyse their characteristics. 

The portion of the question concerning mortgages allows government planners and fmancial institutions 
to determine how much of the housing stock is mortgaged and therefore contributes to estimates of the 
future need for mortgage funds. 

The portion of the question concerning value of dwelling provides information necessary to estimate the 
value of national, regional and local housing stocks. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

117 



Appendices 



Appendix 1 



Abbreviations Used for Federal Government Departments 



(Agr.) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 

(CMHC) Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

(CH) Canadian Heritage 

(C&I) Citizenship and Immigration Canada 

(EC) Environment Canada ' 

(HC) Health Canada 

(HRD) Human Resources Development Canada 

(INAC) Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 

(IC) Industry Canada 

(PSC) Public Service Commission of Canada 

(RC) Revenue Canada 

(STC) Statistics Canada 

(SWC) Status of Women Canada 

(TC) Transport Canada 

(VAC) Veterans Affairs Canada 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
120 



Appendix 2 



Statutory References to the Census 
A. Constitutional Law 

(a) A decennial census in the year 1871 and every tenth year thereafter is required under section 8 
of the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly named the British North America Act, 1867). 

(b) Conduct of the census is made a responsibility of the federal government under section 91, 
subsection 6 of the Constitution Act, 1867. 

(c) Representation in the House of Commons is made dependent on decennial census data under 
section 51 of the Constitution Act, 1867, as amended by the Representation Act, 1974. 

(d) The amending formula for the Constitution Act is made dependent on population data from the 
"latest general census" under section 38 of the Canada Act, 1982. 

(e) A number of provisions relating provincial subsidies to population have been legislated and 
amended over the years. The following is a summary of this legislation: 

• The Manitoba Act, 1870, section 25, made the federal subsidy in support of the provincial 
government dependent on the decennial census. It is no longer in effect. 

• TTie British Columbia Terms of Union, 1871, Schedule, part 3, made the federal subsidy in 
support of the provincial government dependent on the decennial census. It is no longer in 
effect. 

• TTie Prince Edward Island Terms of Union, 1873, Schedule, made the federal subsidy in 
support of the provincial government dependent on the decennial census. It is no longer in 
effect. 

• The Alberta Act, 1905, section 18, made a federal subsidy to the province dependent on a 
quinquennial census of the population. It is no longer in effect. 

• The Saskatchewan Act, 1905, section 18, made a federal subsidy to the province dependent 
on a quinquennial census of the population. It is no longer in effect. 

• The Constitution Act, 1907, section 1 and Schedule, replaced the above legislation with 
respect to subsidies to individual provinces with a general formula for a subsidy based on 
decennial census population counts with respect to all provinces except the three Prairie 
provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba), and based on quinquennial census 
population counts in the cases of the three Prairie provinces. The provisions with respect 
to the three Prairie provinces are no longer in effect. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Censu.s of Population 

121 



• 



The Constitution Act, 1930, Schedule, replaced the 1907 legislation with respect to the three 
Prairie provinces. A subsidy was made payable to these provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan 
and Manitoba) based on quinquennial census population counts and variable with these counts 
up to a maximum population of 1,200,000. These provisions are still in effect. 

Legal opinions provided to Statistics Canada indicate a constitutional obligation to conduct 
a quinquennial census of the Prairie provinces exists until such time as their populations 
exceed one million, two hundred thousand. Since 1961 the population of Alberta has 
exceeded 1,220,000. 

The Newfoundland Act, 1949, Schedule, part 26, made a federal subsidy to that province 
dependent on decennial census population counts. This provision is still in effect. 



(f) Representation of Alberta and Saskatchewan in the House of Commons was made dependent 
on the mid-decade census of those provinces for the first mid-decade census subsequent to their 
creation only (i.e. 1906). Thereafter, representation was to be based on the decennial Census 
of Canada {Alberta Act, 1905, section 6; Saskatchewan Act, 1905, section 6). 



B. Historical Antecedents to tlie Statistics Act (R.S.C. 1985) 

1870 The Census Act (33 Victoria, Chapter 21) was passed authorizing the decennial census 
of 1871 . The Act did not provide for subsequent censuses. It provided only for a census of 
the four initial provinces of Confederation. 

1871 An Act to Amend the Census Act (34 Victoria, Chapter 18). This Act served to extend the 
geographical coverage of the census to those territories which subsequently joined the union 
(i.e. Manitoba, Rupert's Land, etc.). 

1879 The Census and Statistics Act (42 Victoria, Chapter 21) was passed, repealing the Census Act 
of 1871 as amended. It required a census be taken in 1881 and every tenth year thereafter. 

1885 An Act to Provide for the Taking of a Census in the Province of Manitoba, the North-West 
Territories and the District of Keewatin (48 Victoria, Chapter 3). This Act provided for a 
mid-decade census in the Prairie provinces in the years 1885 and 1886. 

1905 The Census and Statistics Act (1905) was passed (4-5 Edward VII, Chapter 5), repealing 
previous legislation. This Act provided for a decennial census of all provinces and territories 
and a mid-decade census of the Prairie provinces. It initially referred to the provinces of 
Alberta and Saskatchewan as territories but was subsequently amended in 1905 (4-5 
Edward VII, Chapter 6) to name the newly created provinces. 

1918 The Statistics Act (1918) was passed (8-9 George V, Chapter 43), repealing the Census and 
Statistics Act of 1905. It provided for a decennial census of Canada and a mid-decade census 
of the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 



Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
122 



1948 The Statistics Act (1948) was passed (11-12 George VI, Chapter 45), repealing the Statistics 
Act (1918). It contained the same provisions with respect to the geographical coverage of 
decennial and mid-decade censuses as did the Act of 1918. 

1955 While the provisions of the Statistics Act (1948) regarding mid-decade censuses remained 
unchanged, the government employed an Order in Council (P.C. 1955-1069) to extend the 
mid-decade census to cover the entire country. This order was presumably made under 
section 33 of the Statistics Act (1948) which gave the Governor in Council broad powers to 
prescribe "statistical investigations". 

1965 While the provisions of the Statistics Act (1948) remained unchanged, the government again 
employed an Order in Council (P.C. 1965-449) to extend the mid-decade census to cover the 
entire country. This order was again presumably made under section 33 of the Statistics Act. 

1971 The Statistics Act (1970-71-72) was passed, repealing the Statistics Act (1948). This Act, 
which is still in effect, prescribes that a quinquennial census of population be conducted in 
all parts of Canada (i.e. a census every five years). 

1985 Statistics Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. S-19, sections 3, 19, 20 and 21. This Act is a consolidation 
of previous statutes. 



C. Other Federal Statutes 

A number of other federal statutes or regulations refer implicitly or explicitly to census data, census- 
based population estimates or census geography: 

(a) Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Federal Post-Secondary Education and Health 
Contributions Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. F-8 

The Act prescribes the use of population estimates from Statistics Canada to calculate fiscal 
equalization and established program payments by the federal government to the provinces. 
Section 4 of the Tax Collection Agreements and Federal Post-Secondary Education and Health 
Contribution Regulations, 1987, enacted pursuant to the above noted Act, provides that in 
determining the population of a province for purposes of a contribution or payment in the fiscal 
year beginning on April 1, 1991, the 1991 Census shall be used, and in subsequent years, the 
estimates as provided by Statistics Canada. 

(b) Canada Elections Act, R.S.C. 1985 as amended, c. E-2, sections 3 and 198 

This Act refers to the list of electoral districts named and described in a representation order 
declared pursuant to the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act currently in force. This Act 
also refers to the use of census population counts to determine costs associated with the holding 
of federal elections and related activities. 



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(c) Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act, R.S.C. 1994, c. C-\S 

This Act prescribes the use of population data from the census for readjustment of federal 
electoral district boundaries. 

(d) Canada Council Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-2, subsection 15(2) 

This Act prescribes that funds available under the university capital grants fund be allocated to 
provinces in accordance with population. 

(e) Canada Pension Plan Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-8, subsection 1 14(5) 

This Act provides that amendments to the plan require consent of participating provinces 
representing two-thirds of the population of all participating provinces; population to be 
determined by Statistics Canada population estimates. 

(t) Canada Student Loans Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. S-23, subsection 16(4) 

The Act provides for allocation of loan funds to a province based on the proportion of 
Canada's 18- to 25-years old that live in the province. The respective populations (national and 
provincial) are to be determined by Statistics Canada estimates. 

(g) Provincial Subsidies Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. P-26, section 4 

The Act is one of several which provides for payment of subsidies to the provinces. This 
section specifically refers to Manitoba's subsidy based on population figures derived from the 
census. 

(h) Railway Relocation and Crossing Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. R-4, subsection 2(1) 

This Act prescribes use of the most recent census data for the definition of urban areas for the 
purposes of the Act. 

(i) Industrial and Regional Development Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. 1-8, section 2 

This Act prescribes use of census geography in establishing a development index while the 
index itself may potentially employ census data. The word "district" in the Act is defined as 
a "census division established by Statistics Canada for the purpose of tabulating and publishing 
census data". 

0) Municipal Grants Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. M-13 

Paragraph 2(i)(h) refers to certain "urban" property as defined by Statistics Canada as of the 
most recent census. 



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(k) Employment Equity Act, Employment Equity Regulations, 1986, section 2 

In this Act, the "designated CM A" is defined as follows: "designated CM A means the census 
metropolitan area of a city referred to in Schedule I and illustrated in the Statistics Canada 
publication Reference Maps, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, published 
May 1982". 

(1) National Housing Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. N-1 1, section 2 

This Act defines metropolitan area as "a city together with one or more adjacent municipalities 
in close economic relation with the city". This is very similar to the definition of a census 
metropolitan area. 

(m) A number of federal statutes permit the use of nominal census records for proof of age: 

• Canada Pension Plan Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-8, section 87; 

• Old Age Security Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. 0-9; 

• War Veterans Allowance Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. W-3. 



D. Provincial Statutes 

Many provincial statutes and regulations also implicitly or explicitly refer to census data. The 
following is a partial list: 



Newfoundland 

Electoral Boundaries Act, R.S.N. 1990, c. E-4, subsection 13(2) 

• Requires population of the province according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

Schools Act, R.S.N. 1990, c. S-12 , section 85 

• Requires population data on religion according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



New Brunswick 

Municipal Assistance Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. M-19, section 7 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



Quebec 

Act respecting the Conseil de la sante et du bien etre, R.S.Q. c. C-56.3, section 3 
• Requires information on population characteristics (socio-cultural, ethno-cultural, linguistic, 
demographic). 



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125 



Act respecting municipal and intermunicipal transit corporations, R.S.Q. c. C-70, section 25 

• Requires municipal population data. 

Election Act, R.S.Q. c. E-3.3, section 15 

• Requires population data. 

Act to secure the handicapped in the exercise of their rights, R.S.Q. c. E-20. 1 , section 25 

• Requires data on persons with disabilities. 

Act respecting municipal territorial organization, R.S.Q. c. 0-9, section 30 

• Requires population data. 



Ontario 

Assessment Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. A. 31, section 15 

• Requires population data. 

Education Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E.2, section 27 

• Requires population data by age. 

Juries Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. J. 3, subsection 6(2) 

• Requires population data. 

Municipal Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. M.45, sections 1, 30-33 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



Manitoba 

The Electoral Divisions Act, R.S.M. 1987, c. E-40, section 9 

• Requires the total population of the province according to the latest census taken by Statistics 
Canada. 

ne Health Services Act, R.S.M. 1987, c. H-30, section 80 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

ne Liquor Control Act, R.S.M. 1988, c. L-160, section 1 

• Requires population data according to the latest census. 

The Manitoba Natural Resources Act, R.S.M. 1987, c. N-30, section 20 

• Requires population data according to the latest quinquennial census. 

ne Municipal Act, R.S.M. 1988, c. M-225, subsections 2(1), 41(3) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



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The Unconditional Grants Act, R.S.M. 1987, c. U-10, section 1, and subsections 3(1), 4(1) and 4(2) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

The Water Supply Commissions Act, R.S.M. 1988, c. W-100, subsection 21(2) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



Saskatchewan 

The Community Health Unit Act, S.S. 1979, c. C-19.1, subsection 3(1) 

• Requires population data of the province according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

The Fire Departments Platoon Act, R.S.S. 1978, c. F-14, section 3 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

The Liquor Licensing Act, R.S.S. 1978, c. L-21, section 62 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by. Statistics Canada. 

The Municipal Assessment Act, S.S. 1979-80, c. M-23.1, subsection 3(5) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

The Public Health Act, R.S.S. 1978, c. P-37, paragraph AA{\){h) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

The Saskatchewan Assessment Act, S.S. 1980-81, c. S-6. 1, subsection 8(3) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

The Tuberculosis Sanatoria and Hospitals Act, R.S.S. 1978, c. T-24, paragraph 25{2)(b) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



Alberta 

County Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. C-27, sections 22, 24, and paragraphs 5(4)(a) and (h) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 

Municipal and School Administration Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. M-29, paragraph \8(3){h) 

• Requires population data of a city or town according to the latest census taken by Statistics 
Canada. 

Municipal Government Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. M-26, subsections 124(2), 125(2) 

• Requires population data of a municipality according to the latest census taken by Statistics 
Canada. 

Property Tax Reduction Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. P-19, paragraph 27(3)(a) 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 



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127 



British Columbia 



STATISTICS CANADA LIBRARY 
BIBLIOTHEQUE STATISTIQUE CANADA 



1010219957 



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Municipal Act, R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 290, sections 1, 20, 775 

• Requires population data according to the latest census taken by Statistics Canada. 





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Questionnaire Content: 1996 Census of Population 
128