Skip to main content

Full text of "1. Submarine valleys on the Pacific Coast of the United States. 2. Standard geodetic data. 3. Early Spanish voyages of discovery on the coast of California"

See other formats


o 



E 

125 
D3 




BANCROFT 
LIBRARY 

o 

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 






1 . Submarine Valleys on the Pacific Coast 

of the United States. 

2. Standard Geodetic Data 

3. Early Spanish Voyages of Discovery 

on the Coast of California. 



BY Prof. CEO., DAVIDSON, A. M., Ph. D. 



Extract from Bulletin 6, California Academy of Sciences. 



Tf-ffI .F/f'CFOFT 
I o o C q 4- 



"t 

SUBMARINE VALLEYS ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 265 



SUBMARINE VALLEYS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE 
UNITED STATE3, 

BY GEORGE DAVIDSON. 
Read at the Meeting of October 4th, 1886. 
(This p per was illustrated witlw diagrams.) 

The plateau of the Pa ific Ocean reaches a depth of 2,000 
to 2,400 fathoms within as little as forty or fifty miles of the 
Coast to the southward of Cape Mendocino. The descent 
to these profound depths is not uniform, however, except 
off the high range of the Santa Lucia. Generally there is a 
marginal plateau of ten miles out to the hundred fathom 
curve, and then the descent is sharp to five or six hundred 
fathoms. Off the level and shallDw plateau of the Gulf of 
the Faralloues, the descent is rapid within five miles of the 
South East Farallones, and reaches 2,000 fathoms in fifty 
miles. The determination of these great depths we owe to 
the deep sea soundings of Commodore Balknap, of which 
a full discussion was presented by me to the Academy in 
1873-4. 

Into this marginal plateau of one hundred fathoms there 
have been developed, in the course of the operations of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, several remarka 
ble submarine valleys. Notably that in Monterev Bay, 
heading to the low lands at the great bend of the Salinas 
River; and that off Point Hueneme at the eastern entrance to 
the Santa Barbara Channel, also heading into the low coast 
at the wide opening of the Santa Clara Valley. Then there 
are one or two near the mouth of the Laguna Mugu, two or 
three oft' the southern point of Carmel Bay, while the deep 
est one enters far into the Bay. These all have remarkable 
characteristics which I have heretofore brought to the no 
tice of the Academy. 

21 BULL. CAL. ACAD. Sci. II. 6. Issued January 11, 1887. 



266 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Submarine Valley 1. The latest developments of sub 
marine valleys are near the high, bold coast under Cape 
Mendocino. A submarine ridge runs southward from 
Point Delgada at Shelter Cove, in latitude 40 01', for ten 
miles or more. Bat the depth of the marginal plateau at 
100 fathoms is about six or seven miles from the shore. 
Just north of this bank, off Shelter Cove, there has been 
developed a deep submarine valley where it breaks through 
the marginal plateau and runs sharply into the immmediate 
coast-line under the culminating point of the crest-line of 
mountains. The head of this submarine valley is 100 fath 
oms deep at one and a quarter miles from the shore, and 
the depth of 25 fathoms almost reaches to the rocks under 
the cliifs. The mountain peak toward which it points is 
4,236 feet above the sea and only two and a half miles in 
side the shore line. The 100 fathom line lies six miles off 
Point Delgada, but where the valley breaks through the 
marginal plateau the depth reaches 400 fathoms. The slopes 
of the sides of this valley are very steep. 

Submarine Valley II. Hence northwestward to Point 
Gorda the 100 fathom line of soundings continues nearly 
parallel with the coast line except about midway, where a 
minor submarine valley 300 to 150 fathoms deep stretches 
sharply toward the shore, and within two and a half miles 
thereof. The head lies two and a half miles south by east 
from Spanish Flat, under the mount tins. But immediately 
north of the point, there is a very deep submarine valley 
which come^ in from the westsouthwest. and heads close un 
der the shore three miles north of Point Gorda, and there 
fore less than a mile north of the mouth of the Mattole 
Kiver. 

The head of this great submarine valley, at the 30 fathom 
line, is only one-third of a mile from the shore in latitude 
40 18J'. The depth of 100 fathoms in the valley is only 
one and a half miles from shore, and the sides of the valley 



SUBMARINE VALLEYS ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 267 

are remarkably steep. The 100 fathom curve of the valley 
comes close between the general 30 fathom curve on the 
north and south, where they are one-third of a mile apart. 

The opening of this valley through the edge of the 100 
fathom plateau is 520 fathoms deep, and is only six miles S. 
62 W. from Point Gorda. The barrier of coast line at the 
head of this valley is over 2,000 feet high. 

Submarine Valley III. Between Point Gorda and Cape 
Mendocino there is a second submarine valley, a little 
nearer to the cape. It comes in from the westward, but 
does not indent the 20 fathom line along the shore, but the 
depth of 100 fathoms in the valley is only one-third of a 
mile outside the regular 25 fathom coast line, and lies five 
miles S. by E. from Cape Mendocino light house. 

The 450 fathom sounding in the entrance to the valley is 
only six and a half miles SW. by S. from the cape, and this 
valley is comparatively wide. Its north side is formed by a 
30 fathom submarine plateau extending five miles from the 
cape. This valley heads under the great mountain mass, 
rising behind Cape Mendocino and reaching 3,400 feet ele 
vation. 

The bottom of the valley is green mud, and yet in two 
places, at depths of 320 fathoms, broken shells were brought 
up witli gravel. Both slopes of the valley are green mud 
up to about 30 or 35 fathoms, when the bottom changes to 
fine gray sand. 

Between the two submarine valleys of Point Gorda (II.) 
and Cape Mendocino (III.), the submarine ridge carries 50 
fathoms out for four and a quarter miles from shore; the 
bottom is green mud outside of 35 to 40 fathoms, with fine 
gray sand inside. 

Northward of the Cape Meudocino submarine valley, the 
irregular bottom off Cape Mendocino, marked by Blunt's 
reef, stretches well to the westward of the usual coast 



268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

depths, and is thence spread oat towards Him bold t Bay as 
a broad and comparatively shallow plateau. 

T\vo problems aro at once suggested by these submarine 
valleys. One is eminently practical. Steam coasting ves 
sels bound for Humboldt Bay, when they get as far north 
as Shelter Cove in very thick fog.-;, haul into the shore to 
find soundings, and then continue parallel with the shore. 
One vessel has been lost by failing to find bottom until close 
upon the rocky coast. This steamer doubtless sounded up 
the axis of the deep submarine valley off King Peak, and 
could find no bottom. Had the existence of this valley 
been known, the vessel would have proceeded in a more 
guarded manner. 

The second bearing which these great submarine valleys 
have, is upon the deep sea fauna which must be brought 
close under the shores, the more especially as they bring in 
the colder waters coming down the coast outside of the in 
fluence of the close inshore eddy current to the northward. 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 319 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 

COMMUNICATED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 

BY PROF. GEORGE DAVIDSON. 
Read October 18, 1886. 

In the development of the main triangulation of the Pa 
cific Coast, it was early discovered that large and irregular 
deflections of the plumb-line existed at the triangulation 
stations, whether they were situated on the mountains or in 
the plains. 

When the main triangulation was undertaken it embraced 
lines of unusual length, and one part of the scheme was the 
projection of a network across the continent along the 39th 
parallel. 

In order to collect standard geodetic data for the compu 
tation of the geographical positions on this coast, Assistant 
Davidson planned at the outset to have the latitude observ 
ed at each triangulation point; and he also observed the az 
imuth of some one line in the series of directions which were 
observed from the same station. 

This scheme of triangulation commenced from an accurate 
ly-measured base-line of nearly eleven miles in length sit 
uate in the plains of Yolo county, California. From this 
line it was carried by quadrilaterals to the Coast Range of 
mountains, as far west as Mount Tamalpais; and from the 
line Mount Helena Mount Diablo it stretched across the 
great valley of California to the line Mount Lola Bound 
Top. This scheme of triangulation was named by the Su 
perintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur 
vey the "Davidson Quadrilaterals." The observations at 
all the stations have been shown to be remarkably satisfac 
tory, and the discussion has been rigorously carried out in 

21 BULL. CAL. ACAD. Sci. II. 6. Issued January 11, 1887. 



320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the computing division of the Survey, under the direction 
of Assistant Schott. From the means already at hand, the 
following summary of results is made known, wherein it is 
seen that the accepted standard station for latitude is Mount 
Helena, and the standard line for azimuth is Mount 
Helena Mount Diablo. The tabulation exhibits the ob 
served and computed latitudes and azimuths, the probable 
error of each determination, and the deflection of the plumb- 
line from the means. 

Including the stations Mount Lola and Round Top, 
which are the easternmost points of the " Davidson Quadri 
laterals," in the Sierra Nevada, we have nine stations, at 
each of which the latitude and azimuth were determined as 
tronomically; and we shall take the mean results derived 
from all these observations for the formation of the stand 
ard values (f Q and . 

The direct results of the astronomical observations for 
latitude require two corrections : one, the reduction to the 
station point A; the other, the correction for curvature of 
the vertical or reduction to the sea level. The lieights re 
quired for the latter purpose are given in Appendix No. 10, 
Coast and Geodetic Survey Report for 1884, (Mount Lola 
being 2,796.4 metres, or 9,175 feet; and Round Top 3,173.5 
metres, or 10,412 feet above the level of the sea.) 

For the expression of the curvature between the sea-lev 
el and the altitude of the station, we have (see Clarke's- 

Geodesy, pp. 101-102), 8 y= rB i nl " (t m ~ e ') sin 2 ?- Put - 
ting | m e'=0.0052 l , and log. (r sin 1")= 1.490, then for h, 
the height in metres, and /V the correction in seconds of 
arc we have for the latitude <f> 

'V= 0.000167Asin2?; or [n6.212]A, 

for the average latitude 39; the number within brackets 
being a logarithm. 

1 . G. Zaehariae, in his Principal Geodetic Points (German transla 
tion by Dr. Larape, Berlin, 1878), prefers the value 0.00513. 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 



321 



GEODE1IC OR STANDARD LATITUDE ^ OF MOUNT HELENA, 
FOR THE "DAVIDSON QUADRILATERALS." 



tz! 

c 


Astronomical 


Year 


Observed 


33 

M o 


Eed'n Re d'n 


ii* 


Adopted 








of 


Astron'mic'l 


il 


to 


to 
Se\ 


~ - 

s 5 . 

Q, 


Geodetic 
Latitude. 


A-G 


': 


Station. 


Obn. 


Latitude. 


-3 O^ 

5T 


A 


Level. 


4 

t^ 


(G). 




1 


S. E. Yolo Base. 


18 C 
















38 31 34.52 


0.06 


0.45 


0.00 


34.07 


38 31 35.41 


1.34 


2 


N.W.YoloBase. 


188038 4' 37.34 


0.07 


0.13 


0.01 


37.20 


:i8 40 38.03 


c.83 


3 


Mouticello 


188038 3946.51 


0.09 


0.31 


-0.15 


40.05 


38 39 43.8.- 


+2.20 


4 


Vaca Mt.. 


1880 3 i 22 23. 3^ 


OO'i 


+0 37 


0.12 


23.63 


38 22 27.02 


3 39 


fl 


Mt. Diablo. . . . 


176 37 52 49.59 


0.06 


I w ** ' 

0.00 


-0.19 


49.40 


37 52 48.70 


+0>0 


6 


Mt. Tamalpais. 


1882 37 55 19.04 


0.08 


0.04 


0.13 


1887 


37 55 20.69 


1.82 


7 


Mt. Helena 


1876 38 40 01.02 


0.06 


+0.47 


0.22 


01.27 


38 40 04 26 


2.99 


8 


Mt. Lola 


187939 25 57.98 


0.06 


22 


0.46 


57.30 


39 2o 53 34 


+3.96 


9 


Round Top. .. . 


1879 


38 39 46 89 


0.08 


+001 


52 


46.38 


38 39 43.64 


4-2.74 


















Mean . . . 


0.09 



The mean difference, A G, is small, approximating 
zero, as it should be. We have, therefore, retained and 
adopted for the present ? for Mount Helena 38 40' 04. 26", 
with a probable uncertainty of 0/'59. The average local 
deflection in the meridian is about 2. "2. 

GEODETIC OR STANDARD AZIMUTH a o OF DIRECTION MT. HELENA 
TO MT. DIABLO, FOR THE "DAVIDSON QUADRILATERALS." 









Observed ! ^ 





N3 ^ HH 


Adopted 




No. 


Station 


To Station 


Astronom 


a 3 


-! 


||i 


Geodetic 


f 




Occupied. 


Observed. 


ical 


8 | 


| s: 


5 8*5' 


Azimuth 


Q 








Azimuth. 


o> 


* 


> B 


(GO 










t ' > 


, , 


ff 


,, 


f ff 


, f 


1 


S. E. Yolo Base. 


N. \V. Yolo Base. 


163 07 13.51 


+0.18 


0.00 


13.51 


1630715.07 


1.56 


2 


N. W.Yolo Base. S; E. Yolo Base. 


343 05 02.35 


0.16 


0.00 


02.35; 


343 05 04.03 


1.68 


3 


Mouticello !Mt. Helena 


91 04 25.16 


0/21 


-0.00 


25.16 


91 C4 23 79 


1.37 


4 


Vaca Mt S. E. Yolo Base. 


235 38 36.44 


0.28 


, 0.00 


36.44 


235 38 33.47 


^2.97 


5 


Mt. Diablo iMt. Helena 


144 28 16.13 


0.15 




* 


144 28 15.06 


-1.07 


6 


Mt. Tamalpais. Mt. Diablo 


274 15 15.39 


0.14 


0.01 


15.38 


274 15 15.71 


0.33 


7 


Mt. Helena Mt. Diablo 


324 01 24.86 


0.19 




* 


324(1131.0* 


6.18 


8 


Mt. Lola Mt. Helena 


67 21 62.57 


0.17 


0.1H 


62.41 


67 21 59.55 


- 2.86 


9 


Round Tor Mt. Helena 


90 58 53.67 


0.13 


0.16 


53.51 


90 58 53.01 


-0.50 














Mean. . . 


-0.11 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The mean difference is sufficiently near zero to retain 
the old value, and we adopt for the present Mount He 
lena to Mount Diablo: 

324 Or 31."01 00."64. 

This value will slightly change after the Mount Lola and 
Bound Top observations shall have been finally adjusted. 
The average local difference in azimuth is about 2/'l. 

At the stations Mount Diablo and Mount Helena the as 
tronomical azimuths were referred to a mark and not to a 
triangulation point, and the same is the case at Mount Lola 
and at Bound Top. 

The references to the stations marked by an asterisk [*] 
in the preceding table would therefore be arbitrary since 
the results must depend on the adjustment of the directions 
of the figure; but by applying a correction which is the 
mean of all the corrections to the lines at the stations, the 
reference of the astronomical meridian to the geometrical 
figure of the triangulation is effected with respect to all di 
rections; thus for the two stations in question: / 

At Mount Diablo: 

Observed azimuth of the reference mark (Clay ton) = 
9 42' 25. "92 West of North; hence, astronomical azimuth 

of the mark = 170 17' 34."08 

Or when reduced to the sea level= 170 17 34. 07 

At Mount Diablo the mean correction to the 

six adjusted directions is -j- O."023 

(0."11); this added to the observed 

geodetic direction of the azimuth 

(25 C 49'17."194) gives- 25 49 17. 217 

Hence with the corrected direction to Mount 

Helena (see below) = 359 59 59. 273 

The angle between the mark and Mount He 
lena, adjusted^ 25 49 17. 94 
and the astronomical azimuth referred to 

Mount Helena becomes 144 28 16. 13 

as given in the preceding table. 



STANDARD GEODETIC DATA. 



323 



Similarly at Mount Helena: 
The Observed Azimuth of the reference 

mark (Woods)= 189 18 14. 36 

the same reduced to the sea level 189 18 14. 37 

The mean correction to four adjusted direc 
tions at the station is O."032 ( O."13) . 

The angle between the mark and Mount 

Diablo adjusted^ 225 16 49. 51 

Whence the Astronomical Azimuth, re 
ferred to Mount Diablo^ 324 01 24. 86 

We have also the following table of adjusted directions 
at these two stations: 



AT MOUNT DIABLO. 


AT MOUNT HELENA. 




Result of 


! 


* M 




Result of 


s n. 


CD 

8 ^ 


Direction to 


Station 


Oi* 


3' 


Direction to 


Station 


a,? 


If 




Adjustment 




g- 




Adjustment 


"c'N 


tn *"" 






5-TO 


" 






S-TO 






Off, 


/x 


ff 




ft 


ff 




Mt Helena 


359 9 59 918 


.645 


59.273 


Mt Diablo 






Monticello 


20 03 30.611 
20 19 59.481 
25 49 17.194 
38 39 09 129 


.102 
+.319 

+ .086 


30.509 
59.800 
(17.217) 
09.215 


Mt. Tamalpais 
Azim. Mark (Woods) 


33 43 57.138 
225 16 49.650 
306 46 16.069 
340 03 44 097 


4- .008 
621 


57.441 

(49.618) 
16.077 
43 476 


Vaca Mt 
Azim. Mark (Clayton) 
North West Base... 


Vaca Mt 


South East Bise 


43 24 20 921 


+ .524 


21.445 










Mt. Tamalpais 


310 12 09.218 


.047 


09.171 




Mean = 


0.032 






Mean = + 


0.023 













Tables of resulting adjusted directions were prepared for 
all stations, because the respective mean corrections are to 
be applied to all other directions not yet adjusted before 
they can be submitted to the process of the next figure ad 
justment which ordinarily is of a secondary character. 

For the standard Longitude of the triangulation about the 
Yolo Base Line, we have to retain at present the telegraph 
ic longitude of San Francisco station at Washington Square, 
A 87* 09m 38. 34 sees, (see Coast and Geodetic Survey Report 
for 1884, Appendix No. 11, p. 424) and derive from it for 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Mount Helena the value ;. C =122 C 38' 01." 41. [This gives 
for the present astronomical and telegraphic longitude sta 
tion, Lafayette Park in San Francisco, the longitude west 
of Greenwich=8/i 09m 42.72s, or 122 25' 40." 75.] 

These standard geodetic data ? ;. are subject to 
changes hereafter; but generally they are best retained 
and the small corrections are noted, so long as the changes 
do not exceed the respective probable errors of these quan 
tities. 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 325 

EARLY SPANISH VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY ON THE COAST OF 

CALIFORNIA, 

PROF. GEORGE DAVIDSON, A. M., PH. D. 

Read at the meeting of the Academy, Monday, October 18, 1886. 

The following tabulation exhibits in a condensed form 
the identification of the "landfalls" of Cabrillo and Fer 
relo, in their explorations of the coast of California in 1542 
and 1543, from Cape San Lucas to latitude 42 30'. 

During my work on the Pacific Coast of the United 
States since the spring of 1850, I have been deeply inter 
ested in the discoveries and explorations of the early Span 
ish navigators. My special duties have made me peculiarly 
well acquainted with the coast line, and I have thought it 
my duty to establish the identity of the landfalls, which I 
believe I have clearly done. Unfortunately, the great 
length of the paper in which I have given the details of the 
narratives of Ulloa, Cabrillo, Ferrelo, Drake and Vizcaino, 
and my explanations, together with a chart, precludes its 
publication by the Academy at this time; and it has been 
presented, in exte)iso, to the Superintendent of the U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey for publication. 

This tabulation contains the resume' of the identifica 
tion of the ointy oight places which Cabrillo and Ferrelo par 
ticularly mention. In it are shown, in parallel columns, 
the names by which Ulloa, Drake and Yizcaino designated 
the same localities, together with the modern names. The 
latitudes of Cabrillo and Ferrelo were given only to a third 
of a degree, with an occasional qualification of "a little 
more," or c< a little less," while the large and nearly constant 
errors indicate very defective instruments. The present 
latitudes are taken from the published charts of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

It should be understood that the whole of the work em 
braced in the paper and in this condensed statement has oc 
cupied much of my unofficial time during the last two years. 



326 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABRILLO, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT 



7 
1 



No. 

1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
K 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Dates, 
1542,1543. 


Name of place by Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo. 


Latitude by 
Cabrillo and 
Ferrelo. 


Names by Ulloa, Drake or 
Vizcaino. 


Jun. 2!, 1542 
Apr. 14, 1543 

Jun. 2& 1542 
July 2, 1542 


El Puerto de Navidad 
El Cabo de Corrientes 

La Punta de California 

El Puerto del Marques 
del Valle 


C.F.. 

2oy 2 , o.. 

24 "and 
more," C. . 

Do 


El Puerto de la Navi 
dad. V. 

El Cabo de Corrientes. 
V. 

La Bahia de Santa 
Cruz. U. 

La Bahia de San Ben- 
arbe.V. 

La Bahia de San 
Abad. U.; La Bahia 
de Santa Marina.V. 

/ 

El Puerto de la Mag- 
dalena. V. 
La liahia de Santa 
Marta.V. 

La Bahia de las Bal- 
lenas. V 
Abreojos, V.'s chart 

La Isla de San Roque. 
U.V. 




El Puerto de la Cruz. . 
El Puerto de San Lu 
cas . . . 


Do 


July 6, 1542 

July 8, 1542 

> <. 
(i 
" 13, 1542 


CF.. 
25, ....F.. 

25. C. F.. 
F.. 


El Puerto de La Trin 
idad. 


La Punta de la Trini 
dad 


Una Isla 


El Puerto de San Ped 
ro ... 


25%, F.. 
F. 


La Bahia de San Mar 
tin 


July 19, " 
< i 
" 25 ' 

U i ( 

" __ 


26, F... 
27 C. F. . 


Una Gran Ensenada 

El Puerto de la Mag- 
da'eua 


La Punta de Santa 
Catalina 


27 J, F.. 
27*, F.. 
28, F.. 
28, F.. 


El Puerto de Santiago 
Habre Ojo. 

Punta y Puerto de 
Santa Ana 


Una Isleta obra de una 
legua de Tierra .... 



EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



327 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DR\KE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V), 
NAMES AND LATITUDES. 



No. 


Present Name of the 
Place. 


Latitude, 

/ 


Correction to 
C., F. or D. 


Remarks. 


1 

r 
O 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Port Navidad 


19 13 
20 25 

23 23 
23 23 

22 52 
24 20 

24 17 
24 17 
24 32 
24 44 




(sfi It is more than prob- 
' able that Cabrillo assum 
ed the latitude as given 
by previous navigators. 

Cabrillo did not observe the 
latitude. "They say it is 
in latitude 23 Y' F. 

The S. E. point of Santa 
Marga-ita Islind. 
The island is 22 miles long. 

There is no gulf; but the 
lowland north of Cape 
Lazaro slightly recedes, 
and would mislead a nav 
igator in a small vessel 
in the offing. 
Ferrelo says: "It is 40 
leagues from the Bay of 
San Martin to this coast.' ' 

A dangerous reef of visible 
and sunken rocks. 

[Jlloa saw the two islands, 
Asuncion and San 
Roque. 


Cat)e Corrientes .... 


-05'Cjrf.... 

37', "and 
more' ' C . . 
37', "and 
more" C.. 


Cape Pulino 

Anchorage under Cape 
Pulmo 


San Lucas Bay 


Santa Marina Bay 

Cape Tosco 

Santa Margarita Is 
land 


40' F.. 
43' C. F.. 


-58' F.. 


Magdalena Bay 
Santa Maria Bay.. 






Pequena Bay and 
Point 


26 14 

26 19 
26 45 
26 46 

27 07 
27 09 


46' C. F.. 


San Domingo Point 
and Anchorage 
Ballenas Bay 


45' F.. 
44' F . . 
53' F... 
51' F.. 


Abreojos Rocks 


Asuncion Point and 
Anchorage 


[sland of San Roque.. 



328 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABRILLO, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT NAMES 



No. 


Dates, 
1542, 1543. 


Name of place by 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo. 


Latitude by 
Cabrillo and 
Ferrelo. 


Names by Ulloa, Drake 
or Vizcaino. 


18 

19 

20 

21 

2 

24 
25 

26 
27 

28 
29 

30 
31 
32 

33 
34 


July 27, 1542 

July 31, 1542 
Aug. 1 " 

2 " 
Aug. 2, 15 J 2 

(( C tl 

Mar. 2^, 1543 

Aug 11, 1542 
" I/ 1542 
" 19 " 

" 20 " 
Mar. 21, 1543 
Aug. , 1542 

Sept. 4, 1512 

" 8 ' 
" 11 " 

" 11 ' 
' 11 " 

" 17 " 
Mar. 18, 1513 


El Puerto Fondo 


F 


El Puerto de San Bar- 
tolome.V. 
L;i Isla de Natividad 
de Nuestra Seiiora. 
V. 

La Isla de los Cedros. 
U; La IsladeCe;- 
ros. V. 

La Bahia de San Hi- 
polito. V 

La Isla de San Ger- 
onymo. V. 
El Cabo del Engano, 
30, U. 
Do. 

La Bahia de las Vir- 
gines. V. 
La Isla de Cenigas. V. 
La Isla de San Hil- 
ario. V. 

La Ensenada de To- 
dos Santos. V. 


[Anchorage"] 


F 


El Puerto de San Ped- 
ro Vincula 


28J "and 
inore," F. . 
F.. 

F.. 

29, F.. 

30 "scanf'F 
30J, F . . 
3Q%, F. . 
31, C.. 
31, F.. 
31%, F.. 
F 


La Isla de San Este- 
ban 


Una Euseuada Grande 

La Isla de Zedros .... 

El Puerto de Santa 
ClaiM 


La Punta del Mai Ab- 


La Isla de San Bernar 
do 


El Cabo del Eugano.. . 
La Punta del Engano. 

El Puerto de la Poses- 
ion 


La Isla de San Augus- 
tin 


F.. 
32%, F.. 
33, C . . 

33, F . . 
F. . 


[Anchorage, 7 leagues 
fromSau Angus tin.] 
El Cabo de S.m Mar 
tin 


El Cabo de la Cruz.... 
El Cabo de Cruz 


Una Isleta 


El Puerto de San Ma- 
teo 


33%, F.. 





EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



329 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V), 
AND LATITUDES.- CONTINUED. 



No. 


Present Name of the 
Place. 


jatitude, Correction to 
' C., F. or D. 


Remarks. 


18 


Table-Head Cove, or 


7 11 






San Pablo Bay 








19 


Bay of San Cristoval 








20 


Port banBartolome.. 


7 39 51' "and 










more" F . 




21 


S^atividad Island .... 


7 53 




Dhe Afegua, or Bird Island 










ot Father Taraval, 1734. 


22 


Sebastian Vizcaino 


7 45 




This is the Gulf of San 




Bay . 


to 




Xavier, of Father Tara 






8 35 




val. It is 50 by 60 miles 










in extent. 


23 


Cerros Island 


28 02 


58' F. . . 


They anchored under- the 










south shore. This is the 










Anialgua,or Fog island of 










Father Taraval, 1734. 


24 


La Playa Maria Bay . 


28 55 


65' "scant'' 










F 


They anchored here. 


25 


Point Canoas 


29 25 


65' F 




26 


Sau Gerdnimo Island 


29 48 


- 42' F 


, 


27 


Point Baja 


29 56 


r 64' C 






Point Baja 


29 56 


64' F 




28 


Port San Quentin. .. 


30 24 


66' F.. 




29 


Sail Martin Island . . 


30 29 






30 


San Ramon Bay 


30 49 






31 


Point Santo Tonias 


31 33 


57' F. 


The anchorage under the 




or Cape Sau Tomas 






cape 


32 


Grajero Point, or Ban 


31 45 


-75' C. 


Distance from Cape San 




da Point 






Martin, 4 leagues. 




Do 


31 45 


75' F.. 




33 


The Todos Santos Is 


31 48 








lauds 








34 


The Eusenada in To 


31 51 


-89' F.. 


Anchorage in the north 




dos Santos Bay . . . 






east part of Todos Santos 
Bay. 



330 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABRILLO, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT NAMES 



No 


Dates, 
1542, 1543. 


Name of place by Cabrill 
and Ferrelo. 


Latitude by 
Cabrillo aud 
Ferrelo. 


Names by Ulloa, Drake or 
Vizcaino. 


3c 


Sep. 26,27, 
1542 


Las Islas Desiertas. . 


34, F . 


Las Islas de los Cor- 
onados. V- Las Islas 


3 


Sep. 28, 154 
Mar 11 154 


El Puerto de San Mig 
uel . . . 


34%, F. 


de San Martin, V.'s 
chart. 
El Puerto de San 
Dieo V El Puerto 


3 


Oct. 7 154 


La Isla de San Salva 


F 


Bueiio de San Di 
ego, Ws chart. 
La Isla de Santa 






dor 




Cathaliua V 


38 


Oct. 7, 154 


La Isla de la Vittoria. 


.F. 




39 


Oct. 8, 154 


La Bahia de las Fu 


35, F. 








La Bahia de los Fue 
gos 


F. 




40 


Oct. 9, 154 


[Anchorage] 


F 




41 


Oct. 10, 1542 


Los Pueblos de las 
Canoas 


35%, C.. 






Mar. 8, 1543 


El Pueblo de las Can 
oas 


35%, F. 


f 


49 


Oct. 13, 1542 


[Anchorage] 


F 




43 


Oct. 14, 1542 


[Anchorage! 


F 




44 


Oct. 15, 1542 


[Anchorage] . . 


F 




45 


Oct. 16, 1542 


[Anchorage!. . 


F 




46 


Oct. 17, 154-2 


Anchorage!. . , 


F 






Nov. 2-6, " 


Ei Pueblo de las Sar- 
diuas 


C.. 


- 






Los Pueblos de las 


F 








Sardiuas 






47 


Feb. 12--14, 
543 


El Puerto de las Sar- 
dinas 


5%, F.. 




48 


Nov. 1, 1542 


El Puerto de Todos 
Santos. . . . 


F.. 




49 




El Pueblo de Xexo 


F 




50 


Dct. 18, 1542 
(i < 


SI Cabo de la Galera.. 
1 Cabo de Galera .... 


W%, C.. 
J6 W "and 
more." F.. 





EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



331 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V), 
AND LATITUDES -CONTINUED. 



No. 
35 
36 

37 

38 
39 

40 
41 

42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

48 

49 

50 


Present Name of the 
Place. 


Latitude, 

o / 


Correction to 
C., F. or D. 


Remarks. 


Los Coronados Islands 
San Die a o Pay 


32 25 
32 40 

33 27 

32 49 
34 00 

34 05 
34 17 
34 17 
34 22 
34 24 
34 25 
34 27 
34 27 
34 28 


95' F.. 
100' F.. 


He has one of the largest 
errois in the best-known 
port. 

At the great depression 
across the island. 

A few miles east of Santa 
Barbara. 

Ferrelo says the Indian 
name was Cicacut. 

There are two Coxo's. The 
Coxo Viejo is one mile 
east of the usual anchor 
age El Coxo. 

La Punta de la Coucepcion 
of recent Spanish naviga 
tors. 


Santa Catalina Island. 

San Clemente Island 
Santa Monica Bay .... 

Do 

The Anchorage off La 
guna Mugu 


-GO'' "F '.. 

-63' C.. 
63' F . . 


San Buenaventura .... 
Do. 

Anchorage off " the 
Riucon" 
Anchorage off " the 
Carpiiiteria" 
Anchorage 4 or 5 miles 
west of Goleta Point 
Anchorage off the Can 
ada del Kefugio. . . . 
Anchorage off Gaviota 
Pass. 










The Indian Villages at 
Gaviota Pass 




Do 


Anchorage off Gaviota 
Pass 


34 27 
34 28 

34 29 

34 27 
34 27 


73' F . . 

123'C.... 
93' " and 
more" F. . 


Anchorage off El Coxo 

Indian Village at El 
Coxo 


Point Concepcion, 01 
Point Conception 



332 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LAND FALL 5 O7 CABRILL9, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT NAMES 



No 


Dates, 
1342, 1543. 


Name of place by Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo. 


Latitude by 
Cabiillo and 
Ferrelo. 


Names by Ulloa, Drake or 
Vizcaino. 


5\ 
52 

53 

'54 
55 

56 

57 

58 
59 
GO 

6] 
62 


Oct. 14, 1542. 

" 18 " 

" 25 ' 

Dec., 15i2 
Dec., 1542 

Jan. 3, 1513 
Mar. 5, " 

Oct. 25, 1542 

Mar. 5, 1543 

Jan. 29, 1543 
Mar. 5, 1513 

Jau. 10. 1543 
Feb. 14, 

Nov. 11, 1542 
Nov. 11, 1542 


La Isla de Sau Lucas. 
Las Islas de Sau Lucas 

La Isla de la Posesiou 

La Isla de Posesiou. . 
Una de las Isl s de 
San Lucas .... 
La Isla de Jnau Rod 
riguez 

El Puerto de la Poses 
ion 

[DaugersJ .. 

La Isla de Sau Lucas. 

La Isla de San Sebas- 
tinn 


F. . 


La Isla de Baxos. V. 

/ 
La Isla de Cleto. V. 

La Isla de San Am- 
brosio.V. 

La Sierra de Santa Lu 
cia. V. 


C.F.. 

... C. F.. 
F. . 


C.. 
F. 


C. F.. 

F.'s contort. 
F 


F.'s consort 
F 


La Isla de San Salva 
dor 


C.. 
37, C.F.. 


El Rio de Nuestra 
Senora 


Las Sierras de San 
Martin 





EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



333 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V), 
AND LATITUDES. CONTINUED. 



No. 


Present Name of the 
Place. 


Latitude, 

o / 


Correction to 
C., F. or D. 


Remarks. 


51 

52 

53 

*54 

55 

56 

57 

58 
59 
60 

61 

62 


The three Islands, 
Santa Cruz, Santa 
Rosa and San Mig 
uel 






They overlap each other, 
and were seen as one 
great island. 

One large Santa Cruz and 
Santa Rosa overlapping 
and one small, which was 
San Miguel. 
Ferrelo says the Indian 
name was Ciquimuymu. 

So named by Ferrelo to 
commemorate Cabrillo's 
death on the Island. 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo win 
tered here in 1542-43; it 
is on the north shore of 
San Miguel island. 
The rocks and reefs off the 
northwest shores of San 
Miguel island. 
Ferrelo says the Indian 
name was Nicalque. 

Ferrelo says the Indian 
name of the island was 
Liniun. 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo did 
not see it. They learned 
of its existence north of 
Pt. Concepcion, from 
Indian information, when 
in the Santa Barbara 
channel. 
This mountain range is 50 
miles long, and overhangs 
the coast line. The cul 
minating point is Mt. 
S^nta Lucia, 6,000 feet 
elevation and 12 miles in 
side the shore. 






San Miguel, and then 
Santa Cruz and San 
ta Rosa as one 


34 03 




San Miguel Island . . 
Do 




Do. 






Do. 






Cuylers Harbor 

Wilson Rock, &c 

Santa Rosa Island ... 
Do 


3i 03 

34 06 i 
33 57 








Santa Cruz Island . . . 

La Purisima, or Santa 
Ynez River 


34 02 
34 42 

36 03 






87' C. F.. 


Sierra Santa Lucia 



23 BULL. CAL. ACAD. Sci. II. 



Issued January 11, 1887. 



334 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



THE LANDFALLS OF CABHILLO, (C), AND FERRELO, (F), WITH 

AND THE PRESENT NAMES 



No. 

63 
64 

65 

66 
67 

68 

^ 


Dates, 
1542, 1543. 


Name of place by 
Cabrillo and Ferrelo. 


Latitiide by 
Cabrillo and 
Ferrelo. 


Names by Ulloa, Drake 
or Vizcaino. 


Nov. 11, 1542 

Nov.' 11, 18, 
1542 


El Cabo de San Mar- 
tiu . . 


38, ....F.. 
37%, F . . 

28%, C F.. 


La Punta de Pinos. 
V. 

Portus Novae Albionis 
38. D. 
El Puerto de San 

Francisco. V. 




El Cabo de San Mar 
tin 


Nov. 18, 1542 


El Cabo de Nieve, ... 

(de las Sierras Nevad- 
as) 
La Baia de Finos. 


Nov. 16, 1542 


. C 


La Bahia de los Pinos 
El Cabo de Pinos . . 

El Cabo de Piuos 
El Cabo de Fortunas. 


39 "and 
more," F. . 

40 "and 
more," C.. 

40, F.. 
41, C.. 


Nov. 14, 1542 

Feb. 25, 1543 
Mar. 3, 1543 
Feb. 26, 1543 



r 








EARLY CALIFORNIA LANDFALLS. 



335 



THEIR NAMES BY ULLOA, (U), DRAKE, (D), AND VIZCAINO, (V) 
AND LATITUDES. CONCLUDED. 



No. 


Present Name of the 
Place. 


Latitude. 


Correction to 
C., F. or D. 


Remarks. 


63 


Point Pinos 


}6 32 


88' F 




64 


The Twin Peaks . 


36 03 


87' F 


The height is 5 100 feet 


65 
66 


Black Mountain 
The Santa Cruz 


37 09 


9V F 


and the distance 3% 
miles inland. 
The mountain mass 13 
miles behind Point Auo 
Nuevo. 
Embracing Black Mount 




mountains 






ains. 


67 


Anchorage in Drake's 
Bay 


38 00 


00' D. . . 


The northern part of the 
Gulf of the Farallones. 




Drake's Bay, or the 
Gulf of the Faral- 
lones 


38 00 


60' ' and 
more," F. . 


"A great gulf," Cabrillo. 
(Una Ensenada Grande.) 


68 

GO 

7" 


The Northwest Cape. 

Do. 

King Peak, behind 
PuntaDelgada 


38 31 

38 31 
40 00 


89' "and 
more" C. . . 

89' F 
-60' C . . . 


The mountain mass just 
east of Fort Ross anchor 
age, and reaching 2,200 
feet elevation. 

The mountain mass north 
ward of Shelter Cove, 
with King Peak, only 10 
miles inland and 4,235 
feet elevation, as the cul 
minating point. 



*i i 




!