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Annual Report of the 
Congressional Research Service 
of the Library of Congress 
for Fiscal Year 2006 


to the Joint Committee on the Library 

United States Congress 


Pursuant to 
Section 321 
Public Law 91-510 


Daniel R Mulhollan 
Director 


February 2007 


CONTENTS 


I. CRS SERVICE TO CONGRESS 1 

The CRS Tradition 1 

Performance Attributes 1 

Outline of this Report 2 

II. FY2006 HIGHLIGHTS IN LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT 3 

Major Issues of the Year ... 3 

Foreign Relations and Defense 7 

Government and the Economy 10 

Resources, Industry, and the Environment 12 

Domestic Social Policy 17 

Law and Justice 21 

III. MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 23 

Improvements in Efficiency 23 

Organizational Changes 23 

Product Improvement 23 

Performance Assessment 23 

Performance Reporting 24 

Consolidated Database 24 

The Management Information System 24 

The CRS Search System 24 

The Authoring and Publishing System 25 

The Legislative Information System 25 

Information Technology Development Network 25 

Planning for Continuity of Operations 26 

APPENDIXES 

A. FY2006 Budget, Resources, and Other Funding 27 

B. Human Resources and Staff Development 28 

C. Types of CRS Support to Congress: Research Services 

and Products 31 

D. CRS Organizational Structure 36 

E. CRS Organizational Chart 40 

F. Listing of All Senior Level Positions 41 

G. Listing of All Specialist and Senior Specialist 

Personnel Actions in FY2006 47 

H. Listing of All Senior Level Position Changes in FY2006 48 

I. New CRS Products in FY2006 49 


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I. CRS SERVICE TO CONGRESS 

The Congressional Research Service (CRS) supports Members and committees of Congress 
through all stages of the legislative process. The unique CRS mission is to provide comprehensive, 
authoritative, and reliable analysis, research, and information services that are timely, objective, 
nonpartisan, and confidential, thereby contributing to an informed national legislature. 


THE CRS TRADITION 

The comprehensive support CRS provided to Congress this past year reflects the continuing, 
unbroken history of this CRS singular mission. It began in 19 1 4 when Senator Robert LaFollette and 
Representative John M. Nelson, both of Wisconsin, promoted the establishment of a special reference 
unit in the Library of Congress whose sole purpose was to respond to congressional requests for 
information. Creation of this unit reflected progressive era ideas about the importance of acquiring 
knowledge for an informed and independent legislature. With enactment of the Legislative 
Reorganization Act of 1946, the Legislative Reference Service was given permanent authorization 
to assist Congress primarily by providing facts and publications and by transmitting research and 
analysis done largely by other government agencies, private organizations, and individual scholars. 

In 1970 Congress passed the Legislative Reorganization Act, which changed the Legislative 
Reference Service to the Congressional Research Service, increased its resources, and directed CRS 
to devote more of its efforts to doing research and analysis to assist Members of Congress in direct 
support of the legislative process. With this legislation, a new category of service was requested to 
be performed by CRS - assisting committees with the research and other assistance they needed. 
Today CRS provides a full range of research and information services to both Members and 
committees of Congress. 

CRS staff works closely with Members and committees as lawmakers identify and analyze 
issues, formulate policy, and assess programs. Analysts provide expertise in foreign affairs and 
defense, economics, law, science, political science, and social policy. CRS covers the operations and 
procedures of both chambers, legislative processes for the federal budget and appropriations, and 
constitutional issues relating to policy and congressional operations including separation of powers, 
impeachment, electoral procedures, and federalism. CRS services include in-depth policy analyses 
and tailored research used, for instance, in examining legislative proposals or analyzing the 
consequences of those proposals. CRS staff also provides personal consultations, delivers testimony, 
and presents seminars on public policy issues on the congressional agenda. 

In FY2006 the CRS Director placed major emphasis on objectivity, a cornerstone of the 
Service’s mission. Commitment to the highest level of analytic rigor and service without partisan bias 
is what Congress expects of CRS. A recurring theme throughout the year in meetings between the 
Director and CRS divisions and offices as well as a management retreat was the importance of 
preserving and protecting this core value of CRS - assuring Members of Congress that the analysis 
and information CRS offers is objective and nonpartisan. 


PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTES 

An important aspect of CRS planning this fiscal year was mandated by House and Senate 
committee reports on legislative branch appropriations, namely, that in 2006 each legislative branch 


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entity set forth its peiformance plan for the fiscal year, in keeping with the spirit of the Government 
Performance and Results Act (GPRA). In response, the CRS performance reporting system 
documented outcomes that directly relate to the agency’s mission. The Service thus enhanced its 
accountability to Congress by implementing a more extensive, systematic, and comprehensive 
approach to assessing its work and reporting those assessments to Congress. CRS identified key 
performance attributes that derive largely from current practices, have direct linkages to its statutory 
mission, and are essential to achieving that mission: 

• Relevance. Relevance assures direct and immediate usefulness of CRS 
support for Congress. CRS work and expertise that align with the ongoing 
policy-making work of Congress must meet the immediate and continuing 
needs as they arise from the congressional agenda and the legislative process. 

• Quality. High-quality CRS work and expert consultations contribute 
significantly to congressional attempts to resolve difficult policy issues. The 
legislature must have the countiy’s best thinking when addressing the nation’s 
policy problems. High-quality, authoritative work gives Congress confidence 
in CRS as a source on which it can rely. 

• Accessibility. Congressional access to the full range of CRS expertise 
promotes active and productive use of CRS capabilities and its experts on an 
ongoing basis, as congressional policy-making needs arise and evolve. 

• Management Initiatives. Management oversight and initiatives ensure that 
limited CRS resources are used with the greatest effectiveness and efficiency. 
Management success in acting on strategic opportunities increases the depth 
and breadth of support CRS provides Congress across the range of policy 
concerns on its agenda. 

A number of goals accompany these performance attributes, ranging from research goals to 
align CRS work with ongoing needs of Congress, provide objective and nonpartisan support across 
all active policy areas, and assure Congress ready access to CRS expertise, to management goals that 
contribute to the efficiency and effectiveness of CRS resources. 


OUTLINE OF THIS REPORT 

The remainder of this report describes highlights of CRS legislative research on key policy 
issues before Congress and management initiatives during FY2006. Included also are budget 
components, descriptions of human resources and staff development, types of support provided, CRS 
organizational structure, personnel changes and actions, and a list of CRS products prepared during 
the fiscal year. 


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II. FY2006 HIGHLIGHTS IN LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT 

Congress worked under extraordinary pressures in fiscal year 2006. Besides addressing 
continuing issues at home and abroad, legislators faced many unanticipated policy concerns that drew 
on already strained resources - including escalating requirements of the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, 
hurricane-related recovery and rebuilding, control of mandatory spending through the budget 
reconciliation process, and Supreme Court nominations. CRS worked with Congress during those 
demanding times by providing expert research and analysis, made immediately available and tailored 
to specific needs. The following are highlights of that legislative assistance, beginning with selected 
major issues that were highly active or especially demanding policy areas in the past year. 


MAJOR ISSUES OF THE YEAR 

Iraq. CRS offered multifaceted analyses of policy alternatives to Congress on developments 
in Iraq. Congressional attention focused on the ongoing insurgency, efforts to achieve reconciliation 
among Iraq’s various ethnic and sectarian communities, U.S. military operations, the building of Iraqi 
security forces, reconstruction efforts, and stabilization options. CRS assessed the situation in Iraq, 
the October 2005 referendum on a new constitution, and the December 2005 National Assembly 
elections. Information professionals provided estimates on an ongoing basis of the number of U.S. 
military forces in Iraq, U.S. casualties, Iraqi civilian casualties, and appropriations for U.S. military 
operations and reconstruction activities. Analysts also provided expertise on international 
contributions to peacekeeping, regional fallout from Iraq, instability, and international training of Iraqi 
security forces. Soon after the budget arrived on Capitol Hill in February 2006 Congress considered 
an emergency supplemental request for reconstruction, democracy building, and U.S. embassy 
construction and security. CRS undertook analytic support for hearings on all of the above 
Iraq-related issues. 

Afghanistan. CRS provided analytic support and expertise to Congress on developments in 
Afghanistan including options for U.S. policy. Congressional attention focused on the renewal of the 
Taliban insurgency, U.S. and NATO military operations, the building of Afghan security forces, 
reconstruction, efforts to reduce the cultivation and trafficking of narcotics, and options for 
stabilization. CRS assisted with hearings, briefed congressional delegations to Afghanistan, and 
helped manage visits by Afghan leaders. CRS assessed events in Afghanistan, including the 
September parliamentary elections and the contributions of NATO partners to the peacekeeping 
effort. An increasing focus of CRS work was analyzing policy alternatives to extend the authority 
of the central government to the outlying regions. Information professionals fielded requests on the 
number of U.S. military forces in Afghanistan, U.S. casualties, and appropriations for U.S. military 
operations and reconstruction activities. Analysts also provided expertise on international 
contributions to peacekeeping in Afghanistan. 

Defense Spending and War Costs of the Iraq and Afghanistan Operations. CRS continued 
to analyze the many spending issues associated with the regular as well as the supplemental DOD 
funding requests, especially those regarding military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Analysts 
examined defense spending priorities including funding levels by war mission, the adequacy of funding 
for the Army in the war in Iraq, and war-related benefits available to military personnel; they also 
assessed the extent to which funding flexibility is available to the DOD. CRS worked with the 
Congressional Budget Office and the General Accountability Office to help estimate the cost of 
military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and track DOD spending on its Iraqi outsourcing 
contracts. 


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Iran. Iraq and Afghanistan’s neighbor, Iran, became a major policy concern in FY2006. 
Congress called upon CRS for in-depth support on developments in Iran and options for U.S. policy. 
Congressional attention was focused on Iran’s nuclear program, its technical progress, and U.S. 
efforts to forge an international coalition to curb that program. CRS experts helped Members analyze 
developments in Iran and the implications of imposing sanctions, including the Iran Freedom Support 
Act (H.R. 6198), which was enacted by both chambers at the end of FY2006. CRS information 
professionals provided authoritative sources such as statements of Iranian President Mahmoud 
Ahmadinejad and selected human rights cases in Iran. 

Nonproliferation. Congress expressed ongoing concern about the potential for terrorist acts 
involving weapons of mass destruction. CRS experts continued to analyze the multinational 
diplomatic efforts to restrain Iran’s suspected nuclear weapons program and to resume negotiations 
concerning North Korea’s established nuclear weapons program. Analysts supported Members and 
committees in their consideration of the Administration’s proposed nuclear cooperation agreement 
with India, a proposal that arguably would change three decades of U.S. nonproliferation policy and 
require legislation by Congress. CRS also assisted Congress in its evaluation and allocation of 
resources for U.S. -sponsored threat reduction programs in countries of the former Soviet Union. 

Homeland Security and Counter-Terrorism. CRS analysts, attorneys, and subject matter 
experts provided analytical assistance and counsel during congressional consideration of a number 
of legislative proposals pertaining to homeland security. For example, to support congressional 
oversight of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) CRS reported on the evolution of, and 
issues relating to, federal homeland security guidance and grant distribution methods, including 
information on the National Preparedness Goal, the National Preparedness Guidance, and DHS grant 
application requirements. When Congress addressed the proposed acquisition of service contracts 
at U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World, a foreign owned and operated company, CRS experts prepared 
analyses of all aspects of this proposed transaction, the potential international law and trade 
implications of congressional rejection of the proposed deal, and the scope and impact that such a 
U.S. law might have. By providing Congress with a framework for differentiating between cargo 
inspections and screening, CRS analysts helped shape the context of the congressional debate on 
goods moving through U.S. ports. Hazardous materials were a particular concern in ports and 
elsewhere. CRS experts worked closely with Congress as it reauthorized the Transportation Security 
Agency and analyzed the security of facilities where large quantities of particularly hazardous 
chemicals are produced, stored, or used, particularly facilities near urban centers or critical U.S. 
assets. 


CRS attorneys provided assistance on matters such as the legality of recently disclosed Central 
Intelligence Agency (CIA) operated “secret prisons” and the domestic and international legal 
framework governing the arrest, transfer, detention, and treatment of persons by the CIA; 
constitutional questions presented by the National Security Agency’s (NSA) electronic surveillance 
program; and national security and civil liberty concerns raised during consideration of the USA 
PATRIOT Act reauthorizations of 2005 and 2006 (P.L. 109-177 andP.L. 109-178, respectively). 

Federal Response to Natural Disasters. Congress continued to confront a range of issues 
stemming from the response of U.S. government agencies, particularly the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency (FEMA), to the devastating Gulf hurricanes of 2005. CRS provided a broad 
array of assistance; analysts identified and compared various legislative initiatives to reorganize 
federal emergency management in general and examined legislative proposals to reorganize FEMA. 
CRS economists analyzed legislative, regulatory, and private market responses to Hurricanes Katrina 
and Rita as well as flood insurance reform and previous disaster supplemental. Analysts, working 


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with information specialists, reported on infrastructure funding for repair or replacement of rail, 
highways, bridges, airports, ports, and aids to navigation and examined the impact of the damage on 
the local economies of the affected region and on the larger Mississippi River transportation complex. 

CRS attorneys provided assistance on recovery efforts that raised legal issues including 
presidential emergency powers, tax relief and incentives for rebuilding, the authority and liability of 
the Army Corps of Engineers and the adequacy of existing authority to support its many rebuilding 
projects, and proposed revenue increases to fund relief projects. CRS worked closely with Congress 
as these issues arose during consideration of the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act of 2005 (P.L. 1 09- 135), 
the Katrina Emergency Tax Relief Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-73), and the KATRINA Act of 2005 
(Katrina Assistance Tax Relief Incentives for Necessities Act, H.R. 3769). 

Public Health Preparedness and Response. Following the hurricane disaster, both houses 
of Congress made recommendations to improve readiness for future potential catastrophes such as 
pandemic influenza and reviewed expiring authorities for public health and medical preparedness. 
CRS supported Congress on all aspects of authorizing and appropriations legislation, oversight, 
investigation, and constituent service pertaining to public health. CRS experts studied the 
intersections of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster and Emergency Assistance Act and the Public Health 
Service Act (P.L. 109-88 and P.L. 89-329, respectively) to identify areas of overlap or gaps. 
Analysts and information specialists addressed policy issues ranging from federalism to health care 
financing, and technical issues ranging from drug development to intellectual property law and disease 
control. Attorneys advised Congress on a number of public health issues including existing 
bioteiTorrism authorities during efforts to reauthorize the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism 
Preparedness Response Act of 2002 (H.R. 3448) and issues related to civilian health insurance for 
former military families. 

Energy Efficiency. Members introduced hundreds of bills to encourage energy conservation 
and renewable energy in the 109 th Congress. Among other support on energy assistance, CRS helped 
during consideration of the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), which would require that a 
minimum percentage of electricity provided by each supplier be generated by renewable sources of 
energy. Experts analyzed the potential impact of RPS proposals and how they would operate under 
various state and federal regulatory systems. Other issues analyzed were automobile fuel economy, 
energy efficiency and renewable energy tax incentives, and “green” buildings and efficient appliances. 
As gasoline prices rose and provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58) governing 
establishment of a renewable fuels standard and a phase-out of MTBE were discussed, Congress 
considered proposals to increase the supply of alternative fuels, especially ethanol. CRS experts and 
information specialists contributed to this debate by analyzing and reporting on the farm-sector and 
economy-wide impacts of increased use of agricultural crops for biofuel production and assessing 
policies for encouraging rural economic growth through agriculture-based energy production. 

Immigration. The 109 th Congress debated and each chamber developed its own version of 
immigration reform. While the House focused primarily on border security and worksite enforcement 
of existing immigration laws, the Senate sought to reform the current immigration system. The 
debate centered on treatment of the unauthorized alien population in the United States and 
immigration enforcement, although the question of how to meet employers’ needs for labor by 
increasing the supply of legally present temporary foreign workers also received attention. Using 
Department of Homeland Security and Bureau of Census data, CRS analyzed proposals pertaining 
to legal permanent immigration, projected rates of legal immigration, and illustrated the impact of the 
proposals on current law; developed a framework that viewed immigration enforcement as a 
continuum, rather than separating the functions based on the location of the activity (i.e., at the 


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border or in the interior); explored underlying causes that might inhibit immigration enforcement; and 
examined various enforcement activities. 

CRS foreign policy analysts further informed the immigration policy debate by providing 
detailed analysis of the Mexican dimension. Experts examined the causes and trends of Mexican 
migration to the United States and possible policy responses to reduce this migration; reviewed 
Mexico’s immigration policies, including penalties for unlawful presence of aliens, arrests and 
deportation of illegal immigrants, and enforcement of Mexico’s southern border; and explored U.S.- 
Mexico border issues including drug and weapons trafficking and Mexico’s drug cartels. 

CRS attorneys focused on enforcement authority issues including the constitutional, statutory, 
and common law implications of expanding the roles of “force multipliers” in border enforcement 
(e.g., state and local law officers, federal law enforcement officers, the military, and civilians including 
civilian contractors); the proposed criminalization of illegal presence and tightening of alien harboring 
restrictions; the consistency of proposed procedural changes with provisions in various international 
agreements; and the degree to which proposed and newly enacted state and local restrictions on 
illegal immigration would be preempted by federal law. 

Supreme Court and Federal Lower Court Nominations. Congressional interest in the 
federal judiciary, particularly the Supreme Court, continued in the first months of 2006. CRS analysts 
and legislative attorneys teamed with information specialists to support the Supreme Court 
appointment process and the Senate’s constitutional advice and consent role during a four-month 
period marked by the nomination of Harriet E. Miers to the Supreme Court, the withdrawal of her 
nomination, followed in turn by the nomination and ultimate confirmation of Samuel A. Alito, Jr., to 
the Court. CRS prepared in-depth analyses for Members on the role of the President in judicial 
nominations and the appointments process. Information research specialists created CRS website 
pages to provide easy access to primary resources about the nominees and their rulings, as well as 
full-text hearings from previous Supreme Court nominations. 

Other assistance included an extensive history and analysis of the evolution of Senate 
procedure and practices associated with the confirmation process since the first high court 
nominations in 1789; tracking judicial nominations and confirmations using a database of statistical 
information on previous actions (e.g., the number of judicial nominations, confirmations, or other 
actions taken on nominations, sorted by President, Congress, or session of Congress) and on pending 
nominees before federal district and circuit courts and the Supreme Court. These and other data, for 
instance, the elapsed time between first nomination and final action, were used extensively by the 
Senate as it examined procedures for considering possible filibusters of pending nominations. 

Congressional Budget Process. Congressional concern over reform of the budget process, 
including such issues as the line item veto and expanded impoundment authority, earmarking reform, 
spending limits, and biennial budgeting, heightened during the fiscal year. CRS responded to 
numerous requests by briefing Congress on procedures during committee markup, examining issues 
related to reconciliation legislation, and analyzing current Administration practices with respect to 
the rescission and cancellation of appropriations and other budget process reform proposals. CRS 
analysts also addressed expedited presidential rescission authority, including a study that provided 
a detailed comparison of provisions in the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-121, which was 
overturned by the Supreme Court in 1998) with the Administration’s line item veto proposal. 

Welfare Reform. The 109 th Congress concluded a four-year debate on legislation to 
reauthorize the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. A central concern 


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in the debate had been work requirements for welfare recipients. CRS prepared analyses of the 
impact, both nationally and by state, of proposed changes in work participation requirements, credits 
(employment or caseload reduction) that would effectively lower the work participation requirements, 
and penalties on states for failure to meet those participation requirements. A CRS analysis of state 
definitions of allowable work activities found great variation among states and illustrated the potential 
impact of Department of Health and Human Services regulations, which by law define such activities. 
To place the issue of work and welfare in a broader context, CRS experts examined the poverty 
status of children with emphasis on the role of parental earnings on the economic well-being of 
children. 

Education. As Congress considered legislation to extend and amend the Higher Education 
Act (HEA, P.L. 78-410), a team of analysts and information specialists assisted by reviewing options 
to simplify and adjust the needs analysis formula used to assess eligibility for the HEA’s need-based 
student assistance; to determine whether and how to expand the Pell Grant student aid program; and 
to adjust subsidies to borrowers and lenders under the student loan programs. Among CRS support 
efforts were computer models that helped analyze, for example, the impact of changes in the award 
rtiles and eligibility criteria for the Pell Grant student aid program, the effects and costs of simplifying 
student aid need analysis, and the effects of alternative proposals to consolidate postsecondary 
student loans and interest rate provisions. Experts also helped identify and evaluate options for 
achieving savings in mandatory spending on the student loan programs. Among other education 
issues CRS analyzed were the eligibility of unauthorized immigrants to receive in-state tuition rates 
and the application of the Fourth Amendment to school searches and legal effects of the proposed 
Student and Teacher Safety Act of 2006 (H.R. 5295). 

Federal Water Resources. The broad and complex water resources area engages Congress 
annually on a range of legislative and oversight issues. Growing human population, fish and wildlife 
needs, recurrent drought, and evolving public fiscal and environmental interests increase pressures 
on available resources and aging infrastructure. CRS assisted Congress on the issue of water 
recycling and reuse during authorization of Title XVI projects. Analysts and information specialists 
informed the debate to authorize water projects for the Army Corps of Engineers and assisted 
lawmakers as they discussed specific projects such as the Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway 
and the Missouri River operations. Other support included help with California water management 
and species issues, specifically the Klamath River, the San Joaquin River, and the California Bay- 
Delta, and consultation with the authorizing committees examining and responding to a range of 
water use tradeoff issues. 


FOREIGN RELATIONS AND DEFENSE 

Foreign Intelligence Investigations and the War on Terrorism. As the war on terrorism 
continued to take center stage on the congressional agenda, CRS experts analyzed the breadth of 
issues associated with Congress’s oversight of the Administration’s foreign intelligence investigative 
activities. Issues included the legality of recently disclosed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 
operated “secret prisons” and the domestic and international legal framework governing the arrest, 
transfer, detention, and treatment of persons by the CIA; legal and constitutional questions presented 
by the National Security Agency’s (NSA) electronic surveillance program; and national security and 
civil liberties concerns raised during consideration of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and 
Reauthorization Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-177), and the USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing 
Amendments Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-178). Other congressional concerns addressed were the 
detention and trial of enemy combatants; the extraterritorial application of federal criminal laws 


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prohibiting the provision of material support to terrorists or members of terrorist organizations; and 
the constitutional underpinnings of congressional authority to penalize the disclosure of classified 
national security information. 

Terrorism. Congress continued to be concerned about terrorism trends, U.S. terrorism 
policy, and strategies to prevent future attacks. CRS provided interdisciplinary expertise on a broad 
range of issues of interest to Congress. Analysts investigated U.S. terrorism policy and options for 
future policy and examined U.S. and international instruments to combat terrorism, including public 
diplomacy, economic inducements and sanctions, covert action, law enforcement, and the use of 
military force. CRS experts examined anti-terrorism assistance programs, terrorist identification and 
screening efforts, assistance to victims of terrorism, and diplomatic security. Analysts addressed U.S. 
counter-terrorism efforts, changes in the intelligence community, border security programs, and 
sought to place in context proposed federal government anti-terrorism and homeland security 
organizational efforts. Other research explored the efforts of key allies and other countries to combat 
terrorism, the impact of the war in Iraq, the situation in Afghanistan, and other international conflicts 
on the war on terrorism; the current status of the U.S. terrorism threat notification system; AJ 
Qaeda’s role and activities, and trends in recruitment of potential terrorists. 

Hezbollah-Israel-Lebanon Conflict. During the July-August 2006 conflict in southern 
Lebanon, CRS prepared an integrated analysis on varying aspects of this complicated crisis for 
Congress and its implications for U.S. policy. Experts addressed the war’s impact on the derailed 
Arab-Israeli peace process, U.S. policy toward maintaining Lebanese sovereignty, U.S. attempts to 
isolate and contain Syria and Iran, and the possible effect of the conflict on the wider war against 
terrorism. CRS posted an online list of experts in response to congressional queries on the evacuation 
of U.S. citizens from Lebanon, possible expediting of U.S. aid to Israel and Lebanon, and sanctions 
on some parties to the conflict such as Iran and Syria. 

Darfur Crisis. In addition to briefings and hearings support, CRS analysts accompanied 
Members of Congress to refugee camps in Eastern Chad and provided expertise during drafting of 
bills, including the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act (H.R. 3127), Supporting the Appointment 
of a Special Envoy for Sudan (H. Res. 992), and the Darfur Genocide Accountability Act (H.R. 
1424). 


Defense Transformation and Modernization. Each of the armed services has undertaken 
major equipment and modernization programs, including the Air Force’s F-22 and Joint Strike Fighter 
aircraft, the Army's Combat System, and the Navy’s DDX destroyer and Littoral Combat Ship. 
Confronted with competing defense budget priorities, often increasing cost estimates, and a changing 
national security environment, Congress sought CRS help in evaluating Department of Defense 
(DOD) program requests, proposing alternative funding approaches, and assessing potential reforms 
to defense acquisition procedures. 

China and Taiwan. During the last few years Congress has reassessed U.S. policy toward 
China, fueled by China’s increasing economic and political influence around the world. As they 
drafted trade legislation. Members asked CRS to analyze strengths and weaknesses in measures that 
would impose punitive tariffs on Chinese products in cases where China manipulated its currency. 
CRS also assessed economic sectors in which China has rapidly growing markets and in which U.S. 
companies could be especially competitive in order to help redress the large U.S. trade deficit with 
China. Economists examined both the potential gains to U.S. consumers from trade with China and 
possible harm to specific industries and workers in the United States that could be caused by the price 
competitiveness of Chinese imports. 


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Other requests from Members entailed examination of China’s weapons proliferation in 
countries like Pakistan and Iran; analysis of the extent of China’s cooperation on stemming nuclear 
proliferation in North Korea; and study of fundamental shifts under way in China’s relations with U.S. 
East Asian allies. CRS analyzed key issues in U.S. policy and legislation concerning Taiwan, 
including recent developments in cross-straits relations and proposed free trade agreement 
negotiations with Taiwan. Analysts also provided numerous updates on the state of human rights in 
China and the implications of social unrest for China’s politics and foreign policy. 

North Korea. As the crisis over North Korea’s nuclear program and delivery systems 
worsened, Congress called on CRS to analyze the implications of North Korea’s missile tests in July 
2006, its testing of a nuclear device, and the possibility of taking punitive actions against North 
Korea. CRS experts assessed the Administration’s policy regarding illegal North Korean activities 
such as the counterfeiting of U.S. currency and drug trafficking and analyzed implications for 
adopting alternative diplomatic strategies and tactics toward North Korea. Analysts also supported 
Congress by providing ongoing analyses of the policies of South Korea and China toward Pyongyang 
and U.S. humanitarian assistance in North Korea. 

Foreign Aid Reorganization and T ransformational Diplomacy. When the Administration 
announced both its plan to restructure the foreign aid apparatus and its vision for a new 
transformational diplomacy, CRS compared and contrasted relevant legislative initiatives and assessed 
how the proposals might affect future U.S. foreign aid and diplomacy. 

Global Health and HIV! AIDS. Congress asked CRS to provide analyses of the capacity of 
the most affected countries to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and compare strategies used to 
counter the global spread of the virus. As the spread of other diseases, including avian flu, became 
increasingly recognized as a national security concern for the United States, CRS experts helped 
analyze issues surrounding access to treatments, global surveillance and monitoring efforts, and 
emergency plans. 

U.N. Reform. When Congress considered the need for U.N. reform in order to make the 
multinational body more effective and credible in its global efforts, CRS examined U.S. and 
international initiatives, the results of the September 2005 summit-level meeting of the U.N. General 
Assembly, and the success or failure of U.S. efforts to gain agreement from other U.N. members to 
steps the United States considers important. Analysts also reviewed investigations of reported “oil- 
for-food” crimes committed by U.N. peacekeepers as well as reported fraud and corruption in U.N. 
procurement activities. 

Foreign Investment in the United States. Foreign investment in the United States and the 
operations of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), the U.S. agency 
that reviews national security implications of foreign acquisitions of U.S. companies, came under 
scrutiny early in 2006 when CFIUS initially approved a proposed acquisition by Dubai World Ports 
of commercial operations at six U.S. ports. CRS analysts responded to questions from Members on 
the operations of CFIUS and the economic and security implications of foreign investment in the U.S. 
economy and assisted as Members drafted more than two dozen bills to revamp the CFIUS process. 

U.S. Trade Agreements. As part of its constitutional responsibility to regulate foreign 
commerce, Congress played an active role in reviewing the Administration’s efforts to negotiate 
bilateral, regional, and multilateral trade agreements in FY2006. Among these agreements were the 
Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA, P.L. 109-53), the U.S. -Bahrain Free Trade 
Agreement Implementation Act (P.L. 109-169), and the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (P.L. 


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109-238). Other legislation regarding the U.S.-Peru free trade agreement and legislation granting 
Vietnam permanent normal trade relations treatment was approved in committees. CRS presented 
analyses of these agreements from different economic, regional, political, and legal perspectives and 
examined the potential impact the agreements might have on various economic sectors and jobs. 

Treaties. Congress consulted with CRS frequently during consideration of the Departments 
of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2006 
(P.L. 109-149). Questions centered on the U.S. -Mexico social security totalization agreement (which 
was signed but not ratified) and provisions, later dropped, which would have prohibited payments for 
work by illegal aliens. CRS expexts also assisted during Senate discussion of whether bilateral 
international tax treaties with Sweden, Bangladesh, and France should be ratified. 

International Agreements on Hazardous Chemicals. Hazardous chemicals were the focus 
of proposed legislation that would allow implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent 
Organic Pollutants and two other international agreements, each of which has been signed, but not 
ratified, by the United States. CRS analysts and attorneys briefed Members and committees on the 
treaties, relevant U.S. statutes, and provisions of introduced bills; prepared detailed analyses of 
competing bills and their potential impacts; discussed impacts of various alternatives, often on tight 
deadlines; and provided analytical support in preparation for hearings and markup of the bills. 

Import Programs. Through statute Congress has established programs that provide 
differential treatment toward imports entering the United States. During this fiscal year legislation 
repealed the Continuing Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act (P.L. 109-71) and legislation was 
introduced to renew the Generalized Systems of Preferences. Bills to expand the Africa Growth and 
Opportunity Act (P.L. 106-200) to benefit agricultural products and extend the third-country fabric 
provision also were introduced. CRS contributed to congressional consideration of these legislative 
initiatives by analyzing the significance of the programs and the effects that legislative options under 
discussion might have on the U.S. economy, selected industries, and affected countries. 

Closing and Realigning of U.S. Military Installations. Many Members of Congress 
followed closely the proposed DOD list for closing and realigning military installations, the extent to 
which those actions would affect their constituencies, the impact of the Base Realignment and 
Closure (BRAC) Commission’s decisions on the DOD list, and the effects on the overall U.S. defense 
posture. CRS prepared comprehensive analyses of the defense, environmental, land use, legal, 
budgetary and economic implications of DOD ’s proposed list, the BRAC Commission actions, and 
implementation of those actions. 


GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY 

Campaign Finance and Regulation of 527 Organizations. Congress continued to respond 
to developments in campaign finance since passage of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 
(P.L. 107-155). Legislative proposals to regulate so-called “527 political organizations” received 
growing attention in the 109 th Congress. CRS analysts and attorneys examined the issues in the 
relevant legislative proposals, responded to inquiries about contributions to federal election 
campaigns made by Indian tribal governments and organizations, and helped define the issues and 
address policy questions related to the potential of regulating internet political advertising. 

Election Reform. CRS experts addressed a number of requests concerning election reform 
and reported on accuracy and ballot security shortcomings of electronic and computerized voting 


11 


systems; the impact of hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the 2006 elections in Louisiana, Mississippi, 
and Alabama; and the possibility of requiring photograph identification and proof of citizenship as 
prerequisites for voting. Analysts examined proposed legislation to regulate elections that relied 
exclusively on postal ballots, reviewed state and local demands for additional funding under the Help 
America Vote Act (P.L. 107-252), and prepared a comparison of proposals to provide a legislative 
overhaul of this Act. 

Election Law. Congress called on CRS attorneys during discussions on congressional 
reapportionment, including the constitutionality of mid-decade redistricting addressed in the recent 
Supreme Court decision, League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) v. Perry ; and the 
extension of voting rights protection during consideration of the Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, and 
Coretta Scott King Voting Rights Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-246). 
CRS also prepared the Senate Election Law Guidebook (Senate Document 109-10), which presents 
an overview of relevant federal and state election laws. 

Budget and Appropriations. CRS assisted Congress on budget and appropriations issues 
including the constitutionality of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), the scope of the 
Senate’s power under the Constitution’s origination clause to amend revenue legislation, and the 
constitutionality of earmarks. 

Congressional Operations and Procedures. The internal organization, governance, and 
procedures of the legislative branch were active areas that received CRS support throughout the year. 
Attorneys advised Congress on the speech and debate clause of the Constitution and constitutional 
separation of powers principles and addressed congressional access to information held by the 
executive branch in the context of several oversight and investigative activities of Congress. 
Administrative oversight concerns addressed for Congress included recess appointments and the 
constitutional significance of presidential signing statements. Responses to congressional requests 
included analysis of lobbying disclosure proposals, consultation related to procedures of committee 
markups and the rules and organization of the House and its party caucuses, assistance with 
committee histories, briefings for House and Senate committee staff and staff of Senate leadership 
on comparative parliamentary procedure, briefings for foreign lawmakers, and the ongoing CRS 
Legislative Institutes series that provides congressional staff with resources and training to promote 
understanding of legislative and budgetary processes. 

Federal Government Operations and Procedures. CRS analysts and information specialists 
provided a broad range of support on the multifaceted activities and institutions of the federal 
government. Assistance on federal agency organization or reorganization and personnel included 
analyses of legislation that would create commissions to review federal agencies and programs and 
terminate most federal agencies and programs at a specific date unless they were reauthorized by 
Congress. CRS also assisted during the debate over postal reform; supported congressional 
deliberations regarding Office of Personnel Management operations, the DOD National Security 
Personnel System, the compensation of Administrative Law Judges; analyzed legislation to alter the 
government’s performance appraisal system; and provided expertise on the evolution and current 
status of policy and procedure for the classification of national security information as compared with 
the protection of sensitive but unclassified information. 

Courts. During this fiscal year Congress showed increased interest in oversight of the judicial 
branch. CRS attorneys worked with House and Senate committees on a number of issues including 
congressional regulatory and oversight authority of courts, jurisdictional issues (sometimes called 
“court stripping”), judicial discipline procedures, and impeachment. As Congress continued to focus 


12 


on the organization and operations of the federal judiciary, it called upon CRS experts to analyze and 
provide briefings on, for example, judicial branch appropriations for FY2006, administrative issues 
such as court security, and the impact of television and other electronic media coverage of federal 
court proceedings. Most recently the court stripping issue arose in the context of the detention of 
enemy combatants and congressional efforts to regulate their access to judicial review of their status 
and treatment. 

Banking, Insurance, Securities, and Financial Markets and Services. Congress requested 
analytical assistance to examine trends and conditions in its oversight of U.S. banking and financial 
services, including overall profit growth and the comparative profitability of small and large banks, 
the continuing trend toward consolidation in the banking industry, and the impact of recent banking 
laws and regulations. Attorneys advised on mechanisms to fine tune anti-terrorist financing laws; 
remedies for the breach of financial data; the adequacy of existing anti-money laundering programs; 
differences between the powers of thrift institutions, commercial banks, and credit unions; and the 
interstate branching authority of industrial loan companies and banks. CRS looked at the potential 
impact of provisions of the proposed Financial Services Regulatory Relief Act (H.R. 3505 and S. 
2856) on the growing concentration of financial services in the banking, insurance, and securities 
industries. CRS also contributed expertise during congressional oversight of federal regulatory 
developments in both the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-173) and the 
Basel II international capital accords. Economists examined the s tincture of bond rating agencies, 
barriers to entry, and possible conflicts of interest. During congressional drafting of the Hedge Fund 
Study Act (H.R. 6079) CRS assistance included an analysis of alternative approaches and a history 
of previous legislative and regulatory proposals. 

General Economic Conditions and Monetary Policy. CRS economists regularly briefed 
Congress on monetaiy policy and the long-term fiscal position of the U.S. government. Economists 
and information specialists reported on the U.S. current account deficit and how it is funded by 
foreign savings, implications of this for the American economy, and whether the deficit can be 
reduced from the current historically unprecedented level without financial disruptions. 

T axation. Comprehensive examinations of a wide range of tax issues informed the legislative 
debate on broad-based tax policy and administration, individual and family taxation, tax issues 
affecting specific sectors of the economy, and the alternative minimum tax. Examples are analytic 
reviews of proposals offered by the President’s Advisory Panel on Tax Reform and support during 
congressional consideration of the dynamic effects of the 2001 tax cuts. CRS economists continued 
to provide perspective and analyses of policy options concerning the federal debt limit, budget 
forecasts, deficit reduction, and budgetary treatment of federal credit. 

CRS attorneys collaborated with analysts to address issues surrounding the Estate Tax and 
Extension of Tax Relief Act of 2006 (H.R. 5970), particularly the effects of proposed changes on 
small businesses and valuation of assets. They also responded to congressional inquiries about the 
tax code’s restrictions on the ability of tax-exempt organizations to participate in political activities 
in various contexts, including Native American Indian tribes, churches, and hospitals, and advised on 
the implications of federal restrictions placed on U.S. charities after September 11, 2001. 


RESOURCES, INDUSTRY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT 

The 2007 Farm Bill. Many of the provisions of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act 
of 2002 (P.L. 107-171), which governs current domestic farm policy, will expire in 2007. In 2006 


13 


Congress requested CRS assistance as lawmakers began discussions on whether to extend the current 
farm bill intact, or consider significant changes to existing farm policy. Some of the concerns were 
federal spending constraints, the distribution of farm program benefits, and the threat of potential 
World Trade Organization challenges to farm price and income support spending. CRS provided 
in-depth analyses to Congress on the pros and cons of policy options as Members attempted to craft 
a multiyear farm policy that remains within budget parameters while still achieving a variety of other 
domestic farm policy goals. Among those goals are to provide a financial safety net for farmers, 
allow the United States to sell its farm products successfully in international markets, and foster 
improved conservation practices, rural development, and household nutrition. 

Food and Drug Regulation. CRS experts provided legal analysis to support congressional 
action on the regulation of methamphetamine, pharmacy and abortion conscience clause laws, and 
the Food and Drug Administration’s rejection of over-the-counter status for Plan B emergency 
contraception for women younger than 16 years of age. 

Supreme Court Cases on the Environment. CRS attorneys analyzed the many lawsuits to 
require federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions and advised Congress on associated legal and 
policy questions presented in the wetlands and water pollution cases heard by the Court during its 
2006 term. 

Offshore Oil and Gas Leasing. CRS energy analysts worked closely with Congress as it 
considered a conceptual and analytical framework for a legislative approach to offshore energy 
production. Attorneys examined the detailed, overlapping, and often site-specific regulations on oil 
and gas exploration at various onshore and offshore locations. The CRS effort included an analysis 
of current offshore energy leasing and production, with a focus on why certain leased areas were not 
under production, the potential for production in additional areas, and an examination of potential 
federal revenues in offshore areas currently open to leasing and areas under moratoria. As legislation 
moved forward in the House and Senate, which took different approaches in separate bills (H.R. 
4761, S. 3711), CRS analysts contributed to the deliberative process through analytical and 
background consultations. 

Oil and Gasoline Supply and Price Spikes. As world oil prices reached record levels and 
gasoline prices hovered in the $3 per gallon range during most of the year. Congress frequently called 
upon CRS to explain the underlying causes of the situation, analyze the short- and long-term impacts, 
and evaluate policy options. Analyses show that much of the structural problem in the domestic 
gasoline market stems from underinvestment in refinery capacity. CRS analysts examined a wide 
variety of proposals to address the issue, ranging from establishing federally run refineries on closed 
military bases to easing siting requirements. CRS experts and information specialists addressed the 
basis for current trends in imports of crude oil and refined products and how they are affected by 
diff ering policies in the United States and Europe and continually updated analyses and presentations 
of relevant energy statistics. 

Energy Security Challenges. Congress turned to CRS as it prepared for hearings addressing 
U.S. vulnerability to oil supply disruptions around the world. Much of this congressional oversight 
pertained to U.S. energy agreements - both bilateral and multilateral - with nations in specific 
regions, such as Latin America and Central Asia. CRS analysts developed an analytical framework 
for the myriad agreements so that their usefulness in the current situation could be evaluated and 
examined production, consumption, and exports in key countries and regions. 


14 


Telecommunications Policy and Net Neutrality. In the fast-paced environment in which 
telecommunications products and services are evolving and merging with other technologies. 
Members looked to CRS analysts and information specialists for expertise as they prepared legislation 
on such policy issues as governing the use of the communications spectrum, redefining the nation’s 
emergency communications systems, and assessing the impact of converting the nation’s television 
broadcast system from analog to digital on both broadcast systems and U.S. consumers. 

Concern over the growth of child pornography on the Internet, and how new technologies 
may circumscribe the existing federal role to regulate this traffic, prompted Congress to request CRS 
analytical consultation as lawmakers prepared legislation to restrict Internet child pornography traffic. 
The broadest component of telecommunications reform is perhaps encompassed in “net neutrality”- 
the concept that owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet should not 
control how consumers lawfully use that network and should not be able to discriminate against 
content provider access to that network. CRS kept Congress informed during the tele- 
communications reform debate by providing research and analysis, both written and oral, as Members 
discussed such issues as the possible repercussions of imposing requirements for both the deployment 
and advancement of broadband facilities. 

Chemical Plant Security. The threat of terrorism in the United States has challenged 
legislators to re-evaluate federal policies with respect to the security and safety of private enterprises. 
One focus is on the security of facilities where large quantities of particularly hazardous chemicals 
are produced, stored, or used, specifically facilities that are near urban centers or critical U.S. assets. 
During the 109 th Congress, CRS experts worked closely with Congress to define the problem, analyze 
relative risks posed by various manufacturing and service sectors of the economy, and assess the 
status of private sector and executive branch security initiatives. Data on various industries and 
chemicals were analyzed to inform deliberations about critical needs for security protection. CRS 
analysts contributed expertise on security matters, hazardous chemicals, confidential business 
information, and existing federal and state public disclosure laws (which are primarily environmental 
laws) to generate a range of legislative approaches and strategic options, and to compare pros and 
cons. CRS experts provided research, analysis, and advice on the development of chemical plant 
security legislation (contained in the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2006, 
P.L. 109-295), on questions related to information protection, on judicial review of actions by the 
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and on preemption of state and local law regulating the 
security of chemical plants. 

Privacy and Information Security. CRS experts assisted Congress during the markup of 
data security legislation and in preparation for hearings to address data stolen from a Department of 
Veterans Affairs employee. Attorneys examined and advised on state statutes imposing data security 
safeguards and breach notification requirements, state credit freeze and fraud alert laws, identity theft 
penalties, and preemption issues. CRS also advised congressional staff on existing privacy laws 
regulating the disclosure of phone records and laws regulating government access to phone calling 
activity and related records. 

Intellectual Property. Congress considered a number of intellectual property-related issues 
during the year, including patent law reform, trademark dilution, and music licensing and orphan 
works in copyright law. CRS attorneys assisted by analyzing recent Supreme Court precedent 
concerning injunctive relief in patent infringement lawsuits and possible ramifications of the decision 
for provisions of the Patent Reform Act of 2005 (H.R. 2795), by responding to questions related to 
the BlackBerry litigation, and by advising on issues ranging from digital content copyright protection 
to intellectual property rights in China. 


15 


Oversight of Mission Agencies’ Use of Science and T echnology. In response to continuing 
congressional interest in how federal science and technology is funded and how funding priorities are 
set, CRS provided analyses on the federal research and development budget and its various 
components such as agencies with large federal R&D budgets like the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, the Department of 
Homeland Security, and the National Institutes of Health; Project Bioshield, which provides support 
for the development of pharmaceutical drugs specifically targeted to counter the effects of chemical 
and biological weapons; and developments in nanotechnology at the sub-micron level. CRS also 
examined legislative remedies in various related issues ranging from H-1B visas for foreign students 
in the United States and the role of women and minorities in U.S. science and engineering. 

Critical Infrastructure Protection. CRS addressed congressional requests for assistance on 
security and protection of assets critical to U.S. infrastructure - communications systems, oil and gas 
pipelines, electrical power grids, and highway systems. Because the safety and security of critical 
infrastructure is a complex and overarching part of public policy-making, CRS analysts and 
information specialists used a multidisciplinary approach in providing expert consulting for hearings, 
committee reports, and other support for Congress. 

Patent Policy and Innovation. Lawmakers recognize that for technology innovation to be 
encouraged and to continue, intellectual property rights must be protected. CRS provided 
comprehensive analyses to congressional requesters on addressing innovation and patent protection 
as critical for key industries and outlining current legislative remedies that provide patent protection 
while stimulating innovation. CRS experts also continued to work with committees in both chambers 
during hearings on the history, nature, and current status of patent protection, most notably in 
pharmaceutical research and development, and the effects of current law on innovation in technology. 

Aviation Investments, Technology, and Regulation. CRS analysts and information 
specialists assisted as House and Senate committees began exploring policy alternatives to address 
financial, technical, and organizational issues related to the use of the nation’s airspace and airports. 
CRS helped develop a conceptual framework for resolving questions about Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) budgeting and finance; airport development and finance; FAA cost control 
measures; system- wide demand and capacity issues; modernization of national airspace system (NAS) 
infrastructure; aviation safety; airline cabin issues; energy, environment, and noise issues; and 
international civil aviation issues. Analysts engaged in consultations and provided expertise on an 
ongoing basis throughout the year to assist committees that were writing legislation to reauthorize 
the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) as well as preparing for aviation reauthorization 
activities for the 1 10 th Congress. 

Steel Industry Reorganization and Automobile Industry Downsizing. Steel industry 
bankruptcies and reorganizations have had a significant impact on tens of thousands of workers and 
retirees, their families, and the communities in which they live. As a result of these industry changes, 
responsibilities for pensions shifted from some private companies to the Pension Benefit Guaranty 
Corporation (PBGC), and health insurance benefits were terminated for many laid-off or retired 
workers who did not yet qualify for Medicare. Similarly, significant downsizings at General Motors, 
Ford, Delphi (the former auto parts division of General Motors), and Visteon (former Ford auto parts 
division), as well as numerous other U.S. auto parts makers, have led to massive layoffs or job 
buyouts when auto plants close. As industries struggled to deal with the high costs and competitive 
impact of pension and health care benefits that were negotiated in past collective bargaining 
agreements, CRS analysts worked closely with Members to address ongoing shifts in the global auto 


16 


and steel industries and provided expertise on pension reform to committees as they worked on the 
Pension Protection Act (P.L. 109-280). 

Use of Coastal and Marine Resources. Increasing human use and conflicts among uses in 
the nation’s coastal and marine environment led to congressional consideration of options to alter 
federal programs affecting these resources. Two 2004 national commission reports noted declines 
in marine resources and shortcomings in the fragmented and limited approaches to resource 
protection and management in federal and state waters. CRS continued to consult with Members and 
relevant congressional committees to outline the history of federal oceans policies and how proposals 
might alter current policy and practice. Analysts and information specialists also provided 
information, expertise, and analysis to the ongoing congressional efforts to reauthorize the 
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (P.L. 94-265), which governs federal 
administration of offshore fisheries, and the Marine Mammal Protection Act (P.L. 92-522). 

Endangered and Invasive Species Controversies. Possible extinction of native animal and 
plant species and increasing numbers of non-native invasive species were also issues addressed by 
Congress during the year. The law that protects endangered and threatened species - the Endangered 
Species Act (ESA, P.L. 93-205) - is controversial in part because its strict substantive provisions can 
affect the use of both federal and non-federal lands and resources. Because of both strong support 
and strong opposition, ESA has not been reauthorized since its funding authorization expired in 1 992. 
CRS provided continuing expert consulting, information and analysis, and briefings to assist Members 
and committees in their review of the overall purposes of conserving such species and “the 
ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend,” as stated in the Act. 
Analysts contributed during consideration of whether and how to amend the ESA to balance the many 
interests (which may fall on various sides of any given species controversy). CRS attorneys advised 
on the implications of competing proposals to revise the Act. 

The invasive species problem has been equally difficult to resolve, partly because of weak and 
incomplete agency jurisdictions. CRS advised Congress as Members addressed the issue primarily 
through specific species or approaches, such as by controlling the release of ballast water from 
international shipping. 

Conflicts in Federal Land Ownership and Use. Congressional debate continued throughout 
the year over how much land the federal government should own; how to prioritize among the 
multiple uses (e.g., grazing, timber, animal habitat, recreation); how to protect natural resources and 
nearby communities from wildfires and other catastrophes; whether Congress should designate 
specially protected areas; whether and how to collect and distribute fees for land and resource uses; 
and how to compensate state and local governments for the tax-exempt status of federal lands. CRS 
analysts and information specialists supported congressional examination of these land use questions 
as Members considered legislative proposals, program oversight, and the annual appropriations for 
the federal land management agencies. CRS experts also provided consultation during discussion of 
omnibus energy legislation on the question of whether or not to allow oil and gas leasing in the Arctic 
National Wildlife Refuge. 

Climate Change Policy. The Congress has struggled with formulating an appropriate 
response to global climate change since the United States ratified the U.N. Framework Convention 
of Climate Change in 1992. The congressional debate over mandatory efforts to address global 
climate change began anew with Senate passage of a Sense of the Senate Resolution on Climate 
Change during deliberations on the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58). The resolution 
encourages Congress to enact a comprehensive and effective national program of mandatoiy. 


17 


market-based limits and incentives on greenhouse gases that slow, stop, and reverse the growth of 
such emissions. During the past year, CRS experts worked closely with committees attempting to 
develop legislation to implement the Senate resolution. CRS provided the expertise to identify and 
assess proposed alternatives and to analyze related scientific, economic, environmental, and 
international effects. 

Air Quality Standards. Many in Congress have expressed concern regarding the 
Environmental Protection Agency’s new air quality standards for particulate matter that were 
proposed and finalized in 2006. These standards will drive much of the federal and state clean air 
regulatory effort by defining how clean air must be to protect public health and welfare. CRS 
provided expertise and consulted with Congress regarding the history of the air standards program 
and the legislative requirements for setting the standards, as well as the potential public health and 
economic impacts of the agency’s proposal. Analysts and specialists worked with Members and 
committees in preparation for oversight hearings and provided expert oral and written consultation 
in response to numerous requests on a quick turnaround basis. 

Defense and the Environment. During congressional debate of FY2007 defense 
authorization legislation Members considered environmental provisions related to military activities 
that raised many technical and regulatory policy issues. CRS analysts studied the impacts of draft 
legislation to address these issues. Among the more complex issues was how to assess and respond 
to potential safety, health, and environmental risks from the past ocean disposal of chemical weapons. 
CRS developed an analytical framework to assess these risks and evaluate the feasibility of 
remediation and other alternatives. 

The cleanup of land-based contamination on military installations also continued to be a topic 
of congressional oversight in 2006. Congress was particularly interested in the cleanup of closed 
military bases to make the land safe for civilian reuse. CRS experts assessed the potential impacts 
of cleanup challenges on the redevelopment of closed bases where environmental contamination is 
likely to be especially severe. In response to concerns about the costs of site cleanup, analysts also 
examined the most recent Department of Defense cost estimates, with a focus on the baseline of these 
projections and the factors that could determine actual costs. 


DOMESTIC SOCIAL POLICY 

Affected Populations Following Hurricane Katrina. In response to numerous congressional 
queries regarding the unprecedented crisis Hurricane Katrina created for residents of New Orleans 
and the Gulf Coast, CRS analysts, in collaboration with the Geography and Map Division of the 
Library of Congress, used mapping software (Geographic Information System, GIS) to estimate the 
number and social-demographic characteristics of the population most likely to have been directly 
affected by the storm. Analysts combined Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood 
and damage assessment data with GIS data to apportion areas of assessed damage and flooding to 
Census blocks and subsequently to Census tracts. This analysis yielded an estimate of the number 
of people who sustained the worst flooding and structural damage as well as selected characteristics 
of this population such as age, race, and income level. 

Emergency Housing Assistance. After the initial need to evacuate and relocate families 
following the 2005 hurricanes, the focus shifted to recovery and rebuilding of flood-damaged areas 
as well as meeting the housing needs of displaced residents. While FEMA took primary responsibility 
for meeting the emergency housing needs of displaced families, the Department of Housing and Urban 


18 


Development (HUD) played a role by modifying existing grant programs to make them more flexible 
for communities to serve victims of the hurricanes. CRS supported Congress in efforts to determine 
whether existing authorities could respond to the crisis or whether additional legislation was 
warranted. Analysts prepared an analysis of HUD’s role in responding to past disasters, which 
provided precedents and an analytic framework for consideration of disaster-related housing needs; 
explored use of Section 8 housing vouchers; and assisted Congress during preparation of two 
supplemental appropriations bills to HUD. 

Education Disaster Relief. Congressional financial relief to victims of the storms included 
money for education institutions. For example, the passage of the Department of Defense, 
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic 
Influenza Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-148) included $1.6 billion in aid to provide education-related disaster 
relief at the elementary, secondary, and post- secondary levels. CRS analysts prepared comprehensive 
analyses and interpretation of proposed provisions, including extended waiver authority and 
authorized uses of funds, and provided supporting data for inclusion in legislation. 

Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). As a result of rising energy 
costs after the hurricanes, the level and breadth of interest in LIHEAP grants to provide energy 
assistance programs for needy households increased greatly. When Congress considered legislation 
to increase funding for LIHEAP, CRS analysts prepared a comprehensive explanation of the 
legislative history of the current allotment procedures, provided estimates and graphical 
representations of current law, and estimated the impact on state allocations under a wide range of 
proposed appropriation levels and alternative distribution formulas. While analyzing the data, CRS 
identified errors in the underlying computational factors used by the executive branch agency 
responsible for the program and worked with the agency to correct the inconsistencies. 

State Children’ s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 
(P.L. 105-33) created SCHIP to help states pay for health coverage of children in families whose 
income is above levels that would allow them to be eligible for the state’s Medicaid program. 
Because SCHIP is a capped grant program, it is possible for states to exhaust all federal funds 
available to them in a given year. While this did not happen in early years of the program, recently 
there has been a need to redistribute funds to states with rapid spending increases. Funds have been 
redistributed from earlier years to later years and from one state to another. To explore the 
implications of alternative redistribution schemes, CRS developed a computer simulation model of 
state-by-state demand for and spending of SCHIP funds. The model allows Congress to better 
understand the funding implications of alternative redistribution methods in meeting the needs of state 
programs. CRS analysts prepared estimates that were used in discussions pertaining to the Deficit 
Reduction Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171) and FY2007 funding. 

Pensions and Retirement. During the 109 th Congress Members considered the most 
significant pension refoim in decades. Prompted by the default in recent years of several large, 
defined benefit pension plans and the increasing deficit of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 
(PBGC), House and Senate committees began drafting comprehensive pension reform bills in 2005, 
which led to the enactment of the Pension Protection Act (P.L. 109-280) in August 2006. To put 
the issue of pensions and retirement into context, CRS prepared an analysis of the current state of 
defined benefit plan funding and the potential effects of reform on companies that sponsor these plans. 
Analysts also examined the way insurance premiums received by the PBGC are counted in the federal 
budget reconciliation process and analyzed major provisions of the House and Senate pension reform 
bills. 


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CRS assisted during consideration of the Pension Reform Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-280) by 
identifying and analyzing implications of various reform proposals. In particular, attorneys provided 
advice on whether cash balance pension plans violate the age discrimination prohibitions in ERISA 
(Employee Retirement Income Security Act, 1974, P.L. 93-406), the Internal Revenue Code, and the 
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (P.L. 90-202), and how various pension reform proposals 
could impact ongoing litigation. 

Child Welfare. Members approved three major laws in the 109 th Congress pertaining to child 
welfare. Provisions in the Deficit Reduction Act (P.L. 109-171) were intended to limit federal 
reimbursement for certain state foster care expenditures, and CRS estimated the national and state 
impacts of these provisions. The Safe and Timely Interstate Placement of Foster Children Act (P.L. 
109-239) was to expedite the process of placing children across state lines for adoption or foster care. 
CRS provided context for this legislation through analyses of current state law and practice. 

Among other provisions, the Child and Families Services Improvement Act (P.L. 109-288) 
created two new grant programs: one to address the impact of methamphetamine abuse on children 
and child welfare agencies; and one to increase the frequency of caseworker visits to children in foster 
care. CRS provided analyses of both issues and prepared a legislative history of current law 
provisions that were affected by this Act, which was first enacted in 1935 and not amended since 
1980, to help Congress gain a better understanding of the original reasons for enactment and the 
impact of repeal or revision. 

Career and Technical Education. Congress adopted legislation to extend and amend the 
Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998, the primary source of federal aid 
for career and technical education. The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education 
Improvement Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-270) amended and reauthorized the 1998 Perkins Act. During 
the months before reauthorization, CRS provided comprehensive analyses of major issues under 
consideration: changes to the basic state grant formula, accountability, and private school student 
participation in federally supported career and technical education programs. Analysts prepared 
computer simulations of the possible impact of various allocation formula modifications, including 
changes to state minimum grants, the elimination of fund reservations, and the distribution of funds 
if appropriations for career and technical education exceed the FY2006 appropriations level. 

Social Security. The ongoing debate over Social Security reform reflects fundamentally 
different approaches to reform, ranging from relatively minor changes in the current pay-as-you-go 
social insurance system to the creation of individual accounts as part of a restructured system based 
on personal savings and investments. Among efforts to inform this debate, CRS analysts used survey 
data to evaluate the economic well-being of the nation’s elderly population; identify the various 
sources of retirement income among the elderly, including Social Security; and determine the degree 
to which the elderly rely on these income sources. Analysts examined the implications of projected 
trust fund insolvency in 2040 and analyzed design options and implementation issues associated with 
individual accounts. 

To expand the ability to conduct detailed analyses, CRS experts used a complex computer 
simulation model to apply alternative Social Security benefit and tax rules and provide, for example, 
information on the effect of current-law Social Security program rules by socio-economic status and 
benefit type; analysis of the effect of reform proposals across and within various sub-populations; and 
estimates of the number of beneficiaries, in total and within various sub-populations, likely to be 
affected by the reform proposals. 


20 


Medicare’s New Drug Benefit. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and 
Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-173) established a voluntary prescription drug benefit under 
a new Medicare Part D, effective January 1, 2006. Prescription drug coverage is provided through 
private drug plans or Medicare Advantage drug plans. Implementation concerns before Congress 
included confusion regarding the number and type of private plans and changes in coverage of drugs 
for people who are dually eligible for both Medicare and full Medicaid benefits. CRS used 
administrative data and other information to prepare analyses addressing these implementation 
concerns in support of congressional oversight on these issues. 

Health Insurance Reform . The 1 09 th Congress, as well as earlier Congresses, debated issues 
raised by insurance earners and other providers of health insurance that offer coverage across state 
lines. Health plan providers have appealed to Congress for relief from an array of health insurance 
laws in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. As Members in the Second Session of this 
Congress investigated ways to reduce these burdens through development of more simplified 
regulation of health insurance plans, CRS provided legislative support by gathering information on 
state insurance requirements and analyzing the implications of alternative approaches. Growing 
concern about an increasing number of Americans without health insurance has created an interest 
in new approaches to meeting the nation’s health insurance needs through the use of tax-related 
incentives, health savings accounts, and consumer directed health insurance. In support of the 
legislative debate on this issue, analysts provided estimates of the number and characteristics of the 
uninsured population. CRS experts also prepared analyses of the use of high-deductible health 
insurance plans and health savings accounts. 

Ryan White CARE Act. The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency 
(CARE) Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-381), makes federal funds available to metropolitan areas and states 
to provide health care services for people with HIV and AIDS, including medical care, drug 
treatments, dental care, home health care, and outpatient and mental health and substance abuse 
treatment. In preparation for reauthorization of this act, Congress requested a number of studies. 
The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Modernization Act (H.R. 6143), which would implement 
many of the Administration’s proposed changes to the 1990 legislation, was passed by the House 
during the 1 09 th Congress. CRS analysts and information specialists supported the legislative process 
by responding to numerous congressional inquiries about the CARE Act, providing HIV/AIDS 
incidence data, and analyzing the various proposals before Congress. 

Abortion. CRS attorneys assisted Congress as it considered the Child Custody Protection 
Act (S. 8 and S. 396) and the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act (S. 403), both controversial 
measures that would prohibit the knowing transport of a minor across state lines for the purpose of 
obtaining an abortion. Specifically, CRS provided analysis and advice regarding the constitutional 
questions presented by the bills’ protection of parental consent and notification requirements in a 
minor’s state of residence. 

Civil Rights. CRS attorneys analyzed numerous civil rights questions that arose in the 
context of the immigration legislation pending before the 109 th Congress including implications for 
federal employment and housing anti-discrimination laws of local ordinances imposing penalties on 
employers and landlords who hire or rent to illegal immigrants. CRS also analyzed the issues in 
pending and recently decided Supreme Court cases addressing employment discrimination and 
affirmative action. 

Older Americans Act. The Older Americans Act of 1965 (P.L. 89-73) supports a wide range 
of supportive services for older people, including home and community-based long-term care, family 


21 


care giver assistance and transportation services as well as programs to prevent the abuse, neglect, 
and exploitation of older people living at home or in institutions. Recognizing the importance of 
these services for the nation’s increasing older population, the 109 th Congress devoted considerable 
attention to reauthorization of the Act in the 109 th Congress. CRS analysts and information 
specialists assisted Congress at every stage of the legislative process by analyzing the impact of 
proposals and preparing in-depth and comparative analysis of pending legislation, covering such 
issues as the role of state and area agencies on aging in promoting home and community-based long- 
term care services for older people, activities of states and localities in preparing for the baby boom 
population, and modernization of the community service employment program. CRS also analyzed 
the effects of proposals to change the formula for distribution of Older Americans Act Title III funds 
to states. 

Border Security and Domestic Intelligence. The 109 th Congress remained concerned about 
border security issues. Since the terrorist attacks of 2001, much attention has been focused on the 
security of the nation’s ports. The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-295) 
prescribed the responsibilities of relevant personnel in securing the nation’s ports and the vessels that 
enter them. The newly enacted Security and Accountability for Every Port Act (the SAFE Port Act, 
P.L. 109-347), however, emphasizes securing cargo container shipments. By providing Congress 
with a framework for differentiating between cargo inspections and screening, CRS helped shape the 
context of the debate early in the congressional discussion. Some of the concepts that lie behind the 
framework were incorporated in several provisions of the legislation enacted in both chambers. 
Congress also continued to exercise oversight of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) 
transformation to a counterintelligence agency. CRS analysts and information professionals provided 
research on the extent to which the FBI can fully meet congressional mandates to reform its 
intelligence function, including an assessment of the status of FBI reform efforts to date. 


LAW AND JUSTICE 

Constitutional Law: First Amendment and Free Speech. Among First Amendment 
concerns of Congress addressed by CRS during the past year were free speech issues raised by 
various bills that led to the enactment of the Respect for America’s Fallen Heros Act (P.L. 109-228), 
which prohibits demonstrations at funerals at federally controlled cemeteries; free-speech issues raised 
by the Credit Rating Agency Duopoly Relief Act of 2005 (H.R. 2990); and the question of whether 
a draft bill entitled “National Health Museum Act of 2006” would violate the First Amendment. 

Criminal Law. To assist Congress in its consideration and passage of the Adam Walsh Child 
Protection and Safety Act (P.L. 109-248), CRS attorneys responded to Member queries regarding 
possible approaches relative to sex offenders, including mandatory minimum sentences and 
restrictions on the sponsorship of minor children under immigration law as well as questions about 
current state laws governing the treatment of juveniles required to register as sex offenders. The 
attorneys also analyzed pertinent laws concerning domestic violence in support of the reauthorization 
of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act (P.L. 109-162) and 
provided consultation regarding the Sentencing Reform Act (18 U.S.C. 355 1 et seq.) and applicable 
sentencing guidelines in light of recent Supreme Court rulings. 

Disabilities Law. CRS provided a detailed overview and analysis of recently promulgated 
regulations implementing the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (20 U.S.C. 1400 
et seq.) and advised on such issues as including the parental consent for services, the impact of recent 
Supreme Court decisions regarding the burden of proof in IDEA due process hearings, and the 


22 


reimbursement to prevailing parents of expert witness fees incurred during due process hearings. 
Experts also provided analytic support during consideration of the proposed ADA Notification Act 
(H.R. 2904) and issues relating to emergency preparedness and individuals with disabilities. 

Indian Law. This year both houses of Congress developed legislation, the Restricting Indian 
Gaming to Homelands of Tribes Act of 2006 (H.R. 4893) and the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 
Amendments of 2006 (S. 2078) to curb the growth of off-reservation gaming under the Indian 
Gaming Regulatory Act (25 U.S.C. 27 10(d)). CRS attorneys responded to questions about particular 
tribal situations, state laws, and Bureau of Indian Affairs regulations and procedures. Among other 
issues addressed by legal experts were constitutional requirements to include gaming authority in the 
establishments of relationships with previously unrecognized Indian tribes and the extent to which 
Congress may require state and local approval of any extension of Indian gaming. Also addressed 
were issues related to ongoing litigation involving a claim of mismanagement of trust funds held for 
individual Indians by the Department of the Interior. 

Securities Law. CRS attorneys worked with Congress throughout consideration and eventual 
enactment of the Credit Rating Agency Reform Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-291) to authorize the 
Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate credit rating agencies and provided advice on 
proposals to convert credit unions to stock-issuing organizations. 

Tort Law. Tort law issues arose in the 109 th Congress in several contexts. One was 
congressional consideration of immigration reform, when CRS advised Members on whether the 
Federal Tort Claims Act of 1946 (28 U.S.C. 1346(b)) permits lawsuits against the United States for 
communicating erroneous information about an alien’s eligibility for employment. CRS attorneys 
provided analysis and advice regarding repealing the Feres Doctrine under the same Act to allow 
lawsuits against the United States for medical malpractice by military personnel; examined legal issues 
regarding legislation, ultimately enacted as the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act 
(P.L. 109-148, Div. C), to provide immunity from liability to people who manufacture, distribute, or 
administer pandemic flu vaccine or other medical biodefense countermeasures; and answered 
questions about bills that became the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act (P.L. 109-92), 
which provides immunity from liability for firearms manufacturers and sellers for damages resulting 
from the criminal misuse of firearms. 


23 


III. MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 

Among the major management initiatives in FY2006 were efforts to promote efficiency and 
cost-effectiveness, review product quality, improve performance rating and reporting, streamline 
technology to better serve Congress, and enhance and test systems important both to effective 
communication with Congress and to continuity of operations during an emergency situation. 


IMPROVEMENTS IN EFFICIENCY 

In response to congressional directives, CRS continually examines its internal operations to 
support its services to Congress and reassesses its work practices to ensure an accountable and cost- 
effective organization. Because new technologies can lead to greater efficiency, CRS undertook a 
study of the impact of information technology on work processes: specifically production support, 
technical support, and audio-visual functions - the support functions most dramatically affected by 
technological advancements. The results of the study indicated that CRS, through workforce re- 
engineering of some support functions, could reduce the number of support staff and devote more 
resources to analytic capacity without a loss in productivity. In addition, CRS extended to 
contractors through outsourcing and enhanced several business functions: the technology help desk, 
technology user-support services, mail and courier services, and receptionist functions. 


ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES 

To facilitate the mandate to provide all CRS divisions and offices with a technical 
infrastructure that supports the CRS mission, a new Technology Office was designated as a separate 
organizational unit. Steps were taken to increase coordination of the functions of three sections of 
the Office of Legislative Information (LIN): the Bill Digest Section, the Legislative Information 
System (LIS) Section, and the Electronic Research Products Office (ERPO). This includes 
documenting activities of the three sections and identifying methods to increase productivity and 
efficiency, all with the goal of providing more timely support to Congress. 


PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT 

The CRS publication component, the Electronic Research Products Office, implemented two 
initiatives to enhance product quality. The first was formation of a new graphics unit to offer a single 
source for all graphic needs of CRS authors, including support for maps, charts, and tables. 

Besides creating new graphics, this office assists authors in determining the best options for 
incorporating graphics from external sources into CRS products. The second initiative was to ensure 
adherence to quality standards by hiring quality assurance editors who check new and updated 
products before publication for correct formatting, good quality graphics, and live links to legislation 
and citations. 


PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT 

CRS took initial formative steps to develop a new framework to improve the performance 
assessment system for its staff. The new Performance Assessment System (PAS) is in place for 
associate directors and assistant directors. A draft has been created for senior specialists and deputy 


24 


assistant directors. Once the PAS is in place for all managers, CRS will prepare guidelines for 
performance rating of all staff. 


PERFORMANCE REPORTING 

Responding to the congressional request that legislative branch agencies consider the 
performance model set forth in the Government Performance and Results Act, CRS developed an 
enhanced system for assessing performance and reporting results to Congress. The plan and reporting 
system, which are built around the singularly focused CRS mission, use the key attributes of 
relevance, quality, accessibility, and management initiatives as frames of reference for establishing 
performance goals. The plan groups the performance goals into two distinct sets: one focused on 
research and the other on management. These management goals are essential to sustaining and 
improving agency efficiency in its use of resources. CRS submitted its initial performance reporting 
plan for FY2006 in November 2005. 


CONSOLIDATED DATABASE 

CRS continued to develop its corporate database that consolidates information from several 
internal data systems, improves cross-service support, and reduces duplication of effort. The 
consolidated database contains product information and selected personnel information. It supports 
the management of the Current Legislative Issues (CLIs), the public policy issues under active 
consideration by Congress that are featured on the CRS home page. New systems that draw on this 
consolidated database are the Management Information System, launched in FY2006, and two 
additional systems still under development: a new CRS search system scheduled to be released to 
Congress in FY2007 and an authoring and publishing system still in its initial stages of planning. 


THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM 

In late August 2006 CRS authors began using a new internal research management tool, the 
web-based Management Information System (MIS), whose primary objective is to help the CRS 
research community develop and maintain CRS products that support current policy-making needs 
of Congress. MIS data are part of a consolidated database that draws on workforce information on 
authors and their organizational affiliations, products, and Current Legislative Issues (CLIs). The 
new MIS tool allows authors, working with their division managers, to review and maintain the 
inventory of CRS research products aligned with the public policy issues on the legislative agenda. 
Product information includes CRS reports, videos, and selected Web pages. Products are assigned 
to status categories depending on their relevance to the current legislative agenda. The MIS also 
identifies a broad range of products that, while not updated, are made available as archived products 
because in many cases the history and background that these products provide are valuable to 
Congress. Issue statements and issue team information are included to promote common 
understanding of the issues and multidisciplinary work among analysts in responding to congressional 
requests. 


THE CRS SEARCH SYSTEM 

Closely aligned with the MIS is work under way to develop a new online search system for 
CRS products available only to Congress on the Service’s website. As envisaged, the system will 


25 


replace the current search system with enhanced design and usability features to improve the search 
experience. Initial releases, still undergoing testing, include ability to provide CLI context in the 
search results; improved bill searching; relevance ranking within active products which are brought 
to the top of the search results list, followed by archived products; capability within each status 
category to sort by relevance or date; and thesaurus software to make appropriate associations 
between a search queiy and the entire set of available CRS products. 

Congressional users will be able to perform searches from nearly every page on the CRS 
website. Up to 100 search results will be listed per web page. Other features will include search 
results with highlighted product titles rather than numbers and inclusion of author names. An online 
search help screen will explain key features of the system and provide help for specialized searchers. 
Email support also will be available. 


THE AUTHORING AND PUBLISHING SYSTEM 

To assist research staff in creating products for Congress, CRS assessed its current authoring 
and publishing needs and began to develop a new system that will take advantage of current 
technologies. The target is to design, acquire, and implement an authoring system, based on shifts 
to new software applications and a redesign of the CRS product line, to achieve a more reliable and 
efficient means for preparing, updating, and delivering research products to Congress. In this first 
year of a multiyear effort, a team is developing a prototype product by customizing software to meet 
CRS needs for creating reports and confidential memoranda for Congress. The goals of the system 
are to create congressional distribution products that better support PDF and HTML distribution 
through the CRS website, standardize the presentation format using a uniform and consistent new 
product design, and improve support for the use of graphics in products. The new system will entail 
converting all existing products to a Word-based system and creating all future products in the new 
system. 


THE LEGISLATIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Congressional staff overseeing technology in the House and Senate have indicated that within 
the next few years they will produce all legislative documents in Extensible Markup Language 
(XML). CRS must be fully prepared to access these XML documents in order to provide the most 
accurate searching of complex legislative information in the Legislative Information System (LIS). 
CRS worked throughout FY2006 with the assistance of a contractor to develop options for 
conversion and storage of the XML data, create specifications to describe the structure and content 
of XML documents, and convert the data into XML format. 

CRS also worked with the Library to build a single legislative search system for LIS that 
would enable retrieval of bill data (bill summary and search status), the full text of bills, and 
committee reports from a single search page covering all available Congresses. 


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT NETWORK 

The CRS Technology Office established an information technology development network with 
the goal of assisting managers as they evaluate, assess, select, and adopt technology that best meets 
research support needs. The new network has several advantages: it minimizes the pressures and 


26 


risks that normally accompany development of information technology, allows projects to be honed 
for test and production environments, and enables more efficient certification of CRS systems. 


PLANNING FOR CONTINUITY OF OPERATIONS 

CRS updated and revised its Continuity of Operations Plan and related documents as 
conditions warranted and made the transition from paper to electronic files. The Library and CRS 
Alternative Computing Facilities (ACF) systems became available online, as did WebTA (time and 
attendance records) and other Web-based systems important to effective continuity of operations. 

Successful testing of emergency systems included CRS participation in Capitol Hill-wide 
continuity planning efforts with the legislative branch to ensure improved communications and 
understanding of essential functions. In March 2006 staff from several CRS divisions and offices 
assisted in testing a new secure remote access solution, which will provide access to critical desktop 
resources in the event of a national emergency. 


27 


APPENDIXES 


A. FY2006 BUDGET, RESOURCES, AND OTHER FUNDING 

In FY2006 CRS had an authorized staffing level of 729 full-time equivalents (FTEs) and an 
appropriation of $99,906,840 available for expenditure. Approximately 86 percent of the fiscal year’s 
expenditures supported staff salaries and benefits. 

CRS received $56,000 from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. This 
money represented the second payment under a three-year grant of $ 1 68 ,000 given by the Foundation 
to increase CRS’s capacity to respond to congressional requests on patent and intellectual property 
policy issues. CRS also received grants of$142,500 from the Henry Luce Foundation and $71, 250 
from the Joyce Foundation in partial support of the CRS program. Legislative Issues and Procedures: 
the CRS Seminar for New Members. This program, which will be held in FY2007, provides the 
official orientation for newly elected House Members of the 1 1 0 th Congress to the policy issues likely 
to be on the legislative agenda and an overview of legislative procedure. 


28 


B. HUMAN RESOURCES AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT 

CRS faced a number of challenges during FY2006 that affected the work of the Office of 
Workforce Development. Before the beginning of the fiscal year the CRS Director announced the 
decision to abolish and re-engineer certain production support, technical support assistant and audio 
visual functions to be effective at the end of FY2006. The 59 employees affected by these staffing 
changes were given a year to make decisions about their future. Employees were also offered, with 
congressional approval and assistance of the Office of Personnel Management, an opportunity to 
apply for the Voluntary Early Retirement and/or Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment programs. 

As part of the Service’s re-engineering efforts, the Office of Workforce Development worked 
with CRS managers to create new positions which were filled early in the fiscal year to give affected 
staff an opportunity to apply. To assist affected staff further, CRS provided retirement and career 
counseling services to these staff and notified them of appropriate position vacancies posted in CRS 
and in the Library. Thirty employees took advantage of these opportunities. The remaining 29 
employees were issued reduction-in-force (RIF) notices in June 2006. The RIF process was 
administered by the Library’s Office of Human Resources Services (HRS) in accordance with the 
relevant provisions of the appropriate collective bargaining unit agreements and Libraiy of Congress 
regulations. The Office of Workforce Development continues to work closely with HRS in this 
process. 

Another challenge CRS continues to face is the loss of a significant percentage of its staff, 
particularly its research and analytical staff, to retirement. In FY2006 retirements represented about 
half of the total number of staff leaving CRS. Fifty-nine percent of those who retired were research 
and analytical staff. In FY2005 retirements represented two-thirds of total staff separations; in 
FY2004, about one-half. To keep pace with the increasing number of staff retirements and to carry 
out the Service’s succession planning initiative, the Office of Workforce Development coordinated 
the recruitment and selection for a number of key research and analytical positions and technology 
and administrative infrastructure positions in FY2006. This office continued to expand the Service’s 
diversity programs, coordinate its participation in upward mobility and other programs targeted to 
diversity populations, provide training and professional development opportunities for all categories 
of staff, and arrange an awards program for staff members who made superior contributions toward 
accomplishment of the Service’s mission. 


RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 

Using a combination of the Library ’s traditional hiring mechanisms and special programs, CRS 
made 100 selections to fill permanent/indefinite positions, including five noncompetitive 
reassignments from other parts of the Library. These selections included 83 professional and 
administrative positions representing a variety of analytical disciplines, information technology 
specialties and administrative professionals, and 17 support positions. Of the permanent/indefinite 
hires, 55 are women (55 percent) and 30 are minorities (30 percent). The Service also hired 33 
temporary staff. Of the temporary hires, 24 (72 percent) are women and 16 (48 percent) are 
minorities. 

The FY2006 permanent hires included six selections made through the Federal Presidential 
Management Fellows (PMF) Program, the highly competitive program administered by the U.S. 
Office of Personnel Management designed to attract the nation’s top graduate students to careers in 
public service. Three women and three men were hired. Four selections, including an African 


29 


American woman, were made under the Service’s Law Recruit Program, a program designed to 
recruit third-year law students for entry-level legislative attorney positions. 

CRS also hosted two PMFs from other agencies to serve on rotations in CRS analytic 
divisions. Both Fellows joined CRS permanently through reappointments. Two detailees were 
brought in under the U.S. Air Force Research Fellows Program. 


DIVERSITY EFFORTS 

In addition to the diversity efforts described above, CRS hired nine undergraduate and 
graduate student interns (six women and three men) in summer 2006 through the partnership 
programs associated with its Student Diversity Internship Program (SDIP). Eight students were from 
Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one was affiliated with the Hispanic Association of 
Colleges and Universities program. Partnering organizations in the SDIP include: The Washington 
Center’s Native American Leadership and Asia Pacific Internship Programs, the Asian Pacific 
American Institute for Congressional Studies Internship Program, the Hispanic Association of 
Colleges and Universities National Internship Program, the United Negro College Fund’s Institute 
for International Public Policy, and six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Clark Atlanta 
University, Morehouse College, Spelman College, Tuskegee University, Morgan State University, 
and Georgia State University). 

CRS continued to expand the pool of minority recruitment sources from which it draws when 
advertising permanent professional and administrative positions, and to develop stronger ties with 
various groups and organizations in order to promote CRS positions more effectively. New efforts 
included attending the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute Public Policy Conference and a 
conference sponsored by the White House Initiative on historically black colleges and universities. 
The Service also continued its participation in annual career fairs and other recruitment events 
sponsored by minority organizations and held orientation sessions for minority students serving in 
congressional offices under the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation Fellowship Program. 


STAFF TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

During FY2006 the Office of Workforce Development offered a number of on-site 
professional development opportunities for staff. Courses included “Communicating Effectively with 
Congressional Clients,” “Appropriations and the Budget Process,” and the “Legislative Process 
Institute.” CRS continued to offer “Professional Writing,” “Critical Thinking,” and “Reviewing Other 
People’s Writing” courses. This office also offered training for employees selected for the new 
administrative positions created in the analytic divisions as part of the FY2006 staffing changes. 

The Office of Workforce Development continued the CRS lunchtime discussions that provide 
CRS staff with an opportunity to network with colleagues and learn about various current events. 
These often include some of the same issues that are of interest to the Congress. Typically, CRS 
expert policy analysts lead these lunchtime discussions. FY2006 discussions included: “Do You 
Know Where Your Social Security Number Is?” and “Disaster Preparedness and Related Issues.” 

More than 550 CRS employees attended a wide variety of national and international 
conferences, site visits, meetings, and external training in support of their continuing professional 


30 


development. The Office of Workforce Development also provided guidance and consultation to 
employees and supervisors seeking to travel in conjunction with official CRS business. 


STAFF RECOGNITION 

It is CRS policy to acknowledge the superior performance of its employees. An effective 
recognition program contributes to maximum staff performance and to the achievement of the mission 
and goals of the organization. In keeping with that policy, during FY2006 424 special achievement 
and on-the-spot awards were given to 301 CRS staff members (some received more than one award) 
in recognition of their exceptional contributions. Such recognition emphasized Service-wide 
collaboration on issues of major congressional concern including such policy issues as a potential 
influenza pandemic, immigration reform, the Supreme Court nominations process, Hurricanes Katrina 
and Rita disasters, higher education, deficit reduction, welfare re-authorization, U.S. Department of 
Defense operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and election irregularities in the 2004 general election. 

The Service also recognized exemplary employee performance with two honorary awards 
(one distinguished and one meritorious service), 49 outstanding performance ratings, and 21 quality 
step increases in pay for superior job performance. The annual CRS Awards Ceremony, open to all 
staff, was held on April 26, 2006 and included a presentation of the first-ever Director’s Award. This 
award will be given each year in recognition of an individual or small group of individuals who have 
demonstrated excellence in work that serves the Congress, directly or indirectly, in research, 
reference, analysis, and writing, and in operations, service, and support. Recipients of this award are 
nominated by their colleagues. A panel reviewed the nominations and made recommendations to the 
CRS Director. The inaugural award was presented by the Director to an employee in the Office of 
Technology who received this honor for her contributions toward developing and sustaining critical 
technical systems in CRS in support of the Service’s work for Congress. 


31 


C. TYPES OF CRS SUPPORT TO CONGRESS: 

RESEARCH SERVICES AND PRODUCTS 

Throughout FY2006 CRS supported the Congress with analysis, research, and information, 
presented in the formats described below. 


CONGRESSIONALLY DISTRIBUTED PRODUCTS PROVIDING RESEARCH AND 
ANALYSIS ON LEGISLATIVE ISSUES 

Reports for Congress. Reports for Congress, analyses or studies on specific issues of 
congressional legislative interest, are often prepared in response to numerous congressional inquiries. 
Reports may take many forms: policy analysis, economic studies, statistical reviews, legal analyses, 
historical studies, chronologies, and two-page fact sheets. Reports clearly define the issue in the 
legislative context. The basic requirements of these and other CRS written products are accuracy, 
balance, and utility. Analysts define and explain technical terms and concepts, frame the issues in 
understandable and relevant context, and provide appropriate, accurate, and valid quantitative data. 
A summary appears on the first page of each report. CRS reports are available online to the 
congressional community. Reports are updated as subsequent events occur for issues that are of 
ongoing interest to Congress and archived when they no longer reflect the current legislative agenda. 
These archived products remain available to Congress to provide background and historical context. 
Reports are available both in printed form and electronically on the CRS website. 

Issue Briefs. Issue briefs, concise briefing papers on issues considered to be of major 
legislative importance to Congress, were originally conceived with an emphasis on timeliness and 
brevity (maximum 16 pages). This fiscal year CRS converted all active issue briefs to reports so that 
one consistent format would be in place. The conversion was done in preparation for the new 
authoring publishing system now under development. 

Congressional Distribution Memoranda. These memoranda are prepared when the interest 
of a relatively small number of congressional readers is anticipated or when the transiency of the issue 
and the product makes its inclusion as a listed CRS product inappropriate. Each bears a label 
distinguishing it from CRS confidential memoranda. If an issue becomes important to a larger 
congressional audience, the product may be recast as a CRS report. 


ELECTRONICALLY ACCESSIBLE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 

CRS Website ( www.crs.gov ). The CRS website provides 24-hour access to key CRS 
products listed by legislative issue, full text of written products, audio and video recordings of CRS 
programs, updates and analyses of annual appropriations legislation, a guide to legislative procedures, 
online registration for CRS seminars, and complete information on other services. The website also 
offers links to constituent services related information, selected Internet sites providing public policy, 
legislative, legal, and basic resources for work in congressional offices. In operation since the 104 th 
Congress, the CRS website is accessible only to House and Senate offices and other legislative branch 
agencies. 

Current Legislative Issues. The Current Legislative Issues (CLI) system, accessible to the 
Congress from the CRS website, reflects policy areas identified by CRS research staff as active and 
of current importance to Congress. All products presented as CLIs are maintained to address 


32 


significant policy developments. On occasion the system is used to respond to situations requiring 
immediate assistance to Congress when unanticipated issues arise, such as the recent Supreme Court 
nominations. 

Appropriations. The CRS Appropriations CLIs continued to provide comprehensive 
legislative analysis and tracking for the 12 Senate and 1 1 House bills, two continuing resolutions, one 
supplemental and the budget resolution. CRS also provided access to a CRS Appropriations Status 
Table for tracking legislation, and a “CRS Experts” list. 

Floor Agenda. The “Floor Agenda: CRS Products” page, a weekly compendium of CRS 
products relevant to scheduled or expected floor action in the House and Senate, is available on the 
CRS website and through email subscription to all Members, committees, subcommittees, and 
congressional staff. All CRS products listed on the Floor Agenda page were linked for electronic 
delivery to subscriber desktops. 

CRS Programs Listserv. Launched in fiscal 2001, this email notification system provides 
subscribers with descriptions of current CRS programs and links to online registration forms. 

Legislative Information System. The Legislative Information System (LIS) was available 
for the first time on Capnet at the beginning of the 105 th Congress. The system provides Members 
of Congress and their staff with access to the most current and comprehensive legislative information 
available. It can be accessed only by the House and Senate and the legislative support agencies. The 
LIS has been developed under the policy direction of the Senate Committee on Rules and 
Administration and the House Committee on House Administration. It has been a collaborative 
project of the offices and agencies of the legislative branch, including the Secretary of the Senate and 
the Clerk of the House; House Information Resources and the Senate Sergeant at Arms; the 
Government Printing Office; the Congressional Budget Office; the Congressional Research Service; 
and the Library of Congress. CRS has responsibility for the overall coordination of the retrieval 
system; the Library of Congress is responsible for its technical development and operation. 


RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS AND COMMITTEES 

The Service also responds to individual Member and staff requests for custom services. 
Frequently this is done by CRS analysts in the form of confidential policy and legal analyses, usually 
in memorandum format; consultations in person or by phone; and briefings on virtually all legislative 
and policy issues, each tailored to address specific questions directed to CRS by requesting Member, 
committee, or staff. 

Confidential Memoranda. Confidential memoranda are prepared to meet a specific 
congressional request and may be designed to meet the needs of the congressional reader with a high 
level of expertise in a given topic. These memoranda are prepared for the use of the congressional 
requester and are not distributed further unless permission has been given. The memorandum format 
is often used by CRS attorneys, for example, to respond to focused inquiries about the legal 
implications of statutory provisions, proposed legislation, or executive actions. The Service will also 
prepare “directed writing” that makes a case or incorporates the viewpoints or assumptions of the 
congressional requester for use in his or her own name. Such directed writing may not be cited as 
CRS analysis. 


33 


Individual Staff Briefings. Individual or group staff briefings constitute another form of 
tailored response to congressional inquiries. CRS staff provides in-person briefings to Members and 
committees on specific policy issues. These briefings, for example, might focus on bills in 
formulation, foreign or domestic policy issues before Congress, the legislative process, congressional 
office operations, committee matters, or general orientations to CRS services and products. 

Telephone Responses. Telephone responses to inquiries are a vital element in the CRS 
information exchange with Congress. CRS information specialists and analysts are directly accessible 
by phone; on a given day analysts will respond to numerous calls and provide information that may 
range from a statistic or a name to a short situation briefing or an interactive discussion analyzing 
alternatives for response to an issue. CRS goals in these instances are to provide expertise, ease of 
access, and personalized immediate response. 

Briefing Books. Briefing books may be prepared for use by congressional delegations 
(CODELs) traveling abroad and are collections of materials that support specific purposes of a 
congressional trip. They may contain a variety of materials such as maps, selected products, such as 
CRS reports, and brief tailored written work, which can contain background and current issues 
regarding U.S. relations with specific countries on the trip, as well as questions Members might ask 
when meeting with government and other officials. 


SEMINARS AND BRIEFINGS 

CRS conducted seminars for Members and staff on a wide range of public policy issues. The 
seminars featured a combination of CRS and outside experts. Highlights of the year included the 
following public policy seminars - “Military Base Closures: BRAC in Congress and Proposed 
Legislation”; “New Trade and Security Arrangements in East Asia: Implications for the U.S.”; 
“Immigration Reform: U.S. Immigration Policy and Trends”; “Immigration Reform: Temporary 
Workers, Unauthorized Aliens, and Permanent Admissions”; “Immigration Enforcement: An 
Overview of Policies and Issues”; “WTO Doha Round Negotiations: Prospects for Conclusion and 
Implications for Congress”; “The State of the National Flood Insurance Program: Is It Time for a 
Change?”; and “Insuring and Mitigating Risks of Large-Scale Natural Disasters: Is Federal Disaster 
Insurance Needed?” (Parts I & II). 

The CRS Program Section E-lert service provided congressional staff with email alerts about 
the full range of CRS programs. 


OUTREACH 

Print and electronic materials to advertise CRS programs were completely redesigned in a 
format more accessible for congressional staff. The “2006 CRS Training and Programs for Congress” 
brochure was distributed to all congressional offices in late February 2006. Working with CRS 
research divisions to improve outreach for CRS public policy seminars, the Program Section informed 
Member and committee staff with specific jurisdiction in the issue area about these programs by print 
and email. This outreach increased the number of congressional staff attending programs. In 
addition, improvements were implemented in the logistical coordination of CRS training and 
programs; for example, programs specific to a House or Senate audience were held in buildings of 
the specific chamber rather than at CRS. 


34 


Among other activities, CRS participated in the April 2006 House Services Fail- sponsored 
by the House. Hundreds of congressional staff visited the CRS exhibit to speak with CRS experts. 
CRS collaborated with the House Learning Center at regularly scheduled classes conducted by CRS 
(Legislative Concepts) and held in Learning Center facilities. These classes provided an introduction 
to CRS services and congressional documents. CRS also participated in the Senate Services Fail- held 
in February and collaborated with the Senate Education and Training Office on the delivery of a wide 
range of Senate programs. 

During the 109 th Congress, CRS experts and attorneys visited House and Senate offices to 
brief Members and staff about CRS services. All congressional offices were contacted. The briefings 
focused on CRS analytical services: memoranda, in-person consultations, and access to policy 
experts. 

Efforts were under way in FY2006 to prepare for “Legislative Issues and Procedure: CRS 
Seminar for New Members,” co-sponsored by the House Administration Committee and CRS. The 
program will be held in Williamsburg, Virginia, January 5-8, 2007. 

CRS provided assistance to the House Democracy Assistance Commission on two programs 
for foreign parliamentarians visiting the United States from Afghanistan, East Timor, Georgia, Indo- 
nesia, Kenya, and Macedonia. CRS experts provided extensive briefings to these parliamentarians 
on how CRS serves the Congress. 


INQUIRY SECTION 

The Inquiry Section serves as a central point for the receipt of research and analytical requests 
from Members of Congress and congressional staff. Submitting requests via the “Place Request” 
feature on the CRS website continued to be very popular. This fiscal year the Inquiry Section 
updated and improved the online subject directory used to assign analytical and research requests to 
the appropriate expert, attorney, or information specialist in the Service. 


LEGISLATIVE SUMMARIES, DIGESTS, AND COMPILATIONS 

Since 1935 the Bill Digest Office of CRS has had statutory responsibility for preparation of 
authoritative, objective, nonpartisan summaries of all introduced public bills and resolutions and 
maintenance of historical legislative information. Detailed revised summaries are written to reflect 
changes made in the course of the legislative process. This CRS office also prepares titles, bill 
relationships, subject terms, and Congressional Record citations for debates, full texts of measures, 
and Member introductory remarks. During the past year this office continued to enhance quality 
control, added legislative versions, and revamped its subject-indexing procedures. 


OTHER SERVICES 

Multimedia Products and Services. CRS provided a variety of multimedia products and 
technical assistance in support of its service to Congress. These included producing video and/or 
audio copies of CRS institutes and seminars that congressional staff can request for viewing in DVD 
format or at their desktops from the Web. The Web versions were broken out into subtopics so that 
the viewer can go directly to the portions that are of greatest interest to them. There were seven 


35 


video programs produced during the year, including a short one available online explaining how to 
use the newly designed LIS website. In addition, CRS provided two hours of television programming 
each weekday for the House and Senate closed-circuit systems. 

Language Support. The Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division provides limited 
translation services for Members and committees. For translations pertaining to legislative business, 
into or from other languages, the division made arrangements to have the work completed by outside 
vendors. 


36 


D. CRS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 

CRS has adopted an interdisciplinary and integrative approach as it responds to requests from 
Congress. The Service seeks to define complex issues in clear and understandable ways, identify 
basic causes of the problems under consideration, and highlight available policy choices and potential 
effects of action. CRS is organized into the following divisions and offices to support the analysis, 
research, and information needs of Congress. 


DIVISIONS 

American Law Division. The American Law Division provides Congress with legal analysis 
and information on the range of legal questions that emerge from the congressional agenda. Division 
lawyers and paralegals work with federal, state, and international legal resources in support of the 
legislative, oversight, and representational needs of Members and committees of Congress. The 
division’s work involves the constitutional framework of separation of powers, congressional- 
executive relations and federalism; the legal aspects of congressional practices and procedures; and 
the myriad questions of administrative law, constitutional law, criminal law, civil rights, environmental 
law, business and tax law, and international law that are implicated by the legislative process. In 
addition, the division prepares The Constitution of the United States of America - Analysis and 
Interpretation (popularly known as the Constitution Annotated). 

Domestic Social Policy Division. The Domestic Social Policy Division offers Congress 
research and analysis in the broad area of domestic social policies and programs. Analysts use 
multiple disciplines in their research, including program and legislative expertise, quantitative 
methodologies, and economic analysis. Issue and legislative areas include education and training, 
health care and medicine, social security, public and private pensions, welfare, nutrition, housing, 
immigration, civil rights, drug control, crime and criminal justice, labor and occupational safety, 
unemployment and workers’ compensation, and other issues related to children, persons with 
disabilities, the aged, the poor, veterans, and minorities. 

Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade. The Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division is 
organized into seven regional and functional sections. Analysts follow worldwide political and 
economic developments for Congress, including U.S. relations with individual countries and 
transnational issues such as terrorism, refugees, global economic problems, and global institutions 
such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization. They also address U.S. 
foreign aid programs, strategies, and resource allocations; State Department budget and functions; 
international debt; public diplomacy; and legislation on foreign relations. Other work includes 
national security policy, military strategy, weapons systems, military compensation, the defense 
budget, and U.S. military bases. Trade-related legislation, policies, programs, and U.S. trade 
performance and investment flows are covered, as are trade negotiations and agreements, export 
promotion, import regulations, tariffs, and trade policy functions. 

Government and Finance Division. The Government and Finance Division responds to 
congressional requests for assistance on all aspects of Congress. These include the congressional 
budget and appropriations process, the legislative process, congressional history, and the organization 
and operations of Congress and legislative branch agencies. Among the financial issues covered by 
the division are banking, financial institutions, insurance, and securities; taxation, public finance, fiscal 
and monetary policy, and the public debt; the interaction between taxes and interest rates; and such 
economic indicators as gross domestic product, inflation, and savings. In addition, the division 


37 


responds to requests on the organization and management of the federal executive and judicial 
branches; government personnel and the civil service; the presidency and vice presidency; government 
information policy and privacy issues; intergovernmental relations and forms of federal aid; state and 
local government; statehood and U.S. territories; the District of Columbia; economic developments; 
federal planning for and response to emergencies, disasters, and acts of terrorism in the United States; 
survey research and public opinion polls; the census; reapportionment and redistricting; elections, 
campaign finance, lobbying, and political parties; U.S. history; constitutional amendments; and 
constitutional theory and history. 

Resources, Science, and Industry Division. The Resources, Science, and Industry Division 
covers an array of legislative issues for Congress involving natural resources and environmental 
management, science and technology, and industry and infrastructure. Resources work includes 
policy analysis on public lands and other natural resources issues; environment; agriculture, food, and 
fisheries; and energy and minerals. Science coverage includes policy analysis on civilian and military 
research and development issues, information and telecommunications, space, earth sciences, and 
general science and technology. Support on industry issues includes policy analysis on transportation 
and transportation infrastructure issues, industrial market structure and regulation, and sector-specific 
industry analysis. 


RESEARCH SUPPORT 

Knowledge Services Group. The Knowledge Services Group (KSG) is comprised of 
information research professionals who partner with CRS analysts and attorneys in providing 
authoritative and reliable information research and policy analysis to Congress. Information 
professionals are clustered together by policy research area and align their work directly to the CRS 
analytical divisions. KSG members write descriptive products and contribute descriptive input to 
analytical products in policy research areas, advise analysts and Congress in finding solutions for their 
information needs, make recommendations for incorporating new research strategies into their work, 
and create customized website pages. Staff evaluate, acquire, and maintain state-of-the-art resource 
materials and collections for CRS staff; work with the analytical divisions in ensuring the currentness 
and accuracy of the Services’ products, databases, and spreadsheets; and maintain the currentness, 
comprehensiveness, and integrity of CRS information resources by identifying, assessing, acquiring, 
organizing, preserving, and tracking materials. They also provide authoritative information on 
specific policy research areas through discussions or presentations and provide or coordinate 
customized training on information resources. 


OFFICES 

Office of Communications. The Office of Communication’s goal is to assist CRS staff in 
understanding how the Service’s policies, procedures, decisions and activities tie into the CRS 
mission of serving Congress and how staff efforts, in turn, fulfill that mission. To achieve that goal, 
the office engages in three core activities: it coordinates efforts to improve the use of existing 
communication channels and plans as well as develops and implements new uses of communication 
channels; advises on communications-related aspects of CRS initiatives; and ensures that internal 
communications are clear, consistent, and aligned with those intended for Congress. 

Office of Congressional Affairs and Counselor to the Director. The Office of 
Congressional Affairs and Counselor to the Director plans, develops, and coordinates matters relating 


38 


to internal CRS policies, particularly as they affect the Service’s relationships with congressional 
clients and other legislative support agencies; provides final CRS review and clearance of all CRS 
products; and ensures that the Service complies with applicable guidelines and directives contained 
in the Reorganization Act, in statements by appropriations and oversight committees, and in Library 
regulations and CRS policy statements. This office receives, assigns to the research divisions, and 
tracks congressional inquiries; works with the divisions to plan and cany out institutes, seminars, and 
briefings for Members, committees, and their staffs, and takes the lead in developing, strengthening, 
and implementing outreach to congressional offices; and provides managers with statistical 
information needed to analyze subject coverage, client service, and the use of resources. The office 
also provides a co-chair of the External Research Review Board for reviewing contract proposals and 
making recommendations to the Director and provides counsel to the Director and the Deputy 
Director on matters of law and policy. 

Office of Finance and Administration. The Office of Finance and Administration maintains 
oversight of the financial and administrative activities and programs of the Service; implements and 
coordinates the Service’s strategic planning goals; directs the fiscal operations of the Service, 
including appropriation requests and related budget estimates, budget execution, external contracting, 
fundraising, and procurement; represents the Director in handling issues involving the Service’s 
status, role, activities, and interaction with other entities regarding each aspect of the Library’s 
Planning, Programming, Budgeting, Execution, and Evaluation System (PPBEES); and provides a 
co-chair of the External Research Review Board for reviewing contract proposals and making 
recommendations to the Director. 

Office of Legislative Information. The Office of Legislative Information develops and 
maintains the congressional Legislative Information System (LIS) that supports both the Congress 
and CRS staff, and manages the electronic research product system including the editing, processing, 
and production of CRS reports. The office provides summaries and status information for all h ills 
introduced each Congress, coordinates access to the LIS, provides quality assurance for text and 
graphics in CRS reports and for the Service’s input to the LIS, and represents the Director in dealing 
with other organizations and agencies on issues regarding legislative information technology. 

Office for Research. The Office for Research coordinates and maintains oversight of the 
research function of the Service. It develops and implements Service-wide research frameworks; 
promotes use of collaborative research approaches across disciplines and divisions; develops and 
implements Service-wide standards for the research quality that underpin authoritativeness; and 
oversees research management systems that both focus research on active policy concerns of the 
Congress and highlight resulting research products and underlying expertise for Congress. The office 
also supports the Director and Deputy Director in representing to Congress the nature and extent of 
the research capacity the Service offers Congress and in accounting to Congress for the nature and 
extent of research support provided. 

Office of Technology. The Office of Technology provides state-of-the-art CRS information 
technology that supports legislation-related research activities, communications, and service to 
Congress. The office plans, analyzes, designs, builds, deploys, secures, and maintains the CRS 
technology infrastructure and applies technical resources to meet CRS research needs. Activities 
include supporting CRS desktops, network connectivity and reliability, application development, and 
security. 

Office of Workforce Development. The Office of Workforce Development administers the 
Service’s recruitment, staffing, and workforce development programs, including succession planning, 


39 


merit selection, and other employment programs, special recruitment programs, upward mobility 
programs, diversity efforts, mentoring, special recognition programs, training and travel, position 
classification, and performance management programs and activities. This office represents the 
Director in issues involving the Service’s status, role, activities, and interaction with other Library 
entities in relevant areas of human resources administration, management, and development. Overall 
the goal of the office is to enhance the Service’s ability to attract and retain the human resources 
talent it needs to respond to the dynamic research, analysis, and information needs of Congress. 


CRS Organizational Structure 


40 


E. CRS ORGANIZATIONAL CHART 




5/15/06 


41 


F. LISTING OF ALL SENIOR LEVEL POSITIONS BY TITLE, GRADE LEVEL, 
BUDGET NUMBER AND INCUMBENT 
AT THE BEGINNING AND END OF FY2006 


As of As of 

October 1, 2005 September 30, 2006 


Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Director, Congressional 
Research Service 

Statutory 

Rate 

Daniel P. Mulhollan 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Director CRS 

SL 

Angela Maria G. Evans 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Associate Director for 
Congressional Affairs and 
Counselor to the Director 
and Senior Specialist in 
American Public Law 

SL 

Kent M. Ronhovde 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Associate Director Office of 
Finance and Administration 
and Senior Specialist in 
Social and Information 
Sciences 

SL 

Kathy A. Williams 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Chief Legislative 
Information Officer 

SL 

Vacant 

Associate 
Director Office 
of Legislative 
Information 

Same 

Martha M. 
Dexter 1 

Chief Technology Officer 

SL 

Arthur M. Graham 2 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director 
Knowledge Services Group 
and Senior Specialist in 
Social and Information 
Sciences 

SL 

Stephanie V. Williams 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Associate Director for 
Research and Senior 
Specialist in Economic 
Policy 

SL 

Roger S. White 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Associate Director Office of 
Workforce Development 
and Senior Specialist in 
Social and Information 
Sciences 

SL 

Bessie E. H. Alkisswani 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director American 
Law Division and Senior 
Specialist in American 
Public Law 

SL 

Richard C. Ehlke 3 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 

Assistant Director Domestic 
Social Policy Division and 

SL 

P. Royal Shipp 4 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 


Senior Specialist in Social 
Legislation 


42 



As of 
October 1, 

2005 


As of 

September 30, 

2006 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Assistant Director Foreign 
Affairs, Defense and Trade 
Division and Senior 
Specialist in International 
Policy 

SL 

Charlotte P. Preece 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director 
Government and Finance 
Division and Senior 
Specialist in American 
National Government 

SL 

Robert J. Dilger 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Assistant Director 
Resources, Science and 
Industry Division and 
Senior Specialist in 
Environmental Policy 

SL 

John L. Moore 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American Public Law 

SL 

Charles Doyle 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American Public Law 

SL 

Johnny H. Killian 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Science 
and Technology 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Social 
Legislation 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American National 
Government and Public 
Administration 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Post- 
Soviet Economics 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American National 
Government 

SL 

Michael L. Koempel 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
Economic Policy 

SL 

Jane G. Gravelle 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American National 
Government - Separation of 
Powers 

SL 

Louis Fisher 5 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 

Senior Specialist in 
American National 
Government and Public 
Administration 

SL 

Walter J. Oleszek 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
Agricultural Policy 

SL 

Charles E. Hanrahan 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
Management Studies 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 


43 


As of As of 

October 1, 2005 September 30, 2006 


Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Senior Specialist in Social 
Legislation 

SL 

Vacant 

Senior Advisor to 
Director and 
Senior Specialist 
in Social 
Legislation 

Same 

P. Royal Shipp 

Senior Specialist in 
Environmental Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
Economic Policy 
(Transportation) 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American Public Law 
(International) 

SL 

Vacant 

Senior Advisor to 
Director and 
Senior Specialist 
in American 
Public Law 

Same 

Richard C. 
Ehlke 7 

Senior Specialist in 
Taxation and Fiscal Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American Public Law 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Social 
Legislation 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
Economic Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
National Defense 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
International Affairs - 
National Security 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
International Relations 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
American National 
Government and Public 
Administration 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in 
Economic Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Science 
and Technology 

SL 

Eric A. Fischer 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Science 
and Technology Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator of Review and 
Specialist in Social and 

SL 

Joan M. Davenport 

Same 

Same 

Same 


Information Sciences 


44 


As of 

October 1, 2005 


As of 

September 30, 2006 


Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Coordinator for Policy 
Implementation and 
Specialist in American 
Public Law 

SL 

Douglas A. Warshof 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator for Technical 
Planning and Specialist in 
Social and Information 
Sciences 

SL 

Martha Miller Dexter 8 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 

Associate Director Office of 
Policy and Quality 
Assurance and Senior 
Specialist in Social and 
Information Sciences 

SL 

Vacant 

Deputy Associate 
Director Office 
of Congressional 
Affairs and 
Counselor to the 
Director 

Same 

Lizanne Dinoto 
Kelley 9 

Deputy Associate Director 
Knowledge Services Group 
and Senior Specialist in 
Social and Information 
Science 

SL 

Lynne K. McCay 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Assistant Director 
American Public Law 
Division and Specialist in 
American Public Law 

SL 

Ellen M. Lazarus 10 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Assistant Director 
Domestic and Social Policy 
Division and Specialist in 
Social Legislation 

SL 

Margot A. Schenet 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Assistant Director 
Government and Finance 
Division and Specialist in 
American National 
Government 

SL 

L. Nye Stevens 11 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 

Deputy Assistant Director 
Foreign Affairs, Defense 
and Trade Division and 
Specialist in Foreign Affairs 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Edward F. 
Bruner 12 

Head Consulting Group 
Knowledge Services Group 

SL 

Clifford Tod Cohen 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Assistant Director 
Resources, Science and 
Industry Division and 
Specialist in Environmental 
Policy 

SL 

John E. Blodgett 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in American 
Public Law 

SL 

Morton Rosenberg 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in American 
Public Law 

SL 

Paul S. Wallace 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Section Head and Specialist 
in Social Legislation 

SL 

Karen Spar 

Same 

Same 

Same 


45 


As of As of 

October 1, 2005 September 30, 2006 


Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Section Head and Specialist 
in Education Finance 

SL 

Wayne C. Riddle 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Income 
Maintenance 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Asian Affairs 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Section Head and Specialist 
in Industry and Trade 

SL 

Dick K. Nanto 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in American 
National Government 

SL 

Robert A. Keith 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in American 
National Government 

SL 

Judith Schneider 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Economic 
Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Section Head and Specialist 
in American National 
Government 

SL 

Clay H. Wellborn 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Economic 
Policy 

SL 

Walter Eubanks 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Resources and 
Environmental Policy 

SL 

Claudia Copeland 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Science and 
Technology Policy 

SL 

Genevieve J. Knezo 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Environmental 
Policy 

SL 

James E. McCarthy 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Aerospace and 
Telecommunications 

SL 

Marcia S. Smith 13 

Same 

Same 

Vacant 

Specialist in American 
Public Law 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in American 
Public Law 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator of Division 
Research and Specialist in 
Social Legislation 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Health Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Income 
Maintenance 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Education 
Finance 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Immigration 
Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Social 
Legislation 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 


46 


As of 

October 1, 2005 


As of 

September 30, 2006 


Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Position 

Grade 

Incumbent 

Specialist in U.S. Foreign 
Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in National 
Defense 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Coordinator of Division 
Research and Specialist in 
National Security 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in American 
National Government and 
Public Administration 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Economic 
Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Environmental 
Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Information 
Technology Policy 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Deputy Associate Director 
Office of Information 
Resources and Specialist in 
Social and Information 
Sciences 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Specialist in Earth Sciences 

SL 

Vacant 

Same 

Same 

Same 


1 Reassigned to this position 05/14/2006. 

2 Reassigned to Office of Technology 04/16/2006. 

Reassigned to Office of Director 05/28/2006. 

4 Reassigned to Office of Director 09/17/2006. 
transferred to LC - Law Library 03/05/2006. 

6 Reassigned to this position 09/17/2006. 

7 Reassigned to this position 05/28/2006. 

8 Reassigned to Associate Director Office of Legislative Information 05/14/2006. 

9 Appointed to this position 07/09/2006. 

10 Detailed to Assistant Director American Law Division 05/28/2006 to 01/22/2007. Larry M. Eig temporarily promoted to this 
position 05/28/2006 to 09/24/2006. 

11 Retired 09/15/2006. 

12 Edward F. Bruner detailed to this position 10/17/2004 nte 10/01/2005. Promoted to this position 10/02/2005. 

13 Retired 02/28/2006. 


47 


G. LISTING OF ALL SPECIALIST AND SENIOR SPECIALIST 
PERSONNEL ACTIONS IN FY2006 


Edward F. Bruner detailed to Deputy Assistant Director Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade 
Division and Specialist in Foreign Affairs 10/17/2004 to 10/01/2005. Promoted to this position 
10/02/2005. 

Martha M. Dexter reassigned to Associate Director Office of Legislative Information 05/14/2006. 

Richard C. Ehlke reassigned to Senior Advisor to Director and Senior Specialist in American Public 
Law 05/28/2006. 

Larry M. Eig temporarily promoted to Deputy Assistant Director American Law Division 
05/28/2006 to 09/24/2006. 

Louis Fisher transferred to LC - Law Library 03/05/2006. 

Arthur M. Graham reassigned to Office of Technology 04/16/2006. 

Lizanne Dinoto Kelley appointed to Deputy Associate Director Office of Congressional Affairs and 
Counselor to the Director 07/09/2006. 

Ellen M. Lazarus detailed to Assistant Director American Law Division 05/28/2006 to 01/22/2007. 

P. Royal Shipp reassigned to Senior Advisor to Director and Senior Specialist in Social Legislation 
09/17/2006. 

Marcia S. Smith retired 02/28/2006. 


L. Nye Stevens retired 09/15/2006. 


48 


H. LISTING OF ALL SENIOR LEVEL POSITION CHANGES IN FY2006 


As of 

October 1, 2005 


As of 

September 30, 2006 


Position 

Grade 

Position 

Grade 

Chief Legislative Information Officer 

SL 

Associate Director Office of 
Legislative Information 

Same 

Associate Director Office of Policy 
and Quality Assurance and Senior 
Specialist in Social and Information 
Sciences 

SL 

Deputy Associate Director Office of 
Congressional Affairs and Counselor 
to the Director 

Same 

Senior Specialist in Social 
Legislation 

SL 

Senior Advisor to Director and 
Senior Specialist in Social 
Legislation 

Same 

Senior Specialist in American Public 
Law (International) 

SL 

Senior Advisor to Director and 
Senior Specialist in American Public 
Law 

Same 


49 


I. NEW CRS PRODUCTS IN FY2006 

This appendix contains CRS written and multimedia products prepared for the Congress in 
FY2006. The products are arranged alphabetically by selected categories and may appear in more 
than one category. Congressional users can view the full text of products by visiting the CRS website 
(www.crs.gov ). 

The appendix lists CRS products available for congressional distribution. It does not include 
the many CRS products prepared at the specific request of individual Members of Congress. These 
products are not disseminated further without the permission of the requesting office. 


Agriculture 

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs, by 

Charles E. Hanrahan. 19 p RL33553 

Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension: 
Issues and Background, by Jean M. Rawson. 

13 p RL33327 

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2007 Appro- 
priations, by Jim Monke. 40 p ... RL33412 

Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and 
Laws, by Jasper Womach. 1 p .... WP03001 

Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and 
Current Issues, by Tadlock Cowan and 
Geoffrey S. Becker. 12 p RL33334 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region in Tran- 
sition, by Tadlock Cowan. 353 p . . RL33184 

Dairy Policy Issues, by Ralph M. Chite. 

13 p RL33475 

European Union Biofuels Policy and Agriculture: 

An Overview, by Randy Schnepf. 

6 p RS22404 

Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, 
Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing 
Loans, by Jim Monke. 28 p RL33271 

Forestry in the Farm Bill, by Ross W. Gorte. 

5 p RS22329 

The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. 

Department of Agriculture (USDA), 

by Jim Monke. 6 p RS22382 

Harvey v. Veneman and the National Organic 
Program : A Legal Analysis, by Stephen R. 
Vina. 7 p RS22318 

Price Determination in Agricultural Commodity 
Markets: A Primer, by Randy Schnepf. 

38 p RL33204 

Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Concerns in 
Agricultural Trade, by Geoffrey S. Becker. 

28 p RL33472 

Soil and Water Conservation: An Overview, by 

Jeffrey A. Zinn. 21 p RL33556 


Specialty Crops: 2007 Farm Bill Issues, by 

Jean M. Rawson. 10 p RL33520 

Sugar Policy Issues, by Remy Jurenas. 

19 p RL33541 

U.S. -Canada Corn Trade Dispute, by Randy 

Schnepf. 6 p RS22434 

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview, by 
Bruce E. Foote. 17 p RL33421 

. WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating 

Proposals, by Charles Hanrahan and Randy 
Schnepf. 34 p RL33144 


Appropriations 

Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension: 
Issues and Background, by Jean M. Rawson. 

13 p RL33327 

Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2007 
Appropriations, by Jim Monke. 

40 p RL33412 

AIDS: The Ryan White CARE Act, by Judith A. 
Johnson and Paulette C. Morgan. 

6 p RL33279 

ANWR and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation 
Legislation, by Bill Heniff, Jr. and 
M. Lynne Com. 6 p RS22304 

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): 

Controversies for the 109th Congress, by 
M. Lynne Com, Bernard A. Gelb and 
Pamela Baldwin. 18 p RL33523 

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and Enhanced Base 
Security Since 9/11, by Amy Belasco. 

20 p RL33110 

Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropri- 
ations, by Stephen Daggett. 27 p . . RL33405 

The Department of Housing and Urban 
Development: FY2007 Budget, by 
Maggie McCarty, Bruce E. Foote, 

Meredith Peterson, Eugene Boyd and 
Libby Perl. 22 p RL33344 


50 


District of Columbia: Appropriations for 2007, 
by Eugene Boyd and David Smole. 

19 p RL33563 

Energy and Mineral Issues in the FY2006 Budget 
Reconciliation Bill, by Marc Humphries. 

3 p RS22313 

Energy and Water Development: FY2007 
Appropriations, by Carl E. Behrens. 

35 p RL33346 

Environmental Protection Agency: Highlights 
of the President’s FY2007 Request, by 
David M. Bearden and Robert Esworthy. 

2 p RS22386 

Federal Spending, by Philip D. Winters. 

13 p RL33228 

Federal Spending Programs Exceeding $10 Billion 
in Outlays in FY2005, by Philip D. Winters. 

2 p RS22426 

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign 

Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): 
FY2007 Appropriations, by Larry Nowels, 
Susan B. Epstein and Connie Veillette. 

53 p RL33420 

FY2006 Homeland Security Grant Distribution 
Methods: Issues for the 109th Congress, by 
Shawn Reese. 13 p RL33241 

FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and 
Other International Activities; Additional 
Katrina Hurricane Relief, by Paul M. Irwin 
and Larry Nowels. 45 p RL33298 

The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. 

Department of Agriculture (USD A), 

by Jim Monke. 6 p RS22382 

FY2007 Defense Budget Issues for Congress: Slides 
from a CRS Seminar, by Stephen Daggett, 
Charles A. Henning and Ronald O’Rourke. 

1 p (WD00005 

The FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act: 
Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues, by 
Charles A. Henning, David F. Burrelli, 

Richard A. Best, Jr. and Lawrence Kapp. 

38 p RL33571 

Health Professions Programs in Title VII and Title 
VIII of the Public Health Service Act: 
Appropriations Fact Sheet, by Bernice Reyes- 
Akinbileje and Mary Vennetta Wright. 

3 p RS22438 

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding, 
by Susan Boren. 8 p RL33617 

Homeland Security Department: FY2007 
Appropriations, by Jennifer E. Lake and 
Bias Nunez-Neto. 65 p RL33428 


Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: 
FY2007 Appropriations, by Carol Hardy 
Vincent and Susan Boren. 66 p ... RL33399 

Judiciary Appropriations for FY2007, by 

Lorraine H. Tong. 13 p RL33339 

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: 
FY2007 Appropriations, by Paul M. Irwin. 

36 p RL33576 

Legislative Branch: FY2007 Appropriations, 
by Paul E. Dwyer and Ida A. Brudnick. 

24 p RL33379 

Legislative Line Item Veto Act and Other Expedited 
Rescission Bills: Brief Overview, by 
Virginia A. McMurtry. 6 p RS22425 

Legislative Line Item Veto Act of 2006: 

Comparison of Three Versions, by 
Virginia A. McMurtry. 6 p RS22459 

Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and 
Veterans Affairs: FY2007 Appropriations, by 
Daniel H. Else, Sidath Viranga Panangala and 
Paul J. Graney. 20 p RL33427 

Military Operations: Precedents for Funding 
Contingency Operations in Regular or in 
Supplemental Appropriations Bills, by 
Stephen Daggett. 6 p RS22455 

Military Pay and Benefits: Key Questions and 
Answers, by Charles A. Henning. 

13 p RL33446 

Military Retirement: Major Legislative Issues, by 
Charles A. Henning. 15 p RL33449 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 
Overview, FY2007 Budget in Brief, and Key 
Issues for Congress, by Marcia S. Smith and 
Daniel Morgan. 6 p RS22381 

National Park Management, by Carol Hardy 

Vincent, Susan Boren, Sandra L. Johnson and 
Ross W. Gorte. 15 p RL33484 

SCHIP Original Allotments: Funding Formula 
Issues and Options, by Chris L. Peterson. 

23 p RL33366 

Science, State, Justice, Commerce and Related 

Agencies (House)/Commerce, Justice, Science 
and Related Agencies (Senate): FY2007 
Appropriations, by Susan B. Epstein and 
M. Angeles Villarreal. 59 p RL33470 

Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and 

Budgetary Impacts Since 1981, by Thomas L. 
Hungerford. 8 p RL33134 

Transportation, the Treasury, Housing and Urban 
Development, the Judiciary, the District of 
Columbia, the Executive Office of the 
President, and Independent Agencies 


51 


(TTHUD): FY2007 Appropriations, by 
David Randall Peterman and John Frittelli. 

46 p RL33551 

United Nations System Funding: Congressional 
Issues, by Marjorie Ann Browne. 

26 p RL33611 

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2007 Appropriations, 
by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 29 p RL33409 


Budget 

ANWR and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation 
Legislation, by Bill Heniff, Jr. and 
M. Lynne Com. 6 p RS22304 

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2007, by Philip D. 

Winters. 17 p RL33282 

Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005, by Robert 
Keith. 26 p RL33132 

Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding 
in the State Children’s Health Insurance 
Program (SCHIP), by Chris L. Peterson. 

14 p RL33130 

Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption 
Assistance Provisions in the Budget 
Reconciliation Bills, by Emilie Stoltzfus. 

10 p RL33155 

Congressional Budget Actions in 2006, by Bill 

Heniff, Jr. 21 p RL33291 

Congressional Budget Resolutions: Revisions 
and Adjustments, by Robert Keith. 

18 p RL33122 

Constitutionality of the Deficit Reduction Act of 
2005: Litigation, by Thomas J. Nicola. 

6 p RS22507 

Deficit Reduction and Spectrum Auctions: FY2006 
Budget Reconciliation, by Linda K. Moore and 
Lennard G. Kruger. 6 p RS22306 

DOE Budget Earmarks: A Selective Look at Energy 

Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D 
Programs, by Fred Sissine. 7 p ... RL33294 

The Effects of Government Expenditures and 
Revenues on the Economy and Economic 
Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis, by 
Thomas L. Hungerford. 24 p .... RL33343 

Energy and Mineral Issues in the FY2006 Budget 
Reconciliation Bill, by Marc Humphries. 

3 p RS22313 

Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation 
(Including Budgetary Implications), by 
Barbara Miles and William Jackson, 
lip RL33143 


Federal Monthly Budget Totals, by Philip D. 

Winters. 4 p RS22463 

Federal Spending, by Philip D. Winters. 

13 p RL33228 

Federal Spending Programs Exceeding $10 Billion 
in Outlays in FY2005, by Philip D. Winters. 

2 p RS 22426 

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt, by Justin Murray 
and Marc Labonte. 5 p RS22331 

Foreign Policy Budget for FY2007, Issues for 
Congress: Slides from a CRS Seminar, 
by Larry Nowels, Connie Veillette and 
Susan B. Epstein. 1 p WD00006 

FY2007 Budget Documents: Internet Access and 
GPO Availability, by Jennifer Anne Teefy. 

5 p RS22390 

The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. 

Department of Agriculture (USDA), 

by Jim Monke. 6 p RS22382 

FY2007 Defense Budget Issues for Congress: Slides 
from a CRS Seminar, by Stephen Daggett, 
Charles A. Henning and Ronald O’Rourke. 

1 p (WD00005 

Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of 
Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments, by 
Chris L. Peterson. 4 p RS22289 

Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer, 
by Thomas L. Hungerford. 6 p ... RS22354 

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals: 
Legislative History and Current Status, by 
Virginia A. McMurtry. 24 p RL33635 

Legislative Line Item Veto Act of 2006: 

Background and Comparison of Versions, by 
Virginia A. McMurtry. 15 p RL33517 

Line Item Veto: A Constitutional Analysis of 
Recent Proposals, by Morton Rosenberg. 

13 p RL33365 

Long-Term Measures of Fiscal Imbalance, by 

D. Andrew Austin. 39 p RL33623 

The Market for Retirement Annuities, by Neela K. 
Ranade. 6 p RS22439 

Older Americans Act Reauthorization: Side-by-Side 
Comparison of Current Law, H.R. 5293, 
and S. 3570, by Carol O’Shaughnessy, 

Kirsten J. Colello and Sarah C. Kaufman. 

122 p RL33660 

Reconciliation Instructions in the FY2006 Budget 
Resolution, by Mary Frances Bley and 
Robert Keith. 4 p RS22302 

Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls, by 

D. Andrew Austin. 8 p RL33657 


52 


S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006: 

A Brief Summary, by Bill Heniff, Jr. 

8 p RL33547 

Spending and Receipts in FY2005, by Time Period, 
by Philip D. Winters. 2 p RS22508 

Student Loans and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation, 
by Adam Stoll. 5 p RS22308 

TANF, Child Care, Marriage Promotion, and 
Responsible Fatherhood Provisions in the 
Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932), by 
Gene Falk. 6 p RS22369 

Taxes and Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Reconciliation: 

A Brief Summary, by David L. Brumbaugh. 

4 p RS22322 


Defense 

Army Officer Shortages: Background and Issues 
for Congress, by Charles A. Henning. 

22 p RL33518 

Authorization For Use Of Military Force in 

Response to the 9/1 1 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): 
Legislative History, by Richard F. Grimmett. 

6 p RS22357 

Banning Fissile Material Production for Nuclear 
Weapons: Prospects for a Treaty (FMCT), 
by Sharon Squassoni. 6 p RS22474 

A Civilian Reserve for Stabilization and 
Reconstruction Abroad: Summary of 
a Workshop on U.S. Proposals and 
International Experiences and Related 
Issues for Congress, by Nina M. Serafino. 

12 p RL33647 

Combating Terrorism: The Challenge of 

Measuring Effectiveness, by Raphael Perl. 

12 p RL33160 

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service 

Academies: An Overview and Resources for 
Outreach and Management, by R. Eric 
Petersen. 18 p RL33213 

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and Enhanced 
Base Security Since 9/11, by Amy Belasco. 

20 p RL33110 

Defense: FY 2007 Authorization and Appropri- 
ations, by Stephen Daggett. 27 p . . RL33405 

DOD Leases Of Foreign-Built Ships: Background 
For Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 

6 p RS22454 

FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and 
Other International Activities; Additional 
Katrina Hurricane Relief, by Paul M. Irwin 

and Larry Nowels. 45 p RL33298 


FY2007 Defense Budget Issues for Congress: Slides 
from a CRS Seminar, by Stephen Daggett, 
Charles A. Henning and Ronald O’Rourke. 

1 p (WD00005 

The FY2007 National Defense Authorization Act: 
Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues, by 
Charles A. Henning, David F. Burrelli, 

Richard A. Best, Jr. and Lawrence Kapp. 

38 p RL33571 

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and 
Related Records: Legal Authorities, by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan, Gina Marie Stevens and 
Brian T. Yeh. 16 p RL33424 

Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, 
Statutory Definitions, and Approaches, by 
Todd Masse. 23 p RL33616 

Increases in Tricare Fees: Background and Options 
for Congress, by Richard A. Best, Jr. 

6 p RS 22402 

India’s Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues 
and Views, by Sharon Squassoni. 

23 p RL33292 

Intelligence Issues for Congress, by Richard A. 

Best, Jr. 19 p RL33539 

Intelligence Reform at the Department of 

Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational 
Alternatives, by Alfred Cumming. 

10 p RL33355 

International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, 
and Response, by Raphael F. Perl. 

30 p RL33600 

Israeli- Arab Negotiations: Background, Related 
Developments, and U.S. Policy, by Carol 
Migdalovitz. 26 p RL33530 

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) and the 
Army’s Future Combat System (FCS): 

Issues for Congress, by Andrew Feickert. 

14 p RL33161 

Kinetic Energy Kill for Ballistic Missile Defense: 

A Status Overview, by Steven A. Hildreth. 

7 p RL33240 

Military Base Closures and Affected Defense 
Department Civil Service Employees, by 
Clinton T. Brass, Jon O. Shimabukuro 
and Barbara L. Schwemle. 9 p ... RL33297 

Military Base Closures and the Impact Aid Program 
for Education, by Rebecca R. Skinner, 
lip RL33137 

Military Base Closures: Highlights of the 2005 
BRAC Commission Report and Proposed 
Legislation, by Daniel Else and David 
Lockwood. 6 p RS22291 


53 


Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and 
Veterans Affairs: FY2007 Appropriations, by 
Daniel H. Else, Sidath Viranga Panangala and 
Paul J. Graney. 20 p RL33427 

Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers, by 
Richard A. Best, Jr. 15 p RL33537 

Military Operations: Precedents for Funding 
Contingency Operations in Regular or in 
Supplemental Appropriations Bills, 
by Stephen Daggett. 6 p RS22455 

Military Pay and Benefits: Key Questions 
and Answers, by Charles A. Henning. 

13 p RL33446 

Military Recruiting and the Solomon 
Amendment: The Supreme Court 
Ruling in Rumsfeld v. FAIR , by 
Charles V. Dale. 5 p RS22405 

Military Retirement: Major Legislative Issues, by 
Charles A. Henning. 15 p RL33449 

Military Support to the Severely Disabled: Overview 
of Service Programs, by Charles A. Henning. 

6 p RS22366 

National Guard Personnel and Deployments: 

Fact Sheet, by Michael Waterhouse and 
JoAnne O’Bryant. 5 p RS22451 

National Security Surveillance Act of 2006: S. 3886, 
Title II (S. 2453 as Reported Out of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee), by Elizabeth B. Bazan. 
17 p RL33650 

Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) - 
Background and Issues for Congress, by 
Ronald O’Rourke. 6 p RS22373 

Navy Ship Names: Background For Congress, by 
Ronald O’Rourke. 6 p RS22478 

Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for 
Reducing Oil Use - Background for Congress, 
by Ronald O’Rourke. 30 p RL33360 

North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program, by 

Larry A. Niksch. 19 p RL33590 

Nuclear Command and Control: Current Programs 
and Issues, by Robert D. Critchlow. 

37 p RL33408 

Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration: 

Analysis of an Energy Department Task 
Force Report, by Jonathan Medalia. 

39 p RL33256 

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, 
by Jonathan Medalia. 22 p RL33548 

Overview and Analysis of Senate Amendment 
Concerning Interrogation of Detainees, 
by Lee Wood. 6 p RS22312 


Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: 

Issues of U.S. Military Involvement, by 
Nina M. Serafino. 20 p RL33557 

Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: 
Proposals for Army Force Structure Changes, 
by Nina M. Serafino. 6 p RS22473 

POWs and MIAs: Status and Accounting Issues, 

by Charles A. Henning. 13 p .... RL33452 

Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless 
Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign 
Intelligence Information, by Elizabeth B. 

Bazan and Jennifer K. El sea WD00002 

Proposed Termination of Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) 

FI 36 Alternate Engine, by Christopher 
Bolkcom. 16 p RL33390 

Rumsfeld v. FAIR: The Solomon Amendment 
and Free Speech, by Alison Muhlfeld. 

10 p RL33150 

Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To 
Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, 
Including Covert Actions, by Alfred Cumming. 
10 p WD00003 

Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for 
Congress, by Christopher Bolkcom. 

16 p RL33543 

Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger 
Prescreening, by William J. Krouse and 
Bart Elias. 17 p RL33645 

Unemployment Compensation (Insurance) and 
Military Service, by Julie M. Whittaker. 

5 p RS 22440 

U.S. and Coalition Military Operations in 
Afghanistan: Issues for Congress, by 
Andrew Feickert. 15 p RL33503 

U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to 
Major Clients, 1997-2004, by Richard F. 
Grimmett. 7 p RL33217 

U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement, by 

Shirley Kan and Mark Holt. 22 p . RL33 1 92 

U.S. Conventional Forces and Nuclear Deterrence: 

A China Case Study, by Christopher Bolkcom, 
Amy F. Woolf and Shirley A. Kan. 

30 p RL33607 

U.S. -India Nuclear Cooperation: Next Steps: 

Slides from a Congressional Research 
Service Seminar, by Alan Kronstadt, 

Sharon Squassoni and Mark Holt . WD00007 

U.S. -India Nuclear Cooperation: A Side-By-Side 
Comparison of Current Legislation, 
by Sharon Squassoni and Jill Marie Parillo. 

19 p RL33561 


54 


U.S. Military Overseas Basing: New Developments 
and Oversight Issues for Congress, by 
Robert D. Critchlow. 14 p RL33148 

U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany and 
Japan Compared, by Nina Serafino, Dick K. 
Nanto and Curt Tamoff. 13 p .... RL33331 

U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, 

Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf. 

25 p RL33640 

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance, 
by Richard F. Grimmett. 17 p .... RL33532 


Disasters/Hurricanes 

Cleanup after Hurricane Katrina: Environmental 
Considerations, by Robert Esworthy, Linda 
Luther, Linda Jo Schierow and Claudia 
Copeland. 27 p RL33115 

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and 
Restoration Act (CWPPRA): Effects of 
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Implemen- 
tation, by Jeffrey A. Zinn. 6 p .... RS22467 

Community Development Block Grant Funds in 

Disaster Relief and Recovery, by Eugene Boyd. 
14 p RL33330 

Community Development Block Grant Funds in 

Disaster Relief and Recovery, by Eugene Boyd. 
6 p RS22303 

Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative After- 
math, by William G. Whittaker. 9 p RL33149 

Disaster Debris Removal After Hurricane Katrina: 
Status and Associated Issues, by Linda Luther. 
19 p RL33477 

Disaster Response and Appointment of a Recovery 
Czar: The Executive Branch’s Response 
to the Flood of 1927, by Kevin R. Kosar. 
lip RL33126 

Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative 
Action, by Rebecca R. Skinner, Jeffrey J. 
Kuenzi, David P. Smole, Paul M. Irwin, 
Richard N. Apling and Charmaine Mercer. 

12 p RL33236 

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation 
for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data 
FY1989 to FY2005, by Justin Murray. 

6 p RL33226 

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation 

Authority, by Kathleen S. Swendiman and 
Jennifer K. Elsea. 20 p RL33201 

Federal Hurricane Recovery Coordinator: 
Appointment and Oversight Issues, by 
Henry B. Hogue. 6 p RS22334 


FEMA’s Community Disaster Loan Program, 
by Nonna A. Noto and Steven Maguire. 

19 p RL33174 

FEMA’s Flood Hazard Map Modernization 
Initiative, by Wayne A. Morrissey. 

39 p RL33264 

Flood Insurance Reform: Side-By-Side Comparison 
of H.R. 4973 and Senate Committee Bill, by 
Rawle O. King. 13 p RL33450 

Rood Risk Management: Federal Role in Infra- 
structure, by Nicole T. Carter. 9 p . RL33129 

FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq 
and Other International Activities; 

Additional Katrina Hurricane Relief, 
by Paul M. Irwin and Larry Nowels. 

45 p RL33298 

Historic Preservation: Federal Laws and Regulations 
Related to Hurricane Recovery and 
Reconstruction, by Douglas Reid Weimer. 

6 p RS22298 

HUD’s Response to Hurricane Katrina, by Maggie 
McCarty, Bruce E. Foote and Libby Perl. 

6 p RS22358 

Hurricane Katrina: HIPAA Privacy and Electronic 
Health Records of Evacuees, by Gina Marie 
Stevens. 5 p RS22310 

Hurricane Katrina: Questions Regarding the 
Section 8 Housing Voucher Program, by 
Maggie McCarty. 12 p RL33173 

Hurricane Katrina Recovery: Contracts Awarded by 
the Federal Government, by L. Elaine Halchin. 

6 p RS22314 

Hurricane Katrina: Social-Demographic 

Characteristics of Impacted Areas, by Thomas 
Gabe, Gene Falk and Maggie McCarty. 

30 p RL33141 

Hurricanes Katrina & Rita: Addressing the 

Victims’ Mental Health and Substance Abuse 
Treatment Needs, by Erin D. Williams. 

6 p RS22292 

Hurricane Tax Relief: H.R. 4440 and S. 2020, by 
Erika Lunder. 6 p RS22344 

The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological 
Resources, by Pervaze A. Sheikh. 

9 p RL33117 

The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the State 
Budgets of Alabama, Louisiana, and 
Mississippi, by Steven Maguire. 

13 p RL33154 

National Rood Insurance Program: Treasury 
Borrowing in the Aftermath of Hurricane 
Katrina, by Rawle O. King. 6 p . . RS22394 


55 


Prevailing Wage Requirements and the Emergency 
Suspension of the Davis-Bacon Act, by 
John R. Luckey and Jon 0. Shimabukuro. 

7 p RL33276 

Protecting New Orleans: From Hurricane Barriers 
to Floodwalls, by Nicole T. Carter. 

12 p RL33188 

The Public Health and Medical Response to 

Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding, 
by Sarah A. Lister. 29 p RL33579 

Reallocation of Hurricane Katrina Emergency 

Appropriations: Defense and Other Issues, by 
Amy Belasco. 27 p RL33197 

Rural Housing: USDA Disaster Relief Provisions, 
by Bruce E. Foote. 5 p RS22301 

Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and 

Budgetary Impacts Since 1981, by Thomas L. 
Hungerford. 8 p RL3 3134 

Trade in the U.S. Gulf Region: Hurricanes Katrina, 
Rita and Beyond, by Mary Jane Bolle. 

6 p RS22332 

Understanding Government Employment Data After 
a Natural or Other Disaster, With Special 
Emphasis on Hurricane Katrina, by Gerald 
Mayer. 16 p RL33164 

Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: 
Background and Policy Options, by Paul W. 
Parfomak. 21 p RL33206 


Economy 

ANWR Leasing Revenue Estimates, by Bernard A. 
Gelb. 6 p RS22428 

Asset Bubbles: Policy Options for the Federal 

Reserve, by Marc Labonte. 19 p . . RL33666 

Business Opportunities with the Federal Government 
Web Page, by Merete F. Gerli and Luis A. 
DeCastro. 1 p WG02003 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region 
in Transition, by Tadlock Cowan. 

353 p RL33184 

Career and Technical Education: Selected Changes 
Made by P.L. 109-270, by Rebecca R. Skinner 
and Richard N. Apling. 22 p RL33624 

Chapter 15 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code: Ancillary 
and Cross-Border Cases, by Georgine Kryda. 

15 p RL33562 

China’s Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Options, 
by Jonathan E. Sanford. 6 p RS22338 

China’s Impact on the U.S. Automotive Industry, by 
Stephen Cooney. 22 p RL33317 


Civilian Forces for Stabilization and Reconstruction: 
U.S. Proposals and International Experience. 
Online Audio. Audio CD, by Nina Serafino. 

1 p MM70096 

The Concentration of Household Wealth, 

by Brian W. Cashell. 9 p RL33433 

Conversion of a Savings Association from the 
Mutual to the Stock Form of Ownership: 
Current Legal Process, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 6 p RS22457 

Conversion of Credit Union Charter to Mutual 

Savings Bank Charter: Current Legal Process 
and Congressional Response, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 4 p RS22364 

The Davis-Bacon Act: Issues and Legislation 
During the 109th Congress, by William G. 
Whittaker. 22 p RL33363 

Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative 
Aftermath, by William G. Whittaker. 

6 p RS22288 

The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving, 
by Brian W. Cashell. 9 p RL33 1 1 2 

Employment Discrimination and Retaliation Claims: 
A Legal Analysis of the Supreme Court 
Ruling in Burlington Northern and Santa Fe 
Railway Co. v. White , by Jody Feder. 

5 p RS 22492 

Energy Prices and Tourism: Some Preliminary 
Observations, by Bernard A. Gelb. 

6 p RS22496 

Executive Compensation in Bankruptcy: The 
Fairness and Accountability in Reorganiza- 
tions Act, by Robin Jeweler. 5 p . . RS22427 

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for 

Foreign Investment, by James K. Jackson. 

9 p RL33312 

The Fair Labor Standards Act: Minimum Wage in 
the 109th Congress, by William G. Whittaker. 
27 p RL33401 

Faster Productivity Growth: Who Benefits?, by 

Brian W. Cashell. 12 p RL33606 

The Federal Funding Accountability and 

Transparency Act (S. 2590): Overview and 
Comparison with H.R. 5060, by Garrett Leigh 
Hatch. 9 p RL33638 

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit, by James K. 

Jackson, lip RL33274 

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt, by Justin Murray 
and Marc Labonte. 5 p RS2233 1 

Health Savings Accounts: Some Current Policy 

Issues, by Bob Lyke. 6 p RS22437 


56 


Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?, by 

Craig K. Elwell , Wayne M. Morrison and 
Marc Labonte. 62 p RL33604 

Is the U.S. Current Account Deficit Sustainable?, by 
Marc Labonte. 9 p RL33 1 86 

Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Caused by a Global 
Saving Glut?, by Marc Labonte. 

14 p RL33140 

Largest Mergers and Acquisitions by Corporations: 
2005, by John Williamson. 8 p ... RL33329 

Livestock Marketing and Competition Issues, by 

GeoffreyS. Becker. 15 p RL33325 

Long-Term Measures of Fiscal Imbalance, by 

D. Andrew Austin. 39 p RL33623 

Minority Contracting and Affirmative Action 
for Disadvantaged Small Businesses: 

Legal Issues, by Charles V. Dale. 

28 p RL33284 

Oil and Gas Disruption From Hurricanes Katrina 
and Rita, by Lawrence Kumins and Robert 
Bamberger. 10 p RL33124 

Oil Industry Profit Review 2005, by Robert Pirog. 

8 p RL33373 

The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It 
Signal an Impending Recession?, by 
Marc Labonte and Gail E. Makinen. 

6 p RS22371 

Preliminary Observations on the Impact of the 

Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer 
Protection Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-8), by 
Brian W. Cashell and Mark Jickling. 

6 p RS22511 

Rehabilitation Act of 1973: 109th Congress 
Legislation, FY2006 Budget Request, and 
FY2006 Appropriations, by Scott David 
Szymendera. 8 p RL33249 

Retiring Baby-Boomers = A Labor Shortage?, by 
Linda Levine. 24 p RL33661 

Revenue Feedback from the 2001-2004 Tax Cuts, by 
Jane G. Gravelle. 18 p RL33672 

Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls, by 

D. Andrew Austin. 8 p RL33657 

Saving Incentives: What May Work, What 
May Not, by Thomas L. Hungerford. 

16 p RL33482 

The Tip Credit Provisions of the Fair Labor 
Standards Act, by William G. Whittaker. 

12 p RL33348 

Trade, Employment, and Wages: What Does the 
Evidence Show?, by Marc Labonte. 

15 p 


Unemployment Insurance: Available 

Unemployment Benefits and Legislative 
Activity, by Julie M. Whittaker. 

13 p RL33362 

U.S. External Debt: How Has the United States 
Borrowed Without Cost?, by Craig K. Elwell. 

8 p RL33570 

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts, by 
Dick K. Nanto. 22 p RL33577 

War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for 
Hurricane Recovery Bonds?, by James M. 
Bickley. 6p RS22305 

Why Is Household Income Falling While GDP Is 
Rising?, by Marc Labonte. lip . . RL33519 

Why is the Household Saving Rate So Low?, by 

Brian W. Cashell. lip RL33168 

Why the Dollar Rose in 2005 and the Prospect for 
2006: Insights into the State of International 
Asset Markets and the Global Economy, by 
Craig K. Elwell. 16 p RL33448 

The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by- 
Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of 
Title I Training Programs, by Ann Lordeman. 

5 p RS22396 

Would Tax Reform Alter the Economy’s Growth?, 
by Marc Labonte. 13 p RL33378 


Education 

Academic Competitiveness Grants: Background, 
Description, and Selected Issues, by 
Charmaine Mercer. 7 p RL33457 

The Administration of the Federal Family Education 
Loan and William D. Ford Direct Loan 
Programs: Background and Provisions, by 
Adam Stoll. 21 p RL33674 

The Benefits of Education, by Linda Levine. 

13 p RL33238 

Career and Technical Education: State Grant 
Formula, by Rebecca R. Skinner and 
Richard N. Apling. 21 p RL33676 

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics, by 
Carmen Solomon-Fears. 6 p RS22380 

Child Support Provisions in the Deficit Reduction 
Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), by Carmen 
Solomon-Fears. 6 p RS22377 

Copyright Exemptions for Distance Education: 17 
U.S.C. § 110(2), the Technology, Education, 
and Copyright Harmonization Act of 2002, by 
Jared Huber, Brian T. Yeh and Robin Jeweler, 

lip RL33516 


RL33454 


57 


The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act: 

A Legal Overview, by Jody Feder. 

6 p RS22341 

Federal Family Education Loan Program and 

William D. Ford Direct Loan Program Student 
Loans: Terms and Conditions for Borrowers, 
by Adam Stoll. 29 p RL33673 

Federal Student Aid Need Analysis System: 
Background, Description, and 
Legislative Action, by Charmaine Mercer. 

8 p RL33266 

Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides, 
by Laura L. Monagle. 9 p RL33451 

Financial Aid for Students Web Page, by Merete F. 
Gerli and Luis De Castro. 1 p .... WG02002 

Higher Education Act Reauthorization: A 
Comparison of Current Law and Major 
Proposals, by Adam Stoll, Charmaine Mercer, 
Rebecca R. Skinner, David P. Smole, Gail 
McCallion, Ann Lordeman, Jeffrey J. Kuenzi 
and Laura L. Monagle. 31 p RL33415 

A Highly Qualified Teacher in Every Classroom: 
Implementation of the No Child Left Behind 
Act, by Jeffrey J. Kuenzi. 18 p ... RL33333 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
(IDEA): Final Regulations for P.L. 108-446, 
by Richard N. Apling and Nancy Lee Jones. 

25 p RL33649 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 

(IDEA): Parentally Placed Children in Private 
Schools, by Richard N. Apling and Nancy Lee 
Jones. 18 p RL33368 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 
(IDEA): Supreme Court Decisions, by 
Nancy Lee Jones, lip RL33444 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education 
Act (IDEA): The Supreme Court Denies 
Expert Fees in Arlington Central School 
District v. Murphy , by Nancy Lee Jones. 

5 p RS22465 

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: 
Schaffer v. Weast Determines Party Seeking 
Relief Bears the Burden of Proof, by 
Nancy Lee Jones. 5 p RS22353 

K-12 Education: Implementation Status of the No 
Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-110), 
by Gail McCallion, Richard N. Apling, 

Rebecca R. Skinner, David P. Smole, 

Wayne C. Riddle and Jeffrey J. Kuenzi. 

70 p RL33371 

Military Recruitment Provisions Under the No Child 
lift Behind Act: A Legal Analysis, by Jody 
Feder. 5 p RS22362 


Parents’ Work and Family Economic Well-Being, 
by Thomas Gabe and Gene Falk. 

59 p RL33615 

Reading First: Implementation Issues and Contro- 
versies, by Gail McCallion. lip.. RL33246 

School Choice Under the ESEA: Programs and 
Requirements, by David P. Smole. 

22 p RL33506 

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics 
(STEM) Education Issues and Legislative 
Options, by Jeffrey J. Kuenzi, Bonnie F. 
Mangan and Christine M. Matthews. 

31 p RL33434 

Social Security’s Effect on Child Poverty, by Thomas 
Gabe. 12 p RL33289 

Student Loans and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation, 
by Adam Stoll. 5 p RS22308 

TANF, Child Care, Marriage Promotion, and 
Responsible Fatherhood Provisions in the 
Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932), by 
Gene Falk. 6 p RS22369 

TANF: A Guide to the New Definitions of What 
Counts as Work Participation, by Gene Falk. 

6 p RS22490 

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
Block Grant: FY2007 Budget Proposals, by 
Gene Falk. 5 p RS22385 

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and 
In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis, by 
Jody Feder. 6 p RS22500 

Vocational Education: State Grant Formula Under 
Current Law and Reauthorization Issues, by 
Rebecca R. Skinner and Richard N. Apling. 

22 p RL33419 

Welfare Reauthorization in the 109th Congress: An 
Overview, by Gene Falk, Carmen Solomon- 
Fears and Melinda Gish. 16 p .... RL33418 

Welfare Reauthorization: A Side-By-Side 
Comparison of Current Law, Senate 
Committee- Approved and House Budget 
Reconciliation Bill Provisions, by Gene Falk, 
Emilie Stoltzfus, Melinda Gish and Carmen 
Solomon-Fears. 1 14 p RL33157 


Energy 

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology 
Vehicles: Issues in Congress, by Brent D. 


Yacobucci. 12 p RL33564 

ANWR and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation 
Legislation, by Bill Heniff, Jr. and 
M. Lynne Com. 6 p RS22304 


58 


ANWR Leasing Revenue Estimates, by 

Bernard A. Gelb. 6 p RS22428 

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): 

Controversies for the 109th Congress, by 
M. Lynne Corn, Bernard A. Gelb and 
Pamela Baldwin. 18 p RL33523 

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy. The 
CAFE Standards, by Brent D. Yacobucci and 
Robert Bamberger. 16 p RL33413 

Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal 
Programs, by Brent D. Yacobucci. 

10 p RL33572 

BP Alaska North Slope Pipeline Shutdowns: 
Regulatory Policy Issues, by Paul W. 

Parfomak. 15 p RL33629 

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal, by Mark Holt. 

19 p RL33461 

Coal Mine Safety, by Edward Rappaport. 

6 p RS22461 

The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax of the 1980s: 
Implications for Current Energy Policy, by 
Salvatore Lazzari. 34 p RL33305 

DOE Budget Earmarks: A Selective Look 
at Energy Efficiency and Renewable 
Energy R&D Programs, by Fred Sissine. 

7 p RL33294 

Drilling in the Great Lakes: Background 
and Issues, by Pervaze A. Sheikh, 

Marc Humphries and Aaron M. Flynn. 

20 p RL33455 

Energy and Mineral Issues in the FY2006 Budget 
Reconciliation Bill, by Marc Humphries. 

3 p RS22313 

Energy Efficiency Policy: Budget, Electricity 

Conservation, and Fuel Conservation Issues, by 
Fred Sissine. 33 p RL33599 

Energy Policy Act of 2005, P.L. 109-58: Electricity 
Provisions, by Amy Abel. 16 p ... RL33248 

Energy Policy Act of 2005: Summary and Analysis 
of Enacted Provisions, by Mark Holt and 
Carol Glover. 143 p RL33302 

Energy Prices and Tourism: Some Preliminary 
Observations, by Bernard A. Gelb. 

6 p RS22496 

Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues, by 
Salvatore Lazzari. 20 p RL33578 

European Union Biofuels Policy and Agriculture: 

An Overview, by Randy Schnepf. 

6 p RS22404 

Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues, 
by Brent D. Yacobucci. 23 p RL33290 


Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals, 
by Carl E. Behrens and Carol Glover. 

12 p RL33521 

Low-Income Home Energy Assistance 

Program (LIHEAP) Allocation Rates: 
Legislative History and Current Law, 
by Julie M. Whittaker and Libby Perl. 

19 p RL33275 

Nuclear Energy Policy, by Mark Holt. 

20 p RL33558 

Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors, 
by Larry Parker and Mark Holt. 

21 p RL33442 

Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal 
Framework, by Aaron M. Flynn. 

27 p RL33404 

Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy, by 

Anthony Andrews. 29 p RL33359 

Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas 
Leasing and Revenue Sharing, by Marc 
Humphries. 10 p IB 101 49 

Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas 
Leasing and Revenue Sharing, by Marc 
Humphries. 17 p RL33493 

Renewable Energy Policy: Tax Credit, Budget, 
and Regulatory Issues, by Fred Sissine. 

32 p RL33588 

Russian Oil and Gas Challenges, by Bernard A. 

Gelb. 12 p RL33212 

S. 2557, “Oil and Gas Industry Antitrust Act of 
2006”: Brief Legal Analysis, by Janice E. 
Rubin. 7 p RS22442 

The State Role in the Federal Licensing of 

Hydropower Dams: S.D. Warren Co. v. Maine 
Board of Environmental Protection , by Robert 
Meltz and Claudia Copeland. 6 p . RS22429 

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, 

Perspectives, and Issues, by Robert Bamberger. 
15 p RL33341 

Tax Incentives for Alternative Fuel and Advanced 
Technology Vehicles, by Brent D. Yacobucci. 

5 p RS22351 


Environment/Natural Resources 

Active Military Sonar and Marine Mammals: 

Chronology with References, by Kori Calvert 
and Eugene H. Buck. 14 p RL33133 

Air Quality: EPA’s Proposed Changes to the 

Particulate Matter (PM) Standard, by Robert 
Esworthy and James E. McCarthy. 

14 p RL33254 


59 


Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA’s Response 
to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on 
Regulation of CAFOs, by Claudia Copeland. 

13 p RL33656 

ANWR and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation 

Legislation, by Bill Heniff, Jr. and M. Lynne 
Corn. 6 p RS22304 

ANWR Leasing Revenue Estimates, by Bernard A. 
Gelb. 6 p RS 22428 

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): 

Controversies for the 109th Congress, by 
M. Lynne Com, Bernard A. Gelb and 
Pamela Baldwin. 18 p RL33523 

Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and 
Current Issues, by Tadlock Cowan and 
Geoffrey S. Becker. 12 p RL33334 

Brownfields in the 109th Congress, by Mark Reisch. 
6 p RS 22502 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region 
in Transition, by Tadlock Cowan. 

353 p RL33184 

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress, by 

James E. McCarthy. 17 p RL33552 

Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation 
and Issues, by Claudia Copeland. 

10 p RL33632 

Cleanup at Abandoned Hardrock Mines: Issues 

Raised by “Good Samaritan” Legislation in the 
109th Congress, by Claudia Copeland and 
Robert Meltz. 22 p RL33575 

Clean Water Act Issues in the 109th Congress, by 
Claudia Copeland. 16 p RL33465 

Climate Change: The European Union’s Emissions 
Trading System (EU-ETS), by Larry Parker. 

23 p RL33581 

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and 
Restoration Act (CWPPRA): Effects of 
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on 
Implementation, by Jeffrey A. Zinn. 

6 p RS22467 

The Columbia River Basin’s Fish Passage Center, 
by Nic Lane. 5 p RS22414 

Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA’s Analysis 
of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills, by 
James E. McCarthy and Larry B. Parker. 

16 p RL33165 

Dam Removal: Issues, Considerations, and 

Controversies, by Nic Lane. 14 p . RL33480 

Drilling in the Great Lakes: Background and Issues, 
by Pervaze A. Sheikh, Marc Humphries and 
Aaron M. Flynn. 20 p RL33455 


Drug Crop Eradication and Alternative Development 
in the Andes, by Connie Veillette and Carolina 
Navarrete-Frias. 24 p RL33163 

Ecosystem Restoration in the Great Lakes: The 
Great Lakes Regional Collaboration Strategy, 
by Pervaze A. Sheikh. 9 p RL3341 1 

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 109th 
Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult 
Choices, by Eugene H. Buck, Pervaze A. 
Sheikh, Robert Meltz, M. Lynne Com and 
Pamela Baldwin. 20 p RL33468 

Energy and Water Development: FY2007 
Appropriations, by Carl E. Behrens. 

35 p RL33346 

Enhancement-of-Survival Permits: Background and 
Status of Proposed Policy, by Pervaze A. 
Sheikh. 4 p RS22420 

The Environmental Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito, 
by Robert Meltz. 6 p RS22359 

Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th 

Congress, by Susan R. Fletcher and Margaret 
Isler. 17 p RL33481 

European Union Biofuels Policy and Agriculture: 

An Overview, by Randy Schnepf. 

6 p RS 22404 

Federal Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land 
Management (BLM) and the Forest Service, 
by Ross W. Gorte, Pamela Baldwin, Carol 


Hardy Vincent and Marc Humphries. 

16 p RL33596 

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal 
Legislation in the 109th Congress, by 
Eugene H. Buck. 23 p RL33459 


Flood Risk Management: Federal Role in Infra- 
structure, by Nicole T. Carter. 9 p . RL33129 

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of 

Fluoridation and Regulation Issues, by Mary 
Tiemann. 13 p RL33280 

Forestry in the Farm Bill, by Ross W. Gorte. 

5 p RS22329 

Global Climate Change: Major Scientific and Policy 

Issues, by John R. Justus and Susan R. 

Fletcher. 19 p RL33602 

Heritage Areas: Background, Proposals, and 

Current Issues, by Carol Hardy Vincent and 
David L. Whiteman. 16 p RL33462 

Implementing International Agreements on 
Persistent, Organic Pollutants (POPs): 

Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances 
Control Act, by Linda-Jo Schierow. 

32 p RL33336 


60 


Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: 
FY2007 Appropriations, by Carol Hardy 
Vincent and Susan Boren. 66 p ... RL33399 

Issues in Klamath River Dam Relicensing, 

by Nic Lane. 6 p RS22498 

Land and Water Conservation Fund: Overview, 
Funding History, and Current Issues, by 
Carol Hardy Vincent. 10 p RL33531 

Legislative Maps of ANWR, by M. Lynne Com and 
Pamela Baldwin. 4 p RS22326 

Mercury Emissions from Electric Power Plants: 

States Are Setting Stricter Limits, by James E. 
McCarthy. 19 p RL33535 

The National Environmental Policy Act: 

Background and Implementation, by 
Linda Luther. 35 p RL33152 

The National Environmental Policy Act: 

Streamlining NEPA, by Linda Luther. 

34 p RL33267 

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric 

Administration (NOAA) Budget for FY2007: 
President’s Request, Congressional 
Appropriations, and Related Issues, by 
Wayne A. Morrissey. 6 p RS22410 

National Park Management, by Carol Hardy 

Vincent, Susan Boren, Sandra L. Johnson and 
Ross W. Gorte. 15 p RL33484 

Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and 
Outlook, by John R. Justus and Eugene H. 

Buck. 18 p RL33603 

Outer Continental Shelf: Debate Over Oil and Gas 
Leasing and Revenue Sharing, by Marc 
Humphries. 17 p RL33493 

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Fact Sheet on 
Three International Agreements, by Linda-Jo 
Schierow. 3 p RS22379 

Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs, by 
Paul W. Parfomak. 15 p RL33347 

Reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act: A 
Comparison of Pending Bills and a Proposed 
Amendment with Current Law, by Pervaze A. 
Sheikh, Erika Lunder, Pamela Baldwin, 

Eugene H. Buck and M. Lynne Com. 

97 p RL33309 

Recreation on Federal Lands, by Kori Calvert, 

M. Lynne Com, Carol Hardy Vincent, 

Nic Lane, Nicole T. Carter, Sandra L. Johnson, 
Ross W. Gorte and David L. Whiteman. 

18 p RL33525 

Safe Drinking Water Act: Issues in the 109th 

Congress, by Mary Tiemann. 19 p RL33549 


Superfund: Overview and Selected Issues, by 
Jonathan L. Ramseur and Mark Reisch. 

22 p RL33426 

The Supreme Court Takes a Global Warming Case: 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. EPA, by 
Robert Meltz. 6 p RS22472 

U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: 
Background and Issues for Congress, by 
David M. Bearden. 22 p RL33432 

Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act, 
by Claudia Copeland. 18 p RL33466 

Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): 

Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues, 
by Nicole T. Carter, Pervaze A. Sheikh, 

H. Steven Hughes and Jeffrey A. Zinn. 

16 p RL33504 

Western Water Resource Issues, by Betsy A. Cody 
and Pervaze A. Sheikh. 20 p RL33565 

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is 
Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos and 
Carabell, by Robert Meltz and Claudia 
Copeland. 12 p RL33263 

Wetlands: An Overview of Issues, by Jeffrey A. 

Zinn and Claudia Copeland. 19 p . RL33483 

Wild Horse and Burro Issues, by Carol Hardy 

Vincent. 6 p RS22347 


Financial Sector 

Asset Bubbles: Policy Options for the Federal 

Reserve, by Marc Labonte. 19 p . . RL33666 

Banking and Securities Regulation and Agency 
Enforcement Authorities, by William D. 
Jackson, Michael V. Seitzinger, Gary W. 
Shorter, Mark Jickling and M. Maureen 
Murphy. 13 p RL33235 

The Basel Accords: The Implementation of II and 
the Modification of I, by Walter W. Eubanks. 
24 p RL33278 

Ben S. Bemanke’s Nomination to be Chairman of 
the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System: Primary Research Sources, by 
Brendon William Mast W000005 

Ben S. Bemanke’s Nomination to be Chairman of 
the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System: Primary Research Sources, by 
Brendon William Mast. 1 p CA90013 

The Berne Union: An Overview, by James K. 

Jackson. 5 p RS22319 

Budget Reconciliation and the PBGC, by Neela K. 
Ranade. 4p RS22315 


61 


China’s Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Options, 
by Jonathan E. Sanford. 6 p RS22338 

Community Development Block Grant Funds in 

Disaster Relief and Recovery, by Eugene Boyd. 
14 p RL33330 

Conversion of a Savings Association from the 
Mutual to the Stock Form of Ownership: 
Current Legal Process, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 6 p RS22457 

Conversion of Credit Union Charter to Mutual 

Savings Bank Charter: Current Legal Process 
and Congressional Response, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 4 p RS22364 

Credit Card Minimum Payments, by Pauline Smale. 

5 p RS22352 

Credit Rating Agency Regulatory Reform: A Side- 
by-Side Comparison of H.R. 2990 and S. 3850, 
by Gary Shorter. 9 p RL3365 1 

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for 

Foreign Investment, by James K. Jackson. 

9 p RL33312 

Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, 
Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing 
Loans, by Jim Monke. 28 p RL33271 

Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation 
(Including Budgetary Implications), by 
Barbara Miles and William Jackson, 
lip RL33143 

Federal Research and Development Funding: 
FY2007, by Michael E. Davey. 

28 p RL33345 

Financial Services Regulatory Relief in the 

109th Congress: H.R. 3505 and S. 2856, by 
Walter W. Eubanks. 16 p RL33513 

Flood Risk Management: Federal Role in 
Infrastructure, by Nicole T. Carter. 

9 p RL33129 

Gift Cards, by Pauline Smale. 5 p RS2243 1 

GSE Reform: A New Affordable Housing Fund, by 
Eric Weiss. 6 p RS22336 

H.R. 5015, 109th Congress: Banning Securities 
Trading by Members of Congress and Their 
Staff Based upon Nonpublic Information, by 
Michael V. Seitzinger. 2 p RS22422 

Insurance Regulation in the United States and 

Abroad, by Baird Webel. 15 p RL33439 

Limiting Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s Portfolio 
Size, by Eric Weiss. 6 p RS22307 

National Flood Insurance Program: Treasury 
Borrowing in the Aftermath of Hurricane 
Katrina, by Rawle O. King. 6 p . . RS22394 


Retirement Plan Participation and Contributions: 


Trends from 1998 to 2003, by Patrick Purcell. 
24 p RL33116 

Saving Incentives: What May Work, What 
May Not, by Thomas L. Hungerford. 

16 p RL33482 


Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
(Management Assessment of Internal 
Controls): Current Regulation and 
Congressional Concerns, by Michael V. 
Seitzinger. 3 p RS22482 

Small Business Administration: A Primer on 

Programs, by N. Eric Weiss. 17 p . RL33243 

Sources of Systemic Risk in Large Value Interbank 
Payment Systems, by Edward Vincent Murphy, 
lip RL33639 

State Securities Class Action Suits: Merrill Lynch , 
Pierce , Fenner & Smith , Inc. v. Dabit, by 
Michael V. Seitzinger. 3 p RS2231 1 

Surplus Lines Insurance: Background and Current 
Legislation, by Baird Webel. 5 p . . RS22506 

War Bonds in the Second World War: A Model for 
Hurricane Recovery Bonds?, by James M. 
Bickley. 6 p RS22305 

Watters v. Wachovia Bank, N.A. y by Aaron Droller. 

5 p RS22485 


Foreign Policy 

Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues, by Ted 

Dagne. 18 p RL33591 

AIDS in Africa, by Nicolas Cook. 21 p . RL33584 

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related 
Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance, by 
Connie Veillette. 23 p RL33370 

Arab League Boycott of Israel, by Martin A. Weiss. 

6 p RS22424 

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political 
Developments and Implications for U.S. 
Interests, by Jim Nichol. 20 p .... RL33453 

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. 

Foreign Aid to Latin America, by Clare M. 
Ribando. 8 p RL33337 

Azerbaijan’s 2005 Legislative Election: Outcome 
and Implications for U.S. Interests, by Jim 
Nichol. 6 p RS22340 

Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations, by 

Bruce Vaughn. 15 p RL33646 

Banning Fissile Material Production for Nuclear 
Weapons: Prospects for a Treaty (FMCT), by 
Sharon Squassoni. 6 p RS22474 


62 


Bosnia: Overview of Issues Ten Years After Dayton, 
by Julie Kim. 6 p RS22324 

Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States, by 

J.F. Hombeck. 27 p RL33258 

Brazil-U.S. Relations, by Clare M. Ribando. 

24 p RL33456 

Burma-U.S. Relations, by Larry A. Niksch. 

lip RL33479 

Central Asia: Regional Developments and 

Implications for U.S. Interests, by Jim Nichol. 
21 p RL33458 

Chapter 15 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code: Ancillary 
and Cross-Border Cases, by Georgine Kryda. 

15 p RL33562 

China and Falun Gong, by Thomas Lum. 

lip RL33437 

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. 
Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues 
for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 

74 p RL33153 

China’s Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Options, 
by Jonathan E. Sanford. 6 p RS22338 

China’s Economic Conditions, by Wayne M. 

Morrison. 14 p RL33534 

China’s Impact on the U.S. Automotive Industry, by 
Stephen Cooney. 22 p RL33317 

China-U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 

20 p RL33536 

Civilian Forces for Stabilization and Reconstruction: 
U.S. Proposals and International Experience. 
Online Audio. Audio CD, by Nina Serafino. 

1 p MM70096 

A Civilian Reserve for Stabilization and 

Reconstruction Abroad: Summary of a 
Workshop on U.S. Proposals and International 
Experiences and Related Issues for Congress, 
by Nina M. Serafino. 12 p RL33647 

Climate Change: The European Union’s Emissions 
Trading System (EU-ETS), by Larry Parker. 

23 p RL33581 

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential 
Implications, by Christopher Bolkcom, 

Richard F. Grimmett and K. Alan Kronstadt. 

9 p RL33515 

Combating Terrorism: The Challenge of 

Measuring Effectiveness, by Raphael Perl. 

12 p RL33160 

Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: 

The Logan Act, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 
lip RL33265 


The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and Enhanced Base 
Security Since 9/1 1, by Amy Belasco. 

20 p RL33110 

Cuba after Fidel Castro: U.S. Policy Implications 
and Approaches, by Mark P. Sullivan. 

19 p RL33622 

Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related 
Issues, by Carol Migdalovitz. 21 p RL33497 

The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian 
Assistance and Relief Operations, by Daniel 
Kronenfeld and Rhoda Margesson. 

28 p RL33196 

East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic 
and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy, by 
Dick K. Nanto. 39 p RL33653 

East Asian Summit: Issues for Congress, by 

Bruce Vaughn. 6 p RS22346 

East Asia Summit (EAS): Issues for Congress, by 
Bruce Vaughn. 8 p RL33242 

European Approaches to Homeland Security and 
Counterterrorism, by Kristin Archick, 

Steven Woehrel, Francis Miko, Carl Ek and 
Paul Gallis. 47 p RL33573 

European Union Biofuels Policy and Agriculture: 

An Overview, by Randy Schnepf. 

6 p RS22404 

The European Union’s Energy Security Challenges, 
by Vince L. Morelli. 31 p RL33636 

Europe: Rising Economic Nationalism?, by 

Raymond J. Aheam. 6 p RS22468 

Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. 
Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementa- 
tion, by RemyJurenas. 19 p RL33499 

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for 

Foreign Investment, by James K. Jackson. 

9 p RL33312 

Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional 
Reality, by Aaron D. Pina. 6 p ... RS22395 

The Federal Funding Accountability and 

Transparency Act (S. 2590): Overview and 
Comparison with H.R. 5060, by Garrett Leigh 
Hatch. 9 p RL33638 

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign 

Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): 
FY2007 Appropriations, by Larry Nowels, 

Susan B. Epstein and Connie Veillette. 

53 p RL33420 

Foreign Policy Budget for FY2007, Issues for 
Congress: Slides from a CRS Seminar, 
by Larry Nowels, Connie Veillette and 
Susan B. Epstein. 1 p WD00006 


63 


Foreign Policy Budget Trends: A Thirty- Year 

Review, by Larry Nowels. 37 p ... RL33262 

Germany’s “Grand Coalition” Government: 

Prospects and Implications, by Francis T. 

Miko. 16 p RL33252 

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, 
and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues 
for Congress, by Tiaji Salaam-Blyther. 

14 p RL33396 

Haiti: International Assistance Strategy for the 
Interim Government and Congressional 
Concerns, by Maureen Taft- Morales. 

23 p RL33156 

Immunities Accorded to Foreign Diplomats, 

Consular Officers, and Employees of Inter- 
national Organizations under U.S. Law, by 
Michael John Garcia. 31 p RL33147 

India-Iran Relations and U.S. Interests, by 

K. Alan Kronstadt and Kenneth Katzman. 

6 p RS22486 

India’s Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views, 
by Sharon Squassoni. 23 p RL33292 

India-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt. 

21 p RL33529 

International Drug Trade and U.S. Foreign Policy, 
by Raphael F. Perl. 17 p RL33582 

International Narcotics Policy: Overview and 

Analysis, by Raphael Perl. 16 p ... IB 101 50 

International Population Assistance and Family 
Planning Programs: Issues for Congress, 
by Larry Nowels and Connie Veillette. 

18 p RL33250 

International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, and 

Response, by Raphael F. Perl. 30 p RL33600 

Iran’s Influence in Iraq, by Kenneth Katzman. 

6 p RS22323 

Iraq’s Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential 

Implications for International Debt Relief, 
by Martin A. Weiss. 16 p RL33376 

Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?, by 
Craig K. El well, Wayne M. Morrison and 
Marc Labonte. 62 p RL33604 

Israel: Background and Relations with the United 
States, by Carol Migdalovitz. 20 p RL33476 

Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah: The Current Conflict, by 
Jeremy M. Sharp, Steve Bowman, John 
Rollins, Paul Gallis, Carol Migdalovitz, 
Lawrence Kumins, Connie Veillette, 
Christopher Blanchard, Kenneth Katzman, 
Alfred Prados, Dianne Rennack and 
Marjorie Browne. 41 p RL33566 


Israel-Hezbollah-Hamas Conflict: CRS Experts, by 
Charlotte P. Preece. 1 p WE04001 

Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Related 
Developments, and U.S. Policy, by Carol 
Migdalovitz. 26 p RL33530 

Jamaica: Political and Economic Conditions and 
U.S. Relations, by Mark P. Sullivan. 

6 p RS22372 

Japan’s Currency Intervention: Policy Issues, by 

Dick K. Nanto. 20 p RL33178 

Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress, by 
Emma Chanlett- Avery, William H. Cooper 
and Mark E. Manyin. 18 p RL33436 

Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, by 
Alfred B. Prados and Jeremy M. Sharp. 

16 p RL33546 

Korea: U.S. -Korean Relations - Issues for Congress, 
by Larry A. Niksch. 1 8 p RL33567 

Lebanon, by Alfred B. Prados. 18 p .... RL33509 

Liberia’s Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and 
Developments, by Nicolas Cook. 

17 p RL33185 

Libya: Background and U.S. Relations, by 

Christopher M. Blanchard. 28 p . . RL33142 

Mercosur: Evolution and Implications for 
U.S. Trade Policy, by J.F. Hombeck. 

13 p RL33620 

Mexico’s 2006 Elections, by Colleen W. Cook. 

7 p RS22462 

Mexico’s Importance and Multiple Relationships 
with the United States, by K. Larry Storrs. 

14 p RL33244 

Mexico’s Political History: From Revolution to 
Alternation, 1910-2006, by K. Larry Storrs. 

6 p RS22368 

Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected 

Countries, by Paul Gallis. 45 p ... RL33166 

NATO and Energy Security, by Paul Gallis. 

6 p RS 22409 

NATO in Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic 
Alliance, by Paul Gallis. 21 p .... RL33627 

Nigeria in Political Transition, by Ted Dagne. 

14 p RL33594 

North Korea: A Chronology of Events in 2005, by 
Emma Chanlett- Avery, Hannah Fischer and 
Mark E. Manyin. 44 p RL33389 

North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency, 
by Raphael F. Perl and Dick K. Nanto. 

18 p RL33324 


64 


North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program, by 

Larry A. Niksch. 19 p RL33590 

Pakistan-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt. 

20 p RL33498 

Palestinian Elections, by Aaron D. Pina. 

21 p RL33269 

Papua, Indonesia: Issues for Congress, by 

Bruce Vaughn. 21 p RL33260 

Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: 

Issues of U.S. Military Involvement, by 
Nina M. Serafino. 20 p RL33557 

Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: 
Proposals for Army Force Structure Changes, 
by Nina M. Serafino. 6 p RS22473 

Peru: 2006 Elections and Issues for Congress, by 
Maureen Taft-Morales. 6 p RS22430 

Poland: Background and Policy Trends of the 
Kaczynski Government, by Carl Ek. 

6 p RS22509 

The Proposed South Korea-U.S. Free Trade 
Agreement (KORUSFTA), by William H. 
Cooper and Mark E. Manyin. 29 p RL33435 

The Proposed U.S. -Malaysia Free Trade Agreement, 
by Dick K. Nanto. 29 p RL33445 

The Republic of the Philippines: Background 
and U.S. Relations, by Thomas Lum and 
Larry A. Niksch. 19 p RL33233 

Restructuring U.S. Foreign Aid: The Role 
of the Director of Foreign Assistance, 
by Larry Nowels and Connie Veillette. 
lip RL33491 

Restructuring U.S. Foreign Aid: The Role of the 
Director of Foreign Assistance, by Larry 
Nowels and Connie Veillette. 6 p . RS2241 1 

Russia, by Stuart D. Goldman. 18 p .... RL33407 

Russia’s Cutoff of Natural Gas to Ukraine: Context 
and Implications, by Jim Nichol, Bernard Gelb 
and Steven Woehrel. 6 p RS22378 

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations, 
by Alfred B. Prados and Christopher M. 
Blanchard. 19 p RL33533 

Social Unrest in China, by Thomas Lum. 

16 p RL33416 

Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, 

Terrorism, and U.S. Policy, by Ted Dagne. 

16 p RL33574 

Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, by 

Alfred B. Prados. 19 p RL33487 

Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy 

Choices, by Kerry Dumbaugh. 1 8 p RL335 1 0 


Taiwan’s Political Status: Historical 

Background and Ongoing Implications, 
by Kerry Dumbaugh. 6 p RS22388 

Trade Capacity Building: Foreign Assistance for 
Trade and Development, by Danielle Langton. 
30 p RL33628 

Trade Integration in the Americas, by M. Angeles 
Villarreal. 29 p RL33162 

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the 

Caribbean, by Clare Ribando. 21 p RL33200 

Trends in Terrorism: 2006, by Raphael Perl. 

18 p RL33555 

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, by 

Steven Woehrel. 10 p RL33460 

The United Nations Human Rights Council: 

Issues for Congress, by Luisa Blanchfield. 

17 p RL33608 

United States Military Casualty Statistics: Operation 
Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring 
Freedom, by Hannah Fischer. 5 p . RS22452 

U.S. Aid to the Palestinians, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 

6 p RS22370 

U.S. and International Responses to the Global 

Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress, by 
Tiaji Salaam-Blyther and Emma Chanlett- 
Avery. 45 p RL33219 

U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and 

Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress, by 
Rhoda Margesson and Daniel Kronenfeld. 

9 p RL33227 

U.S. -Canada Com Trade Dispute, by Randy 

Schnepf. 6 p RS22434 

U.S. -China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement, by 

Shirley Kan and Mark Holt. 22 p . RL33 192 

U.S. Democracy Promotion Policy in the Middle 
East: The Islamist Dilemma, by Jeremy M. 
Sharp. 28 p RL33486 

U.S. -Egyptian Economic Relations: Aid, Trade, and 
Reform Proposals, by Jeremy M. Sharp and 
Shayerah Ilias. 6 p RS22494 

U.S.-EU Summit 2006: Summary, by Vince L. 

Morelli. 4p RS22471 

U.S. Forces in Iraq, by JoAnne O’Bryant and 

Michael Waterhouse. 4 p RS22449 

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 

18 p RL33222 

U.S. -India Nuclear Cooperation: Next Steps: Slides 
from a Congressional Research Service 
Seminar, by Alan Kronstadt, Sharon Squassoni 
and Mark Holt WD00007 


65 


U.S. -India Nuclear Cooperation: A Side-By-Side 
Comparison of Current Legislation, by 
Sharon Squassoni and Jill Marie Parillo. 

19 p RL33561 

U.S. International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and 
Malaria Spending: FY 2004- FY 2007, by 
Tiaji Salaam-Blyther. 9 p RL33485 

U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany and 
Japan Compared, by Nina Serafino, Dick K. 
Nanto and Curt Tarnoff. 13 p .... RL33331 

U.S. -Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, by 

M. Angeles Villarreal. 6 p RS22391 

U.S. -Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues 
for Congress, by Mark E. Manyin. 

20 p RL33316 

Uzbekistan’s Closure of the Airbase at Karshi- 
Khanabad: Context and Implications, by 
Jim Nichol. 6 p RS22295 

Vietnam PNTR Status and WTO Accession: Issues 
and Implications for the United States, by 
Mark E. Manyin, Bernard A. Gelb and 
William H. Cooper. 27 p RL33490 

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance, 
by Richard F. Grimmett. 17 p .... RL33532 


Government 

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related 
Funding Programs: FY2006 Assistance, by 
Connie Veillette. 24 p RL33253 

Azerbaijan’s 2005 Legislative Election: Outcome 
and Implications for U.S. Interests, by 
Jim Nichol. 6 p RS22340 

Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Provisions 
Affecting the Medicaid Federal Medical 
Assistance Percentage (FMAP), by April 
Grady. 6 p RS22333 

Business Opportunities with the Federal Government 
Web Page, by Merete F. Gerli and Luis A. 
DeCastro. 1 p WG02003 

Campaign Finance: An Overview, by Joseph E. 

Cantor. 19 p RL33580 

Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, 
Rules, Laws, and Resources, by R. Eric 
Petersen. 19 p RL33209 

Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries, by 

Nye Stevens. 8 p RL33488 

Committee Controls of Agency Decisions, by 

Louis Fisher. 31 p RL33151 

Comparison of Selected Senate Earmark Reform 

Proposals, by Sandy Streeter. 21 p RL33295 


Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview 
of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) 
and Related Issues, by Clinton T. Brass, 

Erin D. Williams and Bias Nunez-Neto. 

54 p RL33301 

Congressional Commissions, Committees, Boards, 
and Groups: Appointment Authority and 
Membership, by Thomas P. Carr. 

116 p RL33313 

Congressional Gifts and Travel, Legislative 
Proposals for the 109th Congress, by 
Mildred Amer. 5 p RS223 1 7 

Congressional Gifts and Travel: Legislative 
Proposals for the 109th Congress, by 
Mildred Amer. 7 p RL33237 

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service 

Academies: An Overview and Resources for 
Outreach and Management, by R. Eric 
Petersen. 18 p RL33213 

Congressional Primaries and Filing Deadlines, 2006 
Schedule, by Kevin Coleman. 3 p . RS22320 

The Congressional Research Service and the 
American Legislative Process, by Ida A. 
Brudnick. 10 p RL33471 

Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA’s Analysis 
of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills, by 
James E. McCarthy and Larry B. Parker. 

16 p RL33165 

The Direct Recording Electronic Voting 

Machine (DRE) Controversy: FAQs and 
Misperceptions, by Eric A. Fischer and 
Kevin J. Coleman. 17 p RL33190 

Earmark Reform Proposals: Analysis of Latest 
Versions of S. 2349 and H.R. 4975, by 
Sandy Streeter. 1 1 p RL33397 

Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes 

Katrina and Rita, by Kevin J. Coleman and 
Eric A. Fischer. 5 p RS22436 

Executive Branch Reorganization and Management 
Initiatives: A Brief Overview, by Harold C. 
Relyea. 18 p RL33441 

Executive Compensation in Bankruptcy: The 
Fairness and Accountability in Reorganiza- 
tions Act, by Robin Jeweler. 5 p . . RS22427 

The Fair Labor Standards Act: Minimum Wage in 
the 109th Congress, by William G. Whittaker. 
27 p RL33401 

Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and 
Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress, by 
Genevieve J. Knezo. 19 p RL3351 1 

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: 

FAQs, by Eric A. Fischer. 6 p .... RS22363 


66 


Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: 
Summary and Analysis of Issues, by 
Eric A. Fischer. 29 p RL33146 

Federal White-Collar Pay: FY2006 and FY2007 
Salary Adjustments, by Barbara L. Schwemle. 
19 p RL33158 

FEMA’s Community Disaster Loan Program, 
by Nonna A. Noto and Steven Maguire. 

19 p ’ RL33174 

FY2007 Appropriations for State and Local 
Homeland Security, by Shawn Reese. 

5 p RS22383 

General Services Administration Prospectus 
Thresholds for Owned and Leased 
Federal Facilities, by Stephanie Smith. 

4 p RS22287 

Germany’s “Grand Coalition” Government: 

Prospects and Implications, by Francis T. 

Miko. 16 p RL33252 

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding, 
by Susan Boren. 8 p RL33617 

How to Use LIS. Online Video, by Susan Thea 

David. 1 p MM70091 

The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the 
State Budgets of Alabama, Louisiana, 
and Mississippi, by Steven Maguire. 

13 p RL33154 

The Internal Revenue Service’s Use of Private Debt 
Collection Agencies: Current Status and 
Issues for Congress, by Gary Guenther. 

17 p RL33231 

Judicial Security: Comparison of Legislation in 
the 109th Congress, by Nathan James. 

17 p RL33473 

Judicial Security: Responsibilities and 
Current Issues, by Lorraine H. Tong. 

17 p RL33464 

Judiciary Appropriations for FY2007, by 

Lorraine H. Tong. 13 p RL33339 

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Officials: 

Process for Adjusting Pay and Current 

Salaries, by Barbara L. Schwemle. 

lip RL33245 

Lobbying and Related Reform Proposals: 
Consideration of Selected Measures, 

109th Congress, by R. Eric Petersen. 

29 p RL33293 

Lobbying Disclosure and Ethics Proposals Related to 
Lobbying Introduced in the 109th Congress: A 
Comparative Analysis, by R. Eric Petersen. 

15 p RL33234 


Lobbying, Ethics and Related Procedural Reforms: 
Comparison of Current Provisions of 
S. 2349 and H.R. 4975, by Jack Masked, 

Sandy Streeter and R. Eric Petersen. 

25 p RL33326 

Military Base Closures and Affected Defense 
Department Civil Service Employees, by 
Clinton T. Brass, Jon O. Shimabukuro and 
Barbara L. Schwemle. 9 p RL33297 

OMB’s Proposed Bulletin on Risk Assessment, by 
Curtis W. Copeland. 9 p RL33500 

Postal Reform, by Nye Stevens. 15 p ... RL33618 

Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and 
Institutional Implications, by T.J. Halstead. 

27 p RL33667 

Procedural Analysis of Private Laws Enacted: 
1986-2006, by Christopher M. Davis. 

6 p RS 22450 

Proposals in the 109th Congress to Split the Ninth 
Circuit Court of Appeals, by R. Sam Garrett. 

26 p RL33189 

Recess Appointments Made by President George W. 
Bush, January 20, 2001-February 27, 2006, by 
Henry B. Hogue and Maureen Bearden. 

15 p RL33310 

Regulatory Requirements Under the Controlled 
Substances Act, by Anthony Vieux. 

6 p RS22487 

Reimbursement of Local Private Nonprofit 

Organizations Under the Stafford Act, by 
Ann Angelheart. 7 p RL33221 

A Retrospective of House Rules Changes Since the 
104th Congress, by Michael L. Koempel and 
Judy Schneider. 49 p RL33610 

Routes to the Senate Floor: Rule XIV and 

Unanimous Consent, by Michael L. Koempel. 

6 p RS22299 

Security Classified and Controlled Information: 
History, Status, and Emerging Management 
Issues, by Harold C. Relyea. 33 p . RL33494 

Senate Rule XIV Procedures for Placing Measures 
Directly on the Senate Calendar, by 
Michael L. Koempel. 2 p RS22309 

Senior Executive Service (SES) Pay for Performance 
System, by L. Elaine Hal chin. 49 p RL33 1 28 

Speaker Hastert’s Plan to Offset Spending: A 
Procedural Perspective, by Robert Keith. 


14 p RL33127 

The Speech or Debate Clause: Recent 

Developments, by Todd B. Tatelman. 

17 p RL33668 


67 


Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on 

Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005, by 
R. Sam Garrett and Denis Steven Rutkus. 

72 p RL33118 

Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of House Bills, by 
Betsy Palmer. 2 p RS22477 

“State Representation” in Appointments to Federal 
Courts of Appeals, by R. Sam Garrett and 
Kevin M. Scott. 6 p RS22510 

Substitution of Nominees on the Ballot for 

Congressional Office, “Sore Loser” Laws, and 
Other “Ballot Access” Issues, by Jack Masked. 
16 p RL33678 

Sunset and Program Review Commission Bills in the 
109th Congress: Comparing H.R. 3282 and 
H.R. 5766, by Virginia A. McMurtry. 

13 p RL33569 

Support Offices in the House of Representatives: 
Roles and Authorities, by Ida A. Brudnick. 

21 p RL33220 

Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: 

Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary 
Committee, and the President, by 
Denis Steven Rutkus and Maureen Bearden. 

43 p RL33225 

Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor 
Procedure and Practice, 1789-2005, by 
Richard S. Beth and Betsy Palmer. 

40 p RL33247 

Telework Centers and Federal Continuity of 

Operations Planning, by Lorraine H. Tong. 

13 p RL33352 

U.S. Federal Government Revenues: 1790 to 
the Present, by Thomas L. Hungerford. 

15 p RL33665 

Voter Identification and Citizenship Requirements: 
Legislation in the 109th Congress, by 
Kevin J. Coleman and Eric A. Fischer. 

5 p RS22505 

The Voting Rights Act of 1965, As Amended: 
Reauthorization Issues, by Garrine P. Laney 
and L. Paige Whitaker. 14 p RL33425 


Health 

AIDS in Africa, by Nicolas Cook. 21 p . RL33584 

AIDS: The Ryan White CARE Act, by Judith A. 
Johnson and Paulette C. Morgan. 

6 p RL33279 

Alternatives for Modeling Results from the 
RAND Health Insurance Experiment, 
by Chris L. Peterson. 45 p RL33296 


The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): 
Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources 
During a Pandemic, by Nancy Lee Jones. 

12 p RL33381 

Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects 
on Innovation, by John R. Thomas. 

21 p RL33605 

Avian Flu Pandemic: Potential Impact of Trade 
Disruptions, by Danielle Langton. 

5 p RS22453 

BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”): A Brief Overview, by 
Geoffrey S. Becker. 7 p RS22345 

Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, 

Medicare, and State Children’s Health 
Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions, 
by Evelyne Baumrucker, Sibyl Tilson, 

Paulette Morgan, Julie Stone, Jennifer 
O’Sullivan, Elicia Herz, Jim Hahn, 

Karen Tritz, April Grady and Jean Heame. 

15 p RL33131 

Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding in 
the State Children’s Health Insurance 
Program (SCHIP), by Chris L. Peterson. 

14 p RL33130 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region in 
Transition, by Tadlock Cowan. 

353 p RL33184 

Child Nutrition and WIC Legislation in the 108th 
and 109th Congresses, by Joe Richardson. 

15 p RL33299 

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background 
and Recent Funding, by Joe Richardson. 

18 p RL33307 

Coal Mine Safety, by Edward Rappaport. 

6 p RS22461 

The Congressional Charter of the American 
National Red Cross: Overview, History, 
and Analysis, by Kevin R. Kosar. 

26 p RL33314 

Corporate Owned Life Insurance (COLI): 

Insurance and Tax Issues, by Baird Webel. 
lip RL33414 

Data on Enrollment, Premiums, and Cost- 

Sharing in HSA-Qualified Health Plans, by 
Chris L. Peterson. 6 p RS22417 

Department of Veterans Affairs: Information 
Security and Information Technology 
Management Reorganization, by Sidath 
Viranga Panangala. 8 p RL33612 

Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug 
Consumer Protection Act (S. 3546), by 
Donna V. Porter. 6 p RS22480 


68 


Employer-Sponsored Retiree Health Insurance: An 
Endangered Benefit?, by Neela K. Ranade. 

15 p RL33361 

Employment-Related Issues in Bankruptcy, by 

Robin Jeweler. 18 p RL33138 

Federal and State Laws Regarding Pharmacists 
Who Refuse to Dispense Contraceptives, by 
Jody Feder. 6 p RS22293 

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation 

Authority, by Kathleen S. Swendiman and 
Jennifer K. Elsea. 20 p RL33201 

Federal Tax Treatment of Health Insurance 
Expenditures by the Self-Employed: 

Current Law and Issues for Congress, 
by Gary Guenther. 1 0 p RL333 1 1 

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of 
Fluoridation and Regulation Issues, by 
Mary Tiemann. 13 p RL33280 

Food Safety: National Uniformity for Foods Act, 
by Donna V. Porter. 9 p RL33559 

The Global Fund and PEPFAR in U.S. International 
AIDS Policy, by Raymond W. Copson. 

13 p RL33135 

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and 
Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Con- 
gress, by Tiaji Salaam-Blyther. 14 p RL33396 

Gonzales v. Oregon : Physician-Assisted Suicide and 
the Controlled Substances Act, by Brian T. 

Yeh. 14 p RL33120 

Health Care for Dependents and Survivors of 
Veterans, by Jacqueline Rae Roche and 
Sidath Viranga Panangala. 6 p ... RS22483 

Health Professions Programs in Title VII and Title 
VIII of the Public Health Service Act: 
Appropriations Fact Sheet, by Bernice Reyes- 
Akinbileje and Mary Vennetta Wright. 

3 p RS22438 

Health Savings Accounts: Overview of Rules for 
2006, by Bob Lyke. lip RL33257 

Health Savings Accounts: Some Current Policy 

Issues, by Bob Lyke. 6 p RS22437 

Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of 
Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments, by 
Chris L. Peterson. 4 p RS22289 

Importation of Prescription Drugs: A Side-by-Side 
Comparison of Current Law, S. 109/H.R. 328, 

S. 184/H.R. 753, and S. 334/H.R. 700, 
by Susan Thaul and Donna U. Vogt. 

78 p RL33175 

Influenza Antiviral Drugs and Patent Law Issues, 
by Brian T. Yeh. 12 p RL33159 


Integrating Medicare and Medicaid Services 
Through Managed Care, by Karen Tritz. 

27 p RL33495 

International Efforts to Control the Spread of the 
Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus: Affected 
Countries’ Responses, by Emma Chanlett- 
Avery, Bruce Vaughn, Mark E. Manyin, 

Kerry Dumbaugh, Nicolas Cook, Thomas 
Lum, James Nichol and Jeremy M. Sharp. 

21 p RL33349 

Legal Constraints Potentially Affecting 

Medication Recycling, by Emily M. Cowley. 

6 p RS 22491 

Legal Issues Arising from Influenza Pandemic. 
Online Video. Video Tape, by Kathleen S. 
Swendiman, Nancy Lee Jones and Henry 
Cohen. 1 p MM70094 

The Legal Regulation of Sales of Over-the-Counter 
Cold and Allergy Medication, by Jody Feder. 

7 p RL33385 

The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals 
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): 

Recent History and Current Issues, by 
Elicia J. Herz. 5 p RS22397 

Long-Term Care: Facts on Adult Day Care, by 

Sarah C. Kaufman, lip RL33595 

Long-Term Care: Trends in Public and Private 

Spending, by Karen Tritz. 25 p ... RL33357 

The Massachusetts Health Reform Plan: A Brief 
Overview, by April Grady. 6 p ... RS22447 

Medicaid and SCHIP: FY2007 Budget Issues, by 
April Grady, Karen Tritz, Elicia J. Herz and 
Jean Heame. 18 p RL33272 

Medicaid Coverage for Long-Term Care: Eligibility, 
Asset Transfers, and Estate Recovery, as 
Modified by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, 
by Julie Stone. 44 p RL33593 

Medicaid Issues for the 109th Congress, by 

Jean Heame. 15 p RL33121 

Medicaid: A Primer, by Elicia J. Herz. 

13 p RL33202 

Medicaid’s Home and Community-Based Services 
State Plan Option: Section 6086 of the Deficit 
Reduction Act of 2005, by Karen Tritz. 

6 p RS 22448 

Medical Malpractice Bills: S. 22 and S. 23, 

109th Congress, by Henry Cohen. 

9 p RL33406 

Medical Malpractice: An Overview, by 

Bernadette Fernandez and Baird Webel. 

20 p RL33358 


69 


Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of 
Federal and State Policies, by Mark Eddy. 

40 p RL33211 

Medicare Durable Medical Equipment: Proposed 
Payment Changes for Certain Inhalation 
Medications, by Paulette C. Morgan and 
Barbara English. 6 p RS22495 

Medicare: Enrollment in Medicare Drug Plans, by 
Jennifer O’Sullivan. 9 p RL33136 

Medicare: FY2007 Budget Issues, by Hinda 

Chaikind, Paulette C. Morgan, Sibyl Tilson, 
Jennifer O’Sullivan, Carol O’Shaughnessy and 
Julie Stone. 10 p RL33306 

Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit: An Overview 
of Implementation for Dual Eligibles, by 
Jennifer O’Sullivan and Karen Tritz. 

14 p RL33268 

Medicare Secondary Payer - Coordination of 

Benefits, by Hinda Chaikind. 13 p RL33587 

Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and 
Veterans Affairs: FY2007 Appropriations, by 
Daniel H. Else, Sidath Viranga Panangala and 
Paul J. Graney. 20 p RL33427 

Montgomery GI Bill Education Benefits: Analysis 
of College Prices and Federal Student Aid 
Under the Higher Education Act, by 
Charmaine Mercer, Paul J. Graney and 
Rebecca R. Skinner. 28 p RL33281 

The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act 
(S. 3678): Provisions and Comparison with 
Current Law and Related Proposals, by 
Sarah A. Lister. 30 p RL33589 

Pandemic Flu Liability Limitation Legislation, by 
Henry Cohen. 4 p RS22327 

Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts, 
by Sarah A. Lister. 33 p RL33145 

Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and 
Software Industries, by Wendy H. Schacht. 

13 p RL33367 

Proprietary Rights in Pharmaceutical Innovation: 
Issues at the Intersection of Patents and 
Marketing Exclusivities, by John R. Thomas. 

20 p RL33288 

The Public Health and Medical Response to 

Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding, by 
Sarah A. Lister. 29 p RL33579 

Quarantine and Isolation: Selected Legal 
Issues Relating to Employment, by 
Nancy Lee Jones and Jon O. Shimabukuro. 

12 p RL33609 

Recent Developments Affecting Long-Term Care 
Hospitals, by Sibyl Tilson. 6 p ... RS22399 


The Ryan White CARE Act: a Side-by-Side 

Comparison of H.R. 6143 and Current Law, 
by Judith A. Johnson and Paulette C. Morgan. 
30 p RL33671 

Safe Harbor for Preclinical Use of Patented Inven- 
tions in Drug Research and Development: 
Merck KGaA v. Integra Life sciences /, Ltd., by 
Brian T. Yeh. 1 1 p RL33114 

The Safety of Air Ambulances, by Bart Elias. 

24 p RL33430 

Side-by-Side Comparison of Medicare, Medicaid, 
and SCHIP Provisions in the Deficit Reduction 
Act of 2005, by Karen Tritz, Sibyl Tilson, Julie 
Stone, Chris L. Peterson, Jennifer O’Sullivan, 
Paulette C. Morgan, Elicia J. Herz, Jean 
Hearne, Jim Hahn, April Grady, Hinda 
Chaikind and Evelyne P. Baumrucker. 

114 p RL33251 

Side-by-Side Description of Small Business Health 
Insurance Proposals, by Jean Hearne and 
Bernadette Fernandez. 15 p RL33402 

Standardized Choices: Medigap Lessons 
for Medicare Part D, by Jim Hahn. 

14 p RL33300 

Standardizing State Health Insurance Regulation, by 
Jean Hearne and Bernadette Fernandez. 

6 p RS22476 

Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues, by 

Judith A. Johnson and Erin D. Williams. 

15 p RL33554 

Stem Cell Research: Federal Research Funding 
and Oversight, by Judith A. Johnson and 
Erin D. Williams. 26 p RL33540 

Stem Cell Research: State Initiatives, by 

Judith A. Johnson and Erin D. Williams. 

8 p RL33524 

Tax Benefits for Health Insurance and Expenses: 
Overview of Current Law and Legislation, by 
BobLyke. 23 p RL33505 

Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and 
Older, 1969 to 2004, by Patrick Purcell and 
Debra Whitman. 45 p RL33387 

U.S. and International Responses to the Global 
Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress, by 
Tiaji Salaam-Blyther and Emma Chanlett- 
Avery. 45 p RL33219 

U.S. International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and 
Malaria Spending: FY2004-FY2007, by 
Tiaji Salaam-Blyther. 9 p RL33485 

Veterans Affairs: Benefits for Service-Connected 
Disabilities, by Douglas Reid Weimer. 

12 p RL33323 


70 


Veterans and Agent Orange: Eligibility for 

Health Care and Benefits, by Jacqueline Rae 
Roche and Sidath Viranga Panangala. 

6 p RS22481 

Veterans Benefits Issues in the 109th Congress, by 
Paul J. Graney. lip RL33216 

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2007 Appro- 
priations, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 

29 p RL33409 


Homeland Security 

Anthrax-Contaminated Facilities: Preparations and 
a Standard for Remediation, by Michael M. 
Simpson. 16 p RL33191 

Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the 
United Kingdom and the United States. 

43 p RL33726 

Authorization For Use Of Military Force in 

Response to the 9/1 1 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): 
Legislative History, by Richard F. Grimmett. 

6 p RS22357 

Border Security and Military Support: Legal 
Authorizations and Restrictions, by 
Stephen R. Vina. 6 p RS22443 

Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. 

International Border, by Bias Nunez-Neto 
and Stephen Vina. 3 1 p RL33659 

Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal 
and Policy Issues, by Stephen R. Vina, 

Alyssa Bartlett Weir and Bias Nunez-Neto. 

24 p RL33353 

Community Development Block Grant Funds in 

Disaster Relief and Recovery, by Eugene Boyd. 
14 p RL33330 

Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset 

Database, by John Moteff. 14 p ... RL33648 

European Approaches to Homeland Security and 
Counterterrorism, by Kristin Archick, 

Steven Woehrel, Francis Miko, Carl Ek and 
Paul Gallis. 47 p RL33573 

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for 

Foreign Investment, by James K. Jackson. 

9 p RL33312 

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation 

Authority, by Kathleen S. Swendiman and 
Jennifer K. Elsea. 20 p RL33201 

Federal Emergency Management and Homeland 
Security Organization: Historical 
Developments and Legislative Options, 
by Henry B. Hogue and Keith Bea. 

36 p RL33369 


The Federal Networking and Information 
Technology Research and Development 
Program: Funding Issues and Activities, by 
Patricia Moloney Figliola. 15 p ... RL33586 

FEMA Reorganization Legislation in the 109th 
Congress, by Keith Bea and Henry Hogue. 

37 p RL33522 

FEMA’s Community Disaster Loan Program, by 
Nonna A. Noto and Steven Maguire. 

19 p RL33174 

Flood Risk Management: Federal Role in 
Infrastructure, by Nicole T. Carter. 

9 p RL33129 

FY2006 Homeland Security Grant Distribution 
Methods: Issues for the 109th Congress, by 
Shawn Reese. 13 p RL33241 

FY2006 Homeland Security Grant Guidance 
Distribution Formulas: Issues for the 
109th Congress, by Shawn Reese. 

6 p RS22349 

FY2007 Appropriations for State and Local 
Homeland Security, by Shawn Reese. 

5 p RS22383 

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and 
Related Records: Legal Authorities, by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan, Gina Marie Stevens and 
Brian T. Yeh. 16 p RL33424 

Homeland Security Department: FY2007 
Appropriations, by Jennifer E. Lake and 
Bias Nunez-Neto. 65 p RL33428 

Homeland Security Grants: Evolution of Program 
Guidance and Grant Allocation Methods, by 
Shawn Reese. 23 p RL33583 

Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, 
Statutory Definitions, and Approaches, by 
Todd Masse. 23 p RL33616 

H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): “Electronic 
Surveillance Modernization Act,” by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan. 23 p RL33637 

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological 
Advancement: Debate Over Govern- 
ment Policy, by Wendy H. Schacht. 

18 p RL33528 

Intelligence Issues for Congress, by Richard A. Best, 
Jr. 19 p RL33539 

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: 
Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives, 
by Alfred Cumming. 10 p RL33355 

National Flood Insurance Program: Treasury 
Borrowing in the Aftermath of Hurricane 
Katrina, by Rawle 0. King. 6 p . . RS22394 


71 


National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence 
Investigations: Legal Background and 
Recent Amendments, by Charles Doyle. 

27 p RL33320 

National Security Surveillance Act of 2006: S. 3886, 
Title II (S. 2453 as Reported Out of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee), by Elizabeth B. Bazan. 
17 p RL33650 

National Security Whistleblowers, by Louis Fisher. 

43 p RL33215 

Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: 

The National Science Advisory Board 
for Biosecurity, by Dana A. Shea. 

14 p RL33342 

Pandemic Flu Liability Limitation Legislation, by 
Henry Cohen. 4 p RS22327 

Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless 
Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign 
Intelligence Information, by Elizabeth B. 

Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea WD00002 

Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless 

Electronic Surveillance to Gather Intelligence 
Information, by Elizabeth B. Bazan and 
Jennifer K. Elsea. 1 p CA90015 

Protection of National Security Information, by 

Jennifer K. Elsea. 23 p RL33502 

Protection of Security-Related Information, by 
Gina Marie Stevens and Todd B. Tatelman. 

26 p RL33670 

The Public Health and Medical Response to 

Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding, 
by Sarah A. Lister. 29 p RL33579 

Reauthorizing and Restructuring the Transportation 
Security Administration’s Aviation Security 
Functions: Legislative Issues and Approaches, 
by Bart Elias. 6 p RS22375 

Securing General Aviation, by Bart Elias. 

43 p RL33194 

Senate Proposals To Enhance Chemical Facility 
Security, by Linda-Jo Schierow. 

33 p RL33447 

“Sensitive But Unclassified” Information 
and Other Controls: Policy and 
Options for Scientific and Technical 
Information, by Genevieve J. Knezo. 

82 p RL33303 

Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: 
The SAFER Grant Program, by Lennard G. 
Kruger. 7 p RL33375 

State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and 
Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress, by 
Shawn Reese. 5 p RS22393 


Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To 
Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, 
Including Covert Actions, by Alfred Cumming. 
10 p WD00003 

Terminal Operators and Their Role in U.S. Port and 
Maritime Security, by John Frittelli and 
Jennifer E. Lake. 16 p RL33383 

Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger 
Prescreening, by William J. Krouse and 
Bart Elias. 17 p RL33645 

Transnational Organized Crime: Principal Threats 
and U.S. Responses, by John R. Wagley. 

21 p RL33335 

Transportation Security: Issues for the 
109th Congress, by David Randall 
Peterman, John Frittelli and Bart Elias. 

19 p RL33512 

Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: 
Background and Policy Options, by Paul W. 
Parfomak. 21 p RL33206 


Immigration 

Border Security and Military Support: Legal 
Authorizations and Restrictions, by 
Stephen R. Vina. 6 p RS22443 

Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. 

International Border, by Bias Nunez-Neto 
and Stephen Vina. 31 p RL33659 

Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and 
Policy Issues, by Stephen R. Vina, Alyssa 
Bartlett Weir and Bias Nunez-Neto. 

24 p RL33353 

The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian 
Assistance and Relief Operations, by Daniel 
Kronenfeld and Rhoda Margesson. 

28 p RL33196 

English as the Official Language of the United 
States: Legal Background and Analysis of 
Legislation in the 109th Congress, by 
Charles V. Dale. 24 p RL33356 

Immigration Enforcement: An Overview of Policies 
and Issues. Online Video. Video Tape, by 
Alison Siskin and Bias Nunez-Neto. 

Ip MM70093 

Immigration Enforcement Within the United States, 
by Alison Siskin, Bias Nunez-Neto, Ruth Ellen 
Wasem, Lisa M. Seghetti and Andorra Bruno. 
75 p RL33351 

Immigration: Frequently Asked Questions on the 
State Criminal Alien Assistance Program 
(SCAAP), by Karma Ester. 6 p . . . RL33431 


72 


Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th 
Congress, by Andorra Bruno, Karma Ester, 
Bias Nunez-Neto, Alison Siskin, Michael John 
Garcia, Stephen R. Vina and Ruth Ellen 
Wasem. 17 p RL33125 

Immigration Litigation Reform, by Margaret 

MikyungLee. 12 p RL33410 

Immigration Reform: Selected Legal Issues. Online 
Video. DVD, by Michael Garcia, Margaret Lee 
and Stephen Vina. 1 p MM70095 

Immigration Reform: U.S. Immigration Policy 
and Trends. Online Video. Video Tape, by 
Ruth Ellen Wassem. 1 p MM70092 

Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in 
the 109th Congress, by Bias Nunez-Neto. 

17 p RL33181 

Immigration: Selected Opinions of Judge Samuel 
Alito, by Michael John Garcia. 12 p RL33218 

Immigration Statistics on the Web, by LaVonne 

Mangan. 4 p RS22423 

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers: 

Protective Statutes, by William G. Whittaker. 

67 p RL33372 

Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the 

Issue, by Ruth Ellen Wasem. 6 p . RS22446 

Reauthorizing and Restructuring the Transportation 
Security Administration’s Aviation Security 
Functions: Legislative Issues and Approaches, 
by Bart Elias. 6 p RS22375 

Securing General Aviation, by Bart Elias. 

43 p RL33194 

Terminal Operators and Their Role in U.S. Port and 
Maritime Security, by John Frittelli and 
Jennifer E. Lake. 16 p RL33383 

Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger 
Prescreening, by William J. Krouse and 
Bart Elias. 17 p RL33645 

Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: 

Selected Organizational Issues, by 

Ruth Ellen Wasem. 36 p RL33319 

Transportation Security: Issues for the 109th 

Congress, by David Randall Peterman, John 
Frittelli and Bart Elias. 19 p RL33512 


Internet/Telecom 

Access to Broadband Networks, by Charles B. 

Goldfarb. 27 p RL33496 

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: 

Background and Issues, by Angele A. Gilroy 
and Lennard G. Kruger. 16 p .... RL33542 


Cable Franchising Provisions in House-Passed H.R. 
5252, 109th Congress, by Charles B. Goldfarb. 
14 p RL33478 

Cable Television: Background and Overview of 
Rates and Other Issues for Congress, by 

Julie Jennings. 7 p RL33384 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region 
in Transition, by Tadlock Cowan. 

353 p RL33184 

A Comparison of the Cable Franchising Provisions 
in House-Passed H.R. 5252 and in H.R. 5252 
as Amended by the Senate Commerce 
Committee, 109th Congress, by Charles B. 
Goldfarb. 27 p RL33630 

Constitutionality of Applying the FCC’s Indecency 
Restriction to Cable Television, by Henry 
Cohen, lip RL33170 

Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit 
the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video 
Games with Violent or Sexual Content or 
“Strong Language,” by Henry Cohen, 
lip RL33232 

Constitutionality of Requiring Sexually Explicit 
Material on the Internet to be Under a 
Separate Domain Name, by Henry Cohen. 

8 p RL33224 

Copyright Licensing in Music Distribution, 
Reproduction, and Public Performance, 
by Jared Huber and Brian T. Yeh. 

25 p RL33631 

Copyright Protection of Digital Audio Radio 

Broadcasts: The “Audio Flag,” by Jared Huber 
and Brian T. Yeh. 7 p RS22489 

Data Security: Federal and State Laws, by Gina 

Marie Stevens. 6 p RS22374 

Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches, by 
Gina Marie Stevens. 14 p RL33273 

Data Security: Protecting the Privacy of Phone 
Records, by Gina Marie Stevens. 

9 p RL33287 

The FCC’s “a la Carte” Reports, by Charles B. 

Goldfarb. 17 p RL33338 

Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Govern- 
ment: Issues for Information Technology 
Management, by Jeffrey W. Seifert. 

12 p RL33417 

The Google Book Search Project: Is Online 

Indexing a Fair Use Under Copyright Law?, 
by Robin Jeweler. 6 p RS22356 

How to Use LIS. Online Video, by Susan Thea 

David. 1 p MM70091 


73 


Identity Theft Laws: State Penalties and Remedies 
and Pending Federal Bills, by Kristin 
Thomblad. 6 p RS22484 

Internet Development and Information Control 
in the People’s Republic of China, by 
Michelle W. Lau. 1 2 p RL33 1 67 

Internet Gambling: Two Approaches in the 109th 
Congress, by Charles Doyle. 5 p . . RS22418 

Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 
109th Congress, by Steven Maguire and 
Nonna A. Noto. 13 p RL33261 

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) and 
the Army’s Future Combat System (FCS): 
Issues for Congress, by Andrew Feickert. 

14 p RL33161 

Net Neutrality: Background and Issues, by 

Angele A. Gilroy. 6 p RS22444 

Personal Data Security Breaches: Context and 
Incident Summaries, by Rita Tehan. 

29 p RL33199 

Slamming: The Unauthorized Change of a 
Consumer’s Telephone Service Provider, 
by Angele A. Gilroy. 16 p RL33598 

The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement: 

A Brief Description, by Steven Maguire. 

5 p RS22387 


Israel-Hamas-Hezbollah: The Current Conflict, by 
Jeremy M. Sharp, Steve Bowman, John 
Rollins, Paul Gallis, Carol Migdalovitz, 
Lawrence Kumins, Connie Veillette, 
Christopher Blanchard, Kenneth Katzman, 
Alfred Prados, Dianne Rennack and 
Marjorie Browne. 41 p RL33566 

Israel-Hezbollah-Hamas Conflict: CRS Experts, by 
Charlotte P. Preece. 1 p WE04001 

Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Related 
Developments, and U.S. Policy, by Carol 
Migdalovitz. 26 p RL33530 

Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, by 
Alfred B. Prados and Jeremy M. Sharp. 

16 p RL33546 

Lebanon, by Alfred B. Prados. 18 p .... RL33509 

Libya: Background and U.S. Relations, 
by Christopher M. Blanchard. 

28 p RL33142 

Palestinian Elections, by Aaron D. Pina. 

21 p RL33269 

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations, 
by Alfred B. Prados and Christopher M. 
Blanchard. 19 p RL33533 

Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, by 

Alfred B. Prados. 19 p RL33487 


The Telephone Excise Tax: An Economic Analysis, 
by Steven Maguire. 8 p RL33382 

Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview 
and Policy Issues, by John Rollins and Clay 
Wilson. 21 p RL33123 


The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and Enhanced Base 
Security Since 9/1 1 , by Amy Belasco. 

20 p RL33110 

Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects 
and Countermeasures, by Clay Wilson. 

6 p RS22330 

Iran’s Influence in Iraq, by Kenneth Katzman. 

6 p RS22323 

Iraqi Civilian, Police, and Security Forces 
Casualty Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. 

6 p RS22441 

Iraq’s Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential 

Implications for International Debt Relief, 
by Martin A. Weiss. 16 p RL33376 

Israel: Background and Relations with the 
United States, by Carol Migdalovitz. 

20 p RL33476 


United States Military Casualty Statistics: 

Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation 
Enduring Freedom, by Hannah Fischer. 

5 p RS22452 

U.S. Aid to the Palestinians, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 

6 p RS22370 

U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and 
Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress, 
by Rhoda Margesson and Daniel Kronenfeld. 

9 p RL33227 

U.S. Democracy Promotion Policy in the Middle 
East: The Islamist Dilemma, by Jeremy M. 
Sharp. 28 p RL33486 

U.S. Forces in Iraq, by JoAnne O’Bryant and 

Michael Waterhouse. 4 p RS22449 

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 

18 p RL33222 


Justice 

Abortion: Legislative Response, by Karen J. Lewis 
and Jon O. Shimabukuro. 16 p ... RL33467 

Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal 

Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis, by 
Charles Doyle. 27 p RL33321 


74 


Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal 

Investigations: A Sketch, by Charles Doyle. 

4 p RS22407 

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): 
Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources 
During a Pandemic, by Nancy Lee Jones. 

12 p RL33381 

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): The 
Definition of Disability, by Nancy Lee Jones, 
lip RL33304 

The Americans with Disabilities Act: Legislation 
Concerning Notification Prior to Initiating 
Legal Action, by Nancy Lee Jones. 

5 p RS 22296 

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related 
Funding Programs: FY2006 Assistance, by 
Connie Veillette. 24 p RL33253 

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related 
Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance, by 
Connie Veillette. 23 p RL33370 

Antitrust Effect of Patent on Tying 

Product: Illinois Tool Works Inc. v. 
Independent Ink , Inc., by Janice E. Rubin. 

5 p RS 22421 

Availability of Injunctive Relief in Patent Cases: 
eBay , Inc. v. MercExchange , L.L.C. , by 
Brian T. Yeh. 7 p RS22435 

Availability of Injunctive Relief in Patent Cases: 
eBay, Inc. v. MercExchange , L.L.C. , by 
Brian T. Yeh. 9 p RL33429 

Border Security and Military Support: Legal 
Authorizations and Restrictions, by 
Stephen R. Vina. 6 p RS22443 

Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. 

International Border, by Bias Nunez-Neto 
and Stephen Vina. 31 p RL33659 

Capital Punishment: Supreme Court Decisions of 
the 2005-2006 Term, by Paul Starett Wallace, 

Jr. 13 p RL33621 

Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, 
Rules, Laws, and Resources, by R. Eric 
Petersen. 19 p RL33209 

China and Falun Gong, by Thomas Lum. 

lip RL33437 

Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and 
Policy Issues, by Stephen R. Vina, 

Alyssa Bartlett Weir and Bias Nunez-Neto. 

24 p RL33353 

Civil RICO and Standing: Anza v. Ideal Steel 
Supply Corporation , by Matie Little. 

6 p RS 22470 


Civil Rights of Individuals with Disabilities: The 
Opinions of Judge Alito, by Nancy Lee Jones. 
23 p RL33183 

Civil Rights Opinions of U.S. Supreme Court 

Nominee Samuel Alito: A Legal Overview, by 

Charles V. Dale. 15 p RL33187 

Class Action Fairness Act of 2005: Early Judicial 
Interpretations, by Paul Starett Wallace, Jr. 

15 p RL33507 

Cleanup at Abandoned Hardrock Mines: 

Issues Raised by “Good Samaritan” 

Legislation in the 109th Congress, 
by Claudia Copeland and Robert Meltz. 

22 p RL33575 

Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS): 
Background, Legislation, and Issues, by 
Nathan James, lip RL33308 

Condemnation of Private Property for Economic 
Development: Legal Comments on the 
House-Passed Bill (H.R. 4128) and 
Bond Amendment, by Robert Meltz. 

14 p RL33208 

Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: 

The Logan Act, by Michael V. Seitzinger. 
lip RL33265 

Congressional Gifts and Travel, Legislative 
Proposals for the 109th Congress, by 
Mildred Amer. 5 p RS223 17 

Congressional Redistricting: A Legal Analysis 
of the Supreme Court Ruling in League 
of United Latin American Citizens 
(LULAC) v. Perry , by L. Paige Whitaker. 

6 p RS22479 

Congress’s Power to Legislate Control Over Hate 
Crimes: Selected Legal Theories, by Paul 
Starett Wallace, Jr. 5 p RS22335 

Constitutionality of Applying the FCC’s Indecency 
Restriction to Cable Television, by Henry 
Cohen, lip RL33170 

Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit 
the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video 
Games with Violent or Sexual Content or 
“Strong Language,” by Henry Cohen, 
lip RL33232 

Constitutionality of Requiring Sexually Explicit 
Material on the Internet to be Under a 
Separate Domain Name, by Henry Cohen. 

8p RL33224 

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of 
Discrimination against Women (CEDAW): 
Congressional Issues, by Luisa Blanchfield. 

12 p RL33652 


75 


Copyright Exemptions for Distance Education: 17 
U.S.C. § 110(2), the Technology, Education, 
and Copyright Harmonization Act of 2002, by 
Jared Huber, Brian T. Yeh and Robin Jeweler, 
lip RL33516 

Copyright Licensing in Music Distribution, 
Reproduction, and Public Performance, 
by Jared Huber and Brian T. Yeh. 

25 p RL33631 

Copyright Protection of Digital Audio Radio 

Broadcasts: The “Audio Flag,” by Jared Huber 

and Brian T. Yeh. 7 p RS22489 

Crime Victims’ Rights Act: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. 
377 1 , by Charles Doyle. 5 p RS225 1 8 

Crime Victims’ Rights Act: A Summary and Legal 
Analysis of 18 U.S.C. 3771, by Charles Doyle. 
53 p RL33679 

Criminalizing Unlawful Presence: Selected 
Issues, by Michael John Garcia. 

6 p RS22413 

Criminal Money Laundering Legislation in the 
109th Congress, by Charles Doyle. 

5 p RS22400 

Data Security: Federal and State Laws, by Gina 

Marie Stevens. 6 p RS22374 

Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches, by 
Gina Marie Stevens. 14 p RL33273 

Data Security: Protecting the Privacy of 

Phone Records, by Gina Marie Stevens. 

9 p RL33287 

The Death Penalty: An Abridged Look at Capital 
Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress, 
by Charles Doyle. 6 p RS22433 

The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation 
in the 109th Congress, by Charles Doyle. 

26 p RL33395 

Drug Crop Eradication and Alternative Development 
in the Andes, by Connie Veillette and Carolina 
Navarrete-Frias. 24 p RL33163 

Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant 
Program: Legislative and Funding History, by 
Nathan James. 6 p RS22416 

Employment Discrimination and Retaliation 
Claims: A Legal Analysis of the Supreme 
Court Ruling in Burlington Northern and 
Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White, by Jody Feder. 

5 p RS22492 

English as the Official Language of the United 
States: Legal Background and Analysis of 
Legislation in the 109th Congress, by 
Charles V. Dale. 24 p RL33356 


The Environmental Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito, 
by Robert Meltz. 6 p RS22359 

Excited Utterances, ‘Testimonial” Statements, and 
the Confrontation Clause, by Brian T. Yeh. 

9 p RL33195 

Executive Compensation in Bankruptcy: 

The Fairness and Accountability in 
Reorganizations Act, by Robin Jeweler. 

5 p RS 22427 

Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal 
Law: An Abbreviated Sketch, by Charles 
Doyle. 6 p RS22497 

Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer, by Jody 
Feder. 7 p RL33386 

Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: 
Issues for Information Technology 
Management, by Jeffrey W. Seifert. 

12 p RL33417 

Federal Extraterritorial Criminal Jurisdiction: 
Legislation in the 109th Congress, by 
Charles Doyle. 15 p RL33658 

Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch, by 
Charles Doyle. 6 p RS22432 

Federal Habeas Corpus: A Brief Legal Overview, by 
Charles Doyle. 40 p RL33391 

Federal Habeas Corpus Relief: Background, 

Legislation, and Issues, by Lisa M. Seghetti. 

23 p RL33259 

Federalism: Selected Opinions of Judge Samuel 
Alito, by Kenneth R. Thomas and Todd B. 
Tatelman. 15 p RL33214 

Gonzales v. Oregon : Physician-Assisted Suicide and 
the Controlled Substances Act, by Brian T. 

Yeh. 14 p RL33120 

The Google Book Search Project: Is Online 

Indexing a Fair Use Under Copyright Law?, by 
Robin Jeweler. 6 p RS22356 

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and 
Related Records: Legal Authorities, by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan, Gina Marie Stevens and 
Brian T. Yeh. 16 p RL33424 

Guantanamo Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges 
in Federal Court, by Jennifer K. El sea and 
Kenneth Thomas. 25 p RL33 1 80 

Gun Control: Statutory Disclosure Limitations on 
ATF Firearms Trace Data and Multiple 
Handgun Sales Reports, by William J. Krouse. 

6 p RS22458 

Habeas Review in Death Penalty Cases: Selected 
Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito, by Alison M. 
Smith. 9 p RL33203 


76 


Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: Military Commissions in the 
“Global War on Terrorism/’ by Jennifer K. 

El sea. 6 p RS22466 

Harriet E. Miers: Primary Research Sources, by 

David Mao. 1 p CA90012 

Harriet E. Miers: Primary Research Sources, by 

David Mao W000004 

Hate Crime Legislation in the 109th Congress, by 
William J. Krouse and Janice Cheryl Beaver. 

25 p RL33403 

Hudson v. Michigan: The Exclusionary Rule’s 
Applicability to “Knock-and- Announce” 
Violations, by Alison M. Smith. 5 p RS22475 

Identity Theft Laws: State Penalties and Remedies 
and Pending Federal Bills, by Kristin 
Thornblad. 6 p RS22484 

Immigration Enforcement: An Overview of Policies 
and Issues. Online Video. Video Tape, by 
Alison Siskin and Bias Nunez-Neto. 

1 p MM70093 

Immigration Enforcement Within the United States, 
by Alison Siskin, Bias Nunez-Neto, Ruth Ellen 
Wasem, Lisa M. Seghetti and Andorra Bruno. 
75 p RL33351 

Immigration: Frequently Asked Questions on the 
State Criminal Alien Assistance Program 
(SCAAP), by Karma Ester. 6 p . . . RL33431 

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th 
Congress, by Andorra Bruno, Karma Ester, 

Bias Nunez-Neto, Alison Siskin, Michael John 
Garcia, Stephen R. Vina and Ruth Ellen 
Wasem. 17 p RL33125 

Immigration Litigation Reform, by Margaret 

Mikyung Lee. 12 p RL33410 

Immigration Reform: Selected Legal Issues. Online 
Video. DVD, by Michael Garcia, Margaret Lee 
and Stephen Vina. 1 p MM70095 

Immigration Related Border Security Legislation in 
the 109th Congress, by Bias Nunez-Neto. 

17 p RL33181 

Immigration: Selected Opinions of Judge Samuel 
Alito, by Michael John Garcia. 1 2 p RL3321 8 

Immigration Statistics on the Web, by LaVonne 

Mangan. 4 p RS22423 

Immunities Accorded to Foreign Diplomats, 

Consular Officers, and Employees of 
International Organizations under U.S. l^aw, 
by Michael John Garcia. 3 1 p RL33 1 47 

Indian Trust Fund Litigation: Legislation to Resolve 
Accounting Claims in Cobell v. Norton , by 
M. Maureen Murphy. 6 p RS22343 


International Drug Trade and U.S. Foreign Policy, 
by Raphael F. Perl. 17 p RL33582 

International Population Assistance and Family 
Planning Programs: Issues for Congress, by 
Larry Nowels and Connie Veillette. 

18 p RL33250 

Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain 
Amendment, by Michael John Garcia. 

8p RL33655 

Judge Samuel Alito’s Opinions in Freedom 
of Speech Cases, by Henry Cohen. 

15 p RL33182 

Judicial Security: Comparison of Legislation in 
the 109th Congress, by Nathan James. 

17 p RL33473 

Judicial Security: Responsibilities and Current 

Issues, by Lorraine H. Tong. 17 p . RL33464 

Judiciary Appropriations for FY2007, by Lorraine H. 
Tong. 13 p RL33339 

Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004, by 
Anthony Vieux. 2 p RS22456 

The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge 
Samuel Alito, by Angie A. Welbom. 

8 p RL33193 

Legal Constraints Potentially Affecting Medication 
Recycling, by Emily M. Cowley. 

6 p RS22491 

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Officials: 

Process for Adjusting Pay and Current 

Salaries, by Barbara L. Schwemle. 

lip RL33245 

Medical Malpractice Bills: S. 22 and S. 23, 109th 
Congress, by Henry Cohen. 9 p . . . RL33406 

Medical Malpractice: An Overview, by Bernadette 
Fernandez and Baird Webel. 20 p . RL33358 

Methamphetamine: Legislation and Issues in the 
109th Congress, by Celinda Franco. 

6 p RS22325 

Money Laundering: An Abridged Overview of 18 
U.S.C. 1956 and Related Federal Criminal 
Law, by Charles Doyle. 6 p RS22401 

Money Laundering: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1956 
and Related Federal Criminal Law, by Charles 
Doyle. 61 p RL33315 

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence 
Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal 
Background and Recent Amendments, by 
Charles Doyle. 5 p RS22406 

Nonimmigrant Overstays: Brief Synthesis of the 
Issue, by Ruth Ellen Wasem. 6 p . RS22446 


77 


“Orphan Works” in Copyright Law, by Robin 

Jeweler. 8 p RL33392 

An Overview and Funding History of Select 

Department of Justice (DOJ) Grant Programs, 
by Nathan James. 24 p RL33489 

An Overview of the Supreme Court’s Search and 
Seizure Decisions from the October 2005 
Term, by Alison M. Smith. 9 p . . . RL33664 

Personal Data Security Breaches: Context and 
Incident Summaries, by Rita Tehan. 

29 p RL33199 

Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless 
Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign 
Intelligence Information, by Elizabeth B. 

Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea WD00002 

Products Liability: A Legal Overview, by 

Henry Cohen. 15 p RL33423 

Proposals in the 109th Congress to Split the Ninth 
Circuit Court of Appeals, by R. Sam Garrett. 

26 p RL33189 

Protecting Famous, Distinctive Marks: The 
Trademark Dilution Revision Act of 
2006 (H.R. 683), by Brian T. Yeh. 

16 p RL33393 

Reauthorizing and Restructuring the Transportation 
Security Administration’s Aviation Security 
Functions: Legislative Issues and Approaches, 

by Bart Elias. 6 p RS22375 

Religious Freedom Restoration Act: An Overview 
of Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente 
Uniao do Vegetal , by Angie A. Welborn. 

6 p RS22392 

Report of the Illinois Special State’s Attorney 

Relating to Police Brutality: A Legal Analysis 
of Federal Laws Implicated, by Charles Doyle. 
14 p RL33592 

Requiring Parental Involvement in a Pregnant 
Minor’s Abortion Decision: State Laws and 
Pending Federal Legislation, by Kristin 
Thornblad. 8 p RL33625 

The Retirement of Justice O’Connor: Quorum 
Requirements, Rehearings and Vote Counts 
in the Supreme Court, by T. J. Halstead. 

6 p RS22300 

Samuel A. Alito, Jr.: Primary Research Sources, by 
David Mao. 1 p CA90014 

Samuel A. Alito, Jr.: Primary Research Sources, by 
David Mao. 1 p W000006 

Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon : Recent Developments 
Concerning the Vienna Convention on 
Consular Relations, by Michael John Garcia 
and Anthony Vieux. 1 0 p RL336 1 3 


Securing General Aviation, by Bart Elias. 

43 p RL33194 

Sentencing Levels for Crack and Powder 

Cocaine: The Impact of United States v. 
Booker , by Paul Starett Wallace, Jr. 

12 p RL33318 

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on 
Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005, 
by R. Sam Garrett and Denis Steven Rutkus. 

72 p RL33118 

“State Representation” in Appointments to Federal 
Courts of Appeals, by R. Sam Garrett and 
Kevin M. Scott. 6 p RS22510 

Status of a Member of the House Who Has Been 
Indicted for or Convicted of a Felony, by 
Jack Maskell. lip RL33229 

Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To 
Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, 
Including Covert Actions, by Alfred Cumming. 
1 p CA90016 

Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: 

Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary 

Committee, and the President, by 

Denis Steven Rutkus and Maureen Bearden. 

43 p RL33225 

Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor 
Procedure and Practice, 1789-2005, 
by Richard S. Beth and Betsy Palmer. 

40 p RL33247 

The Supreme Court’s Overruling of Constitutional 
Precedent: An Overview, by George Costello. 

13 p RL33172 

Terminal Operators and Their Role in U.S. Port 
and Maritime Security, by John Frittelli and 
Jennifer E. Lake. 16 p RL33383 

Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview 
and Policy Issues, by John Rollins and 
Clay Wilson. 21 p RL33123 

Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger 
Prescreening, by William J. Krouse and 
Bart Elias. 17 p RL33645 

Transportation Security: Issues for the 109th 
Congress, by David Randall Peterman, 

John Frittelli and Bart Elias. 19 p . RL33512 

Treasury’s Terrorist Finance Program’s Access to 
Information Held by the Society for Worldwide 
Interbank Financial Telecommunication 
(SWIFT), by Jennifer K. Elsea and 
M. Maureen Murphy. 6 p RS22469 

Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: 

Background and Legal Issues, by Jennifer K. 
Elsea and Julie Kim. 21 p RL33643 


78 


USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization 
Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis, by Brian T. 
Yeh and Charles Doyle. 70 p .... RL33332 

U.S. Supreme Court Nominee Samuel A. Alito 
and the Abortion Opinions of the U.S. Court 
of Appeals for the Third Circuit, by Jon O. 
Shimabukuro. 8 p RL33I98 

Venue: A Brief Look at Federal Law Governing 
Where a Federal Crime May Be Tried, by 
Charles Doyle. 6 p RS22361 

Venue for Federal Criminal Prosecution: Proposals 
in the 109th Congress, by Charles Doyle. 

5 p RS22360 

Venue: A Legal Analysis of Where a Federal 
Crime May Be Tried, by Charles Doyle. 

28 p RL33223 

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues, by Michael 
John Garcia. 8 p RL33662 

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues, by Michael 
John Garcia. 6 p RS22504 

Watters v. Wachovia Bank, N.A., by Aaron Droller. 

5 p RS22485 

Youth Gangs: Legislative Issues in the 
109th Congress, by Celinda Franco. 

45 p RL33400 


Science/Technology 

Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects 
on Innovation, by John R. Thomas. 

21 p RL33605 

Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote 
Industrial Competitiveness, by Wendy H. 
Schacht. 17 p RL33526 

Dam Removal: Issues, Considerations, and 

Controversies, by Nic Lane. 14 p . RL33480 

The Federal Networking and Information 
Technology Research and Development 
Program: Funding Issues and Activities, by 
Patricia Moloney Figliola. 15 p ... RL33586 

Federal Research and Development Funding: 
FY2007, by Michael E. Davey. 

28 p RL33345 

Importation of Prescription Drugs: A Side-by-Side 
Comparison of Current Law, S. 109/H.R. 328, 
S. 184/H.R. 753, and S. 334/H.R. 700, 
by Susan Thaul and Donna U. Vogt. 

78 p RL33175 

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological 
Advancement: Debate Over Government 
Policy, by Wendy H. Schacht. 1 8 p RL33528 


The International Space Station and the Space 

Shuttle, by Carl E. Behrens. 9 p . . RL33568 

Medicare: Enrollment in Medicare Drug Plans, by 
Jennifer O’Sullivan. 9 p RL33136 

Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit: An Overview 
of Implementation for Dual Eligibles, by 
Jennifer O’Sullivan and Karen Tritz. 

14 p RL33268 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 
Overview, FY2007 Budget in Brief, and Key 
Issues for Congress, by Marcia S. Smith and 
Daniel Morgan. 6 p RS22381 

Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The 
National Science Advisory Board for 
Biosecurity, by Dana A. Shea. 14 p RL33342 

Pandemic Flu Liability Limitation Legislation, by 
Henry Cohen. 4 p RS22327 

Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and 
Software Industries, by Wendy H. Schacht. 

13 p RL33367 

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services and 
Copyright Law Issues, by Brian T. Yeh. 

14 p RL33538 

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics 
(STEM) Education Issues and Legislative 
Options, by Jeffrey J. Kuenzi, Bonnie F. 
Mangan and Christine M. Matthews. 

31 p RL33434 

“Sensitive But Unclassified” Information and Other 
Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific 
and Technical Information, by Genevieve J. 
Knezo. 82 p RL33303 

Standardized Choices: Medigap Lessons for 

Medicare Part D, by Jim Hahn. 14 p RL33300 

Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues, by 

Judith A. Johnson and Erin D. Williams. 

15 p RL33554 

Stem Cell Research: Federal Research Funding 
and Oversight, by Judith A. Johnson and 
Erin D. Williams. 26 p RL33540 

Stem Cell Research: State Initiatives, by Judith A. 
Johnson and Erin D. Williams. 8 p RL33524 

Tax Incentives for Alternative Fuel and Advanced 
Technology Vehicles, by Brent D. Yacobucci. 

5 p RS22351 

Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded 
Research and Development, by Wendy H. 
Schacht. 17 p RL33527 

U.S. Military Space Programs: An Overview of 
Appropriations and Current Issues, by Patricia 
Moloney Figliola. 6 p RL33601 


79 


Social Policy 

Abortion: Legislative Response, by Karen J. Lewis 
and Jon O. Shimabukuro. 16 p ... RL33467 

Analysis of Federal -State Financing of the Child 
Support Enforcement Program, by Carmen 
Solomon-Fears. 50 p RL33422 

The Animal Welfare Act: Background and 

Selected Legislation, by Geoffrey S. Becker. 

6 p RS 22493 

Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding 
in the State Children’s Health Insurance 
Program (SCHIP), by Chris L. Peterson. 

14 p RL33130 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region 
in Transition, by Tadlock Cowan. 

353 p RL33184 

Career and Technical Education: Selected Changes 
Made by P.L. 109-270, by Rebecca R. Skinner 

and Richard N. Apling. 22 p RL33624 

Career and Technical Education: State Grant 
Formula, by Rebecca R. Skinner and 
Richard N. Apling. 21 p RL33676 

Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons with Limited 
Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and 
Expenditure Data, FY2002-FY2004. 

245 p RL33340 

Changes to Section 8 Housing Voucher Renewal 
Funding, FY2003-FY2006, by Maggie 
McCarty. 6 p RS22376 

Child Nutrition and WIC Legislation in the 108th 
and 109th Congresses, by Joe Richardson. 

15 p RL33299 

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background 
and Recent Funding, by Joe Richardson. 

18 p RL33307 

Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Federal 
Assistance Programs, by Edith Fairman 
Cooper. 20 p RL33469 

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics, 

by Carmen Solomon-Fears. 6 p . . . RS22380 

Child Support: An Overview of Census Bureau Data 
on Recipients, by Carmen Solomon-Fears. 

6 p RS22499 

Child Support Provisions in the Deficit Reduction 
Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), by Carmen 
Solomon-Fears. 6 p RS22377 

Child Welfare: The Chafee Foster Care 
Independence Program (CFCIP), by 
Adrienne L. Fernandes. 6 p RS22501 

Child Welfare: The Court Improvement Program, 
by Emilie Stoltzfus. 10 p RL33350 


Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption 
Assistance Provisions in the Budget 
Reconciliation Bills, by Emilie Stoltzfus. 

10 p RL33155 

The Congressional Charter of the American 
National Red Cross: Overview, History, 
and Analysis, by Kevin R. Kosar. 

26 p RL33314 

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of 
Discrimination against Women (CEDAW): 
Congressional Issues, by Luisa Blanchfield. 

12 p RL33652 

Data on Enrollment, Premiums, and Cost-Sharing 
in HSA-Qualified Health Plans, by Chris L. 
Peterson. 6 p RS22417 

The Davis-Bacon Act: Issues and Legislation 
During the 109th Congress, by William G. 
Whittaker. 22 p RL33363 

Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative 
Aftermath, by William G. Whittaker. 

6 p RS22288 

The Department of Housing and Urban 
Development: FY2007 Budget, by 
Maggie McCarty, Bruce E. Foote, 

Meredith Peterson, Eugene Boyd and 
Libby Perl. 22 p RL33344 

Department of Veterans Affairs: Information 
Security and Information Technology 
Management Reorganization, by Sidath 
Viranga Panangala. 8 p RL33612 

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy 
Act: A Legal Overview, by Jody Feder. 

6 p RS22341 

Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides, 
by Laura L. Monagle. 9 p RL33451 

Financial Aid for Students Web Page, by 
Merete F. Gerli and Luis De Castro. 

1 p WG02002 

Grants and Federal Domestic Assistance Web Page, 
by Merete F. Gerli and Luis De Castro. 

1 p WG02001 

GSE Reform: A New Affordable Housing Fund, by 
Eric Weiss. 6 p RS22336 

Health Care for Dependents and Survivors of 

Veterans, by Jacqueline Rae Roche and Sidath 
Viranga Panangala. 6 p RS22483 

The Homeless Management Information System, by 
Libby Perl. 6 p RS22328 

HUD’s Response to Hurricane Katrina, by Maggie 
McCarty, Bruce E. Foote and Libby Perl. 

6 p RS22358 


80 


Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of 
Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments, by 
Chris L. Peterson. 4 p RS22289 

International Population Assistance and Family 
Planning Programs: Issues for Congress, 
by Larry Nowels and Connie Veillette. 

18 p RL33250 

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income 
Housing Tax Credit, by Pamela J. Jackson. 

6 p RS22389 

Limiting Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s Portfolio 
Size, by Eric Weiss. 6 p RS22307 

Military Construction, Military Quality of 
Life and Veterans Affairs: FY2007 
Appropriations, by Daniel H. Else, Sidath 
Viranga Panangala and Paul J. Graney. 

20 p RL33427 

Montgomery GI Bill Education Benefits: Analysis 
of College Prices and Federal Student Aid 
Under the Higher Education Act, by 
Charmaine Mercer, Paul J. Graney and 
Rebecca R. Skinner. 28 p RL33281 

Parental Notification and Ayotte v. Planned 
Parenthood of Northern New England , by 
Jon O. Shimabukuro. 6 p RS22342 

Parents’ Work and Family Economic Well- 
Being, by Thomas Gabe and Gene Falk. 

59 p RL33615 

The Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program: 
Reauthorization in the 109th Congress, by 
Emilie Stoltzfus. 30 p RL33354 

Rehabilitation Act of 1973: 1 09th Congress 
Legislation, FY2006 Budget Request, and 
FY2006 Appropriations, by Scott David 
Szymendera. 8 p RL33249 

Requiring Parental Involvement in a Pregnant 
Minor’s Abortion Decision: State Laws and 
Pending Federal Legislation, by Kristin 
Thomblad. 8 p RL33625 

Retiring Baby-Boomers = A Labor Shortage?, by 
Linda Levine. 24 p RL33661 

SCHIP Original Allotments: Funding Formula 
Issues and Options, by Chris L. Peterson. 

23 p RL33366 

The Section 8 Housing Voucher Program: Reform 
Proposals, by Maggie McCarty. 16 p RL33270 

Section 202 and Other HUD Rental Housing 
Programs for the Low-Income Elderly, by 
Libby Perl. 24 p RL33508 

Smithsonian: Background, Funding, and Policy 

Issues, by Susan Boren. 14 p RL33560 


Social Security Reform: Current Issues and 
Legislation, by Dawn Nuschler. 

22 p RL33544 

Social Security’s Effect on Child Poverty, 

by Thomas Gabe. 12 p RL33289 

Social Security: What Would Happen If the 

Trust Funds Ran Out?, by Kathleen Romig. 

14 p RL33514 

The Structure of Social Security Individual Account 

Contributions and Investments: Choices 
and Implications, by Debra Whitman. 

42 p RL33398 

TANF, Child Care, Marriage Promotion, and 
Responsible Fatherhood Provisions in the 
Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932), by 
Gene Falk. 6 p RS22369 

TANF: A Guide to the New Definitions of What 
Counts as Work Participation, by Gene Falk. 

6 p RS22490 

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 
Block Grant: FY2007 Budget Proposals, by 
Gene Falk. 5 p RS22385 

Theft of Veterans’ Personal Information, and 

Department of Veterans Affairs Information 
Technology Reorganization: Issues 
for Congress, by Sidath Viranga Panangala 
and Alison M. Smith. 6 p RS22460 

Title X Family Planning Program, by Angela Napili. 

8 p RL33644 

Unemployment Insurance: Available 

Unemployment Benefits and Legislative 
Activity, by Julie M. Whittaker. 

13 p RL33362 

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview, by 
Bruce E. Foote. 17 p RL33421 

Veterans Affairs: Benefits for Service-Connected 
Disabilities, by Douglas Reid Weimer. 

12 p RL33323 

Veterans and Agent Orange: Eligibility for 

Health Care and Benefits, by Jacqueline Rae 
Roche and Sidath Viranga Panangala. 

6 p RS22481 

Veterans Benefits Issues in the 109th Congress, by 
Paul J. Graney. lip RL33216 

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2007 Appropr- 
iations, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. 

29 p RL33409 

Welfare Reauthorization in the 109th Congress: 

An Overview, by Gene Falk, Carmen 
Solomon-Fears and Melinda Gish. 

16 p RL33418 


81 


Welfare Reauthorization: A Side-By-Side 
Comparison of Current Law, Senate 
Committee- Approved and House Budget 
Reconciliation Bill Provisions, by 
Gene Falk, Emilie Stoltzfus, Melinda Gish 
and Carmen Solomon-Fears. 1 1 4 p RL33 1 57 

The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by- 
Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of 
Title I Training Programs, by Ann Lordeman. 

5 p RS22396 


Social Security/Pensions 

Budget Reconciliation and the PBGC, by 

Neela K. Ranade. 4 p RS22315 

The Impact of Medicare Premiums on Social 
Security Beneficiaries, by Kathleen Romig. 

22 p RL33364 

The Market for Retirement Annuities, by Neela K. 
Ranade. 6 p RS22439 

Potential Effect of Marriage on Supplemental 
Security Income (SSI) Eligibility 
and Benefits, by Scott Szymendera. 

9 p RL33675 

Provisions in the Pension Protection Act Affecting 
Tax-Exempt Organizations, by Erika Lunder. 

6 p RS22503 

Railroad Retirement Board: Retirement, 

Survivor, Disability, Unemployment, and 
Sickness Benefits, by Kathleen Romig. 

6 p RS22350 

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): 

Considerations for the Federal Employees 
Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), by Mark Jickling 
and Barbara Miles. 9 p RL33380 

Retirement Plan Participation and Contributions: 
Trends from 1998 to 2003, by Patrick Purcell. 
24 p RL33116 

Saving Incentives: What May Work, What 
May Not, by Thomas L. Hungerford. 

16 p RL33482 

Social Security Administration Disability 

Demonstration Projects, by Scott Szymendera. 
34 p . . RL33585 

Social Security Administration: Suspension of 
Benefits for Fugitive Felons, by Scott 
Szymendera. 5 p RS22355 

Social Security Administration: Suspension of 

Benefits for Fugitive Felons and the Agency’s 
Response to the Fowlkes Decision, by Scott 
Szymendera and Kathleen S. Swendiman. 

7 p RL33394 


Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) 
and Supplemental Security Income 
(SSI): The Disability Determination and 
Appeals Process, by Scott Szymendera. 

17 p RL33374 

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and 
Supplemental Security Income (SSI): 

Proposed Changes to the Disability 
Determination and Appeals Processes, by 
Scott Szymendera. 22 p RL33179 

Social Security Reform: Current Issues and Legis- 
lation, by Dawn Nuschler. 22 p . . RL33544 

Social Security Survivors Benefits, by Kathleen 

Romig and Scott Szymendera. 6 p RS22294 

Social Security: What Would Happen If the Trust 
Funds Ran Out?, by Kathleen Romig. 

14 p RL33514 

The Structure of Social Security Individual Account 
Contributions and Investments: Choices 
and Implications, by Debra Whitman. 

42 p RL33398 

Supplemental Security Income (SSI): Accounts Not 
Counted As Resources, by Scott Szymendera. 

7 p RS22512 

Supplemental Security Income (SSI): Benefit 
Changes for California Residents, 2006 and 
2007, by Scott David Szymendera and 
Carol D. Davis. 3 p RS22365 

Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and 
Older, 1969 to 2004, by Patrick Purcell and 
Debra Whitman. 45 p RL33387 

Tax 

The Advisory Panel’s Tax Reform Proposals, by 

Jane G. Gravelle. 36 p RL33545 

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: 

Background and Issues, by Angele A. Gilroy 
and Lennard G. Kruger. 16 p .... RL33542 

Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Provisions 
Affecting the Medicaid Federal Medical 
Assistance Percentage (FMAP), by April 
Grady. 6 p RS22333 

Corporate Owned Life Insurance (COLI): 

Insurance and Tax Issues, by Baird Webel. 
lip RL33414 

The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax of the 1980s: 
Implications for Current Energy Policy, by 
Salvatore Lazzari. 34 p RL33305 

Data on Enrollment, Premiums, and Cost-Sharing 
in HSA-Qualified Health Plans, by Chris L. 
Peterson. 6 p RS22417 


82 


The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): Percentage 
of Total Tax Returns and Credit Amount By 
State, by Christine Scott. 5 p RS22316 

Energy Policy Act of 2005: Summary and Analysis 
of Enacted Provisions, by Mark Holt and 
Carol Glover. 143 p RL33302 

Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues, by 
Salvatore Lazzari. 20 p RL33578 

Federal Business Taxation: The Current System, Its 
Effects, and Options for Reform, by David L. 
Brumbaugh. 21 p RL33171 

Federal Income Tax Thresholds for Selected Years: 
1996 Through 2006, by Gregg Esenwein. 

6 p RS22337 

Federal Tax Reform and Its Potential Effects 
on Saving, by Gregg A. Esenwein. 

6 p RS22367 

Federal Tax Treatment of Health Insurance 

Expenditures by the Self-Employed: Current 
Law and Issues for Congress, by Gary 
Guenther. 10 p RL33311 

FEMA’s Community Disaster Loan Program, 
by Nonna A. Noto and Steven Maguire. 

19 p RL33174 

Hat Tax Proposals and Fundamental Tax Reform: 

An Overview, by James M. Bickley. 

12 p RL33443 

FY2007 Appropriations for State and Local 
Homeland Security, by Shawn Reese. 

5 p RS22383 

The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the State 

Budgets of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississ- 
ippi, by Steven Maguire. 13 p RL33154 

Indexing the Estate Tax Exemption for Inflation, 
by Nonna A. Noto. lip RL33501 

The Internal Revenue Service’s Use of Private 

Debt Collection Agencies: Current Status and 
Issues for Congress, by Gary Guenther. 

17 p RL33231 

Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 
109th Congress, by Steven Maguire and 
Nonna A. Noto. 13 p RL33261 

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income 
Housing Tax Credit, by Pamela J. Jackson. 

6 p RS22389 

Lesser-Known Tax Provisions in H.R. 5970 (Estate 
Tax and Extension of Tax Relief Act of 2006), 
by Erika Lunder. 6 p RS22488 

The PEP and Pease Provisions of the Federal 

Individual Income Tax, by Gregg Esenwein. 

4 p RS22464 


Permanent Tax Relief Provisions for Disaster 

Victims as Presented in the Internal Revenue 
Code, by Jennifer Teefy. 1 2 p .... RL33642 

Proposed Federal Income Tax Exclusion for 
Civilians Serving in Combat Zones, by 
Pamela J. Jackson. 13 p RL33230 

Retirement Plan Participation and Contributions: 
Trends from 1998 to 2003, by Patrick Purcell. 
24 p RL33116 

Revenue Feedback from the 2001-2004 Tax Cuts, by 
Jane G. Gravelle. 1 8 p RL33672 

Saving Incentives: What May Work, What May 

Not, by Thomas L. Hungerford. 16 p RL33482 

The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement: 

A Brief Description, by Steven Maguire. 

5 p RS22387 

Tax Benefits for Families: Adoption, by Emily 
Maureen Mickleson and Christine Scott. 

17 p RL33633 

Taxes and International Competitiveness, by 

David L. Brumbaugh. 6 p RS22445 

Tax-Exempt Organizations: Political Activity 

Restrictions and Disclosure Requirements, by 
Erika Lunder. 27 p RL33377 

Tax Expenditures: Trends and Critiques, by 

Thomas L. Hungerford. 24 p RL33641 

Tax Incentives for Alternative Fuel and Advanced 
Technology Vehicles, by Brent D. Yacobucci. 

5 p RS22351 

Tax Reconciliation: Scope of the Senate’s Power 
Under the Constitution’s Origination Clause to 
Amend Revenue Legislation, by Thomas J. 
Nicola. 8 p RL33207 

Tax Reform and Distributional Issues, by 

Jane G. Gravelle. lip RL33285 

Tax Treatment of the Use of Employer-Provided 
Aircraft for Entertainment: Current Law and 
Issues for Congress, by Gary Guenther. 

8p RL33277 

The Telephone Excise Tax: An Economic Analysis, 
by Steven Maguire. 8 p RL33382 

A Value-Added Tax Contrasted With a 

National Sales Tax, by James M. Bickley. 

8p RL33438 

Value-Added Tax: A New U.S. Revenue Source?, 
by James M. Bickley. 31 p RL33619 

Wagnon v. Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation: State 
Tax on Motor Fuels Distributed to Indian 
Tribal Retailers, by M. Maureen Murphy. 

6 p RS22321 


83 


Would Tax Reform Alter the Economy’s Growth?, 
by Marc Labonte. 13 p RL33378 


Terrorism 

Anthrax-Contaminated Facilities: Preparations and 
a Standard for Remediation, by Michael M. 
Simpson. 16 p RL33191 

Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the 
United Kingdom and the United States. 

43 p RL33726 

Authorization For Use Of Military Force in 

Response to the 9/1 1 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): 
Legislative History, by Richard F. Grimmett. 

6 p RS22357 

Combating Terrorism: The Challenge of 

Measuring Effectiveness, by Raphael Perl. 

12 p RL33160 

European Approaches to Homeland Security and 
Counterterrorism, by Kristin Archick, 

Steven Woehrel, Francis Miko, Carl Ek and 
Paul Gallis. 47 p RL33573 

Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional 
Reality, by Aaron D. Pina. 6 p ... RS22395 

Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and 
Related Records: Legal Authorities, by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan, Gina Marie Stevens and 
Brian T. Yeh. 16 p RL33424 

Guantanamo Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges 
in Federal Court, by Jennifer K. El sea and 
Kenneth Thomas. 25 p RL33 1 80 

Harridan v. Rumsfeld : Military Commissions in the 
“Global War on Terrorism,” by Jennifer K. 

El sea. 6 p RS22466 

Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, 
Statutory Definitions, and Approaches, by 
Todd Masse. 23 p RL33616 

H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): “Electronic 
Surveillance Modernization Act,” by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan. 23 p RL33637 

Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects 
and Countermeasures, by Clay Wilson. 

6 p RS22330 

Intelligence Issues for Congress, by Richard A. Best, 
Jr. 19 p RL33539 

Intelligence Reform at the Department of 

Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational 
Alternatives, by Alfred Cumming. 

10 p RL33355 

International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, 
and Response, by Raphael F. Perl . 

30 p 


Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain 
Amendment, by Michael John Garcia. 

8 p RL33655 

Israeli- Arab Negotiations: Background, Related 
Developments, and U.S. Policy, by 
Carol Migdalovitz. 26 p RL33530 

National Guard Personnel and Deployments: 

Fact Sheet, by Michael Waterhouse and 
JoAnne O’Bryant. 5 p RS22451 

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence 
Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal 
Background and Recent Amendments, 
by Charles Doyle. 5 p RS22406 

National Security Surveillance Act of 2006: S. 3886, 
Title II (S. 2453 as Reported Out of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee), by Elizabeth B. Bazan. 

17 p RL33650 

Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) - 
Background and Issues for Congress, by 
Ronald O’Rourke. 6 p RS22373 

Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless 
Electronic Surveillance to Gather 
Foreign Intelligence Information, by 
Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. 

Elsea WD00002 

Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To 
Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, by 
Including Covert Actions, by Alfred Cumming. 
10 p WD00003 

Terrorism Risk Insurance Legislation: Issue 

Summary and Side-by-Side, by Baird Webel. 
lip RL33177 

Terrorist Surveillance Act of 2006: S. 3931 
and Title II of S. 3929, the Terrorist 
Tracking, Identification, and Prosecution 
Act of 2006, by Elizabeth B. Bazan. 

27 p RL33669 

Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger 
Prescreening, by William J. Krouse and 
Bart Elias. 17 p RL33645 

Treasury’s Terrorist Finance Program’s Access 
to Information Held by the Society for 
Worldwide Interbank Financial 
Telecommunication (SWIFT), by 
Jennifer K. Elsea and M. Maureen Murphy. 

6 p RS22469 

Trends in Terrorism: 2006, by Raphael Perl. 

18 p RL33555 

Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: 
Background and Legal Issues, by 
Jennifer K. Elsea and Julie Kim. 

21 p RL33643 


RL33600 


84 


USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing 
Amendments Act of 2006 (S. 227 1 ), by 
Brian T. Yeh. 6 p RS22384 

USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization 
Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199): A Brief Look, by 
Brian Yeh and Charles Doyle. 6 p RS22348 

USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization 
Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199): A Legal Analysis of 
the Conference Bill, by Brian T. Yeh and 
Charles Doyle. 69 p RL33239 

USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization 
Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199): A Side-by-Side 
Comparison of Existing Law, H.R. 3199 
(Conference), and H.R. 3199 (Senate Passed), 
by Brian T. Yeh and Charles Doyle. 

31 p RL33210 

USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization 
Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis, by 
Brian T. Yeh and Charles Doyle. 

70 p RL33332 

USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization 
Act of 2005: A Sketch, by Brian T. Yeh and 
Charles Doyle. 6 p RS22412 

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues, by Michael 
John Garcia. 8 p RL33662 


Trade 

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs, by 

Charles E. Hanrahan. 19 p RL33553 

Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and 
Laws, by Jasper Womach. 1 p .... WP03001 

The Berne Union: An Overview, by James K. 

Jackson. 5 p RS22319 

Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States, by 

J.F. Hombeck. 27 p RL33258 

Career and Technical Education: Selected 
Changes Made by P.L. 109-270, by 
Rebecca R. Skinner and Richard N. Apling. 

22 p RL33624 

China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating 
Exchange Rate Adjustment, by Jonathan E. 
Sanford. 43 p RL33322 

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the 

United States (CFTUS), by James K. Jackson. 

20 p RL33388 

Comparing Automotive and Steel Industry 
Legacy Cost Issues, by Stephen Cooney. 

16 p RL33169 

Exon-Florio Foreign Investment Provision: 
Comparison of H.R. 5337 and S. 3549, 
by James K. Jackson. 29 p RL33614 


Export-Import Bank: Reauthorization, by 

James K. Jackson. 9 p RL33440 

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit, by 

James K. Jackson, lip RL33274 

Generalized System of Preferences: Background 
and Renewal Debate, by Vivian C. Jones. 

48 p RL33663 

The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and 
Possible Reform, by Martin A. Weiss. 

6 p RS 22403 

Intellectual Property and the Free Trade 

Agreements: Innovation Policy Issues, 
by John R. Thomas. 22 p RL33205 

International Monetary Fund: Reforming Country 
Representation, by Martin A. Weiss. 

21 p RL33626 

Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?, by 
Craig K. Elwell, Wayne M. Morrison and 
Marc Labonte. 62 p RL33604 

Is the U.S. Current Account Deficit Sustainable?, 
by Marc Labonte. 9 p RL33 186 

Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Caused by a Global 
Saving Glut?, by Marc Labonte. 

14 p RL33140 

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate 
Countries for WTO Accession: Issues 
for Congress, by William H. Cooper. 

6 p RS22398 

Mercosur and U.S. Trade Policy, by J.F. Hombeck. 

6 p RS22408 

The Proposed South Korea-U.S. Free Trade 
Agreement (KORUSFTA), by William H. 
Cooper and Mark E. Manyin. 29 p RL33435 

Proposed Transaction Fee on Futures Contracts, by 
Mark Jickling. 4 p RS22415 

The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement, 
by Dick K. Nanto. 29 p RL33445 

Proposed U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement, by 

Mary Jane Bolle. 13 p RL33328 

Rehabilitation Act of 1973: 109th Congress 
Legislation, FY2006 Budget Request, and 
FY2006 Appropriations, by Scott David 
Szymendera. 8 p RL33249 

Retiring Baby-Boomers = A Labor Shortage?, by 
Linda Levine. 24 p RL33661 

Trade, Employment, and Wages: What Does 
the Evidence Show?, by Marc Labonte. 

15 p RL33454 

Trade Liberalization Challenges Post-CAFTA, by 
Raymond J. Aheam. 6 p RS22339 


85 


Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress, by 
Ian F. Fergusson. 17 p RL33463 

Trade Remedies: “New Shipper” Reviews, by 

Vivian C. Jones. 6 p RS22290 

Trade Remedy Legislation: Applying Counter- 
vailing Action to Nonmarket Economy 
Countries, by Vivian C. Jones. 12 p RL33550 

U.S. -Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, by 

M. Angeles Villarreal. 6 p RS22419 

U.S. External Debt: How Has the United States 
Borrowed Without Cost?, by Craig K. El well. 

8 p RL33570 

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts, by 
Dick K. Nanto. 22 p RL33577 

U.S. -Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, by 

M. Angeles Villarreal. 6 p RS22391 

Why the Dollar Rose in 2005 and the Prospect for 
2006: Insights into the State of International 
Asset Markets and the Global Economy, by 
Craig K. Elwell. 16 p RL33448 

The World Trade Organization: The Hong 
Kong Ministerial, by Ian F. Fergusson, 

Jeanne J. Grimmett, William H. Cooper, 

Susan R. Fletcher, Charles E. Hanrahan, 

Vivian C. Jones and Danielle J. Langton. 


37 p RL33176 

The World Trade Organization: The Non- 
Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) 
Negotiations, by Ian F. Fergusson. 

15 p RL33634 

WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating 
Proposals, by Charles Hanrahan and 
Randy Schnepf. 34p RL33 1 44 


Transportation 

Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorization, by John 
Frittelli and David Randall Peterman. 

16 p 


Aviation Spending Guarantee Mechanisms, by 

Robert S. Kirk. 25 p RL33654 

California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region 
in Transition, by Tadlock Cowan. 

353 p RL33184 

DOD Leases Of Foreign-Built Ships: Background 
For Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 

6 p RS22454 

The Federal Railroad Administration’s Train 
Horn Rule, by David Randall Peterman. 

18 p RL33286 

Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO): Issues 
for Congress, by Nicole T. Carter, 
lip RL33597 

Ports in Louisiana: New Orleans, South Louisiana, 
and Baton Rouge, by Vanessa Cieslak. 

6 p RS 22297 

Reauthorization of the National Transportation 

Safety Board, by Bart Elias. 14 p . RL33474 

Reauthorizing and Restructuring the Transportation 
Security Administration’s Aviation Security 
Functions: Legislative Issues and Approaches, 
by Bart Elias. 6 p RS22375 

Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient 

Transportation Equity Act - A Legacy for 
Users (SAFETEA-LU or SAFETEA): Selected 
Major Provisions, by John W. Fischer. 

36 p RL33119 

Securing General Aviation, by Bart Elias. 

43 p RL33194 

Terminal Operators and Their Role in U.S. Port and 
Maritime Security, by John Frittelli and 
Jennifer E. Lake. 16 p RL33383 

Transportation Security: Issues for the 109th 

Congress, by David Randall Peterman, John 
Frittelli and Bart Elias. 19 p RL33512 


RL33492