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Full text of "Simplified anatomy, for the use of families, and those who have not the advantage of a teacher : in which the different parts of the human system are explained : illustrated with engravings of the bones, blood vessels, nerves, &c : to which is annexed, a copious glossary"

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) SURGEON GENERAL'S OFFICE 

LIBRARY. 






n 



KJIBSX^ 

SIMPLIFIED ANATOMY, 

FOR THE USE ©F FATCXLZES; 

ASB 

THOSE WHO HAVE NOT THE ADVANTAGE OF A TEACHER; 

rx WHICH 

THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE HUMAN SYSTEM ARE 
EXPLAINED. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH ENGRAVINGS 

OF THE CONES, MUSCLES, BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, Sec. 
TO WIUCH IS ANNEXED, 

BY 

DR. WILLIAM ^PILLMAN, 

OF AMR YVILLE, TEJW. 

« If a better system's thine, vo/\ * 

Impart it freely, or make use of mine." ^* \ 

\\ 

Madisonville, Tcnn. 

PRINTED BY J. F. GRANT. 
1835. 



(Xj'Entered according to act of Congress in the year ltio5, bv 
Doctor William Spillman, in the Clerk's office of the District 
Court of the United States for the Districi of East Tennessee. 

WM. C. MYNATT, 
Clerk of the District of East Tennessee, 



-s^e- 
In presenting to the publick a new work, on a sub- 
ject upon wbicn so much has already been written; 
1 have assumed it as granted, that it was necessary 
to state candidly the reasons why I was led to com- 
pile, and publish the following pages; and 1. There 
has been a great many books published, and circu- 
lated for the purpose of instructing people in general, 
as it regards the symptoms of disease, and the mode 
of administering medicine for the relief of the same: 
— and, almost every family is in possession of such 
books. How few derive any benefit from them, in con- 
sequence of being unacquainted with the construction 
of the human system — the location of the different or- 
gans, — and the parts liable to be affected by disease. 

This then is one strong reason why a simple, plain 
anatomical work, adapted to the capacity of common 
readers should be published. 

2. The second reason is that the most of anatomi- 
cal, and physiological works that have been previous- 
ly published are so lengthy, complicated, and full of 
technical terms, with explanations, that the common 
reader cannot be benefitted by them. 
. With these considerations, together with many oth- 
ers that might easily be adduced, I have endeavored 
to compile a work that will obviate the above difficul- 
ties. 

The difficulties with which I met myself, when I first 
commenced reading anatomical works, from the fre- 
quent use of technical terms, without an explanation, 
caused me often to wish for a simple, plain work on 
that subject, such as was not too diffuse — not express- 
ed in many words ; but comprised in so moderate a 
compass as not to require any large expense, either of 
money or time: and this I wanted to see in the plain- 
est dress, and in the most clear, easy, and intelligi- 
ble manner, that the nature of things would allow of. 



There arc a great many Doors cauuu .... 
and physiology, that are good, and useful, to the sci- 
entific, and which reflect much credit upon their differ- 
ent authors. But the query is, are they adapted to 
the capacity of common readers? If then, the nega- 
tive is put upon this question, the fact is at once e 

1, that a work on anatomy suited to the capacity 
; of people in general is needed. 

Such a work I have aimed at in the following pa- 
ges. It is true, that many technical terms are used, 
.! most cases they are followed by an explanation, 
or if not immediately explained, an explanation < 
found in the glossary at the sequel. 

I have now only to add, that I have written and 
published this book because I believed that such an one 
was needed, and would be useful. 

WM. SriLLM 
Marijville, Tenn. June 1st, 1835. 



%$immx. 



\rthvi.ations in general, 

\rticulations of the head with the vertebra;, 

vertebras with each other, 

lower jaw, 

ribs, 

clavicle, 

shoulder, 

wrist, 
hand, 
fingers, 
hip joint, 
knee, 
ancle, 
Abdomen, 
Aorta, 

Arteries table oi' 
Absorbents, 
Hones of the head, 

tt « « face and jaws, 
« « « ear, 
« " » trunk or body, 
" '■ " upper extremities, 
a a a i wer extremities, 
Bone of the ear, 
Bones table of, 
Bursje mucosa:, 
Bladder urinary, 
Blood vessels, 

Brain, spinal marrow and nerves, 
CKLLrLAii membrane, 
Explanation of plate I, 
<• " *< II, 
« « " III, 
« « « IV, 
« « V, 
General divisions, 
" integuments, 

HEAIIT, 

Intkstixts, 
KiDXirs, 

LlOAMENTS, 

Larynx, 

Lungs, 

Liver, 



58 
61 

153 

181 

185 

202 

2 

1 

17 

18 

28 

38 

16 

47 

70 

164 

17.1 

189 

202 

2 

48 

49 

188 

194 

1 

202 

150 

156 

164 

64 

144 

152 

155 



Muscles in general, 

" of the integuments of the cranium, 

» « « eye lids, 

« « « eye ball, 

" " " nose and mouth, 

« « « car> 

" " " lower jaw, 

" " " fore part of the neck, 

" between the lower jaw and os hyoides, 

" « " os hyoides and the body, 

" situated laterally between the lower jaw & bone XVI 9 

« " about the cavity of the fauces, 

« " on the back part of the pharynx, 

" " about the glottis, 

" " " anterior part of the abdomen, 

" " " " male organs of generation. 

" of the anus, 

" " " female organs of generation, 

" situated within the pelvis, 

" " " " cavity of the abdomen, 

" " on the anterior part of the thorax, 

" " between the ribs, and within the thora: 

" " on the fore part of the neck, 

" " on the back part of the neck, 

" of the upper extremities, 

" situated on the os humeri, 

" situated below the elbow joint, 

" " on the hand, 

" of the inferior extremities, 

" situated on the thigh, 
// n t, ]eg) 

" " " foot, 
Mouth and throat, cavity ot 
Nerves table of 

" spinal, 

" cervicle, 

" dorsal, 

" sacral, 
Omentum, 
Organs of generation, male, 

" " " female* 

Pelvis in general, 
Pharynx, 
Pleura, form of, 
Pericardium, 
Peritonium, 
Panchreas. 



VII INDEX AND ERRATTA. 

Salivary glands, 142 

Stomach, 154 

Spleen, 163 

Skin, 202 

Teeth, 16 

Tongue, 141 

Throat, 143 

Tonsils, " 

Thorax, 147 

" form of the cavity, 148 

Trachea, or wind pipe, 151 



ERRATTA. 

In consequence of not being present at the time of the 

printing of the following pages, a number of typographical 

errors have been made; some of which are here corrected: 

there are a few others of less importance, which the reader 

can correct himself. For ex. u is frequently used for n and 

nsa versa. W. S. 

Page 5 pass squamosa Sc/iass fietrosa, read fiars sqamosa isfc 

On the same page, for hejoides, read hyoides. 

Page 7, 7th line from the bottom, for sepimentum, read sep- 
tum. 

Page 22, 9th line from the bottom, for XVI. read XXVI. 

Page 2 for muscle III, read 111. 

Psge 29, 3d line from the top, tor gives read joins. 

Page 31 4th line from the top, for back read beak. 

Page 37, 14th line from the bottom, for when read where. 

Page 43, 14th line from the top, for deltoid read deltoid. 

Page 52, 12th line from the bottom, for for syncurosus read 
syneurosus. 

Page 62, 4th line from the bottom, for cravat, read curvat. 

Page 65, 4th line of the 3rd paragraph, for fosciculi, read 
fasciculi. 

Page 70, 11th line from the bottom, for perosteum, read peri- 
osteum. 

Page 72, 5th line from the top, for ilumero read numero. 

Page 90, 14th line from the top, for lip of the tongue, read tip. 

Same page 9th line from the bottom, the same error occurs 
again. 

Page 92, 2d line from the bottom, tot pas petrosa, re&dpars. 

Last line of page 90, & first of page 100, for integuments of 
the penis, read body. 



VIII ERUATTA. 

Page 103, 6th line from the bottom, for distention read distn 

b ution. 
Page 105, 10th line from the top, for Jifty, readjift/i. 
Page 108, 1st paragraph, for Labisimus, read Lattisimus. 
Page 111 3d line from the top for covered read curved. 
Page 161, 12th line from the bottom, for semen read serum. 
Page 163, last line of the 2d paragraph, for s/i/inic read sfilenit 
Page 195, & last line, for esnticnt, read sentient. 



SYSTEM OP ANATOMY. 

PART FIRST.— OF BONES. 

Before entering into a description of the Anaiomv 
of the human system, it probably would be necessary 
to lay ('.own in the first place, the general divisions. 

1. The cranium, or head; 

2. The trunk, or body; 

3. The ■ lower extremities, or legs and ft- 

Subdivisions. — The trunk or body, is divided into 
two cavities: 

1. The chest, thorax, or breast; 

'2. The abdomen or belly : these two cavities are 
ided by a membrane, called the midriff or dia- 
phragm. 

There arc also some other imaginary divisions of 
the trunk or body, which, as they sometimes are use- 
fid in describing the location of organs, and the seat 
of disease, I will here introduce them. Suppose a line 
, drawn from the pit of the stomach down the centre of 
the abdomen; a second one across the abdomen about 
two inches above the umbilicus, or navel; and a third 
one the same distance below. We will then have the 
abdomen divided into six parts. A part of each of the 
two upper portions, included between the ends of the 
false ribs on each side, and the centre of the abdomen, 
is termed the epigastric region; and on each side of 
this are the right and left hypocliondriac regions. Be- 
tween the first and second transverse or cross lines, 
and two inches on each side of the navel, is called the 
h mbilical region; immediately below is the hyppogas- 



2 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 19T. 

trie region; on either side the right and left illiac or 
lumbar region. 

Bones. — There are in the human system 248 bones, 
63 of which are found in the head. Plate first ex- 
hibits most of the bones of the head, together with the 
sutures. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 1. 

A The frontal bone. 

a Shows the serated edge which forms the coronal su- 
ture. 

b The flatter part behind the eye, which is plain and 
hollow for lodging the temporal muscle. 

c Is the acute angle of the bone, called the external 
angular process. 

d Is the prominence over the nose, called the frontal 
simis, which the Surgeon avoids in trepanning. 

B The parietal bone. The white semicircle line in 
which (B) stands, represents the origin of the 
temporal muscles. 

e Is that part covered with the thin expanded ten- 
don of the Occiptito-frontalis muscle; (Mus. I.) 

f The radiated surface. 

g Points to a small hole in the back part of tnis 
bone. 

h That part called the spinous process, under the cor- 
ner of which the dura mater runs. 

C A small part of the occipital bone. 

D a re temporal bone. 

i The thin upper edge, which forms the squamous 
suture. 

k The deep flat part, on which the temporal muscle 



.5^ \ 



















EXPLANATION OF PLATE 1ST. 3 

1 The mastoid or mamilliary process, named from its 
resemblance to a nipple. 

m The styloid process. 

n The zygomatic process, which, joining with a sim- 
ilar process of the cheek bone forms, the zygo- 
ma, or arch. 

The ring of the meatus auditorus extemus, or out- 

ward ring of the ears, 
p A small hole, which, transmits a vein. 
E Os malm, or bone of the cheek, 
q The angular process of the cheek bone. 
r Zygomatic process of the cheek bone. 
8 The origin of the zygomaticus Muscles; (see 

mus. 14 15.) 
F The nasal bones, or bones of the nose. 
t The lateral nasal suture, or part, where the bones 

of the nose, are joined to the upper jawbone. 
G The upper jaw bone. 
H The under jaw bone. (H) is placed at the part 

called angle, into which the maseter muscle is 

fixed; (Mus. 36.) 
u The coronoid or horn-like process, 
v The condyloid process. 

1 Coronal suture, running across the head, joining 

the frontal to the parietal bones, extending from 
ear to ear, it joins the squamous suture at the 
temple. 

2 Lamdoidal suture, joining the occipital to the par- 

ietal bones. 

3 Sagittal suture, joining the parietal bones to each 

other. 

4 Temporal or squamous suture, belonging chiefly to the 

temporal bone, so called, because the temporal 

and parietal bones lie over each other like scales. 

w Additamentum siUurae squamosae or supplement to 



4 BONES OF THE HEAD. 

the Squamous suture, lying between the occipital 
and parietal bones. 

5 Sphenoidal suture; It joins the wing of the sphe- 

noid hone, to the temporal, frontal, and parietal 
bones. 

6 Transverse suture; It runs across the face, through 

the middle of the eye sockets, and over the root 
of the nose. 

7 Zygomatic suture. 

BONES OF THE CRANIUM OR HEAD. 

I. Os Frontis, or hone of the forehead. A shell 
like bone reaching from its upper edge downwards so 
as to include the upper part of the eye socket, and 
backwards on each side to the temples. The particu- 
lar parts of this bone, are, 

1. Superciliary ridge. Immediately above the eyevS 
on which the eye brows are placed. 

2. Superciliary hole. . \ hole on the ridge last de- 
scribed, which gives passage to the frontal nerve. 

3. Foramen orbitale interims. A hole in the internal 
part of the eye socket, which also transmits a nerve. 

4. Angular process. The orhilarij or superciliary 
ridge, ends by two processes, which forming the an- 
gles of the eye are named the angular processes. The 
frontal bone has 4 angular processes. 

1. The two internal angular processes? forming the 
internal angles of the eye; and 9 the two external an- 
gular processes, which form the external angles of the 
eve. 

5. Nasal point or process. The nasal or nose pro- 
ofs is a small sharp projecting point, occupying the 
space between the two external angular processes. 



BOXES OF THE HEAD. 5 

6. Temporal ridge or spine. Extending from tl*e 
external angular process, backwards and upwards. 

II. Os PakietalE, (or parietal bone.) The 
bones which form the walls on each side of the head. 
They are of a quadrangular, or square form. These 
bones enter into the formation of the coronal, sagittal, 
lambdoidal, and squamous sutures, (see plate 1.) 

The parietal bones are joined together by the sagittal 
suture to the sphenoid, and temporal bones, by the 
lambdoidal, and to the frontal by the coronal suture. 

III. Ossv Temporatia, or temporal bones. They 
are situated on each side of the head and are divided 
into three portions, one of which from its connection 
with other bones, is called pass squamosa (i. c.) lie over 
each other like scales: the second pass petrosa or os 
petroswm from its irregularity and hardness; and the 
thij'd is called masiohlcan angle, it is thick and hard, 
and is divided into cells, fornv .g those caverns which 
are supposed to be chiefly useful in reverberating the 
sound. The other particului* parts cf these bones are, 

1. Zygomatic process. It. arises broad and fiat be- 
fore the ear; grows gradually smaller as it stretches 
forward to reach the cheek bone, to which it is joined 
by a short suture. 

2. Styloid process, so named because it resembles a 
stylus or point, with which the ancients engraved their 
writing on tables of wax. It stands obliquely out 
from the basis of the head, and is behind the jaws. It 
gives origin to a ligament that supports the os hejoi- 
des or bone of the tongue. 

3. Mastoid process, or conical nipple-like bump, like 
the thumb; it projects from under the ear, and is easi- 
ly felt with the finger. 

4. Auditory process. The outer margin of the hole 
uf the ear. 



BON*- 



Os Occipitis. This bone is situated on the 
part of the head, is very thick, and uneven. 
This bone supports the back part of the brain, 
tains the cerebellum or lesser brain, and transmits the 
spinal marrow. 

This bone is united to the parietal, temporal, and 
—The. different parts of this bone 
'erpendicular external spine; An irregular spine, 
idge in the middle of the bone. 
Superior transverse spine, or ridge across 
bone, at the upper part. 

Inferior trans ,. or ridge across this t 

at the lower part. These ridges give origin and in- 
ral muscles. 
'ozterior tuberosity. The part where the mp 

pine crosses the perpendicular spine or 

or wedge-like process. That 
part of the bone which lies in the center of the base 
of the skull, and is joined to the sphenoid bone. 
'.ondyles. Two small oval processes, or Ik 
rejections, which stand off from the side, a little 
back from the forepart of the foramen ma great 

hole. 

7. Tubercles. On the lower part of the cuneiform 
ss, there are two tubercles, for the attachment of 

muscles. Near the condyle and immediately b< 
the foramen lacerum, there is a tubercle for the ?:< 
ment of another muscle. 

8. Foramen magnum, or great hole of the h< 
which transmits the spinal marrow, or continuation of 
the brain. 

9. Foramen condyloideum anteri'us. A hole a: 
fore part of the root of either condyle. It transmits 
the great lingual nerve. 



BONES 01 THE HEAD. 

10. Foramen condyloidexim posterius. A small 
immediately behind the condyle* A vein passes through 
this hole. 

11. Foramen lacerum. Formed by the occipital 
and temparal bones. It sometimes is divided into two 
openings, by a small point. This hole also transmits 
a nerve, which goes down to the heart, lungs and 
stomach. 

V. Os ETHMowEiM. This, of all the box* 
the human system is the most curious. It is exceed- 
ingly light and spungy, and consists of many can 
luted plates, (i. e.) rolled or folded together, forraii 
net-work, like a honey-comb. Thi3 bone is curie- 
enclosed in the os frontis, (bone of the 
tt the orbitary plates of that bone. 

bone is connected to the frontal, sphenoid 
The divisions or parts of this b 

1. Cribriform plate. This plate is exceeding] 
lies horizontally over the root of the nose, and fills 
the space between the two orbitary plates of the i 
tal bone. 

9.. Crista gali. A small perpendicular project 
somewhat like a cock's comb, but very small, stand- 
ing directly upwards from the middle of the cribrifi 
plate, and dividing that plate so that one olfactory 
nerve lies on each side of this process. 

3. Nasal plate or process. That part of tb 
moid bone which forms part of the sepimentum or par- 
titionwhich divides the nostrils. 

4. Labyrinths. The side parts of the ethmoid bone 
consist of small cells communicating with each other, 
which are called labyrinths. These cells are closed 
externally by a plate called, os planum (i. e.) plain and 
smooth. 



5 BONES OF THE UEAD. 

5. Superior spongy bones or processes. From each 
of these labyrinths, there hangs down a spongy bone in 
each nostril. They are each rolled up like a scroll of 
parchment, and are covered with a sensible membrane, 
to which the olfactory nerves arc attached after they 
depart from the cribriform plate. 

6. Os planum or orbitar plate of the ethmoid bono. 
It is of a quadrangular form, is very smooth, and 
forms a great part of the eye socket, lying in its in- 
ner side. 

VI. Os Spiienoides, or sphenoid bone, which 
completes the cranium, and closes it below. It is also 
named cuneiform, or wedge-like bone, from its being 
enclosed in the very base of the skull. This bone is 
united to fourteen distinct bones. It is very much sha- 
ped like a bat, for which reason it is often named ptery- 
goid bone; its temporal process being like extended 
wings, its pterygoid process like feet; its middle like 
the body and head of a bat. Its wing like proce: 
are in the hollow of the temple, forming part 
of the squamous suture, and also composing part 
of the eye socket ; its pterygoid processes, hang 
over the roof of the mouth, forming the back of 
the nostrils; the body is the very center of the 
skull. The parts of this bone which are referred to in 
other places, are, 

i . Temporal process, often called alee or wings. It 
is situated in the temple, to form part oi the hollow of 
the temple; and the wings of the sphenoid bone meet- 
ing the frontal ,parietal, and temporal bones, by a thin 
scaly edge, they form part of the squamous suture, 
forming a smooth surface for the temporal muscles to 
play upon. 

2. Orbital process. That part of the sphenoid bono 
which forms the outside of the eye socket It is also- 
called orbitar plate. 



BOXES Or TUE HEAD. 9 

5. Cerebral fossa. That portion of the wing which 
runs backwards, and receives the middle lobe of the 
brain is thus called. 

4. Temporal fossa. That part of the sphenoid bone 
which receives the temporal muscle. 

5. Styloid process. A small point projecting from 
the basis of the skull, just within the condyle of the 
lower jaw. 

6. Transverse spinous process. A portion of the 
less wing, called ingratias, which projects laterally 
into a point, is thus named. 

7. Pterygoid processes. They are four in number, 
two of which arc on each side. They are those pro- 
cesses on which the bone naturally stands, and which, 
when we compare it with a bat, represents the legs; 
one of each side is named external, and the other is na- 
med internal pterygoid process. 

Each external j)terygoid process is thin and broad. 
and extends further backwards. Each internal ptery- 
goid process is taller and more slender and not so broad. 
It has its end rising higher than the other, arid tipped 
with a small hook, named the hook of the pfrrys 
cess. 

8. Clinoid processes. They are four in number sur- 
rounding the sella turcica; two of which are named 
from their position anterior, and the other two pos! 
or. They are small bumps, rather sharp: the two 
called anterior, terminate in two flat points projecting 
backwards: the other two are round, or knotty at their 
points, projecting forward, toward the anterior clinoid 
process. 

9. Tubcmdnm olivare. An eminence between the 
anterior clinoid process and before the sella turcica. 

10. Sella turcica ephippium, or Turkish Saddle. A 
cavity in the sphenoid bone, containing the pifnary 



10 BONES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. 

gland. It is surrounded by the four clinoid processes. 
There are many other holes, and parts of this bone 
which are worthy of notice, those wishing further in- 
formation can find it in Bells' or Wister's anatomy. 

— •«♦*©«♦«— 
BONES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. 

VII. OSSA MAXILLARIA SUPERIORA, Or upper jaw 

bones. The upper jaw bones are of considerable size, 
forming, as it were the bones of the face. They send 
a large branch upwards, which forms the sides of the 
nose; a broad plate goes backwards, which forms the 
roof of the palate. There is a circular projection be- 
low, which forms the alveoli, or sockets of the teeth. 
These processes, together with the cavity of these 
bones, deserve particular notice. 

The surface or plates of this bone are these: exter- 
nal or malar; the superior or orbital; the internal, or 
nasal; the inferior or palatine surface. 

The upper jaw bones are attached forward and up- 
wards to the nasal and frontal bones; at the sides to the 
cheek bone, and in the orbit it is connected with the 
ethmoid bone; towards the nasal cavities, it has the 
vomer, palate bones, and lower spongy bones attached 
to it; and at the back part it touches the sphenoid 
bone. The parts to be noticed of this bone, are, 

1. Nasal or nose processes, which extend upwards 
to form the sides of the nose. It is arched outwards 
to give the nostrils shape. 

2. Internal ridge. On the inside and root of the 
nasal process, there is a rough horizontal ridge, 
which is named internal ridge, aud which gives at- 
tachment to the fore part of the spongy bone. 

3. Orbitary plate. That part of the bone which 



BONES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. 11 

forms the roof to the antmm maxillarc, and serves as 
a floor for the eye to roll upon. 

4. Malar process. That part of the hone which 
joins to the cheek bone. 

5. Alveolar process. That part of the jaw bone in 
which the teeth are inserted. 

6. Palate process. That part of the bone which di- 
vides the nose from the mouth, forming the roof of the 
palate, and the floor or bottom of the nostrils. 

7. Nasal spine or ridge. Where the palate bones 
meet in the middle they form a ridge, which is thus 
called, on which ridge the split edge of the vomer, 
(bone 13) or partition of the nose, is planted. 

9. Antrum maxillare, commonly called antrum High 
morianum, after its discoverer. The palate plate 
makes the floor of the antrum; the orhitary process 
makes its roof; the cheeks, from the sockets of the 
teeth to the lower part of the eyes, form its walls or 
sides. This cavity is lined with a membrane, subject 
to inflamation, and swelling, which very much deforms 
the face, but may be relieved by extracting the second 
or third of the grinding teeth. 

VIII. Ossa malorum. These are the prominent 
square bones which form the upper part of the cheeks. 
They are situated close under the eyes, and make 
part of the orbit. Each of these bones have three sur- 
faces to be considered. One of these is exterior, or 
outward surface, and is somewhat convex. The se- 
cond is the upper surface, and is concave, serving to 
form the lower and side parts of the orbit or eye sock- 
et. The third is the posterior or back surface, which 
is very unequal and concave, for the lodgment of the 
temporal muscle, (mus. 35.) 

Each of these bones have four processes. 

1. Upper orbiiary process, Running upwards to 



12 E0NES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. 

form part of the eye socket, the outer corner of the eye. 
and the sharp edge of the temple. 

2. Lower orbiiary process. That part which forms 
the lower part of the eye socket, and the edge of too 
cheek. 

3. MuriUuri; process. That part which" forms the 
broad and rough surface, by width it is joined to the 
upper jaw bone. 

4. Internal orbitanj process. That portion which 
goes backwards to form part of the eye socket 

IX. Ossa nasi, or bones of the nose. They are 
each of an irregular oblong figure, being broadest, at 
their lower ends, narrowest near the middle, and lar- 
ger again at the top. where the edge is rough 
thick, by which their connection with the frontal 

is very strong. They are convex externally, and 
concave within. They are enclosed by a branch of 
the upper jaw bone. Which, streching upwards, is 
named its nasal process; they lie with their edges un- 
der it. in one part, and above it. in another, in such a 
way tiiat they cannot be easily forced in. The lower 
edge is rough, for the firm attachment of the cacti lu- 
ges of the nose; and their lowest point, on that part 
w here the bones of the nose, and the gristles of the 
nose arc joined, is the most prominent part of the nose. 
The only point resembling a process in these bones is, 
that rough ridge formed by their union, which projects 
towards the cavity, to give attachment to the nasal 
plate of the ethmoid bone. 

X. Ossa unguis. So named from its being of the 
size and shape of the nail of the finger. They are 
situated on the internal side of the orbit of the eye, 
between the os planum of the ethmoid bone, and the 
nasal process of the upper jaw bone. Each of these 
bones are joined above to the frontal bone; behisid 



BONES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. IS 

to the os planum ; before and below to the upper jaw 
bone. 

The Unguis, is very thin and delicate, sometimes 
not thicker than a thin sheet of paper. It is this hone 
which is pierced in the operation of the fishda lachrij- 
malisj a disease of the lachrymal sack. 

This bone is liable to decay, which is perhaps, the 
nature of all thin hones, for as they have no marrow, 
they must depend entirely on the periosteum or mem- 
brane which surrounds the bones, for their blood-ves- 
sels, of which, they are no sooner deprived, than they 
die. 

XI. Ossa pal ati, or palate bones: These bones 
form the back part of the roof of the mouth, extend- 
ing from it along the external sides of the back open- 
ing of the nose, into the orbit.? of the eyes. 

Each bone may be considered as follows; 

1. Palate plate, or process of the palate bone. This 
process, lies horizontal in the same level with the palate 
process of the upper jaw-bone, which it resembles in its 
rough and spinous surface. 

2. Pterygoid process: A small projecting point of 
the palate bone, just behind the last grinding tooth, 
touches the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone; from 
which circumstance it is called pterygoid process of the 
palate bone. 

3. Nasal plate, or process: This is a thin single 
plate, running perpendicularly upwards from the pal- 
ate; and lies upon the side and back part of the nos- 
trils, so as to jbrm their opening backwards into the 
throat; it is so joined to the upper jaw-bone, that it lies 
there like a sounding board upon the antrum maxillare, 
(see bone VII part 9,) and completes that cavity form- 
ing the thin partition between it and the nose. 

4. Orbitary plate, or process: That part of the na- 



14 BONES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. 

sal plate which enters into the orbit, and enlarges into 
an irregular knob, of a triangular form is called, orbi- 
iary process. 

XII. Ossa spongeosa, or tubinata ivferiora, re- 
sembling a sponge. They arc two in number, situated 
in the under part of the side of the nose. They are 
thus named to distinguish them from the upper spongy 
bones, which belong to the ethmoid bone. 

The ossa sjwngiosa, are convoluted, or rolled togeth- 
er, having such holes, cavities, and net work as we 
see in raised bread. They lie rolled up in the lower 
part of the nose, and are easily seen, either in the en- 
tire subject, or in the naked skull. Their points form, 
that projection, Which we feel with the finger in pick- 
ing the nose, which from the indecency of the prac- 
tice, as well as the danger attending it no person 
should ever be found at it; for in many instances, polyp J 
of the lower spongy bones, may be traced to hurts in-J 
flicted by the finger nail. 

Each of these bones is attached to the upper jaw- 
bone, near the transverse ridge, by a hook-like pro- 
cess. 

XIII. Vomer. The nose is completed by the ro- 
wer, which is named from its resemblance to a plough 
share, and which divides the two nostrils from each 
other; it is a thin and slender bone, consisting of two 
plates, much compressed together, very dense and 
strong, but still so thin as to be semi-transparent. 
The plates of which the vomer is composed, split or 
part from each other at every edge, so as to form a 
groove on every side. 

1. On its upper part, or as we may call it, its base, 
by which it is fixed to the skull, the vomer has a wide 
groove, receiving the projecting point of the ethmoid 
and sphenoid bones, so that it has a verv firm and se- 1 



BONES OF THE FACE AND JAWS. 15 

cure attachment, capable of resisting violent blows. 

2. Upon its lower part, its groove is narrower, and 
receives the rising line in the middle of the palate 
plate, where the bones meet to form the palate su- 
tures. 

3. At its fore part, it is united by a ragged surface, 
and by something like a groove to the middle cartilage 
of the nose. 

XIV. Os maxill.e inferioris, or lower jaw- 
bone, which is formed like a horse shoe. 

Tlie lower jaw is divided into the chin, the base, or 
sides, extending backwards to the angle, and the up- 
right portion of the bone. The parts of this bone to 
be noticed, arc, 

1. Coronoid process, so called from its resemblance 
to a crow's beak. This process is at the upper end of 
the upright portion of the jaw-bone, lying immediately 
under the zygoma or temporal arch: 

2. Condyloid process; The articulating process of the 
lower-jaw. 

The condyle, or articulating head, is not round, but 
flat, of a long form, and set across the branch of the 
jaw. This process is received into a long hollow of 
the temporal bone, just under the root of the zygomat- 
ic process. 

3. Alveolar process, or sockets for the teeth, resemb- 
ling that of the upper jaw. When you have acquired 
their full size, the sockets are completely filled. But, 
in the decline of life the teeth fall out, and the sockets 
are re-absorbed, and carried clean away, as if they 
had never existed* 

4. Semilunar notch, the half-moon-shaped notch be- 
tween the coronoid and condyloid processes. 



16 

OF THE TEETH. 

XV. Teeth. There are thirty-two teeth in the 
adult skull, sixteen of which are in each jaw. These 
are divided into classes, according to their form and 
use, as follows; 

1. Incisors, or front teeth: There are eight incisor 
teeth, four of which are in the upper, and four in the ( 
lower jaw. 

2. Cuspidati or canine teeth; They are four in num- 
ber, two of which are in the lower, and two in the up- 
per jaw; they are situated between the fore, and grin- 
ding teeth. 

3. Biscuspides, or lesser grinding teeth: They are \ 
eight in number, four of which are in each jaw. They 
are situated between the cuspidati, and large grinding 
teeth. 

4. Malares or grinding teeth; There are six of these 
in each jaw, one of which is equal to four of the second 
class. 

BONE OF THE TONGUE. 

XVI. Os hyoides, or bone of the tongue: This 
bone is situated at the root of the tongue, between 
it and the larynx. In describing this bone it 
may be distinguished into its body, horns, and appen- 
dices. 

1. The body is the middle and broadest part of the 
bone, so placed that it may be easily felt with the fin- 
ger in the fore part of the throat. 

2. The cornua, or horns, which are flat, and a little 
bent, are considerably longer than the body of the 
bone. At the extremity of each of these horns, there 



BONES OF THE EAR. 17 

is a round tubercle, from which a ligament passes to 
the thyroid cartilage. 

3. The appendices, or small bones, are two small 
processes, which in their size and shape, are somewhat 
like a grain of wheat. They rise up from the articu- 
lations of the cornua, or horns, with the body of the 
hone, and are connected on each side by a ligament to 
the styloid processes of the temporal bone. 

The os hyoides serves to support the tongue, and af- 
fords attachment to a variety of muscles, some of 
which perform the motions of the tongue, while others 
act on the larynx and fauces. 

BONES OF THE EAR. 

XVII. Malleus, or hammer: a bone of the internal 
ear is so termed from its resemblance to a hammer. 
It is distinguished into a head, neck, & manubrium. 

]. The he ad is round, and incrusted with a thin 
cartilage, and annexed to another bone of the ear, the 
incus, has a connection called ginglyrmis. 

The neck is narrow, situated between the head 
and manubrium, or handle: from which along slender 
process arises, which adheres to a furrow in the audi- 
tory canal. 

3. The manubrium or handle is terminated by an 
enlarged extremity, and connected to the membrane 
of the internal ear, by a short coronoid process. 

XVIII. Incus, so named from its likeness to a 
smith's anvil. This is the largest, and strongest of 
the bones of the internal car. It is divided into a bo- 
dy, and two crura or origins. 

1 . The body is situated anteriorly, or behind, is 
r »iht>r hrnnd and thick, and has two eminences, & two 



18 BOXES OF THE TRUNK OK BODY. 

depressions, both covered with cartilage, and intended 
for the reception of the malleus or hammer. 

2. Its shorter cms, or leg extends no farther than 
the cells of the mastoid apophysis or process. 

5. Its longer cms, or leg together with the manu- 
brium, or handle of the malleus, or hammer, to which 
it is connected by a ligament, is of the same extent as 
the shorter; but its extremity is carried inwards to re- 
ceive the os orbicularc, (bone 20,) by the intervention 
of which it is united with the stapes, (bone 19.) 

XIX. Stapes. A bone of the internal ear, so 
called from its resemblance to a stirrup. 

XX. Os orbiculare. A small bone of the inter- 
nal ear, not larger than a pin's head. 



BONES OF THE TRUNK OR BODY. 

XXI. Vertebrje also called spine, from ■certain 
projecting points of each bone, which stand outwards 
in the back, forming a continued ridge. This Ion* - 
line consists of twenty-four distinct bones named ver- 
tebae, from the latin vertere, to turn. They conduct, 
the spinal marrow, secure from harm, the whole length 
of the spine, and support the whole weight of the 
trunk, head, and arms. 

3, The body of the vertebrse is a large mass of soft 
and spongy bone; it is circular before, & flat on the 
sides. It is hollowed into the form of a crescent be- 
hind, to give the shape of that tube in which the spinal 
Marrow is contained. The body is tipped with a har- 
der & prominent ring above and below, as a sort of 
defence; and within the ring, the body of the vertebra 
is hollowed out into a sort of superficial cup, which re- 
ceives the ligame ntous sub stance, by which the two next 



BONES OF THE TIU'NK OK BOUT. 19 

vertebrae arc joined to it; so that each vertebra goes 
upon a pivot, and resembles the ball and socket joint. 
The bony is the main part of the vertebrae, to which 
all the other processes arc to be refcred; it is the cen- 
ter of the spine and bears chiefly the weight of the bo- 
dy: It is larger in the loins, smaller in the back, and 
in the neck there is scarcely any body at all, being 
joined to each other chiefly by the articulating pro- 
cesses. 

2. Articulating or oblique process. This is a small 
projection, standing out from the body of the vertebras, 
with a smooth surface, by which it is joined to the ar- 
ticulating process of the next bone. The upper ones 
are named t'.ie ascending oblique processes, and the two 
lower ones are named the inferior or descending ob- 
lique processes. 

3. Spinous processes, arc those which project direct- 
ly backwards, the points of which form the ridge of 
the back. 

The body of each vertebra sends out two arms, 
which, meeting behind, form an arch or canal for the 
spinal marrow: and from the middle of that ai 
and opposite to the body, the spinous process projects. 
The spinous, and transverse processes, arc as so many 
levers by which the spine is to be moved. 

4. Transverse processes. These stand out from tho 
sides of the arms, or branches which form the arch. 
They standout at right angles, or transversely from 
the body of the bone — these processes serve for the at- 
tachment of muscles, and also as levers to assist in 
the motion of the spine in general. 

The vertebrae is divided into cervical, dorsal, and lum- 
bar vertebrae. 

1 P.evnifnl "fpriehrrv. tw tmnra of the neck. TllCV 



20 BONES OF THE TRUNK OR BODY. 

are seven in number. Their bodies are small, but of a 
lirmer texture than those of the back and loins. 

2. Dorsal vertebra, or bones of the back. They 
are twelve in number. The bodies of these bones arc 
more flattened at their sides, more convex before, and 
more concave behind than the other hones of the back. 
To each of the vertebra of the back, a right and left 
rib is attached, not only to the body of the verteb 
but also to the transverse process, by a ligament. 

5. Lumbar vertebra', or five inferior or lower bones 
of the spine. They are larger than the dorsal rcrle- 
briz. Their bodies are more prominent, and nearly of 
a circular form at their front part; posteriorly, or be- 
hind they are concave. 

XXII. Os sacrum. The os sacrum, derive 
name from the circumstance of its being offered in sa- 
cri' e by the ancients, or perhaps from its supporting 
the organs of generation, which they considered a 
cred. Its shape has some resemblance to an irregular 
triangle. This bone is joined above to the last lumbar 
vertebra; at its sides, it is firmly united by a broad 
irregular surface to the hip bone, and below to the cs 
coccyges (bone 23.) In women this bone is shorter, 
and more curved than in men, by which means, the 
cavity of the pelvis is more enlarged. 

XXIII. Os coccyges, so named from its resem- 
blance to the beak or bill of a cuckoo. This bone is a 
small appendage to the os sacrum, (bone 22.) termina- 
ting with an inverted column: it contracts the lower 
opening of the pelvis, so as to support the rectum, 
bladder, and womb; and yet continues so moveable in 
women, as to recede in time of labor. 

XXIV. Ossa inxomixata, or nameless bones. 
These are the two large irregular bones, forming the 
sides of the pelvis, wbjjth ha^ c a form so difficult to ex- 



BONES OF THE TRUNK OR BODY. 21 

plain by one name, that it will be necessary to divide 
them into three parts, and explain each one as three 
distinct bones, by the names of os ilium, os ischium, and 
os pubis. 

The os ilium or haunch bone, is that broad and ex- 
panded bone, on which lie the strong muscles of the 
thigh, and which forms the rounding of the haunch. 
The os ischium or hip bone, is the lowest point of the 
pelvis, on which we rest in sitting. The os pubis or 
share bone, is that part on which the privates are pla- 
ced. All these bones are divided in a child; they are 
united in the centre of the socket for the thigh bone; 
and we find in a child a thick cartilage or gristle in 
the center of the socket, which cartilage forms a prom- 
inent ridge of bone in the adult, to which a strong lig- 
ament from the caput, or head of the thigh bone is 
fastened. 

XXV. Os ilium, or haunch bone, so named from 
its forming the flank. It is the largest part of the *s 
iunominatum. This bone rises upwards from the pel- 
vis in a broad expanding wing, which forms the lower 
part of the cavity of the abdomen, and supports the 
chief weight of the impregnated womb. This flat part 
is named the ala, or wing; while the lower, or round 
part, is named the body of the bone, where it enters in- 
to the socket, and meets the other bones. 

1. Ma or wing, the flat part of the os ilium. 

2. Spine. A ridge of firm bone, situated on the 
edge of the circle of the wing. In a child this circu- 
lar ridge is a cartilage, but becomes ossified in riper 
years. This spine or ridge gives origin to several 
muscles. 

3. Spinous procsss. The two ends of the spine last 
described are abrupt, and the points formed upon it, are 



22 BONES OF THE TRUNK OR BODY. 

named spinous processes, of which there are two at its 

fore, and two at its back end. The two posterior or . 
back spinous processes arc close to each other, and are 
merely two rough pi-ejecting points near the rough sur- 
face, by which the os ilium is joined to the os sacrum. 
Where tbe spine terminates in this process the great 
muscle of the hip, the gluteus' maximus, (mus. 170) 
takes its rise. The two anterior, or fore spinous pro- 
cesses are more distinct. One of which is called the 
anterior superior spinous process, is the abrupt ending of 
the spine or circle, of the os ilium, with a swelling out; 
from which process two muscles of the thigh arise; 
Mus. 176, 177,) and also a ligament, which passing 
from the os ilium to the pubes, or front point of the 
pelvis, is called the ligament of the thigh. The other ( 
process called the inferior anterior sjnnous process is a 
small lump about an inch below the first one. This 
process also gives origin to a muscle of the thigh (mus. 
178.) 

4. Linea iiinominata. The acute line, which is thus 
named, is seen upon the internal surface of the bone, 
divides the aid, or wing, from that part which forms 
the true pelvis. This line composes part of the brim 
of the pelvis, and distinguishes the cavity of the pel- 
a is, from the cavity of the abdomen. 

XVI. Os ischium, or hip bone. This bone is pla- 
ced perpendicularly under the os ilium, and is the Iow- 
loint of the pelvis upon which we sit. It forms 
the largest share of the socket, in consequence of 
which, the socket is named acetabulum ischii, as pecu- 
liarly belonging to this bone. The parts of this bone 
to be noticed, are, 

I. Body. This is the uppermost and thickest part 
of this bone, which helps in forming the socket 



BONES OF THE TRUNK Oil BODY. 23 

2. Spinmts process. This process arises from the 
hody of the ischium and projects backwards, pointing 
towards the os sacrum, and receives the uppermost of 
the two long ligaments, which, from their passage be- 
twixt the ischium and sacrum, are named sacra- sciatic. 

3. Sacra-sciatic hole. A semi, circle of the ischium, 
just below the joining of the ilium with the sacrum, is 
thus named. 

4. Tuber, or round knob. This is the part on which 
we rest. This bump is a little flattened where we sit 
upon it. It is the mark by which the lithotomist di- 
rects his incision, cutting exactly in the middle, 
betwixt the anus and this point of the ischium. 

5. Cervix. A smooth surface between the tuber 
and socket of the hip joint. This smooth surface is a 
little depressed and covered with a cartilage which al- 
lows the tendon of the obturator (Mus. 34,) to move 
easily. 

6. Ramus, or branch. This portion of the ischium, 
rises obliquely upwards and forwards, to join a like 
branch of the pubis. This branch, or arm, as it is 
called, is flat, and is turned a little forwards and back- 
wards; so that one edge forms the arch of the pubis, 
while the other edge forms the margin of the thyroid 
hole. 

XXVII. Os tub is, or share bone, is the last and 
smallest piece of the os innominatum, and is named 
from the mons veneris (or triangular eminence immedi- 
ately over the middle of the os jmbis of women, that is 
covered with hair) being placed on it. It forms the up- 
per, or fore part of the pelvis, and completes the brim 
of the pelvis. The parts of this bone to be noticed, 
arc, 

1. Body. The body of the os pubis is thick and 
strong, and forms about one fifth of the socket of the 



$4 BONES OF THE TRUNK OR BODY. 

thigh hone. It is not only the smallest, hut the shal- 
lowest part of the socket. 

2 Ramus or branch; The ramus is that more slender 
part of the pubis, which, joining with the branch of the 
ischium, forms with it the arch of the pubis, and the 
edge of the thyroid hole. 

3. Linea innominata. On the middle of the pubes 
there is a process which is frequently called tuberous 
angle: from this process there are two ridges traced; 
one goes to meet the line on the ilium, forming the 
brim of the pelvis; the other goes down towards the 
edge of the thigh socket; these ridges are called linea 
Innominata. 

THE PELVIS IN GENERAL. 

There are other purts of the pelvis which are wor- 
thy of a notice in tins place as they will frequently be 
referred to. They are, 

1. Promontory of the sacrum. This is the projec- 
tion formed by the lowest vertebra of the loins, and 
the upper point of the os sacrum. 

2. Hollow of the sacrum. This is all that smooth 
inner surface which gives out the great nerves for the 
legs of the pelvis. 

3. Lesser angle. This is a short turn in the sacrum 
near where it is joined with the os occygis. 

4. Crest of the pubes. This is a short ridge, or 
edge of the bone over the joining of the symphysis pu- 
bes. 

5. Posterior symphysis of the pelvis. The part where 
the os sacrum is joined with the os ilium is thus na- 
med. 

6. Anterior symphysis of the pelvis. The front part 
where the two share bones are joined is thus named. 

7. Acetabulum, so named from its resemblance to a 



BONfcS OF TUE TRUNK OR BODY. 25 

measure which the ancients used for vinegar. The 
hollow or socket for the thigh hone, composed of the 
ilium,} ischium and pubes. On the lower part of the 
margin of this socket there is a deficiency of bone 
which, however, is made up hy a ligament, and \ a 
not so perfectly, hut that dislocation of the head of the 
thigh hone sometimes takes place in this direction. 

8. Brim of the pelvis. The hrim of the pelvis is 
that oval ring, which parts the cavity of the pelvis 
from the cavity of the abdomen; it is formed hy con- 
tinued line along the upper part of the sacrum, the mid- 
dle of the ilium, and the upper part of the crest of tha 
pubes. This circle of the brim supports the impreg- 
nated womb, keeps it up against the pressure of labour 
pains. 

9. Ouilct of the prt~cis. The outlet of the pel 

is the lower circle, composed by the arch of the pubes. 
and by the sciatic ligaments, which is wide and capa- 
ble of being dilated, to permit the delivery of the child's 
head to press so rrddenly, and with such violence upon 
the soft parts, that the perenium, or part between thy 
anus and organs of generation is torn. 

10. Thyroid hole. The thyroid hole is that remark- 
able vacancy in the bone, which perhaps lightens tha 
pelvis, or perhaps allows the soft parts to escape from 
the pressure during the passage of the head of tha 
child. 

XXVIII. Os pectoris, or sternum. Thebreus; 
bone. The breast bone is an oblong squared bone, 
which lies on the fore part of the breast, over the heart, 
and which, with the ribs and spine form the cavity of 
the thorax. At each upper corner, it joins the collar- 
bone, laterally, or on each side, several of the ribs 
attached by cartilages or gristles. 
c 



26 BONES OF THE TRUNK OR BOD?, 

In a child the sternum consists of eight distinct pie- 
ces, which fasten together in the progress of life, and 
which, in old age are firmly united in one. In the mid- 
dle stages of life, we find three pieces in the sternum, 
two of which, are properly bone, and the third re- 
mains a cartilage until old age, and is named ensiform 
cartilage, from its sword like point. It is attached to 
the lower end of the sternum. 

1. Triangular portion, or upper part of the sternum. 
This part of the sternum is large, roundish, or rather 
triangular, resembling a heart on playing cards: it is 
about two inches in length, and an inch and a half in 
bredth. The apex or point of the triangle, is pointed 
downwards, to meet the second bone of the sternum. 
The base of the triangle, which is uppermost, towards 
the throat seems a little hollowed, for the passage of 
the trachea or wind-pipe. On each upper corner, it 
has a large articulating hollow, into which the ends of 
the collar bones are received. The first rib', together 
with one half of the head of the second, is articulated 
to the side part of this bone. 

2. The second piece of the sternum, is of a squared 
form, very long and flat, composing the chief length 
of the sternum; for the first piece receives only the 
cartilage of the first rib, and one half of the second; 
but this long piece receives on each side or edge of it, 
the cartilages of eight ribs; but as the three lower car- 
tilages are run into one, there are but five sockets or 
marks in it. 

3. Ensiform cartilage. This cartilage is attached 
to the lower end of the sternum, or breast bone, and 
extends downwards between the false ribs, giving sure 
origin, and great power to the muscles of the abdo- 
men. 



BO:VES OF THE TRUNK OR BODY. 27 

XXIX. CosT^i, or ribs. The ribs are the long 
curved bones, which arc placed in an oblique direction 
at the sides of the thorax, or breast. Their number 
is twelve on each side, seven of which are called true, 
and five false ribs. The use of the ribs is to give form 
to the thorax, to cover and defend the lungs, and heart, 
and also to assist in breathing, by yielding, and re- 
turning again when the muscles cease to act. 

The ribs are in general, of a flattened form, their 
flat and smooth sides, being turned towards the lungs. 
But this flatness of the ribs is not regular; it is con- 
torted, as if the rib had been taken by each end, and 
twisted: the meaning of which is, to accomodate the 
flatness of the rib to the form which the thorax assumes 
in all its degrees of elevation; for when the rib rises, 
and during its rising through all its degrees of eleva- 
tion, it still keeps its flat side towards the lungs. Al- 
though the rib is of a flat form, yet it is a little round- 
ed at its upper edge, and sharp at its lower edge. On 
each rib we find the following parts: 

1. Head or round knob by which it is joined to the 
spine. The head of each rib has but a small articula- 
ting surface; but that smooth surface is double, or looks 
two ways. The head of tlie rib is not implanted into 
the side of one vertrebra, but rather into the intervert- 
ebral substance, consequently, the head touches two of 
the vertebra, therefore all the vertebrae of the back 
bear the the mark of two ribs except the first and last 

2. Cervix, or neck. The neck of the rib is the 
smallest part, immediately before the head. In this 
part the rib is small and round. 

3. Tubercle, or bump. This bump is situated about 
an inch from the head, and is the articulating surface, 
by which it touches and turns upon the transverse pro- 



BO:VES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 

cess of the vertebra below. 

4. Superior tubercle. This is situated just above the 
tubercle last explained* but has nothing to do with the 
joints: it is intended merely for the attachment of tho 
ligaments and muscles from the spine which suspend 
and move the ribs, and for the attachment of the ante- 
rior slipes of the hngisirrtus dorsi. (Mus. III.) 

5. Angle. The angle of the rib is often mentioned, 
being a common mark of surgical operations. There 
is a flatness of the thorax behind, forming -the breadth 
of the back; the sharpness where this flatness begins 
to turn into the roundness of the chest, is the place 
called the angles of the ribs. In these angles the sa- 
cro-lumbalis (Mus. 100) is inserted. 

(5. Motion of the ribs. By the motion of the ribs, 
the thorax is alternately dilated, and diminished inca- 
pacity, the lungs thereby having their play. A rib 
has two motions; 1st. Its back end rises and falls, 
the centre of motion being in the articulation with the 
spine. 2nd. It moves on its own axes; a line drawn 
through the two extremities, is the centre of its motion. 
The first motion, enlarges and diminishes the diameter 
of the thorax, from the spine to the breast bone. The 
second enlarges the lateral or side diameter of the tho- 
rax. By understanding the motion of the ribs, we can 
more easily determine when a rib is broken, or dislo- 
cated. 

BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 

XXX. Clavicle, or collar bone, so named from 
its resemblance to an ancient key. The clavicle is 
placed at the upper part of the breast j it extends across 



BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 29 

from the tip of the shoulder, to the upper part of the 
breastbone; it is a round bone, flattened towards 
the end, which gives the scapula or shoulder blade; it 
is curved like an italic /, having one curve turned to- 
wards the breast. This bone is useful as an arch sup- 
porting the shoulders, and preventing them from fall- 
ing forwards upon the breast. The end of the collar 
bone next the breast bone is round and fiat, or button- 
like, the articulating surface is triangular, and is re- 
ceived into a suitable hollow on the upper piece of the 
breast bone. The outer end of the clavicle is flattened 
as it approaches the shoulder blade, and the edge of 
that flatness is turned to the edge of the flattned acromi- 
on, or process of the shoulder blade, so that they touch 
but in one single point; this outer end of the collar 
bone, and the corresponding point of the shoulder blade, 
are flattened, and covered with a cartilage. The mo- 
tion at this point is very slight and insensible. This 
boue is liable to be fractured, and requires some care 
and management to set it right. 

XXXI. Scapula, or shoulder blade. This bone is 
of a triangular figure, situated on the upper and back 
bart of the thorax, and is joined to the collarbone and 
os humeri, or bone of the arm. The parts of this bone 
to be noticed arc, 1st, Superior cosia, or rib of the 
scapula. The edge or angle of the scapula is thus 
named. On this upper edge there is a notch, through 
which a nerve, and sometimes an artery passes, named 
semilunar notch. 

2. Inferior casta, or lower edge of the scapula. It 
gives origin to two small muscles. 

3. Glenoid or articulating cavity. The cavity or 
socket, which receives the head of the arm bone is thus 
named. 

The shoulder blade towards this paint terminates ia 

c* 



30 BO.YE9 OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 

a flat surface, not more than an incli in diameter, very 
little hollowed, scarcely receiving the head of the os 
humeri, or hone of the arm, which is rather laid upon, 
than sunk into it: it is deepened a little by a circular 
gristle, which tips the edges or lips of this articula- 
ting surface, but so little, that it is still very shallow 
and plain, in consequence of which luxation is very 
common in the shoulder joint. 

4. Neck of the scapula. Immediately behind the 
glenoid cavity, is a narrow part called the in 

.5. Spine of the scapula, is that high ridge of bone 
which runs the whole length of its surface, and divides 
it into two parts, for the origin of the infra and supra 
spinatous muscles, (Mus. 125, 126.) This ridge is 
high and very sharp, standing up in one place to the 
height of two inches. It is flattened at the top, and 
with edges, which, turning a little towards either side, 
gives rise totwostrong/adee or tendenous membranes, 
which go from the spine, to the upper and lower hor* ! 
ders; so that by these strong membranes, the scapula 
is divided into two triangular cavities. The spine 
traverses the whole of the back of the scapula. 

6. Acromion process. The spine beginning low at 
the basis of the scapula, gradually rises as it advances 
forwards, till it terminates in that high point or prom- 
ontory which forms the tip of the shoulder, which 
overhangs and defends the joint. This high point is 
named the acromion process. The acromion prevents 
luxation of the shoulder joint upwards, arid is so far 
part of the joint, that when it is full under the acrom- 
ion, the joint is safe, but when it is hollow, sotbatthe 
points of the fingers can be pushed under the acromi- 
on process, the shoulder is luxated, or out of joint. 

7. Caracaid process. This process arises from the 
neck of the scapula, almost from the border of the; 



BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 31 

socket. It is a short, thick, and crooked proeess, 
standing directly forwards: and which, turning for- 
wards with a crooked and sharp point, somewhat like 
the back of a crow, is thence named the caracoid pro- 
cess. This process also guards and strengthens the 
joint, and serves for the attachment of three different 
muscles', (Mus. 93, 130, 132.) 

XXXII. Os humeri, or shoulder bone. This is a 
long cylindrical hone, situated between the elbow joint 
and shoulder blade. In order to distinguish this bone 
from the bones of the arm below w joint, it 

will hereafter be called the upper bone of the arm. 
The parts of this bone, are, 

1. Head. The head of this bone is very large, and 
of a very regular circle. This hei tculated to 
the shoulder blade. 

2. Neck The neck of this bone is nothing mora 
than a roughness, close to the head, to which, the cap- 
sular ligament is attached. 

3. I'ubcroHiUes. The tuberosities of the os humeri 

o small bumps, which stand up ;•! the upper end 
of the bone, just behind the head. The upper one of 
these; the greater, & thelov \iberosi- 

ty. Muscles 125 & 6 are insc .or tu- 

berosity, while the lesser only receives I.Iusclc 

4. Groove. The groove is situated between the two 
tuberosities; in it the long tendon of the biceps muscle 
of the arm runs. 

5. Ridges. On the outside of the groove there is a 
long ridge for the insertion of a muscle, and on the 
out side another one for the attachment of musch* 
103. 

6. Condyles. The os humeri at its lower part chan- 
ges its form, is flattened and spread out to two inches in 
breadth; where there is formed on each side a sharp; 



32 BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 

projecting point called condyles, for the origin of mus- 
cles. 

7. Articulating surface.. The articulating surface 
which stands between these condyles, forms a more 
■trict hinge than can be easily conceived, without ex- 
amining it. The joint consists of two surfaces; first, 
a smooth surface, upon which the ulna, or bone of the 
lower arm moves, as on a hinge; and secondly, of a 
small knob upon the outside, trochlea or pully, which 
has a neat round surface, upon which the face or socket 
belonging to the button-like end of the radius or bone 
of the lower arm rolls. Those two surfaces are call- 
ed, the one the small head, and the other the cartilagin- 
ous pully, or trochlea of the humerus. Belonging toj| 
this joint, and within its capsular ligament, there are 
two deep hollows, which receive certain processes of "' 
the bones of the lore arm, one deep hollow on the fore * 
part of the humerus, and just above its articulating 
pully, receives the coronoid, or horn like process of 
the ulna or bone of the fore arm; the other receives \ 
the olecranon, or that process of the ulna which forms ! 
the point of the elbow. 

XXXIII. Ulna, or large bone of the fore arm. It 
is smaller and shorter than the one last described, and. I 
becomes gradually smaller as it descends to the wrist, I 
and is of a triangular ibrm. The parts of this bone, ■'■ 
are, 

1. Sigmoid cavity. The part of this bone which 
forms the hinge-like joint with the upper bone of the 
arm is named greater sigmoid cavity, close to this is 
a second cavity called lesser sigmoid cavity, which re- 
ceives the upper end of the radius, (bone XXXIIL) 

2. Olecranon. The olecranon, is a large bump, 
which forms the extreme point of the elbow. It is a 
iarge strong process, answering two purposes; first, as. 



BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 3? 

a long lever for the muscles which extend, or make 
straight the fore arm; and second, when the arm is ex- 
tended, as in pulling, it checks into its place, and takes 
such a strong hold upon the hinge or joint from luxa- 
tion forwards, or from straining any of the ligaments 
attached to the joint. 

3. Coronoid process. This process stands up per- 
pendicularly from the upper or fore part of the bone. 
It forms the fore part of the sigmoid cavity, and com- 
pletes the hinge. The coronoid process is useful, lika 
the olecranon, in giving a fair hold ami larger lever to 
the muscles, and to secure the point; for the arm being 
extended, as in pulling the olecranon, prevents luxation 
forwards; the arm again being bent, as in striking, 
the coronoid process prevents luxation backwards, so 
the joint consists of the olecranon and coronoid pro- 
cesses, as two guards, and of the sigmoid cavity or hol- 
low of articulation between them. 

!. 4, Tubercle, Or, the root of the coronoid •proces.-.,. 
there is a rough tubercle for the attachment of the 
brachialis interims, (mus. 133.) 

5. Lower head. The ulna grows gradually smaller 
as it descends towards the wrist, and terminates al- 
Imost in a point, which is named the lower head of the. 
ulna. This head is received into a hollow on the sido 
-of the radius. 

6. Styloid process : Below the lower head of the ulna, 
it ends towards the little finger, in a small rounded 
point, which is named the styloid process of the ulna« 

XXXIV."* Radius. The second bone of the fare 
arm, which has gotten its name from its supposed rc- 

rsemblance to the spoke of a wheel. Like the ulna, it 
is of a triangular figure, but it differs from that bone in 

^growing larger as it descends, so that its smaller part 



34 BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 

answers to the larger part of the ulna and vice vent 
The radius is the hone to which the wrist is attached 
it lies along the outer edge of the fore arm, next t 
the thumb; and being, like the ulna, of a triangula 
form, it lias one of its angles or edges turned toward 
the ulna to receive the interosseous ligament. The part 
of this hone, arc, 

1. Upper head. It is of a round, flatfish, and but 
ton-like shape, and so lies upon the lower end of th 
humerus, and upon the coronoid process of the ulna, 
that it is articulated with hotii hones. 

2. Neck. Immediately below the head, is a narrow- 
ness, or straitening, called the neck of the radius; 
round this neck there is a collar or circular ligament, 
named the coronary ligament which keeps the bow 
securely in its place, turning in this ligamentous bond, 
like a spiudle in its hush or socket; for the radius hs 
two motions, first accompanying the ulna in its moyi 
Stents of flexion and extension; and seconlly, its ov 
peculiar rotation, in which it moves and turns ti 
wrist. 

3. Tubercle. Immediately under this neck, and jui 
below the collar of this bone, there is a pron 
bump, like a flattened button, fastened upon the sided 
the hone, which is the point into which Muscle 132 i 
inserted. 

4. Lower head. The lower head of this bow 
swells out, broad and flat, to receive the bones of 
wrist. The two largest bones of the wrist, the so 
tides and lunare, which ft.r.n a large ball, are receivi 
into the lower head of the radius: the impression whii 
these two hones make is pretty deep, and somewhat 
a boat-like shape; whence it is called the scaphoid cax 
ity of the radius. 

5. ScapJwid cavity. This cavity of the radius form 



BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 35 

the joint with the wrist; but there is another small 
cavity on the side of the radius, into which, the lesser 
head of the ulna is received, and this is enclosed in a 
proper and distinct capsule. 

XXXV. Carpus, or wrist. The wrist is composed 
of eight small hones disposed in two rows; one of 
which rows is attached to the hones of the fore arm, 
and the other to the hones of the hand. These bone* 
are named from their figure. In describing them, I 
shall mention them as beginning with the row next to 
the arm, and with the external bone of each row. 
The bones composing the first row, arc, 
1. Os scaphoides; the boat-like bone. It is one of 
the largest bones of the wrist, and is worthy of notice, 
lot because it is the largest, but because it forms the 
:hief part of the joint of the wrist: it is this bone which 
1 s received into the scaphoid cavity of the radius. 

I The points of this bone to be remembered, are, 

A. The round surface, covered with cartilage, 
imooth, answering to the cavity in the head of the ra- 
lius. 

II B. Tlie hook-like, or projecting process, which 
brms one of the corner points of the wrist, and gives 
lold to one corner of the ligament Which binds down 

ithe tendons of the wrist. 

C. There is also a furrow for the capsular liga- 
?ment, the cavity from which this bone takes its name. 
• and by which it is articulated with the trapezium and 

trapczoides. 

t D. On its inner surface, there is a cavity for the 
tos magnum. 

5 2. Os lunare. So named from one of its sides being 
jiiBomewhat of the shape of a half moon. This bone 

takes an equal share in the point with the scaphoid bone 
jiThe chief marks of this bone, are, 



56 BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 

A. The surface of a semilunar shape, on the radial 
side. 

B. The convex surface for articulation with tlw 
radius. 

C. The ulnar surface for articulation with the ot 
cunei forme. 

D. The hollow surface for articulation Avith the at 
magnum. The central bone of the second row. 

3. Os cunaforme, or wedge-like bone. The side of 
this bone forming the upper part of the wrist is broader 
than the point towards the palm of the hand, from which 
circumstance it has taken its name: but it is chiefly so 
called from its situation, it being closely wedged in be- 
twen the lunare and pisiform bones, 

4. Os pisiform. This is a small, neat, and round 
bone, named sometimes orbiculare, or round bone, but 
oftner pisiform, fron its resemblance to a pea. It is 
placed upon the cuneiform bones standing off from the 
wrist into the palm of the hand, so as to be the most prom- 
inent of all the corner bones. This bone is the 

into which the ligament of the wrist is implanted: the 
muscle 142 one of the strong muscles for bending \h» 
wrist, is inserted into it. 

Bones composing the second row. 
5. Trapezium. This bone has four unequal sides and 
angles in its back part, from which it has got its name. 
The parts to be noticed of this bone, are. 

A. The great socket, or rather the trochlea, for the 
thumb, and as the thumb stands off from one side of thi 
hand this socket is rather on one side. 

C. There is also a little process which makes one of 
the corner points, and stands opposite to the hook d 
the cuneiforme. 

6. Trapezoidcs. This bone is so named from th« 



BO^ES 0T I'tiE tflMPER EXTREMITIES. 3 

irregular quadrangular figure of its back part. This 
bone has five articulating surfaces. 

7. Os magnum; so named from its great size when 
compared with others. It is placed in the center of 
the upper row; has a long round head, which is joint- 
ed with the socket formed with the os lunartand scaph- 
oides; on the radial surface, the magnum is articulated 
with the trapezoides; on the ulnar surface with the 
unciform bone; on the further surface it has three 
planes, and receives the whole head of the metacarpal 
bone of the middle finger, and part of the metacarpal 
bone of the fore finger and of the ring finger. 

8. Os unciforme, or hook-like bone, is named from 
a hook-like process, which projects towards the palm 
of the hand. It is a large squared bone, possessing a 
process of long, flat, firm bone called unciforme > or 
hook-like, which projects into the palm of the hand, 
giving a firm origin to the great ligament by which 
the tendons of the wrist are bound down. 

All these bones of the carpus, or wrist when they 
are joined to each other, are covered with a smooth ar- 
ticulating cartilage, are bound to each other by all 
forms of cross ligaments* and are consolidated, as it 
were, into one joint* 

XXXVI. Metacarpus, or bones of the hand, 
situated between the wrist and fingers. The metacar- 
pus is composed of four bones, upon which the fingers 
are articulated. Each of these bones are long and 
round, with their ends larger than their bodies. The 
upper end which is termed its base, is flat and oblong, 
inclining somewhat to the wedge-like form, without a- 
ny considerable head, or cavity, however it is some- 
what hollowed, for the articulation with the carpus or* 
wrist. 

s 



38 BONES OP THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 

The lower ends are raised into large oblong smooth 
heads, the greatest extent of which, is forwards from 
the axis of the bone. At the fore part of each side of 
the root of each of these heads, one or two tubercles 
stand out, for fixing the ligaments that go from one 
metacarpal bone to another, to preserve them from be- 
ing drawn asunder. Around the heads a rough ring 
may be seen, for the attachment of the capsular liga- 
ments of the first joints of the fingers. 

XXXVII. The thumb and four fingers are each 
composed of three bones, the regular arrangement of 
which has obtained for them the name of the three 
phalanges. 

BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. | 

XXXVIII. Os femoris, or thigh bone. The 
thigh bone is a very large, strong bone. It is near]}' 
cylindrical in the middle, and slightly curved. The I 
upper extremity is a spherical head, connected to the 
body of the bone by a neck ; the lower extremity is 
much larger than the body, and is formed into two 
condyles. 

The parts of this bone, are, 

1. Head. The head of the thigh bone is the most 
perfect of any in the human body, its circumference is 
a very regular circle, of which the head contains near- 
ly two thirds; this head is completely received into its 
socket, which is not only deep in itself, and very se- 
cure, but it is further deepened by the cartilage which 
borders it, so that it is naturally the strongest joint in 
all the body; but among other securities there is a 
round ligament which is attached to a pit in the center 



BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 39 

of this head, and fastened to the middle of the 
socket. 

2. Neck. The neck of the thigh hone is more 
than an inch in length, and is thick and strong, which 
it should he from the great weight which it sometimes 
has to bear. It is long, that it may allow the head to 
be set deep in the socket, and standing up from the 
shoulder of the bone, to keep its motions wide, free 
and unembarrassed by the pelvis; for without this 
great length of the neck, its motions would have 
been checked by the edges of its own socket. 

3. Trochanter major. This process is situated at 
the upper end of the thigh bone, and may be easily 
felt outwardly, being that great lump which we feel in 
laying the hand upon the haunch. This bump repre- 
sents the direct end of the thigh bone, while the neck 
stands off from it at one side. On the upper and fore 
part of this process, are two surfaces for the insertion 
of muscles 171 172. 

4. Trochanter minor, or lesser trochanter. This is 
smaller and more pointed, rising on the inner side of 
the bone, situated under the root of the neck. This 
eminence is also for the attachment of muscles. 

5. Inter-trochantal line. Between the greater and 
lesser trochanters there runs a rough line, which is 
thus named. The capsular ligament is attached to this 
line, and also muscle 175. 

6. Linea aspera. The linea aspera is a rising or 
prominent line, very rugged and unequal, which runs 
all down the back part of the thigh. It begins at the 
roots of the two trochanters, and ends in the tubercles 
at the lower end of the bone. 

7. Condyles. The condyles are the two tubers, in- 
to which the thigh bone swells out at its lower part 



4) BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 

There is a gentle and gradual swelling of the bone* 
then an enlargement into two broad and flat surfaces, 
wliich are united with the next bone in forming the 
joint of the knee. 

XXXIX. Tibia, so named from its resemblance 
to a pipe: the upper part of the tibia, representing the 
expanded or trumpet-like end, the lower part represen- 
ting the flute end of a pipe. The tibia, on its upper 
end, is flat and broad, making a most singular articu- 
lation with the thigh bone; for it is not a ball and sock- 
et, like the shoulder or hip joint, nor a hinge joint, 
guarded on either side with projecting points, like the 
ancle. There is no security for the knee joint, by the 
form of its bones, for they have plain flat heads, nice- 
ly laid upon each other. It is only by the number of 
its ligaments, that the knee joint is strong. 

Tiie parts of this bone, arc, 

1. Upper head. The upper head of the tibia is 
thick a«d spongy, in Which there are two broad and 
superflcial hollows, as if impressed, when soft, with 
the marks of the condyles of the thigh bone. A high 
ridge rises between these two hollows so as to be re- 
ceived into the interstice, or space between the condyles, 
on the back part, which is the highest point of the 
ridge. 

2. Tubeixk, This is situated on the fore part of 
tho tibia, just below the knee. 

3. Lower head. The lower head of the tibia com- 
poses the chief parts of the ancle joint. The lower 
head of the tjibia is smaller than the upper, in the same 
proportion that the ancle is smaller than the knee. 
The pointed part of this head of the tibia represents 
the mouth piece or flat part of the pipe, and constitutes 
the bump of the inner, anclex On one side of the low* 



BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 41 

er end of the tibia, there is a deep hollow, like an im- 
pression made with the point of the thumb, which re- 
ceives the lower end of the jibula. 

XL. Fibula ; so named from its resemblance to 
a Roman clasp. This is a small bone placed on the 
outside of the leg, opposite to the external angle of 
the tibia, the shape of it is irregular. 

This bone has no connection with the knee joint, but 
is useful in strengthening the leg, and in forming the 
ancle joint. 

The parts of this bone, are, 

1. Upper head. The upper head of the fibula is 
rough on the outer surface, for the insertion of a liga- 
ment, and muscle 184; smooth, and with cartilage 
within; and is laid upon a plain smooth surface, on the 
side of the tibia a little below the knee joint, and is 
there closely confined by ligaments. 

2. Lower head. The lower head of the fibula is 
. broad and flat, and is let pretty deep into a socket on 

the side of the tibia; together, they form the ancle-joint 
for receiving the bones of the foot. The extreme point 
of the thin extremity, gives attachment to the outer lig- 
ament of the joint, and is sometimes called the coro- 
noid process. 

XLI. Patella, or knee-bone. The knee-pan, or 

cap, as it is sometimes called, is a small thick bone, of 

an oval, or rather of a triangular form. The basis 

of this rounded triangle is turned upwards to receive 

the four great muscles which extend the legs, the apex 

or pointed part of this triangle is turned downwards, 

'and is tied by a very strong ligament to the bump or 

"tubercle of the tibia, just under the knee. The outer 

''surface is rough, the inner smooth, and divided by a 

'ridge into two unequal parts; round the margin of the 



42 BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 

bone, there is a slight depression for the attachment of 
the capsular ligament, by which, it is closely connec- 
ted to the tibia. 

The patela is useful as a lever, acting as a pully, 
which is a species of lever, gliding upon the fore part 
of the thigh bone, upon the smooth surface which is 
between the condyles. 

XLII. Tarsus, or instep. The instep cosists of 
seven bones; viz: 

The astragalus, os calcis naviculare, cuboides, cunex- 
forme externum, cuneiforme medium, and cuneiform in- 
ternum. 

The astragalus is the uppermost of these bones. 
The os calcis is below the astragalus, and forms the 
head. The os naviculare is in the middle of the in- 
ternal side of the instep. The os cuboides is the most 
external of the row of four bones, at its fore part 
The cuneiforme externum is placed at the inside of the 
os cuboides. The cuneiforme bones; and the external 
cuneiforme is at the internal side of the foot. 

1. Astragalus. This is the largest and mostrcmak- 
able bone of the tarsus or instep. The semicircular 
head of this bone forms a curious and perfect pully 
which is covered with a smooth lubricated cartilage, 
and received deep between the tibia and fibula, and rolls 
under the smooth articulating surface of the latter, 
which, being suited to this pully of the astragalus, with 
something of a boot like shape, which is often named 
the scaphoid cavity. The different points of this bone, 
are: 

A. Superior surface agreeing with the scaphoid cav- 
ities of the tibia. 

C. Internal articulating surface for the maleus in- 
ternus, or internal ancle. 



BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 43 

D . E xtemal articulating surface, for the extremity 
of the fihula. 

E. Inferior and posterior articulating surface with 
the body of the os calcis. 

F. Inferior and anterior surface, articulating also 
with a corresponding surface of the os calcis. 

G. Deep fossa, or depression, dividing these two 
inferior articulating surfaces, for the lodgment of the 
ligament, which unites this bone to the os calcis. 

H. The ball or anterior articulating surface which 
enters into the socket of the naviculare. 

1. A furrow for the attachment of the capsular lig- 
ament. 

J. On the inside of the bone is a hollow and a 
rough protuberance for the attachment of the delloid 
ligament, which comes down from the tibia. 

2. Os calcis. This is a large irregular bone; it is 
the tip or end of the arch, formed by the tarsal and 
metatarsal bones, and is situated posteriorly, or behind, 
forming the heel. 

The processes of this bone, are, 

A. Great process. This is an irregular surface, 
on the highest part of the projection backwards, to 
which a tendon is fastened. 

B. The lower and back part of the bone is rough, 
for the attachment of the cartilagenous and cellular 
substance in which it rests. 

C. An irregular articulating surface, or rather two 
surfaces covered with cartilage, by which this bone is 
joined with the os cuboides. 

D. A groove situated on the outside of this bone, 
which transmits the tendon of muscle 191. 

E. Tubercle. This is situated internally, and 
gives attachment to a ligament, which supports the 
lower part of the ball of the astragalus. 



U BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 

3. Os naviculare, sometimes called os scaphoides. 
from its partial resemblance to a boat; it is articulated 
as follows: 

A. The concave side which looks backwards is 
deep, and receives the head of the astragalus. 

B. The flat side which looks forward has not so 
deep a socket, but receives the three cuneiform bones, 
upon a surface rather plain and irregular. 

C. At the inner and lower part of this bone there 
is a tubercle, for the attachment of a ligament. 

4. Os cuboides. The os cuboides is named from 
its cubical figure, and is next to the astragalus in size. 
This bone is situated between the third cuneiform bone 
and the os calcis. It forms a complete arch, within an 
arch, which gives at once a degree of elasticity and ot 
strength to the instep. The fore point of this bone is 
divided into two surfaces, for the metatarsal bones. At 
the lower surface of this bone there is a groove for 
transmitting the tendon of muscle 191. This bone is 
laid on the cuneiforme medium, and joins it to the qs 
calcis. 

5. Cuneiform bones, are so named because they re- 
semble wedges, being laid to each other like the stones 
of an arch. The most simple arrangement is 1, 2, & 
S; counting from the side of the great toe, towards the 
middle of the foot. 

A. The first, is called cuneiform magnum, or ex- 
ternum, on this bone the great toe is placed or take* 
its origin; it has its sharp edge turned upwards; it is 
much larger than the other. 

B. The second, cuneiform minimum or internum. 
This bone is situated between the other two; and is th« 
smallest 

C. The third, is called cuneiform medium. Thi* 



t»U,VES OF THE JuOWER EXTREMITIES. 43 

hone is so named because it is a medium size between 
the greatest and smallest. These cuneiform bones re- 
ceive the great toe, and the two next to it The fourth 
and fifth toes are implanted upon the os cuboides. 

XLIII. Metatarsus. So named from its being 
placed upon the tarsus; it consists of five bones, which 
extend between the tarsus and the proper bones of the 
toes. 

1. The metatarsal bone of the great toe is the 
shortest, thickest, and strongest. It has the greatest 
weight to sustain. 

2. The metatarsal bone of the second toe is the 
largest of the five, and is supported by the os cunei- 
form medium. 

3. The metatarsal bone of third tee, is the second 
in length, and is supported by the os cuneiform medi- 
um. 

4. The metatarsal bone of the fourth toe is nearly 
as long as that of the third, and is articulated to the 
os cuboides. 

5. The metatarsal bone of the little toe is much 
shorter than that of the fourth. This bone is partly 
articulated to the os cuboides. 

When standing the fore ends of the metatarsal bones, 
j and the os calcaleis, are our only supporters, it is there- 
fore necessary that they should be very strong. 

XLIV. Toes. The last division of the foot, con- 
. sisting of three bones in each toe excepting the great 
toe which has but two; these bones are disposed in 
rows, and are named the first, second, and third pha-~ 
ianges, or ranks of the toes. It w r ould be a waste of 
"time and expense for nothing to give a, minute descrip- 
tion of these small bones. 
X^V.. Sessamqijq bones, so named from their 



46 BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 

resemblance to the seeds of the sesamum. They are 
small bones, about the size of half a pea. They are 
most commonly found at the second joint of the thumb, 
and of the great toe; and are placed in pairs, especial- 
ly at the great toe, between the tendons of the flexor 
muscles and the bones. In the joints of the thumb and 
toe, they appear to be very analagous to the patella or 
knee pan. 

The following is a table of all the bones in the hu- 
man system. 



A TABLE OF BONES. 



BoXEA OP THB CBA3UUK OB 8KT7U.. •< 



B0KB8 OF THB FACB. 



DBXTIS OB TEBTH. 
BoXB OF THE T0N6UB, 

BOXES OF THB EAB. 



BoXEl OF THB TBBNK. 



Boxes of the cfpeb extbb*ities. J 



Frontal, 

Parietal, 

Occipital, 

Temporal, 

Ethmoid, 
L Sphenoid, 
* Superior Maxil. 

Jugale, 

Nasal, 

Lachrymal, 

Palatine, 

Inferior sponga. 

Vomer, 
^ Inferior Maxil. 



I 



BOXES OF THB 10VTBB BXTBBMITIBS. < 



Hyoides, 

Maleus, 

Incus, 

Stapes, 
V_ Orbiculare, 

Vertebra^ 

Sacrum, 

Cocyges, 

Sternum, 

Innominata ossa, 
" Clavicle, 

Scapula, 

Humeri os, 

Ulna, 

Radius, 

Carpus, 

Metacarpus, 
\. Phalanges, 
" Femur, 

Patella, 

Tibia, 

Fibula, 

Tarsus, 

Metatarsus, 



Phalanges, 
Sesamoid bones of the thumb and great toe, 

Total. 



1 

2 
1 

2 
1 
1 
2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

8 

4 
20 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 
24 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

16 

10 

28 

2 

2 

2 

2 

14 

10 

28 

8 

243 



%XPIjJiJ%WTIOJr OF PJL&Tm %. 

A rront View of the Ititale S&eleton. 



A 
B 
C 
D 

K 
F 
G 
H 

\ 

K 

h 

M 
N 
O 
P 
Q 
R 
S 
T 

tr 
v 

X 

Y 
Z 

a 
b 

c 
d 



The os frontis. 

The os parietala. 

The coronal suture. 

The squamous part of the 
temporal bone. 

The squamous suture. 

The Zygoma. 

The mastoid process. 

The temporal process of the 
sphenoid bone* 

The orbit. 

The Os malx. 

The upper Jaw bones. 

Its nasal process. 

The 03sa nasi. 

The os unguis. 

The lower jaw. 

The teeth. 

The sever cervical vertebrx . 

Their transverse processes. 

The 12 dorsal vertebra:. 

The five lunar vertebrx. 

Their transverse processes. 

The upper part of the os 
sacrum. 

Its side parts. 

The os ilium. 

Its Crest or spine. 

The anterioi spinous process. 

The brim of the pelvis. 

The ischeatic notch. 

The os ischeum. 

Its tuberosity. 

Its spinous process. 

Its cms, or root. 

The foramen thyroideum. 

The os pubis. 

The symphysis pubis. 

The crus pubis or origen. 

The acetabulum. 

The seventh or last true rib. 

The twelfth or last false rib. 

The upper end of the ster- 
num. 



The middle piece. 

The cartilage ensiformis. 

The clavicle. 
t Internal surface of the scapula 
u Its acromion. 

Its caracoid process. 

Its neck or cervix. 

Its glenoid cavity. 

The os humeri. 

Its head. 

1 Its tubercle. 

2 Its internal tubercle. 

3 Its groove. 

4 Its condyle, 

5 Between 4 & 5 its trochlea. 

6 The radius. 
Its head. 
Its tubercle. 
The ulna. 

10 Its coronid process. 

11 to 18 The carpus composed 

of several bones. 

19 The five bones of the meta- 
carpus. 

20 The two bones of the thumb. 

21 The three bones of each fin- 
ger. 

22 The os femoris. 

23 Its head. 

24 Its cervix or neck, 

25 The trochanter major. 

26 The trochanter minor. 

27 The internal condyle. 

28 The external condyle. 

29 The rotula or knee pan-. 

30 The tibia. 

31 Its head. 

32 Its tubercle. 

33 Its spine. 

34 The internal ancle. 

35 The fibula. 

36 Its head. 

37 The external ancle 

38 The astragalus 



p II 



■a R •' r> 



) ] 



1 * 



J0S" 







EXPLANATION OF PLATES 2 & 3. 



49 



39 The cs calcis. 

40 The cs navxulare. 

41 The three ossacune; forme 

42 The fi ve bones of the met 

atarsus. 



43 The two bones of the 

great toe. 

44 The three bones of each 

s.nall toe. 



■ I H9 Q8 *"" 



EIMiJMM TIOJV OF PLATE 3. 
Front View. 



Seventh or last true rib. 
Twelfth or last false rib, 
The clavicle. 
The scapula. 
Its spine. 
Its acromion. 
Its cervix er neck- 
Its superior costaorrib, 
Its posterior costa. 
Its inferior costa. 
The os humeri. 
Radius. 
Ulna. 

Its olecranon. 
Bones of the carpus. 
5 bones of the metacarpus 

2 bones of the thumb. 

3 bones of each finger. 

2 sessamoid bones of the 

thumb. 
Os femoris. 
Trochanter major. 
Trochanter minor. 
Linea aspera. 
Internal condyle. 
External condyle. 
Semilunar cartilages., 
The tibia. 
Internal ancle. 
Fibula. 

External ancle. 
The tarsus. 
The metatarsus. 
The toes. 



AA The rssa parietala. 


f 


B 


Tiie sig.tal suture. 


g 


C 

F 


The lainbo.d suture. 
The mastoid process of 


h 
i 




the temp. bone. 


k 


G 


The os malx. 


1 


H 


The palati plates of the 


m 




upper jaw bones. 


n 


I 


The lower jaw. 


o 


K 


The teeth of both jaws. 


p 


L 


The 7 cervical vertebrae. 


q 


M 


Their spinous processes. 


r 


N 


Their transverse andob- 


s 




Lque processes. 


t 


O 


The last of the 12 dorsal 


u 




vertebrae. 


v 


Q 


The transverse processes 


w 


R 


The oblique processes. 


X 


S 


The spinous processes. 


y 


T 


The upper part of the os 






sacrum. 


z 


U 


The posterior holes for 


1 




nerves, &c. 


2 


V 


The under part of the os 


3 




sacrum. 


4 


W 


The os coccygis. % 


5 


X 


Os ilium. 


6 


Y 


Its spine or crest. 


7 


Z 


Ischiatic notch. 


8 


a 


Os Ischium. 


9 


fc 


Its tuberosity. 


10 


c 


Its spine. 


11 


d 


Os pubis. 


12 


c 


Foramen thyoidcura. 
E 


13 



PART SECOND. 

OF ARTICULATIONS, LIGAMENTS, BURSJE, MU- 
COSA], &C. 

The skeleton is composed of a great number of 
bones, which are all so admirably constructed, and 
with so much affinity to each other, that the extremi- 
ties of each bone is perfectly adjusted to the end of 
the bone with which it is connected. This connection 
is termed their articulation, of which, anatomists dis- 
tinguish four kinds: the first is named diarthrosis: the 
second synarthrosis: the third ssymphysis, and the 
fou rth , amphyarthros is. 

I. Diarthrosis. A free, moveable connection of 
bones. This genous has four species, viz: 

1. Enthrosis. A ball and socket joiut, in which th© 
round head of one bone is received into a cavity of an- 
other, so as to admit of motion in every direction; as 
the hip joint. 

2. Jlntherodia. A moveable connection of bones, 
in which the head of one bone is received into the su- 
perficial cavity of another, so as to admit of motion in 
every direction, as the head of the os humeri, or upper 
bone of the arm, with the glenoid cavity ol the scapu- 
la, or shoulder blade. 

3. Ginglymus. A hinge joint, which admits of 
flexion and extension, as the knee and elbow joint. 

4. Trochoides. A moveable connection of bones, 
in which one bone rotates or turns upon another; as 
the first vertebra of the neck upon the odontoid, or 
tooth-like process of the second. 

II. Synarthrosis. An immoveable connection 
of bones, in which they are united together by an 



52 ARTICULATIONS. 

immoveable union It lias three species, viz: 

1. Suture; To join together. The word suture 
is applied to bones where they are joined together by 
a dentiform or tooth like margin; as in the bones of the 
head. 

2. Harmonia', To fit together. An immoveable 
connection of bones, in which bones are connected to- 
gether by means of rough margins, not dentiform; in 
this manner most of the bones of the face are connect- 
ed together. 

3. Gomphosis\ To drive in a nail. A species of 
connection of bones, in which one bone is fixed in ano- 
ther, like a nail in wood, or as the teeth in the alveoli 
of the jaws. 

III. Symphysis; To grow together. A connec- 
tion of bones, in which they are united by means of an 
intervening body. It comprehends three species, 
viz: 

1. Synchondrosis. A connection of bones, in which 
one bone is united with another by means of an inter- 
vening cartilage; as the vertebra, and the bones of 
the pubes. 

2. Syncurosis. A connection of bones, in which 
one bone is united to another by means of an interven- 
ing membrane. 

3. Syndesmosis. A connection of bones, in which 
one is united to another by a ligament, as the radiu9 
with the ulna. 

IV. Ampiiiatitiirosis. A connection of bones 
partaking both of diarlhrosis and synarthrosis, which 
admits only of an obscure motion, as in the wrist and 
ancle. 

The surfaces of bones which form the moveable ar- 
ticulations arc covered with cartilaginous matter, and 



ARTICULATIONS. 53 

are retained in their relative situations by ligaments, 
which are exterior to the cavities of the articulations, 
and placed in such situations that they permit the mo- 
tions of which the joints are calculated to perform, 
while they keep the respective bones in their proper 
places. They are invested in a particular manner by 
a thin delicate membrane, which in some joints as those 
of the hip and shoulder seems to be the internal lami- 
na, or layer of a stronger ligament called the capsu- 
lar ligament: and in all other joints, the knee for ex- 
ample, appears to be independent of any other struc- 
ture. In such cases, the capsular ligament, or synoval 
membrane as it is sometimes called, forms a complete 
Back or bag, which covers the articulating surface of 
one bone, and is reflected from it to the corresponding 
surface of the other; adhering firmly to each of the 
articulating surfaces, and extending loosely from the 
margin of one surface to that of the other. 

The sygnoval membrane, or capsular ligament sup- 
plies the place of pcricliordrium, (a membrane that cov- 
ers a cartilage) to the cartilages of the joint, and of 
pcriostum to those surfaces of bones with which it is 
connected. This membrane secretes, or effuses from 
its surface, a liquor called synovia or joint water; 
which is particularly calculated to lubricate parts that 
move upon each other. 

There are in many of the joints masses of fat. which 
appears to project into the cavity, but are exterior to 
the synoval membrane, and covered by it; as the vis- 
tera in the abdomen are covered by the peritoneum, or 
membrane. These masses of fat are generally situ- 
ated so as to be pressed gently, but not bruised by the 
motions of the bones. 

These masses have been considered as synovial 

E* 



54 ARTICULATIONS. 

glands; but they do not appear like glands; and it b 
probable that the synovia is secreted by the whole in- 
ternal surface of the membrane. 

The synovial membrane, like the other parts of the 
joint, is insensible, or at least sensibility is very weak 
in a sound state, but extremely painful when infla- 
med. 

The membranes, cartilages, and ligaments of the 
joints, are slow in entering into action, but once exci- 
ted, they continue to act with a perseverance quite un- 
known in any other part of the system. The diseas- 
es to which the joints are subject, are numerous.— 
They are subject to dropsical effusions; they are sub- 
ject to gelatinous concretions; they are subject to J 
slighUnflammations,to suppuration or pus, to corosions i 
or eating away the cartilages, suppurations and morti- 
fications of the more softer parts. Rheumatism is an 
inflammation round the joints, with a slight effusion, 
which is soon absorbed. Chronic rheumatism is a te- 
dious and slow inflammation, with gelatinons effusions 
round the tendons, and swelling, and lameness round 
the joints. Gout, in the joint, is a high state of inflam- 
mation with a secretion of earthy matter into its cav- 
ity. There are many other diseases to which the 
joints are subject, as whitlow, white swellings, &c. 

OF PARTICULAR ARTICULATIONS. 

THE COHWECTIOIT OF THE HEAD WITH THE VEBTEBBiB. 

The condyles of the occipital bone, and the corres- 
ponding cavities of the atlas, or upper vertebra, are 
covered with cartilage. The condyle and cavitY on 
each side are covered with a capsular or synovial lie- 



ARTICULATIONS. 55 

ament; at this joint the nodding motions of the head 
is performed. 

The atlas so rests upon the second vertehra. or as it 
is called vertebra denta, that all the turning motion* 
are performed at that point, so that it requires two 
joints for the head to perform its various motions. 

These joints are held together by various ligaments, 
the description of which would he of hut little use to 
the readers of this volume. 

Articulations of the vertebra, with each other. 

The bodies of all the vertebrae, except the atlas, are 
connected to each other by the intervertebral cartilag- 
inous matter, which unites them very firmly, allowing 
at the same time some motion, in consequence of its 
elasticity and compressibility. This connection is 
strengthened by two ligaments, which extend the whole 
length of the spine, from the second vertebra of the 
neck to the os sacrum, together with various other lig- 
aments. 

Articulation of the Lower Jaw. 

The glenoid cavity of the temporal bone, with the 
tubercle before it, and the condyle of the lower jaw, 
are covered with cartilages. And to render the mo- 
tions of this joint easy and free, a moveable cartilage 
is placed between them, which being flexible, is ac- 
commodated to the convexity of the condyle and hol- 
lowness of the glenoid cavity, and also to the figure 
of the tubercle to which it is extended. 

This joint is completed by a capsular ligament of 
the common form, which arises from the neck of the 
condyle, and which is so fixed into the temporal bone 



46 ARTICULATIONS. 

as to include both the proper socket and the root of thf 
zygomatic process. 

The strength of this joint not only depends upoa 
its ligaments, but upon muscles 35, 37, & 8, which ar» 
inserted close round the joint. 

THE LIGAMENTS OF THE LOWER JAW, ARE, 

1 Capsular ligament. 

2 Ligamentum cartilaginis intermedia;. 

3 " maxillae lateral externum. 

4 " " lateral internum. 

5 " inter maxillum. 

6 " processum styloideum. 

The lower jaw is subject to dislocation, by blows, 
yawning, fits, &c. and is known by an inability to 
shut the mouth, and the projection of the chin. Before 
attempting to reduce this joint, the muscles should be 
relaxed, which may be done by applying flannels 
wrung out of warm water for fifteen or twenty min- 
utes; if much swelled, it will require a longer time. 
After the muscles have become relaxed, seat the pa- 
tient in a chair, and let his head be supported against 
the breast of an assistant. You may then push your 
thumbs between the teeth and cheeks until they reach 
the upright portion of the bone, while with the fingers 
outside, you grasp the bone, which is to be pressed 
downwards and backwards, while at the same time 
the chin is to be raised and pushed backwards; if this 
process is rightly performed there will be no difficulty 
in reducing it. 

I have succeeded in reducing the jaw, when dislo- 
cated, after the muscles were properly relaxed, by in- 
troducing the fore finger of each hand and pushing the 
apright portion of the bone back >vards, bearing th© 
chin up at the same time with my thumbs. 



ARTICULATIONS: 57 

Articulation of the Jlibs. 

The ribs have two joints, and a hinge-like motion* 
rising and falling alternately, as we draw in or let out 
our breath. The two joints of the ribs are thus secu- 
red; first, the proper head of the ribs being hinged 
upon the intervertebral substances, and touching two 
vertebrae, it is tied to the bodies of each by a regular 
capsule or synovial ligament. The back of the rib 
touches the fore part of the transverse process, and is 
articulated there; consequently there is a small capsu- 
lar ligament belonging to this joint also. These joints 
are secured by several ligaments. 

The ribs are also fixed into the breast bone by their 
cartilages, each of which has a round head, a distinct 
socket, a regular capsule, and ligaments which hold 
them firm to their places. There arc six ligaments 
which bind a rib to the spine, and three at the breast 
bone. 

i 

Articulations of the Clavicle. 

The connection of the clavicle with the breast bone 
resembles that of the lower jaw — and temporal bone. 

[A moveable cartilage is placed between the articula- 
ting surfaces. This cartilage is thin and of a mu- 
cous nature, and is moveable in some degree, yet it is 

'fixed by one edge to the head of t!ve clavicle. 

This joint is closed in a strong capsular ligament, 

" consist! n 2 first of a has:, ami then of the outer order 
of fibres, which go out in a radiated form, upon the 

'"surface of the breast bone. The clavicle is also tied 

•to the first rib by a broad ligament called rhomboid tig- 

• anient. 

• This bone is subject to dislocation and fracture. T& 



58 ARTICULATIONS. 

reduce it, seat the patient in a chair, and place a 
compress of linen under his arm. His arm hcing 
bent at right angle at the elbow, is now to be brought 
down to his side, and secured in that position by along 
bandage, which is to be passed over the arm of the af- 
fected side and round the body. The fore arm is to 
be supported by a sling. It takes this bone from four , 
to live weeks to unite. 

Articulations of the Os Humeri and Scapula. 

The spherical portion of the upper extremity of the 
nipper bone of the arm, is the first which is received in 
the glenoid cavity of the shoulder blade, both of which 
arc covered with cartilage. 

The glenoid cavity of the shoulder blade being of 
itself small, when compared with the head of the 
shoulder bone is greatly enlarged with the cartilage 
that lines the cavity, together with the tendons of 
muscles which are there inserted, and the capsular lig- 
ament which covers this joint. This joint is held in 
its proper situation by the capsular ligament, which is 
blended with an external stronger ligament, together 
with the muscles and their tendons, which are situated 
about this joint. The ligaments of this joint are 
eight. 

Dislocations of the shoulder are the most commi 
of all accidents of the kind. It is very easily knov 
by the deformity of the joint, and the bead of the bone 
being found in some unnatural position. To reduce! 
iseat tiic patient on a chair, place one hand on the prom- 
inent part of the shoulder blade, just above the spot 
where the head of tac bone should be, while with the 
other you grasp the arm above the elbow and pull it 
outwards. 



ARTICULATIONS. 59 

A better plan is to let one extend the arm, and ano- 
ther place the head of the bone, this will be easier 
done, after the muscles have been relaxed with warm 
water. 

Articulation of the Elbow. 

The elbow-joint is formed by three bones; the hu- 
merus, radius, and ulna; the surfaces of these bones, 
where they move upon each other, are covered with 
cartilage. The motion of the ulna and radius on tho 
os humeri is that of flexion and extension. The head 
of the radius performs a part of a revolution, nearly 
on its own axis, without moving from the depression 
in the side of the ulna, with which it is in contact. 

The synovial or capsular ligament adheres very 
firmly to the surface, covered with cartilage on each of 
the bones, and is reflected from the margin of the sur- 
face of one bone, to that of the others. As the prin- 
cipal motion performed in this joint is hinge- like, so, 
the principal ligaments are on the sides. 
The ligaments of this joint are five. 
This joint is sometimes dislocate:! backwards. When 
this is the case, seat the patient on a chair, let one per- 
son grasp the arm near the shoulder, and another ths 
wrist, and forcibly extend it, while you interlock the 
: fingers of both hands just above the elbow, and pull it 
■ r backwards, remembering that whatever degree of 
force is required, should be applied in this direction. 

When this joint is dislocated laterally or side waysj 
i to reduce it, let one pull at the wrist, while another se- 
cures the arm above, then push the bone into its place, 
either inwards or outwards, as may be required. 



60 ARTICULATIONS. 

Articulation of the Wrist. 

The structure of the wrist is very complex. It 
consists of three articulations, which arc contiguous to 
«ach other, viz: 

1. That of the ulna and radius. 

2. That of the radius and first row of thehono3 of 
the wrist. 

S» That of the first and second row of the bones 
of the wrist with each other. 

A long convex head is formed by the upp?r surface 
of the scaphoides and lunar e, and a portion of the upper 
surface of the cuneiform bone. This head is covered 
with a cartilage, which is so uniform that the different 
bones cannot be distinguished from each other. The 
lower end of the radius i.3 articulated with this head, 
but does not cover the whole of it; a portion of this 
head is therefore under the ulna, but not in contact 
with that hone. The lower end oftlie ulna is in con- 
tact with the upper surface of the above named cartil- 
age, but is articulated to the side of the radius. 

A synovial membrane covers the articulating head 
formed by the three bones of the wrist, and is reflect- 
ed from the margin of their cartilaginous surface, to 
the cartilage at the end of the radius. A fold of this 
membrane passes from the head of the wrist, at the 
junction of the scaphoides and lunare, to the opposite 
part of the cartilage of the radius, and has been called 
the mucous ligament. 

The surfaces, by which the first and second rows of 
the bones of the wrist are articulated with each other, 
are very irregular, and being so closely connected with 
each other, that the name of joint can hardly be ap« 
plied to them. They are rather fixed than jointed to 
*ach other. The first row is united to the second, bj 



ARTltULATIONtS. 61 

a general and distinct capsule, in addition to which 
each single hone is tied to the next adjoining bone by a 
regular capsular ligament within, and by flat crose 
ligaments without, or rather by many bundles of liga- 
ments, which crass each other in a very complicated 
manner. The ligaments of the wrist are nine in num- 
ber. 

Articulation of the Carpal and Metacarpal bones. 

The metacarpal bones, or bones between the wrist 
and fingers, are connected to the last row of the wrist 
by surfaces which are covered with cartilages, and 
supplied with synovial or capsular ligaments, as the 
most of moveable articulations are; but the ligaments 
which connect these bones do not permit much motion 
between them. The irregularity of the articulating 
surfaces of the metacarpal hones of the fore and mid- 
dle finger, also contribute to restrain their motion; ac- 
cordingly these two bones move less than the other two 
bones of the hand, the surfaces of which are better 
adapted for motion. 

Articulation of the Fingers. 

The first joint of the fingers have a large synovial 
or capsular ligament, which covers the head of the 
metacarpal bone, and corresponding cavities of the 
first bones of the fingers. The other joints of the fin- 
gers arc articulated in a similar manner, all of which 
are secured in their proper places by ligaments passing 
from one bone to another. 

Dislocation of the wrist, fingers, and thumb, are 
to be reduced by forcibly extending the lower extremi- 
ty of the part, and pushing the bones into their prop- 



#2 ARTICULATIONS. 

er place. These accidents should be attended to with- 
out delay, for if neglected, they shortly become irre- 
duceable. 

The Hip Joint. 

The acetabulum, or cavity for receiving the head of 
the thigh bone, is lined with cartilage, the brim of 
which is much enlarged, and the cavity deepened, by 
the addition of fibrous cartilaginous matter, which 
forms a regular smooth edge. The head of the thigh 
bone is also covered with a smooth cartilage, having a 
depression in the center. From this depression a 
strong ligament arises, which appears to pass to a de- 
pression in the center of the cavity, but terminates in 
the lower edge of the cartilaginous ring or margin. 
This ligament allows the head of the thigh bone to rise 
out of the cavity, but is probably torn in every luxa- 
tion of the hip joint. 

The capsular ligament? which contains these articu- 
lating parts, is the strongest one in the body. It ari- 
ses near the basis of the cartilaginous brim, but it 
does not adhere to the cartilaginous edge; and is in- 
serted into the thigh bone, near the roots of the tro- 
chanters, so that it includes a large portion of the neck 
of the bone. There are five ligaments united in secu- 
ring the hip joint, but the greatest dependence is upon 
the capsular ligament. 

Notwithstanding the hip joint is the strongest one in 
the body, it is sometimes dislocated. When this acci- 
dent happens, place the patient on his back upon a ta- 
ble. Take two sheets, and fold them like a cravat, 
which arc to be passed between the thigh and testicle, 
on each side, one half of each sheet passing obliquely 
over the belly to the opposite shoulder, while the other 



ARTICULATIONS. 63 

half passes under the back in the same direction, the 
ends of which are to be fastened to something that is 
firm, or held by assistants. The thigh is then to be 
steadily and forcibly extended, while you will be turn- 
ing and twisting the limb to assist in dislodging it 
from its unnatural situation. The reduction of this 
joint should never be attempted until the parts are well 
relaxed, by the application of cloths wrung out of 
warm water. 

Articulation of the Knee. 

The knee joint is composed of the thigh bone, tibia, 
and jmtella, or knee pan, and are united by many 
ligaments, both within and without the joint. 

This joint as it relates to the bones is very weak. 
There is in this joint no fair cavity, for receiving the 
head of a bone as in the hip, no slighter ball and sock- 
et as in the fingers; no strong overhanging bones, as 
in the shoulder, nor hook-like processes as in the ulna. 
The strength of this joint does not depend upon its 
bon«s, but upon the number, size, and disposition of 
the great ligaments with which its bones are joined; 
by virtue of these ligaments it is one of the strongest 
joints of the human body. The articulation of this 
joint has been described in the description of the bones 
of the thigh, leg, &c. (which sec.) The ligaments of 
the knee are fifteen. 

This joint is sometimes dislocated, but requires very 
little force to reduce it. Sometimes the patella or knee 
pan is dislocated, which will be easily known by its 
unnatural situation. To reduce it, bring the leg in a 
right angle with the body, and with the hand push it 
to its proper place. 



64 LIGAMENTS. 

Articulation of the Ancle* 

It should be observed that the tibia and fibula are 
so firmly connected with each other at the lower end, 
that they may be considered as forming but one mem- 
ber of this joint. They together form one cavity for 
receiving the astragalus, with two projecting points, 
the fibula forming the outer ancle, and the tibia form- 
ing the process of the inner ancle. 

This joint is made strong by the lower heads of the 
tibia aud fibula, which serve as guards to the foot, so 
that when the ancle is luxated these bones are often 
broken. This joint possesses a capsular ligament, 
together with several other ligaments, which assist in 
strengthening it. It is not very common for this joint 
to be dislocated; however, should it happen, let one 
person hold the leg, and another extend the foot, while 
you push the bone to its proper place. The joint is 
then to be covered with compresses wet with vinegar, 
and a splint applied to each side. Accidents of this 
kind are very dangerous, and should receive prompt 
attention. 

The other articulations of the foot have been noticed 
in the description of the bones of the foot (which 
see.) 

OF PARTICULAR LIGAMENTS. 

The following are some of the most important liga 
ments of the human system, and which will frequent 
iy be refered to in explaining the muscles. 



LIGAMENTS. 63. 

Ligaments of the Scapula. 

1. Triangular ligament. This ligament arises 
broad from the external surface of the caracoid pro- 
cess, and becomes narrower where it is fixed to the 
posterior margin of the acromion. It confines the ten- 
don of muscle 125, and assists in protecting the upper 
and inner part of the shoulder joint. 

2. Posterior ligament of the scapula. This liga- 
ment is sometimes double, and is stretched across the 
semilunar notch of the shoulder blade, forming that 
notch into one or two holes for the passage of the scap- 
ulary vessels and nerves. It also gives rise to partof 
muscle 48. 

A Ligament of the Fore Arm. 

3. Interosseous ligament. This ligament is situa- 
ted between the sharp ridges of the radius and ulna, 
filling up the greater part of the space between these 
two bones, and is composed of small fosciculh or fibrous 
slips, which run obliquely downwards and inwards, 
Two or three of these, however, go in the opposite di- 
rection; ajid one of them, termed oblique ligament and 
chorda transversalis cubiti, is stretched between the 
tubercle of the ulna and under part of the tubercle of 
the radius. This ligament prevents the radius from 
rolling too much outwards, and furnishes attachment 
for muscles. 

Ligaments retaining the tendons of the muscles of the 
hand and fingers in their proper position. 

4. Anterior annular ligament of the wrist. This 
ligament is stretched across from the projecting points 
of the pisiform and unciform bones, to the os scaphoides 

r* 



66 LIGAMENTS. 

and trapezium, forming an arch which covers and pre- 
serves in their places the tendons of the flexor muscles 
of the fingers. 

5* Vaginal ligaments of the flexor tendons. These 
are fine membranes, connecting the tendons of mus- 
cles 151 and 152; forming at the same time bursas mu- 
cosse which surround the tendons. 

6. Vaginal or crucial ligaments qfthejingers. These 
ligaments arise from the ridges on the concave side of 
the bones of the fingers, and run over the tendons of 
the flexor muscles of the fingers- Upon the body of 
the phalanges, they are thick and strong, to bind down 
the tendons; but over the joints they are thin, and 
have, in some parts, a crucial, or transverse intersect- 
ing appearance, to allow the ready motion of the 
joints. 

7. Accessary ligaments of the Jlexor tendons of the 
fingers. These are small tendinous ligaments, arising 
from the first and second phalanges of the fingers. 
They run obliquely forwards within the vaginal liga- 
ments, terminating in the tendons of the two flexor 
muscles of the fingers, and assist in keeping them in 
their places. 

8. Posterior annular ligament of the wrist. This 
is part of the aponeurosis or tendinous expansion of the 
fore arm, extending across the back of the wrist, from 
the extremity of the ulna and os pisiforme to the ex- 
tremity of the radius. It is connected with the small 
annular ligaments which tie down the tendons of Mus- 
cles 141, 147 & 148. 

9. Transverse ligaments. These are apeneurotie 
slips running between the tendons, near the heads of 
the metacarpal bones, and retaining them in their pla- 
ces. 



LIGAMENTS. 13? 

Ligaments of the fore part of the Thorax. 

10. Membrane proper to the sternum. This mem- 
brane is a firm expansion, composed of tendinous fibres 
running in different directions, and covering the fore 
and back surface of the breast bone, being compound- 
ed with the periosteum. 

11. Ligaments of the Cartilago Ensiformis. This 
is part of the membrane last described, divided into 
two strong slips which run obliquely from the under 
and fore part of the second bone of the sternum, and 
from the cartilages of the seventh pair of ribs to be 
fixed to the cartilago ensiformis. The ligaments cov- 
ering the sternum serve considerably to strengthen 
that bone. 

Ligaments of the hones of the Pelvis. 

12. Transverse ligaments. These ligaments arise 
from the posterior or back of the spine of the os ilium* 
and run transversely. One of these is fixed to the last 
vertebra of the loins, and the other to the first; the 
other is fixed to the transverse process of the os sa- 
crum. 

1 3. Hie sacral ligaments. These arise from the 
posterior or back spinous process of the os ilium, de- 
scending obliquely, and are fixed to the first, & fourth 
spinous transverse processes of the os sacrum. 

These with the two transverse ligaments, assist in 
binding the bones together, to which they are connect- 
ed. 

14. Sacro ischiatic ligaments. These are situated 
in the under and back part of the pelvis. They arise 
in common from the transverse processes of the os sa- 
crum, and likewise from the under and side part of 



69. LIGAMENTS. 

that bone, and from the upper part of the 09 coccygis. 
One of these descends obliquely to be fixed to the tu- 
berosity of the os ischium. The other runs transverse. 
ly to be fixed to the spinous process of the os ischium. 
These two ligaments assist in binding the bones of the 
pelvis, in supporting its contents, and in giving origin 
to part of its muscles. 

There are two membranous productions which are 
connected with these ligaments, which are attached to 
the os ischium, termed its superior and inferior appendi- 
ces. 

The superior apendix, which is tendinous, arises 
from the back part of the spine of the os ilium, and is 
fixed along the outer edge of the ligament, which it 
increases in breadth. 

The inferior or falciform apendix, situated within the 
cavity of the pelvis, the back part of which is connec- 
ted with the middle of the large external ligament, and 
the rest of it extends round the curvature of the os is- 
chium. These two productions assist the large exter- 
nal ligament, or the one which is attached to the tuber- 
cle of the os ischium, in furnishing a more commodi- 
ous situation, and insertion of part of the gluteus max- 
imns, and obturator internus muscles. (See mus. 84, 
& 170. 

1.5. Longltudal ligaments of the os cocygis. These 
ligaments descend from those upon the dorsum of the 
os sacrum, to be fixed to the back part of the os coccygis. 
The ligaments of this bone prevent it from being pull- 
ed too much forwards by the action of muscle 85; res- 
toring the bone to its natural situation, after the muscle 
has ceased to act. 

16. Ligamentous cartilage. This cartilage unites 
the ossa pubis or share bones together, so as to admit 
of no motion, excepting in the state of pregnancy* 



LIGAMENTS. 6j 

when it is frequently found to be so softened as to yield 
a little in the time of delivery. 

17. Obturator membrane or ligament of the foramen 
thyroideum. This ligament adheres to the margin of 
the foramen thyroideum, and fills the whole of that 
opening, excepting the oblique notch at its upper part; 
for the passage of the obturator vessels and nerves. 
It assists in supporting the contents of the pelvis, and 
in giving origin to the obturator muscle (mus. 84.) 

18. Interosseous ligament of the leg. This ligament 
fills the space between the two bones of the leg, like 
the interosseous ligament of the fore arm, and is of a 
similar structure; being formed of oblique fibres, and 
perforated in various places for the passage of vessels 
and nerves. This ligament together with other usesi 
serves for the origin of muscles. 

Ligaments of the Foot and Toes. 

19. Annular ligament of the tarsus. This is a thick- 
ened part of the apeneurosis of the leg, splitting into 
superior and inferior portions, which bind down tho 
tendons of the extensors of the toes upon the fore part 
of the ancle. 

20. Vaginal ligaments of the tendons of the peronci 
muscles. These ligaments preserve the tendons in their 
places, and are the bursae of these tendons. 

21. Laciniated ligaments. These arise from the 
inner ancle, and spread in a radiated manner, to bo 
fixed partly in the cellular substance and fat, and 
partly to the os calcis, at the inner side of the heel. 
This ligament encloses muscles 139 & 195. 

22. Vaginal ligament of the tendon of the flexor lon- 
gus policis. This ligament surrounds the tendon of 
muscle 196 in the hollow of the os calcis. 



70 LIGAMENTS. 

23. Vaginal and crucial ligaments of the tendons of 
the flexors of the toes. These ligaments enclose the 
tendons on the surface of the hones of the toes, and 
from their bursa?, mucosa?. 

24. Accessary ligaments of the flexor tendons of the 
toes. These ligaments arise, from the hones of the 
toes, and are included in the sheths of the tendons in 
which they terminate. 

25. Transverse ligaments of the extensor tendons. 
These ligaments run between the extensor tendons, 
preserving them in their proper places behind the roots 
of the toes. 

OF BURS^E MUCOSAE. 

The bursa mucosa, are little bags or sacks, placed 
between the tendons and bones, where there is much 
friction. These sacks are composed of proper mem- 
branes, containing a kind of mucous fat. The bursa 
mucosae are of different sizes and firmness, and are 
connected by the cellular membrane to articular cavi- 
ties, tendons, ligaments, or the penosteum. Their use 
is to secrete and contain a substance to lubricate ten- 
dons, muscles and bones, in order to render their mo- 
tions easy. 

The bursa mucosa is a part of natural anatomy, 
which is necessary for the surgeon to be well acquain- 
ted with, because after sprains and injuries of that 
kind, an effusion takes place in them, presenting a 
puffy swelling over the joint, not easily understood 
unless we are acquainted with the situation of tha 
bursa. 



Bursa, Mucosae of the Head. 

1. Ji bursa of muscle 9. This is situated in the 
eye socket. 

2. A bursa of muscle 41. This is situated in the 
internal surface of the tendon of that muscle. 

3. Abursaofmus. 55. This is situated between 
the hook-like processes of the sphenoid bone, and the 
tendon of that muscle. 

4. A bursa of muscle 47. This is situated be- 
tween the os hyoides and larynx. 

Bursal mucosal about the Shoulder Joint. 

5. The external acromial. This is situated under 
the acromion, between the caracoid process, muscle 129, 
and capsular ligament. 

6* The internal acromial. This is situated above 
the tendons of muscles 126 & 127. 

7. The caracoid bursa. This is situated near the 
root of the caracoid process. 

8. The claviexda bursa. This is found where the 
clavicle touches the caracoid process. 

9. The subclavian bursa. This is situated between 
the tendon of muscle 92 and the first rib. 

10. The caracd-brochial. This is situated between 
the origin of muscle 1 30, and the capsular ligament. 

11. Jl bursa of muscle 91. This is situated under 
the head of the humerus, between the internal surface 
of the tendon of that muscle, and another bursa pla- 
ced on the long head of the biceps muscle. 

12. An external bursa of muscle 128. This is sit- 
uated under the head of the os humeri, between it and 
the tendon of that muscle. 

13. An internal bursa of muscle 1 28. This is found 



73 BURSJE MUCOSJE. 

within the muscle where the fibres of its tendons di- 
verge. 

14. A bursa of muscle 1 03. This is situated be- 
tween the tendon of this muscle and the os humeri. 

15. llumero bicipital bursa. This is found in the 
jsheth of the tendon of the biceps. 

Bursa: near the elbow joint. 

16. The radio-bicipital. This is situated between 
the tendons of muscles 132, 133, and the anterior tu 
bercle of the radius. 

17. The cubito-radial. This is situated between 
the tendons of muscles 134, 146, and the ligament 
common to the radius and ulna. 

18. The aconeal bursa. This is situated between 
the olecranon and tendon of muscle 135. 

19. The capitulo-radial bursa. This is situated 
between the tendons of muscles 138, 139, and the 
round head of the radius. 

Bursas on the inside of the Wrist and Hand. 

20. A large bursa, for the tendon of muscle 153. 

21. Four short bursa. These are situated on the 
fore part of the tendons of muscle 151. 

22. A large bursa. This is situated behind the 
tendon of muscle 153, between it and the fore part of 
the radius, capsular ligament of the wrist and os tra 
pezium. 

23. A large bursa behind the tendons of muscle 
1 52, and on the fore part of the end of the radius, 
and fore part of the capsular ligament of the wrist 

24. An oblong bursa. This is situated between the 
tendon of muscle 144 and the os trapezium. 



BURSJE MUCOSJB. 73 

25. A very small bursa. This is situated between 
the tendon of muscle 142, and the os pisiforme. 

Bursas on the back part of the Wrist and Hand. 

26. A bursa, between the tendon of muscle 147, 
and the radius. 

27. A large bursa, between the tendons of muscles 
157 & 138. 

28. A bursa, at the insertion of muscle 138. 

29. An oblong bursa. This is situated on the ten- 
don of muscle 137. 

30. A bursa between the tendons of the 'extensors 
of the fore, middle and ring fingers. 

31. A bursa for the extensor of the little finsrer. 

32. A bursa between the tendon of Muscle 141, 
and ligament of the wrist. 



Bursas near the Hip Joint. 

33. The Ileo-puberal. This is situated between 
■muscles 89, 90, and the capsular ligament of the hip. 

34. The pectineal. This is situated between the 
tendon of muscle 167 and the thigh bone. 

35. A small bursa, situated between muscle 172, 
and the great trochanter. 

36. A bursa of muscle 171, situated between its 
tendon and the great trochanter. 

37. The gluteo-fascial. This is situated between 
muscles 170 and 179. 

38. The tubcro-ischiatic bursa. This is situated 
between muscle 84, the posterior spine of the ischium, 
and its tuberosity. 

39. The obturatory fairsa. This is situated between 
muscle 84 6c 174 near the capsular ligament of the hip. 



74 BURS,E MUCOSA. 

40. A bursa of the semi-membranosu. Ths is situ- 
ated under the long bead of muscle 184. 

41. The gluteo trochanteral bnrsa. This is situa- 
ted hctwcen the tendon of muscle 89 and the root of 
the great trochanter. 

42. Two gluteo-femoral bursce. These are situa- 
ted between the tendon of muscle 170, and os femoris 
or thigh hone. 

43. A bursa of muscle 175, situated between it and 
the little trochanter. 

44. The iliac bursa. This is situated between the 
tendon of muscle 90, and the little trochanter. 

Bursce mucosal near the Knee joint. 

45. TJie supra-genual, which adheres to the tendons 
of muscles 178, 179, and 180, and the fore part of the 
thigh bone. 

46. The infra-genual bursa. This is situated un- 
der the ligament of the patella or knee pan. 

47. The anterior genual. This is situated between 
the tendon of muscle 177, and the internal and lateral 
ligament of the knee. 

48. The posterior genual. This is situated between 
the tendons of muscles 183, 1 86, the capsular ligament, 
and the internal condyle. 

49. The popliteal. This is situated between the 
tendon of muscle 185, and the external condyle of the 
thigh bone. 

50. The bursa of muscle 1 84. This is situated 
between the tendon of that muscle, and the external 
lateral ligament of the knee. 

Bursce of the Foot 

51. A bursa of muscle 189. This is situated be* 



twcen the tendon of that muscle, the lower part of the 
tibia, and capsular ligament of the ancle. 

52. A bursa of muscle 193. This is situated be- 
tween its tendons, the tibia and the ligament of the 
ancle. 

53. A bursa between the tendon of muscle 194, the 
tibia, and capsular ligament of the ancle. 

54. A bursa common to the tendon of muscle 196. 

55. A bursa of muscle 190. This is situated be- 
tween the tcndcn of that muscle, the tibia and astra- 
galus. 

56. Fixe bur see of the flexor tendons of the toes. 
These begin a little above the first joint of each toe, 
and extend to the root of the third phalanx or bone of 
the toe. 

The surgeon who makes himself acquainted with 
the anatomy of the bones, together with the origin and 
insertion of the different muscles, will have but little 
difficulty from this brief description of the situation of 
the bursce mucosa, to determine on their relative situa~ 
tions. 



SYSTEM OF ANATOMY. 

PART THIRD.— OF MUSCLES. 

The parts that are called muscles, consist of dis- 
tinct portions of flesh, susceptible of contraction and 
relaxation; the motions of which, in a natural and 
healthy state, arc subject to the will, and for this rea- 
son they are called voluntary muscles. Besides these 
there arc other parts of the body, that owe their power 
of contraction to their muscular fibres: thus the heart 
is a muscular texture, forming what is called the hol- 
low muscle; and the urinary bladder, stomach, and 
intestines, are enabled to act upon their contents, mere- 
ly because they arc provided with muscular fibres; 
these arc called involuntary muscles, because their mo- 
tions are not dependent on the will. The muscles of 
respiration being in the same measure influenced by 
the will, are said to have a mixed motion. 

The names by which the voluntary muscles are dis- 
tinguished, are founded on their size, figure, situa- 
tion, use, or the arrangement of their fibres, or their 
origin and insertion; but besides these particular dis- 
tinctions, there arc certain general ones that require 
to be noticed. Thus, if the fibres of a muscle are 
placed parallel with each other, in a straight direction, 
they form what anatomists term a rectilinear muscle r 
(i. e.) a muscle consisting of straight lines; if the fi- 
bres cross and intersect each other, they constitute a 
i compound mvscle;\\\\on the fibres arc disposed in the 
manner of rays, it is termed a radiated muscle', when 
they arc placed oblique with respect to the tendon, it is 
denominated a peniform muscle. Muscles that act in 
opposition to each other, are called antagonists; thus 



78 MUSCLES. 

every extensor has a flexor for its antagonist. Mus- 
cles that concur in the same action arc termed congeneres. 
Muscles being attached to the bones, the latter may be 
considered as levers that are moved in different direc- 
tions by the contraction of those organs. That end of 
the muscle which adheres to the most fixed part is usu- 
ally called the origin; and that which adheres to the 
more moveable part, the insertion. In almost every 
muscle, two kinds' of fibres arc distinguished; one is 
soft, of a red color, sensible, and irritable, called 
jleshij fibres; the other is of a finer texture, of a white 
glistening color, insensible, without irritability, or the 
power of contracting, and named tendinous fibres. The 
tendinous fibres are occasionally intermixed, but the 

y fibres generally prevail in the belly, or 
middle part of the muscle, and the tendinous ones 
in the extremities. If these tendinous fibres are form- 
ed into a round slender cord, they are termed the ten- 

or what is vulgarly called the leader of the mus- 
I and, if they are spread into a broad 
flat surface, it is termed an aponcun 

The fibres that compose the body of a muscle are 

>scd In fasciculif or bundles, which are easily dis- 
tinguished by the naked eye; but these bundles ar 
visible into smaller ones, and so on a . 
muscle is surrounded by a very thin and delicate cov- 
ering of ?ncmbrane, which encloses it 
were in a sheth, and dipping down into its subst 
surrounds the most minute fibres we are able to trace, 
connecting them to each other, lubricating them by 
means of the fat which its cells contain in moreoi 
quantity in different subjects, and Serving as a support 
to the blood vessels, lymphatick, and nerves, wliich are 
so plentifully distributed through the muscles. 

Anatmoists have distinguished three kinds of mus- 



cular motions; namely, voluntary, involuntary, and 
mixed. The voluntary motions of muscles, are such 
as proceed from an immediate exertion of active pow- 
ers of the will: thus the mind directs the arm to be 
raised or depressed, the knee to he bent, the tongue to 
move, <kc. The involuntary motions of muscles are 
those formed by organs, seemingly of 

their own accord, without any attention of the mind, 
or consciousness of its active powers, as the contrac- 
tion and dilation of the h 
ents, stomach, intestines, &c. The mixed 2: 
those which are in part under the control of the will, 
but which ordinarily act without being co 
their acting; tl J in the muscles of respira- 

tion, abdominal ra d the 

diai 

When a muscle acts, it becomes shorter and thicker; 
both its origin and insertioi 
middle. The sphincter muscles are always in ; 
and so likewise arc antago: 

they seem at rest. TV 3 t muscles 

move \ le part winch they are design- 

ed to move rem it; hut if one of 1 

nistm other ac. 

part is f motion. 

The most of ; 1 writers have arrange; 

td their sever but the re 

here adopted, is the order in which they are situated, 
' are placed nearest the skin, 
from these to the muscles that are more 

deep] 

The muscles are all in pairs, except muscles 1, 
59, 66, 67, 75, 80, 81, and 86, and are estimated at 
imbed and ninety-eight pairs, making in all four 
hundred and five. 



tO MUSCLES. 

MUSCLES OF THE INTEGUMENTS OP 
THE CRANIUM. 

1. Occipilo frontalis. This is a single, broad, di- 
gastric muscle, that covers the cranium, pulls the 
skin of the head backwards, raises the eye-brows up- 
wards, and at the same time, draws up and wrinkles 
the skin of the forehead. This muscle arises from 
the back part of the occiput, (bone IV) goes over the 
upper part of the os parietale, (bone II) and os fron- 
tis, (bone I) and is inserted into the skin of the eye- 
brows, and muscle 3. 

2. Corrugator supercilii. This is a small muscle 
situated on the forehead. It arises fleshy from the in- 
ternal angular process of the os froniis, (bone I) above 
the joining of the os nasi, (bone IX) and nasal process 
of the upper jaw bone, from thence it runs outwards, 
and a little upwards; and is inserted into the inner j 
and lower fleshy part of muscle 1, where it joins with 
muscle 3, and extends outwards as far as the middle of 
the ridge on which the eye brows are placed. When 
one muscle acts, it draws towards the other, and pro- 
jects over the inner canthus or corner of the eye. When 
both muscles act, they pull down the skin of the fore- 
head, and make it wrinkle, particularly between the 
eye brows. 

Muscles of the Eye Lids. 

3. Orbicularis palpebrarum. A muscle common to 
the palpebral or eyelids. It arises from the orhitar 
process of the upper jaw bone, and from a tendon near 
the inner angle of the eye; it then runs a little down- 
wards, then outwards, over the upper part of the cheek, 
below the eye socket, covering the under eye lid, and 
surrounding the external angle, thence over the ridge 



MUSCT/ES. 81' 

above the eyes towards the inner angle, where they in- 
termix witl* those of muscle 1, and Z; then covering 
the upper eye lids, they descend to the inner angle op- 
posite to its lower origin, and is inserted into the na- 
sal process of the upper jaw hone. The use of this 
muscle is to shut the eye, by drawing both eye-lids, 
close together. 

4. Levator palpebrff superioris. A muscle of the 
upper eye-lid, that opens the eyes, by drawing the eye 
lids upwards. It arises irom the upper part of the 
foramen optieum, or hole which transmits the optic 
nerve, and is inserted by a broad thin tendon into the 
cartilage that supports, the upper eye-lid. 

Muscles of the Eye-Ball. 

5.. Rectus superior oculi. The uppermost straight 
muscle of the eye. It arises from the upper part of 
the foramen optieum, or hole which transmits the op- 
tic nerve, and is inserted into the upper and fore part 
of the sclerotic membrane by a broad and thin tendon.. 
Its use is to raise the globe of the eye. 

6. Rectus inferior oculi. This muscle arises from 
the lower part of the foramen optieum, or hole which 
transmits the optic nerve> and is inserted opposite to 
the inner angle of the eye. Its use is to turn the eye 
towards the nose. 

7. Rectus interims oculi. The internal straight 
muscle of the eye. It arises from the inferior part of 
the foramen optieum, or opening which transmits the 
optic nerve, and is inserted into the sclerotic mem- 
brane, opposite the inner angle. Its use is to turn 
the eye towards the nose. 

8. Rectus extemus oculi. The outer straight mus- 
cle of the eye. It arises from the long partition be- 



82 MUSCLES. 

tween the foramen opticum, or opening which trans- 
mits the optic nerve, and foramen lacerunt, another o- 
pening for nerves, and is inserted into the sclerotic mem- 
brane, opposite to the outer angle of the eye. Its use 
is to move the eye outwards. 

9. Obliquus superior oculi. An ohliquc muscle of 
the eye. It arises like the straight muscles of the eye, 
from the edge of the foramen opticum, or opening 
which transmits the optic nerve, between muscles 5 
and 7; from thence it runs along a portion of bone V 
to the upper part of the orbit, where a cartilagenous 
trochlea or pully is fixed to the inside of the internal 
angular process of bone I, through which its tendon 
passes, and runs a little downwards and outwards, to 
be inserted into the membrane with the others. Its use 
is to roll the globe of the eye, and turn the pupil 
downwards and outwards. 

10. Obliquus inferior oculi. This muscle arises 
by a narrow beginning from the outer edge of the or« 
bitar process of the upper jaw-bone, near its junction 
with the lachrymal bone, and running obliquely out. 
wards, is inserted into the sclerotic membrane of the 
eye. Its use is to draw the globe of the eye forwards, 
inwards, and downwards. 

Muscles of the JVbse and Mouth. 

XI. Levator labi superioris alazque nasi. A muscle 
of the mouth and lips. This muscle arises by two dis- 
tinct origins; the first, broad and fleshy, from the ex- 
ternal part of the orbitar process of the upper jaw 
bone; the second from the nasal process of the upper 
jaw bone, where it joins with bone I. The first por- 
tion is inserted into the upper lip, the second into the 
♦jpper lip and outer part of the ala nasi or wing of tba 



MUSCLES. 83 

nose; Its use is to raise the upper lip and spread the 
nostrils. 

12. Levator libi superioris proprius. This muscle 
arises immediately under the eye socket; it is broad at 
its origin; it lies flat, and runs obliquely downwards 
and inwards, and is inserted into the JUtrum or gutter 
in the middle of the upper lip. Its use is to pull the 
upper lip and septum or division of the nose directly 
upwards. 

IS. Levator anguli oris. A muscle situated abova 
the mouth. It arises thin and fleshy from the hollow 
of the upper jaw bone, near the root of the socket of 
the first grinder tooth, and is inserted into the angle of 
the mouth and under lip, where it joins with its antag- 
onist. Its use is to draw the corner of the mouth up- 
wards, and to make that part of the cheek opposite to 
the chin prominent as in smiling. 

14. Zygomalicus major. This muscle arises from 
bone VIII, near the zygomatic suture, and is inserted 
into the angle of the mouth. The use of this muscle 
is to draw the corner of the mouth and under lip to- 
wards the origin of the muscle, and make the check 
prominent as in laughing. 

15. Zygomatmis minor. This muscle arises from 
the upper prominent part of bone VIII, or cheek bone, 
above the origin of muscle 14; and descending oblique- 
ly downwards and forwards, is inserted into the up- 
per lip, near the corner of the mouth. Its use is to 
draw the corner of the mouth obliquely outwards and 
upwards towards the external angle of the eye. 

16. Bucinator; so named from its use in forcing 
the breath in sounding a trumpet. This is a large flat 
muscle, that forms the walls of the cheeks. It arises 
tendinous and fleshy, from the lower jaw, as far back 



^84 MUSCLES. 

as the last grinder tooth; fleshy from the upper jaw, 
between the last grinder teeth and pterygoid process 
of bone VI, and is inserted into the angle of the mouth. 
■Its use is to draw the angle of the mouth backwards 
and outwards, and contract its cavity, pressing the 
cheek inwards, by which, the food is thrust between 
the teeth. 

17. Depressor anguli oris. This muscle arises 
broad and fleshy, from the under edge of the lower 
jaw, at the side of the chin, and is inserted into the an- 
gle of the mouth, joining with muscles 13 and 14. Its 
use is to pull down the corner of the mouth. 

18. Depressor labi inferioris. This muscle arises 
broad and fleshy, frow the under part of the lower jaw 
next to the chin, running obliquely outwards, is falser- i 
ted into the edge of the under lip, extends along one 
half of the lip, and is lost in the red part. Its use is 
to pull the under lip and the skin on the side of the 
chin downwards, and a little outwards. 

19. Orbicularis oris. A muscle of the mouth, for- ' 
med in a great measure by those of the lips; the fibres 
of those of th e upper ones descending, and those of the 
lower ascending, and decursating or crossing each oth- 
er at the corner of the mouth, they run along the lip 
to join those of the opposite side, so that the fleshy fi- 
bres appear to surround the mouth like a sphincter. Its 
use is to shut the mouth, by contracting and drawing 
both lips together, and to contract all the muscles that 
assist in forming it. 

20. Depressor labii superioris alceque nasi. This 
muscle arises thin and fleshy, from the upper jaw bone, 
immediately aboA r e the joining of the gums of the two 
foreteeth, and the tooth next to them; from thence it 
runs up under part of muscle 12, and is inserted into 



MUSCLES. 85 

the upper lip and root of the ala nasi, or wing, or side 
part of the nose. Its use is to draw the lip and ala 
nasi downwards and backwards. 

21. Constrictor nasi. This muscle arises by a nar- 
row beginning, from the root of the ala nasi, or wing 
of the nose, and spreads into a number of thin sepa- 
rate fibres, which run up along the cartilage in an ob- 
lique manner towards the ridge of the nose, where it 
joins with its fellow, and is inserted into the anterior 
extremity of the os nasi or bone of the nose, and nasal 
process of the upper jaw-bone. Its use is to press the 
wings, or sides of the nose inwards; but, if the fibres 
of muscle 1, which adheres to it, act, it then draws the 
sides outwards. It also corrigates, or wrinkles the 
skin of the nose, and assists in expressing certain pas- 
sions. 

22. Levator libii inferioris. This muscle arises 
from the lower jaw, at the roots of the fore teeth, and 
is inserted into the under lip and skin of the chin. Its 
use is to pull the parts into which it is inserted up- 
wards. 

Muscles of the Ear. 

23. Superior auris. 'This muscle arises broad and 
circular from the expanded tendon of muscle 1, and is 
inserted into the back part of the antihtlix, or inner 
circle of the external ear. Its use is to lift the car 
upwards. 

24. interior auris. This muscle arises from the 
zygoma or cavity under the zygomatic process of bone 
III, and is inserted by a tendon into that eminence on 
the helix or external ring of the car, which divides 
the concha, or cavity of the ear. 

25. Posterior auris. This muscle arises from the 
u 



86 MUSCLES. 

external and back part of the mastoid process of bone 
III, and is inserted into the septum or division, which 
divides the concha, (cavity) and scapha or depression 
between the external and internal ring or circle of the 
ear. Its use is to draw the ear backwards, and stretch 
the cavity. 

26. Helicis major. This muscle arises from the 
upper and acute part of the external ring of the car, 
and is inserted into its cartilage, a little above the fro- 
gits, or small eminence of the external ear that is cov- 
ered with hair. Its use is to depress the part of the 
cartilage of the ear into which it is inserted. 

27. Helicis minor. This muscle arises lower than 
the one last described, and is inserted into the crus of 
the external ring of the ear, opposite to the concha or 
hollow of the ear. Its use is, to assist in contracting 
the external car. 

28. Tragicus. This muscle arises from the mid- 
dle of the concha or hollow of the ear to the root of 
the tragus or small eminence, into the tip of which it 
is inserted. Its use is to draw the point of the tragu9 
a little forward. 

29. Jntitragicus. This muscle lies on the anti- 
tragus or eminence of the outer ear, opposite the tra- 
gus, running up to be inserted into the edge of the 
concha or cavity of the ear, at the notch on the termi- 
nation of the helix or external ring. Its use is to turn 
up the tip of the antitragus a little outwards, and to de- 
press the anti helix or inner ring of theear towards it. 

30. Transversns auris. This muscle runs in scat- 
tered fibres on the back part of the ear. from the prom- 
inent part of the concha or cavity, to the outer side of 
the antibclix or internal ring of the ear. 

31. Laxator tympani. A muscle of the internal 
ear, that draws the maleus or hammer obliquely for* 



MUSCLES. 87 

wards, towards its origin: consequently the membrana 
tympani or membrane that lines the internal cavity of 
the car, is made less concave, oris relaxed. 

32. Membrana tympani. This membrane which 
lines the cavity of the drum of the ear is possessed of 
muscular fibres. It consists of six laminae or lay- 
ers. 

33. Tensor tympani. A muscle of the internal ear, 
which pulls the malcus or hammer, and muscle 32, to- 
wards the petrous or rough, hard portion of the tempo- 
ral bone, by which means the membrana tympani is 
made more concave and tense. 

34. Stapedius. A muscle of the internal ear, which 
draws the stapes, (bone XIX) obliquely upwards to- 
wards the cavity of the ear, by which the back part of 
its base is moved inwards and the front part out- 
wards. 

Muscles of the Lower Jaw. 

35. Temporalis. This muscle arises fleshy, from a 
semicircular ridge of the lower and side part of bone 
II, from part of bone III, from the external angular 
process of bone I, from the temporal process of bone 
VI, and from a tendinous expansion which covers it; 
from these different origins the fibres descend in a ra- 
diated manner, and are inserted, by a strong tendon 
into the coronoid process of the lower jaw. Its use is 
to pull the lower jaw upwards, and press it against the 
upper, at the same time drawing it a little back- 
wards. 

36. Masseter. This muscle arises, by strong, ten- 
dinous, and fleshy fibres, which run in different direc- 
tions, from the upper jaw-bone, where it joins bone 
VIII, and from the inferior and anterior part of the 



88 MUSCLES. 

zygoma,* the external fibres standing backwards, and 
the internal forwards. This muscle is inserted into the 
angle of the lower jaw, and from that upwards to near 
the top of its coronoid process. Its use is to pull the 
lower jaw upwards, and by means of its oblique des- 
enssation, a little forwards and backwards. 

37. Pterygoideus externus. This muscle arises from 
the external plate of the pterygoid process of bone VI, 
and from the root of the temporal process of the same 
bone, and is inserted into a cavity of the neck of the 
condyloid process of the lower jaw. Its use is to pull 
the lower jaw forwards, and to the opposite sides; and 
to pull the ligament from the joint, that it may not he 
pinched during these motions: when both muscles act 
the fore teeth of the under jaw are pushed forwards be- 
yond those of the upper. 

38. Pterygoideus interims. This muscle arises, 
tendinous and fleshy from the inner and upper part 
of the internal plate of the pterygoid process of bone 
VI, filling all the space between the two plates, and 
is inserted into the angle of the lower jaw internally. 
The use of this muscle is to draw the jaw upwards; 
and obliquely towards the opposite side. 

.Muscles about the fore part of the neck. 

39. Flatysma Myoides. This is abroad thin mus- 
rle, situated on the side of the neck, immediately un 
«lcr the skin. It arises by a number of slender fleshy 
fibres, which all unite to form a thin muscle, running 
obliquely upwards along the side of the neck, adher- 
ing to the skin, and is inserted into the lower jaw. 
Its use is to assist muscle 17 in drawing the skin of the 
cheek downwards, and when the mouth is shut, it 



MUSCLK3. 89 

ilraws all that part of the skin, to which it is connect- 
ed, below the lower jaw upwards. 

40. Slcrno-Cleido-mastoideus. This muscle aris- 
es by two distinct origins: the front part arises tendin- 
ous and fleshy, from the top of bone XXVIII. near its 
junction with bone XXX; the posterior or back part, 
arises fleshy, from the upper and fore part of bone 
XXX; both of those unite a little above the anterior 
articulation of bone XXX, to form one muscle, which 
runs obliquely upwards and outwards, & is inserted, by 
a thick strong tendon, into the mastoid process of bone 
III. Its use is to turn the head to one side, and berji 
it forward. 

Muscles between the lower jaw and os hyoides. 

41. Digastricus. This muscle arises, by a fleshy 
belly, intermixed with tendinous fibres, from the fos- 
sa or depression at the root of the mastoid process of 
bone III. and soon becomes tendinous; runs downwards 
and forwards: the tendon passes through muscle 53, it 
then is fixed by a ligament to bone XVI; and having 
received from that bone an addition of tendinous and 
muscular fibres, runs obliquely forwards, turns fleshy 
again, and is inserted into the lower and fore edge of 
the chin or that part of the lower jaw thus termed. Its 
use is to open the mo u*h, by pulling the lower jaw 
downwards, and backwards; and when the jaws arc 
shut, to raise bone XVI, and consequently the pha- 
rynx, or muscular bag, or swallow as it is commonly 
called, upwards, as in degulgitating or swallowing. 

4-2. Mijlo-IIyoidcus. This muscle arises, from all 
the inside of the lower jaw, between the last grinder 
tooth and the middle of the chin, where it joins with 
its fellow and is inserted into the lower edge of the 



90 MUSCLES. 

basis of bone XVI. Its use is to pull bone XVI. for- 
wards, upwards, and to one side. 

43. Genio hyoides. This muscle arises, from a 
rough protuberance in the middle of the lower jaw in- 
ternally, or on the inside of the chin, and is inserted 
into the basis of bone XVI. Its use 13 to draw this 
bone forwards to the chin. 

44. Genio-hyo-glossus. This muscle arises, tendin- 
ous, from a rough protuberance in the inside of the 
middle of the lower jaw; its fibres run like a fan, for- 
wards, upwards and backwards, and is inserted into 
the whole length of the tongue, and base of bone XVI, 
near its cornu or horn. Its use is to draw the lip of 
the tongue backwards into the mouth, and middle 
downwards; and also to draw the root of the tongue 
and bone XVI forwards, and to thrust the tongue 
out of the mouth. 

45. Ilyo glossus. This muscle arises, broad and 
fleshy, from parts 2, and 3, of bone XVI; the fibres 
run upwards and outwards, and are inserted into the 
side of the tongue. Its use is to pull the tongue in- 
wards and downwards. 

46. Lingualis. This muscle arises, at the root of 
the tongue, and runs forwards between muscles 44 and 
45, and is inserted into the lip of the tongue, along 
with part of muscle 52., Its use is to contract the sub- 
stance of the tongue, and bring it backwards, and to 
elevate the point of the tongue. 

Muscles situated between bone XVI and the trunk. 

47. Stemo-hyoidcus. This muscle arises, thin and 
fleshy, from the cartilagenous extremity of the first 
rib, the upper and inner part of the breast bone, and 
from the collar bone where it joins with the breast 



MUSCLES. 91 

bone, and is inserted into the base of bone XVI. Its 
use is to pull bone XVI downwards. 

48. Omo-hyoideus. This muscle arises, broad, 
thin, and fleshy, from the upper rib or costa of bone 
XXXI near the semilunar notch, and from the lig- 
ament that runs across it, thence ascending obliquely, 
it becomes tendinous below muscle 40; and, growing 
fleshy again, is inserted into the base of bone XVI 
near its cornu or bora. Its use is to pull bone XVI 
obliquely downward. 

49. Stcmo-thyroideus. This muscle arises, fleshy, 
from the whole of the upper edge of bone XXVIII,. 
opposite to the cartilage of the first rib, from which 
it receives a small part of its origin, and is inserted 
into the surface of the rough line at the external part 
of the lower edge of the thyroid cartilage, a cartilage 
which forms a part of the larynx. Its use is to draw 
the larynx downwards. 

50. Thyro-hyoidcus. This muscle arises from tho 
rough line, opposite to the one last described, and is 
inserted into part of the basis, and almost all of the 
cornu or horn of bone XVI or bone of the tongue. Its 
use is to pull bone XVI downwards, or the thyroid 
cartilage upwards. 

51. Crico-ihyroideus. This muscle arises from th» 
cricoid, or ring-like cartilage of the larynx, and is in- 
serted by two portions; the first, into the lower part of 
the thyroid cartilage, or portion of the larynx; second,, 
into the inferior cornu or horn. Its use is to pull for- 
wards and depress the thyroid, and to elevate and draw 
back the cricoid or ring-like cartilage of the larynx. 



$2 MUSCLES. 

Muscles situated latierally between the lower jaw and 
bone XVI, or bone of the Tongue. 

52. Stylo-glossus. This muscle arises, tendinous 
and fleshy, from the styloid process, and from a liga- 
ment that connects that process to the lower jaw, and 
is inserted into the root of the tongue, runs along its 
side, and is lost near its point. Its use is to draw the 
tongue sideways and backwards. 

53. Shjlo-hyoideus. This muscle arises by a round 
tendon, from the middle and inferior part of the sty- 
loid process of hone III, and is inserted into bone 
XVI, at the junction of the base and cornu or horn. Its 
use is to pull bone XVI, to one side, and a little up- 
wards. 

54. Stylo-pharijngeus. This muscle arises fleshr, 
from the root of the styloid process of bone III, and 
is inserted into the side of the pharynx or swallow, and 
thyroid cartilage upwards. Its use is to dilate and 
raise the pharynx or swallow, and thyroid cartilage 
upwards. 

55. Circumjlexu-8. This muscle arises from the 
spinous process of bone VI, and from some other parts 
near to it; it then passes over the hook of the internal 
plate of the pterygoid or wing-like process of bone VI, 
by a round tendon, which soon spreads into a broad 
membrane, and is inserted into the velum pendulum 
palati, or soft part of the palate, and the semilunar 
edge of the palate bone. Its use is to streach the vel- 
um or upper and back part of the mouth, on each side 
of the root of the tongue, and to draw it down- 
wards. 

56. Levator palati. This muscle arises, tendinous 
and fleshy, from the extremity of the pas petrosa, or 
hard portion of bone III, and is inserted into the whole 



MTTSCLE9. 93 

length of the palate, as far as the root of the uvula, or 
small fleshy conical substance, hanging in the middle 
of the palate over the root of the tongue; where it u- 
nites with its fellow. Its use is to draw the velum, 
veil, or palate upwards and backwards, so as to shut 
the passage from the fauces or cavity behind the tongue 
into the mouth and nose. 

Muscles situated about the cavity of the Fauces. 

57. Constrictor isthmi fauciuui. This muscle ari- 
ses by a slender beginning, from the side of the tongue, 
near its root; thence running upwards within the an- 
terior arch, before the amygdala or tonsil glands of the 
throot, and is inserted into the middle of the palate at 
the root of the uvula, or conical substance hanging 
over the root of the tongue. Its use is to draw the pal- 
ate towards the root of the tongue, which it raises at 
the same time, and with its fellow, contracts the pass- 
age between the two arches, by which it shuts the 
opening into the fauces or cavity behind the tongue. 

58. Palato-pharyngeus. This muscle arises by a 
broad beginning, from the middle of the palate, at th» 
root of the uvula or conical eminence hanging over the 
root of the tongue, and from the tendinous expansion 
of muscle 55, and is inserted into the upper and back 
part of the thyroid cartilage or part of the cartilage 
which forms the larynx. Its use is to draw the uvula 
and palate downwards and backwards; at the same 
time pulling the thyroid cartilage and pharynx or swal- 
low upwards, and shortening it. 

58. Jixygos uvula. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from the extremity of the suture which joins the pal- 
ate bones, runs down the whole length of the palate 
and uvula, adhering to the tendon of muscle 55, and i* 



94 MUSCLES. 

inserted into the point of the uvula, or conical, fleshy 
substance that hangs down at the root of the tongue. 
Its use is to raise the uvula upwards and forwards; 
and also to shelter it. 

Muscles situated on the back part of the pharynx. 

60. Constrictor pharynges superior. This muscle 
arises from the cuneiform process of bone 1\ , from 
the pterygoid process of bone VI; from the upper and 
under jaw, near the roots of the last grinder teeth; 
and between the jaws; it is continued with muscle 16, 
and with some fibres from the root of the tongue, and 
from the palate, and is inserted into a white line in 
the middle of the pharynx or swallow, where it joins 
with its fellow, and is covered by the following mus- 
cle. Its use is to compress the upper part of the phar- 
ynx, anil to draw it forwards and upwards. 

61. Constrictor pharyngis medius. This muscle 
arises from the appendix of bone XVI, from the cornu 
or horn of that bone, and from the ligament which con- 
nects it to the thyroid cartilage, or portion of the larynx; 
the fibres of the superior part running obliquely up- 
wards, covering a considerable part of the muscle last 
described, and terminating in a point, is inserted into 
the middle of the cuneiform process of bone IV. before 
the foramen magnum, and joins to its fellow at a white 
line in the middle and back part of the pharynx. Its 
use is to compress that part of the pharynx which it 
covers, and to draw it and bone VI, upwards. 

t.)2. Cms r'.ctor pharyngis inferior. This muscle 
arises from the side of the thyroid cartilage, and from 
the cricoid, or ring-like cartilage, and is inserted into 
the white line in the middle of the larynx, where it 
joins with its fellow; the superior fibres running oblique* 



Muscles. 95 

\y upwards, while the inferior fibres run more trans- 
versely; and covering the beginning of the esophagus. 
Its use is to compress that part of the pharynx which 
it covers, and to raise it with the larynx a little up- 
wards. 

Muscles situated about the glottis or opening of the lar- 
ynx at the bottom of the tongue. 

63. Crico arytcenoidcus posticus. This muscle ari- 
ses fleshy, from the back part of the cricoid cartilage, 
and is inserted into the back part of the base of the 
arytenoid cartilage, a cartilage which forms part of the 
larynx. Its use is to open the rimaglot tides, or open- 
ing of the larynx, through which the air passes in and 
out of the lungs, and, by pulling back the arytenoid 
cartilage, to stretch the ligament, so as to make it 
tense. 

64. Crico arytcenoides lateralis. This muscle ari- 
ses fleshy, from the cricoid or ring-like cartilage of the 
larynx, and is inserted into the side of the base of the 

'arytenoid cartilage near the muscle last described. Its 
use is to open the rima glottides, or opening of the lar- 
ynx, by pulling the ligaments from each other. 

65. T.'iyrej arytctnoideus. This muscle arises from 
*the under and back part of the middle of the thyroid 
.■cartilage, and running backwards and a little upwards, 

along the side of the glottis, is inserted into the aryte- 
noid cartilage. Its use is to pull the arytenoid carti- 
lage forwards, nearer to the middle of the thyroid, and 
[consequently to shorten and relax the ligament of tho 
larynx. 

I 66. Jryienoideus obliquus. This muscle arises 
iffrom the base of one arytenoid cartilage, and is inser- 
lifted near the tip of the arytenoid cartilage. Its use is 



9$ MUSCLES. 

to pull the two arytenoid cartilages towards each oth= 
er. 

67. tfrytccnoidevs transversus. This muscle arises 
from the side of one atijtenoid cartilage, and from near 
its articulation with the cricoid. The fibres run straight 
across, and are inserted, in the same manner into the 
other arijtenoid cartilage. Its use is to shut the rima 
glottides or opening of the larynx, by bringing the two 
cartilages, with the ligament, nearer one another. 

68. Thyro-epiglottideus. This muscle arises b # y a 
few pale separate fibres, from the thyroid cartilage, and 
is inserted into the epiglottis, or cartilage situated at 
the root of the tongue, that shuts the passage into the 
glottis as in swallowing. Its use is to draw the epi- 
glottis obliquely downwards; or, when both act, di- 
rectly upwards; and at the same time, it expands the 
soft cartilage. 

69. Jlrytamo-epiglottideus. This muscle arises by 
a number of small fibres, from the side and upper part 
of the arytenoid cartilage; and running along the 
outer side of the external rima or opening, is inserted 
into the epiglottis along with the former. Its useisto 
pull the side of the epiglottis towards the external rima 
or opening; or, where both act, to puil it close upon 
the glottis. 



nisflf 



Muscles situated about the anterior part of the Md 

70. Obliquus descendcus cxternus. This muscl 
arises by eight' different heads, from the lower edges 
of an equal number of the lower ribs, at a little dis- 
tance from their cartilages : it always intermixes, in J 
serated or saw-tooth manner, with portions of muscli 
94, and generally to muscles 91, 95, 96, and 
From these origins the fibres run obliquely downward- 



MUSCLES* 97 

Jind forwards, and soon degenerate into a broad and 

thin aponeurosis, which terminates in the linea alba or 

I tendinous expansion, extending from the ensiform car- 

i tilage to the os pubis. The linea alba is formed by 

: muscles 70, 71 & 72: about an inch above the pubes, 

l the fibres of this aponeurosis separate from each other 

ho as to form an aperture, called the abdominal ring, 

. this ring or opening is of an oval figure, and serves 

for the passage of the spermatic chord in males, and of 

, the round ligament of the uterus in females, and is of 

a larger size in women than in men. The two tendin- 

. ous portions, which, by their separation, form this ap- 

erturc, are called the columns of the ring: the fibres of 

this muscle cross each other immediately below this 

opening, and are fixed to theos pubis (bone XXVII.) 

The use of this muscle is to draw down the ribs in ex- 

piration, or that part of respiration, in which the air 

is thrust out of the lungs; to bend the trunk or body 

forwards when both muscles act, or to bend it to one 

side, when either act singly; it also raises the pelvis 

obliquely when the ribs are fixed; it supports and 

compresses the abdominal viseera, assists in evacuating 

the urine, and feces or stools; and is likewise useful 

in parturition. 

71. Obliquus ascendeus internus. This muscle a- 
rises from the spine of bone xxv, from bone xxu & the 3 
lower lumbar vertebrae; &Poupart's ligament, or liga- 
ment extending from the upper & front surface of the spi- 
nous process of bone XXV, to the crista or upper part 
of bones XXVII, at the middle of which we find the 
round ligament of the uterus in women, and spermatic 
chord in men, passing under the thin edge of this mus- 
cle. From these different origins, the fibres of this 
muscle run in various directions; those of the upper 
portion ascend obliquely forwards; the middle ones be- 



$8 JHTJ8CLES. 

come less and less oblique, and at length run in ahor* 
izontal direction, and those of the anterior or fore por- 
tion extend obliquely downwards. The first of 
these are inserted, by very short, tendinous fibres, in- 
to the cartilages of the third, fourth and fifth false ribs; 
the fibres of the second, or middle portion, form a 
broad tendon, which after being inserted into the low- 
er edge of the cartilage of the second false rib, extends 
towards the linea alba, (see mus. 70) and separates in- 
to two layers, the upper layer joins the tendon of mus- 
cle 70, and runs over the two upper thirds of muscle 
73, and adheres to the fore surface of the tendon of 
muscle 72, and is inserted into the cartilage of the 
first of the false, and last of the true ribs, and like- 
wise into the linea alba. The fibres of the portion ari- 
sing from ihe spine of bone XXV, and Poupart's Bg£» 
ment likewise from a broad tendon which is inserted 
into the fore part of the pubes. This muscle serves 
to assist muscle 70; but seems to be better calculated 
than that muscle to draw the ribs downwards and 
backwards. 

72. Transversalis abdominis. This muscle ari- 
ses tendinous, from the cartilages of the seven low- 
er ribs; by a broad thin tendon, from the transverse 
process of the lower vertebra of the back, and the 
four upper vertebrae of the loins; fleshy, from the 
whole spine of bone XXV, and from the tendon of 
muscle 70, where it intermixes with some of the fibres 
of muscle 71, and is inserted into the cartilago ensi- 
formis, and into the whole length of the linea alba, (see 
mus. 70) excepting its lowermost part. Its use is to 
support and compress the abdominal contents, for 
which purpose it is well adapted. 

7-3. Rectus abdominis. This muscle arises by twe 



MUSCLES. 99 

heads, from the ligament of the cartilage which joins 
the two ossa pubes to each other; runs up the whole 
length of, and parallel to the linea alba, growing 
broader and thinner as it ascends, and is inserted into 
the cartilages of the 3 lower true rihs. Its use is to com- 
press the forepart, but more particularly the lower part 
oi the belly; and to bend the trunk forwards, or to raise 
the pelvis. 

74. Pyramidalis. This muscle arises along with 
muscle 73, and running upwards, is inserted by an 
acute termination, near half way between bone XXVII, 
and the umbilicus, into the linea alba (see mus. 70) 
and inner edge of muscle 73. Its use is to assist the 
lower part of muscle 73. 

Muscles about the Male Organs of Generation. 

75.' Bartos, so called from its raw appearance. 
The part under the scrotum, or common integuments 
which covers the testicles, is possessed of muscular fi- 
bres, by which, the skin of the scrotum is corrugated 
and relaxed. 

76. Cremaster. This muscle arises from muscle 
71, near the junction of bones XXV, and XXVII, 
over which part it passes, after having passed through 
the abdominal ring; (sec muscle 70;) and then it de- 
scends upon the spermatic chord, & is iuserted into the tu- 
nica vaginalis or membrane which covers the testicles, 
upon which it spreads and is insensibly lost. Its use is 
to suspend and draw up the testicles, and to compress 
them in the act of coition. 

77. Erector penis. This muscle arises tendinous 
and lieshy, from the tuberosity ef bone XXVI, and 
runs upwards, embracing the whole crus or root of the 
penis, and is inserted into a strong tendinous mem- 
brane that covers the corpora cavernosa or integument 



100 MTJSCLE8. 

of the penis. Its use is to compress the root of the 
penis, by which the blood is pushed from it into the 
fore part of the corpora cavernosa, and the penis is by 
that means more completely distended. 

78. JlCcclleratorurino?. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from muscle 80 and membranous part ef the urethra 
or urinary canal; and tendinous, from the root of the 
penis, and is inserted into a line in the middle of the 
bulb of the urethra, where it joins with its fellow, bj 
which the bulb is completely enclosed. Its use is to 
drive the urine and semen forwards, by grasping the 
bulb of the urethra, to push the blood towards its cor- 
pus cavemosum and the glans, or head of the penis, by 
which it is extended. 

79, Transversus perinei. This muscle arises from 
the tough fatty membrane that covers the tuberosity of 
bone XXVI; from thence it runs transversely inwards, 
and is inserted into muscle 78, and into that part of 
the sphincter ani or muscle 80, which covers the bulb 
of the urethra. Its use is to dilate the bulb, and draw 
the perineum and verge of the anus a little outwards 
and backwards. 



Muscles of the Anus. 

8o. Sphincter ani. This muscle arises from the 
skin and fat that surrounds the verge of the anus on 
both sides, nearly as far out as the tuber of bone 
XXVI; the fibres are gradually collected into an oval 
form, and surround the extremity of the rectum, and 
is inserted before, by a narrow point into the perineum, 
muscle 78 and 79; and behind, by an acute termina 
tion, into the extremity of the os coccygis. or bone XXIII. 
Jits use is to shut the passage through the anus jutq. 



MUSCLES. 101 

Hie rectum, and pull down the bulb of the urethra, by 
"which it assists in ejecting the urine and semen. 

81. Levator g.ni. This muscle arises from bone 
XX VII within the pelvis, as far up as the upper edge 
of the foramen thyroideum. and joining of bones XXVI 
and XXVII; from the thin tendinous memhrane that 
covers muscle 84; its fibres run down like rays from a 
circumference to a center, and is inserted into muscle 
80, and into the anterior part of the two last bones of 
the os coccyges or bone XXII; surrounding the extrem- 
ity of the rectum, neck of the bladder, prostate gland, 
and part of the vesicuhv seminalis, or two membran- 
ous receptacles, situated on the back part of the blad- 
der above its neck; so that its fihres behind and be- 
low bone XXIII, joining it with its fellow, they to- 
gether very much resemble the shape of a funnel. Its 
use is to draw tho rectum upwards after the evacuation 
of the faeces, and to assist in shutting it; to sustain the 
contents of the pelvis, and to help in ejecting the se- 
men urine, and contents of the rectum. 

Muscles of the Female Organs of General. 

82. Erector cUtoridis. This muscle arises from 
the cms of bone XXIII internally, and in its ascent 
covers the cms or root of the clitoris, as far up as 
bone XXVII, and is inserted into the upper part of 
the cms and body of the clitoris. Its use is to draw 
the clitoris downwards and backwards; and to make 
the body of the clitoris more tense, hy squeezing the 
blood into it, from its crus or root. 

83. Sphincter vaginal. This muscle arises from 
muscle 80, and from the posterior sidle of the vagina, 
near the perineum; from thence It runs up the side of 
the vagina, near the perineum; frorja thence it runs up 



102 MUSCLES- 

the side of the vagina, near its external orifice, oppo. 
site to the nymphse, or membranous fold of the vagi- 
na, and covers the corpus cavernosum vagin*, or integ- 
uments of the clitoris, and is inserted into the origin 
and body of the clitoris. Its use is to contract the 
mouth of the vagina, and compress its corpus caver- 
noseum. 

Jiluscles situated within the Felvis. 

84. Obturator internus. This muscle arises from 
more than one half of the internal circumference of 
the foramen thyroideum, formed by bones XXIII, and 
XXVII. Its inside is covered by a portion of muscle 
81; and appears to be divided into a number of Jossi- 
cnli or bundles, which unite and form a roundish ten- 
don, that passes out of the pelvis, between the socro I 
ischiatic ligament, (see ligament 14) and tuberosity of 
bone XXVI; where it passes over the capsular liga- ' 
ament of the thigh bone, and is inserted by a round 
tendon, into the large pit at the root of the trochanter 
major (see bone XXXVIII.) Its use is to roll the 
thigh bone obliquely outwards. 

85. Coccygeus. This muscle arises tendinous and 
fleshy, from the spinous process of bone XXII, and 
covers the inside of ligament 14; from this narrow be- 
ginning, it gradually increases to form a thin fleshy 
belly, intersperced with tendinous fibres, and is inser- 
ted into the extremity of bone XXII, and nearly the 
whole length of bone XXII. Its use is to support 
and move bone XXIII forwards, and to tie it more firm- 
ly to bone XXII. 



MU8CLE3. 105 

Muscles situated within the cavity of the Abdomen. 

86 IHaphragma. The midriff or diaphragm. A 
muscle that, divides the thorax or heart from the ab- 
domen or belly. It is composed of two portions; the 
first and upper of these arises by distinct fleshy fibres, 
from the cartilago ensiformis or part 3 of bone XXVIII, 
and from the cartilages of the seventh, and of all the 
inferior ribs in both sides. The fibres from this semi- 
circular origin, tend towards their center, and termin- 
ate in a tendon or aponeurosis, which is termed the 
centrum tendinasum, or tendinous center of the dia- 
phragm. The second and lower portion arises from 
the vertebra of the loins by two productions, of which 
that on the right side comes from the first, second and 
third vertebral of the loins; that on the left side is 
somewhat shorter, and both these portions join and 
make the lower part of tho diaphragm, which joins 
its tendons with the tendon of the upper portion, so . 
that they make but one muscular partition. The dia- 
phragm is covered by the pleura on its upper side and 
by the perilonieum on the lower side. It is pierced in 
the middle for the passage of the vena cava, and in 
its lower part for the asophagus. The diaphragm in 
its natural situation is concave on its lower, and con- 
vex on its upper side; therefore when its fibres swell 
and contract, it must become plain on both sides, and 
consequently the cavity of the breast is enlarged to . 
give liberty to the lungs to receive air in inspiration; 
and the stomach and intestines are pressed for the dis- 
tention of their contents; hence, the use of this muscle 
is very considerable; it is the principal agent in respi- 
ration, particularly in inspiration; for when it is in ac 
tion the cavity of the thorax is enlarged, especially at 
the sides where the lungs are chiefly situated; and as 



104 MUSCLES. 

the lungs must always be contiguous to the inside of 
the thorax and upper side of the diaphragm, the air 
rushes into them, to fill up the increased space. In 
expiration it is relaxed and pushed up by the pressure 
of the abdominal muscles upon the viscera of the ab- 
domen; and at the same time that they prss it upwards, 
they pull down the ribs, by which the cavity of the tho- 
rax is diminished, and the air suddenly pushed out of 
the lungs. 

87. Quadratus lumborum. This muscle arises 
broad, tendinous, and fleshy from the back part of the 
spine of bone 25, and is inserted into the transverse 
processes of all the vertebrae of the loins, into the low- 
er rib near the spine, and by a small tendon into the 
last vertebra of the back. Its use is to move the loins 
to one side, pull down the last rib, and, when both 
muscles act to bend the loins forwards. 

88. Psoas parvus. This muscle arises fleshy, from | 
the side of the two upper vertebrae of the loins, and 
sends off a small long tendon, which ends thin and 
flat, and is inserted into the brim of the pelvis, at the 
junction of the os ilium and pubis. Its use is to assist 
muscle 89 in bending the loins forwards, and, in cer- 
tain positions, to assist in raising the pelvis. 

89. Psoas ma-gnus. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from the side of the body, and transverse process of 
the last vertebra of the back; and, in Hie same man- 
ner, from all those of the loins by as main distinct 
slips, and is inserted tendinous, into the trochanter 
minor: (sec bone XXXVIII:) and fleshy into that bone, 
a little below the same trochanter. Its use is to bend 
the thigh forwards; or, when the inferior extremity is 
fixed, to assist in bending the body. 

90. Iliacus interims. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from the last vertebra of the loins, from all the inner 



MUSCLE 8. 105 

lip of the spine of bone xxv, from the edge of that 
bone between its front spinous processes, and the ace~ 
tabulum, or socket which receives the thigh bone, and 
from most of the hollow part of the os ilium, and is 
inserted along with muscle 89. Its use is to assist that 
muscle in bending the thigh, and to bring it directly 
forwards. 

Muscles situated on the anterior part of the Thorax. 

91. Pedoralis major. This muscle arises from 
the cartilagenous extremity of the fifty and sixth ribs, 
where it intermixes with muscle 70; from almost the 
whole length of the breast bone; and from near half 
of the front part of the collar bone, and is inserted by 
two broad tendons, which cross each other at the upper 
and inner part of the arm bone, just above the inser- 
tion of muscle 129. Its use is to move the arm for- 
wards, and obliquely upwards, towards the breast. 

92. Subclavins. This muscle arises tendinous,from 
,the cartilage that joins the first rib to the sternum or 
3reast bone, and is inserted after becoming fleshy, in- 
o the lower part of the clavicle, which occupies from 
.vithin an inch of the breast bone, as far outwards as 
o its connexion, by a ligament, with the caraeoid pro- 
icss of bone xxxi. Its use is to bring that bone for- 
wards and downwards. 

93. Pedoralis minor. This muscle arises tendin- 
ous and fleshy, from the upper edge of the third, fourth 
,nd fifth ribs, near where they join with their cartila- 
ges, and is inserted tendinous, into the caraeoid process 

f bone xxxi; but soon grows fleshy and broad. Its 
se is to bring the scapula forwards and downwards, 
nd to raise the ribs upwards. 
l 94. Serahis magnus anticus. This muscle arises 



106 MU8CLES. 

from the nine upper ribs by an equal number of fleshy 
digitations, resembling the teeth of a saw, and is in- 
serted fleshy into the whole base of the shoulder blade, 
(bone xxxi.) Its use is to move bone xxxi, forwards; 
and, when that bone is forcibly raised, to draw up the 
ribs. 

Muscles situated between the ribs, and within the thorax, 

95. Intercostalis externi. This muscle arises from 
the lower edge of each superior rib, and running ob- 
liquely downwards and forwards, is inserted into the 
lower edge of each inferior rib, as far back as the spine, 
The use of this muscle is to raise the ribs equally du- 
ring inspiration. 

96. Intercostalis inlerni. This muscle arises with 
the one last described; and is inserted in like manner.! 
and exercises the same office. 

97. Triangularis. This muscle arises fleshy, audi 
a little tendinous, from all the length of part 3 of bono 
xxvni, and from the edge of bone xxviii, or breast 
bone, from whence its fibres ascend obliquely upwards. 
k outwards and is inserted by three triangular termi- 
nations,into the lower edge of the cartilages of the third, 
fourth, & fifth ribs. Its use is to depress the cartila- 
ges, and extremities of the ribs; and, consequently, t) 
assist in contracting the cavity of the thorax. 

Muscles situated on the fore part of the Neck chse to.ik 
Vertebral. 

93. Longus colli. This muscle arises tendinous 
and fleshy, from the bodies of the three upper vertebra 
of the back, and from the transverse process of thi 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth vertebras of the neck 
jjear their roots, & is inserted into the fore part of thi 



MUSCLES. 107 

bodies of all the vertebrae of the neck, by as many 
small tendons, which are covered with flesh. Its use is 
to bend the neck gradually forwards, and to one side. 

99. Rectus capitus internus major. This muscle a- 
rises from the front points of the transverse processes 
of the third, fourth, filth, and sixth vertebra of the 
neck, by four distinct beginnings, and is inserted into 
the cuneiform process of bone iv, a little before the 
condyloid process. Its use is to bend the head for- 
wards. 

100. Rectus capitus internus minor. This muscle 
arises fleshy, from the fore part of the body of the first 
vertebra of the neck, opposite to the superior oblique 
process, and is inserted near the root of the condyloid 
process of bone iv, under, and a little farther out 
wards, than muscle 99. Its use is to bend the head for- 
wards. 

101. Rectus capitis lateralis. This muscle arises 
fleshy, from the front pari of the point of the trans- 
verse process of the first vertebra of the neck, and is 
inserted into bone iv, opposite to th ? foramen stylo-mas- 
toideum of the temporal bone. Its use is to bend the 
bead a little to one side. 

Muscles on the back part of the Trunk. 

102. Trapezius. This muscle arises by a strong 
tendon, from the lower part of the protuberance in the 
middle of bone iv, behind; and, by a thin membran- 
ous tendon, from the rough curved line that extends 
from the protuberance towards the mastoid process of 
the temporal bone, runs down along the nape of the 
neck, and covers the spinous process of the upper ver- 
tebra of the neck; but rises from the spinous process 
of tire two lower vertebras, and from the spinous pro- 



108 &U8CLB8* 

cesses of all the vertebra of the back; adhering, ten. 
dinous, to its fellow, the whole length of its origin, and 
is inserted fleshy, into the posterior half of the clavi- 
cle or collar bone; tendinous and fleshy, into the aero- 
mion,(see bone xxxi part 6) and into almost all the 
spine of the shoulder blade. Its use is to move the 
shoulder blade according to the three different direc- 
tions of its fibres; the upper descending fibres draw it 
obliquely upwards; the middle transverse straight fi- 
bres draw it directly backwards; and the inferior as- 
cending fibres draw it obliquely downwards and back- 
wards. 

103. Labissimus dor si. This muscle arises by a 
broad thin tendon from the back part of the spine of 
bone xxv, from all the spinous process of bone xxu, 
and vertebra of the loins, and from the seven lower 
vertebra of the back; also tendinous aud fleshy, from 
the extremity of the three lower ribs, a little beyond 
their cartilages by as many distinct slips, the infericr 
fibres ascend obliquely, and the superior run trans- 
versely, over the lower angle of the shoulder blade, and 
is inserted by a strong thin tendon, into the fore part 
of the back edge of the groove between the two tuber- 
osities of the arm bone. Its use is to pull the arm 
backwards and downwards, and to turn it about at ths 
shoulder joint. 

104. Seratus posticus inferior. This muscle ari- 
ses by a broad thin tendon, in common with that of the 
one last describrd, from the spinous processes of the 
two lower vertebra of the back, and from the three up- 
per vertebra of the loins, and is inserted into the low- 
er edge of the four lower ribs, at a little distance from 
their cartilages, by as many distinct fleshy slips. Its 
use is to depress the ribs into which it is inserted. 



mtT8c:l£s» 109 

105. Rhomboideus. This muscle is divided into 
two portions: the first arises tendinous, from the spi- 
'nous processes of the five upper vertebrae of the back, 
and is inserted into all the base of the scapula or 
shoulder blade below its spine. The second portion 
arises tendinous, from the three lower vertebrae of the 
neck, and is inserted into the base of the scapula or 
shoulder blade, opposite to its spine. The use of this 
muscle is to draw the shoulder blade obliquely upwards, 
•and directly inwards. 

106. Spleniiis. This muscle arises from the spi- 
nous processes of the four or five upper vertebrae of 
the back; tendinous and flashy, from the five inferior 
vertebrae of the neck, and is inserted, into the five su- 
perior transverse processes of the vertebrae of the. 
neck: and tendinous and fleshy, into the upper part of 
the mastoid process; and ridge of bone IV. Its use is 
to bring the head and upper vertebrae of the neck back- 
wards and a little to one side; and, when both act, to 
pull the head directly backwards. 

107. Serahis superior posticus. This muscle ari- 
ses by a broad thin tendon, from the spinous processes 
of the three last vertebrae of the neck, and the two up- 
permost of the back, and is inserted into the second, 
third, fourth, and fifth ribs, by as many fleshy slips. 
Its use is to elevate the ribs and dilate the thorax. 

108. Spinalis dorsi. This muscle arises from the 
spinous processes of the two uppermost vertebrae of 
the loins, and the three inferior of the back, by as ma- 
ny tendons, and is inserted into the spinous processes 
of the nine uppermost vertebrae of the back. Its use 
is to erect and fix the vertebrae, and to assist in raising 
the spine. 

109. Levator t$ costarum. These muscles are divi- 
ded into twelve distinct parts, or twelve parts on each 

j 



IIC MUSCLES. 

Ling in all twelve, pairs. The first of those 
arises from the transverse process of the last vertebrae 
f>f the neck, and goes down to he inserted into the first 
rib near its tuberosity; and so all that follow arise from 
the transverse process, and go to the rib below, being 
very small and tendint ther end; but the 

nost of i -in the s< 

e the rib to which they belong: they pass 
.() to go into 
i 

■ 

i 
: 



■ 
■ 

i (lie lpwer edge 
w- lowermost, at a little disl 

This muscle arises from 
if the seven upper vertebi 
lower of the neck, by as many dis- 
tinct tendinous origins; in its ascent it receives a fleshy 
slip from the spinous process of the first vertebra of 
the hack. From these different origins it runs up- 
wards and is every where intermixed with tendinous 



MUSCLBS. HI' 

fibres, and is inserted tendinous and fleshy, into the in- 
ferior edge of the protuberance in the middle of bone 
iv, and into part of the covered line that runs for- 
wards from that protuberance. Its use is to draw the 
heac -is, and to one side; and, when both act 

to dra n the bead bra 

This muscle arises 

ocesses of the three uppermost 

and from the five lowermost oi 

the neck, and e middle of the p 

riur side of the mastoid process of bone iv, by a thin 

in. Its use is to assist the muscle last described; 

but pulls the bead me side. 

Levator scap. I e. This muscle arises tend in- 
tnd fleshy from transverse pro- five 

•r vertebrae of the neck, by as many distinct s; 
ibon unite to form a muscle that runs down* 
rits, and is inserted fleshy, 
erior ansle of the shoulder blade. I j 
>oulder blade upwards and a little i 

115. Semi-spinalu This muscle arises from 
the I eighth, hi 
and tenth vertebr back, by 

which soon grow fleshy, and then bee 
dinous again; and are into the spii 

the vertebi k above th< 

and i most of the neck, by 

tendons. Its dnei obliqat 

wards. 

11 6. M his muscle ; 

the side and spinous processes of bone xxu, and from 
the I of bone xxv; from all the oblique and 

trans v tin- processes of the vertebrae of the back, and 
from those of the neck, except the three first, by as 
many distinct tendons, which soon grow fleshy, and 



112 MU8CLE8. 

running in an oblique direction; are inserted by distinct 
tendons, into all tbe spinous processes of tbe vertebrae 
of tbe loins, of tbe back, and of tbe neck, except the 
first. When tbe different portions of this muscle act 
on one side, they extend the back obliquely, or move it 
to. one side; but if they act together on, both sides, they, 
extend the vertebrae backwards. 

117. Sejni-sjrinalis colli. This muscle arises from 
the transverse processes of the six uppermost vertebrae, 
of the back; by as many distinct tendons ascending 
obliquely under the complcxus, (mils. 112,) and is in- 
serted into the spinous processes of all the vertebrae 
of the neck, except the first and the last. Its use is to 
extend the neck obliquely backwards. 

118. Transversalis colU. This muscle arises from 
the transverse processes of the five uppermost verte- 
brae of the back, by as many tendinous and fleshy ori- 
gins, and is inserted into the transverse processes of 
all the vertebrae of the neck except the first & last. Its 
use is to turn the neck obliquely backwards and, a little 
to one side. 

119. Rectus capitus posticus minor. This muscle 
arises by a narrow beginning from a little protuber- 
ance in the middle of the back part of the first verte-. 
bra of the neck, ascending obliquely outwards, and is 
inserted tendinous and fleshy, into bone iv, near the 
mastoid portion of bone in. Its use is to turn the 
head backwards, and to assist a little in its rota- 
tion. 

120. Obliquus capitus superior. This muscle ari- 
ses from the transverse process of the first vertebra 
of the neck, and is inserted with muscle 119. Its use 
is to draw the head backwards. 

121. Obliquus capitus inferior. This muscle arises 



MUSCLES. 113 

fleshy, from the spinous process of the second verte- 
bra of the neck, its whole length; and, forming a 
thick fleshy belly, is inserted into the transverse pro- 
cess of the first vertebra of the neck. Its use is to 
give a rotary motion to the head. 

122. Scalenus. It is situated- at the side of the 
neck, between the transverse process of the vertebra 
of the neck, and the upper part of the thorax. This 
muscle is divided into three portions] the anterior or 
fore portion arises from the transverse processes of 
the six inferior vertebra of the neck, by as many short 
tendons, and descending obliquely outwards, is inser- 
ted tendinous and fleshy, into the upper side of the 
first rib, n?ar its cartilage. The middle portion ari- 
ses by distinct tendons, from the transverse processes 
of the four last vertebra of the neck, and descending 
obliquely outwards and a little backward:, is inserted 
tendinous into the outer and upper part of the first 
rib, from its root to within the distance of an inch 
from its cartilage. The third and last portion arises 
from the transverse processes of the second, third, 
fourth and fifth vertebra of the neck, by distinct ten- 
dons, and is inserted into the upper edge of the se- 
cond rib, at the distance of about an inch and a half 
from its articulation, by a broad flat tendon. The use 
of this muscle is to move the neck to one side, when it 
acts singly, or to hern' it forwards when Both muscles 
act; and when the- necfe is fixed it serves t< elevate the 
ribs, and dilate the chest; 

123. liter spinal is colli. The spaces between the 
spinous processes of the vertebra of the neck, is filled 
up with Heshy portions; which arises double from the 
•pinous process of the inferior vertebra of the neck: 
and ascends to be inserted in the same manner, into 
the spinous processes '> of the upper vertebra of the. 
j* 



1 14 MU8CLB6. 

neck. The use of these fleshy bundles are to draw 
these processes nearer to each other. 

124. Intertransversalis* These are distinct bun- 
dies of flesh, which are situated between the transverse 
processes of the vertebrae of the loins, back and neck* 
They arise from the inferior transverse process, and 
are inserted into the superior. Their uses are to draw 
these processes towards each other. Those situated 
in the back are rather tendons than muscles, serving 
to connect the spinal and transverse processes. 

Muscles of the Upper Extremities. 

125. Supra-spinatus. This muscle arises fleshy 
from all that part of the base of the shoulder blade 
that is above its spine; also from its spine and superi- 
or cost a or rib; passing under the acromion or process 
of the shoulder blade, and adheres to the capsular lig. 
ament of the shoulder joint; and is inserted tendinous, 
into that part of the large protuberance on the upper 
head of the arm bone. Its use is to raise the arm up- 
wards; and, at the same time to ru'l the capsular lig- 
ament from between the bones, that it may not be pinch- 
ed. 

126. Infraspinatus. This muscle arises fleshy* 
from all that part of the base of the scapula or bone 
XXXI, that is between its spine and the inferior an- 
gle; from the spine as far as the cervix or neck of the 
scapula or shoulder blade. The fibres ascend and de- 
scend obliquely towards a tendon in the middle of the 
muscle, which runs forwards, and adheres to the cap* 
sular ligament of the shoulder joint, and is inserted 
by a short thick tendon, into the upper and middle 
part of the large protuberance on the upper head of 
the arm bone. Its use is to.roll the os humeri or arm 



MUSCLES, 115' 

bone outwards; to assist in raising, and supporting it 
when raised; and to pull the ligament from between, 
the bones. 

127. Teres Minor* This muscle arises from all the 
round edge of the inferior costa or rib of the scapula or 
shoulder blade, and runs forwards, attaching itself to 
the capsular ligament of the shoulder joint, and is in- 
serted tendinous, into the back part of the large protu- 
bcranee on the upper head of the arm bone, a little be- 
hind and below the termination of the muscle last de- 
scribed. Its use is to roll the arm outward?, to draw 
it backwards; and to prevent the ligament from being 
pinched between the bones. 

128. Teres major. This muscle arises fleshy front- 
the lower angle of the shoulder blade, and from ail- 
that portion of its inferior costa that is rough and 
thicker than the rest; its fleshy fibres are continued 
over part of muscle 126, to which they firmly adhere, 
and is inserted by a broad, short, and thin tendon, into 
the ridge of the inner side of the groove, near the up- 
per head of the arm bone. Its use is to roll the arm 
bone inwards, and to draw it backwards and down- 
wards. 

129. Deltoides. This muscle arises fleshy, from 
all the back part of the collar bone; tendinous and 
fleshy, from the spine and acromion of the shoulder 
blade: from these origins it runs in three different di- 
rections, (i, e.) from the clavicle or collar bone out- 
wards and downwards; from the spine of the scapula 
or shoulder blade outwards, forwards, and downwards, 
and from the acromion, straight downwards; and is 
composed of a number of fasciculi or bundles which 
form a strong fleshy muscle, that covers the front part 
of the shoulder joint, and is inserted tendinous, mt^ 



116 MUSCLES. 

the rough protuberance in the outer side of the arm 
bone, near its middle. Its use is to pull the arm di- 
rectly outwards and upwards, and a little forwards op 
backwards, according to the different directions of its 
fibres. 

130. Coraco-brachialu. This muscle arises ten 
dinous and fleshy, from the fore part of the coracoid 
process of bone XXXI; adhering, in its descent to 
the short head of muscle 132, and is inserted tendinous 
amd fleshy, about the middle of the external part of 
the arm bone, from thence it sends down a thin tendi- 
nous expansion to the internal condyle at the lower 
end of the arm bone, (os humeri.) Its use is to raise 
the arm upwards and forwards. 

131. Subscapularis. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from all the base of the shoulder blade internally, and 
from its. superior and inferior costse or ribs, being 
composed of a number of tendinous and flcsl -y fasciculi 
or bundles, which make prints on the bone; they all 
join together and fill up the hollow of the shoulder 
blade, and pa s over the joint, adhering to the capsu- 
lar ligament, .tml is inserted tendinous, into the upper 
part of the internal protuberance at the upper head of 
the arm bone, its use is to roll the arm bone inwards, 
and to draw it to one side of the body, and to prevent 
the capsular ligament from being pinched. 

Muscles situated mi the c . humeri, or bone XXXII. 

132. Biceps flexor cubiti. This muscle as its name 
(biceps) purports arises by two heads. The first and 
outermost head called longus, begins tendinous from 
the upper edge of the glenoid cavity of the shoulder 
Wade; passes over the head of bone XXXII, within 
the joint; and in its descent at the outside of the joint, ig 



MUSCLES. llf 

enclosed in a groove near the head of the arm bone, 
by a membranous ligament that proceeds from the cap- 
sular ligament and adjacent tendons. The second, ot 
innermost head, called, brevis, tendinous and fleshy 
from the coracoid process of the shoulder blade. A lit-, 
tie below the middle of the os humeri or bone of the 
arm, these heads unite, and are inserted by a strong 
round tendon, into the tubercle on the upper end of 
bone XXXIV (radius.) Its use is to turn the hand su- 
pine (i. e.) the palm of the hand up, and to bend the 
fore arm. 

133. Brachialis. This muscle arises fleshly, from 
the middle of the os humeri or bone of the arm, at each 
side of the insertion of muscle 129, covering all the 
lower part of this bone, runs over the joint, and ad- 
heres firmly to the capsular ligament, and is inserted 
by a strong short tendon, into the coronoid process of 
bone XXXIII, (ulna). Its use is to bend the fore arm, 
and to prevent the capsular ligament of the joint from, 
being pinched. 

134. Triceps extensor cubiti. This- muscle as its 
name indicates (triceps) arises by three different heads: 
the first called longus, arises somewhat broad and ten- 
dinous, from the inferior costa or rib of the shoulder 
blade, near its neck. The second head, called brevis 
arises by an acute, tendinous, and fleshy beginning, 
from the back part of the os humeri or bone of the arm, 
a little below its head outwardly. The third, called 
brachialis extcrnus, arises by an acute beginning, from 
the back part of the os.humeri or bone of the arm. 
These three heads unite lower than the insertion of 
mnscle 128, and covers the whole of the back part of 
bone XXXI 1, (os humeri) and is inserted into the ole~ 
crannon or process of the ulna bone XXXIII, and part* 



118 MVSCLKS. 

ly into the condyles of the os humeri or bone of the arm, 

adhering firmly to the capsular ligament. Its use is 

stent! the Sore arm. 

13 5. Anconeus. This muscle arises tendinous, 

from the back part of the external condyle of bone 

II, or bone of the arm; it soon gro , and 

i d from the third head of muscle 134, and is 

inserted fleshy and thin, into a ridge on the outer and 

edge of bone. XXXIII, (ulna,) being 
some distance below the olecranon or joint of the elbow, 
and covered with a tendinous membrane. Its ' 
in extending the fore arm. 

!es situated on the Foi the Elbow 

Jo: 

• radii longns. This muscle arises 
n, from the external ridge of bone 

XX £li, (os humeri) a vie, near- 

middle of tli rid is inserted 

into the ■■• er extremity of bone 

to roll that bone out- 



13: 
arises broad, below the 

one lust d 

ridge of bone XXX H. ei.) above its ex' 

com] lund tendon, into the 

posterior and upper part of the, metacarpal bone that 
■ns the fore linger. Its use is to extend and bring 
the hand backwai 

133- Extensor carpi radialis brevior. This muscle 
arises tendinous, from the externa! condyle of bone 
XXXII, (os humeri,) and from the ligament that con- 



MUSclJlI. 119 

• bone XXXIV, (radius.) to it and runs along tlio 
outside of the radius, and is inserted by a round ten- 
don into the upper and back part of the metacarpal 
bonetim' (be middle finger. In- 

sist muscic 137. 

139. ni». This muscle 

ling* 
from of bone XXXII, (os hume- 

und< • '.. it. 

divi; 

:3tO 

ly to ttom- 

.\iusrle ai 

SIX, 

is inserted by a 
upper part of the 
j ill !e finger. Its use 
in exten 

iris. This muscle si 
t crK (i, il condyle of bone XXXH 

leshy beginning from 
the outer sideof tin ion; between which, and the 

condyle of bone XXXIII, (ulna) passes to the forearm? 
.and a number of its fleshy fibres arise from the tendin- 



120 MC8CLE8. 

ous membrane which covers the fore arm, and is inser- 
ted by a strong short tendon into the os pisiforme or 
hone iv of the carpus or wrist. At a little distance 
from its insertion a small ligament is sent off to the 
metacarpal bone that sustains the little finger. Its use 
is to assist in bending the arm. 

143. Falmaris longus. This muscle arises tendin- 
ous, from the condyle of bone XXXII, (os humeri) but 
soon grows fleshy, and after a short progress, sends off 
a long slender tendon, and is inserted into the annu- 
lar ligament of the wrist, and into a tendinous mem^ 
brane that is expanded on the palm of the hand, na- 
med aponeurosis pulmaris; which, a')ovc begins at the 
transverse annular ligament of the wrist; and, be- 
low, is fixed to the roots of the fingers. Its use i9 
to bend the hand, and to stretch the membrane that is 
expanded on the palm. 

144. Flexor carpi radialis. This muscle arises 
tendinous and fleshy, from the internal condyle of bone 
XXXII, (os humeri) and from the front part of the 
-upper end of bone XXXIII, (ulna) where it firmly 
adheres to muscle 145, and is inserted by a flat ten- 
don, into the fore and upper part of the metacarpal 
tone, that contains the fore finger, after running 
through a depression in the os trapezium or boae 5 of 
the carpus or wrist. Its use is to bend the hand, and 
to assist in pronation or turning the palm of the hand 
downwards. 

145- Pronator radii teres. This muscle arises from 
all the internal condyle of bone xxxn, (os humeri) 
and tendinous from the coronoid process of bone xxxiii* 
(ulna) and is inserted tendinous, and fleshy, into the 
middle of the posterior part of bone xxxiv, (radius.) 
its use is to roll that bone, together with the hand in- 
wards. 



MtJSCLES. /7 12 1 

146. Supinator radii breves. This muscle arises 
tendinous, from the external condyle Of bone XXXII; 
(os humeri) tendinous and fleshy, from the external and 
upper part of bone XXXIII, (ulna,) and adheres firm- 
ly to the ligament that joins these two hones together, 
and is inserted into the head* neck, and tubercle of 
bone XXXIV, (radius) near the insertion of muscle 
132, and ridge running from that downwards and out- 
wards. Its use is to roll the radius outwards, and to 
bring the hand supine, or the palm upwards. 

147. Extensor ossis metucarpi pollitis manus. 
muscle arises fleshy, from the middle of the posterior 
part of bone XXXIII, (ulna) immediately below the 
insertion of muscle 135, from the posterior part of the 
the middle of bone XXXIV, (radius,) and from the in - 
terosseous ligament, or ligament situated bet 
radius and ulna, and is inserted by two tendons into the 
os trapezium or bone 5 of the carpus or wrist, & back 
part of the metacarpal bone of the thumb. Its us< 

to extend the metacarpal bone of the thumb out- 
wards. 

148. Extensor primi intemodii. This muscle ari- 
ses fleshly, from the posterior part of bone XXXIH, 
(ulna) and from the ligament that is situated between 
ulna and radius, and is inserted tendinous, into the pos- 
terior part of the first bone of the thumb. Its us 

to extend the first bone of the thumb obliquely 
wards. 

149. Extersor secundi intemodii. This muscle ari - 
scs by an acute, tendinous, and fleshy beginning, from 
the middle of the back part of bone xxxiii (ulna) and 
from the iriteroscous ligament that is situated bet w 
the ulna and radius; its tendon runs through a small 
groove at the inner and back part of the lower end of 
bone xxxiv(radius,) and is inserted into the last bone 






\ * 



122 ' MUSCLES 

of the thumb. Its use is to extend the last joint of the 
thumb obliquely backwards. 

150. Indicator. This muscle arisesby an acute, 
fleshy beginning, from the middle of the posterior part 
of the ulna, passes under the annular ligament of the 
wrist, and is inserted into the back part of the fore 
finger. Its use is to extend the fore finger. 

151. Flexor digitorum sublimis. This muscle ari- 
ses tendinous, and fleshy, from the internal condyle of 
bone XXXII, (os humeri, )tendinous from the coronoid 
process of the ulna, near the edge of the cavity that 
receives the head of bone XXXII; fleshy from the tu- 
bercle of that bone: and membranous and fleshy from 
the middle of the fore part of the radius. Its fleshy 
belly sends off four round tendons before it passes un- 
der the ligament of the wrist, and is inserted into the 
fore and upp cr part of the second bone of each finger, 
being divided near the extremity of the first bone for 
the passage of muscle 152. Its use is to bend the se- 
cond joint of the fingers. 

152. Flexor digitorum profundus. This muscle 
arises fleshy, from external side of bone XXXIII, 
(ulna,) and from a large share of the ligament which is 
situated between the two bones of the arm. It splits 
into four tendons, a little before it passes under the 
annular ligament of the wrist, and these pass through 
the slits in the tendons of muscle 151, and are insert- 
ed into the fore and upper part of the third or last bone 
of the four fingers. Its use is to bend the last joint of 
the fingers. 

153. Flexor long us pollicis manus. This muscle 
arises by an acute fleshy beginning, from the upper 
part of bone XXXIV, (radius,) immediately below 
its tubercle, and is continued down for some space on. 
the fore part of this bone: and fleshy from the internal 



MUSCLES. 123 

condyle of bone XXXII, (os humeri,) that terminates 
near the upper part of the origin from the radius, and 
is inserted into the last joint of the thumb, its tendon 
being confined by the annular ligament of the wrist* 
Its use is to bend the last joint of the thumb. 

154. Pronator radii quadratics. This muscle ari- 
ses broad, tendinous and fleshy, from the lower and 
inner part of bone XXXIII; the fibres run transversa 
ly, to be inserted into the lower and front part of bone 
XXXIV. Its use is to turn that bone, together with 
the hand inwards. 

Muscles situated chiefly on the Hand. 

155. Lumbricalis, This muscle arises thin, and 
fleshy from the inside, of the tendons of muscle 15£, 
a little above the annular ligament of the wrist, under 
which it passes, and is inserted by long slender tendons 
into the outer side of the broad tendons of muscles 148 
and 149, about the middle of the first joint of the fin- 
gers. Its use is, to increase the flexion of the fingers 
while the long flexors are in full action. 

156. Flexor brevis polUcis maims. This muscle is 
divided into two portions: the first arises from the sides 
of bones 5 & 6 of the carpus or wrist, and from the 
internal surface of the annular ligament of the wrist. 
The second head arises from bone 7 of the wrist, and 
from the base of the metacarpal bone of the little fin- 
ger, and arc inserted by the first head into the outer 
sesamoid bone of the thumb, and by the second into 
the inner sesamoid bones. Its use is to bend the first 
joint of the thumb. 

157. Oponeus pollicis. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from bone 5 of the carpus or wrist, and annular liga- 
ment, and is inserted tendinous and fleshy, into the uih 



^. 



124 MUHULMU, 

der and front part of the metacarpal bone of the thumb. 
Its use is to bring the thumb inwards, opposite to the 
other fingers. 

158. Abductor pollitis inarms. TWihusclc arises 
by a broad tendinous and fleshy beginning, from the 
annular ligament of the wrist, and from bone 5 of the 
wrist, and is inserted tendinous, into the outer part of 
the root of the first bone of the thumb. Its use is to 
pull the thumb towards the fingers. 

159. Abductor jwllicis manus. This muscle arises 
fleshy, from almost the whole length of the metacar- 
pal bone, that sustains the middle fingers; from thence 
its fibres are collected together, and are inserted ten* 
<linous, into the inner part of the root of the first bone 
of the thumb. Its use is to pull the thumb towards the 
fingers. 

160. Abductor indicis manus. This muscle arises 
from bone 5 of the wrist, and from the superior part 
and inner side of the metacarpal bone of the thumb, 
<& is inserted by a short tendon into the under and back 
part of the first bone of the fore finger. Its use is to 
jjring the fore finger towards the thumb. 

161. Palmaris brevis. This muscle arises 
from the annular ligament of the wrist, and tendinous 
membrane that is expanded on the palm of the hand, 
and is inserted by small bundles of fleshy fibres into 
the skin and fat that covers muscle 140, and into bone 
4 of the wrist. Its use is to assist in extending the 
palm of the hand. 

162. Abductor minimi digiti manus. This muscle 
arises fleshy, from bone 4 of the wrist, and from that 
part of the annular ligament next it, and is inserted 
tendinous, into the inner side of the upper end of the 
first bone of the little finger. Its use is to draw this 
finger from the rest. 



MUSCLES. 1 25 

163. Jbductor minimi digiti manus. This muscle 
arises fleshy, from the thin edge of bone 8 of the wrist, 
and from that part of the annular ligament next to it, 
and is inserted tendinous, into the inner side and front 
part of the metacarpal hone of the little finger. Its 
use is to bend and bring the metacarpal bone of this 
finger towards the wrist. 

164. Flexor parvus minimi digiti. This muscle 
arises fleshy from the outer side of bone 8 of the wrist, 
and from the ligament of the wrist which joins with 
that bone, and is inserted by a round tendon into the 
inner and antciior part of the upper end of the first 
bone of the little finger. Its use is to bend the little 
finger. 

165. Interosei interni. These arc three in number. 
The first is called posterior indicis; it ; rises tendinous 
and fleshy, from the brevis and inner part of the met- 
acarpal bone of the fore finger, and likewise from the 
upper end of the one that supports the middle finger, & 
is inserted into the posterior convex surface of the first 
bone of the fore finger. The second and third called 
prior annularis, and interosseus auricularis arises, in 
the same manner, from the basis of the outside of the 
metacarpal bones that sustain the ring and little fin- 
gers, and are inserted into the outside of the tendin- 
ous expansion of muscle 1 39 that covers each of these 
fingers. These three muscles draw the fingers ir: + .o 
which they r-re inserted, towards the thumb. 

166. Interosei extend. There are four muscles in- 
cluded under this one name; the first of which, is call- 
ed abductor indicis manus, arises from bone 5 of the 
wrist, and from the superior part, and inner side of 
the metacarpal bone of the thumb, and is inserted by 
a short tendon, into the outer and back part of the first 
bone of the fore finger. The second called prior me* 



126 MUSCLES. 

dli, arises by two origins, from the roots of the meta- 
carpal bones that sustain the fore and micMle fingers, 
and is inserted into the tendinous expansion from mus- 
cle 139 which covers the back part of the middle fin- 
ger. The third called posterior medii, arises by two 
origins, from the roots of the metacarpal bones, next 
to each other, that sustain the middle and ring fingers, 
and is inserted with part second. The fourth, called 
jmterior annularis, arises from the roots of the meta- 
carpal bones that sustain the ring and little finger, and 
is inserted into the inside of the tendon, on the back 
of the ring finger. The use of the interossei externi 
is to extend the fingers into which they are inserted, 
and likewise to draw them inw T ards towards the thumb, 
except the third, which from its situation and inser- 
tion, is calculated to pull the middle finger outwards. 

Muscles of the Inferior Extremities. 

167. Pectinalis. This muscle arises broad and 
ileshy, from the upper & anterior part of bone XXVII, 
(os pubis) immediately above the foramen thyroideum, 
and is inserted into the front and upper part of the 
linea aspera or rough line in the thigh bone, a little be- 
low the trochanter minor of the same bone, by a flat 
and short tendon. 

168. Triceps adductor femoris. This muscle 
as its name (triceps) purports, arises by three dis- 
tinct heads, viz : 

1. Adductor longus femoris. This portion arises 
by a strong roundish tendon, from the upper and pos- 
terior part of bone XXVII, (os pubis) and is inserted 
tendinous, near the middle of the posterior part of the 
linea aspera or rough line of the thigh bone, being con- 
tinued for some distance down it. 



MUSCLES. 12? 

2. Jidductor brevis femoris. This portion arises 
tendinous, from bone XXVI I, (os pubis,) near where 
theyjoin in the center, and is inserted tendinous and 
fleshy, into the inner and upper part of the linea as- 
pcra, or rough ridge on the thigh bone, from a little 
below the trochanter minor, to the beginning of the in- 
sertion of part 1 . 

3. Jidductor magnus femoris. This portion arises 
a little lower down than the former, near the joining 
of the ossa pubis; tendinous and fleshy, from the tu- 
berosity of bone XXVI, (os ischium); the fibres run 
outwards and downwards, and are inserted into al- 
most the whole length of the linea aspera, into the 
ridge above the internal condyle of the thigh bone. 
The use of these three muscles, or triceps, are, to 
bring the thigh inwards and upwards, according to 
the different directions of their fibres; and, in some 
degree, to roll the thigh outwards. 

169. Obdurator externus. This muscle arises fleshy* 
from the lower part of the inner origin of bone XXVI; 
(os ischium) surrounds the foramen thyroideum; a 
number of its fibres, arising from the membrane which 
fills up that foramen, are collected like rays towards a 
center, and pass outwards towards the root of the 
the back part of the neck of the thigh bone, and is in- 
serted by a strong tendon, into the cavity at the inner 
and back part of the root of the trochanter major of 
the thigh bone, adhering in its course to the capsular 
ligament of the hip joint. Its use is to roll the thigh 
bone obliquely outwards, and to prevent the capsular 
ligament from being pinched. 

170. Gluteus maximus. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from the back part of bone XXV; from the whole ex- 
ternal side of bone XXII, below the posterior spinous 
process of bone XXV; (os ilium) and from the posteri- 



128 MUSCLES. 

or sacro-ischialic ligament. All the fleshy fibres run 
obliquely forwards, and a little downwards, to form a 
thick broad muscle, which is divided into a number 
of strong fasciculi or bundles, and is inserted by a 
strong, thick and broad tendon into the upper and out- 
er part of the linea aspera or rough ridge on the thigh 
hone. Its use is to extend the thigh, by pulling it di- 
rectly backwards, and a little forwards. 

171. Gluteus minimus. This mnscle arises fleshy 
from a ridge that is continued from the upper anterior 
spinous process of bone XXV, and from the middle of 
the dorsum of that bone, as far back as its great niche, 
and is inserted by a strong tendon, into the fore and 
upper part of the trochanter major of the thigh bone. 
Its use is to draw the thigh bone outwards, and a lit- 
tle backwards; to roll the thigh bone outwards espe- 
cially when it is bent. 

172. Gluteus medius. This muscle arises fleshy, 
from the front superior spinous process of bone XXV, 
(os ilium) and from all the outer edge of the spine of 
that bone, except its posterior part, where it arises 
from the dorsum, and is inserted by a broad tendon, 
into the ou:er and upper margin of the t-oc banter ma- 
jor of the thigh bone. Its use is to draw the thigh bone 
outwards, and a little backwards. 

173. Piriformis. This muscle arises within the 
pelvis, by three tendinous and fleshy origins, from the 
second, third, and fourth pieces of bone XXII; (os 
sacrum) from thence growing gradually narrower, it 
passes out of the pelvis, below the niche in the back 
part of bone XXV, (os ilium) where it receives a few 
fleshy fibres, and is inserted by a roundish tendon, into 
the upper part of the cavity, at the inner side of the 
root ot the trochan#.« i*-»i r of the thish bone. Its 



MUSCLES. 129 

use is to move the thigh a little upwards, and rolls it 
outwards. 

174. Gemini. This muscle arises hy two distinct 
origins; the upper from the spinous process, and the 
inferior from the tuberosity of bone xxvi; (os ischium) 
also, from the posterior sacro-ischiatic ligament. They 
are both united hy a tendinous fleshy membrane, form- 
ing a purse for the tendon of muscle 84, to which they 
firmly adhere. Its use is to roll the thigh outwards & 
to preserve the tendon of muscle 84. 

175. Quadratus femoris. This muscle arises ten- 
dinous and fleshy, from the outside of the tuberosity of 
bone xxvi; (os ischium;) and, running transversely* 
is inserted fleshy, into a rough ridge, continued from 
the trochanter major of the thigh bone to the trochan- 
ter minor. Its use is to roll the thigh outwards. 

Muscles situated on the Thigh. 

176. Tensor vagince femoris. This muscle arises 
by a narrow, tendinous, and fleshy beginning, from the 
external part of the front superior spinous process of 
bone xxv, (os ilium,) and is inserted into the thigh 
bone a little below the trochanter major, into the inner 
side of the membranous expansion which covers the out- 
side of the thigh. Its use is to stretch this membran- 
ous expansion, to assist in the adduction of the thigh, 
and somewhat in its rotation inwards. 

177. Sartorius. This muscle arises tendinous, 
from the front superior spinous process of bone xxv, 
(os ilium) but soon grows fleshy, and is inserted by a 
broad and thin tendon, into the inner side of bone 
xxxix, (tibia,) near the inferior part of its tubercle. 
Its use is to bend the leg obliquely inwards, or to bring 
t>ne leg across the other. 



130 MUSCLES. 

178. Rectus femoris. This muscle arises from the 
lower anterior spinous process of hone xxv, (os ilium,) 
and tendinous from the dorsum of the same bone, a lit- 
tie above the acetabulum or cavity for the head of the 
thigh hone: runs down over the front part of the neck 
of the thigh bone; the fibres not being straight, but run- 
ning down like the plumage of a feather, obliquely 
outwards and inwards, from a tendon in the middle, 
and is inserted tendinous into the upper part of the pa- 
tella or knee pan, from which a thin tendon runs down 
on the fore part of that bone, to terminate in a thick 
strong ligament, which is sent off from the lower part 
of the knee pan, and inserted into the tubercle of bone 
xxxix, (tibia.) Its use is to extend the leg, and in a 
powerful manner, by the intervention of the knee pan, 
like a pully. 

179. Vas'us cxtcrnus. This muscle arises broad, 
tendinous, and fleshy, from the root of the trochanter 
major of the thigh bone, and upper part of the linea 
aspera or rough ridge of tlis thigh bone, and is insert- 
ted into a large share of the upper part of the patella 
or knee pan; part of it ending in an aponeurosis, which 
is continued down to the leg, and in its passage is firm- 
ly fixed to the head of bone xxxix, (tibia.) Its use is 
to extend the leg. 

180. Vastus interims. This muscle arises tendin- 
ous and fleshy, from between the fore part of the thigh 
bone and root of the trochanter minor, and from almost 
all the ipside of the linea aspera, or rough ridge of the 
thigh bone, by fibres running obliquely downwards and 
forwards, and is inserted tendinous, into the upper 
and inside of the patella or knee pan, continuing fleshy 
lower than the one last described. Part of it likewise 
ends in an aponeurosis continued down to the lc^, and 



MUSCLES. 131 

fixed in its passage to the upper part of bone xxxix. 
Its use is to extend the leg. 

181. Cruralis. This muscle arises fleshy, from 
between the two trochanters of the thigh bone, and 
firmly adhering to the most of the fore part of the thigh 
bone, being connected to muscles 179 and 180, is inser- 
ted tendinous, into the upper part of the patella or 
knee pan, behind muscle 178. Its use is to assist in 
the extension of the leg. 

1 82. Semi-teiidbwsus. This muscle arises tendin* 
ous and fleshy, in common with the long head of mus- 
cle 1 84, from the posterior part of the tuberosity of 
bone xxvi, (os ischium,) and sending down a long 
roundish tendon, which ends flat, is inserted into the 
inside of the ridge of bone xxxix, (tibia) a little below 
its tubercle. Its use is to bend the leg backwards & 
a little inwards. 

183. Semi-membranosus. This muscle arises ten- 
dinous, from the upper and back part of the tuberosi- 
ty of bone xxvi; sends down a broad flat tendon, 
which ends in a fleshy belly; and, in its descent, runs 
at first on the forepart of muscle 184, bctwesn it and 
muscle 183, and is inserted tendinous into the inner 
and back part of the head of bone xxxix, (tibia). Its 
use is to bend the leg and bring it directly back- 
wards. 

134. Biceps Jlexor cruris. This muscle arises by 
two distinct heads. The first called longus, rises in 
common with muscle 183, and from the upper and pos- 
terior part of the tuberosity of bone xxvi, (os ischi- 
um. ) The second called brevis, arises from the linea 
aspera or rough ridge on the thigh bone, from this ori^ 
gin it descends to join with the first head, a little above 
the external condyle on the lower end of the thigh 



132 MUSCLES. 

bone, and is inserted by a strong tendon, into tbe up- 
per part of the head of bone xl, (fibula.) Its use is to 
bend the leg. 

185. Popliteus. This muscle arises by a round 
tendon, from the lower and back part of the external 
condyle of the thigh bone, then runs over the liga- 
ment that covers the knee joint; firmly adhering to it. 
As it runs over the joint, it becomes fleshy, and the 
fibres run obliquely inwards, being covered with a 
thin tendinous membrane, and is inserted broad, thin, 
and fleshy, into a ridge at the upper and internal edge 
of bone xxxix, (tibia) a little below its head. Its use 
is to assist in bending the leg, and to prevent the cap- 
sular ligament from being pinched. After the leg 
is bent, this muscle serves to roll it inwards. 

Muscles situated on the Leg. 

186. Gastrocnemius externus. This muscle arises 
by two distinct heads. The first head arises from the 
upper and back part of the internal condyle of the 
thigh bone, and from that bone a little above its con- 
dyle, by two distinct tendinous origins. The second 
head arises tendinous, from the upper and back part of 
the external condyle of the thigh bone. A little be- 
low the knee joint, their fleshy bellies unite in a middle 
tendon; and, below the middle of bone xxxix, (tibia,) 
it sends off a broad thin tendon, which joins a little 
above the lower extremity of the tibia or bone of the 
leg with the tendon of muscle 187. 

187. Gastrocnemius iniernus. This muscle arises 
by two origins. The first is from the upper and back 
part of the head of bone xl, (fibula,) continuing to re- 
ceive many of its fleshy fibres from the posterior part 
©f that bone for some space below its head. The other 



MUSCLES* tSB 

origin begins from the posterior and upper part of the 
middle of bone XXXIX; (tibia) and runs along the 
inferior edge of muscle 185 towards the inner part of 
the tibia or bone of the leg, from which it receives 
fleshy fibres for some way down. The tendon of this 
muscle where it unites with the former, forms a strong 
round chord which is called tendo Jchiilis, and is insert- 
ed into the upper or back part of bone 2 of the tarsus 
or instep, by the projection of which the tendo Achillis 
is at a considerable distance from the tibia or bone of 
the leg. Its use is to extend the foot, by bringing it 
backwards and downwards. 

188. riantaris. This muscle arises thin and fleshy, 
from the upper and back part of the root of the external 
condyle of the]thighbone,near the inferior extremity of 
that bone, adhering to the ligament that covers the 
joint in its descent, and is inserted into the inside of the 
posterior part of bone 2 of the tarsus or instep. Its 
use is to assist muscle 188, and to pull the capsular lig- 
ament of the knee from between the bones. 

189. Tibialis anticus. This muscle arises tendin- 
ous and fleshy from the middle of that process of bone 
XXXIX, (tibia) to which bone XL, (fibula) is connect- 
ed ; it then runs downwards fleshy on the outside of the 
tibia or bone of the leg; from which, and the upper 
part of the interoseus ligament of the leg, it receives a 
number of distinct fleshy fibres ; near the extremity of 
the tibia or bone of the leg, it sends off" a strong round 
tendon, which passes under the annular ligament of the 
instep, and is inserted tendinous, into the inside of the 
oscuneiformeinterunmone of the bones of the instep, and 
posterior end of the metatarsal bone that sustains the 
great toe. Its use is to bend the foot, by drawing it 

% 



134 MUSCLES. 

upwards, and, at the same time, to turn the toes in- 
wards. 

190. Tibialis posticus. This muscle arises by a 
narrow fleshy beginning, from the fore and upper part 
of XXXIX,* (tibia) just under the process that joins it 
to bone XL, fibula, then passing through a perfora- 
tion in the upper p; r* fthe interosseous ligament of 
the leg, it continue, .s origin from the back part of 
the jibula or bone of the leg next the tibia, and from 
near one half of the last named bone, and is inserted 
tendinous, into the upper and inner part of bone 3 of 
the instep, being further continued to the internum, k 
medium, of bones 5 of the instep; besides it gives some 
tendinous filaments to bones 2 and 4 of the instep, and 
to the root of the metatarsal bone that sustains the 
middle toe. Its use is to extend the foot, and to turn 
the toes inwards. 

191. Peroneus longus. This muscle arises tendin- 
ous and fleshy, from the fore part of the head of bone 
XL, the fibres running straight down ; also from 
the upper and external part of the fibula, or bone of the 
leg, where it begins to rise into a round edge, as far 
down as to reach within a hand's breadth of the ankle, 
l>y a number of fleshy fibres, which run outwards to- 
wards a tendon, that sends off a long round one, and 
is inserted tendinous, into the outside of the root of the 
metatarsal bone that sustains the great toe, and by 
some tendinous fibres into the cunciforme internum of 
the instep. Its use is to move the foot outwards, and 
to extend the foot. 

192. Peroneus brevis. This muscle arises by an 
acute fleshy beginn ng, from above the middle of the 
external part of bone XL; (fibula) from the outer side 
of the anterior spine of this bone; as also from its 
round edge externally, the fibres running obliquely 



MUSCLES. t3# 

outwards towards a tendon on its external side; it 
sends off a round tendon which passes through the, 
groove at the outer ancle, being there included under 
the same ligament with that of muscle 191; and a lit- 
tle farther it runs through a particular one of its own, 
and is inserted tendinous, into the root and external 
part of the metatarsal bone that sustains the little toe. 
Its use is to assist the former in pulling the foot out- 
wards, and extending it a lilt 

193. Extensor longus digitdi >hn pedis. This mus- 
cle arises tendinous and fleshy, from the upper and 
outer part of the head of bone xxxix, (tibia), and 
from the head of bone xl, (fibula,) where it joins with 
the tibia, or bone of the leg, and from the interosseous 
ligament of the leg; also from the tendinous expan- 
sion which covers the upper and outside of the leg by 
a number of fleshy fibres; and tendinous and fleshy, 
from the anterior spine of the fibula or bone of the leg- 
it splits iiuo four round ten dons under the annular lig- 
ament of the tarsus or instep, and each is inserted by 
a flat tendon into the root of the first joint of each- of 
the four small toes, and is expanded over the upper side 
of the toes, as far as the root of the first joint. The 
use of this muscle is to extend all the joints of the four 
small toes. 

194. Extensor proprius pollicis pedis. This muscle 
arises by an acute, tendinous, and fleshy beginning, 
some distance below the head and front part of bone 
XL, (fibula) along which bone it runs to near its low- 
er extremity, connected to it by a number of fleshy 
fibres, which ascend obliquely towards a tendon, and 
is inserted tendinous, into the posterior part of the 
first and last joint of the great toe. Its use is to ex- 
tend the great toe. 

195. Flexor longus digitorum pedis. This mus* 



156 MUSCLES. 

cle arises by an acute tendon, which soon become* 
fleshy,from the back partof bone xxxix, (tibia) some dis- 
tance below its head, which beginning is continued 
down the inner edge of this bone by short fleshy fibres, 
ending in its tendon; also by tendinous, and fleshy 
fibres, from the outer edge of the tibia, and between 
this double order of fibres, muscle 190 lies enclosed. 
Having passed under two annular ligaments, it then 
passes through a depression at the side of the os calcis, 
or heel bone; and about the middle of the sole of the 
foot, divides into four tendons, which pass through the 
slits of muscle 198, and each one is inserted into the 
last joint of the four lesser toes. The use of this mus- 
cle is to bend the last joint of the toes. 

196. Flexor longus pollicis pedis. This muscle 
arises tendinous, and fleshy, a little below the head of 
bone XL, (fibula) and its fibres continue to adhere to 
that bone almost to its extremity. A little above the 
heel it terminates in a round tendon, which after pass-. 
ing in a groove formed at the posterior edge of bone 1 
of the tarsus or instep, and internal edge of bone 2 of 
the instep, in which it is secured by an annular liga- 
ment, and is inserted into the last bone of the great toe. 
Its use is to bend the toe. 

Muscles chiefly situated on the Foot. 

3 97. Extensor brevis digitorum pedis. This mus- 
cle arises tendinous, and fleshy, from the fore and up- 
per part of bone 2 of the instep, and soon forms a, 
fleshy belly, .which is divided into four portions, send- 
ing off an equal number of tendons that pass over the 
upper part of the foot, under the tendons of the last 
described muscle, and is inserted by four slender ten^ 
dons, into the tendinous expansion of muscle 193 ? 



mijsci.es. 137 

which covers the small toes, except the little one; also 
into the tendinous expansion of muscle 194 that covers 
the upper part of the great toe. The use of this muscle 
is to extend the toes. 

1 98. Flexor brevis digilorum pedis. This muscle 
arises by a narrow fleshy beginning, from the inferior 
and posterior part of a protuberance of bone 2, of the 
instep; it soon forms a thick fleshy belly, which sends 
off four tendons that split, or divide for the passage 
of the tendons of muscle 195, and are inserted into the 
second bone of the four lesser toes. The use of this 
muscle is to bend the second joint of the toes. 

199. Lumbricales pedis. This muscle arises by 
four tendinous and fleshy beginnings, from the tendon 
of muscle 195, just before its division, and is inserted 
by four slender tendons, into the inside of the first 
joint of the four lesser toes. The use of this muscle 
is to increase the flexion of the toes and to draw them 
inwards. 

200. Flexor brevis pollids pedis. This muscle ari- 
ses tendinous, from the under and fore part of bone 2 
of the instep, where it joins with bone 4, and from the 
os cuneiforme externum or hone of the instep, and is in- 
serted into the internal and external sesamoid bones 
of the great toe, and into the first joint of the same. 
Its use is to bend the first joint of the great toe. 

201. Abductor pollids pedis. This muscle arises 
by a long thin tendon, from bones 2 and 3 of the instep, 
and from the root of the metatarsal bone of the se- 
cond toe, and is inserted into the external sesamoid 
bone of the great toe, and root of the metatarsal bone 
of the same. lis use is to bring this toe nearer the 
rest. 

202. Abductor pollids pedis. This muscle arises 



MUSCLES.. 



from the internal side of the tuberosity of bone 2 of the 
instep, and from a ligament which extends from this 
tuberosity to the sheth of the tendon of muscles 196, 
and also from the internal and inferior side of bone 3 
of the instep, and other adjacent parts, and is inserted 
into the internal sesamoid bone, and the inferior and 
internal part of the root of the first bone of the great 
toe. Its use is to sepcrate the great toe from the oth- 
ers, and to increase the curvature of the same. 

SOS. Mductor minimi digiti pedis. This muscle 
arises tendinous and fleshy, from a semi circular edge 
of a cavity of the inferior part of a protuberance of 
bone 2 of the tarsus, and from the metatarsal bone of 
the little toe, and is inserted into the root of the first 
joint of the little toe. Its use is to bend the little toe,, 
and its metatarsal bone, downwards, and to draw the 
little toe from the rest. 

204. Flexor brevis minimi digiti pedis. Thisrnus-* 
cle arises tendinous from bone of the tarsus or instep; 
fleshy from the outside of the metatarsal bone that sus- 
tains the little toe, below its protuberant part, and is 
inserted tendinous into the front extremity of the met- 
atarsal bone, and root of the first joint of this toe. 
Its use is to bend this toe. 

205. Transversalis pedis. This muscle arises ten- 
dinous, from the under part of the anterior extremity 
of the metatarsal bone of the great toe, and from the 
internal sesamoid bone of the first joint, and is insert- 
ed tendinous, into the under and outer part of the an- 
terior extremity of the metatarsal bone of the little toe, 
and ligament of the next toe. Its use is to contract 
the foot, by bringing the great toe, and the two outer- 
most toes nearer to each other. 

206. Interosei pedis externi. There are four mus- 
cles included under this appellation. The first aris es 



MUSCLES- 139 

tendinous and fleshy, from the outside of the root of 
the metatarsal hone of the great toe, and from the root 
of the metatarsal hone of the next toe, its tendon is in-, 
serted into the inside of the tendinous expansion that 
covers the hack of tiic toes. The second is placed in 
a similar manner, between the metatarsal hones of 
the fore and middle toes, and is inserted into the out- 
side of the tendinous expansion on the hack of the foro 
toe. The third and fourth are placed between the two 
next metatarsal hones, and are inserted into the outside 
of the middle and third toes. The first of these draws 
the fore toe inwards towards the great toe. The three 
others pull the toes, into which they are inserted, out- 
wards. They all assist in extending the toes. 

207. Interosci pedis interni. There are three mus- 
cles included under this appellation. They arise ten- 
dinous and fleshy, from the basis and inside of the met- 
atarsal bones of the middle, the third, and little toes, 
terminating in a tendon that runs to the inside of the 
first joint of these toes, and from thence to their upper 
surface, where the tendons are lost in the tendinous ex- 
pansion that is sent off from the i xtensors. Each of 
these three muscles serves to draw the toe into which 
it is inserted towards the great toe. 



SYSTEM OF ANATOMY 5 

PART FOURTH. 

OF THE MOUTH AND THROAT. 

The cavity of the mouth is formed by the connec- 
tion of the lips and cheeks to the upper and lower jaws; 
so that the teeth and alveoli or sockets for the teeth, 
may be considered as within the cavity. Above it ia 
c ormed principally by the palatine processes of the 
fjper jaw and palate bones. Below, the cavity is 
completed hy several muscles, which proceed from al- 
most the whole internal circumference of the lower 
jaw, and, by their connections with each other, with 
the tongue and bone XVL, (os hyoides) which form a 
floor or bottom to the cavity. The cavity of the mouth 
is lined by a very thin delicate membrane, which is a 
continuation of the skin from the face and lips* Under 
this skin, or membrane, there are many small glandu- 
lar bodies of a roundish form, the secretory ducts of 
which pass through this membrane, to the inner sur- 
face of the mouth, for the purpose of lubricating it, 
with the juices which they secrete, 

TONGUE. 

The tongue is a flat body of an oval figure, but 
subject to considerable changes of form. It is con- 
nected at the posterior or back extremity of bone 
XVI, (os hyoides,) which is called its basis; the fore 
or front, and its apex or point. The lower part of 
the tongue is connected with a number of muscles, 



142 TONGUE, GLANDS, &C 

which are continued into its sur -»■• nee. The connec- 
tion of the tongue is such, 1 it edges and apex are 
perfectly free and uneonned d.' he substance of the 
tongue consists principally < 2 muscular fibres inter- 
mixed with adipose, or fatty substance. The lining 
membrane of the mouth continues from the sockets of 
the teeth to the lower surface of the tongue, at which 
place if is very thin; but, as it proceeds to the upper 
surface of the tongue, its texture changes considera- 
bly; and on this surface it constitutes the organ of 
taste. The upper surface' of the tongue, although it 
is continued from the thin membrane above described, 
is formed by a rough integument which consists, like 
the skin of three lamina? or layers. The cutical is 
very thin; and under it, the reta mucosum is thicker , 
and softer than in other places. The true skin here 
abounds with eminences of various sizes and forms, 
which arc called papillae. The tongue answers a three 
fold purpose. It is the principal organ of taste. Ii 
is a very important agent in the articulation of words; 
and it assists in those operations upon our food, which 
are performed in the mouth. 

THE SALIVARY GLANDS. 

The salivary glands have such a close connection] 
with the mouth, that they may be described with it. 
There are three principal glands on each side: the 
parotoid, the submaxillary, and the sublingual. They 
are of a whitish or pale fleshy color, and are compo- 
sed of many small united masses, each of which sends 
a small excretory duct, to join similar ducts from the 
other, and thereby form the great duct of the gland. 
The parotoid gland is situated between the mastoid 
process of the temporal bone, and the back part of thl 



TFE THROAT. 143 

lower jaw. The s» Nax'llary gland, is situated im- 
mediately in the an of ie lower jaw. The sublin- 
gual gland, lies so, w ion the tongue is turned up, 
it can be seen protruding "nto the cavity of the mouth, 
and covered by the lining membrane, which seems to 
keep it fixed in its place. 

These glands secrete a fluid called saliva, which 
when in a healthy state is inoderous, insiped, . nd lim- 
pid, like water, but much more viscid, and of greater 
specific gravity. The use of this fluid is to moisten 
the mouth; to mix with the food, and prepare it for a 
reception in the stomach. 



THE THROAT. 

The word throat is here used as a general term to 
comprehend the stricture of all the parts at the back 
part of the cavity of the mouth. This structure con- 
sists, 

I. Of the Tonsil, Amygdalae. 

Betwixt the arches of the palate, on each side, lies 
a large oval gland. These glands are called the ton- 
sils, or amygdalw. These glands are covered with 
the lining membrane of tL.se parts, the surface of 
which is full of small holes. These glands secrete a 
mucous, which is discharged through the small open^- 
ings, the use of which is to lu! ricate the passage of 
the throat, and facilitate the swallowing. The amyg- 
dala are often inflamed, and swelled; when this is th* 
case swallowing is difficult. 



344 XARYNX, EPIGLOTTIS, &C. 

2. Of the Law'ix. 

In this structure there are five cartilages, upon 
Which its form and strength depend, viz: the cricoid, 
the thyroid, the two arytenoid, and the epiglottis. These 
cartilages are joined to eacli other, and are supplied 
with muscles by which certain motions are effected. 

The cricoid or ring-like cartilage forms the basis of 
this structure, which may also be considered as the 
commencement of the wind pipe. 

The thyroid, or shield-like cartilage, is placed per- 
pendicular to the cricoid cartilage, being bent in such a 
manner, as to form an acute angle with a broad sur- 
face on each side of it. The angular part is at a small 
distance above the front part of the cricoid cartilage, 
and connected to it by a ligamentous membrane: while 
its broad sides are connected to its sides, and thus 
partially covering it, both the upper and lower edges 
of the thyroid cartilage, terminate posteriorly in pro- 
cesses, which are called cornua, or horns. 

The arytenoid cartilages are two small bodies of a 
triangular pyramidal form, but slightly curved back- 
wards. They are placed upon the upper and back 
edge of the cricoid cartilage, near to each other, and 
their upper ends, taken together, resemble the mouth 
of a pitcher. These two cartilages are the posterior 
or back parts of the larynx. 

The epiglottis. This cartilage, when divested of 
its membrane, is, of an oval form at its upper extrem- 
ity, and rather angular below, terminating in a long 
narrow process. This cartilage is firmly attached to 
the internal surface of the angular part of the thyroid 
cartilage, to the tongue, and bone XVI, (os hyoides.) 
The epiglottis closes over the aperture of the larynx, 
and shuts up the passage from the mouth into the 



OF t'HE PHARYNX. I 45 

larynx, when the back of the tongue is drawn back- 
wards as in swallowing. 

3. Of tlie Pharytix. 

The pharynx is a large muscular bag which forms 
the great cavity at the back par* of the mouth, termi- 
nating in the oesophagus, or swallow. It is connected 
above, to the cuneiform -process of bone IV, (os occipitis) 
to the pterijgoid process of bone VI, (os sphenoides,) and 
to both the upper and lower jaw bones. Its use is to 
receive the food when masticated, and force it into the 
oesophagus. 



n 



SYSTEM OF ANATOMY; 

PART FIFTH. 

— »»a$8« "" 

OF THE THORAX. 

Before entering into a description of the thorax, 
it will be necessary in the first place to describe the 
Mammae, or those glandular bodies situated on the an- 
terior part of it, which, in females, are destined to the 
secretion of milk. These glands lie between the skin 
and muscles 91 and 93, and are attached to the surface 
of those muscles by a cellular membrane. They are 
of a circular form: and consist of a whitish firm sub- 
stance, divisible into small masses, which are compo- 
sed of still smaller masses. Between these glandular 
portions a great deal of adipois or fatty matter is so 
diffused, that, it constitutes a considerable part of the 
bulk of the mammas or breasts. The breasts of the 
female becomes enlarged about the age of puberty. 
They are also very large during pregnancy and lacta- 
tion or suckling; but after the period of child bearings 
they diminish. They are supplied with blood by the 
external and internal mamary arteries, the branches 
of which enter them irregularly in several different 
places. From the small glandular portions that com- 
pose the mamma, fine excretory tubes arise, which 
unite together and form the great lactiferous duets of 
the gland. Those ducts proceed in a radiated manner 
from the circumference to the centre, and terminate on 
the surfat e of the nipple. They are about fifteen in 
number, and vary considerably in size. The papilla* 



148 OF THE THORAX, 

or nipple, in which these ducts terminate, is in the, 
centre of the mamma or breast: it consists of a firm 
elastic substance, and is nearly cylindrical in its form. 
The skin around the nipple is of a bright red color in 
virgins of mature age. In pregnant women it is some- 
times almost black. The nipple abounds with sebac- 
ous glands, which form small eminences on its surface. 
This gland also exists in males, although it is very 
small. In males soon after birth, it has also been 
known to tumefy, and become very painful, in conse^ 
quenceof the secretion and accumulation of a whitish 
fluid, which can be discharged by pressure. It also 
sometimes swells and is painful, in majes at the age of 
puberty. 

1. Of the form of the cavity of the Thorax. 

The cavity of the thorax is formed by the upper ribs, t 
the vertebrae, and breast bone. Its figure is between 
that of a circle and an oval; but is made irregular by 
the vertebrae, and by the upper edge of the breastbone. 
The diaphragm has a great effect upon the figure of the 
cavity of the thorax. It protrudes into it from below, 
with a considerable convexity; so, that although it ari- 
ses from the lower margin of the thorax, the central 
parts of it are nearly as high as the fourth rib. The 
position of the diaphragm is also oblique. The front 
portion of its margin, being connected to the seventh 
and eighth ribs, is much higher than the back portion, 
which is attached to the eleventh and twelfth. In con- 
sequence of the figure and position of the diaphragm, 
the form of the cavity of the thorax has been compar- 
ed to the hoof of an ox, wben its back part is present- 
ed forwards. 



OF THE TJCBURA & PERICARDIUM. 149 

3. Of the arrangement of the Pleurce; 

The pleura, is a membrane which lines the internal 
surface of the thorax, and covers its viscera. The 
cavity of the thorax is every where lined by this 
smooth and glistening membrane, which is in reality 
two distinct portions or bags, which, by being applied 
to each other latterally, from the septum or division 
called mediastinum, which is attached posteriorly to 
the vertebrae of the back, and in front to the breast 
bone; thus dividing the cavity of the thorax into two 
parts. But the two lamince,. or layers of which the 
mediastinum is formed, do not every where adhere to 
each other; for at the lower part of the. thorax they are 
separated, to form a lodgment for the heart; and at the 
upper part of the cavity, they receive between them 
the thymus gland. 

The surface of the plenra, like that of the peritonae- 
um, and other membranes lining cavities, is constant- 
ly bedewed with a serous moisture, which prevents ad- 
hesion of the viscera, the mediastinum, by dividing 
the thorax into two cavities, obviates many inconveni- 
ences to which we otherwise should be liable. It pre- 
vents the two lobes ot the lungs from compressing each 
other when lying on the side, and consequently contrib- 
utes to the freedom of respiration, which is disturbed 
by the least pressure of the lungs. If a puncture be 
made between the ribs into the cavity of the thorax, the 
lungs on that side will cease to perform their office, 
while the other lobe, which is separated from it by the 
mediastinum, remains unhurt, and continues to . per- 
form its functions as usual. 

2. Of Ihe Pericardium, 

This is the membranous sac which' encloses thfc 

M* 



150 OF THE HE' 

heart, which upon a superficial view, seems only con- 
nected with its great vessels; but which adheres close- 
ly to the whole of its surface. From this surface it 
is extended to those vessels; from which it proceeds, 
in a reflected manner, and forms an enclosure that lies 
loosely about the heart. The pericardium, thus ar- 
ranged, is placed between the two laminse, or folds of 
the mediastinum or division between the two lobes of 
the lungs: it adheres firmly to the mediastinum, and 
also to the diaphragm, and thus preserves the heart in 
its proper position. The pericardium is composed of 
two laminre, folds or layers, the internal of which 
covers the heart, while the external extends over the 
loose portions of the other, and blends itself with the 
mediastinum. This membrane effuses or secretes a 
fluid, which keeps the heart lubricated and preserves 
it from adhering to the parts around it. 

4. Of the Heart 

The heart is a hollow muscular viscus, situated in 
the cavity of the pericardium, for the circulation of the 
blood. It is divided externally into a base, or its 
broad part; a superior and inferior surface, and an 
anterior and posterior margin. Internally, it is divi- 
ded into a right and left ventricle, The situation of 
the heart is oblique; its base being placed on the right 
of the bodies of the vertebrae, and its apex obliquely 
to the sixth rib on the left side; so that the left ventri- 
cle is almost behind, and the right before. Its lower 
surface lies upon the diaphragm. There are two cav- 
ities adhering to the base of the heart, called right and 
left auricles. The cavities in the heart are called ven- 
tricles, which are divided by a fleshy septum, called 
septum cordis, into right and left ventricles. Each 



OF THE TRACHEA OR WIND PIPE. 151 

ventricle has two orifices; the one auricular, through 
which the hlood enters, the other arterious, through 
which the blood passes out. 

These four orifices are supplied with valves which 
are differently named. The substance of the heart is 
muscular; its exterior fibres are longitudinal, its mid- 
dle trrnsverse, and its interior oblique. The auricles 
of the heart contract and dilate together; the same 
thing takes place with the ventricles, the movements 
of which are simultaneous. When the contraction of 
the heart is spoken of, that of the ventricle is under- 
stood. Their contraction is called sijsiole, and their 
dilation diastole. Every time the ventricles contract, 
the whole of the heart is carried forward with consid- 
erable force, the point of which strikes the left side of 
the chest, between the sixth and seventh true ribs. 

5. Of the Trachea or Wind Pipe. 

The wind pipe is a cartilaginous and membranous 
canal, through which the air passes into the lungs. 
Its upper part which is called the larynx, is composed 
of five cartilages, which has been previously described. 
This tube begins at the lower edge of the cricoid or 
ring-like cartilage, and passes down the neck in front 
of the oesophagus as low as the third vertebrae of the 
back, where it divides into two branches called bronchia, 
one of which goes to the right and the other to the 
left lung. In the structure of the wind pipe, there are 
a number of fiat cartilaginous rings placed at small 
distances from each other, the edges of which are 
connected by a membrane, so that they compose a 
tube. 



i52 THE LUNGS. 

6. Of the Lungs. 

There are two of these organs; each of which oc- 
cupies one of the great cavities of the thorax. The 
lung in the right cavity of the thorax is divided into 
three lobes, that in the left cavity into two. They 
hang in the chest, attached at their superior part to the 
neck, by means of the trachea, or wind pipe, and are 
separated by the mediastinum. They are also attach- 
ed to the hear by the pulmonary vessels. 

The substance of the lungs is of four kinds, viz: 
vesicular 9 vascular, bronchial, and parenchymatious. 
The vesicular substance is composed of the air cells. 
The vascular invests those cells like a net work. The 
bronchial is formed by the ramification of the bronchia 
throughout the lungs, having the air cells at their ex- 
tremities; and the spongy substance that connects these 
parts is termed parenchyma. The lungs are covered 
with a very fine membrane, a reflection of the pleura, 
called pleura pulmonalis. The internal surface of the 
air cells is covered with a fine, delicate, and sensible- 
membrane, which is continued from the larynx through 
the wind pipe and bronchia. The lungs are not only 
useful in beeathing, but also in changing the quality 
of the blood, which is circulated through them by the 
pulmonary artery. 



SYSTEM OF ANATOMY? 

PART SIXTH. 

OF THE ABDOMEN. 

This great cavity occupies more than half the space 
enclosed bytli ud all the anterior trunk of the 

body below the thorax; The different parts contained 
in the abdomen, are, 

1. JPeritonium. 

The internal surlace of the abdomen is lined by a: 
thin firm membrane called peritoneum, which is very 
smooth on its internal surface, and is immediately con- 
nected with the cellular substance exterior to it. This 
membrane adheres closely to the front, side, and upper 
portions of the abdomen; and is extended from the 
back surface so as to cover, more or less completely, 
the contents of the cavity. Those contents which are 
in close contact with the hack surface of the abdomen, 
as some portions of the large intestines, which are cover- 
ed only on their front surface, & are fixed in their pre- 
cise situation by the peritoneum; which extends from 
them to the contiguous surface of the cavity, and 
adheres where it is in contact, so as to produce this ef - 
feet. 

Other parts contained in the abdomen, which are 
not in close contact, but moveable to a distance from 
the posterior surface of the abdomen, are covered by 
fliis membrane, which is extended to them from the 



154 OF THE STOMACH. 

surface; and this extended portion forms an important 
part of the connection of the viscus and the cavity in 
which it lies. This connecting part is called mtsen- 
try; when it passes to one of the large intestines, or 
colon it is called mescolon ligament when it passes to 
some of the other viscera. 

Some of the viscera, or parts contained m the abdo- 
men are more completely invested with the peritoneum 
than others. The stomach, liver, and spleen, are al- 
most completely surrounded by it; forming a coat for 
each of these. That portion of the smaller intestinal 
tube, which is called jejunum and ileum, and the trans- 
verse portions of the large intestines, cr.lled the arch 
of the colon, are invested by it in the same way. But 
a considerable portion of the duodenum and the pan- 
creas are behind it. The peritoneum, which covers tho 
stomach, is extended from the great curvature of that 
organ, so as to form a large membrane, which de- 
scends like an apron before the intestines. This pror 
cess is composed of two lamiuce or folds of the peritone- 
um, so thin and delicate as to resemble the cellular 
membrane. The part of this process which is be- 
tween the stomach and colon is called epiploon or omen- 
tum.This membrane supports the viscera of the abdo- 
men in their proper situations, and aiso forms a sur- 
face for them, and for the cavities which contain them, 
so smooth and lubricated, that no injury can arise from 
their friction. 

2. Of the Stomach. 

Before entering into a description of the stomach it 
will in the first place be necessary to give a brief de- 
scription of the oesophagus, which is a membranous 
and muscular tube that descends from the pharynx ta 



THE STOMACH. 155 

the stomach. It is composed of three tunics, or mem- 
branes, viz. common, muscular, and mucous. From 
th plmrynx, the oeesophagus passes dawn wards be- 
tvr^en the wind pipe and the vertebrae. The internal 
coat of the oesophagus or swallow, resembles that of 
the fauces of the mouth, and is covered with a very 
delicate cuticle. It is also very vascular, and abounds 
with the orifices of mucous follicles, from which is 
constantly poured out a mucous which facilitates de- 
glutition or swallowing. The use of the oesophagus 
is to convey the masticated food from the mouth to the 
stomach. 

The stomach, although of a very simple structure, 
is a very important organ, and one too, which exerts a 
powerful influence upon every part of the body. It is 
a membranous receptacle, situated in the left hypo- 
chondriac and epigastric regions, immediately below 
the liver, and receives the food from the oesophagus. 
It is of considerable length, but incurvated. It is 
much larger at one extremity than the other, and 
changes so gradually in this respect, that it would ap- 
pear conical if it were straight. It is not, however, 
strictly conical, unless when greatly distended; for 
when moderately distended, it is rather oval than cir- 
cular. It is therefore considered as having two broad 
sides or surfaces, and two edges, which are the curva- 
tures. The orifice in which the oesophagus terminates 
is at a small distance from its largest extremity, and is 
called cardia. The orifice which communicates with 
the intestines, is at the termination of its small incur- 
vated extremity, and is called pylorus. 

The situation of the stomach in the abdomen is 
nearly transverse; the great extremity is in the left 
hypochondriac region, and the lesser extremity in th« 



156 

epigastric region, under the left lobe of the liver. The 
stomach is connected to the diaphragm, liver, colon, &c* 
It is composed of four laminse or coats. There is first 
a coat or external covering continued from the perito- 
neum: within this, and connected to it by a delicate I 
cellular substance, is a coat or stratum of muscular fi- 
bres: next to this, is a layer of dense cellular substance, 
called a nervous coat; and last is the internal coat call- 
ed villous or fungous, from the structure of its surface. 
The internal coat of the stomach is generally cover- 
ed, or spread over with mucous, which is effused upon 
it by secreting organs. Besides the raucous* a large 
quantity of a different fluid, called gastric juice, or fluid 
of the stomach is effused from its surface. 

3. Of the Intestines. 

The intestines form a continual canal from the pijlo- 
Yus, or lower opening of the stomach to the anus, which ' 
is generally six times the length of the subject to which 
they belong. Although the different parts of this tube 
appear somewhat different from each other, they agree 
in their general structure. The coats of which they 
are composed, arc much like those of the stomach. 

Although there is a considerable degree of uniform- 
ity in the structure of the intestinal canal, different 
parts of it are very distinguishable from each other 
by their outward appearance, by their size, their invest- 
ments, and their position. 

The first portion of the intestinal tube, for about the 
extent of twelve fingers' breath, is called the duodenum; 
it lies in the epigastric region; makes three turnings, 
and between the first and second turning receives by a 
common opening, the panchreatic duct, together with 
the biliary. It is in this portion of the intestines that 



OF THE OMEXfrUM. 157 

chylification is chiefly performed. The remaining 
portion of the intestines is distinguished by the names 
of jejunum and ileum. 

The jejunum, which commences where the duoden- 
um ends, is situated in the umbilical region, and is 
mostly found empty; it is every where covered with 
red vessels, and, about an hour and a half after a meal, 
with distended lactaels. 

The ileum occupies the hypogastric region and the 
pelvis: It is of a paler color than the other, and ter- 
minates by a transverse opening into the large intes- 
tines, which is called the valve of the ileum. 

The beginning of the large intestine is firmly tied 
down in the right iliac region, and from the extent of 
about four fingers' breadth is called the ccecum. The 
great intestine called colon then commences, and as- 
cends towards the liver, passes across the abdomen, 
under the stomach, to the left side, where it is contor- 
ted like the letter S, and descends to the pelvis; at 
which place it takes the name of rectum, from whence 
it proceeds in a straight line to the anus. 

4. Of the Omentum. 

The omentum is an extension of the peritoneum, in 
two lamina; or folds, arising from the concave sur 
face of the liver to the lesser curvature of the. stom- 
ach; and these laminae or folds, after surrounding th 3 
stomach,, come in contact with each other near its great 
curvature. From this portion of the stomach, from 
the commencement of the duodenum, and also from the 
spleen, the omentum, composed of two lamina or folds, 
descends over the colons and the small intestines more 
or less low into the abdomen; it is then folded back- 
wards, and upwards, and is continued until it meets 



158 OF THE 1IVEK. 

the great arch in the colon; here the laminiE or folds 
separate and enclose that part of the intestine, on the 
posterior side of which they again approach each oth- 
er, and form a membrane like the mesentery, of two 
laminte or layers, which pass from the concave or pos- 
terior surface of the colon to the back of the abdomen, 
where it is continued into the membrane which lines 
that surface. This last portion is called messocolon. 
The portion between the liver and stomach, is called 
the omentum of Winslow, or the lesser omentum; and 
the great portion between the stomach and colon, is 
called the great omentum. The great and small omen- 
tum, with a portion of the peritoneum on the back of 
the abdomen, from a sac, which encloses a distinct cav- 
ity in the abdomen. The front part of this sack is 
composed of two laminiE, and between these laminae 
are the stomach and the great arch of the colon. This 
cavity formed by the two omenta, communicates with 
the general cavity of the abdomen by a foramen of a 
semicircular form, which is behind the great cord of 
of the vessels that go to the liver. 

The use of this membrane in the animal economy 
has not as yet been ascertained with any certainty. It 
seems probable that one of its principal objects is to 
protect the small intestines, and lessen the friction con- 
sequent upon their motion; but it has been supposed 
to answer several other important purposes. 

5. Of the Liver. 

The liver is the largest viscus, or organ of the ab- 
domen, and is situated in the right hypochondriac re- 
gion, which it occupies entirely; and extends through 
the upper portion of the epigastric into the left hypo- 
chondriac region, being placed immediately under the 



OF THE LIVER 159 

diaphragm, and in close contact with it, as well as with 
the inner surface of the right hypochondriac region, it 
partakes of their fjrm, and is convex ahove and con- 
cave below. 

TIig ligaments of the liver are five in number, all 
arising from the •peritoneum. 

1. The right lateral ligament, wliicli connects the 
right lobe of the liver with the posterior part of the 
diaphragm. 

2. The left lateral ligament, which connects the 
convex surface and margin of ; the left lobe with the 
diaphragm, and sometimes with the oesophagus and 
spleen. 

3. The broad ligament, which passes from the dia- 
phragm into the convex surface, and separates the right 
lobe of tbe liver from the left. It descends from above 
through a large fissure to the concave surface, and is 
then distributed over the surface of the whole liver. 

4. The round ligament, which may be traced from 
the umbilicus, and is formed by the degenerated coats 
of the ' reat vein, which brings the florid blood from 
the placenta into the veins of tbe liver, and from 
thence into the right side of the heart of the foetus. 

5. The coronary ligament, which is formed in con- 
sequence of the attachment of the liver to the dia- 
phragm. 

The liver is divided into aright and left lobe, which 
is marked on tiie convex surface in the first place by 
the broad ligament; between the great lobes there is a 
small one, which is called lobulus spigelii, this howev- 
er, belongs to the right lobe: a little below this is a 
process, which has been named lobulus caudatus, 
stretchixg downwards from the middle of the right 
lobe to the lohthis spigelii. The front point of the 



160 OF THE LIVER. 

great lobe of the liver is called lobulus anonymus. 

There belongs to the liver five distinct systems of 
vessels; viz: the vena porta; the arteria hepaticia; the 
vena; cavoc htpaiicia; the lymphatics; and the biltiary 
ducts. These with the nerves, form a very intricate 
system of vessels, which should he well studied and 
understood by every physician, who wishes to admin- 
ister medicine successfully. 

The fight lobe of the liver has the gall bladder at- 
tached to it, and is partly buried in its proper sinus, 
or depression. It has sometimes occurred that it was 
merely suspended to the liver by a membrane like a 
mesentery. The gall bladder is a bag of a pynforra 
shape; its greater end or fundus, is contiguous to the 
colon; its lower end or neck to the duodenum. It is 
generally of a size to contain an ounce, or an ounce 
and a half of bile. The gall bladder is considered as 
a receptacle, reserving a sufficient store of bile for 
the due change to be performed upon the food. 

The liver as all other glands has its ducts, which 
are termed billiary ducts. The vascular glandidus 
which compose almost the whole substance of the liv- 
er, terminating in very small canals, or ducts, which 
at length form one trunk, the ductus hepaticus. Their 
use is to convey the bile, secreted by the liver, into the 
hepatic duct; this uniting with the duct from the gall 
bladder, forms one common canal, called the ductus 
communis chaledochus, which conveys the bile into the 
intestinal canal. 

The secretion of bile is effected like all other glan- 
dular secretions; modified, of course, by the peculiar 
structure of the liver. The liver differs from every 
other secretory aparatus, in having two kinds of blood 
distributed to it: — arterial blood by the hepatic arte- 
ry; and venous blood by the vena portae. A question 



OF THE PANCHKEAS. 16 1 

has consequently arisen — from which of these is the 
bile formed, xinatomical inspection throws no light 
upon the subject, but it is generally believed that the 
bile is formed by the venous blood. 

The bile appears to answer a two fold purpose in 
the animal economy. It produces a chemical effect 
upon the alimentary mixture which passes from the 
stomach through the intestines; and it increases the 
peristaltic motion of those important organs. By an 
inverted action of the duodenum, some of this fluid is 
frequently carried upwards into the stomach; it then 
often produces only slight derangement of the functions 
and sensations connected with that viscus or organ; 
but sometimes violent vertigo, and even convulsions, 
seem to have arisen merely from the presence of a 
large quantity of bile in the stomach: for they have 
gone off completely upon the discharge of bile by vom- 
iting. 

Notwithstanding these effects of bile in certain ca- 
ses, in which a great deal of it exists in the stomach, 
it is often carried into the mass of blood in large quan- 
tities, and appears to be mixed with the semen, and to 
circulate through the body, without producing any 
very sensible effect; and neither the brain nor the heart 
appear to be much influenced by it. 

6. Of the Panchreas. 

Thcpanchrcasis a glandular body of the abdomen, 
of a long figure, compared to a dog's tongue. It is 
seven inches in length, and is irregularly oblong in its 
form, one extremiity being much larger than the other. 
Its large extremity is in contact with the duodenum, 
from which it extends in a transverse direction to the 
spleen, to which it is connected by the omentum and by 



162 OF THE rANCHREAS, 

blood vessels. It is not invested by the peritoneum, 
but is situated in the space which exists between the 
two laminae of the mesocolon, as they proceed from 
the back of the abdomen, before they come in contact 
with each other, consequently its situation is in the 
epigastric region under the stomach. 

This gland differs from the other large glands of 
the abdomen, inasmuch as it has not alarge artery par- 
ticularly appropriated to it; but instead of this, it re- 
ceives branches from the contiguous arteries. 

The panchreas resembles the salivary glands in co- 
lor, and also in texture, and appears to consist of 
small bodies of a granulated form, which are so ar- 
ranged as to compose small masses or lobes that are 
united to each other by a cellular membrane. Each of 
these granulated bodies receive one or more arterial 
twigs, and from it proceeds not only a vein but a small 
excretory duct, which, uniting with similar ducts forms 
a large duct in each lobe or mass; these open into the 
great duct of the gland, which proceeds through it 
lengthwise from the left extremity, in which it com- 
mences, to the right; this duct in most cases unites 
with the bi,liary duct before it enters into the duoden- 
um; sometimes they open separately, but very near to 
each other. 

The use of the panchreas is to secrete the panchre- 
atic juice, which is to be mixed with the chyle in the 
duodenum. The quantity of this fluid secreted is un- 
certain; but it must be considerable, if we compare 
it with the weight of the saliva, the panchreas being 
three times larger, and seated in a warmer place. 
The use of this fluid is to dilute the viscid cystic bile, 
to mitigate its acrimony, and to mix it with the 
food. 



0* THE SPLEEX* 163 

7. Of the Spleen. 

The spleen or milt is a spongy viscus of a purple co- 
lor, and so variable in form, situation and magnitude, 
that it is hardJtoMctermine either: however in a heal- 
thy man it is in general placed in the left side, in the 
hypochondriac region, between the eleventh and twelfth 
false ribs. It is of an irregular oblong form, with 
thick edges: and is commonly about three or four in 
breadth; but it has often been found more than four 
times this size. The substance of the spleen is very 
spongy, tender, and soft; and is connected to the stom- 
ach, omentum, diaphragm, panchreas, colon, and the 
left kidney, by ligament, vessels, &c. 

The spleen is covered by one simple membrane, ari- 
sing from the peritoneum, which adheres to the spleen, 
very firmly, by the intervention of the cellular struc- 
ture. The spleen receives blood from the splinic ar- 
tery. 

The use of the spleen has not hitherto been deter- 
mined; yet if the situation and fabric regarded, one 
would imagine its use to consist chiefly in affording 
some assistance to the stomach during the progress of 
digestion. 

Among all the notions that I have as yet read of rel- 
ative to the use of the spleen, I have not found one 
that satisfies my mind: and the only use that I can as- 
cribe to it, is, that it serves the same purpose to the 
living animal that a regulator does to a watch, (i. e.) 
preventing the animal from going too long or fast; for 
it is a well known fact, that when the blood becomes 
very much heated, that it rushes into the spleen and 
produces an acute pain, which, not unfrequently com- 
pells a person to stop. Were it not then for the spleen, 



164 



OF THE KIDNIES. 



man would be liable to overheat his blood, and thereby, 
produce inflammatory complaints. 

6. Of the Kidnies. 

The kidnies are two glandular bodies which secrete 
the urine. They are of a dull red color, and their 
form has a strong resemblance to that of a bean, call- 
ed kidney bean. They are situated in the lumbar re- 
gion of the abdomen, one on each side of the spine. 
They are opposite to the two last dorsal vertebrae, and 
the two first lumbar. They are surrounded with a 
large quantity of loose adipose membrane, which in 
corpulent persons forms a very large mass of fat 
around them. Each of the kidnies receives a very 
large artery; which proceeds immediately from the 
aorta. A vein which opens into the vena cava, ac- 
companies the artery. 

There is a part called pelvis, and another ureter, at- 
tached to the kidnies, which receive and convey the 
urine from the kidnies to the bladder. This is the 
most extensive secretion, accomplished by any of the 
glandular structures of the body. 

Of the Urinary Bladder. 

The urinary bladder is a large sac of a muscular & 
membranous structure, which occupies the front part 
of the cavity of the pelvis, immediately within the os- 
sa pubis. The size of the bladder is in a continued 
state of variation, according to the quantity of urine 
secreted. When moderately distended, it is of an ir- 
regular oval form, but rather more flat at its lower 
extremity than above. It arises in form according to 
the different circumstances of the pelvis. It is fixed 
firmly and immoveably to the pelvis immediately with- 



MALE ORGANS OE GENERATION. 165 

in the symphysis pubis; so that it is always to he found 
there of a smaller or larger size. 

There is some difference in the situation of the blad- 
der with regard to sex. In males the relative situation 
of the bladder and rectum is such, that the upper and 
middle part of the rectum is behind the bladder. In 
females the vagina and uterus are situated between tha 
bladder and rectum; so that the connection of these 
last mentioned parts is very different in the two 
sexes. 

The bladder is composed of a coat consisting of mus- 
culo fibres, of a stratum of cellular substance imme- 
diately within this, and of an internal lining mem- 
brane, which has been called villous, but as there are 
no villa perceptible on it, may be more properly de- 
nominated mucous. It should be observed, that in ad- 
dition to these coats, the bladder has a peculiar in- 
vestment of the peritoneum; and also of the common 
cellular membrane, which is placed between it and ev- 
ery part to which it is contiguous. The functions of 
the kidnies is to secrete urine, and that of the bladder 
to retain it, until the proper time for evacuation* 

9. Of the Male Organs of Generation. 

These organs consist of three different parts, viz: 
the testicles and their apendages, vesicula? seminalis, 
prostate gland, and of the penis. 

1. The testicles are two bodies of a flattened oval 
form. Each of them has a protuberance on its upper 
and posterior part called epididymis, and is connected 
to parts within the cavity of the abdomen by a thick 
cord which proceeds to it through the abdominal ring.. 
Each testicle also appears to be contained in a sac* 



166 MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

which is suspended by this cord and covered by the 
common integuments, which is denominated scrotum. 
The scrotum or skin appears very often to be in a state 
of corrugation; but does not differ from the structure 
of the skin in any other part of the body. There is a 
small raised line in the middle of this skin, which 
commences at the root of the penis, and proceeds 
backwards, dividing it into two equal parts; this line 
is denominated raphe, 

The chord above named, which is called the sper- 
matic chord, proceeds to the testicles, through the ab- 
dominal ring, appears at first view like a bundle of 
muscular fibres; but it consists of an artery and veins, 
with many lymphatic vessels and nerves, and also the 
excretory ducts of the testicles, connected to each oth- 
er by cellular substance, and covered by an expansion 
of muscular fibres, which are derived from the lower 
edffe of muscle 71. In addition to these vessels the 
vas deferens which is much firmer than either of them, 
is always to be distinguished in the back part of the 
cord. They are all covered in front and on the sides 
by the crcmaster muscle, which passes with them from 
the lower margin of muscle 71, through the abdomin- 
al ring, and continues to the upper part of the external 
coat of the testicle, which is a sac apparently contain- 
ing that organ, and upon this sac it is spread out and 
terminates. 

The external coat of the testicles to which the sper- 
matic cord is attached is called tunica vaginalis: it is 
a complete sac enclosing the testicles as the pericardi- 
um does the heart. The body of the testicle is very 
firm, in consequence of being enclosed in a firm coat 
called tunica albugincc. The body of the testicle, when 
the tuniea albugince is cut through, appears to consist 



MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. I6f 

of a soft pulpy substance of convoluted threads of a 
yellowish brown color, which is divided into separate 
portions by a very delicate septa or divisions, attached 
to the internal surface of the tunica albuginea at the 
back part of the testicle. At the origin of these septa 
or partitions, there is a body, of a whitish substance, 
which extends lengthwise on the back part of the tes- 
tis, for the support of the ducts which pass from the 
substance of the testicle to the epididymis. This sub- 
stance is called corpus Hijmorianum. 

The blood vessels pass into the body of the testicle 
upon these septa or partitions and one continued from 
them to the filaments or tubes of which the body of the 
testicle consists. 

The cavity formed by the tunica albuginea is divided 
into a number of apartments by the thin partitions 
above mentioned. From these departments, proceeds 
a number of small tubes, which run a straight course, 
and are called rasa recta. These unite with each oth- 
er and form a net-work on the back of the testis, 
within the tunica albuginea, which is called reta testis. 
From this net work other vessels proceed, running 
through the albuginea epididymis, called vasa efferen- 
tia. These vessels are convoluted in such a manner 
as to form bundles of a conical form, and are called 
coni vasculosis These compose .Jbout one third of the 
epididymis, viz: all the upper part of it. The single 
tubes which form each of these cones, successively 
unite into one duct, which is convoluted so as to form 
all the remainder of the epididymis: the tube then 
gradually enlarges and is less convoluted, and finally 
becomes straight; and then takes the name of vas def- 
erens, and continues on the back of the testicle and at 
the inner side of the epididymis to the spermatic 
■cord. 



168 MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

The vas deferens is a very firm tube about one line, 
or one tenth of an inch indiam ter, the cavity of which 
is so small, that it will only admit a fine bristle. It 
passes upwards in the posterior part of the spermatic 
cord, and continues with it through the abdominal ring: 
Soon after this it leaves the cord and dips down into 
the cavity of the pelvis, forming a curve en the side of 
the bladder, and proceeding backwards, and inwards. 
On the lower part of the bladder the two vassa defer- 
entia approach each other so gradually, that they ap- 
pear to be nearly parallel. They finally terminate al- 
most in contact with each other in the back part of the 
prostate gland, where they perforate the urethra, on 
each side of a tubercle, called caput gattinaginis. 

2. Vesiculce seminalis. These are two bodies of a 
whitish color, and irregular form, being broad and flat 
at their posterior extremities, and terminating in a 
point at the other. Their surfaces are convoluted or 
rolled together. They are situated between the rec- 
tum and bladder, and arc connected to each other by 
a cellular membrane. The convoluted tube composing 
the vesiculce seminalis, terminates in a very short duct, 
which is nearly of the same diameter with the vas def- 
erens, to which it is joined so as to form an acute an- 
gle. 

The use of this organ is not as some suppose to con- 
tain semen, but to secrete a peculiar mucous subservi- 
ent to the purpose of generation. 

3. Prostate gland. This is situated on the under 
and posterior part of the neck of the bladder, so as to 
surround the urethra. Its form has some resemblance 
to that of a chesnut, but is larger, and has a notch in the 
broad end like that of the figure of the heart on playing 



MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 169 

cards. This gland secretes a whitish fluid, the use of 
which is not yet known. 

4. Penis. This is the cylindrical part that hangs 
down, before the scrotum in males. It is divided by 
anatomists into the root, body, and head or glans penis- 
It is composed as follows. 

Corpora cavernosa. This composes the body of the 
penis: they are two irregular cylinders, that are form- 
ed by a thick dense elastic membrane, of a whitish lig- 
amentous appearance, and great firmness. They are 
fdled with a substance of cellular structure, which is 
occasionally distended with blood. The roots of these 
bodies, which are attached to bone XXVI, (ischium.) 
and bone XXVII, (os pubis) are small and pointed at 
the commencement, and are united to the pcriostum of 
the bones. 

Each of these cylinders is penetrated by the main 
branch of the pudic artery, which is about equal in 
size to a hen's quill. These arteries enter the corpora 
cavernosa near their union, and continue through then- 
whole extent, sending off branches in their course: the 
turgescence or swelling, and erection of the penis is 
produced by the blood which flows through these ves- 
sels into the penis. 

Urethra. This is a membranous canal which ex- 
tends from the neck of the bladder to the orifice at the 
extremity of the penis; and for a very great part of 
its length is invested bj a spongy structure, called the 
corpus sponginosum urethroc. This latter part begins 
at the distance of eight or ten lines from the prostate 
gland, it is much larger at its commencement than at 
any other part except the glans, and this enlarged part 
is called the hdb, which is oblong, and rather oval in 
o 



170 MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

form; it is marked by a longitudinal depression in the 
middle, which is very superficial. It consists entirely 
of a spongy substance. 

Glans penis. This is also composed of a spongy 
substance, but the coat which covers it is more thin k 
delicate than that of the other parts of the urethra. 
The lower surface of the glans is filled to the extrem- 
ities of the corpora cavernosa, and projects over them 
on the upper and side parts of the surface of the 
penis, the edges of which is called corona glands. 

Integuments of the penis. The glans penis is cov- 
ered by a continuation ol the skin, which appears al- 
tered in its texture so as to resemble in some respects 
the skin of the lips, and in like manner, is covered by 
a delicate production of cuticle. 

Around the corona of the glans, especially on its up- 
per part, there are whitish tubercles, which are of dif- 
ferent sizes in different persons. The skin adheres 
iirmly to the whole extent of the corona of the glans, 
and is very delicate in its structure, as it continues 
from the glans upon the body of the penis; but it grad- 
ually changes so as to assume the appearance and 
structure of a common skin, and continues in this 
state over the penis. The skin is of much greater 
length than the penis, and in consequence of its ad- 
hering firmly around the corona glandis, it necessarily 
forms a circular fold or plait, which varies in size ac- 
cording to the length of the skin. This duplicative 
or fold of the skin, where it takes place so as to cover 
the glans of the penis, is called prepuce, the cutting off 
of which constituted circumcision under the Jewish 
dispensation. 



FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 171 

10. Of the Female Organs of Generation. 

The female organs of generation consist of the ute- 
rus and ovaries with their appendages; and of the 
vagina with the structure which surrounds its external 
orifice. The uterus is situated in the pelvis, between 
the bladder and rectum; and the ovaries are on each 
side of it. The vagina is a very large membranous 
canal, which passes from the uterus downwards and 
forwards, also between the bladder and rectum, and 
opens externally. 

Connected with the orifice of the vagina are several 
bodies, which are called the external parts of genera- 
tion. 

The urinary bladder lies above, and in contact with 
the vagina; the urethra is also intimately connected 
with it. As a full description of those parts does not 
suit in a book designed for family use, I shall conclude 
this part with the short description already given. 



SYSTEM OF AM ATOMY; 

PART SEVENTH. 

OF THE BLOOD VESSELS. 

The blood vessels are flexible tabes, of a peculiar 
texture, through which blood passes from the heart to 
the different parts of the body, and returns again from 
these parts to the heart. They are to be found, in va- 
rious sizes, in almost every part of the human body. 
Those which carry the blood from the heart, are more 
substantial, and elastic than those which return the 
blood to the heart. Those which carry the blood from 
the heart arc called arteries, and those that return the 
blood are called reins. The veins are less substantial 
and less elastic than arteries. 

There are two great arteries, from which all the 
other arterial vessels of the body are derived. These 
two arteries arc compared to the trunks of trees, and 
the smaller vessels to their branches, one of these 
great arteries, called the aorta carries the blood to ev- 
ery part of the body. The other called the pulmonary 
artery, carries blood exclusively to the lungs. 

The veins which correspond to the branches of the 
aorta, unite with each other, so as to form two great 
trunks that proceed to the heart. One of these trunks 
coming from the superior parts of the body, is called 
the superior, or descending vena cava. The other, 
which comes from the lower parts of the body, is call- 
ed the inferior, or ascending vena cava. 

The veins which correspond with the branches of 



1T4 THE BLOOD VESSELS IN GENERAL. 

the pulmonary artery, and return the blood from the 
lungs to the heart, are four in number: two of them 
proceed from each lung, and are called pulmonary 
veins. 

In many of the veins there are valves which prevent 
the blood they contain from moving towards the sur- 
face and extremities of the body, but allow it to pass 
towards tire heart without impediment. 

From the construction of the cavities of the heart, 
and the position of the valves which are in them; as 
well as in the situation of the valves at the commence- 
ment of the great arteries, and the above mentioned 
valves of the veins, it is evident, that when the blood 
circulates, it must move from the heart, through the 
aorta, and its branches, to the different parts of the 
body, and return from those parts through the vena' 
cavce, to the heart: that, when deposited in the heart 
by the vence cava, it must proceed through the pulmo- 
nary artery to the lungs, and return from the lungs 
through the pulmonary veins to the heart, in order to 
pass again from that organ into the aorta. 

It is also certain, that the blood is forced from the 
heart into the arteries, by the contraction of the mus- 
cular fibles of which the heart is composed; and that 
the blood vessels likewise perform part of the circula- 
tion, they propelling the blood which is thus thrown 
into them; the action of which appears to depend up- 
on causes of a complex nature. 

The arteries are composed of coats or tunics, w hich 
arc very elastic and strong, and which are also very 
thick. In consequence of the firmness of their coats, 
they continue open, after their contents are discharg- 
ed, like hard tubes. They submit to great dilation, 
anr 1 elongation, when fluids are forced into them, and 



THE BLOOD VESSELS IX GENERAL. 175 

return to their former dimensions when the distending 
cause is withdrawn. This elasticity answers a very 
important purpose in the circulation of the blood. It 
admits the artery to distend readily, and receives the 
blood which is thrown into it by the contraction of the 
heart. It also produces the contraction of the artery: 
which takes place as soon as the action of the heart 
ceases; and this contraction of the aorta necessarily 
forces the blood forward, as the valves at its orifice 
prevent it from returning to the heart. 

The motion of the artery, which is so easily percei- 
ved by the touch, and in many instances also by the 
eye, is completely explained by the discharge of blood 
into the artery from the heart, and by the elasticity 
of the vessel, by which it re-acts upon the blood. In 
some cases it is not simply the diameter of the artery 
which is enlarged, but a portion of the vessel is elon- 
gated; and this elongation, by producing a curvature 
of it, renders its motion more visible. 

Elasticity, in the aorta, and its large branches, seems 
to be the principal cause of the continuance of the mo- 
tion which is originally given to the blood by 
the heart. But there are many circumstances connec- 
ted with the smaller vessels, which evince that they 
exert a power which is different from that of elastici- 
ty. Thus the application of local stimulants, and of 
heat, is followed by an increase of motion, in the ar- 
teries of the parts to which they are applied. Neither 
of these causes could produce this effect by the influ- 
ence of elasticity; but the effect of these and other 
similar causes is uniformly produced; and a power of 
independent motion, or irritability, is thus proved to 
exist in these vessels, and seems essentially necessary 
to the circulation of the blood. 



176 THE BLOOD VESSELS IN GENERAL. 

Thearteries are composed of a dense elastic sub- 
stance, of a whitish colour. Their external surface is 
rough, and intimately connected with the cellular mem- 
brane, which every where surrounds it in varying 
quantities. Internally, they are lined with a thin 
membrane, which is very smooth and flexible, and is 
also very elastic, The substance which composes the 
artery, and is situated between the cellular investment 
and the internal membrane, consists of fibres, which 
are nearly, though not comptetely circular, but so ar- 
ranged as to constitute a cylinder. The fibres which 
compose this lamina appear to be united to each other 
in a way which readily allows of their separation, at 
the same time forming a firm texture. Although arte- 
ries appear widely different in their hardness, and their 
elasticity, as well as their general texture, they are 
considered, by a great many, as partaking more or less 
of muscular structure. It appears that the arteries 
have a power of contraction different from that which 
depends upon elasticity: but whether this depends up- 
on muscular fibres superadded to them, or upon an 
irritable quality in the elastic fibres of blood vessels, 
is a question which as yet is not decided. 

The motion of the blood in the arteries appears to 
depend, 

1st, Upon the impulse given to it by the action of 
the heart. 

2dly, Upon the elasticity of the arteries, in con- 
sequence of which they first give way to the blood 
impelled into them, and then re-act upon it; and 

3dly, Upon the power of contraction in the arte- 
ries, or their irritability. 

In the large arteries the blood seems to move as it 
would through an inanimate elastic tube, in conse- 



THE BLOOD VESSELS IN GENERAL. 177 

quence of the impulse given by the heart, and kept up 
by the arteries themselves. In the smaller vessels it 
seems probable, that the motion of the blood depends 
in a considerable degree upon the contraction which 
arises from their irritability. 

The obvious effect of the elasticity of the arteries is 
to resist distention and elongation, and to contract the 
artery to its natural state, when the distending or elon- 
gating cause ceases to act. But it must also resist the 
contraction induced by the muscular fib its, and res- 
tore the artery to its natural size when the muscular 
fibres cease to act after contracting it. It seems prob- 
able that all the fibres of which the artery consists are 
nearly but not completely circular. 

The internal coat of these vessels is very smooth, 
but extremely dense and firm; and seems to be ren- 
dered moist and flexible by an exudation on its surface. 
It adheres very closely to the contiguous fibres of the 
coat exterior to it, but may he very readily peeled off 
from them. It is of a whitish colour, and, like the 
fibrous structure of the artery is very elastic. Like 
that substance also it is easily torn or broken, and when 
ligatures have been applied to arteries, it has often 
been observed that the fibrous structure, and the inter- 
nal coat have been separated, while this external cel- 
lular coat has remained entire. 

The arteries are supplied with their proper blood ves- 
sels and lymphatics. It is to be observed, that tlie 
blood vessels are not derived from, the artery on which 
they run, but from the contiguous vessels. These ves- 
sels have nerves also, which are rather small in size,, 
when compared with those which go to the other 
parts. 

The course of the arteries throughout the body is 



IfB THE BLOOD VESSELS IN GENERAL. 

obviously calculated to prevent their exposure to press- 
ure, or to great extension from the flexure of the artic- 
ulations by which they pass. With this view they 
sometimes proceed in a winding direction; and when 
they pass over parts which are subject to great disten- 
tion or enlargement, as the cheeks, they often meander; 
and, therefore, their length maybe increased by staight- 
ening, without stretching them. 

In the trunk of the body the branches of arteries 
generally form obtuse angles with the trunks from 
which they proceed. In the limbs these angles are 
acute. 

The communication of arteries with each other is 
termed anastomosus. In some instances, two branch- 
es which proceed in a course nearly similar, unite with 
an acute angle, and form one common trunk. — Some- 
times a transverse branch runs from one to the other 
so as to form a right angle with each. In other cases, 
the two anastomosing branches form an arch, or por- 
tion of a circle, from which many branches go off. 

By successive ramifications, arteries gradually di- 
minish in size, until they are finally extremely small. 
The small arteries do not carry red blood, their diam- 
eters being smaller than those of the red particles of 
that fluid, the serous or acqueous part of the blood can, 
therefore, only pass through them. 

Many of the arteries which carry red blood, and of 
the last mentioned serous arteries terminate in veins, 
which are in some respects, a continuation of the tube 
reflected backwards. They likewise terminate in ex- 
halent vessels upon the external surface, and upon the 
various internal surfaces of the body. The secretory 
vessels of glands are likewise the termination of ma^ 
ny arteries. 



THE BLOOD VESSELS IN GENERAL. 179 

The veins, which return to the heart the blood car- 
ried from it by the arteries are more numerous than 
the arteries, and often larger in diameter. They gen- 
erally accompany the arteries, and very often two 
veins are found with one artery. 

In addition to these last mentioned veins, which may 
be called deep-seated, there are many subcutaneous 
veins, which appear on almost every part of the sur- 
face of the body. 

The capacity of all the veins is therefore much great- 
er than that of all the arteries. 

The subcutaneous veins, which are of considerable 
size, communicate very freely with each other, and al- 
so with the deep-seated veins. 

The trunks of the veins, in those places where no 
branches go off are generally cylindrical. There are, 
however, some exceptions, in which these vessels are 
irregularly dilated, as sometimes happens in the case 
of the internal jugular vein. 

Veins, directly or indirectly, originate from the ter- 
mination of arteries; but they do not pulsate as the ar- 
teries do, because the impulse given to the blood by 
the heai't, is very much diminished in consequence of 
the great diminution of the size of the vessels through 
which the blood has passed. 

In some cases, however, when blood flows from an 
open vein; the extent of its projection is alternately 
increased and diminished, in quick succession, as if it 
Mere influenced by the pulsation of the heart. 

The coats of the veins differ considerably from those 
of arteries, — for they arc thinner, and so much less firm, 
that veins, unlike arteries, collaps when they are emp- 
ty. They consist of a dense elastic substance, the fi- 
bres of which are less distinct than those of arteries. 



i80 THE BLOOD VESSELS IN GENERAL. 

but some of them are to be seen in longitudinal direc- 
tions. These fibres can be made to contract by local 
irritation; for if a vein be laid bare in a living animal, 
and then punctured, it will often contract so as to di- 
minish its diameter, although no blood shall have es- 
caped from the punctures. 

Next to the elastic substance, is the internal coat, 
which is smooth and polished. It is with difficulty 
that it is separated from the substance exterior to it, 
although it may be taken from it very easily in the 
vena cava. This internal coat is frequently so arran- 
ged as to form valves, which are plaits or folds of a 
semilunar form, that project from the surface into the 
cavities of these vessels* Two of these valves are 
generally placed opposite to each other; and, when 
raised up, they form a septum in the cylindrical cavi- 
ty of the vessel. The septum, thus composed, is con- 
cave towards the heart. 

The valves have a great effect in preventing the con- 
tents of the veins from moving in a wrong direction: 
they therefore, necessarily modify the effects of lateral 
pressure, in such a manner, that it propels the blood 
forward, or to the heart. 

These valves are generally formed in the veins of 
the muscular parts of the body, especially in those of 
the extremities. They are not found in those veins 
which are in the cavities of the body, nor in the 
internal jugulars they are placed at an equal distance 
from each other. 

The coats of the veins arc somewhat transparent; 
in consequence of which, those veins near the skin 
have a bluish aspect, which is derived from the colour 
of the blood they contain. The colour of the blood in 
the veins is different from that in the arteries, being of 
A darker red. 



OF THE ARTERIAL SYSTEM. 181 

The situation and arrangement of the large trunks 
of the veins is much alike in different subjects; but 
the branches, especially those which are subcutaneous, 
or near the skin, are very variable in their situations. 

OF THE AORTA, 

Or the Great Trunk of the Arterial System. 

When the heart is in its natural situation, the right 
Ventricle is nearly anterior to the left, and, therefore, 
the aorta, where it originates from the left ventricle, is 
behind the pulmonary artery, and covered by it Its 
first direction is so oblique towards the right side of 
the body, that it crosses the pulmonary artery behind, 
and appears on the right side of it. It has scarcely 
assumed this position uefore its course alters, for it 
then proceeds obliquely backwards, and to the left, 
so as to form a large curve or arch, which extends to 
the left of the spine. The position of this curve or 
arch is so oblique, with respect to the body, that the 
cord or diameter of it, if it were extended anteriorly 
and posteriorly, would strike the cartilage of the se- 
cond or third right rib about the middle of its length, 
and the left rib near the head. In consequence of this 
position of the curve, the aorta crosses over the right 
branch of the pulmonary artery, and the left branch 
of the wind pipe; and assumes a situation, in front, 
and to the left of the third dorsal vertebra; from this 
situation it proceeds downwards in front, but rather 
on the left side of the spine, and in contact with that 
column. 

As the aorta proceeds down the spine, it is situated 
between the two laminse of the mediastinum. It con- 
p 



182 DISTRIBUTION OF ARTERIES. 

tinues its course along the spine until it arrives at the 
cartilaginous substance between the fourth and fifth 
lumbar vertebrae, when it divides into two great 
branches of equal size, which form an acute angle 
with each other. These are called the common or 'prim- 
itive iliac arteries. 

From the aorta in this course are sent off the arte- 
ries which are distributed to all the parts of the body 
for their nourishment and animation, in the following 
manner, viz: 

The aorta as above named forms a curve immedi- 
ately after leaving the heart, and proceeds in front, 
and on the left of the spine, to the cartilage between 
the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebra, where it bifur- 
cates, or divides, and sends off at the heart. 

The two coronarv arteries $ Which are s P ent u P on the 
i he two coronary arteries, £ fteart at the curvature 

rThe carotides are ap- 

II. The common trunk of the I propriated to the head. 

right subclavian & right j They proceed on the side 
common carotid. "S of the trachea and divide 

III. The left common carotid. J at the upper edge of the 

L thyroid cartilage. 

f Each of the subclavian* is 
I the first portion of the 

IV. The left subclavian. < great artery of the up- 

1 per extremities of its 
V. respective sides. 

The external carotid which is appropriated to the exteri- 
or of the head, and the upper parts of the neck, gives off, 

fTo the thyroid gland, the 

1, The superior thyroid artery. < larynx & the parts con- 

C tiguous to the os hyoides. 

2. The sublingual. V'^L^l^ 



J. 



DISTRIBUTION OF ARTERIES 
The facial. 



183 



To the sides of the face, 
parts un- 
jaw. 



4. The inferior pharyngeal. 

5. The occipital. 

$. The posterior Auricular. 

7. The internal maxillary, 

8. The temporal. 



CTo the sides of 

< chin, lips, and 
C. der the lower jt 

rTh€ 

< uoi 
C of 



' The pharynx and contig- 
uous parts. The cavity 
" the cranium. 



CTo the back part of the 



cranium externally. 



n 



To the cavity of the ear, 
and parts contiguous to 
the external ear. 



("To the upper & lower jaw 
I bones, — the fauces, — the 
^ pterygoid muscles, — the 
I palate, — the dura mater- 
(.. 8c the interior of the nose. 



To the front and side 
side parts of the cranium, 
externally. 



The internal carotid, which is appropriated to the interior 
of the cranium, sends off, 



1. The ophthalmic 

2 



f To the eye and its appen- 



dages. 



The anterior artery of the ^ To the anterior portion of 
brain. £ the cerebrum. 

The middle artery of the C To the middle and back 
briin. \ portion of the cerebrum. 



The left subclavian gives off, 
1. The internal mamillary 



To the anterior portions 
" the thorax mamms, 



(To t 
\ of 1 



184 



DISTRIBUTION OF ARTERIES. 

To the cerebellum ,. and 



2. The vertebral. 

3. The inferior thyroid. 

4. The superior intercostal. 

5. The cervicle. 

6. The scapulary. 



TTo the cerebellum,, ana 
< the posterior portion of 
C it. 



C To the thyroid gland, tra- 
£ chea, oesophagus, &c 



To some of the intercos- 
tal spaces. 

To the muscles,, glands,, 
nerves, &c. on the 
neck. 

To the muscles on the 
neck, and dorsum of the 
scapula. 



The axillary, is the next portion of the artery oi the up- 
per extremities. It gives oft', 

fTo the pectoral and oth- 
1. The thoracic and the external ) er muscles on the ante- 



mamary arteries. 



The scapulary artery, 



The circumflexae. 



^ rior part of the thorax 
l_ and shoulders. 

TTo the muscles about the 

< scapula, & the posterior 
(_ part of the thorax. 

T To the parts about the ujk 

< per end of the os humeri, 
C or bone of the arm. 



The humeral. This is the third portion. It gives off. 



1. The profunda humeri. 

2. The profunda inferior. 



The anastimotica. 



{to the muscles of the 
os humeri, or bone of the 
arm. 



{ 



to join with an artery 
from below, and to the 
muscles. 



DISTRIBUTION OF ARTERIES. 

At the Elbow it gives off, 



185 



C Branches to the muscles in its course. 
j A recurrent branch. 
1. The radial. ■( A branch to the thumb. 

J to the radial side of the index. 
Lto the arcus profundus. 

{to the muscles on the fore arm. 
to the wrist and hand. 
A recurrent branch. 

fBranches to the muscles in its 
j course. 
3. The ulna. < to the arcus sublimus in the palm of 

(' the hand, which sends off the arte- 
ls ries to the fingers. 

The aorta gives off between the curvature and the great 
bifurcation or division. 



Cto the trachea and sub- 
£ stance of the lungs. 



V. The bronchial arteries 

VI. The oesophagal. To the oesophagus 

VII. The inferior intercostal. {'££££ 

VIII. The phrenic arteries 

IX. The coeliac artery. 



to nine of the ten lower 
spaces. 



• To the diaphragm. 



C To the stomach, liver and 
£ spleen. 



XI. 
XII 



,_, . . . C Almost all the small intest- 

The superior messentene. £ ineSj &part of the great< 

Capsular arteries. to the glandule renales. 

to the kidneys. 

to the testicles, ovaries &c 



The emulgents 

XIII. The spermatics, 

JiJi. '-..' . * ■ . b '••• C to the left portion of tl 

XIV. The mfenor messentenes. £ colon> and ^ he recturn . 



186 



DISTRIBUTION OF ARTERIES. 



f to the muscles on the loins 
XV. The lumbar arteries. «( and the abdomen, the 

l_ spine 8c spinal cavity. 



XVI, The middle sacral. 



;"jro the coccyges, sacrum, 
1 and rectum. 



At the great bifurcation. 

XVII. The primitive iliacs, one of which is divided on each 
side of the pelvis, and are called internal and ex- 
ternal iliacs. The internal iliac sends off, 



1. The ilio lumbar artery. 

2. Sacro lateral. 

3. Umbilical. 

4. Obturator. 

5. Gluteal. 

6. Ischiatic. 

7. Internal pudic, ••»•• 



C to the psoas, and iliacus 
\ internus muscles. 

pro the sacrum, internally 
j and externally, and to 
J the cauda equina, or bun- 
\ die of nerves at the low- 
I er. end of the spinal mar- 
L row. 

Cto the bladder, uterus, 
c and rectum. 



I 



to the muscles on the up- 
per and interior of the 
thigh, the hip joint, &c. 



{to the muscles on the lat- 
eral & posterior parts of 
the ossa innominata. 



f 



to the muscles, &c. on the 
upper and back part of 
L the thigh. 



'To the organs of generation 



DISTRIBUTION OF ARTERIES. 



187 



The external iliac, is the first position of the great artery 
of the lower extremities, which passes under Paupart's liga- 
ment to the thigh; but previously sends off, 

f A small artery, which is 
J spent upon the iliacus in- 
< ternus muscles, and the 
1 contiguous portions of the 
L abdominal muscles. 



1. The circumfiexa ilii. 



The epigastric. 



("Which is spent upon the 
J muscles, and integuments 
\ of the anterior part of 
l^ the abdomen. 



The femoral artery. This is the second portion of the great 
artery of the lower extremity. It commences at Paupart's 
ligament, and sends off, % 



1. The external pudic. 



C to the exterior parts of 
^ the organs of genera- 
ls tion. 



The profunda. 



pro the two circumflex^ 
*{ muscles, and to the mus- 
L cles on the thigh. 



The fiopliteal. Is the third portion of the great artery, 
and lies on the back part of the thigh. It sends off the artic- 
ular arteries which anastomose with each other, and supply 
the contiguous parts. It divides into, 



The anterior tibial, which 
proceeds down the anterior 
part of the leg to the top of 
the foot, from which it de- 
scends to the sole. It sends 
off, 



A recurrent branch . to 

to anastomose with branch 

from above. 
Branches to the anterior 

muscles of the leg. 
Tarsal & metatarsal bran- 
Is ches to the upper part of 

the foot. 



The peroneal. This is near fThe muscles on the out- 
the fibula on the posterior ) side of the leg. 
side of the interosseal liga- | The ancle and outside of 
ment, and is spent upon L the foot. 



188 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 



The posterior tibial. This f Branches to the muscles, 
passes down behind the tibia [ The medullary of the tibia, 
and the internal ancle to the-< The internal and external 
sole of the foot, where itdi- | planter arteries, to the 
vides, and sends off L parts on the sole of the 

foot and the toes. 



1 Ti- 



lt is deemed unnecessary to enter into a particular descnp 
tion of all the arteries and veins, as plate IV. will shew at one 
view, the situation of some of the most important blood ves- 
sels. 






EXPIjJIWJiTOJV OF PJLATE IV. 

This plate represents the heart, large arteries, and veins, with 
some of the muscles, &c. 



Superior Extremity. 

a Muscle 36. 

b Muscle 112. 

c Muscle 41. 

d Os hyoides (bone vi. ) 

e Thyroid gland. 

f Muscle 144. 

g Muscle 102. 

hh The clavicle cut. 

i Muscle 129. 

k Muscle 122, cut at its ex- 
tremity. 

1 Muscle 130. 

m Muscle 134. 

n The heads of muscles 144, 
145, & 151. 

o Muscle 142 cut at its ex- 
tremity. 

p Muscle 152. 

q Muscle 136, cut at its ex- 
tremity. 

r Transverse ligament of the 
wrist. 

s Muscles 137 & 138. 

t Muscle 103. 



u The anterior edge of 

muscle 94. 
vv Inferior part of the 

diaphragm, 
ww Its anterior edge cut. 
xx Kidnies. 
y Muscle 72. 
z Os ilium. 

Inferior Extremities. 

a Muscle 89. 

b Muscle 90. 

c The fleshy origin of mus- 
cle 176. 

dd Bones xvn, cut from 
each other. 

e Muscle 176, cut from 
its origin. 

/ Short head of muscle 
168 cut. 

g Great head of the same 
muscle. 

h Long head cut. 

i Muscle 180. 

k Muscle 179. 



P IV 



Anatomy 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 



189 



/ Muscle 181. 

m Muscle 186. 

n Muscle 187. 

o Tibia (bone xxxix) 

fi Muscle 191. 

q Muscle 192. 

r Fibula (bone xl) 



Heart and blood vessels. 

A Heart, coronary arteries 
and veins. 

B Right auricle of the 
heart. 

C Aorta ascendens. 

D Left subclavian artery. 

E Left carotid artery. 

F The common trunk which 
sends off the right sub- 
clavian and right caro- 
tid arteries. 

G External carotid. 

H Facial artery,which sends 
off the coronary artery 
to the lips. 

I The temporal artery. 

K Aorta descendens. 

LL Iliac arteries. 

MM Femoral, or crural ar- 
teries. 
N. B. The other arteries 

of this figure have the same 

distribution as the veins of the 

same name. 

1 The frontal vein. 

2 « facial vein. 



3 Vena temporalis profun- 

da. 

4 Vena occipitalis. 

5 External jugular vein. 

6 Internal jugular vein. 

7 The vascular arch on the 

palm of the hand. 

8 " Radial artery, & vein. 

9 " Ulnar artery, & vein. 

10 10 Cephaltic vein. 

11 Basilicic vein. 

12 Median vein. 

13 Humeral vein. 

14 14 External mammary ar- 

teries and veins. 

15 Axillary vein covering 

the artery. 

16 16 The subclavian veins. 

17 " vena cava superior 

18 •• cutaneous arch of 

veins on the fore 
part of the foot. 

19 " Front tibial vein 

covering the arte- 
ry. 

20 " Femoral vein (pro- 

funda. 

21 •' Upper part of the 

vena saphena ma- 
jor. 

22 " Femoral vein. 

23 23 '* Iliac veins. 

24 24" Inferior vena cava 

25 25 '* Renal veins cover- 

eringthe arteries,, 

26 26 " Diaphragmatic 

veins. 



SYSTEM OF ANATOMY; 

PART EIGHTH, 

OF THE BRAIN, SPINAL MARROW, AND 
NERVES. 

The whole of the soft mass winch fills the cranium. 
is called the brain. This mass is covered with three 
membranes, which are denominated dura mater, tunica 
archnoidea, and pia mater. 

The dura mater encloses the brain and its apenda- 
ges, and lines the different parts of the cranium. It 
consists of one membrane of a very dense texture, 
which in several places is composed of two or more 
lamina}. It is the thickesj and strongest membrane of 
the body, and is composed of tendinous fibres, which 
have a shining appearance, particularly on its inner 
surface. 

The dura mater adhere every where to the surface 
of the cranium, in the same manner as the perioste- 
um adheres to the bones in the other parts of the 
body. 

The inner surface of the dura mater, which is very 
smooth, is in close contact with the brain, but adheres 
only where the veins go into the sinuses; & is lubricated 
by a fluid discharged through its vessels, which guards 
the brain from danger. 
The dura mater serves as a defence to the brain, and 
pplies the place of a periosteum to the inside of the 
cranium; giving nourishment to it. 
The tunica archnoidea is a very thin, tender, and 



SII 



192 OF THE BRAIN. 

transparent membrane, which is spread uniformly 
over the surface of the brain, enclosing all its convo- 
lutions, without insinuating itself between any of 
them. 

The pia mater is somewhat of the nature of the for- 
mer covering, hut is very vascular. It covers the brain 
in general, — enters double between all its convolutions, 
and lines all the different cavities called ventricles. 

The pia mater serves to conduct and support the 
vessels of the brain, and allows them to divide into 
such minute parts, as to prevent the blood from enter- 
ing the tender substance of this viscus with too great 
force. 

The brain is composed of four portions, viz. cere- 
brum, cerebellum, tuber annulare, or pons varolii, and 
medulla, oblongata. 

The cerebrum completely fills the upper part of the 
cavity of the cranium. It has some resemblance to 
half an egg, which has been divided horizontally; and 
is composed of two equal parts, which are separated 
vertically from each other by the falx or process of 
the dura mater, which resembles a sythc with the edge 
turned down. This vertical separation does not ex- 
tend through the centre of the cerebrum, although it 
divides it completely before and behind. 

The upper surface of the two hemispheres is con- 
vex. The under surface is rather irregular. Each 
hemisphere is divided into three lobes: the anterior, 
the middle, and the posterior. 

The anterior lobes of the brain are situated on the 
front part of the base of the cranium, principally on 
the orbitor process of bone I (os frontis.) 

The middle lobes are lodged in the fossa 1 , or depress- 
ions formed by the temporal and sphenoid bones. 



OF THE BRAIN. 193 

The posterior lobes rest chiefly upon the tentorium, 
or (process of the dura mater, which separates the ce* 
rebrum from the cerebellum. 

The cerebellum is situated in the lower and posters 
or part of the cavity of the cranium, in contact with a 
portion of bone IV, (os occipitis.) It is of course 
much less than the upper portion of the brain. 

It is covered by the tentorium, and is divided below 
into two lobes, by a process of the dura mater called 
falx minor. 

On the basis of the brain is a part called tuber an- 
> radar e, or pons varolii, which is formed by processes 
from the cerebrum and cerebellum; and is in contact 
with the anterior and inferior portion of the cerebel- 
lum in the middle. From this part the medulla oblon- 
gata proceeds downwards and backwards, under the 
cerebellum; and between the cerebellum, the medulla 
oblongata, and the pons varolii, is the vacuity, called 

Lthe fourth ventricle of the brain. 
The medulla oblongata is continued from the cavity 
I of the cranium, through the great cavity of bone IV. 
f (os occipitis) into the great canal of the spine; when 
it takes the name of medulla spinalis or spinal mar- 
■ row. 

The dura mater passes with it through the great 
foramen, and encloses the whole of it. At the com- 
mencement of the spinal canal, this membrane isV- 
tached to the surrounding- bones, viz. to the margin of 
the great occipital foramen, and to the upper vertebra 
of the neck; but below this it is loosely connected by a 
membrane which sometimes appears to contain a little 
adeps. The tunica archnoidea and thejn'a mater, also 
invests the spinal marrow. 

The spinal marrow consists of medullary mater ex- 
ternally, and cineritious or cortical mater internally. 
1 



194 



OF THE BRAIN SPINAL MARROW, 8cc. 



The spinal marrow terminates in a point near the 
uppermost lumbar vertebra. The ligamenta donticu* 
lata of the opposite sides join each other at this point, 
and form a small cord, which continuing downwards, 
is inserted into the os coccygis. These ligaments sup- 
port, and keep ii >d, the medulla and the nerves, as 
they originate a it. 

The brain and spinal marrow gives origin to all the 
nerves belonging to the human system; hence they are 
distinguished into cerebral, and spinal nerves. The 
cerebral nerves are nine in number; and those of the 
spine thirty; these are distributed to the different parts 
of the human system that is endowed with sensibility. 

Nerves are long white medullary cords, which are 
very sensitive. 

The following plate shows the regular nerves. 



EXP&AJrjiTOJr OF JPMj^TF p. 



A The cerebrum. 
B The cerebellum. 
CC The crura cerebri. 
DD The crura cerebelli. 
EEE The spinal marrow. 

1 , 1 Branches of the fifth pair, 

arising from the union 
of the crura cerebri & 
crura cerebelli, 

2, 2 Branches of the sub-oc- 



cipital, which have 
double origins. 

3, 3 Branches of the four cer- 

vical nerves and of the 
first dorsal. 

4, 4, 4, 4, Branches of the 

dorsal nerves. 

5, 5 Branches of the lumbar 

nerves. 

6, 6 The sacral nerves. 



V 



REUIXAR OK SVMNnfiTUICAli SMVliS 















i- 








> 






JL TABLE OF NERVES. 



Cerebral Nerves. 

1. The first pair, called ol- 

factory. 

2. The second pair called op- 

tic nerves. 

3. The third pair, or oculo- 

rum motores. 

4. The fourth pair, or pa- 

thetici. 

5. The fifth pair, or trigem- 

iny which gives off 
A The opthalmic, or orbital. 
B. "• superior maxillary 

nerve. 
C " Inferior maxillary 

nerve. 

6. The sixth pair, or abdu- 

centes, which sends off 
a branch to unite with 
one from the fifth, form- 
ing the great intercostal 
nerve. 

7. The seventh pair, or audi- 

tory nerves. 

8. The eighth pair, or par 



vagum, arising from the 
medulla oblongata. The 
par vagum gives off 

A The right and left recur- 
rent nerves. 

B The several branches in 
the chest, to form the 
cardiac plexus. 

C Several branches to form 
the pulmonic plexus. 

D Several branches to form 
oesophageal plexus. 

E It then forms in the abdo- 
men the stomachic plex- 
us. 

F The hepatic plexus. 

G The splenic plexus. 

H The renal plexus, receiv- 
ing several branches from 
the great intercostal, 
which assists in their for- 
mation. 

9. The uinth pair, or lingual 
nerves, which go from 
the medulla oblongata. 



196 OF THE NERVES. 

SPINAL NERVES. 

Those nerves arc called spindly which pass out 
through the lateral or intervertebral foramina of the 
spine. They are divided into cervical, dorsal, lumbar* 
and sacral nerves. 

Cervical Nerves. 

The cervical nerves are eight pair, viz: 

The first are called the occipital; they arise from the 
beginning of the spinal marrow, pass out between the 
margin of the occipital foramen, and upper vertebra 
of the neck, and are distributed about the occiput and 
neck. 

The second pair of cervical nerves send a branch 
to the accessory nerve, and then proceed to the paro- 
tid gland and external ear. 

The third cervical pair, supply the integuments of 
the shoulder blade, and muscles near about that place, 
and send a branch to form, with others, the diaphrag- 
matic nerve. 

The fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth pair, all 
converge to form the brachial plexus, from which ari- 
ses the six following. 

1. The axillary nerve, which sometimes arises 
from the radial nerve. It runs backwards and out- 
wards around the neck of the os humeri, or bone of 
the arm, and ramifies the muscles of the shoulder 
blade. 

2. The external cutaneal, which perforates muscle 
130, to the bend of the arm, where it accompauies the 
medium vein as far as the thumb, and is lost in its in- 
teguments. 

3. The internal cutaneal, which descends on the in- 



OF THE NERVES. 197 

-side of the arm, where it bifurcates, or divides, from 
the bend of the arm, the anterior branch accompanies 
the basilic vein, to be inserted into the skin of the palm 
of the hand; the posterior branch runs down the inter- 
nal part of the fore arm, to be lost in the skin of the 
little finger. 

4. The median nerve, which accompanies the 
brachial artery to the fore arm, passes under the annu- 
lar ligament of the wrist, and goes on to the palm of 
the hand, and then supplies the digital nerves, which 
go to the extremities of the thumb, fore and middle fin- 
gers. 

5. The ulnar nerve, which descends between the 
brachial artery and basilic vein, between the internal 
condyle of the humerus or bone of the arm; and the 
olecrannon, and divides in the forearm into an inter- 
nal and external branch. The internal branch passes 
under the ligament of the wrist, and sessamoid bone, 
to the hand, where it divides into three branches, two 
of which go to the ring and little fiugers, and the third 
forms an arch towards the thumb, in the palm of the 
hand, and is lost in the contiguous muscles. The ex- 
ternal branch passes over the tendon of muscle 141, 
and back of the hand, to supyly the two last fingers. 

6. The radial nerve, which sometimes gives off the 
axillary nerve. It passes backwards, about the hu- 
merus or bone of the arm, descends on the outside of 
the arm, along the side of muscle 133 to the fore arm. 
At the upper extremity of the radius or bone of the 
fore arm, it divides into two branches; one goes along 
the radius to the back of the hand, and terminates in 
the interosseous muscle, the thumb, and the first three 
fingers; the other is lost in the muscles of the fore 
arm. 



198 OF THE NERVES. 

Dorsal Nerves. 

The dorsal nerves are twelve pairs in number. The 
first pair gives off a branch to the brachial plexus. 
All the dorsal nerves are distributed to the muscles of 
the back, the intercostals, the abdominal muscles, and 
the diaphragm. The five inferior pairs go to the car- 
tilages of the ribs, and are called costal. 

Lumbar Nerves. 

The five pairs of lumbar nerves are bestowed about 
the loins and muscles, skin of the abdomen and loins, 
scrotum, ovaria, and diaphragm. The second, third, 
and fifth pairs unite, and form the obturator nerve, 
which descends over muscle 89 into the pelvis, and 
passes through the/ora7nm thyroideum to the obtura- 
tor muscle, triceps, pectineus, &c. 

The third and fourth, with some branches of the se- 
cond pair, from the crural nerve, which passes under 
Paupart's ligament with the femoral artery, sends off 
branches to the adjacent parts, and descends in a di- 
rection to the internal condyle of the thigh bone, from 
whence it accompanies the saphena vein, to the internal 
ancle, to be lost in the skin of the great toe. The 
fifth pair is joined to the first pair of the sacral 
nerves. 

Sacral Nerves. 

There are five pairs of the sacral nerves, all of 
which arise from the cauda equina, or termination of 
the spinal marrow. The first four pair give off bran- 
ches to the pelvic viscera, and are afterwards united 
to the last lumbar, to form a large plexus which gives 
off, 



OF THE NERVES. 199 

The ischiatic nerve, the largest in the body. The 
ischiatic nerve, immediately at its origin, sends off 
branches to the bladder, rectum, and parts of genera- 
tion; proceeds from the cavity of the pelvis through 
the ischiatic notch, between the tuberosity of the ischi- 
um, and great trochanter, to the ham, where it is call- 
ed the popliteal nerve. In the ham it divides into two 
branches, which descend and are distributed through 
the different parts of the foot and toes. 

The nervous system consists of the medullary sub- 
stance of the brain, cerebellum, medulla, oblongata, and 
spinalis, and of the same substance continued into the 
nerves by which it is distributed to many different 
parts of the body. The whole of this system seems 
to be distinguished into four parts. 

1. The medulary substance contained in thecrani 
um and vertebral cavity; the whole of which seems to 
consist of distinct fibres, but without the smaller fibres 
being separated from each other by any evident envel- 
oping membranes. 

2. Connected with one part or other of this sub 
stance, are the nerves, in which the same medullar}' 
substance is continued : but here more evidently divi 
ded into fibres, each of which are separated from the 
others, by an enveloping membrane, derived from 
pia mater. 

3. Parts of the extremities of certain nerves, in 
which the medullary substance is divested of the en- 
veloping membranes from the pia mater, and so situa- 
ted as to be exposed to the action of certain externa? 
bodies, and perhaps so formed as to be affected by tli e 
action of certain bodies only, these are named the 
esntient extremities of the nerves. 



200 OF THE NERVES. 

4. Certain extremities of the nerves, so framed as 
to be capable of peculiar contractibility; and, in con- 
sequence of their situations and attachments, to be, 
by their contraction, capable of moving most of the 
solid and fluid parts of the body. These are named 
the moving extremities of the nerves. 

These several parts of the nervous system are every 
where the same continuous medullary substance, which 
is supposed to be the vital solid of animals, so consti- 
tuted in living animals, as to admit of motions being 
readily propagated from any one part to every other 
part of the nervous system, so long as the continuity 
and natural living state of the medulary substance re- 
mains. In the living man there is an immaterial 
thinking substance, or mind, constantly present, and 
every phenomenon of thinking is to be considered as 
an affection or faculty of the mind alone. But this 
immaterial and thinking part of man is so connected 
with the material and corporeal part of him, and par- 
ticularly with the nervous system, that motions excited 
in this give occasion to thought, and thought howev- 
er occasioned, gives occasion to new motions in the 
nervous system. This mutual communication, or in- 
fluence, is assumed with confidence as a fact; but the 
mode of it I do not understand, nor pretend to ex- 
plain. 

The phenomena of the nervous system appear com- 
monly in the following order: the impulse of external 
bodies act upon the sentient (see part 3 above) extrem- 
ities of the nerves; and this gives occasion to percep- 
tion or thought, which, as first arising in the mind, is 
termed sensation. This sensation according to its va- 
rious modifications, gives occasion to volition, or the 
willing of certain ends to be obtained by the motion 



OF THE NERVE3. :*». 

of certain parts of the body; and this volition gives 
occasion to the contraction of muscular fibres, by 
which the motion of the part required is produced. 

As the impulse of bodies on the sentient extremi- 
ties of a nerve does not occasion any sensation, unless 
the nerve between the sentient extremity and the brain 
be free; and as, in like manner, volition does not pro- 
duce any contraction of muscles, unless the nerve be- 
tween the brain and muscle be also free; it is there- 
fore concluded from both these facts, that sensation 
and volition, so far as they are connected with corpo- 
real motions, are functions of the brain alone; and it 
is presumed that sensation arises only in consequence 
of external impulse producing motion in the sentient 
extremities of the nerves, and of that motion being 
propagated along the nerves of the brain; and, in like 
manner, that the will operating in the brain only, by a 
motion begun, there propagated along the nerves, pro- 
duces the contraction of muscles. From what is now 
said, we perceive more distinctly the different func- 
tions of the several parts of the nervous system. 

1. The sentient extremities seem to be particular- 
ly fitted to receive the impression of external bodies; 
and according to the difference of these impressions, 
and of the condition of the sentient extremity itself, to 
propagate along nerves motions of a determined kind, 
which communicated to the brain give occasion to sen- 
sation. 

2. The brain seems to be the party fitted for, and 
susceptible of, those motions with which sensation, and 
the whole consequent operations of thought, are con- 
nected; and thereby is fitted to form a communication 
between the motions excited in the sentient, and those 
in consequence arising in the moving extremities of 



202 OF THE NERVES. 

the nerves, which are often remote and distant from 
each other. 

3. The moving extremities are so framed as to be 
capable of contraction excited by motion propagated 
from the brain, and communicated to the contractile 
fibre. 

4. The nerves more strictly so called, are to be 
considered as a collection of medullary fibres, each 
enveloped in its proper membrane, and thereby, so 
separated from each other;, as hardly to admit of any 
communication of motion from any one of the others, 
and to admit only of motion along the continuous med- 
ulary substance of the same fibre, from its origin to 
the extremities, or contrawise. 

From this view of the parts of the nervous system, 
of their several functions and communication with 
each other, it appears that the beginning of motion in 
the animal economy is generally connected with sensa- 
tion; and that the ultimate effects of such motions are 
chiefly actions depending immediately upon the con- 
traction of moving fibres, between which and the sen- 
tient extremities, the communication is by means of 
the brain. 



SYSTEItt OF ANATOMY; 

PART NINTH. 

'Of the Absorbents, general integuments, 
or the cellular membrane, & the skin. 

Absorbent vessels. The absorbent vessels are 
small transparent tubes, of a delicate structure, which 
exist in considerable numbers in almost every part of 
the body. 

These tubes originate upon the surface of all the 
cavities of the body; and of the cellular membrane, 
in all the various parts into which it penetrates; upon 
the internal surface of the stomach, and the intestines; 
and upon the skin. 

Those which originate in the lower extremities, and 
the cavity of the abdomen, unite and form a large 
trunk, called the thoracic duct, which proceeds through 
the thorax, and terminates in the left subclavian vein, 
at its junction with the iukrnal jugular. 

Those of the left upper extremity, the left side of 
the head, and the contiguous parts, form a trunk which 
terminates in the same place. While the remaining 
absorbents, or those of the right upper extremity, and 
|he right side of the head, &c. also form a trunk, 
khich terminates in a corresponding part of the right 
Subclavian vein. 

The absorbent vessels of the middle size, which 

>rise from the union of the small vessels, and unite to 

orm the large, in their progress to these large vessels, 

ass through certain bodies which have been denomina- 



204 OF THE SKIN. 

ted conglobate glands; and may be considered as appen- 
dages of the absorbent system. 

The absorbent vessels are composed of two coats, 
which are thin, but dense and firm, and also elastic. 
The coats of the thoracic duct may be separated from 
each other. The internal surface of the outer coat is 
fibrous. The internal coat, is a delicate, but strong 
membrane. 

Cellular membrane. The cellular membrane is sit- 
uated between the skin and the muscles, which is in- 
sinuated between the different muscles, and between 
the fibres which compose them; which also connects 
the different parts of the body to each other. 

As it extends over the whole body, and is most inti- 
mately connected with the skin, it is considered as one 
of the integuments, although it is found in great quan- 
tities in some of the internal parts. 

It appears to be composed of membranous lamina, 
exquisitely fine and delicate in their structure, which 1 
are so connected to each other, that they compose 
cells or cavities of various forms and sizes. 

"When these cavities are empty, this arrangement of 
the cellular membrane is not apparent; but when they 
arc distended by water or air it is very evident. 

The skin. The skin is composed of three dissim- 
ilar lamina?, which arc denominated, the cutis vera, 
the reta mucosum, and the cuticula. 

Cutis vera. This is the innermost of the above 
mentioned lamina, and is much more substantial than 
the others. It is an elastic dense, and strong mem- 
brane, which contains in its texlure a large proportion 
of fibres that appear to be tendinous, and are woven 
together in an intricate manner. 

Blended with these fibres are an innumerable number 



mFFBETfKix. 205 

&f vessels which enter into the texture of the skin. 
These vessels do not generally convey red Mood, and 
therefore they arc not visible; yet they may be readi- 
ly brought into view, by the application of rubefa> 
cients during life. Their existence is also demonstra- 
ted in the vigorous infant, at birth, by the universal 
redness of the skin, which is observable at that time. 

The skin thus constructed, extends over the whole 
of the body, and is continued into those cavities which 
open upon the surface, as the mouth, nose, &c. al- 
though its texture changes immediately upon its re- 
flection. 

This is the part which is called the true skin, and 
when in a healthy state is invariably white. The va- 
riety of colors in the human species depends upon the 
layer next to the cutis, which is now to be described. 

Rete mucosum. Immediately in contact with the 
cutis vera, is a thin stratum, of a pulpy or mucilagi- 
nous consistence, which appears to be spread uniform- 
ly over it, but cannot be detached without deranging 
its own texture. 

It can be best examined after the cuticle is raised in 
a blister. In this case it appears like a pulpy sub • 
stance, spread upon a membrane of a soft and deli- 
cate texture. 

In this pulpy substance resides the pigmentum, or 
colouring matter, which gives the peculiar complexion 
to the different races of men. The cutis vera is 
white, and the cuticle is nearly transparent in them 
all; but the rete mucosum is black in the Negro; cop- 
per coloured, yellow or tawny, in many of the Asiat- 
ics; and yellow, with a tinge of red in the Indians of 
America; while it is transparent, or whitish, in the 
people of Europe and their descendants. 



206 OF THE SKIN. 

The cuticula or epidermis. This is the exterior 
layer of the integuments or skin. It appears to have 
some resemblance to the matter of the nails, & of horn; 
hut is more flexible, even after allowing for the differ- 
ence of thickness. In those parts where it is the thin- 
nest, it is semi-transparent. It is insensible and no 
vessels can be traced in it; and extends over the whole 
surface of the body, except the parts covered by the 
nails, and is accommodated to the surface of the skin, 
by forming ridges or furrows corresponding to it. 

It adheres closely to the cutis and rete mucosum; 
and when irritated by mechanical violence, the surface 
of the skin appears moistened by effusion. 

The adhesion of these membranes to each other is 
as uniform as that of two smooth surfaces glued to- 
gether; but it is generally said that the cuticle or ex- 
ternal membrane is attached to the cutis by very nu- 
merous and line filaments. 

It has often been asserted, that these filaments are 
the exhaling and absorbing vessels, which pass through 
the cuticle, to and from the skin, which appears 'very 
reasonable. 

Notwithstanding the uniform adhesion of the cuti- 
cle to the cutis, it is observed, in the living subject 
to be separated, and formed into vesicles by a variety 
of causes, viz: 

1. Pinching the skin, or violent mechanical irri- 
tation ; such as laboring with hard instruments. 

2. By the application of cantharides, and certain 
other substances, which produce vesications. 

3. Boiling heat will generally produce vesication. 

4. Certain diseases seem to produce vesication, 
viz: erysipelas, %oma or shingles, and many other erup- 
tions which have no name. 



OF THE SKIN. 20T 

In severe cases of the scarlatina, or scarlet fever, 
at the termination of the disease, large portions of the 
cuticle are sometimes detached from the cutis. 

In the spring of 1 833, I attended on upwards of 
one hundred cases of the scarlet fever, in the most of 
which the cuticle was detached from the cutis, and 
peeled off entirely over the whole system, at the ter- 
mination of the disease. A young woman of this 
county, Miss M. E. after recovering from a severe 
spell of the scarlatina, was so speedily deprived of 
the cuticle, that she was left so tender she could scarce- 
ly bear the heat of the sun for several months after 
her recovery. 

There could he a great many other causes mention- 
ed which would produce vesication. 

The skin answers a fourfold purpose in the animal 
economy. It is the organ of touch. It covers and 
protects the whole structure. It is the outlet of a por- 
tion of insensible perspiration, and performs absorp- 
tion. 

The skin appears to have a connection with the 
lungs and stomach, from the consideration that they, 
with the liver are generally affected by checked per- 
spiration; and also from the consideration that erup- 
tions of the skin, such as urticaria, or nettle rash, 
have frequently relieved children of the spasmodiac 
croup. In a word, the skin has such a connection 
with the whole system, that the most of diseases may 
be traced back to checked perspiration. 



GLOSSARY. 

ACCELERATOR, From accelero, to hasten or propel. 

Acetabulum, From acetum, vinegar: the cavity of the os in- 
nominatum, so called, because it resembles an ancient cup 
for holding vinegar. 

Acromion, A process of the shoulder blade. 

Addetamentum, An addition to any part. 

Adductor, To draw or contract. 

Anastomosis, The communication of vessels with one ano- 
ther. 

Anconeus, The elbow. 

Anterior, Before. A term applied to what may be situated 
before another. 

Antihelix, The inner circle of the external ear. 

Antitragus, An eminence of the outer ear. 

Antrum, A cavity which has a small opening into it. 

A/ioneurosis, A tendinous expansion. 

Articulation, From artic ulus, a joint. 

Arytenoid, Applied to parts which are shaped like a funnel. 

Attollens, to lift up. Applied to muscles, that raise the part 
to which they are attached. 

BICEPS, Any thing having two heads, 

Bicus/iidatus, Any thing having two points. 

Bifurcate, Any thing that divides into two parts, or forks. 

Bronchial, Appertaining to the wind pipe. 

Bursa, A bag. 

Bursa mucosa, A mucous bag, near joints. 

CAROTID, (From a Greek word meaning to sleep,} an ar- 
tery of the neck. 

Cauda, (From caudo to fall,) a tail. 

Cauda equina, A bundle of nerves starting off at the lower 
end of the spinal marrow, is so called from its resemblance 
to a horse's tail. 

Cellular, Having little cells. 

Cerebellum, (Diminutive of cerebrum,) the little brain. 

Cerebrum, The brain. 

Chondrosyndesmus, A cartilaginous ligament. 

Coccygis, A bone resembling a Cuckoo's bill. 

Concha, A hollow vessel: Applied to the cavity of the ear. 

Condyle, Applied to round eminences ot bones at the joints. 

Constrictor, to bind together. A name given to muscles. . 



210 GLOSSARY. 

Coracoid, Any thing shaped like the beak of a crow. 

Cornea, The sclerotic membrane of the eye is so called, be- 
cause it is of a horny consistence. 

Cornu, A horn. 

Coronal, (From corona. ) A crown or garland. 

Corpus, A body. 

Corrugator, From corrugo to wrinkle. 

Costa, The rib of an animal. 

Cremaster, To suspend. 

Crico, Words compound of this belong to muscles, which 
are attached to the cricoid cartilage. 

Cricoid, Resembling a ring. 

Crista,. Any thing which has the resemblance of a comb up- 
on the head of a cock. 

Crura, The plural of crus. 

Crus, A leg, or origin. 

Cuticle, Diminutive of cutis, the skin, 

DEGLUTITION, From deglutio, to swallow down. 
Deltoides,. A muscle so called, because it is shaped like the 

Greek letter Delta. 
Depressor, From deprimo, to press down. 
Digastricus, Derived from two Greek words meaning two 

bellies. A muscle is thus named having two bellies, 
Ductus, A canal or duct. 

ENSIFORMIS, From ensis a sword and forma resemb- 
lance. A term applied to parts resembling a sword. 

Epigastric, From two Greek words meaning above the stom- 
ach. 

Epiglottis, The cartilage at the root of the tongue that falls 
upon the glottis. 

Erector, To raise up, a name given to muscles. 

Ethmoid, Any thing perforated like a seive. 

Extensor, To stretch out. 

FORAMEN, From foro to pierce, a small opening. 
Fossa, A depression or ditch. 
Frontalis, From frons, the forehead. 

Fungus, Proud flesh. A term in surgery to express any lux- 
uriant formation of flesh on an ulcer. 

GANGLION, A knot. 

Gastritis, Inflamation of the stomach. 

Genoi, From a Greek word meaning the chin. 

Glenoid, The name of articulating cavities of bones, 

Glossa, From a Greek word meaning the tongue. 

"' r r>,„ Knftn^c , n; , m ,. „,,,,., ,,. n ,,, s ,-l,-. 



GLOSSARY. 211 

HELIX, the external circle or border of the ear. 

Hepaticia, the liver. 

Hepatitis, Inflammation of the liver. 

Hypochondrium, From two Greek words meaning under a 

cartilage, that part of the body under the cartilages of the 

short ribs. 
Hypogastrium. The lower part of the abdomen. 

INTERCOSTAL, From inter between and costa a rib. A 
name given to muscles, 8cc. between the ribs. 

Interosseous, From inter between and os a bone. A name 
given to muscles, &c. which are between bones. 

Ischium, the loin. A bone of the pelvis so named because 
it is near the loin. 

JUGALIS, YYomjugumnyokz; the name of a bone) of the 
head. 

LATERALIS, From latus the side. Any thing situated on 

the side. 
Latissimus, A term applied to broad muscles. 
Laxator , From laxo to loosen. A name given to muscles. 
Levator, From levo to lift up. A name given to muscles. 
Linsea, From linum, a thread. A thread-like appearance. 
Linea Alba, A tendinous expansion, situated in the center of 

the anterior part of the abdomen. 
Longissimus, the longest. Muscles are so named from their 

length. 

MALLEOLUS, Diminutive of malleus, a mallet: the ancle. 

Maseter, to chew; the name of a muscle. 

Mastoid, Processes of bones are so named, when they re- 
semble the nipple of a breast. 

Maxilla, to chew. The upper and lower jaws are so called. 

Meatus, An opening which leads to a canal or duct. 

Mediastinum, A membranous division formed by the pleura 
dividing the chest into two parts. 

Metacarpus, That part of the hand which is between the 
wrist (carpus) and fingers. 

Metatarsus, That part of the foot between the tarsus & toes. 

Malarix, A double tooth, so named because they grind the 
food. 

Mons, A mount or hill. 

Mans Veneris, The eminence immediately over the os pu- 
bis in women, that is covered with hair. 

OBLIQUUS. Oblique. A term applied to parts from their 



212 GLOSSART. 

Obturator, A stopper up, or that which covers any thing. 
Oculus, The eye. 

PALMAPIS, From fialma, the hand. Belonging to th 

hand. 
Palfiebrse, the eye-lids. 

Pericardium, A membranous bag that surrounds the heart. 
Periosteum, The membrane which invests the external sui 

face of bones. 
Perone, To fasten. A name given to muscles. 
Pia mater, The natural mother; so called because it embn 

ces the brain,' as a mother folds her child. 
Pisiform, From fiisum a pea, and forma likeness. Pea-liki 
Pronator, A name given to muscles, the use of which is 1 

turn the palm of the hand downwards. 
Psoas, A name given to muscles, that belongs to the loins. 
Pterygoid, Resembling the wing of a bird. A name given 1 

a process of the ethmoid bone. 
Pudendum, From fiudor shame. The external parts < 

generation. 
Pulmonary, Belonging to the lungs, 

PECTUS, Straight. 

Retrakens, To draw back. 

Pima glotidis, the opening oi the larynx, through whic 

the air passes in and out of the lungs. 
Scajiha, A sciff, or boat. 

Sclerotic, the name of one of the coats of the eye. 
Scrobeculus cordis, the pit of the stomach. 
Semilunar, Half moon shaped. 
Se/itum, A partition. 
Seratus, From sera, a saw. Any thing resembling sa 

teeth. 
Squmosa, From squama, a scale. A term applied to bon< 

which lie over each other. 
Su/iinator, From sufiinus, upwards. A name given to mus 

cles which turn the palm of the hand upwards. 
Su/ira, Above. 

Suture, From suo, to join together. 
Systole, to contract; the contraction of the heart. 

TEA r SOR, From tendo, to stretch. A name given to tl 

muscles. 
Teres, Round, cylindrical. 
Trachea, the wind pipe, so called from its roughness. 



GlOSSARr. gjg 

beaded. F '' 0m *"' """^ and '"'""■ a f"i Three 

^JSIX'W.SS? hMgs down from the 






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