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Scale Insects 



Deciduous and Ornamental Trees. 


S. F. Chapin. M. D. 

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if Insects on Deciduous and Ornamental Trees. 



' S F. CHAPIN, M. D., 


A Report to the State Board of Horticultural Commissioners. 

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riltfprfhTrtf fof tlio Anther f nrtti (h* PAmrrr Uuual 1'ukss of Oct. 28 ami Nov, 4, 1889.J 

• flvarrf Of HortiatUtirai CotnmixtfaRrr*. 

The prevalence of scale insects in tbo or* 
chards of Santa Clara valley during the past 
few years has a Horded ample vcopo (or their 
study, to which 1 havi% for the past three sea- 
sons, devoted whftt time I could command. 
Assigned to this work by you, I ahall report a« 
concisely as possible the information gained and 
the results obtained by numerous experiments 
carried on aud observed for two scasous. I 
shall hero use in thia paper as a part of it, a re- 
port presented to the Sauta Clara County Hor- 
ticultural Society, August G, 1SSI, by Mr. D. 
C. VeatU aud myself, with snob reviaion and 
correction as another year ha& ahown to be 
needed, and with added memoranda to (ho ox* 
perim*ota detailed, in order to present their 
(ull effect* after a lapte of more than a year. I 
ahall also detail other exporiments,and shall re- 
fer to work done on an extensive scale for the 
destruction of the scale pest?, and which has 
shown iiKiat gratifying reauH-. 

All scale iosocts impair, to a greater or less 
degree, the vitality and productiveness of the 
tree or plant upon which they lire. Of the 
seven species which have here been observed as 
iufeutiug our deciduous orchard trees and fruits, 
live are of frequency and of such importance ae 
to attract the attention of orchordrsts* These 
are the Lfcaniutn Ofc<*» Axpkliotus Hapax, 
AipbiwtU* GoTicMformi# t 4*ptiRotui Ptrnic* 
ionsus and tbo Ictrgu Purchari, the two lant 
named being tho moat dangerous of all bcale 
pe*t« which the orchardist has to encounter, 

Li*\iuium QU't- — This scale is beginning to 
attack other trees than the orange and its Kin- 
dred. A year aince I examined an orchard 
whore it existed in overwhelming number* 
upon the UermsQ prune, Brigg's Itad May and 
the Karly <Yriwford peaches, upon the Moor* 

Krk aphoot trtcs, and moat ot all upon the 
tiU prtfrte d*a§m trees. This is hoiieved to bo 
the direct 'result or planting a few orange trees 
close by. Air. £11 wood Cooper has written 
fully upon thw scale, aud to whoje reports I 
rtfer you. 

AtyHtlioftM A'u/x^.— So named by Prof. J< 11. 
Corostock. Thia ncale 10 rapidly sprca -ling, and 
is now found in mauy placej where unknown 
a year or two ago* It seems to be most 

nent in Santa Crux county, where it can be 
abundantly found. 1 have, during the past two 
seasons, observed it in many placea in Santa 
Clara county, and have had specimens sent me 
from >San Lorenzo, Alameda county, where it 
was abundant upon pear trees, a branch sent 
being well covered with the old scale, and also 
newly hatched young crawling about. 

Tliis scale seems to bo nitivo to the willow 
and alder and other indigenous trees. It, how* 
ever, is found in great numbers upon acacia 
trees, upon tho black locust and poplar, and 
upon aonie of our orchard trees, as the pear and 
apple. This pcale somewhat resemble** the 
AspidiotuA periucio*u& r and by many is con- 
founded with it, bnt it is not to be compared to 
tho latter for destrnctiveness. 

A tpi die ."* Conc/tj/ormijf. — The one longest 
known, and which was disoovered and described 
in Maine in 1704, has ever since that time in- 
femted the apple tree particularly, although 
found upon other fruit trees and upon the cur- 
rant. This is now found in great numbers upon 
almost all old apple trees on this coast, and is 
commonly known as the bark louse or the 
oyetershell scale. It may be fonnd described 
in works on entomology. This species has not 
caused so much injury as to alarm fruit grow- 
er* to any great extent, although it is described 
by Dr. Packard as doing more injury to the 
Apple tree than any uther insect known. 

Cottony Cushion Scale. 

Next will be described a comparatively new 
ecalc heretofore, but ono which has within the 
last two or three years been ravaging mauy lo- 
oatitie* in widely different parts of the State. 
This is tho so-called dorthesin, or, as named by 
Ma*kcll, Fctrya Pttrchati, and called by Mr, 
MiUhew Cooke the cottony cushion scale. 

This scale has been, it is asserted, known to 
be on the acacia for seven years in San Jose, but 
:: is only during the past and present seasons 
that it hi, attracted attention. Its great pro* 
lui-ue&s and its destructive abilities have called 
widespread attention to it. This pest attacks 
everything in tho way of tree, vine or shrub; 
ull the evergreens as well as deciduous trees 
>o **-K*y:* 1 i in it* way ar-i attacked, aud every orna- 

mental shr;ib on the lawns of some portion of 
our cities will 'show its presence. Tho ivy, even, 
is not, pruof ap?inet \\ In San JUfael, San 
Matcr^ S:\nL* E-rbar^Md Jv*s Angolas it is well 
established. While in San Jose it has not this 
season caused so great damage as last, yet in the 
citrus-growing regions it is becoming one of the 
meet serious pests they have to encounter, and 
it is oven stated that, ahould its ravages not be 


On the Twifir 

Cottony Cushion Scalo-Icerya Purchase 

checked, orange and lemon culture will have to 
be abandoned. 

From the rapid destruction which follows the 

Crest-nee of this scale, it is well that it should 
3 widely recognized, and its first invasion no- 
ticed and checked. In San Jose, in 1SS1, it was 
first noticed in May as the fully developed fe- 
male, from which the* first brood of young then 

Scalp on Fruit and Twtff 

haps the twonty-lifth of an inch in length. The 
body is pale rod; the six legs and two antenna 
are black. The antenna are long and olub- 
shaped, and have from six to nine joints, as 
they are further matured. The antenna* are 
covered with long hairs, which bristle forth 
prominently. The eyes are email and black. 
Between the pair of forelegs on the under side 
of the body is to be seen the beak or sucker, by 
which the insoct secures its nourishment. 

The females partly grown are of a variety of 
colors, orange red mostly, and spotted over 
with white and gn»en; «ome are nearly entirely 
a dirty white, and many are a pea green. It 
seema that the coloring matter of the plant they 
are upon colors them to some extent- Their 
body is ovoid and elongated and llattened, the 
back being ridged up with several segments 
unite prominent. Around the rim of the body 
are a multitude of hairs, standing out promin- 
ently. Around the rear half of the body on its 
rim are a row of tubercles or spinarets, from 
which a white secretion issues, forming a cot- 
tony cord, and these placed side by side and the 
interspace tilled up by the same material run- 
ning lengthwise the body and projecting from 
it, gives the whole a ribbed, satin-like appear- 
ance whitish in colon Gradually as the insect 
matures these projecting ridges approach each 
other at the ends, and are joined together and 
curved under slightly at the point, while the 
sides are at the same time curved under the 
whole length, and the edge? joined together like 
a flat ribbon-like band, the whole forming, when 
complete, a soft elastic white sack, the size, 
and somewhat the shape of a medium sized 
white bean. The length, when mature, is about 
three-eighths of an inch; the width one-iifth of 
an inch. 

Inside the sack are deposited the eggs of the 
female, among the interstices of a mats of cot- 




in yaI 

SAN JOSE SCALE INSECT-Aepldlotus Pernlclosu* 

This present season of 18S2 the first young 
appeared May t'5th» tho mother insect having 
gradually matured her eggs from the opening of 
spring until the young were hatched. The egg 
of the Icerya is small, pale or orange red, 
elongated and ovoid. The young just hatched 
out are very active, and are very minute, per- 

ton-ltke fiber, which under a high magnifying 
power is shown to bo round, and not more than 
one-sixth part the thickness of pure cotton 
fiber, with which it was compared in the same 
Jield. This mass of cottony liber is filled with 
a great amount of gran n la r matter, for tho 
purpose, it may be, of affording sustenance to 

the young insects within the sack. The young 
batch out in this sack, and make their way out 
into the world through a rent in the soft and 
tender underside of the sack. 

The female, after finding her home and dur- 
ing maturity, dees not move, although she does 
not loie her legs, but clings tenacious ly with 
her feet to her support, leaving the body tipped 
up in the rear and the cottony mass movable in 
any direction. The male insect was only found ' 
during a period of about two weeks from Sept. | 

grown and with the young hatched out and 
crawling in the same sack. In 1SSI they rap- 
idly increased from about the tirst of August, 
and were continually appearing, and still hatch- 
ing out in December. 

Kvery female, it is estimated, produces from 
200 to SCO young. The young will mature and 
produce a new brood in about three month** 
Where this scale infests deciduous tree* it 
may be readily destroyed by tho application 
now found to be successful in treating the Asp!* 




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BLACK SCALE Lecanium OJea> 

25th. This was the observation of 1881, when 
I found them in great numbers. I have failed 
to find the male insect this season. It has a 
long red body, six legs and one pair of very long, 
dark and transparent wings, prominent eyes and 
antennto very long and covered with hairs, ar- 
ranged very much as the feathers of a peacock. 
The antennu? are 1G or 17 jointed- The 
winged male is easily seen and easily caughi*, as 
it moves slowly about, and is not readily dis- 
turbed so as to ily away. The femsle insect 
lives upon the trunk of the tree and large 

dhttto /Vrnici<w« ( and detailed further on in 
this report. 

Where, however, evergreens Are involved it 
is a far more serious problem. The best treat* 
mont for the Jcerya t so far found, is that used 
by Mr. Cooper, of a stioug and hot infusion of 
tobacco, applied by spray as near as may be at 

Aepldiotus Pernlcloaus 

lly far the most injurious scale pest infesting 
our orchard trees ami fruit is the new species of 
AtpidtoUts, which, so far as known, originated 


limbs and down to the smallest twigs, 
around whien it may be soon clinging in clus- 
ters sutlicitntly great to completely bide the 
branch; alio upan the leaf, along the stem and 
ribs of which it is tfxed, both above and below, 
although more abundant on the underside of the 

There aro three broods of this insect in the 
season; the first appearing in May, the second 
in Augnst and tho third in October, or about 
throe months apart 1 have just observed, Oc- 
tober 15 tb r the mature female with eggs fully 

confined to 
ta the San 
named by 

BARK LOUSE Aepldlotua Conehfformla 

in San Jose, and for some years was 
this locality. It has been known | 
Jose small, round, black scale and 
Prof. Oomstock Aspidiotu* pernicioius. Tho 
spread of this scale over the State has been 
gradually taking place, until now it can be 
found in a number of the fruit-growing counties, 
notably San Joaquin, El Dorado, Xevada, 
Placer, Sacramento, Yolo, .Solano, Sonoma, Ala- 
meda, Santa Cruz, Ban Benito and others, and 
I am told even in Humboldt in the north and in 
the southern counties. This scale produces ter- 

ible reunite in an orchard when once tataV 
ilnhed. Its ravages have caused widespread] 
alarm, and unless checked soon causes entire 
destruction of the trees infested. Thetroes be- 
come entirely covered with the scale, so that no 
portion of the bark can be Been. The fruit also 
becomes covered in the same manner and is ren- 
dered unfit for use. The looses caused by the 
ravages of this insect cannot be easily computed. 
Whole orchards are literally destroyed by it 
In many cases those who havo recognized its 
presence and destructive power in time have 
made most strenuous efforts to stay its spread 
and save their trees, but it has hitherto been, to 
a great degree, discouraging, owing to the dilli 
cultics encountered in fighting an unknown foe. 
Within the past two years, however, great 
progress has been made in destroying this in* 
sect, and it is now considered certain that we 
have an efficient means of ridding ourselves of 
one of the most dangerous peAta known to frnit 

The trees attacked embrace every kind of 
deciduous fruit trees except the lllack Tarta- 
rian cherry, and it is supposed two or three 
other black cherries. Some varieties are less 
liable than others to its attacks, but wo have 
found it upon all other trues than those ex* 
cepted above. 

Poplar and other ornamental and shade trees 
give it a support. It infests hedges of Osage 
orange and the wild cherry, many of which 
have been destroyed in the past two year*, and 
have been dug out. it is fonnd on the currant, 
^nd quickly destroys the bush. It ha* Wen 
found upon rhubard, and tomato plants growing 
in orchards among infested trees. This scale 
evidently prefers some varieties of trees, bat 
yet, when placed upon others not so well liked, 
will stay and colonize to some extent. 

The effect of this scale 
tree is peculiar. After a 
there, the green layer of 
comes stained a very dark 
continues until tho death 
i ree unless tho inject he killed 

insect upon the 
short residence 
the bark he- 
red color, which 
of the limb or 
» The hark may 

then be restored to its normal color and health. 

A Financial Aspect 

The damage in Santa Clara county has already 
Income so great as to cause tho most serious 
fosses not alone to the frnit growers, but also to 
f he public at large — and from the orchards ef- 
fected has greatly lessened the revenue which 
has been derived from the production 
ti'l sale of fruit. One iustaocc stated defi- 
nitely will suffice to show these losses. 

This orchardist states (ISS1) that ho has '2 000 
trees badly infested with scale; 1,000 of theso 
trees are totally destroyed, and will be dug out 
this season; the balance are badly injured, but 
can probably be saved. This portion of hi* or- 
chard in health returned at least $5,000 per 
year. His loss on crop from these trees iu 1SS0 
Was over $2,000. For 1SS1 there was a to!*l 
Toss of crop on l.tfOO trees. This orchard has 
regularly paid an interest of 10% on $1,1*00 per 
"-ere. The scale pest alone haa cast a loss of 
$20,000 to the owners. 

Further ou reference will ag*iu io made to 
Ihis orchard. The Assessor's roll for ISSt ro* 
porta in this county 335,537 bearing trots of the 
*pple, pear, plum and peach. This does not 

include the large nnmber of trees which have 
heeu destroyed and are nnfrnitful; neither the 
immense number of young tree* that have bsen 
planted, but not yet paying: and, as observed, 
it leaves out the Jnrge number of other varie* 
tie*, oherrk'tt, alraons, aprioot*, etc., in bearing, 
which, it is estimated, would make it grand 
total of 1,000,000 trees. Should tho losses ex- 
perienced by the ore hard ints now suffering be 
carried out to all, yon can readily estimate tho 
astounding result. Tho valne of the Santa 
Clara county fruit crop for 1S30 was returned 
at $97(1,475, notwithstanding tho immense 
losses incurred. The sworn statement of the 
Assessor, now before me, says "That all frnit 
trees in Santa Clara county are assessed as im- 
provements at the following prices: TrMS in 
full bearing, free from scale, $1.50 per tree; 
trees beariug, affected with scale, from ,00 to 
50 cte. per tree, and that there is a large num- 
ber of orchards situated east and northeast from 
the city of San Joa«\ badly infested with scale 
(and after naming some, say?), and in conse* 
queuco are assessed at .00 to 50 cts- per tree." 
From this it will be seen that the revenue de* 
rived from taxation is seriously affected by the 
presence of this peat upon our orchard trees. 

The Assessor's roll for 1882 gi v es of the four 
varieties of trees named ab?vo — apples, peaches, 
pearc and plums — bearing trees subject to tax* 
ation 2tfO,347i ft deduction from the previous 
year's assessment of 55, 190 trees. This loss is in 
fact upon apple, plum and peach tre«s, as the 
young pear trees coming into bearing, and be- 
ing assessed for the first time, more than equal 
the loss on that variety. So it is seen that the 
loss in assailed value on these three kinds of 
trees totally destroyed has amounted in the one 
year to $82,785. This is actually but a small 
part of the loss, as other varieties of trees des- 
troyed, and the losses of previous years from 
the scalo as well as the reduced value of trees 
affected but still bearing, cannot well bo enu- 
merated, Theso trees were destroyed before 
the application of proper remedies; now, how- 
ever, from tho knowledge of correct treatment, 
these losses will soon cca«e ( and the taxable 
property of tho county be immensely in* 
creased. 1 feel assured that tho next assess- 
ment will show a decided improvement. Thus 
the magnitude of this evil becomes apparent, 
and the problem to lie solved it of vast impor- 

Description of this Pest* 

From the study we have uiven to this scale 
during the pott three years it may be briefly 
described as follows: Thoscale insect is massed 
upon the bark of the tree and fruit a* well, tho 
scale of a dark gray or blackish and tough ma- 
terial which covers the insect lteing very small 
and round iu shape over the female, while that 
covering the male is much smaller and elongated 
on one side; In both, tho higher and central 
portion of tho scale liana yellowish color, and 
directly under which may be fonnd the insect 
itself, which in soft and delicate in structure 
and of a pale straw color. There is no con- 
nection between the caver and the insect, which 
is merely protected by it from harm. The shell- 
like eoale w formed by either the cast<«ir skins 
ot the larva or by a waxy secretion of tho body 
Of the iusect. The microsoopfl shows the young 
female insect oval in shape and llattencd. Ac 

it is vary small and hardly perceptible to 
a naked eye, but careful observation will de- 
tect it as * minute yellow dot 00 the bark of 
the tree, crawling about with the six legs with 
which it is provided, and seeking a favorable 

(locality upon which to fix itself for life. It 
will crawl about for only a day or two, and then 
fastens itself to the bark by a beak-like pro- 
tuberance which it inserts, and procures nour- 
ishment from juices of the tree. Immediately 
upon fixing itself it begins to be covered with 
a silvery material, which, as it grows older, is 
gradually changed in color to a very dark hue, 
ftnd enlarges to the size of about one-sixteenth 
of an inch in diameter. The insect soon after 
fixing itself loses its legs and antenn <u, and thus 
remains through life, keeping its flattened shape 
but growing wrinkled and almost round, gradu- 
ally increasing in size to perhaps one-sixteenth 
of an inch in width and one-fifteenth of an inch 
in length when full of young. After the young 
emerge it is dried up and disappears. We have 
counted from the female, when full of young, be- 
tween 50 and GO of the minute sacks which con- 
tain the young perfectly formed insects ready 
to crawl about The young male insect is pro* 
dnced in the same manner and atthe same time, 
though not in such numbers; perhaps half a 
dozen males to a hundred females. In aizs the 
male is about one-third that of the female, and 
in shape very different, being elongated and 
<nore angular, provided with six legs placed 
differently up on the body, with two antenna* 
and two eyes, and with a teat-like protuberance 
at the rear end of the body ending with a point. 

At this stage of its existence the male has no I 
wings, and it cannot bo discerned without the 
aid of a magnifying glass. The cctar of the 
young male is not a yellow, but of a steel-like 
or whitish hue It crawls about aud fixes it* 
aelf upon the bark, as does the young female, 
and becomes covered with a scale in the same 
manner, but which is elongated upon one 
side, and not more than one-half the 
size of the scale of the female- The male, 
after remaining its allotted time in the pup* 
state, emerges as a fully developed insect, 
having eyes, antennc, six legs and one pair of 
very long wings of a reddish aud transparent 
appearance, and the protuberance at the rear 
end of the body is developed into a very loug 
tapering point, nearly as long as the body it- 
self. The perfect winged male is so minute it 
can with great difiioulty be discerned by the 
naked eye, crawling and flying about in search 
of the female, which it impregnates under the 
scale and then, having fulfilled its mission, it 

In the season of 1SS0 we saw the winged 
males li ret appear on March 23i, and in great 
ouml>era for a few days. The first brood of 
young scales appeared the latter part of April. 
On June 27th we found the males from the first 
brood under the scales and nearly developed 
with appendage* aud wing pads, and on .Inly 
2d large numbers of them llyiog about; also as 
late as July 25:h, and still later, on August 
2d, a few were seen. On July 2x3d the trees 
were covered with the young of the second 
brood; August 2 J the young males of the 
second brood were found crawling atxiut. 
Bark scraped clean on the 23d of July wan 
found on the 25 :h alive with young insects, and 

some of them already commencing to be 
covered with scale. As it was expected at the 
time these observations were made, a third 
brood would appear about October, so we found 
it. On October 17th we found the male scale 
insect in the lirst pupa stage of development in 
the winged form, and also on the same day 
found the perfect winged insect of the third 
brood moving about on the tree. 

These facts prove conclusively that there are 
three distinot broods of these insects in the sea- 
son, the earliest portion of the first brood about 
March 23d, of the second brood about July 2d, 
and of the third brood about October 17th, there 
being apparently an interval of 14 to 15 weeks 
between the different broods of the season. The 
young female insects were found crawling about 
through the season and as late as the last of 
November. The last brood remains through the 
winter under the scale uutit the approach of 
warm weather in the spring, when they again ap- 

While the AxpidiotuH Conc/ti/brmh will de- 
velop but one or at most two broods per season, 
this new species of Aspuliofun will produce three 
broods, and each female probably 50 youug. 
This present season of 1SS2 has been in the de- 
velopment of fruit and insects about three weeks 
or more later, consequently the appearance of 
the scale was not expected as early as last year. 
The first winged male scale insects of this 
species were discovered this year ou April 25;h 
crawling about on an Knglish hawthorn tree. 
At that time no young female scale insects were 
to be found, but the old females under the scales 
were approaching maturity, and in due time the 
young appeared. 

Foes of Scale insects. 

The natural enemies of the «cate insect are 
the !ar\M» of some varieties of the CaceiwUhitta, 
or lady -birds. 

The season of lSsl developed in great num- 
bers an important enemy of the scale, viz,: the 
Chrysopa or lace-winged lly, the Uctff of which 
prey upon it. This ie a beautiful, slender aud 
delicate fly, bright green in color, with large 
golden eyes, and very long wings like lace. 
The eggs are very minute, white and oval in 
shape, and are attached by a Ion;: a °d slender 
pedicle to the underside of leaves or the fruit. 
The larva is about one-quarter of an inch long, 
slender, and tapering from the middle toward 
both ends. It is provided with jawa, each per- 
forated, through which it sucks the juice of its 

Remelles for Scale Insects. 

In 1881 Mr, J. H. M. Townseud, of the Santa 
Clara County Horticultural Society, kindly 
placed at our disposal a large number of trees 
infested with scale for the use of the committee 
in making such experiments as were desired, 
A series of careful experiments for the destruc- 
tion of the scale pest were tnide and the results 
carefully noted. Other expsriments had bison 
under way in our own orchards for many 

These expriments demonstrated on one hand 
the inefficiency of many applications, and on 
the other haud showed a certain means for the 
destruction of the scale insect. The remedies 
which have proven successful will destroy all 
the varieties of scale, as the one under treat- 

meat ie the most difficult of all to overcome. 
A portion of these experiments are numbered, 
and the result* obtained, stated as observed* at 
different dates up to this time, October, ISS'2. 

No. J. Concentrated lye of the American Lye 
Co., one pound; water, two gallons. Feb- 
ruary 2'2, ISSi — Applied by spray upon 
two peach trees infected by scale; washed in 
the afternoon when the trees were dry; effect, 
scale killed; the tenderest wood was killed aiso. 
July 5,1381 — New wood grown over the trees 
four and five feet long. 

No. 2, Concentrated lye, ono pound; water, 
two gallons. March 10, J8S1— Applied by spray 
upon two peach trees infested by scale, washed 
in the morning when the trees were damp with 
dew. July 5, 1SS1— Scale killed; buds and 
twigs not injured; fruit abundant and trees 
most healthy. 

No* 3. Concentrated lye, one and one-half 
pouuds; water, one gallon. June 23, 1831 — Ap* 
plied by pouring from a dipper upon two pear 
trees infested with scale and with numerous 
limbs dead. Lye so strong aa to burn bark and 
foliage. August % 18S1 — Scale entirely des- 
stroyed; bark being restored and new foliage 

No. 4. Concentrated lye, one pound; water, 
one gallon. July 5, 18SI— Applied by spray 
upon a large apple tree badly infested by scale; 
bark and leaves burned, August2, ISSI — Scale 
killed; green layer of bark being rapidly re* 
stored and new leaves and blossoms appearing 
all over the tree. The foregoing trees have 
since been mostly killed by the application of a 
low grade of coal oik 

No, 5. Concentrated lye, one pound; water, 
one gallon. February, 1SSI — One almond tree, 
one Kaster Beurre pear tree and two apple trees, 
grafted, were washed by brush with this 
strength of lye in order to destroy the red 
spider and its eggs, which could not be de- 
stroyed by previous applications of lye, ono 
pound to Hve gallons, and also one pound to 
three gallons; another and the main reason 
being to ascertain the effects of very strong lye 
upon the tatM. No EC»le upon these trees. 
This application destroyed the red spider and 
its cges on these trees so that it did not appear 
for months; but, however, later on the trees be* 
came again infested. While the strong lye will 
destroy a large number of the eggs of the red 
spider it is found that all cannot be reached. 
The effect upon the bark and health of these 
trees was wonderfully good, tho bark being very 
smooth and having a bright green, velvety ap- 
pearance and totally free from all mo&s or other 

No, (i. Concentrated lye, one pound; water, 
one gallon* The experiments iu this number 
were mude upon a section of orchard in a square 
block comprising 357 Ick worth plum trees, cut 
down and grafted into Petite prone; some year- 
ling prune trees having been put in in place* 
and washed as were the plums, of these 126 
trees were washed in February, 1881, with the 
above strong lye, applied vnthabruah. Among 
the 357 trees were eight trees badly infested 
with scale. No others had any scales upon 
them. The infested trees were scattered about 
as follows, and washed as indicated: 


No. 10 in first row and 4 in 11th row were 
washed with lye, one pound to three gallons of 
water. The effect was not quite sufficient to 
completely destroy the scale, though so in- 
jured that they did not breed. Afterward 
these two troes were washed with one pound to 
one gallon, and this effectually ended the scale. 
No. 7 in tith row, 10 in 7th row, H in 12th 
row, 8 in l*itb row, 3 in 17th row and 11 in 
17th row were washed with lye, one pound to 
one gallon of water, with the effect of com- 
pletely destroying every scale upon them, and 
not one has appeared upon any of these tree* 
since that time. These trees have been in the 
finest possible condition from the time of this 

Among the trees not washed with the strong 
lye, two were found, in June, 18S2, to have 
scale upon them; one of these, the top having 
become badly broken by wind, WM dug out and 
burned, the other was washed soon as discov- 
ered with the whale-oil soap and sulphur mixt- 
ure; owing to the foliage upon the tree not 
every part of it could be touched. Yet, how- 
ever, the scale was destroyed, so far as could be 

No. 7* Concentrated lye. 1 pound to one and 
I one-half gallons water. Five Birtlett pear trees 

> obtained from the nursery and planted in 1SS1 
t and scattered among a considerable number, al- 
j though carefully examined at the time for scalg, 
I were found in June, 1881, to have a few scales 
) upon them, These were at once washed with 

> the above strength of lye, which destroyed the 
j scale completely upon three of those 4 trees,so that 
j none subsequently appeared. On two of them, 
i however, a live scale or two must have remained 
[ on the trunk of the tree at the surface of the 

ground untouched by the lye, as in September 
following a few young scales were discovered, 
located close to the ground. These were again 
Hashed in the same manner. Since that wash* 
ing no scale has been found upon either of these 
trees until this month (Oct. 16, 1882). On one 
of them has been found a few young scale. The 
tree was immediately washed with the whale- 
oil soap and sulphur mixture. On another 
Bartlett pear tree, not, however, numbered with 
the above, was found some scales, Nov. 7» 18SI. 
Tnia tree, being entirety dormant, was washed 
with lye one pound to one gallon water, com- 
pletely destroying the scale, as none can be 
found on it this year. Among tho Yellow Mag 
plum trees, one was found January, IS82, with 
! scale upon it, and washed at once with lye one 
I pound to one gallon water, and repeated in Feb* 
ruary. No scale were left, aanone cau ** found 
at this date. Another Egg plum tree was found 
infested in June of this year. To this was ap- 
plied, by a brush, the whale-oil soap and 
sulphur mixture with some lye added. 
No scale can now be found upon it. 
The trees in experiments tive,six and seven are 
in an orchard of 50 acres. I have constantly 
and carefully watched all these trees, and at 
thia date no scale can be discovered in the en- 
tire orchard. Should any hereafter appear, the 
treatment will be by lye one IK to one gallon 
water. With this success in my two years' in- 
dividual practice, I feel justified in repeating 
the statement I made at the first State 
Fruit (I rowers' Convention, that young orchards 

free from the Aspidiotus pernMotw 
zht nee of concentrated lye as a winter 
waah. and the whale oil soap And sulphur mix- 
ture for summer. 

In the following experiments the trees were 
all badly infested with scale: 

8. Concentrated lye, one and one-half It?; wa- 
ter one gallon. June 24 v 1SS1— Applied to two 
Clairgeau pear trees; brush used in order to 
save foliage; many lirobj dead from effects of 
scale, June 27— Trees burned considerably; 
scale killed where reached. July 2J— Mtich of 
the bark showing a healthier appearance* July 
23d— Trees still better August 2d— No sign of 
scale; green layer of bark being restored very 
rapidly; the fruit quite clean, because no scales 
of second brood were upon it. April 25, 1S82 — 
Kxaroined the trees, and found a very healthy 
top. and with new bark where burned with the 
lye when washed in the summer, All the sur- 
face was not touched by the lye, and where not 
washed the scales still existed. Wherever the 
bark was washed, owing to the time that it was 
done, it waa cracked across. Yet underneath 
this cracked surface was found new and healthy 
bark. October 14, 1882— There haa been a 
good growth of new wood this season, and the 
under bark has maintained its fresh and healthy 
appearance over entire tree. 

D. Concentrated lye, one and a half 11>*. ; wa- 
ter, one gallon. June 24, 1SS1 Applied on a 
portion of tree to ascertain the effect upon the 
stain of bark. July 23J— The bark where 
washed shows much less stain; lighter in color, 
and the green layer being restored, August 
2d — Stain rapidly disappearing, 

10, Concentrated lye, one IK; water, one gal- 
lon. July 5, 1SS1— Mixed accurately, and ap- 
plied same day upon pear tree. July 23d — 
Scale where reached entirely destroyed; bark 
burned by the lye, but otherwise healthy and 
good where it was previously sound, April 25, 
1882, and Ootober 14, 1832 — Observations 
nearly the same as in the preceding number, 
the bark under the cracked outer layer being 
all renewed, and with a bright, healthy, green 
layer free from stain; free growth of new wood 
during the season. 

11. Concentrated lye, one pound; water, one 
and one-half gallons, Tree washed same time 
as above and with about the same result?, al- 
though an unthrifty tree. October 14, 1SS2— 
The tree had been pretty well destroyed by the 

year, and shows but a little growth 

scale latt 
of new wood 

12. Concentrated lye, one ft.; water, two 
gallon*. Same as above, except that the tree 
was still more thoroughly ruined by scale, and 
at this date has not recoveredijbut little new 
wood; what there is, however, being healthy, 

13. Concentrated lye, one lb:; water, three 
gallons. This tree had been washed by spray* 
ing April I, 1881, with this strength of 1; 
which proved too weak to destroy the seal 
July 23, 1881— Young scale insects covered tt 
tree; the tree was left to itself with that wash- 
ing. April 25, lSS2--Obstrvcd that the scale 
was abundant and fast accomplishing the de- 
struction of the tree. October, 14. INS2— Th* 
tree ic dead to within one foot of the ground. 
but from the collar many new sprouts have 

No. 14. Concentrated lye, 1 lb; water, 5 gals. 


June 23, 1SS1— Applied to two trees, one 
ftlightly and the other badly infostcd with scale, 
Tim wash was ueed by pouring it upon the 
trunk of the trees and allowing it to run down 
and soak into the ground; the tope of the trees 
were not touched. This experiment was made, 
as it had been publicly stated that this weak 
lye used in this manner was an effectual rem- 
edy. July 2, 18S1— No effect produced upon 
the scale where not reached by the lye, 
August % 1S81— No effect other than no* 
ticed above; scale only injured where touched 
hy the lye, and second brood of young scale in* 
sects crawling all over the top of the trees. 
April 25, 1832— Trunk quite clean and 
healthy, but the top full of scale insects of the 
last season alive and approaching maturity. 
October 14, 18S2— Tree covered with scale, 
old and young; the trunk, however, where 
washed, appearing far more freo than the up* 
per portion; the bark where washed is healthy. 

Use of Kerosene*. 

In the following experiments with kerosene, 
the action of that agent was reported as it then 
appeared at the date of report, but ths subse- 
quent effect* which will now be stated, show 
how important it is to allow ample time to 
elapse before coming to a conclusion upon the 
merits or demerits of a particular proposed 
remedy. The use of coal oil when the trie is 
fuit of sap is plainly shown to be unallowable. 
These will be detailed as they af»p»red at the 
time, and also as seen this season. 

No. 15. Kerosene, low grade and heavy, 110 
test, June I, 1SS1— Applied to two pear tret*, 
spraying, with coarse spray u?etl and oil thrown 
over the entire treea, June 27, 18S1 — Observed 
that the foliage had been killed and ths trees 
considerably affected; scale killed. July 2, 
18S1 — New leaf buds coming out, July 23> 
1SS1 — New foliage all over the trees, and seem* 
ingly new vigor throughout; new shoots six 
inches long; no scale to be found, and the green 
layer of the b»rk healthy to all appearance. 
August 2d — Foliage increasing rapidly all over 
the trees, and, apparently, the trees were gain* 
ing in health. Thus they appeared up to An* 
gust, 18S1. The observation of these trees on 
April 25, 1882, showed a very different state; 
the trees were dead. 

No. 1H, Kerowno, high grade, 150 test Jane 
L 1SS1 — Applied by spray upon two pear trees. 
June 27, 1881— Observed that the foliage had 
not been killed, but that the scale had all been 
destroyed; the trees apparently uninjured. 
July 2d — New leaf buds coming forth. August 
2, 1S81 — Trees appear healthy; foliage unin- 
jured; scale showing no sipns of its presence, 
and the fruit showing leaa effects from scale on 
account of the wash it had received, April 25. 
1SS2— Tree* were dead. 

No. 17- Kexo*ene t hiflh grade Diamond brand, 
130 test, July 27, 1SS1 — -Applied upon two 
pear trees with a coarse heavy spray over entire 
trees; trees very badly iofested. August 2 — 
Effectually destroyed the scale; the trees and 
(oha&e apparently entirely healthy. No per- 
ceptible effect upon the trees, but completely 
drying up the scales, so that they are blown 
away by the wind. The fruit is not affected by 
the kerosene but the scale upon it la killed, 
and the fruit is very clean. It is observed that 

kerosene of 150 teat evaporate: rapidly, and 
leases but little signs of having been applied, 
April 25< 1882 — One tree deaf); the other not 
dead but nearly so, October 14, 18S2— Ex- 
animation showed trees to be dead. 

No. IS. Kerosene, same brand. July 27, 1SS1 
— Applied upon a pear tree by spray atomizer, 
which produced a very line mist only. Aug* 
uHt 2 t 1881— The same effeola produced as in 
No. 17; scale appeared to be entirely destroyed; 
no apparent effect upon tree or foliage. April 
25, 1SS2— Tree not dead, but with many scales 
upon it. October 14, 1 SS2— Old wood 
dead, but new wood from near the ground. 

No. J!). Gasoline. July 27, 1SS1— Applied 
upon pear tree by heavy syringe spray thor- 
oughly over the tree and foliage. August 2, 
1SSI— Not effectual in destroying the scale; too 
volatile; many of the insects hilled, but a large 
portion unaffected; no apparent effect upon the 
tree or foliage at that time; on this tree the 
young male scales just hatched out were found 
crawling about. April 25, 1882— The tree has 
been almost killed by the scale infesting it. 
Ootober 14, 1882— Tree still alive, with some 
**.*le upon it. 

No, 20. ftasoline. July 27, 1831— Applied 
upon pear tree by the spray atomizer. August 
2d -Result same as the preceding. October 14, 
18S2 — This tree did not suffer from the effects 
of thfr . ^plication, but this season has made a 
vigorous growth of new wood quite clean from 
scale. The foregoing applications of kerosene 
and gasoline were made tu full strength. 

Whale Oil Soap and Sulphur. 

No. 21. W halo oil soap and sulphur mixt- 
ure 1 lb., water I gal. June 23, 1 SSI —Ap- 
plied by spray over pear tree, covering foliage 
and fruit thoroughly. July 2tfd— Scale killed; 
tree gaining iu health; green layer of bark be- 
ing restored; fruit greatly improved in appear- 
ance. August 2 t ISS1 — Tree still improving, 
also fruit, April 28, ISS2— Tree very healthy 
and appears clean from scale; green layer of 
bark being fully restored, and parts of the tree 
that were nearly killed by the scale are form- 
ing new bark rapidly; the tree lias a very fine 
top of now growth. Ootober 14, 1882— The 
tree has grown very thriftily through the sea- 
son and the wood is all very healthy; some 
scale are found upon tbe tree, however. These 
trees are in an orchard badly iufested, and it is 
to bo expected that the insects will return. 
This wash is an effectual summer wash, and 
whore there is any scale present should be used 
in the strength here given, as a wash of one- 
half the strength has proven ineffectual. 

Soft Soap and Sulpbur. 

No. 22. Soft soap, one pound: sulphur, one 
pound; tobacco, one pound; water, tbreo gal- 
lons. July 5, I SSI— Applied upon two trees by 
spray, covering trees, foliage and fruit thor- 
oughly, July 23, 1SS1 — Seemed quite effectual 
at the time; many scale destroyed, but not all; 
trees, not affected by the wash; fruit improved in 
appearance. Subset) ucnt observations, however, 
showed that but little was accomplished in 
destroying the scale. October H f 1SS2— This 
tree shows an abundance of live scale in all 
stagoaof growth. This wash was used with good 
effect in another orchard, Jnne 1, 1881, on a 


Fell en berg prone tree, clearing it from scale, 
whioh, up to this time, have not returned. 

No. 23. Soft soap, one pound; sulphur, 1 
pound; water, three gallons. 

No. 24. Soft soap, 1 pound; water, 3 gallons; 
The two washes named above were applied 
June 23, 1SS1, and with no effect, neither 
has it shown any result this season. 

Whale OH Mixture. 

No. 25. Whale oil, one pint; keroeene, one 
pint; borax, one ounce; water, one gallon, June 
23, JSSI— Applied by spray to a pear tree at 
the different dates in 1881; the effect has been 
observed; it has been apparent that the oil is 
decidedly injurious to the tree, applied in this 
manner or at this time; it is therefore not 
recommended. Applied to another tree in one- 
lifth the strength above given; it has no effect 
upon either scale or tree- April 25, 1 882— The 
treo lirst treated is nearly dead; but, however, 
having the top cut off, new wood is coming 
along; scale appears to be destroyed. October 
M, 1882— The old wood is dead; the sickly 
growth of new wood springing out from the 
lower portion of the tree shows some scale. 

Carbolic Acid. 

No. 20. Carholicacid, three oza,; water, two gal- 
lons* June 23, 1881— Applied by spray upon a 
pear tree badly infested with scale. June 27, 
1881— Failed entirely. This tree afforded a con- 
stant succession of insects in all stages of devel- 
opment, both male and female. From it some 
of our most interesting studies were made; we 
repeat it as it appeared at each visit on that 
date (June 27, 1881); wo found the male insect 
under its scale partially developed, with wing 
pads, but wings not yet out. July 2d— Found 
plenty of winged males of the second brood Hy- 
ing aud crawling about. July 23d— Tree was 
covered with young female scale insects of the 
second brood crawling, and with a few of them 
just located and commencing to be 
covered with their scale. July 25th — A 
few of the winged male still found; 
bark scraped clean on this date was in two 
days covered with young scale and with aslight 
formation of scale over them. Aug. 2d— Tree 
entirely covered rfith young scale on this date; 
two or three winged males were found. April 
25, 1SS2— Tree almost dead from effects of 
scale; top dead and removed and a few feeble 
shoots ooming forth. October H, 18S2— Shoots 
have grown from tbe trunk of the tree to some 
extent, but the whole having been so seriously 
infested the tree is considered worthless. 

The entire orchard in which these trees are 
situated, other than the ones experimented on, 
from S to 2ti were washed this past winter with 
a very low grade of coal oil called M tree wash;" 
the result is not satisfactory; the owner 
tells mc|(October 11, 1882) that he is eatisBod 
that the oil has seriously injured bis trees. 

San Jose. October 25- 1882. 


Experiments with Steam. 

It was at one time thought that steam might 
bo effectually applied for the extermination of 
insect pests upon trees. In the summer of 1SS1 
a test of this agent was made in an orchard near 
San Jose. A large tent was made to hang upon 
a frame, whioh could be run on either side of t 

and overhanging the tree; the tent then being 
dropped, the tree was entirely euelosed in an 
air-tight bag, into which the steam aud other 
ingredients were forced, and left to act upon 
the tree and injects as long as was thought nec- 

Horticultural Commissioner D. C. Vestal and 
myself carefully noted the experiments made 
and placed the result* upon record. These ex 
periments are also numbered for convenience in 

No- 1- Sept 8, 1SS1. An apple tree infested 
with scale insect, wooly aphi* and other pests. 
wm Covered by the teiit p under which was huoc 
upon the tree eloSba saturated with bisulphide 
carbon, one*half pound* It waa thus left for 
three-fourths of an hour, and then the tent wm 
removed. Result, apparently of no effect The 
woolly aphi* wm not injured, but found crawl- 
ing about The rtd spider wa« found crawling 
about; also a small caterpillar waa observed 
unharmed. The scale insects were not affecteri 
in any way, so far as could be observed. Sept 
12, 1SSI— Examination made on this date 
showed that no effect had been made by the ap* 
plication upon any of the insects mentioned as 
infesting this tree. Mr. J. H Wheeler, the 
maker of the bi- sulphide carbon, thought that 
the agent bad not been properly brought into 
contact with the insects, and tor that reason 
failed to dcatroy them. 

No; 2. A pear tree waa treated with steam 
forced under the tent covering the tree. The 
temperature was raised to 165°, and maintained 
for 10 minute*. Observations immediately af* 
tor wards showed that tha foliage of the tret 1 
and the young wood of the tree wa« destroyed. 
Everything was cooked thoroughly. Septem* 
ber I2th— The tree and tho scale were both 

No- 3* An apple tree was treated in the 
same manner, with steam at 140% 
for three minutes, and afterwards with 
sulphur fumes (caused by putting two 
handsful of sulphur upon live coals) for live 
minutes. The result showed that the tree 
did not appear quite so much injured at this 
time as the preceding tr^e at first showed, 
but as Been ou September 12th the effect was 
tho same. The scale was killed, and also the 
entire tree, except the oldest part of the trunk. 

No, 4. Apple tree ateamed for live minutes 
at 140 ; dri-d for live minutes, and then fumed 
with snlphnr for live minute*. Itasult the same 
as the preceding. 

No. 5. Apple tree moderately covered with 
scale and Woolly aphis. Steam applied witb 
which had previously bcon mixed three gallons 
of kerosene, pumped into the boiler of a thresh- 
ing engine. This application waa made at 110* 
and maintained for four minutes. September 
12th — No effect was perceptible upon tho tree, 
except that tho foliage waa somewhat injured. 
The *cale insect wa» not killed or even injured. 
The woolly aphis was found alive and uninjured. 

No. 6/ Steam and coal nil applied loui mm* 
ute* at 1*10 . September 12— Tree pretty nearly 
killed. Only the oldest wood alive— oil new 
wood and buds killed* 

No. 7. Steam and coal oil for six minute* at 
KN* ; No, 8, same for nix minutes at ISO : No, 
9. same ior 12 minutes at I2ff to 130 . This 
trev was steamed four minutes, aud then, alter 

an interval of six minutes, was steamed two 
minutes more. September 12th — The result 
upon these trees was the same. The trees were 
all destroyed excepting the trunk and oldest 

From those experiments it will be seen that 
steam cannot be applied in such manner and at 
a temperature sulticiently high to destroy the 
insects without, at the same time, destroying 
the tree. 

During the season of 1SSI Strang efforts were 
made to introduce the use cf 

Various Patenwd Mixtures, 

Which were claimed to have great merit in 
destroying the scale insect. One of these was 
to be used by simply spreading it on the trunk 
of the tree, which application it was stated 
would, through the poisoning of the sap, kill 
the insects. This, as well as oilier* of a like 
nature, were given careful consideration and 
tasted, and resulted in entire failure. 

Another method, which was persistently 
forced upon the public, waa that of boring into 
the trunk of the tree to the centre, and tilling 
the anger hole with tho to-called care. A care- 
ful investigation of many trees so treated was 
made by Mr. Mathew Cooke, Mr. IX C. Vestal 
aud myself, for the purpose of determining the 
actual effects, if any, of this treatment. Oct, 
17, 'SI, we visited tne orchard of one person, 
who had allowed his name to be used in recom- 
mending this exterminator, and first jammed 
two pear treea bored and the holes tilled with 
the preparation. These trees were fouud to be 
covered with bve *cale insects in all stages of 
development, and showing no signs of injury. 
The young female insects were found crawling 
about the trees in great numbers. The wood, 
the seasons growth, was covered with scale. 
An apple tree, the trunk and large limbs of 
which had been washed the previous winter 
with strong lye, showed that the scale which 
completely covered it when the lye was ap- 
plied were entirely destroyed where the wa«h 
hail reached, but on the smaller wood which 
had not been washed with the lye the scale was 
found alive. This tree hid also been bored and 
treated with the application referred to, and 
which had no effect whatever. On the trunk 
of this tree, where the lyo had been applied, 
the green layer of bark was found replacing the 
old, which had nearly been destroyed by the 
scale. At auother place we examined a pear 
tree which had been bared and treatod with 
this preparation. This tree was in no manner 
whatever affected by this so-called reroed) , but 
was completely covered with scale insect* iu 
every stage. Wo found the young females 
crawling aboat, and on this tree was found the 
male scale in the first pupa stage of develop* 
tnent for the third wingtd brood, and also on 
this tree was discovered the perfect winged 
male of the third brood. In no case has the 
slightest good resulted from these secret and 
patented preparations. Wo have treated this 
subject thus fully because, to our knowledge, 
prominent and caret ci horticulturist* have bwn 
induced to purchase these things at an exor- 
bitant charge. 

The trcatnnnt of trees by 

Cru3e Petroleum 
And its different products has been thoroughly 

tried in this vicinity, and, it must be confessed, 
with conflicting results. Some still claim that 
coal oil is efficacious, and if properly UBed, safe; 
but the advocates of this practice are very few 
now, although at one time, orcharrtiats were 
protty evenly divided in the use of coal oil on 
the one hand, and that of concentrated lye on 
the other The treatment of orchards by crude 
petroleum was commenced in IS79-30, but wa^ 
not extensively tried until 1880 S I, Many 
orchard** were then drenched with crude pe- 
troleum, greatly to the regret of the users. The 
following season the advocates of coal oil 
abandoned the use of the crude, and applied a 

?trtially refined product which is little better, 
his is called tree wash, aud was used this past 
season very extensively. 

This whole subject may be treated as with 
one agent. Many orchards have been visited 
where this treatment has been adopted, and 
where the result has been disastrous. One 
prominent orchardiet used the tree wash npon 
about *20 acres of all varieties of trees, and has 
lost almost the entire number. A great part of 
the dead trees have this season been dug out. 
Another used this wash upon tit* tine cherry 
trees, 10 years old, killing them all. Another 
adjoining the last-named washed with the same 
and killed 125 choice cherry trees. Another 
had used crude petroleum, with the result of 
killing all his trees except apples and pears, 
which partially rallied and put forth a dickly 
new growth. These results can be substantia 
ated by many other orchardists who have met 
with a greater or less degcee of loss from the 
use of oil, and almost every person who has been 
in favor of using coal oil has abandoned its ad 
vocacy. Indeed, I now know of but one orchard 
where it is the intention to apply it again. This 
one, from some cause, appears not to have suf- 
fered from its use, and a visit to this orchard 
on the 14th of October showed a very large and 
line crop of apples being gathered which were 
almost free from scale. This orchard, belong* 
ing to father and son, the Messrs. L , has been 
washed in the following manner: In 1S70 80 
some trees were treated with keroseue of 150 
test. In 1SS0 SI crude petroleum was applied 
tothe trees of the entire orchard. These were 
principally apple trees, numbering ahmt GOO, 
although there were trees of every other vari- 
ety. In 1S81 S2 the tree wash was applied to 
the same trees and in the same manner. As 
stated, this orchard is almost free from scale, 
and the trees appear healthy. The Messrs. L. 
attribute their success with coal oil to the fol* 
lowing means of procedure. It is applied in the 
middle of the winter, or before the sap begins to 
How. It is applied in the finest possible spray, 
and is allowed to touch any part but once. The 
work is done when there is no wind, and when 
there is no moisture upon the tree. All this 
evidence leads to the conclusion that the prod* 
ucts of petroleum are most hazardous to the life 
of the tree, and while one or two may not ex- 
perience the loss of their orchards, the hundreds 
of others would destroy their trees. Therefore, 
with all this added experience before me, I most 
emphatically condemn the use of petroleum or 
refined coal oil of any grade for the purpose of 
an insecticide. 

The effect of coal oil upon trees of all varie- 
ties of stone fruits is particularly disastrous,, 

lieing less upon apples and pears. I now again 
refer to the nse of 

Concentrated Lye, 

Which, as before seen in this report, has been 
of such signal service, and which I consider to 
be the specific, or at least so far as we now 
know, the best means of destroying the scale 
insects of deciduous trees. In the case under 
consideration where the aspitUolus jKrnichsus 
is involved, no other application will do the 
work as well, as a winter remedy which can bo 
used when the tree is denuded of foliage and 
when the tree is dormant. The lye, while 
causing little if any harm, but on the other hand 
in most cases positive benefit to the tree, is, 
where used with care and in the proper strength, 
an effectual remedy. The only other remedy 
which can be recommended is the Whale Oil 
Soap and Sulphur Mixture (codlin moth wash), 
which is applicable as a summer wash particu- 

A few prominent examples of tho employ 
ment of lye on a large scale will bo given to 
show its usefulness and success. Great results 
had been obtained by the application of con* 
centrated lye, but the definite strength in which 
it should be used was only determined in the 
season of 1SSI, consequently the past winter 
preparations were made for applying it on a 
large scale to entire orchards. In the early 

i*art of this paper reference was made to the 
osses of one orchardist, Mr. T., as an instance 
to illustrate the condition of many orchards in 
this vicinity. This orchard was visited a few 
days since (Oct. 14th) ami a vast improvement 
noted in the health aud appearance of the trees, 
which had by careful treatment been made to 
survive the devastating effects of the scale. 

As was before stated, many of the trees de- 
stroyed had been dug out These were partic- 
ularly apple trees. Some, however, had sur- 
vived, though badly injured. These being 
heavily cut back had put forth a new growth, 
which is this year most satisfactory. The pear 
and plum treen, especially, have shown the 
good effects of treatment, aud are now vigorous 
and on the way to great iruitfulncsa. Owing to 
the fruit spurs aud all small wood of the pears 
being killed by the scale two years ago, there 
could be but little fruit this year, but from the 
iine thrifty growth on these trees a large crop of 
Hue fruit is promised for the coming season. 
The plum trees, of which there is a large num- 
ber, have made a Hne recovery from the (.fleets 
of the scale, and yielded this year a valuable 
crop of fruit, obtaining of French prunes at the 
rate of eight tons tothe acre of fresh fruiL The 
total yield of fruit this season exceeded in value 
that of the last by a large percentage. The 
fruit has been of line quality and very clean. 
At least !>0 per cent, of the total yield has been 
entirely tree from scale, and of tbe 10 percent, 
remaining none of tbat was as bad as tho fruit 
of the entire crop of last season. Tho coming 
season he expects to have a very large crop of 
fine and perfectly clean fruit. Mr. T. has 
used both oil and concentrated lye on his trees, 
not however together, but separately. He says 
he shall not use oil again as he is satisfied that 
it injures his trees. Lye has given him his fine 
results. It has been used in the strength of 
about lib to 2\ gals, water, but in this strength 

it has required a longer time and a larger num- 
ber of applications to destroy the scale. Al- 
though some scale is still to be found there, the 
orchard is nearly cleaned of the peat. It is in- 
tended to use lye and the caustic soda the com- 
ing winter. 

Another extensive orchard near to the above 
belonging to Mr. It. has been thoroughly 
treated by concentrated lye. This orchard of 
30 acres in whioh are 5,000 trees, has been one 
of the worst infested by scale. Last winter the 
entire orchard was drenched by lye, applied by 
fine spray in the strength of one lt» to one gallon 
water, and one lb. throe oz. to one gallon water; 
some fe w trees with even astronger solu tion. This 
application was made from December, 1SS1 to 
February, 1SS2, A visit made on April 25 th last 
showed the scalu to be pretty thoroughly de- 
stroyed. The trees at this date were in a most 
vigorous and healthy condition with beautiful 
green foliage and banging full of fruit, well set 
in all varieties, far enough advanced at the time. 
Other trees were in full blossom at that time. 
On October hiih I again visited this orchard to 
ascertain the season's results, and find it has 
borne out the estimate made of it in April last. 
The growth of wood had been very line and 
healthy. The crop of fruit has been good 
this season, and has been almost entirely 
clean. The cherries were entirely so. 
The plums and prunes, of which there was an 
immense crop on about 1,200 trees, were also 
wholly free from scale. Also the pears and 
apples were most of them clear of scale, though 
a few were slightly infested. Some scale re* 
mains in this orchard, but so little compared to 
last season, that although the quantity of fruit 
was about the same, the quality was far supe- 
rior, and therefore in value far greater. A por- 
tion of the pear trees, which still showed some 
few scattering scale, were washed in .September 
with a solution of lye showing 4" by the lycomc- 
ter, in which was mixed sulphur as much as 
could be forced through a coarse nozzle, and 
whale oil soap in small quantity, This has ap- 
parently cleared away tbe few scale that were 
present. It is intended to wash with lyo the 
coming winter in the same manner as last, 
wherever it may be required. 
Another prominent example of tho use of lye 

is that upon the orchard of Mr. O >, in the 

celebrated fruit growing locality known as the 
•'Willows," San Jose. This orchard is chielly 
devoted to the culture of the cherry and is one l 
of the best known in the State for that product. ' 
There are also a few hundred French prune 
trees. All of these tree?, both cherry and 
prunes, range in age up to 15 years. Two years 
ago the a&pidiottts ptrniciosu* appeared ou the J 
white cherries, nearly destroying a number of 
trees. In the winter of 1SS0-1SS1 the trees I 
were washed with concentrated lye, 1 lt>. to 5 
gallons of water. It resulted in some good, but 
did not kill many insects. In January, 1SS2, 
with the exception of ono tree mentioned fur* 
ther along, the entire orchard was washed with 
concentrated lye, 1 lb. to 1 gallon of water. 
All varieties of trees subject to scale were 
washed twice— the applications being made two 
weeks apart. The method employed was by 
heavy spray continued upon the tree from 5 to 
20 minutes for each tree. The lluid dripped 
from the tree upon a table arranged 

under it, and thes ■ .aavfog th^ material 
from w**te, : Gototor. ijsb I> er^nmed thia 
orchard. On the cherry trees afl'of the scale 
has been destroyed upon almost tbe whole of 
the trees washed. On a few trees, however, 
there are at this time a few scale to be found, 
bred from some not reached by the wash* The 
effect upon the cherry trees was not injurious, 
except that a few fruit spurs were killed. The 
trees this year bore a v*ry line crop of fruit, 
wholly free from scale. Not a single specimen 
of scale could be found upon any of the fruit, as 
a careful inspection waa made of it for that pur- 
pose. The effect upon the prune trees was a 
little greater, killing a latger number of fruit 
spurs. This is partly attributed to the state of 
the atmosphere, as it was warm and dry when 
these were washed. Not a scale insect can now 
be found upon any of those trees, although very 
large trees and very badly infested with scale. 
Mr. (i. intends to wash his trees the coming 
winter with lyo in the strength of one pound to 
two gallons of water, usinj: also the table as be* 
fore. Tho saving caused by this was at least 
two .thirds of the material. 

The Drain Table 
The table is made of sheet zinc fixed upon a 
frame in halves, which are placed against th* 
trunk of the tree on either side, thus forming a 
circular basin 14 ft. in diameter, and requiring 
but one minute for transfer from one tree to an- 

An Insulated Tree Attacked. 

The tree mentioned as not btiot? washed waa 

1 a Cleveland Bigarreau cherry, standing in the 

orchard 100 yards from any tree infested, being 

surrounded by the Black Tartarian trees, which 

are never infested. This tree last winter, at 

; the time of washing the orchard, had no scale 

upon it. Now, however (October H:h), I find 

; this tree covered with scale already matured, as 

. well as many young crawling about upon it. 

| Thia is an interesting observation, as it shows 

1 tbe rapidity with which a tree may become eov- 

; ered with this pest, and also that the scale will 

single out and colonize itself upon trees to it* 

taste. In this orchard no cherry of the black 

varieties has been infested. The Black Tar* 

tartan, tho lllack Bigarreau, Knights Kirly 

Black, the Black Eagle, and the Eirly Purple 

Guigae, are none of them troubled; and neither 

has the Belle d' Orleans shown any insects. 

The white varieties of cherries are among the 

worst infested trees we have. 

Caustic Soda. 
Some orchards have also been washed with 
the Knglish caustic soda. One stated to me 
that he had used it upon bis entire orchard of 
all varieties of trees, mostly however, Newton 
pippin apples, in the strength of 10* by the 
lyeometcr. It was not used in this case for the 
purpose of destroying scale, for the orchard 
was free from it, excepting some of the Atpidio* 
/jm conchi/ormi* f which it destroyed. The ob- 
ject was to clean the trees of moss, and also to 
kill the red spider. The trees were cleaned, and a 
large proportion of the red spider eggs killed, 
bat not all by any means. Thia caustic soda is 
obtained in large drums of 600 Ibj., and is 
somewhat cheaper than the concentrated lye ( 
which fact may cause it more frequent use 
hereafter. M any other instances might be 

oiled to show the tlEcftc;/" of lye as co in- 
secticide. Swt 8U*n 5i|** fact* ace abucd. 

How the Inaecte are Spread. 

Attention muat bo called to the means of 
spreading this serious pest, the a*j*hliolm /xrr- 
nicioxux* The system of "return boxen/ 1 and 
packages of any character, is known to be per- 
nicious and a frnitfnl source of the spread of 
all kinds of noxious insect?, which, either as 
insccta, eggs or larVtt, are fastened to them and 
taken into the orchard, to be developed in dae 
time, and then to spread devastation to every- 
thing attacked. Indeed, to me, so obnoxious is 
the return box that I will not permit one to be 
brought into the orchard or on the promises, I 
prefer to pay the cost of new boxes, and give 
them with the fruit sold. As the female inseot 
ha« no wings, she can, of course, only bespread 
about by becoming attached to something by 
which she in carried to different localities, and 
by crawling about during the short period aftor 
hatching before becoming fixed for life. 

Birds will carry thorn most frequently about 
an orchard, and it is thought that one source of 
danger is little regarded, via: carrying them 
about on one's clothing by brushing against in- 
festcd tree*. 

If boxes or packages are returned, they should 
be disinfected as soon as received by dipping in 
boiling water, to which is added not le&s than 
one pound of potash to 25 gallons of the water 

The nursery trees sent over the State have 
been the m^ans of spreading the scale exten- 
sively, and while nurserymen are anxious to 
make salo of thvir trees they must take every 

S*recaution to see that their patrons do not suf* 
ar by neglect to first destroy the scale, which 
may be done by dipping the tre&s iu a solution 
of concentrated lye of ! lt>, to 2 gallons of 
water. I am glad to say that most nurserymen 
are desirous to do all in their power to destroy 
the scale. 

Among other means of preventing the spread 
of ecalt, thorough and constant cultivation of 
an urchnrd should be kept up, aud one promi- 
nent difficulty in tho way of eradicating the 
scale I believe to be tho practice so prevalent 
of growing other small crops in the orchard be- 
tween the trees. 

It cannot be too strongly impressed npon the 
mind of every owner of an orchard that he must 
personally watch his orchard and cxeroise such 
constant supervision that no infested tree shall 
escape observation, and, when found, tho proper 
remedy at once bo applied. Ic the oichard re- 
ferred to where chance trees have been found 
infested, no other course would have saved me 
from the overwhelming upread of the scale. 

The experiments of 1SSI and tho subsequent 
use of lye in instances mentioned, indicate the 
remedy. Thia should always be used when the 
tree is dormant, and when tho foliage has dis- 
appeared from tho trees. In our climate that 
time is the winter, and at any time before the 
trees put forth their buds. 

Applying the Lye. 

The strength of lye should be one lb. to one 
gallon water where trees are infested with 
scale. Where it is only desired to cleanse the 
tree from moss one 11. io three or four gallons 
of water is sufficient The best method of ap- 
plying the concentrated lye is by dissolving in 
boiling water, and throwing it upon the trees 
with a force pump through 40 or 50 ft. of *m+ 
mm* . i\t inch robber hose, to which is at- 

tached a nrzzle, hating for its opening a simple 
straight slit, very narrow in width, and 
one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch long. 
Tho best spray tip yet devised is that made at 
San Jme\ called the Merigot Spray Nozzle, 
The pumps most used for this purpose are the 
Gould pump aud the Merigot pump. The latter 
is made at San Jose, aud is cheaper than the 
Gould pump. Great care should be taken to 
cover the tree entirely with the solution of lye, 
as upon ito thorough application depends its 

One of the greatest difficulties in the use of 
strong materials is from the spray railing upon 
the person of the operator and burning and 
injuring the skin. In order to overcome 
tins obstacle, I have devised a simple "exten* 
sion nozzle' 1 of slight coat which is very light 
and which may be made of any length desired, 
say from four to 15 ft., or^vou longer. By the 
use of this extension it is perfectly eaay to reach 
and spray any orchard tree without danger and 
discomfort The cost of materials and appa- 
ratus may be given as follows: 

Tho Gould pumpcoatsaboutSUI without acces- 
saries* ThoMerigotpump $12. Thesuctiou hose 
and the long hose wdl cost according to quality 
used, from 15 cents to 25 cents per foot 

The Merigot spray tip, if purchased alone, 
$1.50. If bought with pump, the pump aud 
apraycl-J. The bamboo extension with globe 
valve soven ft long §2,75. All exewsin length 
over seven ft 25 cents per foot. The concen- 
trated tye, of the American Lye Co. in one* lb 
cam* by the case of 48 lbs., $3 50 per case. 
English caustic soda in tJOO pouod drums, $33 to 
$35 per dram. The whale oil soap and sulphur 
mixture called the "Uodlin Moth Wash" is 
manufactured in San Francisco and. the price 
can be obtained by inquiring of Messrs Allyne 
A White, 

In conclusion I will give the analysis made 
* Prof, llilgard, of the State University, of a 
sample can of American Lye Co. concentrated 
lye. The can sent 1 took from a lot I had been 
using, and ia supposed to be a fair sample of the 
manufacture. Ttte analysis is ax follows: 

Caustic pota-ft -*.! 

Caustic soda and carbonic of sod* 1*1.7 


With this I submit my report, expressing 
my linn conviction that ore long we shall be 
freed from tho ravages of one of tho most 
dreaded pests known to horticulturists. 










TO— ^ 210 Wellman Hall 642-2030 


14 DAYS 









NOV 17 "81 


FORM NO DD 1 2, 2.5m, 1 1 /78 BERKELEY, CA 94720 


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Lllil" ,, -lVli .in i""""' "*'