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Butchering, processing, and preservation 




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BUTCHERING, PROCESSING 
and PRESERVATION of MEAT 



FRANK G. ASHBROOK 

Fish and Wildlife Service 
United States Department of the Interior 




D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, INC. 

TORONTO NEW YORK LONDON 



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192701 



NEW YORK 



D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 250 Fourth Avenue, New York 3 

TORONTO 

. Van Nostrand Company (Canada), Ltd., 25 Hollinger Rd., Toronto 

LONDON 

Macmillan & Company, Ltd., St. Martin's Street, London, W.C. 2 



D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, INC. 

Published simultaneously in Canada by 
D. Van Nostrand Company (Canada) Ltd. 

All rights in this book are reserved. Without 
written authorization from D. Van Nostrand 
Company, Inc., 250 Fourth Avenue, New York 
3, New York, it may not be reproduced in any 
form in whole or in part (except for quota- 
tion in critical articles or reviews), nor may it 
be used for dramatic, motion-talking-picture, 
radio, television, or any other similar purpose. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 55-5633 



Copyright, 1955, by 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 




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To 

WILLIAM HENRY TOMHAVE 
whose enthusiastic teaching 
inspired this book 



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PREFACE 



This book is written primarily for the family to help solve the 
meat problem and to augment the food supply. Producing and 
preserving meats for family meals are sound practices for farm 
families and some city folks as well— they make possible a wider 
variety of meats, which can be of the best quality, at less cost. 

Meat is an essential part of the American diet. It is also an ex- 
pensive food. With the costs high, many persons cannot afford to 
buy the better cuts; others are being forced to restrict the meat 
portion of the diet to a minimum, or to use ineffectual substitutes. 

Commercially in the United States, meat means the flesh of cattle, 
hogs, and sheep, except where used with a qualifying word such as 
reindeer meat, crab meat, whale meat, and so on. Meat in this book 
is used in a broader sense, although not quite so general as to com- 
prise anything and everything eaten for nourishment either by man 
or beast. To be sure, it includes the flesh of domestic animals and 
large and small game animals as well; also poultry, domestic fowl 
raised for their meat and eggs, and game birds, all wild upland 
birds, shore birds, and waterfowl; and fish. 

Born in Pennsylvania, the author was reared in an atmosphere 
where custom dictated the utilization of plainer foods in the con- 
cocting of tasty dishes. In his grandmother's family, a German cook, 
with knowledge of old-world ways and customs, brought into the 
household a happy solution to many of the food problems which 
confront us even today. 

The author's first introduction to some phases of the home proc- 
essing of meats came when, as a very small boy, his grandfather put 
him to chopping and grinding meat, fat, and suet, and mixing these 
with other ingredients in making sausage, headcheese, scrapple 
(ponhaws in Pennsylvania Dutch), and other meat concoctions. 

Later, at the Pennsylvania State College as an animal husbandry 
student, he was taught by Professor W. H. Tomhave the scientific 
methods involved in dressing and curing meats. 



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After college, the author conducted research in swine production 
for the Federal Department of Agriculture at Beltsville, Maryland, 
and supervised the construction of an abattoir in which experi- 
mental hogs ran the gamut of slaughter, dressing, cooling, cutting, 
curing, and smoking. From this background and experience, the 
author expanded his research avocationally into the gastronomic 
art, to which he has been an ardent devotee throughout the years. 

You who read this book may fall into one of the following cate- 
gories: a livestock farmer specializing in cattle, hogs or sheep; a 
poultryman raising chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, or guineas; a 
general farmer, keeping some livestock or poultry as a side line or 
for home consumption; a city or suburban dweller with a pen of 
chickens, pigeons, or rabbits in the back yard or lot; a person with a 
half interest in a pig, a lamb, or a calf that someone else is feeding 
until time for slaughter, and after dressing, a portion of the carcass 
is yours; a hunter who each season kills a deer, antelope, elk, moose, 
bear, or ducks, geese and upland game birds; a fisherman who fre- 
quently catches his limit; or you may be one of the more fortunate 
recipients from your generous friends who have an overabundance 
of good luck in the wild, and pass on to you a portion of their catch 



Teachers and students in agricultural colleges, high schools, and 
vocational schools engaged in animal husbandry and home- 
economics studies will find the material in this book most helpful 
in their classroom and in their project work. All phases of the 
preparation of meat and meat products for home use, including 
slaughtering and dressing fresh and seasoned meat, cutting the car- 
cass, refrigeration, curing, smoking, and canning, and the home 
tanning of hides and pelts are discussed in this book. 

Carefully selected sources for those who desire more information 
than this book contains are given in the Appendix. This includes 
a list of publications issued by the United States Departments of 
Agriculture and the Interior, the State Game Departments, and 
reference books. Along with these, it seemed advisable to include 
a list of books that give methods and recipes for cooking all the 
meats discussed in this book. In addition, there is a directory of 
state agriculture experiment stations. Don't hesitate to ask your 
county agent for information and guidance. 

A review was made of all recent scientific and practical literature 
in this field published in the United States, because the author be- 
lieves it is not only desirable but essential that a book on practical 
meat economies be something more than a mere collection of ideas. 



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The author is especially grateful to the Agricultural Research 
Service, Agricultural Marketing Service, Federal Extension Service, 
and Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture; to the 
Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Department of the Interior 
for material based on investigation and for permission to use photo- 
graphs and drawings; also to the technical workers in the two fed- 
eral departments for data and statistics obtained from research; to 
the Smithsonian Institution, Texas A. and M. College, Iowa State 
College, University of Missouri, and Pennsylvania State University 
for photographs and suggestions; to the Morton Salt Company and 
the National Livestock and Meat Board for material, including 
photographs and charts of wholesale and retail cuts of meat. 

Sincere thanks are due to M. O. Cullen and Reba Staggs, National 
Livestock and Meat Board for charts, illustrations and data; to Pro- 
fessor J. H. Vondell, University of Massachusetts for photographs 
of cutting up a chicken, and to Dr. Jessop B. Low, Utah State Col- 
lege for illustrations of dressing wild ducks. 

The preparation of this book has been a joint undertaking with 
Caroline McKinley Ashbrook who has contributed many construc- 
tive ideas and given valuable help and advice. Special acknowledg- 
ment is due Mary Ryan for suggestions of treatment, arrangement 
of material and splendid editing. 

To all others who have lent material, called attention to special 
features, or aided with personal criticism or advice in the prepara- 
tion of this book, the author desires to express appreciation and 
thanks. 



Frank G. Ashbrook 



Washington, D. C. 
November, 1954 




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CONTENTS 



I MAN'S EATING CUSTOMS 

Old and New Techniques Combined Solve Meat 

Problem 
Facts about Meat 
Changes after Slaughter 
Fresh and Seasoned Meat 

II MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 
Structure of Meat 
Composition of Meat 
Meat as Food 
Food Nutrients 
Modern Meat Consumption 
Game on the Table 
Domestic Rabbit 
Poultry 
Fish 

III FOOD PLANNING 

A Ready-Made Food Plan 

How to Figure the Family's Needs 

Food and Economy 

Daily Dietary Needs 

Federal Meat Inspection 

Federal Meat Grading and Stamping Service 

Federal-State Grading and Inspection of Poultry 

IV PRESLAUGHTER CONSIDERATIONS 

Preparations for Butchering 
Equipment and Tools 
Primary Considerations 
Skinning or Flaying 



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CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

Examining the Carcass 71 
Regulations for Shipping Meat or Meat Food Products 72 

V BUTCHERING HOGS 73 

Selection of Hogs for Slaughter 73 

Sticking 73 

Scalding 76 

Scraping 78 

Removing and Cleaning the Head 80 

Removing the Entrails 81 

Handling and Care of Edible Organs 84 

Cleaning the Intestines 86 

Chilling 87 

VI BUTCHERING CATTLE 91 

Stunning 91 

Bleeding 91 

Skinning and Removing Head 95 

Skinning the Carcass 97 

Opening the Abdominal Cavity 97 

Hoisting 99 

Splitting the Carcass 99 

Chilling 103 
Removing Tongue and Brains and Stripping Fat 

from Offal 103 

Cleaning the Tripe 104 

Slaughtering Calves 104 

VII BUTCHERING SHEEP AND LAMBS 105 

Lambs Selected for Slaughter 106 

Sticking and Stunning 107 

Skinning the Legs 109 

Fisting the Pelt off the Carcass 1 1 1 

Removing the Pelt 1 1 3 

Opening the Carcass 115 

Care of Internal Organs 115 

VIII DRESSING GAME ANIMALS 117 

Big Game 117 

Dressing Deer on the Ground 1 18 

Butchering a Hanging Deer 1 19 



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CHAPTER PAGE 

Removing the Tongue and Brains 120 

Saving the Head 120 

Small Game 122 

IX HANDLING HIDES AND SKINS 124 

Salting and Curing 124 

Having Hides Tanned 126 

X CUTTING THE CARCASS 127 

Pork 127 

Beef and Veal 137 

Lamb and Mutton 148 

Venison 152 

XI DRESSING POULTRY AND WILD FOWL 155 

Methods of Killing Poultry 155 

Removing Feathers 155 

Chickens 157 

Turkeys 159 

Ducks 159 

Geese 160 

Squabs 160 

Drawing Poultry 160 

Wild Fowl 164 

XII PROCURING, CLEANING, AND CUTTING 

FISH 169 

Purchasing Fresh Fish 169 

Purchasing Frozen Fish 170 

Catching Fish 171 

How to Clean Fish 172 

XIII ^PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 176 

^ Freezing 176 

Chemical Action Caused by Enzymes 177 

Ice Formation in Meat 177 

Drying or Freezer Burn 178 

Cut to Fit Family Needs 178 

Packaging Meat for Freezing 181 

Storage in the Home Freezer 194 

Thawing 1 95 



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CHAPTER PAGE 

J Cooking Frozen Meat 196 

Frozen-Food Locker Plants 197 

'^^Cming Monti 198 

<?ork 201 

Corning Beef 209 

Curing Tongue 210 

Lamb 211 

Curing Game Meats 212 

Curing Fowl 213 

Fish 215 

^icklin^— 223 

--^nryi^ Fish 228 

'^Smoking^eat and Fish 23 1 

Testing Smoked Meat 245 

Storing Cured and Smoked Meat 245 

Home Cann ing 247 

Procuring Raw Fish 262 

How to Pack the Container 263 

Recommended Canning Methods 264 

When Canning is Completed 267 

XIV MEAT PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS 271 

"^Sausages and Puddings 271 

Other Meat Products 285 

Scrapple Recipes 287 

Rendering Lard 293 

^Preserving Meat in Lard 295 

Soap Making 295 

XV HELPFUL REFERENCES 299 
Appendix A— Publications of the Department of 

Agriculture 301 
Appendix B— Publications of the Department of the 

Interior 302 
Appendix C— Motion Pictures Produced by the De- 
partments of Agriculture and the Interior 303 
Appendix D— Reference Books 304 
Appendix E— State Game Departments 306 
Appendix F— United States Agricultural Experiment 

Stations 309 

INDEX 311 1 

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Are you a creature of habit? Do you resist anything new in food? 
Are you in a gastronomic rut? Do you eat just those things your 
mother used to cook? Day after day, year after year, do you tread 
the tiresome trail of steak, gravy, and potatoes, little dreaming of 
the appetizing side trails, never knowing the challenge of America's 
great variety of succulent meats, game, and wondrously varied sea 
food? 

Naturally temperaments vary, as do tastes in food. Let us con- 
sider the man of habit. He rises early in the morning and already 
has the day planned. A strict disciplinarian, he keeps all appoint- 
ments and always on time. But when he sits down to dine what 
does he eat? Beefsteak or roast beef, of course, with potatoes and 
one or two other vegetables. Just good plain food. He has no flair 
for any dishes with a touch of the unusual. 

The extreme opposite of this creature of habit is the chap whose 
pattern is unpredictable. His preferences for food are startling. He 
craves hummingbird wings sauteed in coconut oil, or Chinese eggs 
with the vintage of a century. He is convinced that these are foods 
for the gods. 

Now the man who strikes a happy medium between these ex- 
tremes is one of real taste, a true gourmet. He welcomes change 
and loves to embark on a new food experience. Savory roasts, lus- 
cious broiled chops, and steaks are relished by him, but his palate is 
always his guide. Eating a tasteless dish simply because it is exotic 
has no appeal for him. 

The gourmet also enjoys the less familiar parts of meat animals 
often spurned by the uninformed. Heads, brains, kidneys, tongues, 
ribs, shanks, hocks, feet, and tails all make delectable concoctions 
when properly prepared. 

Pigs' feet and spareribs may not sound glamorous, but they can be 
developed by proper culinary methods into pungent, sumptuous, 




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and delectable dishes. Even the most determined pessimist will find 
it difficult to refuse a serving of this "good eating." 

Food has a greater effect on our health than any other element 
in our environment. Meals eaten in haste or leisure, aversion or 
enjoyment, are more important to our well-being than most of us 
realize. "Tell me what you eat and I'll tell you what you are/' said 
Jean Anthelme Brilliat-Savarin, the celebrated French gastronome. 

History tells us that prehistoric man was both herbivorous and 
carnivorous, and that he ate nuts, fruits, berries, leaves, and buds. 
He had birds' eggs, young birds, and honey; snails, frogs, fish, mus- 
sels, and crayfish. He obtained larger birds and small mammals by 
setting snares and by throwing sticks and stones. 

Early man is sometimes described as a hunter of the great hairy 
mammoth, of the bear and the lion; but he probably hunted the 
smaller animals, the rabbit, the hare, and the rat, because his hunt- 
ing implements were limited indeed. He had spears of wood, 
wooden clubs, and big pieces of flint. Nevertheless, he ate meat 
whenever he had the chance and consumed part of the kill wher- 
ever it fell; but he brought back the big marrow bones to crack and 
eat at leisure, for great quantities of these cracked and split bones 
have been found in caves. He hunted the horse as well as the rein- 
deer and bison. Bone deposits show he ate much horsemeat. 




MAN'S EATING CUSTOMS 



3 



Later, as man's expertness in hunting, trapping, and fishing in- 
creased, he naturally ate more meat than vegetables. Undoubtedly, 
man's wild instincts caused him to love the chase, which he pre- 
ferred to the work entailed in searching for vegetable food, so he 
became largely a meat eater. Perhaps that is why the American 
Indian was such a meat eater. 

The early Greeks subsisted largely on meats. They preferred pig, 
but also ate cattle, sheep, and poultry. Fish and game were sought 
as food. Later, the consumption of meat in Greece became less im- 
portant because such food was only offered at religious festivals. At 
such occasions, the masses had an opportunity to enjoy this luxury. 

The wealthy Romans were indebted to the Greeks for their yen 
for meat, but the common people ate little of it. The edible organs, 
including tripe, were their fare, but the proletariat literally de- 
voured meat on the numerous holidays. 

It has been estimated that, of the two million known species of 
animals, only fifty have been domesticated and normally contribute 
to the food supplies. However, in many localities, man's ingenuity 
is making full use of local animals, and he is becoming master of 
his environment. 

Of the Australian aborigine it may be said that in terms of food, 
nothing living is alien to him— the caterpillar and the moth, the 
frog and the kangaroo are trapped by appropriate and effective 
methods and eaten with relish. Certain African tribes are catholic 
in taste; snails, frogs, crocodiles have their place in the diet. 

There are many regions where the ordinary staple foods are sup- 
plemented, perhaps at irregular intervals, through hunting, trap- 
ping, and fishing. These occasional supplements make important 
contributions to the diet. 

The fundamental biochemical investigations of the past half cen- 
tury, conducted chiefly in Europe and North America, provide the 
. basis for the approach to nutrition problems on all continents, yet 
there is much to be learned from well-establislied food habits in 
various countries, in that primitive peoples in many areas have suc- 
ceeded in reaching good dietary standards. 

Eating was no problem for the early American Indian, trapper, 
trader, and mountain man. They obtained the finest meat on the 
continent from the buffalo, elk, deer, and antelope. Great herds 
of these big game animals roamed the plains and provided an 
abundance of fresh meat. Probably no other primitive peoples had 
such a bountiful supply. 

This wild meat was surprisingly rich and easily digestible. The 
Indian squaw raised a few vegetables but these were a meager sup- 




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plement indeed to the diet. All the evidence points to the fact that 
the Indians were chiefly meat eaters and consumed enormous quan- 
tities of it, 

"The Indian is a great epicure/' said Colonel Richard Dodge, 
"knows the choicest tidbits of every animal, and how to cook it to 
suit his taste. The great fall hunt yields to him the fullest enjoy- 
ment of his appetite." 

History records that the average Indian ate from 10 to 15 pounds 
of buffalo meat daily; if it was abundant and he could select the 
parts that best suited him, he would consume as much as 20 pounds. 

As soon as the Indian made his kill he would cut open the buffalo 
and select his raw tidbit or hors d'oeuvre. He made generous use 
of glandular and visceral tissues, and was particularly fond of the 
honeycomb stomach, or tripe, also the liver, lungs, and small intes- 
tines, raw or roasted. 




Fig. 2. The buffalo furnished the American Indian, trapper, trader, and traveler 

the finest meat on the continent. 



The de'pouille, a fatty tissue lying along the backbone just under 
the hide and extending from shoulder blade to the last rib, was cut 
and pulled out all in one piece. It was then dipped in hot fat for 
a short time and hung up inside the tepee. Here this choice morsel 
would dry and be smoked for a day or two. Cured in this manner, 



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it kept indefinitely and was used principally as a substitute for 
bread. 

The flesh of the buffalo or bison, in good condition, is juicy and 
well flavored, and resembles that of beef. The tongue, in pioneer 
days, was deemed a delicacy, either roasted, boiled fresh, or cured 
and smoked. Smoked buffalo tongue was considered to surpass in 
flavor and texture that of the cow or steer. The hump of flesh cover- 
ing the long spinal processes of the first dorsal vertebrae was also 
much esteemed. Fine-grained, mellow, and when partly salt-cured 
and sliced crosswise, it was considered as rich, tender, and luscious 
as tongue. Hump ribs and other choice cuts were roasted in the 
deep ashes of a fire, as were the marrow bones. These portions of 
the buffalo were most relished by the trappers, traders, pioneers, 
and travelers who came later. 

The Indians also laid up large winter stores of buffalo meat. To 
acquire this meat, they staged large community hunts. Before win- 
ter, in this manner, they would store as much as 5,000 pounds of 
dried buffalo meat in certain localities. 

Pemmican was made from buffalo, deer, and antelope. The raw 
meat was cut into thin slices, wound about sticks which were slanted 
over a slow fire or laid upon a rick of wickerwood, and allowed to 
dry. Often the sun alone would furnish sufficient heat to dry the 
meat. These dried slices of meat were then pounded into a flaky 
mass, and over alternating layers of it, fat was poured. This mass 
was then packed in bags made of buffalo or deer hide; thus making 
a compact and nutritious food which could be kept indefinitely. 
Pemmican was quite acceptable to the taste and became the stand- 
ard food of the trappers and mountain men when on the trail. 

The white men who early invaded the Great Plains quickly 
adopted the hunting and eating customs of the Indians. Those who. 
crossed the plains lived exceptionally well on unlimited quantities 
of choice cuts of buffalo and antelope. These hungry mountaineers 
relished the appetizing brown intestines, ribs of the tender hump, 
and baked tongues, so soft, sweet and well-flavored. When such a 
quantity of primitive food was readily available, white men and 
Indians knew very well the portions of the carcass they liked best. 

From the earliest times, buffalo meat was the chief sustenance of 
the pioneers as they journeyed westward. Later it was the staple 
meat served in hotels and restaurants through the buffalo country. 

After guns were acquired by the Indians, and the trappers and 
traders organized systematic hunts, the buffalo herds were greatly 
reduced. It was the beginning of a real exploitation, with a growing 




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trade in hides, robes, and pemmican. This was the threat that led 
to the practical extermination of the wild buffalo in the United 
States. 

The tongue hunters were more wasteful than the hide hunters 
because they simply killed for tongues alone, and the rest of the 
carcass was left on the plains. The tongues were cured, smoked, 
packed in barrels, and shipped to the large eastern cities. Occasion- 
ally, some of the meat was pickled and sent to market; and, at times 
during the winter, buffalo carcasses were also hog-dressed and 
shipped east, but more often the hindquarters were the only portion 
utilized. 

Today there are about 9,000 buffalo on Federal, State, and private 
lands in territorial United States. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service maintains four fenced refuges for buffalo and elk, where the 
animals run at large and are maintained as nearly as possible under 
natural conditions. An annual disposition of surplus animals is 
made from these areas to avoid overgrazing. Both live and butch- 
ered animals are generally available. 

The Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service determines each 
year, usually in August, the number of animals that are surplus on 
each refuge and establishes the prices at which they will be sold. 

The first settlers on the shores of America— the Dutch, British, 
French, Spaniards, Germans, and others— brought with them from 
the Old World their own eating customs. All these people have 
contributed to the development of fine American food. 

Old and New Techniques Combined Solve Meat Problem 

As trade opened up with the Orient and the West Indies, the 
American table was enriched by the addition of pepper, curry, and 
all sorts of spices, tropical fruits, chocolate, coffee, and rum. With 
this oriental touch, and drawing upon European lore, an entirely 
new school of cooking began to develop. 

One might ask, what has all this to do with the meat situation 
and how does it relate to our present problems? Many of the recipes 
and methods for butchering and preserving meat developed during 
the Colonial period have come down to us without much alteration, 
some of them exactly as the Indians and colonists taught them to 
our ancestors. Many of the formulas are as valid now as they were 
in the good old days. We can benefit immeasurably, then, if we 
combine modern techniques with the thrift and ingenuity of our 
forefathers. It is the constant increase in the cost of living that 




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FACTS ABOUT MEAT 



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forces us to adopt old-world economies which we have more or 
less been neglecting. We are fortunate in having a unique grip on 
the combination of the old usages with the new techniques. In 
attempting to solve the meat problem, today's generation may find 
in these new approaches a satisfactory and practical solution— a new 
frontier not only for American farm and suburban families but 
for city families as well. 

It matters not whether your fresh meat comes from a farm, a 
suburban property, a vacant lot, a back yard, or a wholesale meat 
market; nor if it is shot or trapped in the wild or fished from a 
farm pond, brook, lake, river, or ocean— somewhere in this book is 
a solution to your meat problem. 

Perhaps you prefer not to kill, dress, and cut up an animal, a 
bird, or even a fish. Do not let any of these processes between the 
kill and the range frustrate you. They can be met by your local 
butcher or those employed at the local cold-storage locker plant, 
who will be glad to render this service. 

Freezing meat, poultry, fish, and game in the home freezer or 
locker plant is the latest thing in food preservation. With modern 
methods of freezing, any day of the year a family can have a luscious 
steak, fried chicken, baked fish, broiled rabbit, or barbecued game. 
Cold-storage lockers and deep freezers have a great appeal, because 
they furnish storage space for fresh foods the entire year. It is the 
easiest way and requires the minimum of time and energy. Whether 
the meat is produced by you or purchased wholesale alive or 
dressed, there is a considerable saving. You can save money and live 
better by purchasing meat in quantity and preserving it. It is not 
an uncommon procedure these days for people to purchase cattle, 
hogs, sheep, poultry, and fish at wholesale when the price is right, 
and dress and butcher them at home, or have the locker plant or the 
local butcher do the work. 

Freezing is a practical, desirable way to preserve meat, poultry, 
and fish, but it is not the only method. There are others, such as 
brine and dry curing, corning, pickling, drying, smoking, and can- 
ning. All are good, add variety, and make the meals most delectable 
with that country-cured taste. 

Facts About Meat 

Meat makes the meal. It is the dish that gets star billing at the 
table. Nearly everyone thinks there is nothing else like the prized 
savoriness of meat. It stimulates the appetite and makes the whole 



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8 MAN'S EATING CUSTOMS 

meal seem more interesting and full of flavor. Formerly meat was 
regarded by many as the cause of most of the ills to which we are 
heir. Now it is considered a must in our diet instead of a necessary 
evil. 

One of the chief reasons that the meat supply does not meet hu- 
man demands is that man has concentrated his appetite on fewer 
and fewer animals for meat. It is surprising to note that away back 
in the Middle Ages meat was more varied and occupied a more 
important position in the cuisine. 

Swans, peacocks, peahens, and many other species of birds and 
animals, such as deer, pheasants, and quail, were kept in domestica- 
tion or semidomestication. Rabbits, woodchucks, raccoons, and 
opossums offer possibilities for much more exploitation as dinner 
meats. 

Meat is good for you. It should comprise a basic part of the daily 
diet of every healthy person. It provides energy, health, and vigor. 
While meat is used as the main dish in meals day after day, it never 
becomes monotonous. This is because there are numerous varieties 
of meats and so many interesting and appetizing ways in which they 
may be prepared and served. Meat surely has appetite appeal and 
it satisfies. 




Fig. 3. Meat should comprise a basic part of the daily diet of every healthy 
person. Roast fresh or cured pork shoulder, with savory stuffing, can supply 
this essential part of the daily diet, cheaper and every bit as tasty as ham. 



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Meat is important primarily for high-quality protein. It also pro- 
vides iron, copper phosphorus, fat, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and 
vitamin A. Lean meat is primarily protein. The lean and fat tissues 
are highly digestible and are easily and rapidly assimilated. Meat 
proteins have a high digestibility, and the amino acids contained in 
it are biologically complete. Therefore, it is natural that meat plays 
an important part in keeping the human body in order. 

The value of any food is directly dependent upon the thorough- 
ness with which its nutrients are utilized by the body. Beef, veal, 
lamb, and pork are all digested quite thoroughly since 97 per cent 
of the proteins and 96 per cent of the fats are digested. Pork, how- 
ever, takes a little longer to digest, as does turkey. There is no 
difference, however, in the digestibility of red and white meat and 
fowl. After all, the chief reason for the popularity of meat is its 
palatability, which consists of tenderness and flavor or aroma and 
taste. 



After slaughter the animal heat leaves the carcass; this is hastened 
by chilling. Refrigeration also causes the fat and muscle to become 
solid and hard. Consequently, meats become rather firm in the 
cooler. Wb^n meat is in refrigeration, other changes take place. 

The mea^ firms up and remains so for some little time. Fresh 
meat is usually tough and tasteless. After 24 to 36 hours of chilling, 
however, the meat becomes progressively more tender. Then the 
enzymes gradually soften the tissues, making them more tender. 

Remember that bacteria are found in foods not sterilized, and 
this is also true of meat. These will begin to grow and act on the 
meat. They consist of molds, yeasts, ordinary types of bacteria, and 
spore-forming spoilage bacteria. Oxygen in the air and enzymes in 
the meat affect the fat and thus tend to make it rancid. When meat 
is kept in the cooler for weeks, some rancid fat may be found on 
the surface of the meat. The bacterial growth mentioned previously 
and the effect of oxygen in the air on fat are changes of an undesir- 
able nature. Therefore, precautions to prevent these changes must 
be taken to keep meats fresh and to prevent spoilage. 

All meats are highly perishable. The primary cause of low or 
inferior quality, off flavor, taint, or actual spoilage is due to allow- 
ing the natural forms of bacteria to develop and multiply. There- 
fore, bacteria from within and outside of the meat must be pre- 
vented from multiplying and held in check until the meat is cured, 
smoked, or otherwise preserved. 



Changes After Slaughter 




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CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



10 



MAN'S EATING CUSTOMS 



The pink or red color of meat is produced by muscle and blood 
hemoglobin. This is an important criteria in judging meat. Beef 
and some other red meats are always darker when first cut. Upon 
exposure to the air for a short time, however, the hemoglobin be- 
comes oxidized, thereby producing a brighter shade of red. 

Generally speaking, the older the animal, the darker the meat; 
but frequently dark meat occurs in fairly young animals after the 
carcass is cut up. The bone, then, is the determining factor, for it 
is red and porous in young animals, whereas in old ones it is hard, 
white, and flinty. Therefore, dark meat may occur regardless of 
age; although it is a characteristic of the flesh of older animals or of 
meat that has been cut for some time. Meat that has been aged or 
seasoned for a month or more becomes very dark, also moldy or 
slimy on the surface. This can be removed by cutting off thin slices 
and the newly cut surface will be bright red again. 



Meat from an animal just slaughtered or shot is usually tough 
and tasteless. Beef, mutton, venison, and game birds become more 
tender and palatable by the process of ripening, hanging, aging, or 
maturing. Pork, veal, and lamb, however, should not be aged, for 
nothing is gained. Therefore, these animals should be processed as 
soon as possible after butchering and chilling. 

The difficulty of developing well-seasoned meat has always been 
an uncertainty because of bacteria. The primitive method of hang- 
ing a carcass in the attic of the farmhouse or in an outbuilding is 
slowly giving way to the use of cold-storage lockers and home freez- 
ers, although it is still common practice for hunters to hang game 
for a period of seasoning. 

What makes meat tender? There are about twenty-five enzymes 
in meat. Enzymes are ferments. They act on the proteins, carbo- 
hydrates, and fats in the meat and break down the connective tissue, 
reducing it to a gelatinous consistency. This process makes meat 
tender and also improves its palatability, since certain juices are 
released which enhance the flavor. 

The same enzyme action takes place in professional ripening as 
in home hanging. The chemical changes must occur to make meat 
tender through nature's process. "But by contrast," says M. O. 
Cullen,* meat carving expert of the National Live Stock and Meat 

* How to Carve Meat, Game and Poultry, by M. O. Cullen, McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941. 



Fresh and Seasoned Meat 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



FRESH AND SEASONED MEAT 



11 



Board, "one is done under the strictest hygienic conditions with 
every step of cleanliness and moisture control (so encouraging to 
the growth of molds), vigilantly watched, while the other relies 
primarily on faith, hope and naked-eye sentinel service/' 

At a temperature of 35° to 38° F., three to five days of storage 
between slaughter of a hog and consumption of the fresh pork is 
regarded by many as an optimum period. 




Fig. 4. A typical meat cooler. Good quality beef and mutton will chill and 
season in 7 to 10 days in a cooler 35° to 45° F, Highly finished beef can be 
ripened for 6 weeks. Venison and other game may be kept to advantage for 

2 weeks or more. 



Good quality beef and mutton having a firm texture and a coating 
of fat on the outside will chill and season in 7 to 10 days in a cooler 
set at 35° to 45° F. Highly finished beef can be ripened for 6 weeks. 
Venison and other game may be kept to advantage for 2 weeks 
or more. 

Any family wishing to solve the meat problem has a choice of 
several alternatives for storing fresh meat. For example, use may 
be made of one of the million or so lockers located in more than 
11,000 frozen locker plants, where, for a nominal fee, meat can be 
dressed, wrapped, frozen, and stored until the family is ready to 
use it. The home freezer is also useful in preserving a large variety 
of meats. The meat can be sharp frozen at the locker plant in the 



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12 



MAN'S EATING CUSTOMS 



usual way or in the deep freeze, then stored in the home freezer 
until it is to be cured or cooked. If the family does not have access 
to either of these modern conveniences, the only course is to hang 
the meat in a cool outbuilding, trusting to luck that it will be in 
good condition when the time arrives for eating or curing. 
Mr. Cullen says: 

In this primitive method of ripening, birds and small game usually 
present no problem because they can if necessary be eaten quickly without 
sacrificing too much in the way of flavor. It is the big game, such as deer, 
elk and moose, that are most troublesome, since like beef this class of 
meats improves with aging. The English usually hang the large carcass at 
least 14 days; however, their climate is somewhat more steadily cool than 
ours. Here 10 days of hanging is about the general practice, and certainly 
nothing less than a week will accomplish very much toward making the 
meat more tender. The animal's age will have some relation to the length 
of the ripening period, and if the carcass is that of an old buck it is best 
to give it some extra time if possible. 

Needless to repeat, the place where the carcass hangs should be as cool 
and dry as possible, and it is advisable to leave the skin on as added pro- 
tection during the aging period. Later, after the skin has been removed 
and the backbone split, it is a wise precaution to strip out the spinal 
cord, which runs along the backbone. 

Birds present no complications in the matter of size and space, but 
they do require a watchful eye, and the delicate decision as between the 
moment of full aroma and risking another night's hanging has caused 
countless hunters many an uneasy hour. They usually reach their "high" 
moment just as they begin to decompose and with their full quota of per- 
fumes achieved. Timing to this split second of greatest succulence must 
be done without benefit of rulers or meters and sometimes the least wrong 
calculation may result in sacrificing the bird. 

Since birds are always hung in their feathers these serve as a great pro- 
tection against flies. But it is advisable as an added precaution to apply a 
good sprinkling of pepper, which can be counted on to keep the pests 
away. In cold, frosty weather, birds may hang 10 days safely without much 
fear of becoming tainted. If the weather should be damp and muggy, it 
is well to provide a larder or storehouse with a good current of air and cut 
the hanging period when necessary. An old country prescription suggests 
covering the birds loosely with a thin cloth. In some households the cus- 
tom is to hang birds by their heads only; in others, strings are tied to 
both ends and the hanging position is changed every day, alternating 
from head to feet. 

Partridge taints first in the crop; other birds start to decompose around 
the vent. In either case, as soon as there is the first sign of taint, remove 
the feathers and draw the birds. Wash them in water that is well salted 
and add a little vinegar to the rinse. If they are badly tainted, repeat with 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



FRESH AND SEASONED MEAT 



13 



two or three different solution changes, and finally wash off with clear, 
fresh water. Dry them thoroughly and place a little piece of charcoal or 
some powdered charcoal in a muslin square inside the crop before cook- 
ing. They may be cooked with the sweetener in them but remember to 
remove it before serving. If there is no charcoal at hand, place some 
charred wood in the oven until it is burnt through and use this the same 
as you would the charcoal. 

Whatever opinion or prejudice may be held in regard to gami- 
ness, one thing is quite certain: the meat of freshly killed game and 
that of "high" game are totally different. Fresh meat is flavorless, 
whereas, when reasonably high, meat is tender, full of taste and of 
incomparable flavor. Taste varies with individuals; so handle the 
storage of the game the way you like best. 




Fig. 5. Choice rib cut showing a high degree of 
marbling of fat in the lean, which denotes quality. 



There are other methods of ripening or tenderizing meat. Freez- 
ing meat is a tenderizing process; but once frozen it should remain 
that way until it is to be cooked, as intermittent freezing and thaw- 
ing causes it to loose flavor and lowers the keeping quality. 

Science has contributed much to the processes of maturing meat. 
The "tenderay" process has put meat tendering on a purely scientific 
basis. Three years of research at the Mellon Institute evolved this 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original fro m 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



14 



MAN'S EATING CUSTOMS 



method. It is a combination of controlled higher temperatures 
made possible by the sterilamp, humidity, and air circulation. This 
treatment tenderized beef so rapidly that results were produced in 
2 days which formerly required 2 or 3 weeks. In fact, the investi- 
gators claimed that this method of tenderization improved the eat- 
ing quality of beef by several grades. There was also a substantial 
saving to the meat industry and noticeable increase in customer 
satisfaction. The "tenderay" process can improve all grades of meat, 
but it raises the questions of whether increasing the tenderness alone 
enhances the grade and if the consumer will be able to pay the extra 
tax on the per pound cost of such treated meat. There are still 
other methods of tenderizing meat, such as grinding, scoring, cubing, 
and marinating. These are usually applied to meat cuts and not to 
the entire carcass. 

A recent development to make tough meat tender is a compd&nd 
of salt-like crystals, the active ingredient of which is a vegetable 
enzyme, papain, obtained from the papaya melon. This meat tend- 
erizer is winning a place on grocers' shelves all over the country, 
largely because food experts agree that it puts good meat back on 
the family menu in the face of soaring prices. 

It is important to sprinkle the tenderizer evenly and then allow 
the treated meat to stand at room temperature 30 minutes for each 
half inch of thickness. Thus, an inch-thick steak, sprinkled on both 
sides, should stand for one hour before cooking. Thick roasts (beef, 
lamb, or pork) can be tenderized in 2 or 3 hours. Roasts so treated 
have up to 20 per cent less shrinkage; hamburgs, too, cook plump 
and juicy without shrinking. 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



In order to handle and preserve meats satisfactorily one should 
know something about their structure and composition and the 
animals that produce them. That these animals are not uniform in 
structure is apparent to anyone who has had a steak or a roast. 

Meat includes all parts of domestic and wild animals and birds 
used as food. Lean flesh, fat flesh, skin, edible glands, and organs 
all classify as meat. Certain meats also are sold, cooked, and eaten 
with the skin attached. This is true of some cuts of pork, also fowl 
and fish. 



Meat is composed mainly of lean muscle, fatty and connective 
tissue, bones, and skin. In addition, there are blood vessels, lym- 
phatic vessels, glands, and nerve tissue. The skin or hide is, of 
course, on the outside. The bones are in or near the center in some 
cuts of meat; in others, near the inside surface where they are plainly 
visible. Most of the balance of the meat cut is more or less lean 
meat. However, fat tissue is generally found under the skin and 
lying between the separate muscles of the meat. Fat is distributed 
more generously throughout the lean tissue and gives it a "marbled" 
appearance. This is always the case in a well-fattened animal. 

The lean tissue or muscles are made up of bundles of muscle cells. 
They are tubular in shape, minute in diameter, and of various 
lengths. These bundles of muscle cells are bound together by a fine 
network of connective tissue. It follows, then, that the smaller and 
more numerous the muscle cells, the greater the amount of connec- 
tive tissue. The connective tissues are much less tender than the cell 
content, and their presence in large quantities characterize the less 
tender meat. The small bundles of muscles are, in turn, bound to- 
gether by connective tissue to form larger bundles, and some of 
these larger bundles are held together by connective tissue to form 

15 



Structure of Meat 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



16 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



a large voluntary muscle. These muscles comprise most of the 
meat cuts. 

There is a heavy accumulation of connective tissue at the end of 
the muscle to form the tendon, which affixes the muscle to the bone. 
That is why the center portion of a muscle is tender, while the cuts 
from the extremities are tough. Connective tissue increases in 
amount and becomes tougher as the animal grows older. Meat from 
younger animals is therefore more tender than meat from old ones. 



blood vessel 



connective ti&aue 



bone 



muscle 




f&ity tissue 
skin 



Fig. 6. Cross section of a ham showing where the four classes of tissues are found. 

When a meat animal begins to fatten, it deposits fat first around 
some of the internal organs— kidneys, stomach, and intestines. Fat 
is also deposited in certain cells of the connective tissue, although 
some fat in small quantities may appear in any cell of the connec- 
tive tissue. There are certain cells, known as fat cells, in which 
quantities of fat may be stored. This deposition of fat greatly in- 
flates these cells and causes the cell walls to expand and become 
thinner. When one bites into a piece of meat containing consider- 
able fat, the cells are easily broken in chewing and therefore such 
meat is more tender than that containing little fat. 

Composition of Meat 

Meat, except the bone, is rather soft and contains considerable 
water. In fact, lean muscle may be 75 per cent water. The re- 
mainder is 20 per cent protein, about 1 per cent mineral matter, 
some 3 per cent fat, together with small amounts of glycogen, meat 
extractives, and other miscellaneous organic substances. 



Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



COMPOSITION OF MEAT 



17 



The white or creamy-white parts of meat are connective tissue, 
ligaments, and fatty tissue. These also contain water, fat, protein, 
and mineral matter. The fat (chemical fat) may make up 95 per 
cent of such fat tissue as kidney fat. In body fat, such as the fat 
found on a roast, the percentage of true fat will be less, and may be 
as little as 5 or 10 per cent in lean animals. 



Fic. 7. High magnification shows that 
the lean muscle is made up of long 
slender fibers, cylindrical in shape, (a) 
These individual fibers are about 
l/500th inch in diameter and often an 
inch or more in length; (b) longitu- 
dinal; and (c) cross section* 




Bones also contain water, fat, protein, and mineral matter, but 
the four chemical substances are more nearly equal in the bones- 
Fresh bones of beef cattle may contain 30 to 40 per cent water, the 
fat may run from 15 to 20 per cent, and the protein content may 
also be 15 to 20 per cent* The remainder is mineral matter and 
forms from 15 to 25 per cent of the totaL 

The skin of meat animals also is composed of water, protein, fat, 
and mineral matter. The water content of the skin of young veal 
may be as high as 70 per cent, while that of old cattle may be as low 
as 50 to 55 per cent. Fat is present in small amounts, usually 5 to 6 
per cent or less. The protein content is usually 30 to 40 per cent, 
and the ash from 1 to 1.5 per cent. 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



18 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



Meat as Food 



Nutrition is the science that deals with food at work— food on the 
job for you, says the United States Department of Agriculture. The 
right food, it claims, helps us to be at our best in health and vitality. 
It can even help us to stay young longer. An individual fed prop- 
erly from babyhood has a chance to enjoy a long life. But at any 
age, you are better off when you are well fed. 

Food scientists in the Department of Agriculture know all about 
the body's needs. They know that from vitamin A to the mineral 
zinc, a list of nutrients— chemical substances that the body is known 
to require from food— totals more than 40. And there may be some 
yet undiscovered. You can eat well and properly without being 
introduced to all of the body's A to Z requirements. Making suffi- 
cient provision for certain key nutrients will assure you of getting 
the rest. Let us consider these key nutrients and see how much meat 
contributes to the body's building and repair. 



The Greeks, as always, had a name for the first one, "Protein," 
and believe it or not, it means "first." And even down to a hundred 
years ago it was recognized as the main substance in all the body's 
muscles and organs, skin, hair, and other tissues. The top-rating 
proteins are always found in foods from animal sources— meat, poul- 
try, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Calcium, the chief mineral material 
in bones and teeth, is not supplied by meat to any considerable 
extent. The outstanding foods for calcium, however, are milk and 
leafy green vegetables; but for calcium to be assimilated properly, the 
right quantities of vitamin D and phosphorus are required, and these 
may be supplied by seafood and meat. Another essential material for 
red blood is iron. It may be supplied from many different foods. Liver 
is outstanding for iron. Meat in general adds iron, and leafy green 
vegetables have high iron content. The body requires a small but 
steady amount of iodine. Salt-water fish or other food from the sea 
will help a great deal in supplying iodine. It is wise also to use 
iodized table salt regularly as a safety measure. 

When you eat a variety of foods, you are pretty sure of getting the 
vitamins you need. Vitamin A is important to the young for growth 
and to all ages for normal vision. Here, again, animal foods excel; 
for good sources of vitamin A are calf and sheep liver, beef, lamb, 
hog, and pig liver and kidneys, and chicken liver. The B vitamin 
family includes thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. These are the most 



Food Nutrients 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



FOOD NUTRIENTS 



19 



generally known and best understood B vitamins. Thiamine pro- 
motes growth, stimulates appetite, aids assimilation, and is essential 
for normal functioning of nerve tissue. Pork is an excellent source, 
as is meat juice or broth. In fact, liver, fresh meat, bacon, fish, and 
oysters are also good sources of thiamine. Riboflavin is the growth- 
promoting member of the vitamin B family. A deficiency of this 
factor causes stunted growth and premature aging. Veal and beef 
liver, beef kidney, lamb liver, pork liver, and pork kidney are all 
rich in riboflavin. Beef heart, oysters, sardines, crabs, ham, bacon, 
chicken, fish, lamb, and beef are also meat sources of this vitamin. 
Scientists tell us that 25 per cent of the budget spent on meats fur- 
nishes about 30 per cent of riboflavin requirement. 

Niacin or nicotinic acid plays an important part in building body 
tissue. It is found abundantly in pork, beef, veal, and lamb liver; 
in pork and beef kidney; pork and beef heart; and pork, veal, 
chicken, beef, and lamb. 

Few foods contain a real wealth of B vitamins, but in a varied diet 
many foods contribute some and so build an adequate supply. How- 
ever, one-fourth pound of liver or one-half pound of veal, pork, 
or beef per day is said to furnish the daily niacin requirement. 

The first vitamin separated from food was vitamin C, also called 
ascorbic acid or the antiscorbutic vitamin. Tissues throughout the 
body cannot keep in good condition without this vitamin. It is re- 
quired daily because the body does not store much. A deficiency of 
vitamin C causes scurvy. All the familiar citrus fruits are bountiful 
sources of this vitamin. Tomatoes and tomato juice, canned or 
fresh; fresh strawberries and cantaloupe; also cabbage, green pepper, 
and lettuce are other good sources. 

The "sunshine vitamin," or vitamin D, is especially important 
to the young because it works with minerals to form straight, strong 
bones and sound teeth. This vitamin is formed in the body when 
the skin is exposed to the direct sunlight. Some of this vitamin 
should be consumed daily, especially through the growing period. 
It is also necessary for pregnant and nursing mothers. Rich sources 
of vitamin D are cod-liver oil, fish, egg yolk, irradiated foods, and 
milk. Babies and young children usually require a special vitamin 
D preparation or one of the fish-liver oils regularly. 

The preceding information should not be considered a complete 
treatise on proteins, minerals, and vitamins or vitamin require- 
ments. It is only an effort to bring the reader up-to-date quickly and 
to show the importance of meat as a source of supply for those 
elements that enable the body to use other materials and to func- 
tion smoothly. 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



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by Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



FOOD NUTRIENTS 



29 



MEAT*: PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA 
SPECIFIED COUNTRIES 



PRODUCTION PER CAPITA IN POUNDS 

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 



NEW 
ZEALAND 

URUGUAY 

DENMARK 

AUSTRALIA 

ARGENTINA 

UNITED 
STATES 

CANADA 

IRELAND 

FRANCE 

NETHERLANDS 

SWEDEN 

BELGIUM 

SWITZERLAND 

UNITED 
KINGDOM 

MEXICO 



V/////////////////////////////////////A 



v//////////////7m 



V//////////A 



'////////A 



'////////A 



CONSUMPTION PER 
CAPITA IN POUNDS 

100 200 300 



7ZA 



22 



AV. 1946-50 
1952 



'///////////A 




V/////////A 



'////////////A 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



32 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



MEAT 1 



Per Capita Consumption, by Types, in Specified Countries in 1952, 

with Comparison 





Average 1946-50 


1952 s 




Beef 


Pork 


Mutton 




Beef 


Pork 


Mutton 




Country 


and 


(excl 


and 




and 


(excl 


and 




veal 


lard) 


lamb 


Total 


veal 


lard) 


lamb 


Total 




LrD. 


L.O. 


I K 

LD. 


JLD. 


¥ K 


¥ K 


¥ K 


¥ K 




70 


55 


4» 


134 


52 


62 


2 * 


123 




73 


69 


5 


147 


68 


72 


4 


144 




35 


33 


2* 


85 


41 


42 


1* 


91 




48 


70 


2 5 


126 


36 


68 


I s 


108 


Finland 


24 


28 


3 s 


57 


26 


29 


3 6 


60 




49 


36 


6 8 


94 


53 


42 


6" 


105 




37 


44 


13 


94 


35 


42 


13 


90 




27 


27 


l 6 


58 


34 


40 


l e 


78 




28 


24 


10 6 


64 


29 


27 


11 s 


69 




41 


50 


1 5 


96 


40 


55 


1 5 


100 




42 


34 


l 8 


79 


44 


44 


l 6 


91 




43 


17 


2 4 a 


99 


33 


37 


22 8 


96 


O 


194 


19 


19 


232 


202 


14 


14 


230 


40 


10 


l 7 


52 


45 


11 


l 7 


57 


Chile 


49 


10 


14 7 


73 


42 


10 


ll 7 


64 




142 


6 


70 


218 


174 


17 


52 


243 


Union of South 




















56 




15 


78 


52 


7 7 


15 


74 




116 


22 


69 s 


212 


123 


17 


64 s 


208 




107 


33 


71 


211 


115 


28 


77 


220 



1 Carcass meat— excludes edible offal, lard, rabbit, and poultry meat. 2 Pre- 
liminary. a Total includes canned meat. 4 Total includes goat, horse, and canned 
meat. 6 Total includes goat and horse meat. 6 Excludes farm production and 
consumption. 7 Includes goat meat. 8 Year ended September 30. 

Foreign Agricultural Service. Prepared or estimated from official statistics 
of foreign governments, reports of United States Foreign Service officers, and 
other information,— August 1953. 

Modern Meat Consumption 

It is generally assumed that earlier civilizations ate more meat 
than the later ones; however, there are no statistics of any value on 
this point. As a population of a country increases and agriculture 
develops, less meat is eaten. The decrease in meat consumption 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



MODERN MEAT CONSUMPTION 



33 



MEAT PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED COUNTRIES AND PER CENT OF 

WORLD TOTAL 
AVERAGE 1946-50 AND 1952 



AVERAGE 1946-50 



1952 



*OThER 1.2% 
MUTTON AND 
LAMB 9.3% 




*OTHER 1.0% 



MUTTON AND 
LAMB 8.5% 




TOTAL 67.0 BILLION POUNDS TOTAL 77.2 BILLION POUNDS 

*JWr AND HORSE ttfAT 

Source: IL S. Department of Agriculture 



WORLD MEAT PRODUCTION BY TYPES 
AVERAGE 1946-50 AND 1952 



AVERAGE 1946-50 

TOTAL 67.0 BILLION POUNDS 



NEW 
ZEALAND 1.8% 

AUSTRALIA 

3.2% 

OTM E R 
EUROPE 
3.8% 

e, Europe 
and 

u.s.s.r! 

13.9% 

DENMARK 

1.3% 

ITALY 18*/^ 

UNITE _ 
KINGDOM 
3.0% 

W. GERMANY 

4.0% 



ALL 
OTHER 10.7% 




1952 

TOTAL 77.2 BILLION POUNDS 

ALL OTHER 10.2% 

NEW ZEALAND 1.7%^ 

AUSTRALIA 3.0% 

OTHER 
EUROPE 
4.3% 



CANADA 
' 3.1% 

MEXICO 
1.6% 
ARGENTINA 
7. 8 % 






r ^ 


E. EUROPE 1 




AND V. I 


c 


u.ssr\4 




16.8% \ 




DENMARK 


1.6% 





UNITED 
KINGDOM 
3.7% 



FRANCE rr a 711 v 7 * 

5.7% ?7f4 URUGUAY 

4 ° 7 ° 1.1% 

Source: U. S. Department of Agriculture 



CANADA 
26% 

MEXICO 
1.5% 

ARGENTINA 

6.2% 

URUGUAY 1,1% 
BRAZIL 4.0% 



FRANCE 

5. 8% 



Digitiz 



Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



34 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



is realized more fully if we look back to the feasting at Christ- 
mas in Tudor England when, according to Life Magazine, dinner 
began around noon and often went on for eight or nine hours. At 
the end of the hall, seated upon a dais, the lord presided over the 
feast, surrounded by his family and numerous guests and attend- 
ants. One by one, to the blast of trumpets, the tremendous platters 
of food were borne into the hall. The greatest fanfare was reserved 
for the wild boar's head, the stuffed swan, and the roasted peacock, 
fully dressed with spreading tail and gilded beak. All about the 
table were urns of fruit, steaming pies, wassail bowls of ale floating 
with toasted apples, and confections in the intricate forms of ships 
or castles. Jesters, musicians, and mummers in fantastic masks 
rollicked about the table, dogs barked and snapped at morsels, and 
a "Lord of Misrule" appointed to govern for the day entertained 
the assembly with nonsensical edicts and clownish commands. But 
most of the guests were too busy devouring the food, with the aid 
of their fingers, to pay much attention to the festive confusion and 
frolicking. 

In the not too long past we have further evidence of the de- 
crease in meat consumption by reading a menu of the 1890's, when 
game was a food for epicures. Imagine sitting down to an elabor- 
ate and sophisticated dinner where the course of soup and fish were 
followed by "releves," six or more in number, among them turkey 
d la Toulouse, saddle of venison with currant jelly, and stewed 
terrapin d la Maryland. And after that came a number of cold, 
ornamented dishes; then the entrees and hors d'oeuvres. 

The second main course offered canvasback ducks, pheasants, 
partridges, and grouse, with ten vegetables. And finally came 15 
desserts and coffee. Such was the culinary tradition of the inns, 
taverns, and hotels of our larger cities during the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 

However, there are indications that, while the number of meat 
eaters increases steadily, the average consumption per person tends 
to decrease. It is also generally accepted that, as the standard of 
comfort rises, the diet becomes more varied. The consumption of 
meat in the United States, for example, was probably greater in 
the nineteenth century than in the twentieth century when there 
is a larger variety of food available. 

During the past five decades ending in 1950 the domestic con- 
sumption, per person, of meat, excluding lard, was as follows: 
1901-1910, 153 pounds per person; 1911-1920, 140 pounds; 1921- 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



GAME ON THE TABLE 



35 



1930, 136 pounds; 1931-1940, 131 pounds; 1941-1950, 147 pounds. 
During 1951 the consumption was 138 pounds per person, but in 
1952 it was around 145 pounds per person. This represents a 
daily consumption per person of approximately 3 ounces each of 
beef and pork and a half an ounce of the other meats, or a total of 
slightly more than 6 ounces. 

Consumer purchase studies made by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture tend to show that city people eat more meat 
per person than rural farm and non-farm rural people who have the 
same incomes. Farmers, however, eat more meat than non-farm 
rural people. Within each income class, city families consume more 
beef and veal per person than either farmers or non-farm rural peo- 
ple. City folks generally eat more lamb than rural people who have 
the same income. 

Game on the Table 

Game is the term applied to animals and birds which live free 
in the fields, woods, and mountains in a state of nature and are good 
to eat. Game is one of the delicacies of the dinner table; it is health- 
ful, savory, tasty, and easily digested. The share of food contributed 
by game to the average table is at present relatively small, and it is 
surprising how few persons in this country have ever eaten game. 
Most American families, in fact, have never even tasted it. 

If game meats were used more commonly and a taste for venison 
and wildfowl cultivated, there could be more variety in the diet with 
practically no increase in cost. 

The flesh of game, when young, is generally tender, contains less 
fat than poultry, is of a fine, though strong flavor, and is easy of diges- 
tion. Game meat is usually of dark color, ruffed grouse and quail 
being exceptions, and is usually cooked rare. 

Climatic conditions, food, and cover all bear a definite relation 
to the quality and taste of game meat. Many small game species 
survive and thrive in densely populated farm areas. 

Farms on which the crop rotation includes wheat, corn, buck- 
wheat, lespedeza, soybeans, and similar seed-producers are especially 
attractive to upland game birds and rabbits. In addition, rabbits 
are fond of almost any green vegetation, especially that grown in 
vegetable gardens. 

Age affects the flavor and texture of the meat from wild animals. 
It is impossible to state the age at which an animal will be best 



r,- -■ f^rtj-*nl/> Original from 

Digitized by ^OOglL CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



36 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



for meat, but everyone knows that meat from old animals is tougher 
than that from young ones. The flesh of very young animals, how- 
ever, frequently lacks flavor and is watery. An old animal, if fat 
and healthy, is better than a young one in poor condition. 

Venison has the same chemical composition as beef but is not 
nearly so fat as meat from well-fed cattle. A lean venison roast be- 
fore cooking contains, on the average, 75 per cent water, 20 per cent 
protein, and 2 per cent fat; a lean beef rump, 65 to 70 per cent 
water, 20 to 23 per cent protein, and 5 to 14 per cent fat; and a lean 
leg of mutton, 67 per cent water, 19 per cent protein, and 13 per 
cent fat. Venison, like beef and other common meats, is thoroughly 
digestible, whatever the method of cooking. 

Nutrition Tests. In experiments conducted at the technological 
laboratory of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service at College 
Park, Md., proximate analyses and vitamin assays were made on the 
comparative nutritive value of muskrat meat and beef. 



Proximate Analyses of Edible Portions of Roasted Meats 





Dry 






Mineral 


Calories per 


Meat Tested 


Matter 


Protein 


Fat 


matter 


100 grams 




% 


% 


% 


% 






32.1 


27.1 


4.2 


1.4 


150 


Beef 


42.4 


30.3 


10.8 


1.3 


220 



The two meats are quite similar in composition except that the 
muskrat meat contained less than half as much fat as the beef. The 
muskrat meat contained .16 milligram of thiamine and .21 milligram 
of riboflavin per 100 grams, as compared with values reported for 
beef of .1 1 milligram of thiamine and .20 milligram of riboflavin per 
100 grams. The proximate analyses and vitamin values, of course, 
vary somewhat from sample to sample. 

Feeding tests to determine the comparative nutritive value of 
these two meats showed that muskrat meat had an apparent digesti- 
bility of 93.4 per cent and that of beef 95.9 per cent. Both meats 
were easily digested. 

Proximate analyses and vitamin assays were made on cooked sam- 
ples of domestic rabbit, raccoon, opossum, muskrat and beaver 
meats. The results are shown in the following tables: 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



GAME ON THE TABLE 



37 



Proximate Analyses of Cooked Samples of 
Game Animals 











Min- 




Mois- 


Pro- 




eral 


Meat tested 


ture 


tein 


Fat 


matter 




% 




/o 


/o 


Beaver: 










Boiled 


56.2 


29.2 


13.7 


0.9 




64.2 


30.0 


5.1 


1.2 






r 67.1 


on *? 
49.7 


3.8 


1.5 


Muskrat, roasted 




66.4 


26.7 


5.3 


1.4 






I 70.2 


25.2 


3.3 


1.2 


Oppossum, roasted 


58.3 


30.2 


10.2 


2.3 






r 57.2 


24.9 


13.8 


1.4 






60.8 


32.4 


6.2 


1.3 






. 60.2 


33.6 


5.4 


1.5 




54.3 


29.2 


14.5 


1.5 



Vitamin Assays on Cooked Samples of Game Animals 



Meat tested 


Micrograms per 100 grams 
of cooked meat 


Thiamine 


Riboflavin 


Beaver: 






Baked 


76 


380 


Boiled 


60 


270 


Cottontail rabbit, fried 


160 


230 




160 


210 


Opossum: 






Broiled 


150 


2,580 




100 


375 


Rabbit: 






Baked 


105 


105 




104 


116 


Stewed 


50 


77 


Rabbit kidney, broiled 


400 


2,300 


Rabbit liver, roasted 


200 


2,300-2,500 


Raccoon, roasted 


575-600 


525 




200 


1,840 



The North American wild turkey, as its name implies, is truly 
American. This is the bird with which the Pilgrim Fathers inau- 
gurated the first Thanksgiving. It differs from its domestic kin in 
shape, size, and flavor. It has a very deep breast, longer legs, and 
the dark meat is as delicious as the light. Rare now in native 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original fro m 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



38 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



habitat, it is as difficult and sporting a game bird to hunt as the 
woodcock. The flavor of the meat is not so different from domestic 
turkey. It does not possess as gamey a taste as pheasant or quail. 
Some prefer it to the domestic species. The flesh, however, differs 
from other game birds in that it is juicy— not dry. 




Fig. 8. Fried or broiled domestic rabbit is delicious any time and can be 

served throughout the year. 

Domestic Rabbit 

Although domestic rabbit has no place in the category of game 
meats, it is nevertheless rapidly assuming a position of considerable 
importance as a "new meat/' 

Home dwellers with available space for a small back-yard rabbitry 
have discovered that, for the time, labor, and expense involved, the 
easy-to-raise domestic rabbit, which is ready for table use in 90 days, 
pays a handsome dividend in good eating. Each doe can produce 
4 litters, of 7 to 8 each, in a year. Fryer rabbits at two months will 
dress about 2 pounds, and slightly more than 77 per cent of the 
product is edible. Older and heavier rabbits— those beyond the 
fryer age— are delicious in a fricassee or roast. Meat markets in 



Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



POULTRY 



39 



many sections of the country can supply rabbit meat for families 
unable to raise their own. 

In food value, the domestic rabbit ranks with poultry and other 
lean table meats as a protein builder of muscle and body. It is fine- 
grained, delicately flavored, and highly nutritious. Chemical anal- 
ysis shows it to be composed of 19.7 to 21 per cent protein, 8.5 to 
16.0 per cent fat, 62 to 70 per cent water, and 1 per cent mineral 
salts. The edible part of the carcass is about 82 to 85 per cent of 
the dressed weight. This percentage is much higher in the ciressed 
carcasses of mature rabbits weighing 3 to 7 pounds than it is in those 
of younger rabbits weighing from to 2 to 2^4 pounds. 

Some housewives still have a prejudice against the use of rabbit 
meat, because they confuse the domestic grain-fed rabbit with the 
wild animal, such as the cottontail and the hare. This may be due 
in part to the unattractive way in which the carcasses of wild rab- 
bits, shot by hunters, have been offered to housewives. 

The meat of the domestic rabbit is all white, like the breast of 
chicken; and in both color and flavor it is entirely different from 
wild rabbit. Unlike the wild rabbit, the domestic rabbit is available 
the year round, the same as chicken, and is as palatable and nutri- 
tious in hot weather as in cold. 



The term poultry in its general sense includes all domestic birds 
bred and raised for human food. It implies turkeys, geese, ducks, 
guinea fowl, and pigeons, just as well as chickens. 

The meat of well-fattened chickens of young or medium age has 
about the same nutritive value as beef, but it is considered easier 
to digest and therefore suitable for invalids and convalescents. 

Squabs, the young of pigeons, were recognized as delicious and 
nourishing food hundreds of years before Christ. They supply 
choice, tender meat for home consumption. They sometimes sub- 
stitute for game birds. The flesh of a squab contains a larger pro- 
portion of soluble protein and a smaller proportion of connective 
tissue than pigeon flesh; it is a good source of liquid protoplasm 
and vitamin G and is relatively rich in phosphorus.. Squab meat 
has a fine texture and a distinctive, delicious flavor, is tender, and 
easily digested. A squab is desirable for an individual serving. 

Today the precedent of the traditional turkey at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and other special occasions has given way to serving this 
choice bird at all times of the year, and it is becoming less and less 



Poultry 




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40 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 



expensive. Meatier turkeys are being developed so that a small (9 
to 12 lb.) turkey will serve a family of five generously at two meals* 
Any day in any year may now be turkey day. 




Fig. 9. Any day in the year can be turkey day. They are sold live, dressed, or 
ready-to-cook, in various sizes and parts. 

Duck and goose differ considerably from both turkey and chicken 
in shape, in proportion of dark and light meat, and in fat content. 
Raising ducks and geese has been practiced in Europe for centuries. 
It began in the United States with the arrival of the early settlers. 
The increase in human population and the development of cities 
created a demand for duck and goose meat, especially on the part 
of the foreign-born population, and therefore duck and goose pro- 
duction has expanded considerably from its early beginning. The 
dark meat of ducks and geese provides the consumers with a change 
from the white meat of chicken and turkeys. Ducks and geese, be- 
cause they are quite fat, are efficient self-basters, and no extra basting 
is necessary during roasting. Both goose and duck fat are desirable 
for pan-frying or sauteing all kinds of food. 

Guineas, like game fowl that have been a rarity of the past, are 
becoming more popular and the demand is increasing due to present 
meat prices. The distinct dark color and wild flavor of this small, 
compact bird is being appreciated more. The breast of the guinea 
hen is still a great delicacy. It is the meatiest part of the bird and, 
since the hen has the plumpest breast, the guinea hen is most prized 
for cooking. 

Guinea fowl, are also used as a substitute for game birds such as 
grouse, partridge, and pheasant. Many hotels and restaurants in the 



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FISH 



41 



large cities serve prime young guineas at banquets and club dinners 
as a special delicacy. When well-cooked, guineas are attractive in 
appearance, although darker than chicken, turkey, or squab. Young 
guinea is tender and of especially fine flavor resembling that of wild 
game birds. Like other old fowl, old guineas are likely to be tough 
and rather dry. 

Finally there are the giblets, edible viscera of both domestic and 
wildfowl— livers, hearts, gizzards— which give rise to a number of 
preparations. Before it was possible to buy cut-up chicken these 
various parts of poultry, considered valuable in foreign countries, 
were generally discarded or used chopped in gravies. The head of 
a chicken is in Europe left on the bird when it is cooked, as the 
brain is accounted a tidbit; blanched cocks' combs and wattles are 
rated by French cooks as a delicacy worthy of preparation as a sepa- 
rate dish, and especially desirable for garnishing; and the feet 
skinned and dressed are used for broths. 

Cooked giblets may be chopped, heated in gravy, baked in dress- 
ing, and folded into omelets. They are high in nutritive value. 
Giblets cooked together with necks, backs, and wing tips make an 
appetizing soup or stew. Livers sauteed in butter or bacon fat, with 
or without onions or mushrooms, served on toast are excellent. 



Fish is one of the keys to successful meal planning. There are so 
many kinds of fish— and so many ways to serve it. Fish is a boon to 
the budget and in these days of quick freezing, refrigeration, and 
fast transportation, it is easy to get and easy to prepare. It may be 
caught or bought fresh, frozen, or canned. Few people realize how 
many varieties of fish are available on the market. In fact, only 
about a dozen or so species, namely the pilchard of California, 
sardine, salmon, tuna, mackerel, sea herring, menhaden, shrimp, 
oysters, haddock, rosefish, crabs, cod, and flounders, make up 80 per 
cent of the total catch. 

Many fish are on the list of under-utilized species that could be 
caught in greater quantity and so supply a considerable poundage 
of needed food. Conservative in its eating habits, the public tends 
to ask for only the staple and well-known kinds. Many fish discarded 
in the United States have been on European menus for years. 

Inland fish in particular could be used more widely. The neg- 
lected carp is so abundant throughout the Middle West that sports- 
men consider it a nuisance. Properly handled and prepared, it is an 
excellent food, considered a delicacy by Europeans. 



Fish 




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42 



MEAT CHARACTERISTICS 




Fig. 10, Fish are rich in nutritive value since they are excellent sources of very 

digestible proteins. 



Buffalo fish are also available in quantity, as are the sweet-meated, 
though bony, suckers. The burbot, a wholesome food dish, is 
present in quantities in the Great Lakes during most of the year. 

Among ocean species, we are likely to see more frequently in the 
markets such varieties as skates, sharks, anglerfish, puffers, sea 
robins, mussels, and squids. Now the public, faced with high meat 
prices, is more willing to try the new species seen in sea food mar- 
kets. The once-neglected sea mussel is now enjoying some popu- 
larity on the Atlantic Coast. 

Still more or less in the field of marine curiosities as far as the 
general public is concerned are squids, periwinkles, conches, and 
sea urchins. However, Americans of recent European or Asiatic 
origin regard these creatures as delicacies. Although comparatively 
few Americans have ever tasted squid, the canning of this marine 
mollusk is an old and well-established industry in California, and 
before World War II more squid than crab was being canned in 
the United States. 



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FISH 



43 



The meat of our largest marine mammal, the whale, has been 
quite popular recently. The meat is dark red and tastes something 
like beef. It is eaten in many countries. Its flesh is wholesome when 
properly handled. 

Fish are rich in nutritive value since they are excellent sources 
of digestible proteins, and contain essential minerals, vitamins, and 
fats. Government nutrition charts recommend that all of us eat at 
least one serving of fish, meat, or fowl every day. Fish may be eaten 
interchangeably with meat or fowl because most varieties contain 
as much food value as meat— in many cases more. A good policy 
for health insurance is to follow the Government's suggestion and 
eat more fish. Once a week is good— twice is better. 




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/// 



FOOD PLANNING 



This book is about home meat economies. Rememberl It is 
written primarily for the family, to help solve the meat problem and 
to amplify the meat supply. Meat is entitled to a high-ranking spot 
in our present-day culinary setup. 

Every homemaker strives to serve enjoyable meals and keep the 
family well nourished. It is a difficult task; and to maintain a 
healthy and happy family one must practice thrift and save time 
and energy wherever possible. 

To complete the food program, then, it is important to tell some- 
thing about food planning to provide meals that contain vitamins 
and other nutrients in quantities which different individuals need. 
Your family will agree that food intelligently selected, carefully 
prepared, and properly served tastes better. 

A Ready-Made Food Plan 

Even though meat has a top rating as food, it is not a perfect 
food. There is no single food that supplies all the body require- 
ments. So when you eat a variety of food you are pretty sure of 
getting a well-rounded assortment of the nutrients and vitamins you 
need. To be sure your family is well fed you must provide each 
important kind of food— and enough of it. This requires wise 
planning. 

A helpful guide for weekly shopping and meal planning has been 
developed by the nutritionists of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. They tell us at the beginning that a food fact worth 
knowing is: When families in this country are poorly fed, the foods 
they neglect are most often milk and milk products, and vegetables 
and fruits— especially the leafy, green, and yellow vegetables and 
citrus fruits. Watch for these in planning. 

In the nutrition plan given on page 48, foods are in groups ac- 

44 



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HOW TO FIGURE THE FAMILY'S NEEDS 



45 



cording to their major contributions of nutrients, as well as their 
place in the meal. Amounts to provide for adequate diets are shown 
in pounds and quarts of food for a week. 

You can use the allowance plan on page 49 in several ways. It 
can serve as a shopping guide, as it stands to show the approximate 
amount of food needed for each member of the family. Or you can 
compare it to kinds and quantities of food you regularly use, just 
to make sure that you are not short in any important kind. 

If you have a garden and put up food for the winter, the food 
plan can help as a general guide to amounts of foods that the family 
will use. 




Fig. 11. Ground beef broiled on toast, with or without onion rings, is a favorite 
with the youngsters and the oldsters as well. 



How to Figure the Family's Needs 

In using the food plan, figure weekly amounts of the food groups 
that will fit your family. The figures in the columns preceding 
pounds or quarts are arranged to show food quantities according to 
age, sex, and how active the individual is. Where a range is given: 
For children, the first quantity is for the youngest age. For adults, 
the first quantity is for the less active. The most active adults do 
really heavy work or take strenuous exercise. For pregnant and 



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46 



FOOD PLANNING 



nursing women, the first quantity is for pregnant women and the 
second for nursing women. 

No figures are given for children under one year because they are 
often breast fed or have formulas or other food prepared especially 
for them. 

Guided by these ranges, you can estimate the quantity needed 
for each person in the family. Use judgment in doing this. If a 
child is having a spurt of growing, he may need the amount of food 
usually suggested for children a year or two older. 




Fig. 12. Pot roast of beef— chuck, rump or round— with potatoes, onions and 
carrots, is a thrifty and savory dish. 



As you add up the amount of each kind of food your family mem- 
bers need in a week, write the figure in the column provided in the 
food plan sheet. This is your guide, to use as it stands or to com- 
pare with amounts you have been using. 

Food and Economy 

Quantities in the food plan can be purchased for about the same 
money that the average family in this country spends for food. This 



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DAILY DIETARY NEEDS 



47 



assumes that you will choose moderate-priced foods, or mix some 
cheaper foods with more expensive ones. On the other hand, if you 
want to reduce food costs and still eat well and in some instances 
much better, then preserve some food. You can save money by pur- 
chasing meat, vegetables, and fruits in quantity and preserving them 
at home. Freezing is the easiest method and requires the minimum 
of time and energy. Other methods, principally for fruits and 
vegetables, are canning and preserving, and for meats, marinating, 
corning, brine and dry curing, and smoking. Remember that meat, 
poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese contain the top-rating proteins 
and some of these protein foods are needed each day; it is an ad- 
vantage to include some in each meal. 




Fig. 13. Mixed grill— lamb chop, sausage cake, liver, broiled tomatoes and 
parsley potatoes— makes a sumptuous meal. 



Daily Dietary Needs 

The following table gives a rough idea of how servings from 
groups of familiar foods contribute toward dietary needs. These 
ratings, calculated by the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home 
Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, are based on daily 
allowances of the nutrients for a moderately active man as recom- 
mended by the National Research Council. 

A serving that rates 5 stars provides more than 50 per cent of the 
day's need for a nutrient. A 4-star serving provides about 40 per 
cent; 3-star serving, 30 per cent; 2-star serving, 20 per cent; and 1-star 
serving, 10 per cent* Smaller amounts are not shown. 



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50 



FOOD PLANNING 



Federal Meat Inspection 



The United States and the Canadian governments require meat 
processing establishments to maintain satisfactory cleanliness and 
sanitary conditions before they are granted meat inspection service. 

All meat processors engaged in interstate, interprovincial, or for- 
eign trade are required to maintain government inspection during 
the various stages of meat processing. However, these regulations 
do not prevent uninspected meat from being sold within the state 
or province. Of all meat and meat products consumed, about two- 
thirds in the United States and about one-half in Canada are fed- 
erally inspected. The remainder is processed and consumed within 
the state or province, where it is subject only to local inspection 
laws. Some states have state inspection which is nearly identical to 
the United States Federal inspection. Some cities also have a similar 
inspection. 

Meat inspection in both the United States and Canada is an 
assurance that the meat has been slaughtered, dressed, and prepared 
under sanitary conditions; also that it is free from disease and en- 
tirely wholesome at the time the meat was marked with the inspec- 
tion stamp. 

The meat inspection stamps of the United States and Canada are 
illustrated below. 




This stamp on fresh and 
cured meat {and certain 
other meat products) shows 
that the meat was inspected 
and passed as wholesome 
food. The purple coloring 
is absolutely harmless. 




This stamp printed on canned 
or packaged meat products shows 
that the contents were inspected 
and passed as wholesome food. 





Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



FEDERAL MEAT GRADING AND STAMPING SERVICE 51 



All labels or tags affixed to federally inspected meat and meat 
food products must be approved in the United States by the Meat 
Inspection Branch, United States Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C, and in Canada by the Health of Animals Division, 
Dominion Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 

Meat and meat food products cannot be imported into the United 
States unless the country from which they are exported has compar- 
able inspection to that of the United States. The imported product 
is inspected by United States Government inspectors at the port of 
entry. Any product found to be unfit for human food is either de- 
stroyed or refused entry. Meat products imported into Canada must 
be acceptable under Canadian inspection meat requirements. Both 
governments require an official certificate of inspection from the 
exporting country to accompany the meat at the time it is offered 
for entry. 

When buying federally inspected meat or meat food products, 
look for the round stamps, brands, or labels showing the processing 
establishment number. 

The fluid used to stamp the meat is made of vegetable coloring 
and is harmless. The imprint usually disappears when the meat is 
cooked. Therefore, it is not absolutely necessary to cut off the stamp 
before cooking the meat. Sometimes the inspection legend, in abbre- 
viated form, is burned into smoked meats, liver and beef hearts. La- 
bels applied to cans, tins, buckets, and cartons of federally inspected 
products are required to bear the statement, "U. S. Inspected and 
Passed by the Department of Agriculture" in the United States, and 
in Canada the statement "Canada Approved." The number of the 
meat processor or packing establishment also appears on these labels. 

Kosher meat is slaughtered, examined, and given the necessary 
rites by the shohet or representative of the Orthodox Jewish religion. 
It is then marked with the Hebrew symbols. These symbols are not 
to be confused with the United States inspection stamp or the Can- 
adian inspection legend, although kosher meat often carries the 
government inspection stamp as well as the Hebrew symbols. 

For a more detailed explanation of the Federal meat inspection 
system, write the Meat Inspection Branch, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 



Most consumers have decided preferences with regard to meat. 
Those whose incomes will permit are usually willing to pay pre- 



Federal Meat Grading and Stamping Service 




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52 



FOOD PLANNING 



mium prices for meat of higher quality, and those whose incomes 
necessitate economy in purchases desire to get the highest grade 
obtainable for the price paid. But the price of meat is not always 
an accurate indicator of quality. Unless the grade name is stamped 
on the product or indicated by some other method, the consumer 
has no way of identifying either the highest grade or the highest 
grade obtainable for the price paid. Then, too, most consumers 
are not good judges of meat. 

Meat possesses an unusually wide range in quality. It is graded 
on factors which determine its relative value to the consumer. 
Quality is determined by color, texture, grain, and the degree of 
marbling (intermingling of fat through the lean). Finish indicates 
the amount, color, character and distribution of fat. Conformation 
refers to the general build and shape of the carcass, side or cut. Its 
main consideration in grading is the close relationship which exists 
between conformation and the relative proportion of lean meat to 
bone. These are the principal factors that determine the grade of 
meat. 



The meat-grading and stamping service of the government gives 
consumers a means by which they can select meat with reasonable 
assurance that they are getting the quality or grade of meat that 
they want and are paying for. Government experts— men who know 
meat— carefully grade it while it is still at the packing plant. With 
a roller stamp they mark the carcass so that the grade name appears 
on all the principal cuts sold in the stores. 




The U. S. grade stamp 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



FEDERAL MEAT GRADING AND STAMPING SERVICE 53 



Description of the grades. Beef of each grade will provide a satis- 
factory dish if the meat is appropriately cooked. The degree of 
quality to associate with each of the grades is briefly discussed in 
the paragraphs that follow: 



USDA 
PRIME 



As the name implies, beef of this grade is 
highly acceptable and palatable. Prime grade 
beef is produced from young and well-fed beef- 
type cattle. The youth of the animal and the 
careful intensive feeding which it has had, com- 
bine to produce very high quality cuts of beef. 
Such cuts have liberal quantities of fat inter- 
spersed within the lean (marbling). These char- 
acteristics contribute greatly to the juiciness, 
tenderness, and flavor of the meat. Rib roasts 
and loin steaks of this grade are consistently 
tender and cuts from the round and chuck 
should also be highly satisfactory. 



USDA 
CHOICE 



This grade is preferred by most consumers be- 
cause it is of high quality but has less fat than 
beef of the Prime grade. More of this grade of 
beef is produced than of any other grade. Choice 
grade beef is usually available the year-round in 
substantial quantity. Roasts and steaks from the 
loin and rib are tender and juicy and other cuts, 
such as those from the round or chuck which 
are more suitable for braising and pot roasting, 
should be tender with a well-developed flavor. 



This grade pleases thrifty homemakers who 
seek beef with little fat but with an acceptable 
U S D A ( ^ e S ree °f q ua ^ l y- Although cuts of this grade 
_ V lack the juiciness associated with a higher degree 
Lj U U U ) of fatness, their relative tenderness and high 
proportion of lean to fat make them the prefer- 
ence of many people. 



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54 



USDA 
CDMRCL 



FOOD PLANNING 

Beef that is graded Commercial is produced 
largely from older animals and usually lacks the 
tenderness of the higher grades. Cuts from this 
grade, if carefully prepared, can be made into 
satisfactory and economical meat dishes. ('Most 
cuts require long, slow cooking with moist heat 
to make them tender and to develop the rich, 
full, beef flavor characteristic of mature beef. ^ 

Some young animals produce beef of Com- 
mercial grade. Cuts from carcasses of such ani- 
mals have a very thin fat covering and are prac- 
tically devoid of marbling. 



USDA 
UTILITY 



Beef of this grade is produced mostly from cat- 
tle somewhat advanced in age and is usually 
lacking in natural tenderness and juiciness. The 
cuts of this grade, as they appear in the retail 
markets, carry very little fat but provide a pala- 
table, economical source of lean meat for pot 
roasting, stewing, boiling, or ground-meat dishes. 
For satisfactory results, long, slow cooking by 
moist heat is essential. 



OTHER There are also two other grades of beef— Cut- 

GRADES ter an( j Canner. These are ordinarily used in 

processed meat products and are rarely, if ever, 

sold as cuts in retail stores. 



Government standards have been developed chiefly for the grad- 
ing and standardization of beef sold at retail. The grade stamp 
found on all the main cuts takes much of the gambling out of buy- 
ing beef. It is different from the round purple stamp used in Fed- 
eral meat inspection work. The round stamp shows that the meat 
has been inspected and passed for food. The grading work takes 
place later. It is an optional service to aid in the merchandizing 
of meats under exact and true grade names, thus enabling the house- 
wife, when she wants a "Good" grade roast or steak to be sure of 
obtaining that quality. 



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GRADING AND INSPECTION OF POULTRY 



55 



For more detailed explanation of Federal grading program and 
services offered, write the Live Stock Division, Agricultural Market- 
ing Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington 
25, D. C. 

Lamb and veal, as well as beef, are graded by the government 
when the meat packer or distributor asks for the service and pays 
for it. At present the government is grading pork on contract orders 
only. 

Beef is the only meat that is government graded in Canada. The 
grade stamp is red or blue depending on grade; it runs the full 
length of the carcass. 

Federal meat grading service is also available in Canada to meat 
packers, wholesalers, and jobbers, and, as in the United States, it is 
not compulsory. 

The two official Canadian grade names of beef are "Choice" and 



Choice is the best quality of beef. It is marked with a red ribbon- 
like stamp. A portion of this stamp appears on practically every 
major retail cut. The word "Choice" does not appear, as the red 
color indicates the grade. 

Good is the standard grade of beef and is marked with a blue 
ribbon-like stamp. The word "Good" does not appear, as the blue 
color indicates the grade. This grade is in demand with those who 
desire good-eating quality without undue waste or cost. 

Veal in Canada is not graded or marked for the consumer, but 
it is for the wholesaler and the retail dealer; there are three grades: 
"Good," "Medium," and "Fair." 

Also, pork is not marked for the retail grade, although it is classi- 
fied in the wholesale market into three principal grades: "Selects," 
"Bacons," and "Butchers." "Selects" and "Bacons" represent the 
highest grades. 

Federal-State Grading and Inspection of Poultry 

The Voluntary Poultry Regulations of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture offer several grading and inspection programs 
and services. Although they are used mostly by commercial opera- 
tors, some producers having large processing operations are now 
operating under one or more of these programs. Poultry producers 
who use any of the following kinds of services must adhere to the 
above-mentioned regulations, as long as they are operating under 
them: 



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FOOD PLANNING 



(1) Grading of Dressed Poultry. Under this program, Federal 
or Federal-State graders do the grading. Only carcasses of A quality 
or B quality may be individually identified by a Federal grade mark, 
illustrated below. The containers of such poultry may also be 
identified with a grade mark. If dressed poultry is of C quality, 
only the bulk containers may be so identified, even though the 
grading may have been performed on an individual bird basis. 




Left to right: A Federal grade mark for ready-to-cook chickens; 
the Federal inspection mark; a Federal combination mark, bearing 
the inspection and grade marks. 

(2) Grading of Ready-to-Cook Poultry. Under this program, the 
birds must be inspected for wholesomeness and condition by a 
Federal inspector, or by an inspector for some other approved 
agency as a prerequisite to grading. The birds are graded by a 
Federal or Federal-State grader. Ready-to-cook birds that have been 
graded and inspected, or their containers, may be identified by a 
Federal grade mark such as that shown above for dressed poultry. 
However, if such a grade mark is used, the Federal inspection mark 
must be used with it, or a Federal combination mark can be used 
when the inspection was made by a Federal inspector. If the inspec- 
tion was made by an inspector from an approved agency other than 
the United States Department of Agriculture, some identification 
other than the Federal inspection mark must be used with the grade 
mark to show that the birds were so inspected. 

(3) Inspection of Dressed Poultry for Processing as Ready-to* 
Cook Poultry. Under this inspection service, a Federal inspector 
examines dressed poultry for wholesomeness and condition while 
the birds are being eviscerated. The ready-to-cook birds (whole or 
cut up, prepared from such poultry) or the containers in which 
they are packed can be identified with the inspection mark. 

For a more detailed explanation of the grading and inspection 
programs and services offered by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, write the Agricultural Marketing Service, United States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 



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CONSIDERATIONS 



jWr-h^ri*Tig p reserving meat and meat products on the farm 
constitute a major home industry. In many sections ot our cou rxtry^ 
ra ising, sTagghrgfTngj and piO(Jt£stTIj^the~ farm porkjj^jj^u^ 
c <dfonaL Around 151/9 millio n hogs, almost Wfc million beef cattle 
Jan ^t alvoGi and uvci i/ ' g h iillion _sheejijLn^ are butchered eadT 
ygax^Qn the fa rm for hom e use. 

ThisconcepTof meat econ6niy should extend into the suburban 
and city families; because modern developments, such as unit freez- 
ers for the home, freezer locker plants, improved methods of home 
curing and meat preservation, not only help solve the meat problem 
but amplify the food supply. Home meat curing, sausage making, 
and canning are no longer matters of guesswork and no longer diffi- 
cult projects. Practical meat economies in the home should gain 
popularity and become more universal because of changing eco- 
nomic conditions which are affecting our mode of living. 
Louis Bromfield says this about raising pigs: 

You can breed the pigs and buy the corn and get on; you can raise the 
corn and buy the pigs and get on; 

If you buy the corn and buy the pigs to feed, you haven't a chance; 
But if you breed the pigs and raise the corn, you'll make money. 

However, it is not essential to breed the pigs and raise the corn 
to procure better and less expensive meat. Obviously, one who does 
produce, process, and consume his own meat products has a decided 
advantage over a nonproducer for he eliminates the middlemen, 
thus increasing his operating margin. One would act wisely if he 
made himself independent of the world market insofar as his family 
fare is concerned, but it is quite impossible with a continuation of 
our standard of living to accomplish this completely. However, one 

57 



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way to stabilize the family budget is to lick the meat problem. This 
should gain in popularity even though it requires the preservation 
and storage of a larger variety and a greater poundage of meat than 
previously. It is not even necessary to cure, smoke, and can the 
entire meat supply, for it is now possible to have a considerable 
quantity of fresh meats during the year, thanks to unit freezers for 
household use and freezer locker plants. Although the raising and 
slaughtering of meat animals on the farm is quite essential and 
should be extended to reduce the family meat bill, it is not, how- 
ever, absolutely necessary that the suburbanite and the city dweller 
butcher the animals that supply the meat to be preserved and stored. 
Most communities have experienced butchers who will do custom 
butchering, and practically all refrigerator locker plants have pro- 
fessional butchers who slaughter and cut up the carcass. 



The production or the procurement of the animal is only the first 
step in obtaining a home meat supply. If the meat requirements 
of the family are sufficiently large and conditions are favorable, 
home butchering may be a practical undertaking. Without the 
proper equipment or the knowledge and ability to butcher and 
process the meat, the result may prove costly and disappointing. 

Butchering and preserving meat require considerable thought and 
preparation. The warm carcass of a freshly slaughtered meat animal 
is a highly perishable food product up to the time the meat is ready 
to be cooked. 

Precise application to correct methods, cautious cleanliness in 
handling meat, and the correct tools and equipment are all impor- 
tant to do the job properly and successfully. 



A shed or building properly equipped for butchering, with small 
pens adjacent for holding the animals prior to slaughter, is, of 
course, an ideal structure in which to do the job. Slaughtering can 
be done, however, in a garage, in the basement of a house, or out- 
doors. 

Proper means for hoisting the carcass should be provided, such 
as a tripod made of timbers, a tree, or a brace extending out from 
a building. A chain hoist, block-and-tackle, or windlass is necessary 
for hoisting. This equipment should be sufficiently strong to carry 



Preparations for Butchering 



Equipment and Tools 




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59 




Fig, 14. Equipment for use in slaughtering and dressing hogs: Gambrel (single- 
tree), hook, smooth steel, skinning knife, boning knife, saw, bell-shaped hog 

scrapers, and thermometer. 




Fig. 15. "Hobbyhorse." A simple and inexpensive means for 
lifting, as well as suspending, the hog carcass. 

the weight easily. Hooks, gambrel sticks, or a single tree will suffice 
for hogs and sheep, and a neck yolk makes a satisfactory tree for 
hanging light beef carcasses, whereas for heavy cattle a double tree 
should be used. A pair of ordinary clevises should be used to fasten 
the tendons in the case of a beef carcass to prevent it from slipping 
off the tree. 

In the case of hogs, a water-heating arrangement with scalding 
vat and a substantial table are basic requirements; however, a hog 



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Fig. 16. Homemade beef hoist. A simple method of hoisting a beef carcass is 
illustrated in these sketches. A fork or rake handle or gas pipe is slipped 
through incisions between tendon and shank bone; ropes are suspended from 
tree limb or other support (wide apart at top) to height of hocks below. To 
free ends of rope are tied short sticks, as 2-foot pieces of broom handle or 
equally strong material. These are placed inside the shanks and are used as 
levers for winding up ropes around fork or rake handle, as shown. Two men 
wind up the rope around pipe or handle. When beef is at right height, another 
pipe or handle is laid across between ropes and ends of sticks to prevent un- 
winding. As the beef is raised the legs are spread farther and farther, as desired. 

can be scalded in a metal or wooden barrel. A thermometer, hand 
hooks, bell-shaped hog scrapers, meat saw, cleaver, knives, whet- 
stone, and a steel are needed. If a cleaver or meat saw is not avail- 
able, a sharp hatchet and a wood saw will suffice. A sledge or an 
ax can be used to stun an animal. 

For slaughtering lambs, a low bench or box is required. If many 
lambs are to be killed, a V-shaped trough of proper height is ntost 
convenient. 

Some heavy and light rope, plenty of buckets, tubs, clean cloths, 
and an abundance of fresh water should be on hand for butchering 
any animal. 

A good set of knives is required, but they need not be elaborate 
or expensive. Certain tools are essential and others are desirable. 
Most useful of all is the curved 6-inch skinning knife. It may be 
used for sticking hogs, raising the gambrel tendons, shaving and 
dressing the carcass, and cutting and trimming the meat. It is also 
the best knife for skinning cattle and lambs. Once the user becomes 
accustomed to its shape, the curved knife will be found to cut more 
easily and smoothly than the straight butcher knife. A narrow- 
bladed boning knife, the narrower the better, is needed in preparing 
boneless roasts and in boning meat that is to be made into sausage 
or canned. A butcher knife, whetstone, steel, cleaver, bell scrapers, 
meat saw, meat hooks, and a stunning ax or hammer are also re- 



quired. 




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61 




62 



PRESLAUGHTER CONSIDERATIONS 




><?8emovabIe 2x4 slats 
lOd headless nails 



Fig. 18. Method of holding 2- by 4-inch removable slats. It is a 
good plan to have the vat and most of the wooden parts 
mounted so that they can be removed, cleaned, and stored when 

not in use. 

Additional "tools" useful in preparing meat for curing and smok- 
ing are a salinometer; meat pump; meat-curing thermometer; and 
meat needle for sewing rolled or folded cuts; curing barrels; a meat 
grinder; sausage stuffer; lard containers; pans and bowls for pieces 
of meat and meat trimmings, scrapple, and headcheese; and a smoke- 
house. 

Plan well ahead of the time for butchering and organize a conven- 
ient, well-equipped place for doing the work. Then, by conscien- 
tiously following the methods given in this book, you will proceed 
easily and more safely toward better processed meat. 

It is quite important to have a good set of knives and the proper 
gadgets to keep them sharp. The knives must be designed for the 
work they are supposed to do. They must keep their cutting edges 
if used for the right purpose and given the proper care. A good 
knife should be well balanced, and the blade should be neither too 
stiff nor too limber to be manipulated with ease in performing the 
job intended. A high carbon content of steel indicates a good 
quality of knife; but unfortunately one cannot tell by looking at a 
knife whether it has a high or low carbon content in the steel blade. 
The best plan is to purchase knives made by well-known manufac- 
turers. 

Grinding. When offered for sale, knives are not usually sharpened 
for immediate use. All of them require honing, and some need 
further grinding before they are honed. When it is necessary to 




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63 



have extra thinness on the cutting edge of the blade, a sandstone 
can be used. The stone should be water-cooled when in use so as to 
prevent heating the steel blade. The idea in grinding is to develop 
a bevel of about one-fourth of an inch from the edge on both sides 
of the knife to be used in sticking and skinning. The stone should 
be run at a right angle against the edge or with the edge of the blade. 
Care should be taken not to cut or scar the blade further back than 
the required bevel. After grinding, the knife should be honed. 

Honing. Special whetstones made for this operation are obtain- 
able. Either water or oil, as the case may be, is used to develop the 
proper abrasive surface. Perhaps you have seen such a stone used 
by the barber to hone a razor or by the shoemaker to sharpen his 
leather-cutting knives. Such a stone is generally set in a heavy 
wooden base to keep it stationary. To hone a knife, grasp the han- 
dle in the right hand. Place the heel of the knife blade on the left 
end of the stone. Tilt the blade up high enough so that the bevel 
lies flat on the stone. Place the fingers of the left hand on the blade 
near the back edge and put pressure on the entire blade. Draw the 
knife with a sweeping motion to the right, completely across and 
inward against the cutting edge of the blade. Then turn the knife 
over in the palm of the hand by a twist of the thumb and an index 
finger and draw the blade across the stone in the opposite direction. 
Always draw the knife across the stone against the edge of the blade 
to prevent forming a wire edge. To put the edge in perfect condi- 
tion and complete the sharpening process, the knife must be steeled. 

Steeling. There are steels of various kinds adapted for definite 
use. The mirror steel is the one best adapted for butchering, as it 
puts a razor-sharp edge on the blade. One 10 or 12 inches long is 
quite satisfactory. In his book, How to Carve Meat, Game and 
Poultry, M. O. Cullen, meat carving expert of the National Live- 
stock and Meat Board, states: 

Steeling requires definite technique, for anything but the right way will 
produce the exact reverse of the end desired, which is to straighten the 
edge of the blade. 

The detailed instructions for steeling, difficult to describe in words, 
are much simpler to follow if the directions are acted out with the imple- 
ments in the hand. 

Hold the steel, thumb over the handle, firmly in the left hand and on 
a level with the elbow. The steel should be pointed slightly away from 
the body and upward at about a 45-degree angle. The carving knife is 
held in the right hand, almost at a perpendicular. In the next steps the 
knife actually comes in contact with the steel, and the angle at which this 
takes place is the important thing to watch. The angle should be some- 
where between 25 and 35 degrees. No one, of course, expects you to re- 




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PRESLAUGHTER CONSIDERATIONS 



view the basic principles of geometry in order to measure out the angle to 
the nth degree, A fair approximation of the tilt of the knife will ordinarily 
serve the purpose of laying the blade against the steel so that the edge 
can be straightened rather than rounded. This is the tapering process 
which takes place when a blade is trued up. 

Then, once having established the angle, place the heel of the blade 
at the tip end of the steel, and on the side farthest from the body. Bring 
the knife downward the whole length of the steel, so that at the end of 
this stroke the point of the knife is at the hilt of the steel. Now lift the 
knife up again to the original starting position, alternate to the other side 
of the steel and repeat the motion, remembering each time to take in the 
full length of the blade. Most people find this way of alternating surfaces 
(nearer and farther) on the steel the surest and easiest one for maintaining 
the blade at its correct and steady angle while in motion. 

Once you have mastered the knack of steeling, the trick is to draw the 
knife along lightly but steadily, with very little pressure, keeping the wrist 
relaxed (like the bow arm of the violinist), the steel stationary and the 
eye on the alert to hold the angle. However complicated all this may sound 
(it takes a good many words to describe the simplest of steps involving one 
completed movement), I hasten to reassure you that it is a fundamentally 
easy and elementary physical action. True, a novice, translating words into 
deeds, might in the very beginning get worked up into knots and go at it 
too tensely, but after a little effort the arms relax and the free swing up 
and back becomes as automatic as shifting the gears on your car. 

The beginner might well return to his boyhood days long enough to 
whittle himself a wooden knife, corresponding in size and shape to the 
knife. With this harmless imitation, he can practice the arm and wrist 
movement in the steeling action without too much concern for the per- 
fectly good hand holding the steel. 



It is important to emphasize again that fresh meat is highly perish- 
able, and proper handling is essential to make it into sound and 
palatable products that will keep satisfactorily. Absolute cleanliness 
must be practiced at all stages of killing and processing the meat. 
Only through the elimination of waste and spoilage can the advan- 
tages of home butchering be realized. 

Preservation of meat begins with the choice of animals for slaugh- 
ter. In the commercial meat industry, however, there is no critical 
selection for slaughter because the meat industry adapts the animals 
offered by producers to meet consumer demands. 

But the farmer or anyone who selects an animal for home use 
often has the chance to choose one that best meets the family re- 
quirements. The animal selected should naturally be a healthy one, 
showing good growth and development. Size and weight are impor- 



Primary Considerations 




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PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS 



65 



Fig. 19- Steeling the knife: (top) Start 
first stroke with heel of blade against 
far side and near tip of steel, (middle) 
Draw blade down across steel toward 
left hand with swinging motion of 
right wrist and forearm, (bottom) Use 
near side of steel and make second 
stroke similar to first one. 




tant, because they indicate the sizes and weights of the different cuts 
and the total amount of meat that will be produced. 

The late O. G. Hankins, formerly in charge of meat research for 
the United States Department of Agriculture, states: 

Highly important in the selection of animals for butchering is their de- 
gree of fatness. Thin, underfinished animals do not make good eating. 
Moderately well fattened cattle, hogs, and sheep yield the most generally 
acceptable products. Some consumers prefer highly finished meat, usually 
because they believe a relatively large percentage of intramuscular fat adds 
to the eating quality of the lean meat. The meat of highly finished ani- 




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PRESLA UGH TER CONSIDERATIONS 



mals is 'Vasty/' however, and in hogs might mean too much lard. A 250- 
pound hog yields about 60 percent (10 to 15 pounds) more lard than a 
200-pound hog— an example of how weight and finish affect the production 
of lard. 




Fig, 20. A good sausage grinder, with stuffer spout and different 
size plates, makes it easy to put up sausage. Size of plates pic- 
tured here y v , % 6 -, and 1/6 -inch holes. 



Meat preservation begins with the live animal because the quality 
of the finished meat depends a lot on how the animals were handled 
when slaughtered, bled, dressed, and chilled. Actual souring has 
been brought about by improper butchering. The prevention of 
meat spoilage and also the foundation of quality meat begins with 
the handling of the live animal. For this reason, the wise thing to 
do is to carry out properly every step in butchering and processing 
the meat. 

Preslaughter feeding and management call for first consideration. 
Animals that are to be butchered should be confined in small indi- 
vidual pens for two or three days before they are slaughtered, and 
for 24 hours prior to killing they should not be given food but 
should have plenty of fresh water. Meat animals should never be 
slaughtered when they are overheated, excited, or fatigued, but 
should be perfectly quiet and rested. Striking with a stick or whip 
will cause bruises or bloody spots on the dressed carcass that must 
be trimmed out. 



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67 



Meat animals should be dispatched quietly and quickly. Bleeding 
must start promptly and proceed freely and rapidly. Time and 
temperature are important factors in the preservation of meat. Mr. 
Hankins emphasizes that there should be no delay in carrying out 
all subsequent steps, such as scalding and scraping hogs, removing 
hides of cattle, pelts of sheep, eviscerating, and splitting cattle and 
hog carcasses. Cleanliness at all stages of the operation is impera- 
tive. 

The meat experts of the Department of Agriculture tell us that 
fresh meat is an excellent medium for the growth and development 
of bacteria. Therefore, dressed carcasses have to be chilled promptly. 
Cool them at an internal temperature of 35 °F. or lower within 24 
hours or less. 

Meat animals for home use should be slaughtered when weather 
conditions are favorable for rapid cooling of the carcasses. About 
24 hours are necessary for proper chilling, and a good rule to follow 
in warmer sections is to kill in the afternoon, and then the cool 
night is just ahead for starting the chill. 

Skinning or Flaying 

Before one begins to slaughter one should be well informed on 
the methods of skinning meat animals. Hides and skins are an im- 
portant source of the raw material of the leather industry. Tanners 
buy these raw materials on their merits, paying a price based largely 
on the quality and quantity of the leather and on the uses to which 
it can be put. 

Packers' hides and skins are taken off by men employed exclu- 
sively for the purpose of removing hides. As the hides are taken off 
in large numbers they are uniformly selected and cured. The result 
is a product of uniform selection, good pattern and trim, and with 
few imperfections, making possible a maximum yield of leather of 
the best quality. 

Country hides and skins are taken off by farmers, ranchmen, rural 
folk, local butchers, or by their helpers, who are usually inexperi- 
enced in skinning. Such hides and skins are usually handled several 
times before becoming available for uniform selection. Not only is 
the yield of leather from such hides and skins comparatively low 
and uncertain, but the leather is adapted to limited use only. 

The wide difference between the prices of the raw and the finished 
products, as well as the low prices paid for the so-called country 
hides and skins as compared with the prices paid for those marketed 



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PRESLAUGHTER CONSIDERATIONS 




Fig. 21. Top and bottom show the proper ripping-open cuts for 
a correct pattern. The dotted lines show the path of the knife, 
and the solid lines show the appearance of the hide when 

spread out. 



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69 



by the packers, is also due partly to several factors less difficult to 
control than those just mentioned. Among them is the general 
inferiority of country hides and skins, due to indifferent and im- 
proper methods of handling. Much improvement is possible along 
these lines. It rests entirely with the one who handles the hides and 
skins, whether he be farmer, country butcher, or suburbanite. 

There are three important operations in the handling of hides 
and skins: take-off or skinning; salting and curing; and marketing. 
Unless these operations are performed properly and efficiently, bear- 
ing constantly in mind that the hide or skin, as well as the meat, is 
an article of value, the loss to anyone with only an occasional hide 
or skin to market, will be appreciable. The improvement in quality 
and the better returns will more than offset the little extra time and 
effort required for carefully following correct methods. 

Always clean the animal before killing it. Remove the dirt and 
manure carefully so that the hide is not scratched or scarred. Care- 
less cleaning, particularly in the case of calves and other young 
animals, often causes serious damage to the skin. The old-fashioned 
curry comb or other instruments with sharp teeth are not satisfac- 
tory. A fiber brush and water are most satisfactory. 

Avoid causing damage to the hide or skin while handling the 
animal. In stunning or knocking it down, be sure it does not fall 
on stones or rocks that will bruise the hide. In subsequent handling 
do not drag the carcass around so as to rub the hair off the skin. 




Fig. 22. Hide of good pattern and Fig. 23. Hide of poor pattern and 



trim. 



trim. 




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PRESLAUGHTER CONSIDERATIONS 



Keep the skinning knife sharp; use it carefully but no more than 
necessary. Avoid cutting the hide or skin but not at the expense of 
the meat. Leave the flesh on the animal; besides a loss of food, its 
presence on the hide or skin is very objectionable— it lowers the 
quality of the hide. Skinning is done best and most easily before 
the animal heat has escaped. 

The techniques of skinning are difficult to describe so that they 
may be followed easily. In fact, expertness in flaying, especially of 
hides, can be acquired only by practice. It requires patience and 
skill, and care must be exercised until the skill is obtained. Written 
directions cannot be as clear and effective as actual observations and 
trials. Before killing an animal one can learn much by visiting a 
small or large slaughter house and observing the methods employed. 

Although proper skinning, without scores or cuts, requires prac- 
tice, a proper pattern requires only a sharp knife and straight rip- 
ping-open cuts along the correct lines. All the ripping-open cuts 
for skinning a beef are clearly shown by dotted lines on page 68. 
The outlines show the resulting correct pattern or appearance of the 
hide when spread out flat. The contrasting points in pattern and 



trim are shown on page 69. The irregular edges and the shape of 
the hides, the split shanks and tail, and the dewclaws shown in the 
hide of poor pattern and trim are absent in the hide of good pat- 
tern. The dotted lines marking the hide of poor pattern show how 
much must be trimmed off before tanning. This is all waste and 
reduces the area or size of the hide. 

Detailed instructions for killing and skinning the various species 
of meat animals are given in the following chapters. 




Fig. 24. Careless skinning will produce 
defects from scores and flesh prevalent 
in the areas indicated in the diagram. 
Scores are very numerous around the 
tail and in the butt, which is the most 
valuable portion of the hide. Careful 
knife work will prevent these defects. 




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71 



Examining the Carcass 



All the internal organs, as well as the carcass, of animals intended 
for food, including poultry, wild fowl, and other game, should be 
carefully examined at the time of slaughter for disease or other con- 
dition that might affect the fitness of the meat for food. The only 
person qualified to do this properly is a veterinarian educated and 
trained to perform this important duty- If one is not available, an 
examination of some value can be made by anyone thoroughly 
familiar with the appearance of normal organs and meat. If a per- 
son is not familiar with such appearance he will not be able to 
recognize changes from the normal. If evidence of disease or change 
is found, the next point to be determined is whether the condition 
is local or general. A localized condition affects a limited part only. 
Bruises, minor injuries, parasites in organs, an inclosed abscess, or a 
single tumor, may be cited as local conditions, and removal of the 
affected part is usually all that is required. A generalized condition 
is one which more or less affects the whole carcass. The presence of 
great congestion or inflammation in the lungs, intestines, kidneys, 
or on the inner surface of the chest or abdominal walls is to be re- 
garded as showing generalized conditions. Numerous yellowish or 
pearl-like growths scattered through the organs or on inner surfaces 
of chest or abdominal walls indicate generalized tuberculosis. An 



Fig. 25. A calf skin of good pattern and Fig, 26. A calf skin of poor pattern and 
trim. The dotted lines indicate the trim. The dotted lines show the exces- 




amount cut off before tanning. 



sive amount of trimming necessary be- 
cause of the poor pattern. The head 
and practically all of each shank must 




be cut off. 
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PRESLA UGHTER CONSIDERA TIONS 



abnormal color of the meat is usually due to some generalized con- 
dition. All generalized conditions are to be viewed seriously. Any 
such case should be submitted to a graduate veterinarian for exami- 
nation and opinion as to the fitness of the meat for food. 

Regulations for Shipping Meat or Meat Food Products 

Farmers who ship their meats must comply with official State and 
Federal regulations. Below is shown a sample shipper's certificate 
such as must be used in interstate shipments of uninspected meat or 
meat food products which are from animals slaughtered by the 
farmer on the farm. Blank certificates should follow this sample. 
In size the certificate should be 5i/£ by 8 inches. 

■ 

Shipper's Certificate 

Date , 19 

Name of carrier 

Shipper — 

Point of shipment 

Consignee 

Destination . — 

I hereby certify that the following-described uninspected meat or meat 
food products are from animals slaughtered by a farmer on the farm, and 
are offered for transportation in interstate or foreign commerce as exempted 
from inspection according to the Meat Inspection Act of March 4, 1907, 
as amended, and that at this date they are sound, healthful, wholesome, 
and fit for human food, and contain no preservative or coloring matter or 
other substances prohibited by the Federal meat inspection regulations. 

Kind of product Amount and weight 



(Signature of shipper) 



(Address of shipper) 

Two copies of this form are to be presented to the common carrier with 
each shipment. 



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BUTCHERING HOGS 



Pork is the most popular meat for home processing. It can be 
prepared in many different ways and is easy to cure and to keep 
over long periods of time. Pork is also our most nutritious meat and 
produces a higher percentage of edible meat products than any 
other meat animal. 



High quality meat, with a full finish and rich flavor, is produced 
by medium- weight hogs, and these should be the only ones butchered 
for home use. Thrifty, properly fattened hogs from 8 to 10 months 
old and weighing from 180 to 250 pounds are the best ones for home 
butchering. Hogs of this size are more easily handled, and the meat 
chills more quickly. They produce moderate-sized cuts and usually 
a desirable portion of fat and lean. Medium-weight cuts will also 
cure quicker and more uniformly than heavier cuts. Medium-weight 
hams, shoulders, and bacon are finer in texture and flavor and are 
of better quality than those from older, heavier hogs. Heavier hogs 
will produce more lard. 



The care of an animal just before it is slaughtered, previously 
described on page 57, has much to do with getting a good "stick." 
Sticking is the best method of killing. It is practical, efficient, and 
humane. It is best not to stun or shoot a hog before sticking. 

If the animal is stuck without being stunned, the blood will drain 
out more completely than if it is stunned first. If a block and tackle 
with hoisting arrangement is available and fastened securely 10 or 
more feet above the ground, loop a chain around one hind leg and 



Selection of Hogs for Slaughter 



Sticking 



73 




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74 BUTCHERING HOGS 

AVERAGE PERCENTAGES 

(Of Certain Parts of Hog Carcasses Classified According to Live Weight 

of Animal) 



Data for hogs weighing— 







Less than 


130 to 


160, to 


200 to 


2501b. 


Hogs, carcasses, and parts 


130 lb. 


159 lb. 


1991b. 


2491b. 


or more 


Hogs 




26 


41 


199 


240 


92 


Average live weight at 


















106 


146 


183 


218 


289 


Average weight of chilled 
















do... 


78.0 


116.0 


146.0 


177.5 


238.5 




. per cent 1 . 


19.9 


18.4 


18.4 


17.5 


17.0 




do... 


13.2 


122 


12.1 


11.6 


11.0 




do... 


9.4 


10.1 


10.8 


11.4 


11.9 


Shoulder (3-rib, full cut) . 


do... 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.0 


16.7 


Head 


do.. . 


10.7 


9.8 


9.4 


8.9 


8.5 


Cu "isfjj^ 


do... 


10.9 


15.0 


16.8 


19.5 


21.5 



1 Percentages of parts based on weight of chilled carcass. 

2 Consisting of back fat, leaf fat, and fat trimmings. 

SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EDIBLE ORGANS (PORK) 





Water 

% 


Protein 

% 


Fat 

% 


Ash 

% 


Other 
constituents 

% 


Liver 


72.84 


19.81 


5.28 


1.50 


0.73 


Kidney 


76.25 


17.00 


5.41 


1.18 


0.16 


Heart 


79.29 


17.69 


1.63 


1.10 


0.29 


Tongue 


68.30 


17.00 


13.27 


0.94 


0.49 




78.36 


10.31 


7.48 


1.45 


2.40 



SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



draw the hog backward through the gate of the pen and up for 
swinging. Care should be taken to loop the chain between the hock 
and the hoof so as not to bruise the ham shank. This is the easiest 
way, for both man and hog, to restrain the animal for sticking with- 
out stunning. 

If a gadget for hoisting the hog is not available, then roll the hog 
on its back and stick on the ground. To get the hog in proper posi- 
tion for sticking on the ground, reach under the animal and grasp 
its opposite front leg, then roll it upon its back and hold it firmly 
by the front feet. The man holding the hog stands astride of it, 
facing forward, with his feet and knees pressed against the shoulders 
of the animal to prevent it from rolling. 



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STICKING 



75 




Fig. 27. Sticking the hog on the ground. The feet and legs of the man holding 
the hog are pressed against the shoulders of the animal to prevent it rolling. 



Fig. 28. The three positions of the 
knife in sticking a hog: (a) the knife 
inserted in the fat; (b) the second po- 
sition places the knife above the artery; 
(c) the final position, after the down- 
ward thrust has been made and the 
artery severed. 




The following sticking method for the beginner is recommended 
by the United States Department of Agriculture, The man doing 
the sticking takes a position squarely in front of the hog, holds down 
the snout, and opens the skin for a distance of about 3 inches in 
front of the breastbone, not downward as is often done. When 
the breastbone is reached, he follows downward with the point of 
the knife until the knife slips under the breastbone and between the 
ribs. He then pushes the knife in about 1 inch and directs the cut 
first downward toward the backbone, then forward toward the head. 



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Care should be taken to hold the animal squarely on its back and to 
keep the knife in the center so as not to stick a shoulder. It is diffi- 
cult and unwise to stick the heart. Let it pump out the blood as 
long as possible. A quick and thorough bleed is one of the founda- 
tion steps in processing high quality meat, and too much emphasis 
cannot be placed on the importance of a good bleed. 



A hard wood or metal barrel, 50-gallon capacity, is satisfactory to 
scald a hog weighing up to 250 pounds. The most convenient vessel 
in which to heat the water for scalding is a large caldron or kettle, 
which should be located near the place of butchering. A scalding 
tank built for the purpose makes the job easier. A metal trough or 
watering tank 5 to 6 feet long, 30 inches wide, and 15 to 24 inches 
deep may be converted into a combination water heater and scalding 
vat. It can be set up on bricks or put over a pit. The sides are 
banked with earth and a fire built beneath. This arrangement per- 
mits holding the temperature of the water at the proper point for 
scalding any number of hogs. 

A convenient table is one 4i/% feet wide, 2i/£ feet high, and 4 to 
8 feet long. On a table this wide the hog can be laid crosswise so 
that one man may scrape the rear end while the other scrapes the 
head. 

At a slaughterhouse where steam is available to maintain the 
scalding water at a steady temperature, the water is usually held at 
140° to 144°F. In water at these temperatures it requires from 3 to 6 
minutes to loosen the hair and scurf, but there is little or no danger 
of setting the hair or cooking the skin. In autumn when the winter 
hair is beginning to grow and most hogs are difficult to scald, tem- 
peratures as high as 146° to 150° are sometimes used. 

At home on the farm or in the suburbs when a barrel is used for 
scalding, it is difficult to maintain the required water temperature 
or to reheat the water promptly, and temperatures of 155° to 165° 
often must be used at the beginning so that the water will not be- 
come cold before the hog is completely cleaned. In water this hot, 
the hog must be kept in motion and pulled from the barrel to give it 
frequent chances to cool. This lessens the danger of setting the hair. 
It is advisable to have plenty of boiling water available so that the 
lower temperatures can be used at the beginning and more hot water 
added if necessary. By using a good thermometer you can always 
know when the water is at the correct temperature, which not only 
makes scalding easier but eliminates the setting of hair. 



Scalding 




Original from 
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Fig. 29. Scalding the hog in a barrel. Keeping it in motion lessens the danger 
of setting the hair, and works the water into the wrinkles of the skin. 



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Lime, wood ashes, and rosin put into the water make the hair 
cling to the scraper and pull out more easily. Remember, however, 
that the temperature of the water when scalding a hog is more im- 
portant than any substance that can be put into it. 

Twenty-five to thirty gallons of water is ordinarily enough to 
scald a hog in a 50-gallon barrel. Light-weight or medium-weight 
hogs can be practically immersed in the barrel. 

The barrel should be set at about a 45° angle at one end of the 
scraping table; or, if a hoist is available, the barrel may be set up- 
right under the hoist to save lifting. It is good practice to scald the 
head first while the hind legs are dry. Two men are required to 
handle this job satisfactorily. Each grips a hind leg and the hog is 
immersed in the hot water. It should be kept moving in the water 
to be sure no part rests against the side of the barrel. Occasionally 
the hog should be drawn part way out of the water to air when the 
hair may be "tried." When the hair and scurf slip from the surface, 
scalding is complete. Then pull the hog out of the barrel, place the 
hook in the lower jaw, and scald the hindquarters. At this time, a 
third man, if available, can remove most of the hair from the hot 
forelegs, flanks, ears, and head even though the animal is kept in 
motion. This should be done immediately, as these parts cool 
quickly. 



When the hog is completely scalded, pull it out of the water and 
turn it crosswise on the table. One man should grip the hind legs 
with both hands and twist off the hair, then with the hook pull off 
the dewclaws and toes while hot. With a bell scraper he should re- 
move the hair and scurf from the hindquarters. Scraping strokes 
made with the lay of the hair will remove it easier. Another should 
scrape the hair from the forequarters, feet, and head. After some 
experience, one will learn to stretch the skin by the leg or head so 
as to smooth the wrinkles and make scraping easier. If patches of 
hair have not been thoroughly scalded, it is often possible to loosen 
them by covering them with sacks or hog hair and pouring hot water 
on them. The removal of hair and dirt from the hot carcass should 
be done as rapidly as possible, as there is a tendency for the skin to 
"set" and render the removal of the hair difficult. As soon as the 
hair is removed, pour hot water on the carcass and place the bell 
scraper flat against the skin and work the scraper in a rotary fashion. 
This will massage out much of the dirt and scurf from the skin. A 
blowtorch and a wire brush will be useful in singeing and scrubbing 
the head and feet. Next, rinse the hog completely with cold water 



Scraping 




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SCRAPING 



79 




Fig. 31. The head is cleaned by scraping* singeing, and then scrubbing with a 

wire brush. 



and shave the entire carcass with a knife. It is now ready to be 
hung up. Make a deep cut up the center of the hind legs from the 
foot toward the hock Push the skin aside with the knife and 
the tendons will be found. Cut down to the bone at the side of the 
tendons. Free the tendons on both sides with the knife and fingers. 
Lift the tendons with the fingers and hook over the gambreL Be 
sure the gambrel or singletree hooks engage both tendons. After the 



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BUTCHERING HOGS 



carcass is raised by a block and tackle or a chain hoist, wash the 
carcass again with cold water and shave. If the carcass does not have 
a clean white appearance, douse it again with water and scrape 
down with the back of a knife so that the carcass will be clean and 
dry. Before opening the carcass be sure that all knives are clean and 
well scalded. 




Fig. 32. Raising the gambrel tendon. 



Removing and Cleaning the Head 

First removing the head permits the complete drainage of blood 
from the carcass, and it also is an aid to rapid chilling. Make a cut 
just above the ears at the first joint of the backbone and all the way 
across the back to the neck. Sever the gullet and windpipe to let the 
head drop, then pull down on the ears and continue the cut around 
the ears to the eyes and then to the point of the jawbone. This frees 
the head but leaves the jowls on the carcass. The head should be 
washed thoroughly and trimmed as soon as possible. 

Make a deep slit on the underside of the ears and peel and clean 
out the core or waxy portion. With a narrow sharp knife, cut out 
the eyes and eyebrows by following around the eye socket. 

Cut out the tongue, clean thoroughly in water, and hang it up. 
Cut the muscles free from each side of the lower jaw and revolve 
the jaw out of its socket or hinge joint by pulling the jaws apart. 



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REMOVING THE ENTRAILS 



81 




Fig. 33. Removing the head. 



Carefully trim all the meat off the lower jaw and discard the bone. 
Remove the snout and the skin from the front of the face. Saw off 
the face bones just back of the teeth. With the saw, cut the skull 
lengthwise and remove the brain. This method of preparing the 
head leaves no bone splinters. Now the head is cleaned and ready 
for making headcheese and other pork delicacies. 

Removing the Entrails 

Score the belly by making a slight incision from a point between 
the hams to the sticking cut in the throat, but be careful not to cut 
through the belly wall. Now, insert the skinning knife, edge up, 
into the place the hog was stuck and cut up through the full length 
of the breastbone as a pry to split the breastbone and divide the first 
pair of ribs. If the breastbone is hard to cut, as it may be in older 



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BUTCHERING HOGS 





Fig, 34. Scoring the belly. 



Fig, 35. Cutting through the breast- 
bone. 



hogs, the cut may be made a little to one side of the middle where 
there is softer bone, or a saw may be used to cut the breastbone. In 
making this cut care should be taken not to extend the incision up- 
ward beyond the chest cavity. To do so will cut into the stomach or 
cause the intestines and stomach to protrude and interfere with the 
next operation. The blood that has accumulated in the chest cavity 
will drain out when the breastbone is split, and you can tell whether 
you did a good job of sticking by the amount of blood in the chest 
cavity when the breast is opened. 

If the hog was swung before sticking and the vein and artery 
severed well in front of the heart, very little blood will be left in 
the chest cavity to drain out. Getting a good bleed is very impor- 
tant, as meat cannot be properly chilled and cured without being 
properly bled. 

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REMOVING THE ENTRAILS 83 




Fig. 36. This method of opening the Fig. 37. Opening the bung, 

carcass prevents cutting the intestine or 
stomach. 



Now, begin at the other end of the carcass and make a short inci- 
sion in the abdominal wall near the top. Place the hand clasping 
the knife handle inside the abdominal wall, with the blade pointing 
out. Let the fist that grips the handle drop down until the knife 
slants upward. The cutting is done with the heel of the blade and 
the fist crowds the intestines away from the outer edge as the rip- 
ping is continued downward. When the belly wall is cut through, 
the intestines will fall downward, but the attached muscle fiber will 
not let them fall far. This is the safest and quickest way to rip the 
belly, and there is no danger of cutting the intestines or stomach. 

Make a cut down between the hams, taking care to keep the knife 
in the center. As the hams open, the white membrane which marks 
the exact middle can be seen. Follow this if possible to the pelvic 



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BUTCHERING HOGS 



bone. When the aitchbone is reached, the point of the knife is 
placed against the center seam of the bone. By striking the butt of 
the knife handle with the palm of the hand, the seam of the aitch- 
bone is split quite easily. With older hogs, it may be necessary to 
use a saw to split the aitchbone. While dividing this bone, care 
should be taken to avoid puncturing the urinary bladder, which lies 
just below. In dressing a barrow, loosen the penis and let it hang, 
to be removed later with the bung. 

Stand facing the back of the carcass on a bench and dissect out 
the bung (rectum). Grasp the bung gut just below the split in the 
aitchbone and loosen upward toward the end of the bung. Then 
begin in the front and cut completely around the bung end. Se- 
curely tie the end with a cord and pull the bung out and down, 
cutting around it where it does not pull loose. 

When the bung gut is worked down toward the entrails, the entire 
mass of entrails should be worked outward and downward, leaving 
as much fat as possible along the backbone. The kidneys are left 
in the leaf fat which surrounds them. 

With the left hand, grasp the intestines firmly just below the kid- 
neys at the point where they appear to be attached to the backbone. 
Push down slowly but firmly until they loosen from the back. Free 
the liver by running the fingers of the right hand behind it and 
pulling it away from the back. Still holding the intestines in the left 
hand, cut through the diaphragm to the backbone. Extend the cut 
around the white fibrous portion of the diaphragm, which is parallel 
to the ribs, to the breastbone and down the breastbone to the throat. 
This last cut loosens the heart and lungs in the chest cavity. Still 
holding the intestines with the left hand, repeat the cut on the left 
side of the carcass, crossing the right hand over the left. It may some- 
times be necessary to cut the back artery from the backbone, thus 
permitting the left hand to pull the entire offal out of the carcass. 
The gullet is still attached to the throat, but one cut of the knife 
will free it. A tub should be handy to receive the mass of entrails 
when they are freed from the carcass. The body cavity should be 
washed and rinsed with cold water before the carcass is split. 

Handling and Care of Edible Organs 

Now work over the entrails in a tub or on a table. Cut off the 
liver and remove the gall bladder. The small upper end of the gall 
bladder can be lifted with the thumb and finger and the bladder 
peeled out. The heart is cut off through the auricles or "ears. 0 Next 



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HANDLING AND CARE OF EDIBLE ORGANS 85 




Fig. 38. In removing the intestines, Fig, 39. The warm leaf fat is pulled 
grasp them carefully and firmly so they out by loosening it at the rib end and 
will not tear and fall. fisting it up and out. 



remove the spleen or "melt/' All these parts should be washed 
promptly in clean, cool water and hung up for further chilling and 
drying. A thin layer of caul fat covers the stomach and is attached 
to its outer border. It can be separated from the stomach with the 
hands, washed in cold water, and hung up to chill. The stomach 
should be cut loose and tied off- v 

The small intestines can be used for sausage casings. If they are 
to be used for this purpose, they should be worked while they are 
still warm. Lay them on a table and tie the end of the small intes- 
tines. Then remove them or "run" them from the ruffle fat by 
pulling the fat in one direction with the right hand and the intes- 
tines in the opposite direction with the left. The ruffle fat is then 



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BUTCHERING HOGS 



peeled off. This fat, if not fouled in dressing, can be saved for lard, 
although such lard is not high grade. It is better adapted for mak- 
ing soap grease. At any rate, it should be thoroughly washed and 
promptly chilled in cold water. Then it should be hung up to dry 
before being rendered. 



Next, the contents of the small intestines should be carefully 
stripped out and the casings thoroughly washed. Then reverse them 
by turning up a fold at the end of the casings like the cuff on a pair 
of trousers; pour warm water into this fold. One person should 
hold the intestines while another pours the water, and a third 
"feeds" in the intestines as the weight of the water reverses them. 
To facilitate this operation, the intestines should be cut into several 
lengths. The mucous coat, which is now on the outside after the 
intestines are reversed, can be scraped off with the back of a knife 
blade, or scraped through a sharpened notched stick by drawing the 
casing between the notch and the thumb. 

To do a thorough job of cleaning, this operation should be re- 
peated several times, and the casings washed in lukewarm water. 
The casings should be clear when completely cleaned. If dull spots 
appear, continue scraping until they are removed. If the casings are 
not to be used at once after cleaning, they should be packed in dry 
salt until they are to be used. 

Muslin, cellophane, and other manufactured casings are now 
available for sausage making, and some folks prefer to use these and 
feed the intestines to the hogs or the chickens. 

The intestines and stomachs, if properly cleaned, are edible. 
These are known as chitterlings. If the stomach is to be used as a 
container for headcheese, cut a slit 4 or 5 inches long in the small 
end. Work out the contents without enlarging the opening. Then 
turn the stomach inside out and wash it thoroughly. Place the 
stomach in scalding water until the inner lining can be removed 
easily. Scrape off all the inner lining and wash with cold water. 
Pack in salt until ready to use. If the stomachs are to be used as an 
ingredient of headcheese, cooked sausage, or scrapple, the same pro- 
cedure is followed with the exception that the stomach may be split 
wide open for greater convenience in cleaning. 

Split the hog carcass while it is still warm. This helps hasten the 
chilling, as more surface is exposed. With a saw or cleaver, split 
down the middle of the backbone. Leave about 15 inches of skin 



Cleaning the Intestines 




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BUTCHERING HOGS 



For the same reason, the hams should be faced while warm. This 
cut is started on flank side of the ham. Grasp the skin you have cut 
loose, and continue cutting by following the curvature of the ham 
to remove the outer layer of fat and skin from the inside of the ham. 
Cut over the face of the ham muscle to the tail head. When the 
carcass is chilled it is not so easy to do a neat job. Exposing the ham 
muscle permits a more rapid chilling and the thin fibrous membrane 
next to the lean meat will shrink to it, giving a smooth appearance 
to the hams after they are cured. 

The carcass is now ready for chilling. Be sure to suspend the 
whole or half carcasses so they do not touch. When hams touch each 
other, chilling is often delayed too long, and spoilage occurs. The 
need for prompt chilling of warm carcasses cannot be overempha- 
sized. To do a neat job of cutting and trimming, the carcass must 
be thoroughly and completely chilled. This is also an important 
factor in turning out good meat. With the head removed, splitting 
the carcass, the leaf fat fisted out, and the hams faced, the carcass 
is in the best possible condition for chilling. The air can circulate 
freely to each part of the carcass, thus taking full advantage of the 
weather for getting a good chill. About 24 hours are required for 
proper chilling, and a good rule to follow in warmer sections is to 
kill in the afternoon, so that the cool night is just ahead for starting 
the chill. 

Many communities in the South as well as other sections of the 
country have access to local cold-storage plants with facilities to 
chill the carcass and to store the curing meat. The warm sides are 
brought in immediately after slaughter, and the owner returns 1 or 
2 days later to cut the pork and put the meat in cure in the drawer, 
box, or bin assigned to him. The fresh cuts, meat trimmings for 
sausage, and fat for rendering into lard are taken home. In some 
cases the cold-storage locker plant does the cutting. Where a com- 
munity cooperates with a cold-storage plant, nominal charges to 
those who participate can often be obtained. More about cold-stor- 
age locker plants and the services rendered are given in Chapter 
XIII. 

For proper chilling, the temperature in the center of the hams 
should be lowered to around 33 to 35°F. A meat thermometer in- 
serted into the center of one ham will show you when the meat is 
properly chilled. 

If the weather becomes warm and no cold storage is available, 
the iced-brine method of chilling is a good one to follow. By cutting 
each half of the carcass as illustrated on page 90, you can quickly 



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CHILLING 89 

separate it into a few major pieces. Fill a clean barrel about a third 
full of water, stirring up in the water about 3 pounds of common 
salt. Put in some large chunks of ice and the pieces of meat. This 
iced brine will be colder than ordinary ice water and will satisfac- 
torily chill the meat even in mild weather. Another method is to 
place a layer of chipped ice on a clean surface, spreading the carcass 
out on the ice and putting additional chipped ice on top. The 
iced-brine method in the barrel, however, is more efficient and gives 
a better chill. 

Sometimes insufficiently cooled pieces are salted lightly with a 




Fig, 41. The carcass is now ready for chilling. The meat 
thermometer inserted into the center of the ham shows 
when the meat is properly chilled (30° to 35° F.). 



f*i r^rtrt^l^ Original from 

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BUTCHERING HOGS 



dry-cure mixture and spread on a rack where they will have as much 
ventilation as possible. None of the methods just described for 
chilling pork are as safe or as satisfactory as storing the meat at the 
proper temperature, either natural or artificial. 

Meat should not be cut up and put into cure until it is thoroughly 
chilled and all the animal heat is out. A good job of cutting and 
trimming meat cannot be done on warm meat. Neither should salt 
be applied to warm meat. Quite often home-cured meat has been 
made inferior in quality and actual loss caused by cutting up and 
salting meat that still has the animal heat in it. 




Fin. 42. Brine chilling. Separate each half of the carcass into these major cuts or 

pieces. 



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BUTCHERING CATTLE 



Home dressing and cutting up beef often makes it possible to pro- 
cure meat at a considerable saving. The most satisfactory animals 
to select for this purpose are yearlings from a good type of beef cat- 
tle. Yearlings produce light carcasses and light cuts which chill 
quicker, and the meat is more tender than that from older animals. 
The care and management of animals before slaughter and the 
equipment and tools have been discussed previously. 



Stunning 

The animal should be killed where the carcass is to be hoisted. 
Stunning is the best method to render a beef animal unconscious in 
order that it may be bled properly. It may be tied securely to a post 
or tree, or tied in position for stunning. To accomplish this, the 
head is tied in a position that will enable a man to stun the animal 
by a blow on the forehead with an axe or sledge. The proper place 
to strike is just above the center of the forehead. Draw imaginary 
crosslines from the horns to the eyes. Strike with a short, powerful 
blow at a point just above where these lines cross. 



Bleeding 



With the animal lying on its side, the sticker should face the same 
direction as the animal. He should stretch the animal's neck out as 
far as possible, holding it in position with one foot against the jaw 
and the other in front and against the forelegs. Pressure should be 
applied on both the jaw and forelegs to maintain the stretch and 
make it more convenient for sticking the animal. This also lessens 
the danger of the sticker being struck by the front feet of the animal. 
With the sticking knife, cut through the skin from the breastbone 
toward the throat, making a cut about 10 to 12 inches long and deep 
enough to expose the windpipe. Insert the knife with the back of 

91 



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Fig. 44. Sticking. 



the blade against the breastbone, and point the tip directly toward 
the backbone at the top of the shoulders just under the windpipe, 
and cut forward toward the head. This will sever ample arteries 
and veins to facilitate free bleeding. 

After the animal is stuck, place your foot on the animal's flank and 
alternately lunge forward on this foot and then pull back on the 
tail in order to speed up the bleeding materially. 



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BLEEDING 



93 



AVERAGE PERCENTAGES 



(Certain Parts of Carcasses of Full-fed Hereford Steers 1 Classified According 
to Fatness and Average Weights of the Animals and Carcasses) 



Steers, carcasses, and parts 



Steers number. 

Final feed-lot weight pounds. 

Live weight at slaughter do . . . 

Empty-body weight do... 

Chilled carcass weight do. . . 

Parts of carcass— per cent of 

empty-body weight: 
Forequarters per cent. 

Prime rib cuts do. . . 

Chucks do . . . 

Plates do . . . 

Foreshanks do . . . 

Hindquarters do . . . 

Rounds do . . . 

Rumps do. . . 

Flanks do . , . 

Loin ends do . . . 

Short loins do. . . 



Data for carcasses containing indicated 
proportions of fat 2 



12 to 


16 to 


20 to 


24 to 


28 to 


32 to 


15.99 


19.99 


23.99 


27.99 


31.99 


35.99 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


4 


ft 

O 


K 

sJ 


1 1 
1 1 


A 
\J 


9 




748 


7fiQ 






Q79 


Duo 




74ft 


7RQ 




Q44. 




67Q 


711 

/ X J. 






Q1 ft 


342.0 


425.5 


433.8 


477.1 


533.1 


603.0 


31.06 


31.54 


31.19 


32.14 


32.58 


33.22 


5.15 


5.36 


5.36 


5.75 


5.91 


6.29 


16.66 


16.73 


16.18 


16.29 


16.73 


16.39 


6.67 


6.98 


7.22 


7.82 


7.91 


8.45 


2.60 


2.43 


2.32 


2.17 


2.16 


2.05 


29.11 


30.41 


29.25 


30.77 


31.00 


31.70 


13.32 


12.99 


12.50 


12.02 


12.03 


11.09 


2.93 


2.93 


2.83 


2.97 


2.99 


3.01 


2.30 


2.99 


2.92 


3.55 


3.65 


4.15 


5.84 


5.74 


5.23 


5.50 


5.39 


5.32 


5.06 


5.78 


5.57 


6.46 


6.73 


8.13 



l The 36 steers ranged from approximately 11 to 17 months of age at slaughter. 
2 Based on ether-extract content of right side. 

SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EDIBLE ORGANS (BEEF) 





Water 

% 


Protein 

% 


Fat 

% 


Ash 

% 


Other 
constituents 

% 


Liver 


69.5 


20.0 


2.5 


1.5 


6.5 


Kidney 


77.0 


16.5 


3.5 


1.1 


1.9 


Heart 


77.5 


16.0 


3.5 


1.0 


2.0 


Tongue 


67.0 


16.0 


13.5 


0.9 


2.5 




71.0 


10.8 


13.5 


1.7 


3.0 


Tripe 


80.0 


8.0 


8.0 


0.9 


0.5 



SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



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94 




Fic. 45. Severing the tendons. Cut at 
a mark below the dewclaws. 




Fig. 47. Skinning the head— the last 
operation before detaching it. 



BUTCHERING CATTLE 




Fig. 46. Skinning the head— first opera- 
tion. 




Fig. 48. Detach the head by cutting 
across the neck just back of the jaw. 



If a block and tackle or hoist is available, untie the animal and 
quickly loop a heavy rope around the hind legs with a couple of 
extra half hitches and hoist the animal clear of the ground before 
sticking. In such a position a better bleed will be obtained. The 
hoisting can also be done after the animal is stuck on the ground. 



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SKINNING AND REMOVING HEAD 95 




Fic. 49. Propping the carcass in posi- Fig. 50. Skinning the foreleg, 

tion with a pritch. 




Fig. 51. Freeing the shank and hoof. Fig. 52. Skinning the hind shank. 



Skinning and Removing Head 

The hide is a valuable by-product of a beef animal, and care should 
be taken in skinning it from the carcass and in handling it prior 
to tanning. A smooth, clean job of skinning should be done and no 
meat should be left on the hide. The treatment of hides and their 
ultimate use is given in Chapter IX, "Handling Hides and Skins." 
Start skinning at the head, cutting back of the poll, thence to the 
nostril on the left side of the head along the line of the eye. Skin 
the side of the head and a short distance down the neck. Turn the 
head up on its base to finish skinning it. 



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96 



BUTCHERING CATTLE 




Fig. 53. Removing hind shank at lower 
hock joint. 



Fig. 54. Skinning the thigh. 




Fig. 55. The thigh is only partly Fig. 56. Opening a line on the hide 
skinned before hoisting the carcass. It from the brisket to the tail, 

is more convenient to complete the 
skinning when hoisted, and it is also 
conducive to cleanliness. 



Now grasp the head by the lower jaw and unjoint it at the atlas 
joint, which is the first joint back of the head. Make a cut across the 
neck just behind the jaws. A slight twist of the head will unjoint 
it from the neck after the muscles and connective tissue have been 
severed. 



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SKINNING THE CARCASS 



97 



Skinning the Carcass 



Prop the carcass squarely on its back with a block of wood, a stick 
sharpened at both ends, or a pritch. Split the hide over the back of 
the forelegs from the dewclaws to a point 2 or 3 inches above the 
knee. Skin out the shank and remove it just below the knee. Be sure 
to pull the hide back on both sides of the shank, then saw through 
the shank bone just below the lower joint. After some practice it is 
easy to cut through this straight joint with a knife. 

Cut across the hind leg at the joint below the hock, severing the 
tendons to permit the leg to relax. Split the hide from the dew- 
claws to the hock and up over the rear of the thigh to a point from 
4 to 6 inches back of the cod. Skin the hock and shin and sever the 
leg at the lowest joint of the hock. In splitting the hide over the 
thigh, the knife should be turned down flat, with the edge pointed 
outward and a little upward to avoid cutting or gouging into the 
lean of the round. The inside of the thigh may be skinned well 
down but the outside should not be skinned until after the carcass 
has been raised. Before hoisting the carcass, split the hide down 
the middle of the belly from the brisket to the tail and then skin 
back from this line until the side is well started. 

The next, and the most difficult, part of skinning is known as 
"siding." The skinning knife should have a smooth, keen edge. 
Grasp the handle well up toward the blade and hold the blade flat 
against the surface of the hide, which must be stretched tightly. 
This will avoid cuts and scores on the flesh. In removing the hide, 
keep the blade turned slightly toward it in order to avoid gashing 
the flat muscle covering the abdomen, or thin "fell" membrane 
which lies between the meat and the skin. This membrane serves 
to protect the meat from drying out and from the attack of molds. 
The carcass should be sided down as far as possible. It is easier 
to do this in the present position than to delay the siding until the 
carcass is hoisted. 

The appearance of the carcass will be improved if all blood spots 
are wiped from the surface during the skinning operation. A bucket 
of warm water and a clean cloth are needed for this purpose. The 
cloth should be wrung out so it contains as little moisture as pos- 
sible. 



Open the carcass down the midline by starting the incision large 
enough for entrance of the hand just back of the breastbone. Point 
the knife upward on the outside of the abdomen, the hand and 



Opening the Abdominal Cavity 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



98 



BUTCHERING CATTLE 




Fig. 57. Siding is the most difficult part Fig. 58. Opening the abdominal cavity, 
of the skinning operation. Care should 
be taken to avoid gashing the flat 
muscle covering the "fell" membrane. 
The hide is held with the hand on the 
outside, for both convenience and 
cleanliness. 




Fig. 59. Sawing the breastbone. Fig. 60. The pelvic bone divided. 



handle of the knife inside, cutting from this point all the way down 
the midline of the carcass to a point near the cod or udder. Cut 
through the abdomen carefully so as to avoid puncturing the paunch 
or intestines and protect them from the knife blade with the left 
hand. Cut through the brisket, exposing the breastbone, and saw 
through the latter. Loosen the windpipe and gullet, but do not 



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HOISTING 



99 



cut them off. Saw or split the pelvic bone, which is exposed by cut- 
ting through the muscle midway between the hind legs. Remove 
the caul fat. 

Hoisting 

Make an incision between the large tendons and the hock. Be- 
tween the tendons and shank bones insert the beef tree or spreader. 
Now raise the hind part of the carcass to a height convenient for 
skinning the rump and tail. Cut through the hide on the underside 
of the tail. Sever the tail bone at a joint near the base and pull it 
out of the hide. Skin the rump on each side of the tail. Hoist the 
carcass a little higher now and skin the hide from the hindquarters. 
The hide may be removed from the thighs by pulling and jerking, 
or it may be "beaten" off by striking the hide with the back of the 
cleaver. If the hide does not yield readily, it can be loosened with 
the knife. As in siding, one should be careful to avoid removing the 
fell with the hide. Dip a clean cloth in hot water, wring it out, and 
wipe the hocks and hindquarters to clean off blood and other debris. 

Next, loosen the rectum by cutting around it. After the rectum 
is cut free, tie it off with heavy twine and then work it loose from 
the backbone. Leave the kidneys and fat in winch they are im- 
bedded in the carcass. Let the rectum and the intestines drop down 
over the paunch. Now, cut the liver from the intestines to prevent 
the gall bladder breaking and fouling the liver. Then grasp the 
connective tissue of the gall bladder with the fingers and pull the 
gall bladder loose. Wash the liver thoroughly in cold, fresh water 
and hang it up to drain and cool. Pull down on the paunch to tear 
it loose from the carcass and let it fall into a tub or other container. 

Hoist the carcass until it clears the ground. Cut out the dia- 
phragm (the sheet of muscle which separates the heart and lungs 
from the stomach and intestines), but allow the muscles of the 
diaphragm to remain attached to the carcass. Take out the heart, 
lungs, and gullet. Wash the heart and hang it by the small end to 
drain. Complete skinning by removing the hide from the shoulders. 



Splitting the Carcass 

The carcass is now ready to be split down the center of the back- 
bone. In commercial slaughterhouses this is done with a cleaver, 
but most people can do a better and smoother job with a saw. After 
the carcass is split, it should be washed completely with clean, tepid 
water. Move each foreleg up and down several times, to aid in 
draining the blood from vessels in the shoulders. Trim off all the 
ragged edges over the carcass to improve its appearance. 

r,- -■ r^rtj^nl/-* Original from 

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100 




Fig. 63. Skinning the outside of the 
thigh (rump). 



BUTCHERING CATTLE 




Fig. 62. Pulling the tail out of the 
hide. 




Fig. 64. Pulling the hide from the < 
thighs. 



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Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




Digitized by Google 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




Fig. 69. Sawing the backbone. Fig. 70. Splitting the bones in the neck 

with an ax. 




Fig. 71. Removing the tongue. Fig. 72. Splitting the skull to remove 

the brains. 



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CHILLING 



103 



Chilling 

Under farm and home conditions it is best to shroud the carcass 
to protect it from dust and dirt during the chilling process. This 
can be easily done with clean muslin cloth. Immerse two pieces in 
hot water, wring them out and cover each half of the carcass, pin- 
ning them tightly. This will smooth out the fat and also bleach it. 
The carcass should now be hoisted high enough to protect it during 
the chilling period. Quick and complete removal of animal heat is 
essential to prevent spoilage. A beef carcass should be allowed to 
hang from 12 to 24 hours, or at least long enough to cool, before 
being cut up. Chilling is best accomplished at 34 to 38 °F. As pre- 
viously stated, farm and home butchering is generally done in the 
late afternoon and the carcass is permitted to chill overnight. How- 
ever, the carcass should not be permitted to freeze immediately after 
slaughter, since the formation of an outer layer of ice will prevent 
the proper elimination of animal heat from the thicker portions of 
the meat. 

If farm and home conditions are not too favorable for proper 
chilling and ripening of the meat, the carcass should be placed in a 
chilling room at a local cold-storage plant. The carcass should be 
thoroughly chilled, however, before it is cut up, as it is impossible 
to make attractive cuts where the meat is not thoroughly chilled. 

When meat is to be used fresh, the best meat is obtained when the 
beef is allowed to ripen. This will tenderize the meat and also add 
to its flavor. Ripening of beef is discussed under "Fresh and Sea- 
soned Meat," page 10, in Chapter I. 

Removing Tongue and Brains and Stripping Fat from Offal 

To remove the tongue, place the head face down. Cut along both 
sides of the jawbone, loosening the tip and cutting all connections 
back of the base. A hatchet or cleaver is sometimes used to cut the 
bones at the base of the tongue. Allow the fat to remain attached 
to the tongue. Wash the tongue in clean, cool water and scrape it 
from tip to base. When it is thoroughly cleaned, hang it up by the 
tip to drain and cool. Saw or split the skull and lift out the brains. 
Trim the fat from the intestines and paunch as it can be rendered 
and used in making soap or sold as tallow. 



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104 



BUTCHERING CATTLE 



Cleaning the Tripe 



The first and second stomach of a beef carcass, properly cleaned 
and processed, can be used as food. It is known as tripe. Cut off 
these two stomachs and empty their contents by turning them inside 
out. Then wash them thoroughly in several waters, making sure 
that they are perfectly clean. Place in scalding water, approximately 
150°F., for 10 or 15 minutes and then remove the inner lining by 
scraping. Continue scraping until the inner surface is very white. 
Processing tripe for food is discussed under "Meat Products and By- 
Products/' page 271, Chapter XIV. 



Veal is the dressed carcass of a calf between 1 and 3 months old, 
weighing from 75 to 150 pounds. The same general procedure in 
butchering, skinning, and eviscerating cattle can be followed for 
calves except the animal should not be kept off feed for longer than 
6 to 8 hours before butchering; but during this time the calf should 
have plenty of clean, fresh water. Calves produced by beef cattle 
furnish the most desirable veal, as the calves are blockier in form 
and more heavily muscled. However, calves from dairy cattle are 
also used for veal. 

Stun the calf before sticking, as in cattle, but the blow need not 
be too heavy. Butchering is made easier if the carcass is hoisted to 
a convenient height before skinning. Wash the hide and split it 
from head to tail, following the middle line of the belly. If the 
carcass is to be cut up at home, the hide may be removed at once, as 
the carcass can be skinned more easily while it is still warm. With a 
sharp skinning knife cut open the hide, then "fist" it off. Eviscerate 
and then split the breastbone and pelvis, as described for cattle. If 
the carcass is to be shipped or transported some distance, the hide 
should not be removed, for it preserves the light color and prevents 
the carcass from drying out. 

A carcass dressed with the hide removed dries out quite rapidly. 
When the hide is removed, rapid drying can be prevented to some 
extent by draping and spreading the caul fat over the hindquarters. 
The caul fat is the thin sheet of membrane extending from the 
stomach over the intestines. 



Slaughtering Calves 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



VII 



BUTCHERING SHEEP AND 



LAMBS 



The ease with which lambs and sheep can be dressed makes them 
a convenient source of fresh meat for family use. Lamb is the flesh 
of young sheep. Handy-weight 25- to 45-pound lamb carcasses yield 
comparatively small cuts. The entire carcass is small enough so that 
with home refrigeration a family can consume the meat before 
spoilage occurs. Portions of lamb can also be frozen or canned. 
Some cuts can be cured satisfactorily. It can be kept as an emer- 
gency food reserve or as a source of variety in the diet. 

A lamb carcass chills quickly and cures easily. Lambs generally 
dress out about 50 per cent, which means that an 80-pound lamb 
will make approximately a 40-pound carcass. The trimmed leg 
roasts from a 40-pound carcass will weigh about 6 pounds each; and 
the shoulder roasts, about 5 pounds apiece. There will be about 7 
pounds of breast and neck and 8 pounds of loin and rib to be roasted 
or cut into 30 medium-thick chops. 

The United States Department of Agriculture tells us that all 
these cuts are normally tender enough to be adapted to cooking in 
any of several ways. The shoulder and even the breast may be oven- 
roasted if that method is preferred to braising the breast with vege- 
tables. Cold roast lamb is an excellent filler for sandwiches, and the 
leftovers from any cooked lamb can be utilized in many tasty com- 
binations. 

Many families who were formerly not familiar with lamb now 
enjoy its characteristic flavor and have included this fresh meat in 
their regular diet. The desirability of lamb as a meat for home use 
depends on four principal factors, as does that of other meat. These 
are the breeding of the animal, how and to what extent it has been 
fed, the age at which it is slaughtered, and the method of handling 
the meat. 



105 




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106 BUTCHERING SHEEP AND LAMBS 

AVERAGE PERCENTAGES 
(Of Certain Parts of Lamb Carcasses Classified According to Fatness) 



Data for carcasses containing indicated 
proportions of fat 1 



Carcasses and parts 




uncier 


OA tn %£ 
4U LO 


9 CO/ 






20% 


% 


or more 


Carcasses 


number. » 


13 


19 


10 


Average weight of chilled 












pounds. . 


21.9 


34.4 


47.5 


Trimmed legs 


per cent . . 


30.17 


25.60 


26.14 


Rib cuts (9-rib) 


do.... 


15.31 


16.83 


17.92 


Shoulders (3-rib) 


per cent . . 


19.73 


19.53 


18.80 




do.... 


7.64 


9.08 


9.78 




do.... 


3.89 


3.28 


2.94 


Breast 


. do.... 


15.32 


15.36 


14.83 



1 Based on ether-extract content of edible portion. 

SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF EDIBLE ORGANS (MUTTON) 





Water 

% 


Protein 

% 


Fat 

% 


Ash 

% 


Other 
constituents 

% 




71.26 


19.38 


3.90 


1.22 






78.96 


15.88 


3.52 


1.20 


.22 


Heart 


69.80 


16.88 


11.54 


1.12 


.46 




69.46 


14.50 


14.71 


1.21 


.17 


Brains 


80.24 


10.38 


6.92 


1.30 




Tripe 













SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



Lambs Selected for Slaughter 

Lambs of the so-called mutton breeds are generally more suitable 
for meat than those of the breeds bred primarily for wool produc- 
tion. Lambs of the mutton breeds will fatten more readily, dress a 
higher proportion of carcass to live weight, and yield meatier roasts 
and chops. 

A high degree of finish or fatness is not essential for a lamb that 
is to be slaughtered for home use. One that is moderately well fat- 
tened and making rapid growth should produce a carcass having 
tender, desirable meat. 



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STICKING AND STUNNING 



107 



The term "mutton," as commonly used commercially, applies to 
the flesh of older sheep, that is lives (over 12 months of age) and 
wethers (over 18 months of age). Such meat, especially that from 
well-fed sheep, though frequently less tender than the meat from 
the younger lambs, also is suitable for family use. Be sure that sheep 
and lambs selected for slaughter are thrifty and healthy. Slaugh- 
tering equipment (page 58) and care before slaughtering (page 64) 
have been discussed previously. However, a bench, box, or even a 
clean floor will serve as the place on which to kill and dress a lamb; 
nevertheless, a V-shaped trough of proper height is very convenient, 
if much lamb or sheep slaughtering is to be done. 

Twenty-four hours before they are killed lambs should be penned 
up in order that the fleece will be dry. It is difficult to keep the 
wool from touching the carcass at times during dressing, but the 
drier the fleece the cleaner the carcass will be. During this penned 
period, no feed but plenty of clean, fresh water should be available. 
A lamb with a full stomach is harder to butcher than one with an 
empty stomach. 

Naturally, a lamb should be handled carefully and gently before 
slaughter. Pushing it around and grabbing it by the fleece will cause 
a bruised and unattractive carcass. Such meat is not only unattrac- 
tive, but has poor keeping quality. Quietly and carefully place the 
left hand under the throat and the right hand at the tail head. 

Sticking and Stunning 

A lamb should be held or suspended in such a manner that the 
blood will not run into the fleece after the animal is stuck. Place 
the lamb on its side. If no attendant is available to hold the legs, 
tie the two front legs to a hind leg to prevent struggling. An easier 
and cleaner job of sticking can be done by tying the hind legs to- 
gether and suspending the lamb from a beam, limb of a tree, or 
some other stout support about 7 feet from the ground. In the left 
hand hold the lamb's nose, being careful not to shut off breathing. 
Stretch out the neck. Hold a sharp-pointed knife in the right hand 
with the cutting edge away from the neck bone. Push the knife 
through the neck close to the neck bone just behind the angle of 
the jaw and below the base of the ear. Cut out at right angles from 
the neck. If the knife was not inserted close enough to the neck 
bone to lift up and sever the main arteries and veins, cut back to 
the bone. In slitting a lamb's throat, the cut can be made either 
away from or toward the neck bone. 



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108 




Fig. 73. Sticking a lamb on a bench. 

lamb in 




Fig. 74. Sticking a lamb from a sus- 
pended position. With the left hand 
hold the head securely, to prevent its 
swinging. 



SHEEP AND LAMBS 




Pressure from the right knee holds the 
position. 




Fig. 75, Stunning a lamb. Pull the 
head up and back with the left hand 
and push down hard with the heel of 
the right hand. 



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SKINNING THE LEGS 



109 



After the throat is cut, the neck should be broken. Grasp the nose 
with the left hand and the wool, on the face between the lamb's 
eyes, with the right. Pull the nose up and back and push down hard 
with the heel of the right hand on the lamb's face. This should 
easily break open the big atlas joint at the base of the head, if the 
muscles next to the neck bone were severed in cutting the throat. 
Permitting the lamb to struggle promotes bleeding. For this reason, 
holding the lamb is preferable to tying. 



After the lamb is well-bled, place it on a table, a platform, or a 
clean floor for skinning. The method of skinning described here 
is the easiest for the beginner. To open the pelt remove a narrow 
strip of skin from the front of the front legs and from the back of 
the hind legs. The pelt is then pushed or "fisted" off the brisket, 
belly, and flanks before the carcass is hung up. 

K. F. Warner, formerly meat specialist for the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, tells beginners to stand at the side of a lamb 
and hold the front leg between the knees while leaning away, so 
the leg is stretched tightly. Then below the lamb's knee to the hoof 
head raise a narrow strip of pelt. Extend this opening in the pelt 
from the point below the knee to a point well in front of the brisket. 
Be careful not to cut too deeply or through the paper-thin protec- 
tive membrane, or fell, that covers the meat just underneath the 
pelt. To avoid cutting through the fell and into the meat, the be- 
ginner should "choke" the knife, hold it with the cutting edge up 
against the skin, rather than toward the meat, and cut with a short, 
curving wrist motion that swings only the point of the knife against 
the pelt. With the left hand, raise the pelt from the meat and hold 
it tight while the knife is turned against it. 

Grasp the point or head end of the V-shaped strip of pelt over 
the brisket, formed by opening the fleece over the front legs, and 
pull it up and back over the brisket. If the pelt sticks so tightly to 
the brisket that the fat and fell begin to tear, stop pulling and begin 
"fisting." 

Now hold the hind leg between the knees, in the same way as the 
front leg, and raise a strip of skin from a point below the hock along 
the tendon and into the hoof head. Extend the cut to a point just 
in front of the anus. Be careful to use the same rotary wrist motion 
to prevent the point of the knife from cutting into the choice leg 
muscles. Keep holding the leg between the knees and skin out the 



Skinning the Legs 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



HO BUTCHERING SHEEP AND LAMBS 




Fig. 76. Opening the pelt over the Fig. 77. Opening the pelt in front of 

front of the foreleg. Keep the edge the brisket. Slow, short strokes up 

of the knife against the leg rather against the pelt will prevent cutting 

than up against the skin, down into the meat. 




Fig. 78. Pulling the pelt over the bris- Fig. 79. Unjointing the foot from the 
ket. Hold the pelt at the end and pull skinned hindleg. 

steadily. 



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FISTING THE PELT OFF THE CARCASS 



111 



hock and leg. Then unjoint the foot at the lowest joint or the one 
next the hoof. Be sure to unjoint the foot as described, so that the 
tendons will not pull out when the carcass is hung. 

Slip the knife between the leg bone and the tendons to make an 
opening for the gambrel used in hanging the carcass. There are two 
tendons; so be sure to raise both, as one may not be strong enough 
to hold the carcass. Skin out the other hind leg. Now grasp the 
pointed strip of pelt and pull it back over the cod or udder as far 
as it will go without tearing the flesh. 



Place the lamb back down on the platform, box, or bench on 
which you are working. Hot water and dry cloths should be avail- 
able to wash and dry the hands when they become dirty. Clean 
hands are necessary to produce a clean carcass. 

Begin "fisting" the pelt off the belly. This is done with a tightly 
clenched fist, taking care not to tear the thin membrane or "fell," 
which should be left upon the carcass to protect it. Be sure to wash 
the hands and arms frequently in clean, warm water while "fisting," 
to prevent soiling the carcass. 

Clench the fist with the thumb on top of the first finger, which 
is used to lead the fist in under the pelt. Direct the motion and the 
pressure of the fist up against the skin. Push and work it away from 
the meat. Follow along with the left hand just above the right, 
grasping the wool and holding the pelt taut as the fist pushes against 
it underneath. Breaking through the fell and muscles of the carcass 
with the fist will produce an unattractive carcass but it will not be 
ruined. With little experience one can soon tell by the feel whether 
fisting is proceeding properly. 

Fist in on one side of the brisket and loosen the pelt as far down 
as it is possible to reach conveniently. Now .work down behind the 
shoulder but do not attempt to loosen the pelt along the entire side. 
Fist in on the opposite side of the brisket and repeat the operation. 
Usually the pelt sticks to the brisket, but sometimes it can be worked 
off from behind. Often the thumb can work it loose from each side. 
Occasionally a knife is required to cut the skin from the center of 
the brisket. Young, well-fattened lambs are skinned more easily 
than older, thinner sheep. 

Loosen the pelt at the rear. To do this, stand between the hind 
legs and grasp the pelt with the left hand. Work the right fist down 
the center, over the cod or udder to the navel. Now push the hand 



Fisting the Pelt off the Carcass 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



112 BUTCHERING SHEEP AND LAMBS 




Fig. 81. Holding the pelt tight and Fig* 83, Wedging in the fist up along 
fisting forward under the cod or udder. the leg. 

and arm sideways and free the pelt over the flank and inside of the 
hind leg. Here fisting is begun down the middle instead of at the side 
as in skinning the brisket. Fisting in this manner lessens the chances 
of getting beneath and tearing the flank muscles. 



Digitized byGoOgle 



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REMOVING THE PELT 



113 



Removing the Pelt 



After the legs have been skinned and the pelt fisted off the belly, 
insert a gambrel in the hind legs, between the tendons and the leg 
bones, and suspend the carcass. A hook or support 7 feet from the 
ground or floor is a good working height. 

Cut the pelt open down the middle of the belly, cutting loose the 
navel. Hold the pelt tightly with the left hand, work the right hand 
around the stifle and then up the outside of the left leg. Change 
hands, or cross hands, and fist out the right hind leg. This will roll 
the fleece away from the clean carcass. Fist down past the shoulder, 
pull the skin free from the foreleg, and then fist out the side of the 
neck. Push the pelt free from the sides and fist off the rump. The 
rump may stick, so to free it work the pelt from both sides. Push up 
from underneath until the pelt hangs only by the skin fastened td 
the anus and tail. 

At the lower end of the sheep's front leg is a true joint. This must 
be opened to cut off the pastern and foot of mature sheep. Up the 
leg from the true joint is a cartilaginous suture in the bone. With 
a sharp twist it can be broken apart at the suture joint in most 
lambs. With yearling lambs and with old sheep this suture joint 
will not break and the foot must be unjointed. It is customary to cut 
off the forefeet of lambs at this suture, which identifies the carcass 
as lamb. This break joint is taken as a definite indication of the age 
of the animal. Cut or nick the membranes on the side of the leg just 
over this lamb joint. Break the joint open where it has been cut by 
pressing the foot sideways. If necessary, the leg can be held against 
the knee in making this break. 

While the pelt is still hanging to and stretching the tail, push 
the knife in beside and above the anus, cut clear around it and 
loosen the anus so that 10 or 12 inches of the colon can be pulled up 
and out of the body cavity. Tie the colon before it is dropped back 
into the body cavity so that its contents will not foul the carcass. 
Cut and pull the skin free from the dock and pull and fist it free 
from the back. It is usually possible to do this without any knife 
work and leave a smooth carcass. 

Pull the pelt down the neck. Use the knife to free the pelt around 
the skull and over the face. Remove the head by cutting through the 
throat just back of the jaw, unjointing it at the atlas bone. Wash 
the carcass well with clean, warm water and wipe it dry with clean 
cloths wrung out in hot water. 




Original fro m 
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114 



BUTCHERING SHEEP AND LAMBS 




Fig. 84. Pushing the pelt away from 
the foreflank and shoulder. 




Fig. 86. Pulling the pelt free from the 
neck. This should be easily accom- 
plished if the sides have first been 
fisted free. 



Digitized by Google 




Fig. 85. Fisting the pelt free from the 
back. The next step will be to cut the 
pelt free from the dock. 




Fig. 87. Insert the fingers of the left 
hand inside the abdominal cavity to 
hold the internal organs away from 
the knife while opening the carcass 
down the front. 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



OPENING THE CARCASS 



115 



Opening the Carcass 



Cut down the middle of the carcass from just below the cod or 
udder to the cartilage of the breastbone or brisket. Into this, the 
clenched fist grasping the knife is forced. The fist pushes away 
the paunch from the heel of the knife and prevents cutting into the 
paunch as the belly wall is ripped downward. Allow the paunch 
and intestines to roll out and hang. Reach in and locate the already 
loosened and tied colon and pull and work it down past the kidneys. 
Grasp and remove the bladder taking care not to split its contents 
on the meat. Roll out the paunch slightly and get a firm grip on it 
with the left hand where it joins the intestines. Work the right 
hand into the body cavity, up the ribs and behind the. liver. Tear it 
loose where it is attached near the right kidney. Use care in remov- 
ing it, for the liver is a choice product. Still keep a firm hold on the 
viscera, work the right hand under the paunch along the diaphragm 
and pull and push the organs up and from the carcass. Tie the 
gullet with a stout cord where it enters the chest cavity; then cut 
the paunch free by severing the gullet below the cord. Tying pre- 
vents the digestive contents from spilling over the carcass when the 
gullet is cut. A helper will be needed in making the tie and cutting 
the gullet. Drop the offal into a clean container for later inspection. 

Next split the breastbone. If the animal is over 1 year old, a saw 
may be required as well as a knife. To remove the pluck (heart 
and lungs), cut the white part of the diaphragm. Then cut loose 
the pluck on each side of the brisket, loosen the large blood vessels 
along the backbone and pull the pluck down and out. 



Remove the gall bladder from the liver by pinching under the 
neck or small end of the bladder with the thumb and forefinger. 
Tear or cut the upper or smaller end free and pull gently to peel 
out the main body of the bladder. The bladder can also be cut out 
with a knife. In removing the gall bladder precaution should be 
taken not to puncture or cut it, for then the gall will run over the 
liver and cause a bitter flavor. After the gall bladder is removed, 
wash the liver in clean, cold water to remove any possible bitter 
flavor. 

After the tongue is cut from the head, split the skull and remove 
the brains. The liver, heart, and tongue should be carefully washed 
in clean, cold water and hung up to chill. The caul fat if clean 
may be used in cooking. Cut the small intestines from the stomach 



Care of Internal Organs 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



116 



BUTCHERING SHEEP AND LAMBS 



and remove the fat. They are easily separated from the fat by pull- 
ing carefully with the hands. They may be cleaned, salted and used 
for sausage casings. The fat is usually used for soap stock. 

Now the freshly slaughtered carcass is ready for chilling. It should 
be chilled to a temperature above freezing and below 40°F, as soon 
as possible. Fresh meat, in commercial establishments, is held at 
about 34° for storing and ripening. (See section on "Fresh and 
Seasoned Meat" in Chapter L) 




Fig. 88. Removing the heart and lungs after splitting the 

brisket. 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



VIII 



DRESSING GAME ANIMALS 



Relatively few people realize that venison and other game meats 
will give any family budget a much needed lift. It is surprising how 
few persons in this country have ever eaten game. 

In more recent times game has been hunted primarily for sport, 
and the emphasis has been on recreation rather than on obtaining 
food. Therefore, game meats have not been utilized to the fullest 
possible extent in supplementing the domestic meat supply, and 
little time has been devoted to their preparation and cooking. 

Game meats should be used more often and a taste for venison 
and wild fowl cultivated. This will increase variety in the diet with 
practically no increase in cost. Game is not expensive if one shoots 
it, but if it is badly dressed or cooked improperly it is a total loss. 

Considerable game meat is wasted each hunting season through 
spoilage because some hunters are ignorant, indifferent, or lazy 
when it comes to processing their kill. Warm, freshly killed game 
requires even more prompt attention to bleeding and chilling than 
domestic meat animals. Spoilage starts quickly, especially in the 
muscles that have been torn or bruised by bullets. 



Deer, elk, moose, antelope, mountain sheep, or other big game 
animals should be stuck and bled promptly as soon as they are 
dropped by the shot of the hunter. Hanging and dressing the car- 
cass will speed up chilling. How completely the carcass should be 
dressed, cut up, and packed for transportation depends on the dis- 
tance it is to be transported, the time involved in transportation, 
and the temperature. 

If the game is taken to camp or hauled home quickly, a better job 
of butchering can be accomplished because the carcass can be hung 
up properly and more tools will be available to do the work. How- 



Big Game 



117 




Original from 
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118 



DRESSING GAME ANIMALS 



ever, as soon as possible after the deer is killed it should be "field 
dressed/'— that is, the viscera, lungs, heart, and liver removed. Bac- 
teria in the abdominal cavity of any animal will soon cause spoilage; 
therefore the contents of the stomach and chest should be emptied 
quickly. One advantage in taking the carcass home is that your 
neighborhood butcher or one at the cold-storage locker plant can 
do the job for you; but if you do it yourself in the woods, proceed 
according to the following directions. 




Fig. 89. Open chest cavity by spreading with a stick. 
Drain off blood and wipe with a clean cloth. 



Dressing Deer on the Ground 

As soon as the animal is shot, unless you wish to save the head 
for mounting, bleed it by cutting the throat. If possible, turn the 
carcass with the head downhill so that it will bleed freely. There 
are two ways of dressing a big game animal. One is with the carcass 
lying on the ground, the other is hoisting it off the ground. Some 
hunters carry a very light block-and-tackle so they can hoist the 
animal. 

To open the body cavity of a deer lying on the ground, insert 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
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BUTCHERING A HANGING DEER 



119 



the knife near the breastbone. Locate the lower end of it and slit 
the skin. Make a small opening, then insert two fingers beneath the 
hide and back of the knife to guard it from piercing the stomach 
and intestines when the knife is advanced toward the tail of the 
animal. Open the carcass from throat to crotch. When you cut to 
the genitals, stop. Remove the knife, cut around the genitals, and 
pull them out. Then cut out the rectum. A stout hunting knife or 
a belt ax may be used to split the breastbone. Be as careful as pos- 
sible in preventing the hair from coming in contact with the meat. 
Now cut loose the organs in the pelvic cavity. Reach inside the 
carcass, down between the hip bones, catch hold of the large intes- 
tine, and pull it out and tie it off. 

Now turn the carcass with the head uphill, cut windpipe and gullet 
free at throat. Hold these in the hand and pull backward, at the 
same time cutting free from the carcass any part that tends to hold. 
Remove the entrails to the base of the tail. If the carcass must be 
removed from the woods before cooling and quartering, leave the 
liver and heart in the body cavity. Open the chest cavity by spreading 
with a stick. Drain off blood and wipe with a clean cloth. Do not 
wash with water. Trim away all parts damaged by gunshot. 

Butchering a Hanging Deer 

After the animal has been bled, loosen the tendons in each hind 
leg. Insert a pole, 3 to 4 feet long and pointed on both ends. Then 
hoist the carcass with a block-and-tackle, or by the limb of a tree, 
a crossbeam, or a tripod erected for the purpose. At the hock joint 
cut around the skin on each hind leg. Run the knife down along 
the inside of each leg to the cod or testicles. Skin out the hind legs 
carefully, using the knife skillfully. Pull the tail out of the skin 
as far as possible and then cut it off. Proceed in the same manner 
as described for skinning and dressing calves. With a sharp knife 
held nearly flat against the surface and with the hide stretched 
tightly, remove the skin down over the sides with steady down 
strokes of the knife. "Fisting," will help separate the hide from the 
flesh on certain parts of the body. Some prefer as a matter of pro- 
tection in transportation to leave the skin on the carcass. This is 
only advisable in very cool weather. If state laws permit, it is better 
to quarter the animal before moving. Eviscerate and remove the 
edible organs in the same manner as that described for cattle. 

Remove the liver— there is no gall bladder— save the heart, liver, 
kidneys, and pancreas (sweetbread). They are delicacies and well 
worth all the trouble you may experience in saving them. 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




Fig. 90. A deer carcass can be hoisted with an improvised winch or a small 

block-and-tackle. 



Removing the Tongue and Brains 

In removing the tongue from the head, place the head face down, 
cut along the inner surface of the lower jaw, lift up the tongue and 
cut it off at the base. A hand ax can be used to cut the bones at the 
base of the tongue. Allow the fat to remain at the base of the 
tongue. Wash the tongue well in clean, cold water and scrape it 
with a knife, from the tip to the base, then hang it up to drain and 
cool. Saw or split the skull and lift out the brains. 

Saving the Head 

If you plan on mounting the animal's head, a special method of 
treatment is necessary. The United States Forest Service recom- 
mends the following procedure: Do not puncture the skin; cut it 
around the body so as much as possible of the hide from the shoul- 
der and brisket is included. Cut along back of neck and to base of 
antlers. Peel skin from neck and head, cutting ears close to skull. 
Exercise care in peeling skin from around antlers, eyes, and lips so 
that no holes or tears result. Remove all flesh and fat; salt well. 
After several hours, re-salt skin and turn flesh side out to dry slowly 
in shade. Take care that no folds are left while drying. Do not re- 
move antlers from head except with a saw. A generous portion of 
skull should be included. 



Digitized byGoOgle 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




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121 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original fro m 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



122 



DRESSING GAME ANIMALS 



Small Game * 



It is much easier to eviscerate and skin an animal while it is still 
warm than after the carcass has become cold. Rabbits, squirrels, 
woodchucks, and other small animals are generally disembowled in 
the field soon after they are shot. Tularemia (a disease of wild rab- 
bits) which is transmissible to man, has given hunters and their wives 
considerable worry. There is no need for this if the proper precau- 
tion is taken. When a rabbit is bagged, pick it up in gloved hands. 
Slit the belly from the anus up to the breastbone. Grab the forelegs 
and head in one gloved hand and the hindquarters and legs in the 
other and dash out the entrails on the ground. Take a stick and 
stir through these to locate the liver. It if possesses a clear, dark, 
blood-red healthy looking color with no visible white cyst-like spots 
the size of a pea or smaller, the rabbit does not have tularemia. As 
a secondary precaution, however, the hunter should carry a small 
bottle containing a solution of Lysol or similar disinfectant in his 
hunting jacket and, after he has handled a rabbit, should pour some 
of this liquid in the palm of one hand and bathe his hands vigor- 
ously. If there were any tularemia germs on his hands, they have 
been destroyed. 

Small game can be skinned in the field, in camp, or at home. 
Hang the carcass of a rabbit or woodchuck up by the right hindleg 
on a nail or a hook inserted near the hock joint between the tendon 
and the bone of the leg. Remove the head and front feet. Next cut 
off the tail and sever the left hind foot at the first joint. All cuts 
should be made clean so as not to splinter the bone or make a rough 
surface on the meat. Then cut the pelt around the right hind leg 
at the hock. Slit the pelt on the inside of the leg to the root of the 
tail. The fat should be cut away from the pelt before this is pulled 
down over the carcass. Then with both hands firmly pull the pelt 
down off the carcass. Rabbits and woodchucks can be skinned in 
this manner, but opossums, raccoons, muskrats, and beavers are 
pelted differently. All these furs have some value, and care should 
be taken in skinning the animals and preparing the pelt for the raw 
fur market. 

Whenever small game animals are skinned, remember that some 
of them, such as muskrat, woodchuck, beaver, raccoon, and opossum, 
have scent glands, and these should be removed as soon as possible. 
If they are left intact the meat will become tainted from the strong 
musky odor. These glands are located under the forelegs and along 

* Cooking Wild Game, by Frank G. Ashbrook and Edna N. Sater, Orange Judd 
Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 1945. 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



SMALL GAME 



123 



the spine in the small of the back near the rump. They are generally 
pea-shaped, waxy or reddish looking "kernels." Avoid cutting these 
glands, or bringing them in contact with the meat. The degree to 
which they flavor the meat varies with the season, but in most fur 
animals they are always objectionable. 

In the case of the cottontail and jack rabbit, these small, waxy- 
looking glands are located under the front legs just where they join 
the body. The same is true of raccoons— these so-called "kernels" or 
scent glands are located under the front legs and on either side of 
the spine in the small of the back. The woodchuck also has these 
glands in the form of red nodules under the forelegs. The muskrat 
derives its name from its scent or musk glands. They give off a 
characteristic pungent odor and, if cooked with the meat, impart 
a strong flavor. The large pair of musk glands lie under the skin 
on the lower part of the abdomen. They are light yellow and have a 
corrugated appearance. In addition, there are some small internal 
glands located in the inguinal region of the thighs, between the 
forelegs and between the shoulders on the back. They resemble 
small, yellow, fat bodies and are so inconspicuous they are over- 
looked by most people. As the breeding season approaches, the 
glands become more active and should be removed. 




Fig. 94, Domestic and wild rabbits may be skinned in the same way. Steps 
(right to left): remove the head; cut off the tail, then free hind leg at the hock 
joint, and the front feet; then cut the skin just below the hock of the suspended 
leg and open it on the inside of the leg to the root of the tail, continuing the 
cut to the hock of the left leg; and carefully separate the skin from the carcass 
and start pulling it down over the animal. 

P/\j^nl^ Original from 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC C0RNEL| _ UN | VERS | TY 



/X 



HANDLING HIDES AND SKINS 



Hides and skins of animals are made into leather. Those from 
large and adult bovines are suitable for sale, harness, belting, or 
heavy leathers. Skins from small animals, such as sheep, goats, 
calves, deer, and antelope, are made into light and fancy leathers. 
While there are other commercial sources of hides and skins, the 
important ones are the usual domesticated farm and range animals. 

The hides and skins of animals are valuable. The first essential 
for a satisfactory yield of good leather is a sound, clean hide or skin. 
Therefore, skinning should be done properly, without cutting or 
scoring the hide; and at the same time all the fat and flesh should 
be removed, for, if left on, they increase the tendency of the hide or 
skin to rot or spoil. 

Preparation of the hide or skin may be begun as soon as it has 
been taken off the animal, drained, and cooled. Overnight will be 
long enough to allow the hide to lose its body heat. Remove dirt, 
blood, and any pieces of flesh by scraping the skin side with the back 
of a butcher knife and by careful trimming. Split the ears twice. 
Immediately wash both sides of the hide with clear, cold water and 
use a brush, scrubbing particularly the hair side to remove all dirt. 
Let the hide drain thoroughly to remove the excess water, and then 
begin to apply the salt. 

When the weather is cold, hides and skins may be kept safely 
for some time without salting, though care should be taken to pre- 
vent them from freezing. During spring, summer, and fall, however, 
they must be salted promptly and thoroughly if they are to be made 
into sound leather and pay for the work of curing them. 



Cattle and Horse Hides. Select a cool, clean place, preferably a 
cellar, garage, or barn floor free from draughts and out of the direct 

124 



Salting and Curing 




Original from 
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SALTING AND CURING 



125 



sunlight. A floor with a slight slope and a drain is the best. Sprinkle 
on the space chosen a thin layer of clean crystal salt (about pea 
size) or ordinary salt of the kind used for salting meat. Spread the 
washed and drained hide, hair side down, over the salted area, being 
sure to straighten out ail folds and laps. Sprinkle fresh, clean salt 
all over the flesh side of the hide, using nearly a pound of salt for 
every pound of hide. Be sure that all parts of the flesh side receive 
a sprinkling of the salt. Use plenty of salt and rub it in well along 
the cut edges, head, neck, legs, wrinkles, and the heavy portions. 

If several hides are to be cured, pile them one upon another, hair 
side down, with the heads at one end. Salt each one as directed. 
Lay the hides one upon the other but do not drag them across the 
others, as this disturbs the salt on the hides underneath, causing 
unsalted spots and spoiled hides. 

As the liquor accumulates it must be drained away to prevent 
damage to the hides on the bottom. 

Properly salted hides will become firm and stiff in about 12 to 
14 days. They are sometimes known as "salt firm" or "salt hard." 
The hides are now ready for bundling and shipping. Hides should 
not be bundled immediately after salting. 

Horse hides are removed in practically the same way as cattle 
hides. They are graded almost entirely on the condition of the rear 
portion which covers the buttocks. Therefore, great care should 
be taken with this portion of the hide, which should be free of 
scores, cuts, and dragged spots. Tails and manes should be removed 
from the hides and sold separately. 




126 



HANDLING HIDES AND SKINS 



Calf and Deer Skins. The hide of a deer or elk is also valuable. 
Gloves can be made, and a vest or hunting jacket is not only prac- 
tical but good looking. 

After the skins have cooled, salt them in the same way as cattle 
or horsehides. A finer salt is more satisfactory, and it should be 
rubbed in well with the hands on neck, head, tail root, legs, and 
shanks. A wooden platform with a slight slope is excellent for salt- 
ing calf, deer, lamb, and sheep skins. The brine that accumulates 
will drain away properly. 

Sheep and Lamb Skins. Apply the salt in the same manner as 
previously described but use about one-half pound of clean fine salt 
to one pound of skin. Sprinkle it on by hand and rub it in. Be sure 
that every spot of skin gets this salt treatment. 

Sheep and lambskins should be sent to market promptly. Do not 
hold them more than 4 or 5 days. They will heat, causing decom- 
position and loss in value. For the same reason, do not place more 
than ten pelts in one pile. 

Keeping Cured Hides and Skins. Properly and thoroughly cured 
hides and skins other than sheep and lambskins may be bundled and 
safely kept for some time in a cool place. Fall, winter, and spring 
hides may be kept until May or June without undue deterioration. 
As a rule, however, it is inadvisable to keep hides and skins during 
the summer. 



Ordinarily it is more economical to have hides and skins proc- 
essed by tanners who are willing to tan one or more hides than to 
do the work at home. Some tanners tan only hides with the hair 
on for robes and coats; some also tan harness, strap, or lace leather; 
and a few tan sole leather. Some accept one-half of the hide in pay- 
ment for tanning the other half; that is, if one sends a hide to be 
tanned, the tanner will send back one-half tanned into leather, and 
keep the other half to pay for his work. This is probably the best 
way for some farmers or ranchers to get their leather. 

Hides and skins should be tanned only by experienced tanners. 
An inexperienced person cannot hope to make leather equal in ap- 
pearance, or possibly in quality, to that obtainable on the market. 
However, some farmers and ranchers are able to make serviceable 
leather for most farm purposes by carefully following directions for 
home tanning of leather. If you desire information on the home 
tanning of leather, consult the references at the back of this book. 



Having Hides Tanned 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



X 



CUTTING THE CARCASS 



There is no "best way" to cut a carcass. The choice depends on 
how the meat is to be used. If it is to be sold, the cuts should con- 
form to local preferences. If the meat is to be preserved by freezing, 
each piece should be of a size and character suitable for convenient 
cooking. The methods described here show how to make the major 
cuts, and suggestions are offered for using them in order to produce 
the maximum amount of meat that can be preserved by curing, 
smoking, or refrigeration. 



Pork carcasses are cut as soon as they are thoroughly chilled, usu- 
ally within 48 hours after slaughter. It pays to do a neat job of 
cutting and trimming whether the meat is to be consumed at home 
or some is to be marketed. One derives a great deal of pleasure 
months later in unwrapping a neatly trimmed ham, shoulder, or 
bacon. After all, attractive pieces of meat on your own table are 
most desirable. 

The cutting method prescribed separates the thick ham, loin, and 
shoulder from the thinner bacon strip, fat, and head. All the other 
pieces can be classified as trimmings. All trimmings, including the 
very small ones, can be used to advantage in making sausage, scrap- 
ple, headcheese, and other pork products. 

Considerable research for improving methods of home butchering, 
curing, and meat preservation has been conducted by the Morton 
Salt Company. Their objective has been to remove all guesswork 
and to make the job easier and certain. Here is a precise and easy 
procedure recommended by this company for cutting up a hog 
carcass. 

Place the cold side of pork, skin down, on the table and start 
cutting it. Saw at the shoulder through the third and fourth ribs 



Pork 



127 




Original fro m 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



128 



CUTTING THE CARCASS 




Fig. 96. The different cuts of pork. Guide lines (in the side of pork at the top) 
show where cuts should be made. Underneath are the principal cuts before they 
are trimmed— jowl, shoulder, loin, bacon, ham; next are the trimmed cuts; and 

last the trimmings. 



Digitized by Google 



Original from 
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PORK 



129 




Fig, 97. If the head has not been removed previously, cut it off at a point where 

the backbone ends. 




Fig. 98. Start cutting up the carcass at the shoulder, through the third and 

fourth ribs. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



at right angles to the back* Use the knife to complete the cut. If 
the head has not been removed previously, then cut off the jowl at 
a point where the backbone ends, which is in line with the wrinkle 
of the neck. 

Trim some of the cheek meat from the jowl and flatten it out 
with the broad side of a cleaver or hatchet and square it up by 
trimming with a knife. The trimmed jowl is known as a "bacon 
square" and can be cured and used the same as bacon, or used for 
seasoning with boiled foods. 

Remove the neck bone from the shoulder, leaving very little meat 
on the bone. Trim the shoulder and cut off the shank. This is the 
"long-cut" method of trimming and will give the maximum of cured 
meat from the shoulder. Saw the shank off above the knee joint. 




Fig. 99. Remove the neckbone from the shoulder, leaving very little meat on the 
bone. Trim up the shoulder and cut off the shank. 




Fig. 100, This is the long-cut method of trimming and gives the maximum of 
cured meat from the shoulder. Shank is sawed off above knee joint. 



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PORK 



131 



If smaller cured cuts are desired, the shoulder can be divided 
between the smallest part of the blade bone, producing a picnic 
shoulder and butt. The picnic shoulder will cure quicker than the 
long-cut method and makes a convenient, handy-size shoulder for 
small families. When the shoulder is separated into picnic and butt, 
the clear plate, which is the covering of fat on the top of the shoul- 
der butt, is skinned off. The fat may be cured for seasoning or used 
for lard. The lean portion is known as the "Boston" butt and can 
be cured or used for sausage. When neatly trimmed, the picnic 
shoulder has the appearance of a small ham. 

To take off the ham, saw on a line at right angles to the hind 
shank and at a point about three finger widths in front of the aitch- 
bone. Finish the cut with the knife and begin shaping the ham by 
curving the cut on the belly side. 




Fig. 101. To take off the ham, saw on a line at right angles to the hind shank 
and at a point about three finger- widths in front of the aitchbone. 





Fig. 102. Smooth up the ham by trimming off all the loose pieces of meat. 
Hams that are neatly trimmed cure better and are easier to wrap, 

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To remove the tail bone slip the knife under the tail bone and 
continue the cut along the bone, keeping the knife as flat as possible. 
If the hams were faced when the carcass was hung up to chill, each 
ham then will require comparatively little trimming. When the 
tail bone is removed the hams should be trimmed smooth of all loose 
pieces of meat which can be used for sausage. If the corners and 
loose pieces are left on the hams they will dry up in the cure, having 
little food value, and the hams will be less attractive. Hams that 
are neatly trimmed and rounded cure better and are easier to wrap. 

If hams are exceptionally fat, and if too much fat is objectionable, 
the hams can be skinned. This is done by leaving a collar of skin 
around one-third of the ham at the shank end. The balance of the 
fat is trimmed off, leaving about one-fourth inch of fat over the 
lean. Skinned hams do not keep as well as hams that are not 
skinned, and for that reason skinning is not recommended as a gen- 
eral practice. After hams are trimmed, saw off the shanks just below 
the button of the hock. 




Fig. 103, After the ham is trimmed, saw off the shank just below the bottom 

of the hock. 



To separate the loin from the belly, the ribs are sawed across at 
their greatest curvature. This is about one-third the distance from 
the top of the backbone to the bottom part of the belly edge. Make 
this cut so as to include the tenderloin with the loin. After the 
ribs are sawed through, finish the cut with the knife, completely 
separating the belly side from the loin. Lay the belly on the table, 
skin side up, and smooth out the wrinkles as well as possible with 
the palm of the hand. A few sharp blows from the side of the cleaver 
or hatchet will help loosen the spare ribs from the belly. 



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133 



Now turn the belly, skin side down, and trim out the ribs. Start 
this cut by loosening the neck bone at the top of the ribs. Keep the 
knife as flat as possible to avoid gouging the bacon. Pull the ribs 
upward as the cut is made and trim as close to the ribs as possible. 




Fig. 104. Separate the loin from the belly by sawing across their greatest curva- 
ture. 




Fig. 105. After the ribs are sawed through, finish the cut with the knife. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



The cartilaginous ends or "buttons" of the lower ribs are left on 
the bacon. 

Square the bacon by trimming the lower edge first to a straight 
line. All of the "seeds/' the mammary glands along the lower edge, 
should be trimmed out of choice bacon. Next trim the top on a line 
parallel to the lower edge until a good streak of lean appears and 
then square both ends enough to reach an attractive lean streak. 
Frequently there is an uneven space at the front end of the bacon, 




Fic. 106. Start cutting out the ribs with the neckbone at the top of the ribs, and 

keep the knife as flat as possible. 




Fic. 107. Square up the bacon by trimming all four sides. 



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PORK 



which is known as the bacon brisket. This may be cured or used 
for sausage or lard. 

The tenderloin is the small lean muscle which lies underneath the 
backbone in the rear of the loin. It is one of the most popular of all 
pork cuts to be used fresh. It is generally prepared by cutting across 
into pieces about 1 inch thick, and "frenching." This is done by 
placing the pieces of tenderloin (on end) on a strip of parchment 
or waxed paper and folding the paper over the top of the meat. The 
meat is then struck a sharp blow with the flat side of the cleaver, 
flattening it out. The paper keeps the meat from sticking to the 
table or the cleaver. These delightful morsels cannot be equaled for 
tenderness by any other pork cut. 




Fig. 108. Trim out the small lean muscle (tenderloin) which lies underneath the 

backbone in the rear of the loin. 



After taking out the tenderloin, remove the fat back from the 
loin. Place the loin skin side down, set the knife about one-fourth 
inch under the lean or muscle meat, and make a full length cut. 
Reverse the loin and make the same cut from the other side. This 
separates the fat back from the loin. The fat back may be used for 
lard or may be cured and used for seasoning when cooking. The 
remaining fat on the loin should be smoothed off up to about one- 
fourth inch in thickness. The loin is one of the choicest cuts of 
pork and it is made possible by splitting the carcass down the 



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136 




Fig. 109. Separate the fat back from the loin and smooth up the remaining fat to 

about 14 inch in thickness. 




Fig. 110, Well-trimmed pieces of pork (left to right): shoulder butt, picnic ham, 

and trimmings piled on plate. 

middle of the back instead of cutting along each side of the back- 
bone. One of the most practical ways to use the loin is to cure it 
as Canadian style bacon. 

After trimming the loin cut up the other one-half of the carcass, 
starting with the shoulder and finishing with the loin. 

All pieces for curing should be trimmed smoothly and uniformly. 
Remove all blood spots (almost always found in the shoulder) and 
ragged pieces of meat and fat. A good job of trimming reduces 
waste. The meat will get a uniform cure and have a better flavor 
and a more appetizing appearance. 



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Fig, 111. Skinning fat trimmings. Keep the knife parallel with the table and 
the edge turned slightly downward toward the skin. 



Beef and Veal 

Beef. The first step in cutting the beef carcass is quartering or 
"ribbing down/' This divides the fore and hindquarters. Each side 
of beef has thirteen ribs. Insert the knife blade between the twelfth 
and thirteenth ribs at a point midway between the backbone and 
flank. Cut the backbone on a parallel with the ribs, then cut toward 
the flank leaving 6 to 8 inches of flank to hold up the forequarter 
when the backbone has been sawed. Saw the backbone in two on a 
line with the knife cut between the ribs. This will leave the fore- 
quarter hanging from the uncut strip at the flank. Now, while one 
person holds the forequarter to keep it from falling, another one 
finishes the cut at the flank, completing the separation of the fore 
and hindquarters. 

There are different methods of cutting up the beef carcass. The 
following one, however, is intended to give pieces suitable for cur- 
ing, cooking, and canning. 

Cutting the Forequarter. Place the forequarter on the cutting 
table with the outside up. Along the twelfth rib about 10 inches 
from the backbone is the point to begin making the first cut. The 
idea is to separate the plate from the rib. Start at this point and 
make a straight line cut across the shank just above the elbow 
joint. Cut through the meat to the ribs. Saw along the same line 
and remove the plate and brisket. A saw rather than an ax or 
cleaver should be used for cutting bones. This will avoid splintering 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



Meat Cuts and How to Cook Them 
PORK CHART 



Retail Cuts 



Wholesale Cuts 



Retail Cuts 




Fresh Shoulder Hock Arm Steak 

Brake, Cook in Liquid- • — Broite, Ponfry- 



NATIONAL LIVE STOCK AND MEAT BOARD 

Fig. 112. 



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BEEF AND VEAL 



139 



¥ -SIRLOIN STEAKS 

t l ~~y PORTERHOUSE STEAKS 
^-T-BONE STEAKS 
T CLUB STEAKS 



f RIB ROASTS 



BOILING" PIECES 
CORNED BEEF 
GRINDING 




POT ROASTS 
GRINDING 
MINCE MEAT 
"BOILING" PIECES 



Fig. 113. Black lines show wholesale cuts, and white lines show retail cuts. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 




Fig. 114. Dividing the forequarter and the hindquarter. 
The cut is made between the last two ribs. 



the bone and causing unnecessary waste of meat. Now, saw the 
foreshank off at the elbow. Cut between the fifth and sixth ribs to 
separate the rib cut from the chuck. Complete the cut with the saw, 
passing through the backbone. There are seven ribs in the set of 
ribs which may be further divided into two or three rib roasts. 
Roasts are made by cutting between the ribs. These roasts may be 
boned and rolled if desired. The chuck is somewhat less tender and 
better adapted for pot roasts, corning, or grinding. It can also be 
cut into roasts if desired. A two-rib roast called a chuck roast can 
be cut. A round-bone pot roast can be removed by cutting across 
the shank bone. Additional chuck roasts are then cut parallel with 
the ribs. The remainder, the neck and shoulder, may be cut into 
suitable size pieces for stewing or boned out for hamburger or mince 
meat. 



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141 




Fig. 115. Separating the plate from the rib. Start cutting 10 inches from the 

backbone along the 12th rib. 




Fig. 116. Sawing off plate and foreshank. 



Cutting the Hindquarter. Lay the hindquarter on the table with 
the inside or the carcass up. Remove the flank from the hindquarter 
along the natural division by cutting alongside a continued line of 
the inside of the hind shank across the last rib. This contains the 
flank steak which can be pulled out. The balance of the flank can 
be used for boiling or ground for hamburger, meat loaf, or mince 
meat. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 




Fig. 117. Separating rib and chuck. Cut between the fifth and sixth ribs. 




Fig. 119. Trimming out the kidney. 



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BEEF AND VEAL 



143 



Now trim out the kidney and the fat in which it is imbedded, 
but leave enough fat on the backbone to cover the tenderloin. 

Separate the loin from the round and rump at the ball-and-socket 
hip joint. Cut directly below and parallel to the pelvic arch. Start 
this cut with a knife; complete it with the saw. The loin may be 
divided into the sirloin and porterhouse at the hip joint. Steaks 
from the short loin are good eating. Separate the rump from the 
round by sawing across the floor of the aitchbone. The rump makes 
a desirable roast or choice corned beef. The pelvic bone may be 
trimmed out of the rump. The shank may be cut off at the upper 
end of the long bone. 




Fig. 120. Separate the loin from the round at the ball-and-socket hip joint. 




Fig. 121. After starting the cut with a knife, complete it with the saw. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



1 




BEEF AND VEAL 



145 



Meat Cuts and How to Cook Them 
BEEF CHART 



Retail Cuts 



Wholesale Cuts 



Retail Cuts 




English Cut Arm Pol-Roost 



Arm Steak 



Rolled Neck Boneless Neck 
Brotte or Cook in liquid 



* Pri rTV« an <t choice grade t may bo 
broiled, panbroiled or panfried 



Fig. 124. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



Veal. Veal is very tender and is mostly lean meat. It contains 
very little fat. Veal also contains a high percentage of moisture, and 
for that reason most of the carcass should be utilized as fresh meat. 
The heavier cuts can be cured and canned advantageously. 

After the carcass has been chilled thoroughly, cutting can begin. 
The same general pattern followed in cutting a beef carcass can 
also apply to veal. The sweetbreads, brains, and liver are choice 





Fig. 125. Guide lines for making veal cuts. The sweet- 
breads, brains and liver are choice parts that are used 

first, 

parts. They should be removed and used first. The neck and shank 
can be cut into chunks and used for stews and soups. The trim- 
mings can be ground for veal loaf. 

Split the carcass with a saw in the same manner as that prescribed 
for beef. Now the veal carcass is ready for cutting. Separate the 



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BEEF AND VEAL 



Meat Cuts and How to Cook Them 
VEAL CHART 

Retail Cuts Wholesale Cuts Retail Cuts 



147 




Rolled 
Shoulder Roost 

Rooil or Brail* #) Bra it* , Pan fry 



Patties 

— Braise ar Pantry — 



NATIONAL LIVE STOCK AND MEAT BOARD 

Fig. 126. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



fore from the hindquarter. Remove the foreleg by cutting just above 
the elbow bone. Separate the front shank from the shoulder and 
back. The shoulder may be cut into chops or steaks, as they are 
sometimes called, or it may be boned and used for a roast. After 
the bone is removed, the meat is rolled lengthwise and tied tightly 
with cord crosswise around the roll about an inch apart. 

Work on the hindquarter begins by cutting the sirloin roast from 
the leg of veaL After that, remove the rump from the leg. Round 
steaks or cutlets are cut from the leg of veal. 

Lamb and Mutton 

Ordinarily the lamb carcass is not split down the center of the 
backbone, but it may be. The beginner, however, will find it easier 
to divide the carcass into the most desirable pieces for using fresh 
or for curing. There are many different ways of cutting the lamb 
carcass. The cuts made depend a great deal on the uses to be made 
of the meat, whether most of it is to be used fresh, canned, or cured. 
The larger cuts, like the legs and shoulders, are the best cuts for 
curing. Corned lamb is easy to process, and the breast and shank 
are best suited for this purpose. A good way to use the small pieces 
and trimmings is to grind the meat and make lamb patties or mix 
it with pork in making sausage. 




Fig. 127. Black guide lines show where to make the cuts to separate the lamb 
carcass into the most desirable pieces for using fresh or for curing. 

The lamb carcass, like beef, has thirteen pairs of ribs. Begin by 
sawing off the shoulder between the fifth and sixth ribs; or, if a 
narrow shoulder is preferred, saw between the third and fourth ribs. 
Then cut the neck off on a line flush with the shoulder. Saw off the 
shank. Separate the shoulders by sawing through the backbone. 
Turn the carcass on its side, with the legs toward you and saw off 
the breast piece. Then separate the rack from the loin by cutting 
between the last two ribs to the backbone. Start the cut with a knife 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



and complete with a saw through the backbone. Rib chops may be 
cut from the rack after splitting, or the piece can be used for making 
a crown roast* Cut and saw the loin from the long legs through the 
small of the back or just forward of the hip bones. Now the sirloin 
is cut from the loin in the same manner. The thickness is optional. 
The sirloin makes an excellent size roast, or it can be cut into 
chops. The legs are then separated by splitting down the center of 
the backbone with the saw. 




Fig. 132. Two methods of trimming a leg of lamb for roasting; (I) French 
method, with chops removed (shown at 3)\ (2) long-cut leg. 



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LAMB AND MUTTON 



151 



Meat Cuts and How to Cook Them 
LAMB CHART 

Retail Cuts Wholesale Cuts Retail Cuts 




Leg of Lamb 

(Throa cvta h*m an* Ug) 
•InK ••M Panbroil, Panfry-e-Braiso,- 

Roatt 




Crown Frenched 
Roost Rib Chops 

— Ink •—•roil, Panbroil, Ponfry— 




Arm Chop Blade Chop 

Brofl, Panbroil, Roott Broil, Panbroil, 
0 Ponfry, iroi»«_ 




Rolled Boneless 
Shouldor Shoulder Chops 
-Roost, troitt • troll, 




Nock Slkos 

-Bralso, Cook in Liquid - 





Frenched leg 

Roost 




Loin English Rolled Loin 

Chop Chop Roast 

Broil, Panbroil, Panfry- o — Roatt 




Patties Loaf 

Broil, Panbroil, Ponfry- • — Root! (Boko) 




Riblots Stow Moat 

Braiso or Cook in liquid 




Rolled Breast Breast 

■ Braita or Root* 




Shanks 

• Rr*ito or Cook in liquid - 



NATIONAL LIVE STOCK AND MEAT BOARD 



Fig. 133. 



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CUTTING THE CARCASS 



Venison 

Venison 1 from the deer or elk has always been a staple article of 
diet, a favorite with hunters and epicures. It is covered with white, 
scented fat, which connoisseurs greatly appreciate. 

Venison is an excellent substitute for beef and mutton, which 
meats it resembles in texture, color, and general characteristics. Its 
flavor is distinctive, suggestive of beef rather than mutton. 

Venison becomes more tender and palatable when allowed to 
ripen or age for a short time. When conditions permit, it may be 
allowed to hang from two to three weeks before being cut up. 

The first step in cutting a venison carcass is to split it with a saw 
down through the back and neck. From this point on the procedure 
is the same as that described for a beef or veal carcass. It is not 
necessary to make all these cuts in cutting up venison because it is 
not nearly as long nor as well-fleshed in all its parts as an average 
steer. However, if you wish to take time and trouble to make such 
cuts, you will be rewarded by a more efficient utilization of the meat 
and attain better results in cooking. Stew and soup meat come from 
the neck and shanks; the round and rump furnish roasts, round 
steaks, and soup bones. From the flank and plate come ribs and 
good stew meat, and the chuck yields roasts. 

How to cut up venison without wasting any of it is best described 
in an article, "Venison— (As You Like It)," which appeared in the 
December 1941 issue of Gourmet Magazine. 

A deer, though it is not a very large animal, may seem large, indeed, 
when one is confronted with the eating of it. There seems so much meat 
all at once, and surely some must be wasted. Yet of waste there need be 
but little. I mind the white-tail I once prepared in this manner: 

The neck I boned, and trimmed the meat into a square. The trimmings 
went through the food chopper, and were mixed, half and half, with fresh 
fat pork, then seasoned with salt and pepper, nutmeg, and a little sage. 
This ground venison made an excellent breakfast sausage and a meat loaf. 
The bones went into chasseur soups, consomme, and venison stock. And 
the square of neck meat was used for stews, salmis, and ragouts. 

The front legs, too, were boned, and then tied, and steeped for four or 
five days in a marinade made of 1 part red sour wine to 2 parts water, and 
seasoned with garlic, celery, onions, bay leaves, carrots, cloves, caraway 
seeds, whole black pepper, salt and a little sugar. After the marinating, 

1 The term "venison" comes from the Latin term venatus which means "to 
hunt." The latter probably is akin to the Sandskrit term venati, which means 
"he desires, attacks, gains/' Originally, the word venison applied to the flesh of 
any beast or bird of the chase, but has now come to apply only to flesh of deer 
and deer kind. 



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Fig. 134, Some cuts of venison: upper left— a roll-top shoulder with a slice of 
fresh pork fat for self-basting; upper right— a rolled shoulder of a fat doe; center 
—rib chops from a fat doe (they show some marbling); lower— a venison round 

steak. 

I roasted the meat in a hot oven till it was just done, and used the mari- 
nade as a basting liquor for the roast and a foundation for the gravy. 
The ribs, of course, became chops. Cut between each bone, the chops 

> were seasoned with salt, pepper, and butter, and were broiled over an 
open fire until they were done to a medium turn. And just before they 
were taken from the fire, they were seasoned again with salt and freshly 
ground black pepper. 

The hindlegs were treated as though they were lamb. With a clove of 
garlic the meat was rubbed well, and into the pan with the meat went an- 
other clove of garlic, along with 2]/ 2 cups of tomatoes— a No. 2 can— and a 
sprig of celery-top tied together with a few sprigs of parsley and a large 
bay leaf, and pepper and salt, of course. When the meat had been cooked, 

* the surplus fat went into the gravy, made from browned flour and stock 
from venison bones. The gravy, cooked till the flour taste was gone, was 
strained through a cheese cloth, and enriched with half a cup of currant 
jelly, the juice of an orange and half a lemon, and a bit of the shredded 
rind of both. 

The short ribs were cut, some one, some two ribs to the piece, and were 
placed in a covered roasting pan with canned tomatoes, and seasoned with 
whole black peppers and smoked salt. The ribs were then baked until 
they were almost done. When the meat began to appear dry during the 
baking, it was basted with venison stock, not water. For the final cooking, 



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154 CUTTING THE CARCASS 




Fic, 135. Rabbit carcasses cut up for the pan. The heart is to the left and the 
liver to the right of each carcass. Left to right: carcass of small fryer rabbit cut 
into seven pieces; carcass cut with bandsaw into uniform pieces; a larger carcass 
cut into portions for individual serving. 



the ribs were placed in an open pan, and returned to the oven for crisp- 
ing. The drippings from the ribs became a gravy through the addition 
of a thin paste made of flour and butter. This gravy was allowed to boil 
up a few times to eliminate the flour taste, and was then strained through 
a cheese cloth. 

The flanks wound up in a ragout. The meat was cut into 1-inch pieces, 
and dredged with flour, then fried until it was a rich brown. In a heavy 
pot some butter was heated to a nut brown color, and some finely diced 
onions and garlic were added to brown. With these the already browned 
meat was placed, and covered with venison stock. Twenty minutes before 
the meat was ready, fresh mushrooms and green peppers, both cut in 
half-inch dice, were dropped in the ragout, along with a bouquet garni, 
salt, pepper, and enough good red wine barely to cover. 

For these dishes no other accompaniment is needed but a prefatory cup 
of consomme, a side dish of a fine chestnut puree, a climaxing light 
dessert, and a red Burgundy of good year and good name. There are those, 
of course, who prefer Champagne, and those, again, whose tastes run to 
whiskey and rum. 

Of course, all these dishes were not made at once. A deer carcass 
will probably last for some time, so it should be properly stored so 
that pieces may be sliced off when they are needed. 



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XI 



DRESSING POULTRY AND 
WILD FOWL 

There are numerous ways of killing, plucking, and drawing 
poultry and wild fowl, but it is important to have an attractive 
carcass when the work is completed. The appearance and condition 
of dressed birds depend greatly on the care used in applying these 
dressing processes and in cooling the carcass. 

Domestic birds ready for killing should be deprived of feed for 
24 hours. This will clean out the feed from the crops and intestines. 
The dressed birds also will keep longer and will be of better quality. 
During the period they are not fed they should have water, which 
will wash feed particles out of the digestive tract. This "starving 
before killing" is very important. 

Methods of Killing Poultry 

Poultry may be killed by beheading, dislocating the neck, or 
sticking. Cutting off the head is the common home-and-farm 
method. Dislocating the neck is rarely practiced. Sticking involves 
severing the arteries in the bird's neck and is most commonly used 
commercially. 

Removing Feathers 

The feathers of poultry and game birds can be removed by dry 
plucking, scalding, semi-scalding, and wax plucking. 

Dry picking is difficult and requires considerable practice and 
skill, but it makes an attractive carcass either when used fresh or 
frozen. In dry plucking, rapidity of movement is necessary. 

Scalding is accomplished by immersing the bird for a few seconds 
in hot water (150° to 190°F.). If the water is too hot or the bird 
is kept in it too long the skin may appear as if cooked. Young birds 

155 



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Fic. 136. Cutting the bird's throat from 
the outside. Cut the large vein and the 
cross vein at the same time to insure 
good bleeding. 



AVERAGE PERCENTAGES 



{Based on Empty-body Weight of Parts of Carcasses of 45 White Plymouth 
Rock and 70 White Leghorn Cockerels at Increasing Weights and Stages of 

Growth and Fattening) 



Breed of chickens 
and parts of carcass 



White Plymouth 
Rock: 

Skin 

Neck 

Legs above hock 

Wings 

Torso 

White Leghorn: 

Skin 

Neck 

Legs above hock 

Wings 

Torso 



Data for birds of approximate slaughter weight of— 



0.5 lb. 

% 



6.5 

3.7 
16.2 

6.5 
21.3 

7.08 
3.59 

15.60 
6.65 

20.50 



1 lb. 

% 



7.8 

3.5 
18.0 

6.4 
22.5 

6.52 
3.61 

17.30 
6.93 

23.30 



1.5 lb. 

% 



7.7 
3.3 

19.0 
6.3 

22.4 

6.47 
3.24 

18.80 
6.98 

24.00 



21b. 

% 



7.3 

3.9 
20.2 

6.4 
22.0 

6.43 
3.21 

19.70 
7.03 

25.10 



31b. 

% 



7.0 

3.7 
21.5 

6.7 
23.4 

6.82 
3.34 

21.20 
7.29 

25.40 



41b. 

% 



7.4 

3.7 
22.1 

6.6 
24.6 

7.16 
3.10 

20.90 
6.74 

26.60 



51b. 

% 



8.1 

3.4 
22.1 

5.9 
25.0 

6.65 
2.85 

21.60 
6.41 

26.70 



61b. 

% 



7.6 
3.4 

22.2 
5.9 

26.4 



71b. 

% 



8.5 
3.4 

24.9 
5.7 

26.9 



SOURCE: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



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scald best in temperatures 150° to 160°; and older and tough ones 
require temperatures of 180° to 190°. Scalding and plucking the 
feathers is a good method if the birds are to be consumed a short 
time after dressing. They do not keep well in storage or present an 
attractive appearance. 

Semi-scalding is the method used by large commercial poultry 
killing plants. It is not practical for dressing birds at home and is 
not generally used by farmers. Therefore it is not necessary to 
describe the method in detail. 

Wax plucking involves dipping the birds into melted wax. The 
birds are first roughly dry-plucked— that is, the main tail feathers are 
removed, the wings picked clean, and most of the body feathers 
are removed. The chickens are then dipped 3 times into a special 
kind of melted wax heated to a temperature of 125° to 130°F. 
After 20 minutes the waxed bird is dipped into or sprayed with 
cold water to stiffen the wax. The wax is then removed in pieces, 
taking with it the remaining hair and feathers. Paraffin will serve 
the same purpose as the wax. 

Upland game birds, shore birds, and waterfowl should never be 
scalded for plucking but should be dry-picked. The feathers should 
be pulled downward in the direction that they grow— never upward 
as this tears the skin. 

The best time to pluck a game bird is shortly after it is killed 
when the feathers droop. It is important that it be done rapidly 
so as to complete the work before the feathers set. 

With ducks and geese, owing to the thickness of the feathers, dry 
picking is a slower process than with other fowl. 

Chickens. One of the best ways to kill a chicken is to bleed it by 
severing the arteries in the neck. The fowl is suspended by the feet 
at about the height of the shoulder of the plucker. Any stout cord 
with a short stick at the end will do to wrap around the bird's feet. 
In that position it is ready to be bled. 

A particular kind of killing knife is desirable. The blade should 
be a heavy piece of steel, about 2 inches long, one-quarter of an 
inch wide, and one-eighth of an inch thick on the back. It should 
be ground to a sharp point with a straight cutting edge rather than 
from the front. The handle should be fairly stout so that it can be 
grasped readily. A strong, sharp jackknife could be used to ad- 
vantage. 

The head of the fowl is taken in the left hand and the knife in 
the right hand. With the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, the 
mouth is forced open by pressure and the knife is inserted into the 
mouth with the blade pointing toward the back of the head. The 




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DRESSING POULTRY AND WILD FOWL 



knife is then forced up to the juncture of the head and neck where 
the arteries come down on each side of the neck; these are severed and 
the fowl bleeds freely. For a left-handed person the operation would 
be performed the opposite way. 

Immediately afterward the knife is forced into the roof of the 
mouth. This is done by withdrawing the knife from the juncture 
of the head and neck and turning it over so that the back of the 
knife passes along the upper beak into the groove in the roof of the 
mouth. It is then immediately forced into the brain cavity so that 
the brain is pierced. When this is done properly the bird will 
squawk and it will also make a convulsive movement which tends 



Fig. 137. Dry-picking of birds (feathers twisted and rolled out instead of pulled): 
(a) removing tail feathers; (b) removing large wing feathers; (c) removing 
feathers from sides; (d) removing feathers from legs; (e) removing feathers from 
back, hips, and wings (smaller feathers are picked with thumb and forefinger); 
(/) removing neck feathers; (g) removing pinfeathers. 

to loosen the feathers in the feather muscles. If the brain has not 
been properly pierced, the feathers are hard to pluck and the skin 
is frequently torn badly- A blood can, weighted in the bottom, is 
hooked on to the lower mandible (beak) to catch the blood. The 
can also prevents the bird from moving too much. 

In dry plucking, rapidity of movement is necessary. Different 
pluckers have different methods, but it has been found that the 
following order is convenient and rapid: wings, tail, breast, body, 
back, legs, neck and finishing of the wings. 

As soon as the blood can has been hooked to the beak, a squeezing 
motion with the fingers around the neck from the base toward the 
head removes the feathers of the neck. 




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159 



Then the wings are held firmly in the left hand, and the main 
wing feathers are removed with one jerk by the right hand, and 
the main tail feathers are given a slight twist, which should remove 
them with ease. The soft feathers covering the breast are removed 
readily by a sort of rubbing motion, rubbing the same way the 
feathers normally lie. The thighs and legs are easily plucked in 
much the same manner as the neck, and lastly the back and body 
of the bird are plucked. After plucking has been completed, pin- 
feathers may be removed by using a dull, round-bladed knife. Care 
should be taken not to tear the skin; even small blemishes lower 
the market value of the dressed bird. 

Wet plucking after scalding the chickens is much simpler than 
dry plucking and is satisfactory where the dressed birds are sold 
locally or are not to be stored. Care should be taken not to have the 
water too hot (not more than about 190°F.) , or the skin will be 
hardened or partially scalded. 

After the bird has been dressed, the head and feet should be 
washed with a stiff brush. The vent should be squeezed, and if any 
feed remains in the crop it should be removed through an opening 
made just above the shoulders. 

The head should be wrapped in parchment paper. Then the bird 
is put into a cool place, because it is necessary that the heat pass out 
of the body as soon as possible after the fowl has been killed. The 
dressed birds should be hung or laid separate from each other to 
allow the air to pass around all parts of the body. Proper cooling 
prevents bacteria from developing and tends to keep the fowls 
much longer. 

Turkeys. Usually turkeys are killed and plucked in the same 
manner as chickens. Dry plucking is the method preferred for 
dressing turkeys for home use or local trade. Scald plucking may 
also be used if the turkey is to be consumed at home. Dressed 
turkeys should be thoroughly cooled as soon as possible. 

Ducks. No feed should be given to ducks for at least 12 hours 
prior to killing. The bird is suspended by the feet; the jugular vein 
in the throat just below the base of the skull is cut through the 
mouth or stuck in the neck. A blood cup is attached to hold the 
head down and permit good bleeding. 

When bleeding is completed, begin plucking or the dressed car- 
cass is likely to be discolored. Ducks are plucked either dry or after 
being scalded. The temperature of the water should be just below 
the boiling point. If the water is not hot enough, plucking is diffi- 
cult; and if the water is too hot or the ducks are left in it too long, 




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DRESSING POULTRY AND WILD FOWL 



the skin is likely to be torn. When plucking is completed, plunge 
the bird into scalding water and pull it out quickly, then remove 
all pinfeathers with a small knife. Wash dirt off the feet with a 
damp cloth. Remove all blood from the head and bill. Squeeze 
vent to remove any feces, and singe the bird. After plucking, cool 
the bird thoroughly in cold water. Change water frequently in 
order to remove body heat quickly and to chill the duck thoroughly. 

Geese. Care should be taken in handling geese at killing time as 
the flesh bruises easily, and the bruised spots detract from the ap- 
pearance of the dressed product. Stick a goose in the same way as 
previously described for ducks. Hang a weighted blood cup on the 
lower bill to steady the bird and catch the blood. The dry plucking 
of geese is rather difficult, and the most common practice is to scald 
or steam the feathers before plucking. After geese are picked they 
are usually washed and put into ice water to cool. 

Squabs. When squabs are fully feathered under their wings, 
which is when the birds are from 25 to 30 days of age, they are ready 
to kill and dress. They may be taken from the nests the evening 
before they are to be killed so that the crops will be emptied when 
they are dressed. If there is any feed in the crops after the birds are 
killed it should be flushed out. The usual method of killing squabs 
is to hang them by the feet on a hook or nail, and cut the jugular 
vein in the mouth just below the base of the skull, using a knife 
with a long slender blade. After bleeding, they should be dry-picked 
immediately, as the feathers are hard to pull out if the birds are 
allowed to get cold. Squabs may be picked on a bench or held in 
the lap. They should be picked clean and all pinfeathers removed. 
Care must be taken not to bruise or tear the skin for the skin of a 
squab is very tender. After squabs are plucked, they are washed and 
cooled promptly in cold water to remove all body heat. Squabs 
that are not properly cooled after plucking never make first quality 
birds, no matter how well they are chilled later. 



There are different methods for drawing poultry, but it is im- 
portant to have an attractive carcass when the work is completed. 
Preparing poultry for the oven consists of removing the head, 
shanks, and feet and withdrawing the viscera or internal organs. 
The Pennsylvania State University Extension Service, in Circular 
168, recommends the following procedure in dressing roasting 
chickens, broilers, and springers: 



Drawing Poultry 




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161 





Fig. 138. Method of eviscerating a bird to be left whole: (a) removing head; (b) 
slitting skin down the back of the neck; (c) removing crop and windpipe; (rf) 

removing neck. 




Fig. 139. (a) Cutting off the leg; (b) cutting out the oil sack. 



In dressing roasting chickens, first remove the head. Second, the 
neck can be removed by peeling back the skin and cutting off the 
neck close to the shoulders. This is done by pressing on the knife 
and moving it from side to side at the same time. This causes the 
blade to slip between two vertebrae. The prying action of the knife 
blade severs the neck from the body. Third, remove the crop and 
windpipe. The crop can be removed by hooking the short gullet 
between the crop and gizzard with a finger. Then pull the crop 
loose from the skin by working it forward. Fourth, insert a finger 
into the body cavity between the wishbone and loosen the lungs 



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Fir.. 140. Cutting up a chicken: (a) removing legs at thighs 




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(d) cutting body in half 




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DRESSING POULTRY AND WILD FOWL 



and other vital organs from the ribs and walls of the chest. Fifth, 
remove the feet at the hock joints, leaving a small bit of the hock 
skin on the hock joint. This will help to keep the skin anchored over 
the drumstick while roasting. Sixth, make an incision between the 
rear end of the keel bone and the rectum large enough to remove 
the contents of the body cavity easily. Cut around the rectum and 
draw out the lungs, heart, liver, and intestines. In fat birds it is 
best to remove the abdominal fat before the intestines. 

After the vital organs are removed, examine the abdominal cavity 
for bits of lungs or other organs that may have been missed. Cool 
or partially cooled birds draw more easily than warm ones. The 
gizzard linings peel more easily when cooled and dipped in cold 
water. The gall bladder can be removed by grasping the lobes of 
the liver and letting the weight of the intestines pull down on the 
bile sacs. Then cut the gall bladder out of the liver. 

Broilers and springers can be drawn by cutting them along the 
spinal column, starting at the base of the tail head. Both sides of 
the spinal column can be cut loose and removed with the neck. The 
bird can be laid open to remove the entrails. The two halves can 
be left intact at the keel after the entrails are removed, or they can 
be cut into halves or quarters. 



Every precaution should be taken by the hunter to make sure his 
pheasants, quail, woodcock, doves, ducks, geese, and other game 
birds are fit to eat when he gets them home. Quite often during the 
first few weeks of the hunting season for birds there is a large per- 
centage of warm days. This is especially true in the South. 

It is not good practice to place warm, undrawn birds in the pocket 
of a hunting coat or bag and pack them around all day. Clots of 
blood caused by gunshot or partly digested food will taint the flesh 
and spoil the flavor. A too-common practice among hunters is not 
to eviscerate the birds but throw them in the automobile trunk or 
in the back of the car and forget them until the destination is 
reached. These are thoughtless procedures, for there is absolutely 
no chance for the body heat to escape and consequently the delicate 
meat spoils. Therefore, take time to remove the entrails and cool 
the birds as soon as possible after they are killed. Some hunters 
prefer not to eviscerate ducks and other small game birds in cool 
weather for they contend the meat becomes too dry. 



Wild Fowl 




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WILD FOWL 



165 



Both game birds and waterfowl should be drawn as soon as possi- 
ble—that is, the internal organs removed. Practice varies in different 
localities. Opening the body and removing the viscera undoubt- 
edly exposes the internal surface to the air which always contains 
microorganisms, and this invites decomposition; but on the other 
hand, it must be remembered that the viscera decomposes more 
rapidly than other parts of the body, and if left in are likely to 
infect the rest of the bird. Of course, in removing them, great care 
and cleanliness should be observed. 

How to Draw a Bird. With a knife slit the skin on the neck from 
the breast toward the head large enough to pull out the windpipe 
and the gullet or tube that carries the food. Then make another 
incision at the rectum and cut around it. Slit the abdominal cavity 
back far enough from the rectum to permit the withdrawal of the 
entrails. Care must be taken not to break the gall bladder which is 
attached to the liver lest the bile ruin the liver, heart, and gizzard 
which are edible. Save the giblets— they make a good stew. Cut the 
gizzard into the inner white lining or bag and remove it and its 
contents without cutting the gizzard in two. This bag cannot be 
removed so easily in waterfowl, so the gizzard must be split and the 
lining scraped out. When the entrails have been removed, wipe out 
the abdominal and neck cavities with a soft damp cloth. A more 
thorough cleaning can be given after the feathers are removed. Stuff 
a handful of grass or more if necessary inside the bird to allow air 
to circulate. Birds will keep much better if they are handled in this 
manner and carried outside rather than in a coat or bag. 

Most small towns have a quick-freezing plant where birds can be 
hung until they are taken home. Frozen birds wrapped in several 
thicknesses of newspaper remain frozen for a long time. 

Plucking. Feathered game should never be scalded for plucking 
but should always be dry-picked and the feathers pulled downward 
in the direction that they grow. Pulling upward or against the way 
they grow tears the skin which is usually very tender. If, however, 
the birds are to be hung for ripening, then they should not be 
plucked until the ripening period has ended. 

To pluck the breast lay the bird on its bark with the head out- 
ward, grasping it in the left hand over the wings and shoulders. 
Begin at the base of the neck, grasp as many feathers as can be 
handled between the thumb and side of the forefinger, taking hold 
near the skin. Then roll the right hand outwardly. This will re- 
move neatly all feathers and down from a small area. Continue this 
method systematically by plucking row after row of feathers across 
the breast. This will leave a clean, pink skin. 




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DRESSING POULTRY AND WILD FOWL 



With ducks and geese, owing to the thickness of the feathers, dry 
picking is a slower process than with other fowls. When the feathers 
have been removed, the down may be singed off with a flame from 
burning paper, or with gasoline or alcohol flame, A hot flame 
should not be used as it will give an oily appearance to the skin. 



A simpler method of plucking a duck is by the use of paraffin. 
Place a quantity of paraffin in a large saucepan and melt it over a 
slow heat. A bucket of cold water should be near at hand. Pluck 
all the large wing feathers and quickly immerse the duck in the 
melted paraffin, then quickly into the cold water. The paraffin will 
congeal and can be pulled off in chunks, bringing the feathers, in- 
cluding the pinfeathers, with it. The paraffin can be reclaimed by 
melting and straining out the feathers through a fine sieve or cheese- 
cloth. 

Fowls have an oil sac at the base of the tail, and this should be 
removed after the bird is plucked. Never cook a bird without first 
removing the triangular piece of flesh at the base of the tail head in 
which the oil glands are imbedded. 




Fig. 141. Plucking a duck. Hold the duck in the left hand 
and pluck with the right hand. With the thumb and 
forefinger grasp feathers and down near the skin. Then 
roll the right hand outward. 



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WILD FOWL 




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168 DRESSING POULTRY AND WILD FOWL 




Fig. 144. Ducks and "giblets" ready for cooking. 



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XII 



PROCURING, CLEANING, AND 
CUTTING FISH 



Today the modern housewife can obtain almost any kind of fish 
she wants— fresh or frozen— in fillet or steak form. It is also possible 
for her to buy fish in the retail or wholesale markets in the round 
(just as it comes from the water), drawn (which means the entrails 
have been removed), or dressed (scales, entrails, head, tail, and fins 
removed). Fish is marketed in various forms for different uses. To 
buy intelligently requires a knowledge of these commercial forms 
or "cuts." So to aid the consumer in purchasing fish the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service has prepared illustrations and descriptive mate- 
rial which are presented here. 



When fish are purchased in the round be sure they are fresh. 
Examine the eyes. Fresh fish have bright, clear, bulging eyes; the 
gills are reddish-pink, free from slime or odor; the scales adhere 
tightly to the skin and are bright colored with characteristic sheen; 
the flesh is firm and somewhat elastic, springing back when pressed, 
not mushy or separating from the bones; and the odor should be 
fresh and free from objectionable odors. Most fish delivered to our 
ports have been iced for several days or more aboard the fishing 



Fish, like many other food products, will spoil easily if not 
handled with care. When fish is received from the market, it should 
be wrapped in moisture-proof paper or placed in a tightly covered 
dish and stored immediately in the refrigerator. Stored in this man- 
ner, the odor of fish will not penetrate other foods. If fish cannot 
be thoroughly refrigerated, it should be cooked at once and reheated 
for serving. 



Purchasing Fresh Fish 



boat. 




169 



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170 



PROCURING, CLEANING, AND CUTTING FISH 



Purchasing Frozen Fish 

Most varieties of fish can be purchased frozen, and they are avail- 
able the year round. Frozen fish can now be obtained by the con- 
sumers who live near or far from the source of supply. Frozen fish 
may be used interchangeably with fresh fish. 




Fig. 145. Whole or round fish are those 
marketed just as they come from the 
water* Before cooking, they must be 
scaled and eviscerated (which means re- 
moving the entrails). The head, tail, 
and fins may be removed if desired, 
and the fish either split or cut into 
serving-size portions, except in fish in- 
tended for baking. Some small fish, 
like smelt, are frequently cooked with 
only the entrails removed. 



Fig. 146. Drawn fish are marketed with 
only the entrails removed. In prepara- 
tion for cooking, they generally are 
scaled. Head, tail, and fins are re- 
moved, if desired, and the fish split or 
cut into serving-size portions. Small 
drawn fish, or larger sizes intended for 
baking, may be cooked in the form 
purchased after being scaled. 




Fig. 147. Dressed or Pan-dressed. 
Dressed fish are scaled and eviscerated, 
usually with the head, tail, and fins 
removed. The smaller sizes are ready 
for cooking as purchased (pan-dressed). 
The larger sizes of dressed fish may be 
baked as purchased but frequently are 
cut into steaks or serving-size portions. 



Google 



Fig. 148, Steaks are cross section slices 
of the larger sizes of dressed fish. They 
are ready to cook as purchased, except 
for dividing the very largest into serv- 
ing-size portions. A cross section of the 
backbone is usually the only bone in 
the steak. 



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CATCHING FISH 



171 



Fig. 149. Single fillet. The sides of the 
fish, cut lengthwise away from the 
backbone, are called Fillets. They are 
practically boneless and require no 
preparation for cooking. Sometimes the 
skin, with the scales removed, is left on 
the fillets; others are skinned. A fillet 
cut from one side of a fish is called a 
single fillet. This is the type of fillet 
most generally seen in the market. 

/ 

Fic. 150. Butterfly Fillets are the two Fig. 151. Sticks are pieces of fish cut 
sides of the fish corresponding to two lengthwise or crosswise from fillets or 
single fillets held together by uncut steaks into portions of uniform width 
flesh and the skin. and length. 

Frozen fish is generally wrapped in parchment paper or cello- 
phane. Before placing it in the refrigerator it should be enclosed 
in another wrapping of paper. This will prevent the absorption of 
odors by other foods as the fish thaws. Frozen fish should remain 
in the unopened package until time to use. 

To keep frozen fish for several days, place the unopened package 
in the freezing unit or frozen foods compartment of the refrigerator. 
Fish will keep as long as it is solidly frozen, but once it thaws it 
should be used immediately. Never refreeze fish after it thaws. 




Catching Fish 

When the fisherman of the family is relied upon to supply the 
fish, he should be careful in handling them. They should not be 
permitted to flop around on the bank or in the bottom of a boat to 
become bruised. The fish should be killed immediately after being 
caught, preferably by a method which will permit the blood to 
drain from the flesh. The viscera and gills should be removed im- 
mediately, and the dressed fish packed in ice or wrapped in wax 
paper and placed in a refrigerator as soon as possible. 



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How to Clean Fish 



One never can tell when the husband or the boys are going fish- 
ing, or when a kindly neighbor will proudly present the little 
woman with part of his catch. This happens most unexpectedly, so 
one must be prepared for this emergency. It is easier when you 
know how. This is how you go about it. 

Scales come off a wet fish easier than a dry one, so soak the fish in 
water before you begin to scale it. Lay the fish on a cutting or 
chopping board. Grasp the fish firmly with one hand by the head. 
With a saw-toothed knife or scaler, scrape off the scales, working 
from the tail toward the head. Do a clean job and work off all the 
scales near the base of the fins and head. 

Now cut a slit in the fish's belly, from head to the vent (anal 
opening) and remove the entrails. Cut off the head, including the 
pectoral fins, by cutting above the collarbone. If the backbone is 
large, cut down to it on each side of the fish. Snap the backbone 
by bending the head over the cutting board or table. Now cut off 
the head and tail. Remove the fins by cutting into the flesh on both 
sides of Jthe fish at the base of the fins. Then the fin and fin bones 
can be pulled out easily. Never trim the fins off with shears or a 
knife since the bones at the base will be left in the fish. Wash the 
fish in cold running water to remove blood and all remaining scales, 
viscera, and membranes. 




Fig. 152. Scaling fish. Use dull blade or back edge o£ knife. 



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Fic. 158. Cutting fillet from tail to head. 



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HOW TO CLEAN FISH 




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XIII 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, 
AND SEAFOOD 



There are different methods of preserving meats, such as freezing, 
curing, drying, smoking, and canning. Freezing is the most popular 
means by which families can store their food supply. It is a practical 
and desirable way to preserve meats and by far the easiest method. 
Freezing, however, is not the only way to preserve meats for family 
meals. Some of the other methods are still quite popular, for they 
produce an entirely different product such as corned beef, hickory 
smoked ham, and canned meat products that many families wilJL 
enjoy for quick meals and variety. Freezing is best used to supple- 
ment other methods of meat preservation. 

Freezing 

The frozen-food locker in a freezer-storage plant or in the home 
has proved an excellent facility for maintaining an ever ready sup- 
ply of a wide variety of meats at moderate cost. The home freezer 
in the kitchen is practically a member of the family in the homes of 
millions of farmers and city dwellers alike. Where home freezers 
and efficient cold-storage locker plants are available, frozen meat 
can be kept satisfactorily for 6 months to a year. 

Freezing is the only known Trie thod by ivhich meat and meat 
products can be preserved in a condition similar to their normal 
state. These frozen products resemble fresh meats in appearance, 
flavor, and food value, and add desirable variety to cured, smoked, 
canned, and dehydrated meats. 

The modern frozen meats bear little resemblance to the "cold 
storage" products of former years. Modern refrigeration equipment 
has made possible more uniform near-zero storage temperatures. 
Coupled with this has been the discovery of better methods for 

176 



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177 



selecting, preparing, packaging, and freezing products prior to 
storage. Most of the original goodness of meat and meat products 
can be preserved in the frozen product if proper methods are used. 
On the other hand, even solidly frozen meat will dry out and lose 
flavor and nutritive value if not properly prepared or stored. An 
understanding of the changes that may take place in frozen meat 
will help the family to guard against loss. 

Chemical Action Caused by Enzymes 

Meat experts in the U. S. Department of Agriculture,* tell us 
that meat starts to freeze at about 29 °F. As the temperature drops 
to 15^F. or lower, the growth of microorganisms ceases, and hydro- 
litic enzyme action on protein and fat becomes slight. At about 
15°F. the oxidation of the fat, which is caused largely by the accel- 
erating effect of enzyme action, begins to become the chief, if not 
the sole, kind of composition. That type of breakdown progresses 
slowly at first, but, as decomposition products accumulate, it gains 
velocity. Because of its greater exposure to air, the surface always 
oxidizes more rapidly than the inside fat. Modern freezer storage 
. is usually at 0°F. or lower. Because of differences in chemical con- 
stitution and activity of enzymes, animal fats vary considerably in 
their tendency to oxidize. Pork fat oxidizes much faster than beef 
or lamb fat. 

Although freezing at 0°F. for 24 hours is reported to kill tri- 
chinae, the Department of Agriculture recommends different hold- 
ing periods, depending on the temperature and the thickness of 
the cut or pack. 

For instance, the recommendation for pork 6 to 27 inches thick 
stored at 5°F. is 20 to 30 days; at -10°, 10 to 20 days; at -20°, 
6 to 12 days. 

Ice Formation in Meat 

When water in meat juice freezes it draws pure water to the ice 
crystals and leaves behind the coloring, flavor, and food material 
that has been dissolved or suspended in it. Freezing is ajkind of 
drying process which produces changes in the composition, of the 
meat. These meat juices are not re-formed when the meat thaws. 
However, when meat is quickly frozen, these changes are slight. 
When meat is frozen slowly, the changes may be so great as to cause 

* Hankins, O. G., Hiner, R. L., Sulzbacher, W. L., Gaddis, A. M., How to 
Keep Meat from Spoiling: The Year Book of Agriculture, 1950-51. 



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178 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



a loss of quality. There is also some rupture or tearing of the cell 
tissues as the ice crystals form and expand. 

Rapid freezing produces minute crystals which are rather evenly 
distributed through the meat. When such a product is thawed, the 
moisture is reabsorbed as the crystals melt. There are three different 
methods of quick freezing— direct immersion in low-temperature 
brine, indirect contact with the refrigerant, and air blast. 



The air in most freezers is dry. This is so because the refrigerator 
coils freeze much of the moisture out of it. This dry, cold air drops 
from the coils toward the floor and circulates around the frozen 
food and absorbs all the moisture it can find. Meat frozen and 
stored without protective wrapping at 15°F. will remain wholesome 
and edible for some time, but the loss of quality is quite rapid. 
Through the weeks of storage this drying-out process removes ice 
from the exposed meat. This causes a dry, pithy surface or "freezer 
'purri* to develop on the frozen meat. The meat changes in color, 
develops undesirable flavors, and becomes dry and hard. It may be 
well preserved, but no longer does it resemble fresh meat in flavor, 
texture, and appearance. 

This surface drying on meat in a home freezer or in a locker is 
not serious, although under unfavorable conditions it may become 
severe enough to cause a real loss of quality. To prevent this drying, 
considerable care is required in selecting the proper vapor-proof 
wrap or container and to be sure that the meat has been packaged 
and sealed effectively. 



Select animals or dressed carcasses with the weight that will give 
the size of steaks and roasts desired. Popular weights are: hogs, 200- 
250 pounds; calves, 150-250 pounds, steers or heifers, 600-1,000 
pounds. All animals must be healthy. Suitable veterinarian in- 
spection is available in many localities, and its use should be en- 
couraged. 

Slaughtering, chilling, aging, or ripening and cutting for all meats 
has been discussed previously. However, a few additional sug- 
gestions for the proper cutting of meat for freezing will be given 
here. The main considerations are the family needs and the cook- 
ing methods adapted to the tenderness of the meat to be cooked. 
The proper cutting method, then, is to separate the tender steaks 



Drying or Freezer Burn 



Cut to Fit Family Needs 




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CUT TO FIT FAMILY NEEDS 



179 



and roasts from pot roasts, stew meat, and meat that should be 
ground. 

Remember the best carcass contains many muscles that are too 
well filled with connective tissue to be tender unless the tissue is 
slowly softened by braising or stewing. The thin, less tender shanks, 
neck, brisket, plate, and flank must be prepared for pot roasts, or 
ground. 

The thick, heavy muscles of the shoulder and rump from young, 
well-fattened cattle make reasonably tender roasts and steaks. They 
are, however, more truly pot roasts and Swiss steaks and not so well 
adapted to oven-cooking, frying, or charcoal-broiling as the meat in 
the rib and loin (rib roasts, T-bone, and sirloin steak) . If the car- 
cass is thin and from an older animal, even the loin and rib cuts 
may be better suited to braising than to frying. 

With these considerations in mind, examine the carcass for qual- 
ity and proceed to make the cuts according to the way they should 
be cooked. Also, the size of the cuts can be made to suit the family's 
preference. 

The approved methods for cutting beef, veal, and pork carcasses 
for freezer storage are given below. 1 

CUTTING METHODS FOR CUTTING METHODS 

BEEF AND VEAL FOR PORK 



The tender loin 
(4) and rib (5) 
are suitable for 
broiling, frying 
and roasting; the 
chuck (8), rump 
(3), and round 
(2), for Swiss 
steaks and pot 
roasts; the thin- 
ner shanks (1), 
flank (6), plate 
(7), and neck 
(9) for stew and 
ground meat. 




Cut or slice the 
thick ham (1), 
loin (2) and 
shoulder (4) into 
roasts, steaks or 
chops. Trim the 
bacon strip (3) for 
curing, or cut in- 
to boiling pieces. 
Trim all meat 
closely, using lean 
for sausage and 
fat for lard. 




The size of roasts, number of steaks, amount of ground meat, 
proportion of fat in the sausage, and the quantity in each package 
must be decided by size of the family. Thickness of steaks can also 
be suited to family requirements. One advantage of a home freezer 
or a locker is the opportunity to have inch-thick steaks at all seasons 
of the year. 



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180 PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 

Percentage of Cuts Expected 



Animal 


Trimmed 
cuts 


Live 
weight 
lb. 


Carcass 
weight 
lb. 


Trimmed 
cut total 
weight 
lb. 


Per cent of 
trimmed 
cut weight 
in each cut 


Veal 




150 


90 


70 




Beef 


Steak and 
oven roasts 

Pot roasts 

Stew and 
ground meat 


1000 


580 


450 


40 
20 

20 


Lamb 


Legs, chops 
and shoulders 

Breast and stew 


100 


50 


35 


75 
15 


Pork 


Ham, shoulder, 
bacon and jowls 

Loins, ribs 
and sausages 

Rendered lard 


225 


180 


115 plus 
30 lard 


50 

20 
15 



1 Courtesy of the Agricultural Extension Service, Iowa State College. 



V All lamb cuts can be made tender by slow roasting, and lamb can 
\be cut up most satisfactorily for freezer storage. 
N Boning all the cuts from a side of beef or lamb reduces the storage 
space required by about one-fourth. Trim all the cuts closely to save 
space. Sharp edges of bone that may puncture the wrapping paper 
should be removed. 

A large variety of meats can be frozen in the home freezer and 
then later thawed and cured as you like them. It is quite possible to 
have delicious, fresh pork sausage or fresh cured breakfast bacon in 
June or July from hogs that were butchered in late fall and early 
winter. 

For freezer storage of fresh pork, hams can be cut into good, 
usable sized pieces— pork shoulders as rolled picnics; Boston butts 
can be boneless or left with the blade bone in. Bacon sides can be 
cut into convenient 3- or 4-pound pieces. 

Loins can be boned, cut in half, and later cured as delicious 
Canadian-style bacon. Jowls, when cured, can be used for boiling 



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PACKAGING MEAT FOR FREEZING 



181 



or frying. Pork trimmings can be used months later for making 
fresh pork sausage; hog-head meat, for making headcheese any time 
of the year. Sausage is often frozen without seasoning, as the aro- 
matic flavor of the spices may disappear during several months of 
storage. If the seasoning is added before freezing, be sure that the 
sausage is packaged in a vapor-resistant wrap or container. 

Beef can be taken from the freezer and cured as corn beef or dried 
beef, and tongues when cured can be cooked and used for hot or 
cold meals or served as cold cuts. 

Freezing, curing, smoking, and canning game, including fish, in 
some states is definitely restricted, and the meat is subject to posses- 
sion limits during closed seasons the same as fresh game. Consult 
your local game warden or locker operator for regulations regarding 
legal periods for storage of game and fish. 

Packaging Meat for Freezing 

The ideal wrapping for meat to be frozen must^resisijsatjer vapor 
and gases, have good tensile strength and pliability at all tempera- 
tures, be odorless and nontoxic, and be easily peeled from the frozen 
meat. It can be sealed with heat, is easy to mark for identification, 
and is moisture- and stain-proof. 

No existing wrapper or container possesses all these qualities. 
Each home processor must select the one or ones best suited to the 
meat and meat products handled, to the available storage condi- 
tions, and to the length of the intended storage period. 

Films, foils, and laminates are among the most effective wrapping 
materials available. Different kinds of films are available for packag- 
ing. Among them are the cellophanes or cellophane-like films, such 
as polyethelene. The only foils used for wrapping foods are alumi- 
num foils. Use only the freezing-weight foil (.0015 gauge) to 
package frozen meat. Laminates are made of two sheets of material 
stuck together. The inner sheet protects the product; the outer re- 
sists scuffing. Films and foils are more subject to scuffing, tearing, 
and puncturing, and may require some protection. Ordinary waxed 
freezer papers are not satisfactory for packaging meat, fish, or 
poultry, because they are no guarantee against oxygen moisture. 
Butcher paper and kraft paper should not be placed against the 
food; they should be used only to protect the inner wrap. 

The best wrapping material is of little value unless it is properly 
applied. A good plan to follow in selecting the proper wrapping 
for frozen meat is to give the best protection to the products that are 



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182 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 





Fig. 164. Press and mold wrap firmly against the meat. 
Pull folded ends tightly. 



3 by 



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PACKAGING MEAT FOR FREEZING 



183 



to be stored for 6 months or longer. Use the less effective, cheaper 
coverings for the others. Seasoned sausage should have airtight 
protection. 

When frozen meat is removed from freezer storage, examine it 
carefully for drying. In your home freezer or locker the cheaper 
material may be good enough for long storage, or it may be neces- 
sary to put a more effective vapor-resistant covering on all foods. 
The same wrapping materials are used for meat and poultry. 

Freezing does little to improve meat and only tends to maintain v 
its original condition. Therefore, care is essential in choosing meat 
to be stored. Lean cuts generally store better than fat cuts. Ripened 
or aged meat tends to lose quality more rapidly than unripened. 
Beef and lamb should be held in the cooler only a few days. Pork 
should be stored immediately after the animal heat has left the car- 
cass. Pork turns rancid if kept much longer before freezing. Freeze 
veal, liver, heart, and other specialty meats immediately after chill- 
ing. Veal loses quality rapidly after chilling, so it requires immedi- 
ate freezing. The liver, heart, and sweetbreads are not protected 
by fat and are quite moist. They are easily contaminated and very 
perishable. Not only should they be frozen immediately after chill- 
ing, but they should be used a few weeks after freezing. 

Beef, Veal, Lamb and Pork. Cut the meat into such sizes as you 
will wish to remove from the freezer and use at one time. Be sure 
to remove all sharp edges or corners from the meat and poultry that 
might puncture the paper. Put the meat in as compact a form as 
possible. This will save storage space and paper and make wrapping 
easier. 

Pull the wrapping material tight, and smooth down to force out 
the air. Folding the two edges of paper together and over until tight 
against the meat, as a drugstore clerk wraps a box of candy, reduces 
air leakage through the seam. Fold the ends of the paper together 
and turn them under the package. Pull the ends tight and then 
heat-seal, tie, or seal with freezer tape. The seam may be also heat 
sealed or taped. 

Cellophane, latex, and some double-waxed paper can be sealed 
by heating the top fold of the bag or the seams of the package with 
a moderately warm flatiron or curling iron. Use just enough heat 
and pressure to melt the paper or wax until it seals. If the seal is 
scorched, a new seal or a new wrapper should be used. If it is not 
possible to seal the package by heat, then proper folding and sticky 
tape can be substituted. Ordinary gummed tape is not satisfactory; 
a special tape is made for this purpose. Remember that careful 
wrapping and sealing are as important as good wrapping material. 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 




Fig. 165. Butcher-type wrap. 




Fig* 166. Turn the meat over completely, twice, pulling 
the paper tight as the meat is turned. Mold tightly to 

exclude air. 




Fig. 167. Fold for double thickness everywhere. 



by Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




Fig. 168. Fold in sides and ends to exclude air, then tie or 

tape. 




Fig. 169. Label each package. Include kind and cut of 
meat, weight and date of freezing. 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture suggests that emergency 
cover or homemade bags can be made by heat-sealing the edges of 
strip cellophane, latex, or double-waxed paper. A strip of 7 x 21 
inches will make a 6 x 10 inch bag with half -inch folds along the 
seam and a 1-inch flap at the top. 

Poultry. Any day in the yfar may be poultry day. Chicken, 
turkey, duck, goose, and game birds can all be preserved in the 
home freezer. One convenient arrangement is to pack the meaty 
pieces (breast and legs) separately from the bony parts (backs, necks, 
and wings). 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from / 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



186 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 




Fig, 170, Plastic bags containing meat should be plunged 
in water to remove air. Twist top shut and tie. 




Fig. 171- Meat packaged in films, foils and laminates are 
subject to scuffing, tearing and puncturing; stockinette 
material serves as protection. Label package and insert in 

stockinette. 




Fig. 172. Pull stockinette tight and tie. 



0 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



PACKAGING MEAT FOR FREEZING 



187 



Giblets, livers, hearts, and gizzards have a short storage life. They 
should be packaged separately and eaten within 3 months. If many 
birds are dressed at one time, package the livers and freeze for that 
special occasion when broiled or saute chicken livers are served. 
Cool the gizzards and hearts and pack for freezing. 

Cut-up chicken, because it can be packaged flat, requires little 
freezer space. Chilled poultry, however, may be dressed for freezing 
and storage in different ways. 

Broiler-fryer chickens are quite popular for home freezing. Fryers 
weighing 2y£ to 4 pounds, 10 to 16 weeks of age, are most desirable. 
Many prefer to cut the chicken into regular frying pieces and pack 
them into cellophane-lined rectangular cartons. A quart container 
will hold an average-sized fryer. Just before sealing the package add 
about one-half cup of water— enough to encase the pieces in ice. 
The water forced the air out. If the giblets are included, be sure 
they are first packaged separately in locker paper. 

Broilers may be prepared by splitting down the back with a sharp 
knife or kitchen scissors. Cut down both sides of the backbone and 
remove it if desired. Dip the broiler halves in water and place skin 
down on packaging material. Place two pieces of wrapping material 
between the halves so they can be separated when frozen. Package 
in films, foils, or laminated packaging materials. 



Fig. 173. Broilers may be prepared for freezing by splitting the bird into halves 
with the kitchen shears and cutting along both sides of the backbone and re- 
moving it. 




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188 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



Roasters— those large, well-fleshed birds— are left whole after dress- 
ing. The neck and feet are cut off and the legs and wings are tied 
tightly to the breast to save storage space. 

Pieces of chicken, turkey, and other poultry are often frozen in 
small packages. Divide the bird into portions required for one meal- 
Usually the meaty pieces are put into one group, and the bony 
pieces in another. Place each meaty piece in a fold of cellophane to 
prevent freezing together. Package wet or add water just before 
sealing. Allow no space for air pockets. Tie, heat-seal, or tape to 
keep package air- and vapor-tight. 

Bony pieces, necks, backs, and wings may also be cooked until 
the meat falls from the bones, then frozen or canned with the broth 
for stews, pies, or fricassee. Like other pre-cooked meats, cooked 
poultry may be frozen, but the storage life is quite short. 

Fish. Fish of all types and kinds, both salt and fresh water, can 
be preserved perfectly when frozen. This includes shellfish— shrimp, 
lobster, crab, and the like. Preparing them for freezing is simple, 
but it should be done immediately. Freshness is indispensable to 
well-flavored, palatable, and wholesome sea food. Stale odors and 
flavors, as well as spoilage, develop rapidly when fish are removed 
from the water and held at warm temperatures. Letting the fish 
you buy or the fish you catch get warm before you pack it away in 
the freezer is bad business. Keep it in a fine state of chill and you'll 
have a fine fish when you remove it from the home freezer. 

Like beef and pork, the quality of frozen fish and shellfish is de- 
termined to a large degree by the quality of the product at the time 
of freezing and the manner in which it is stored. 

The methods of freezing fish and shellfish are much like those for 
other meats. The package requirements are similar, as are also the 
storage requirements. 

Preparation for Freezing. All fish intended for freezing should be 
scaled, dressed, and washed. Large fish are then cut into steaks, or 
boneless strips known as fillets. Small fish are made ready for cook- 
ing in like manner by removing the viscera, head, tail, and fins. All 
this preparation has been previously described in Chapter XII, 
Procuring, Cleaning, and Cutting Fish. 

For home consumption, packaged fish has two distinct advan- 
tages. First, a considerable saving in storage space is realized by 
scaling and dressing. Second, it is possible to put into one package 
just the amount of fish required for one family meal. 

Frozen fish dry rapidly in freezer storage and must be carefully 
wrapped in vapor-resistant paper. Fish may also be glazed with ice 
by being frozen without wrapping and then dipped one or more 




Original from 
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PACKAGING MEAT FOR FREEZING 



189 



times in near-freezing water. This plain water glaze is not perma- 
nent. It cracks or evaporates and may need renewal every 4 to 6 
weeks. Further protection by wrapping the glazed frozen fish in 
vapor-resistant paper is recommended. 



Fig. 174. Small fish may be eviscerated and packaged for freezing. 

In some cases it is advisable to give the steaks or fillets a prelimi- 
nary brine treatment before wrapping and freezing; this pretreat- 
ment will reduce drip upon subsequent thawing. It is especially 
desirable for cuts of non-oily fish, such as cod and flounder. Com- 
mercial practice indicates the desirability of a 30-second dip in a 
salt solution of the following strength: 2\Z 2 P er cent for croaker, 
flounder, sole, and mullet; and 5 per cent for barracuda, cod, cusk, 
haddock, hake, halibut, pollock, rockfish, rose fish, sablefish, and 
whiting. Two-thirds cup of salt to a gallon of water makes a 5 per 
cent salt solution, and one-third cup of a 2]/ 2 P er cent solution. The 
salt used should be free from impurities which would adversely 
affect the quality of the fish. Ordinary table salt may be used, but 
the pure salt which does not have added potassium or magnesium 
compounds is preferable. 

Glass Containers. Fish can also be packed in glass fruit jars fitted 
with airtight covers and frozen. These containers are generally 
available in the home. Steaks, fillets, very small whole or round 
fish, and shellfish should be carefully packed in the jar to within 
one and one-half inches of the top for quart jars and one inch of 
the top for pint jars. Enough 2i/g per cent brine should be added to 





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192 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



fill the spaces between and around the fish and to just cover the 
product. Air bubbles should be removed with the aid of a spatula 
or blunt knife. The lid should be screwed tightly into place on the 
rubber gasket, assuring an airtight seal. The jars are now ready for 
freezing and subsequent storage. The ice serves to keep the air 
away from the fish, and the jar seal prevents the loss of moisture 
from the contents. Jars require considerable space in storage as com- 
pared to other packaging methods and they are easily broken at low 
temperature. However, some new types of jars are designed for 
frozen food packaging. They are stronger and more efficiently 
shaped for storage. 

The following table was prepared by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service to compare the protective qualities of various materials used 
in packaging frozen fish. 



Comparison of Protective Qualities of Various Materials. 



Protection 


Method of 
preparation 


Advantages 


Disadvantages 


1. Ice glaze 

2. Moisture-vapor 

proof paper 1 . 

3. Glass jars 


Round, dressed or 
drawn fish. Chunks. 

Chunks, steaks, fil- 
lets and very small 
fish 

Steaks, fillets and 
very small fish 


Only satisfactory 
method for fish 
in the round 

Ease of handling 

Maximum protec- 
tion 


Reglazing is re- 
quired at inter- 
vals 

Not adequate for 
fish which have a 
short storage life 

Color may leach 



1 Moisture-vapor proof paper may be used to wrap glazed chunks for protec- 
tion against evaporation of the glaze. 



No one material is suitable for all cuts of fish; however, glazed 
chunks wrapped in moisture-vapor-proof paper are protected nearly 
as well as the cuts packaged in jars. In general, glazing is a good 
form of protection, wrapping in moisture-vapor-proof paper a bet- 
ter one, and packaging in glass jars in 2\/ 2 per cent brine gives maxi- 
mum protection. 

All packages and jars of fish should be plainly labeled and inven- 
toried. Glass and cellophane surfaces, provided they are clean and 
dry, can be readily marked with a wax pencil (glass-marking pencil). 
Sometimes it is advantageous to use thin cardboard labels. These 
are attached to the packages with a cellulose fiber tape. The label 
should indicate the species of fish, the way it was dressed, the num- 
ber of pieces, and the date of freezing. For example: silver salmon, 
4 steaks, frozen November 15, 1952. 



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PACKAGING MEAT FOR FREEZING 



193 



Shellfish. Freezing shellfish presents quite a different problem 
from that of fin fish, because more preparation is required before 
they can be frozen. Some shellfish are available for only short pe- 
riods of the year, and therefore it may be especially advantageous to 
freeze them for later home use. 

Oysters, scallops, and clams can be successfully frozen. To open 
the shell satisfactorily requires considerable experience, so an inex- 
perienced person will do better to obtain the shucked products, 
which are readily available in season. Prior to shucking all bivalves 
should be washed in clean water to eliminate sand. Oysters and 
clams are opened by inserting a slender bladed knife between the 
shells so as to sever the abductor muscle from the shell. The bill of 
the shell may have to be hammered off to permit inserting the knife. 
When shucking scallops only the abductor muscle or "eye," as it is 
called, is utilized. 



METHODS OF PREPARING SHELLFISH 1 FOR FREEZER STORAGE 









Suggested method of 








preparing 










Shucked, 


Cooked 










headed, or 


in 


Cooked 


Name 


Producing area 


Season 


dressed 


shell 


meat 


Abalone 


Pacific 


March to Jan. 


X 








Atlantic & Pacific 


All year 


X 








Atlantic & Pacific 


All year 




X 


X 


Lobsters 


Atlantic 


All year 


X 


X 




Mussels 


Atlantic 


March to June 


X 






Oysters 


Atlantic, Gulf, 








and Pacific 


Sept. to April 


X 






Scallops 


Atlantic 


All year 


X 








Atlantic, Gulf, 












and Pacific 


All year 


X 


X 


X 


Spiny lobsters 


Atlantic & Pacific 


All year 


X 


X 





1 Clams, crabs, lobsters, mussels, oysters, and spiny lobsters, when purchased in 
the shells, should be alive, unless cooked. 



To eliminate sand, the raw shellfish meats may be washed under 
a spray of clean, cold water or in a 2i/ 2 P er cent brine solution. After 
draining, they are packed in glass jars and covered with 2\Z 2 P er cent 
brine solution before sealing, as described previously for fin fish. 

To prepare shrimp for freezing, the head and appendages are 
broken off but the shell is not removed from the tail or edible por- 



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tion. The tails are then washed and packed in glass jars with a 2i/£ 
per cent brine. 

Live crabs and lobsters should be cooked for 10 to 20 minutes in 
boiling 2 1/4 to 5 per cent salt brine. When cool, the shell, gills, and 
viscera of the crab are removed and the body meat taken out with 
a pointed knife. The meat from the claws of crabs and lobsters may 
be removed by cracking the claws with a small wooden mallet or nut 
cracker, then shaking or picking out the meat. In addition to the 
claws, the tail of the lobster contains edible meat. It may be re- 
moved with a fork; it is then split lengthwise to remove the intes- 
tinal tract. Crab meat and lobster meat should be packed in jars 
with 2 1/2 per cent brine. 

Frozen shellfish should be used within a period of three or four 
months; however, a storage life of six months may be attained where 
storage accommodations are especially good and the temperature is 
as low as 10°F. 

Labeling. Label each package. Include kind and cut of meat, 
weight, and date of freezing. If you store the meat in a commercial 
locker plant instead of a home freezer, be sure to add your name 
and address to the label. Special stamps, inks, and pencils are made 
for labeling packages of frozen food. Ordinary lead pencils will not 
be effective unless the writing is done on strips of cold-storage tape 
stuck on the waxed coverings. Tags can be tied on, and wrapping 
paper or tape of different colors can be used to identify various 
products of different dates of storage. 



The life of frozen meats depends upon proper storage conditions. 
Mistakes in selecting, preparing, wrapping, and freezing meats are 
less serious if the home-freezer temperature, humidity, and air move- 
ment are right. Follow the directions that came with your freezer. 

Set the temperature at 15°F. or lower if possible. A temperature 
of 0°F. is recommended. The temperature always rises when un- 
frozen meat is placed in the freezer area. Usually 24 to 48 hours are 
required for satisfactory freezing in the home freezer. Beef can be 
held with reasonable safety for some time at 5° or 10°, or even 12° 
to 15°. Of course, as the temperature of storage becomes higher, the 
time frozen meats can be held satisfactorily becomes less. Pork, 
poultry, and fish need zero storage if they are to retain their fresh 
quality beyond a few months. Temperatures below zero are even 
better than zero but are not necessary and are rarely practical be- 
cause of excessive operating cost. 



Storage in the Home Freezer 




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THAWING 



195 



Time Limit on Storage. Thawed meats are an easy prey to spoil- 
age. They must be used or cooked promptly after thawing. Even 
those that are frozen solidly will not keep fresh and well flavored 
indefinitely. There will be some changes in flavor, texture, and 
appearance of the meat during the storage period. They should 
not be objectionable, however, unless the meats are stored a longer 
time than is recommended. If you follow the normal storage periods 
for meats, poultry, and fish recommended by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture in the following table, your meats will be at their 
best. 



Product 


Normal storage 
period 
(months) 




1-3 


Fresh pork 1 






Fish j 




Lamb "1 






Veal j 




Beef 






Poultry 


> 


6-12 


Eggs 




Dairy products 






Fruits 1 




12 or more 


Vegetables J 



Thawing 

The best place to thaw frozen meat is in the home refrigerator. 
Thawing is so slow at these 45° to 50°F. temperatures that some of 
l^the drip is reabsorbed. In addition, the meat remains cold so that 
spoilage bacteria grow slowly on the wet, thawed surface. Frozen 
meats handled in this manner will keep for a day or longer. Allow 
3 to 5 hours per pound to thaw meat in the home refrigerator, 2 
to 2\/ 2 hours at room temperature, or about half that time in front 
of an electric fan. 

Thawing in the open air or by immersion of a sealed package in 
90° to 100°F. running water is satisfactory for meats that are to be 
used at once. In any case, thaw the product in its original package 
to exclude air and prevent discoloration. 

All frozen meat removed from the home freezer for curing must 
be thawed before applying any cure. Meat for curing should be 
taken from the freezer one day before it is to be cured. Leave it in 



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the wrapper at room temperature until it shows signs of thawing. 
Then remove wrapper and place it in the refrigerator or any cool 
place where the temperature is not lower than 38° and not higher 
than 50°. Twelve hours or overnight allows enough time to thaw 
the average-sized piece of meat. 

Cooking Frozen Meat 

All frozen meat cooks more quickly and uniformly if it is thawed 
or at least partly thawed. However, it may be thawed before it is 
cooked or during cooking. Meat that is thawed at air temperatures 
should be cooked promptly, as the warm, wet, outer surface is an 
ideal place for spoilage to start. If the meat is thawed first, the cook- 
ing time is about the same as for fresh meat. Cooking frozen meat 
without preliminary thawing requires a much longer time than is 
necessary for fresh meat or for thawed frozen meat. 

When steaks or chops are pan-broiled, they are usually thawed 
before cooking. Thawed steaks and chops are broiled by the same 
methods and for the same lengths of time as those which have not 
been frozen. 

The Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, recommends the following time for 
cooking frozen meats. 

Time Required for Roasting Frozen and Thawed Beef to Three 
Degrees of Doneness at an Oven Temperature of 300° to 350°F. 1 
Minutes per Pound (Approx.) 



Degrees of doneness 


Standing rib 


Rolled rib 




Thawed 


Frozen 


Thawed 


Frozen 




18 


43 


28 


53 




22 


47 


32 


57 


Well done 


30 


55 


40 


65 



1 Data from the Minn. Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. Spec. Bui. 189. 



Time Required for Broiling Frozen and Thawed Porterhouse Steaks 

Rare to Medium Done 

Minutes per Pound (Approx.) 



Size 


Thawed 


Frozen 




8-10 


21-33 




10-15 


23-38 


2 inches thick 


20-30 


33-43 



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FROZEN FOOD LOCKER PLANTS 



197 



Frozen-Food Locker Plants 

Renting cold-storage lockers to individuals for the preservation 
of their fresh meats, poultry, fish, fruits, and vegetables has expanded 
rapidly in many parts of the United States. Dr. E. V. Wilcox, agri- 
cultural writer and investigator, tells us that refrigerated storage 
was first started in Chico, California, by the local ice company in 
1903. "The service," he says, "was first offered to merchants for the 
storage of eggs and apples, but was soon extended to farmers for 
the storage of meats, and individual wood lockers came into use in 
1913. Somewhat later an ice plant manager in Centralia, Washing- 
ton, offered refrigeration facilities to hunters for the storage of game 
and to farmers for the storage of home butchered meat supplies." 

This convenience in handling home-food requirements became so 
popular that the movement spread rapidly throughout the Far West 
and extended eastward. The latest report indicates that there are 
at present more than eleven-thousand plants in the United States. 

The June 1952 count of locker plants by states, reported by the 
United States Department of Agriculture is as follows: 



Alabama 84 

Arizona 32 

Arkansas 102 

California 505 

Colorado 221 

Connecticut 59 

Delaware 11 

Florida 78 

Georgia 146 

Idaho 200 

Illinois 581 

Indiana 349 

Iowa 858 

Kansas 515 

Kentucky 110 

Louisiana 42 

Maryland 21 

Massachussets 43 

Michigan 361 

Minnesota 701 

Mississippi 70 

Missouri 477 

Montana 223 

Nebraska 520 



Nevada 13 

New Hampshire 27 

New Jersey 50 

New Mexico 49 

New York 225 

North Carolina 100 

North Dakota 294 

Ohio 466 

Oklahoma 300 

Oregon 504 

Pennsylvania 296 

Rhode Island 8 

South Carolina 75 

South Dakota 300 

Tennessee 114 

Texas 546 

Utah 100 

Vermont 50 

Virginia 77 

Washington 694 

West Virginia 25 

Wisconsin 651 

Wyoming 79 



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198 PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 




Fig. 175. Cold-storage locker plants employ butchers to cut, package, and place 
the meat in the quick freeze unit* Here it freezes within 6 to 8 hours. 

The purpose of these plants is to provide freezer-storage space to 
individuals for the storage of food products and to provide precool- 
ing and processing service for meats farm killed. These plants are 
owned by individuals, partnerships, cooperatives, butchers, ice 
plants, creameries, cheese factories, and corporations. Complete 
butchering and curing service for meats is provided at many of the 
locker plants, the total cost of such service, including annual rental 
for the locker, being so many cents per pound of meat. 

Prospective patrons will have to weigh the advantages and disad- 
vantages of such service when compared with the purchase of meat 
at retail, butchering and processing, and refrigeration available in 
the home. Your county agent can give you the names and addresses 
of frozen-food locker plants in your locality (Appendix F). 

Curing Meats 

The term "curing" as applied to meats is sometimes interpreted 
as referring to both curing and subsequent smoking, but in the text 
which follows, the word "curing" applies only to dry salt, brine sub- 



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CURING MEATS 



199 



mersion, corning, or pickling (vinegar cured). Preserving meats by 
drying, smoking and canning are treated separately. 

Meat curing has a twofold aim— first to preserve the meat for fu- 
ture use; and second, to give it added, desirable flavor. Curing meat 
includes the application of dry salts, brine, or pickle, which in the 
wider sense applies to any saline or acid preservative solution with 
some modifications. 

Curing is a race between the production of spoilage bacteria in 
curing meats and the penetration of the preserving salts. It requires 
weeks for the salts, brine, or pickle to reach sufficient concentration 
to protect the center of hams, shoulders, and other large chunks of 
meat. Low temperatures are the best means known today to prevent 
the growth of spoilage organisms in meat until the salts have com- 
pleted the tasks assigned to them. 

Therefore, the success of curing depends on rapid distribution 
of the curing ingredients before the putrefactive bacteria begin to 
grow. This may be accomplished either by the dry-salt or sweet- 
pickle method, with or without stitch pumping or artery pumping. 

The essential ingredient then is salt. It draws moisture from the 
muscle cells and at the same time enters the cells by osmosis. In this 
way the salt is finally distributed through the tissue. Salt also 
checks the action of certain harmful bacteria and inhibits several 
types of enzymes. If too little salt is applied to the meat, the bacteria 
that can grow in the presence of some salt will not be checked and 
spoilage follows. The amount of salt applied may not be the de- 
ciding factor, because complete distribution throughout the meat is 
essential. 

Sugar is used mainly to lessen the hardness of the straight salt 
cure and to improve the flavor and texture of the meat. It also pro- 
vides a suitable medium for the growth of the bacteria that are nec- 
essary to break down the sugar into organic acids. One of these is 
lactic acid which gives a pleasant flavor to meat. Sugar also helps 
to fix color. Sugars commonly used in meat curing are cane, beet, 
and corn. 

Honey is often added to curing mixtures to give lean meat a 
distinctive flavor. It can be used without sugar or to replace the 
sugar. It is used in the same proportion as sugar. 

Saltpeter is also an important ingredient of the curing mixture. 
It has two functions— fixing color and checking the growth of certain 
bacteria. Meat owes its red color to hemoglobin, an unstable pig- 
ment which, say the meat specialists of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, oxidizes to brown methemoglobin and combines with 
nitric oxide to form red nitrosohemoglobin. Nitric oxide is formed 




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200 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



through the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Certain bacteria which 
occur normally on fresh meat are responsible for bringing about 
this reaction. A combination of nitrite and nitrate in the ratio of 
1 to 10 makes a superior product. Saltpeter (nitrate of potassium) 
preserves and dries the meat but it is used almost entirely because it 
effectively fixes the bright-red color of the lean meat. Nitrate of 
soda (Chile saltpeter) is a little stronger, and 1.7 ounces of nitrate of 
soda will replace 2 ounces of saltpeter. The exact quantity of salt- 
peter or nitrate of soda to be used should be weighed and mixed 
thoroughly in the curing mixture. It is undesirable and quite un- 
necessary to use more of either saltpeter or nitrate of soda than the 
amount recommended. 




Fig. 176. Be sure to weigh meat and curing ingredients 
carefully. Too little salt may cause spoilage; too much salt 
makes hard, dry, over-salty meat. 



Various condiments, mainly spices and some herbs, can be added 
to the curing mixture to give added aroma and flavor. They do not 
interfere with the regular curing ingredients and may be added to 
suit individual tastes. 

Most persons prefer the sugar cure to the plain salt cure. It can 
be applied either by the dry or brine method. The dry method is 
faster, so it is used almost exclusively in the South for hams and 
shoulders. Both methods are used for all cuts in colder climates. 
The brine method will produce a milder bacon than the ordinary 
dry cure. 



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Pork 



The standard curing mixture for each 100 pounds of meat is 8 
pounds of salt, 2 pounds of sugar, 2 ounces of saltpeter, and 4i/ 2 to 
6 gallons of water. 

Weigh the meat and put the measured or weighed water (8 pounds 
= 1 gallon) into a crock or clean, well-soaked, odorless, hardwood 
barrel. Pour the curing ingredients into the water and stir until 
they dissolve. The water used for making the brine should be per- 
fectly pure. In order to be sure that the water is pure, it is always 
advisable to boil and cool it before using it to make the brine. 

Brine Curing Pork. If a salinometer is available, use a little less 
water to dissolve the salt than recommended. Then place the salino- 
meter in this strong brine and dilute it to proper strength. The 
standard curing mixture dissolved in 4 1/ 2 gallons of water will make 
a brine that tests about 75° on the salinometer (sal). This is ex- 
cellent for curing hams and shoulders. When 5i/ 2 gallons of water is 
used, the weaker brine, testing 650 sal, will produce a desirable mild 
bacon. 

If the brine is sterilized by boiling, it should be thoroughly 
cooled before being used. Under ideal conditions both the brine 
and meat will be at a temperature of about 38°F. when the meat 
is put down. 

Pack the hams and shoulders skin side down in the container. Fit 
them closely together but do not squeeze them out of shape. Pour 
in the cold 75° sal brine until the pack begins to shift or float a 
little. This movement permits the brine to come in contact with 
all surfaces of the meat. Then place a clean weight on the meat 
just heavy enough to keep the meat below the surface. Then cover 
the pack with brine. 

The shape of the curing vessel or the loose packing of the meat 
may cause the estimated quantity of brine to be insufficient to cover 
the meat. If the meat cannot be packed more closely, add enough 
more brine to cover the pack. 

On the fifth, fifteenth, and thirtieth days after being put into the 
brine, the hams and shoulders should be overhauled; that is, they 
may be packed in another container, and re-covered with the same 
brine, or the meat and the brine may be removed and repacked in 
the same vessel. This overhauling re-mixes the brine and insures its 
contact with all surfaces of each piece of meat. 

The bacon sides are usually packed flat, skin side down, each strip 
being crosswise of the one below it. Jowls or shoulder butts may 
be used to fill any unoccupied spaces. The milder 65° sal brine is 




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PORK 



203 



frequently used for bacon. Overhauling this meat on the third and 
tenth days is usually sufficient. 

The purpose of overhauling brine-cured meats is to shift the posi- 
tion of the pieces and get the brine cure re-mixed while the meat is 
curing. The brine should be stirred up or poured out of the con- 
tainer and then poured back. This will make a uniform density 
throughout. 

Curing Time for Brine Method. Hams and shoulders are usually 
kept in brine 4 days per pound; that is, a 15-pound ham will not be 
removed from cure until the sixtieth day. It is probably better to 
allow the small 4- to 6-pound picnic hams 25 to 30 days in cure. 
Bacon can be cured in H/£ to 2 days per pound. 

A thin scum of white mold normally forms on top of the brine. 
This generally takes place when the weather turns mild, causing the 
brine to become ropy. If the mold becomes heavy and hard or if 
the brine becomes ropy so that it drips from the fingers like sirup, 
the brine should be changed. Remove the meat, scrub it thoroughly 
with a brush and warm water, and repack it in a clean, scalded con- 
tainer. The new brine, made following the original recipe, should 
be diluted to as nearly the saltiness of the old brine as possible. If 
the hams and shoulders have been in cure a week, use 70° brine 
instead of 75°; if more than 2 weeks, use 65° brine. Maintain the 
original curing schedule. This process may not save the meat but 
it is the only course available. 

Often the quantity of loin, spareribs, backbone, and other fresh 
cuts at butchering time is greater than the family can use promptly 
and economically. These cuts can be preserved by curing as well as 
by freezing and by canning. 

A mild 55° to 65° brine, which contains about 6 gallons of water, 
is best for spareribs. They can be smoked after a week in cure or 
used without smoking. The loin may be given a light smoke after 
about 3 weeks in a 65° brine or may be used without being smoked. 

Because of the area of lean meat exposed, these cuts are likely to 
become dry and harsh if given a long cure or smoke. It may be 
more satisfactory to allow them to remain in the brine if the meat 
is to be used in a short time. Keep the temperature of this meat 
as near 38 °F. as possible while it is curing. 

Dry-Salt Curing Pork. In dry-salt curing of meats, the curing 
mixture is rubbed directly on the meat. This method is generally 
more satisfactory than others when the curing temperature cannot 
be kept at 30 °F. Meat so processed is allowed to remain in cure 
approximately 2 days for each pound. 




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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



There are many different formulas for dry-curing hams and shoul- 
ders that call for various quantities of salt. Five pounds for each 
100 pounds of meat is generally sufficient if one is sure that all the 
salt will be absorbed by the meat. However, since some salt ordi- 
narily falls off or drains away, 6 to 8 pounds is a safer quantity. In 
the South, where the temperatures are often high, 8 pounds of salt 
is probably better. More than this quantity should not be used as 
it may injure the flavor and dry out the lean meat, making it too 
hard. 

Meat may spoil, regardless of the quantity of salt applied, if the 
freshly slaughtered carcass and the meat to be cured are held at too 
high temperatures. 

For each 100 pounds of trimmed pork use 6 to 8 pounds of salt, 
l]/ 2 to 2 pounds of sugar, and 2 ounces of saltpeter. This is the well 
known 8-2-2 formula which is used for both the dry and the brine 
cure. This same curing mixture with the salt reduced to 5 pounds 
will dry cure 100 pounds of bacon. 

Mix the ingredients thoroughly in a pan and divide into two 
equal parts by weight. Use one part for the first rubbing and half 
of the remainder for overhauling the meat on the third day, and 
the other half for overhauling on the tenth day. The meat can 
be packed in a barrel or a box with a few holes in the bottom to 
let the bloody water drain out. Keep the container with the meat 
in it free of the ground or floor, a few inches up, so the liquid can 
drain out. Before the pack is started, sprinkle a little of the mix- 
ture over the bottom of the container. 




Fic. 180. Dry-cure. Weigh and mix in- Fig. 181. Divide the curing mixture 

gredients thoroughly, being especially into two approximately equal portions, 

careful to mix the finely powdered one portion to use at once, the other 

saltpeter through the salt. for later resalting. 



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In applying the curing mixture one must take precaution to use 
the proportionate amount to each piece. The dry-cure ingredients 
are mixed in the proportion of 8-2-2 and the total is 10 pounds. One- 
half of this amount, or 5 pounds, is to be applied to 100 pounds of 
meat when it is first put in cure. For example, each 15-pound ham 
should receive the application of 15 per cent of the 5 pounds of 
mixture or three-fourths of a pound; each 20-pound ham, 1 pound. 
Bacon strips, because of their large surface in proportion to weight, 
are frequently over salted. It will require some practice to deter- 
mine properly the amount of mixture required by each piece. 

Put each ham and shoulder into the pan of curing mixture and 
rub the meat thoroughly with the mixture. A slow circular motion 
in applying the mixture on both flesh and skin sides will prove most 
efficacious. Force some curing mixture into the hock and along the 
cut face of the butt, taking care not to injure the hand on the butt 
bone in the process. Cover the face of the cut with the mixture and 
pack the pieces carefully in place. The heavier pieces should be at 
the bottom and the lighter ones on top. Do not pack the meat more 
than 3 feet deep. Repeat the process in overhauling. The pieces at 
the top of the original pack should be at the bottom when the meat 
is resalted. 

In mild weather, cover the box with a clean cloth to prevent flies 
and other insects from getting at the meat. In very cold weather, 
the meat should be covered or otherwise protected against freezing. 




Fig. 182. Rub one portion of the curing mixture on all 
surfaces of meat, poking some into shank ends. 




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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



Meat that is allowed to freeze before or after it is put into cure will 



If a very mild cure is desired, do not give the second application 
to bacon or other small pieces of pork. Also if the meat is to be 
used shortly after it is cured, the total amount of the dry-cure mix- 
ture used per 100 pounds of meat can be reduced. When meat is to 
be kept for longer periods, from one curing season to the next, it is 
necessary to give the meat a heavier cure. 

Curing Time for Dry-Salt Method. The meat should remain in 
cure about 2 days per pound for hams and shoulders and about li/£ 
days per pound for smaller pieces. For example, a 10-pound ham 
should cure 20 days; a 20-pound ham 40 days; a 10-pound side of 
bacon 15 days. Different sized pieces should cure in proportion to 
their weight. Farmers who wish to store this meat for summer use 
often remove the pieces of meat at full time, string them, and allow 
them to hang for about 2 weeks before smoking them. 

Weather conditions influence the length of time meat should cure 
for the best results. A longer time is required for meat to cure in 
very cold weather than in milder weather. Much home-cured meat 
has become oversalted by being left in the cure too long. On the 
other hand, if meat is taken out of the cure too soon and the weather 
remains cold, the meat may be only partially cured because it will 
not take the cure when the temperature of the meat goes below 



Pumping concentrated brine into curing meat, poking salt into 
ham joints, removing the aitchbone, opening the stifle joints and the 
shoulder joint or boning and slicing entire cuts are all variations of 
an effort to speed up the penetration of the salt. Where the proper 
temperatures are available and the meat is in good condition, these 
methods are unnecessary. Where temperatures are too high or the 
meat is not in good, sound condition, these methods may or may not 
prevent spoilage. 

Scientifically prepared curing salts with smoke flavor and spices 
ready for use in the dry curing and the brine or sweet pickle curing 
of meats can be purchased at the grocery store. They consist of an 
accurately proportioned, carefully combined blend of high-grade 
meat salt with balanced sugar-curing ingredients. The condensed 
wood smoke ingredient imparts the curative and flavoring proper- 
ties of smoke to the meat while it is curing. This method of curing 
and flavoring at the same time saves extra work and adds delicious 
flavor. 

The Morton method recommends pumping pickle into hams and 
other large pieces of meat along the bones and at the joints. This 



never produce a fine product. 



34°F. 




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207 




Fic. 183. Brine may be pumped into hams and other large 
pieces along the bones and at the joints. 



starts the cure right next to the bone, offsetting the chance of bone 
taint, and gives a mild, thorough cure in the center of the meat. 
After the pickle is pumped into the meat, the dry or sugar-cure is 
rubbed on the outside of the meat in the regular manner. 1 

Smithfield Processed Ham. An especially cured ham is prepared 
in Virginia and other South Atlantic States and has a countrywide 
reputation as the Smithfield ham. Its distinctive aroma and flavor 
are supposed to come from fattening the hogs on peanuts. However, 
large numbers of fresh hams are shipped from the Middle West to 
points in Virginia where they are given the Smithfield cure. Hogs 
produced in the corn-belt states are not fed peanuts, so the distinc- 
tive taste of the Smithfield ham undoubtedly is the result of special 
processing rather than the feeding of peanuts. 

These hams are cut with the long shank attached. They are 
cured in a dry mixture for 5 to 7 days, depending on their weight. 
They are then overhauled, resalted, and held in cure from 25 to 30 
days (Hy£ days per pound). After this dry cure is completed the 
hams are washed in warm water, dried, sprinkled with pepper, and 
cold smoked (70°-90°F.) for 10 to 15 days, after which they are aged 
and mellowed by hanging in a dry room. These hams improve with 
age and are in perfect condition when 1 year old. 

Box-Cured Bacon. The box cure has been developed to produce 
mild, fancy breakfast bacon with an appetizing flavor. The Morton 
Salt Company has developed a special sugar cure and a box for 

1 Home Curing Made Easy, published by Morton Salt Company, of Chicago, 

111. 




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Fig. 184. A strong watertight container with suitable cover 
is required to box cure fancy bacon. 



curing fancy breakfast bacon. The box should be made strong and 
watertight. Hardwood, such as oak or maple, is the best material 
to use in constructing this box. The length and breadth of the box 
should be approximately the size of an average bacon strip— 10 
inches wide and 20 inches long. The depth can be determined by 
the number of bacon strips to be cured at one time. Ordinarily a 
box about 24 inches deep will accommodate the bacon sides from 
5 or 6 hogs. 

The top used to cover the meat in the box should be a slatted 
gadget of the proper size to fit inside the box. This can be held 
down by sufficient weight, or a hinged top can be made of the proper 
dimensions so it will press on the slatted tray against the meat and 
hold it under pressure while curing. The pressure should be firm 
but not heavy, 

This method is most successful for curing bacon, because the 
shape of the pieces enables close packing. Select well-streaked, thick 
bacon sides or bellies and trim the edges and ends square, leaving 
the strip just large enough to fit flatly inside the box to be used. 

The formula for box-curing is 5 pounds of salt, 3 pounds of sugar, 
and 3 ounces of saltpeter per 100 pounds of meat. Mix the ingredi- 
ents well and then take a handful of the mixture and scatter it 
evenly over the bottom of the box. Now pack a layer of bacon sides 
just as closely as possible in the container. Tamp each belly as it is 
packed with a wooden block in order to flatten it out and remove 




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CORNING BEEF 




Fig. 185* Stringing a cured ham for 
smoking. Hams and shoulders through 
shank; bacon, reinforce flank end with 
hardwood skewer or clean galvanized 
wire to hold it square in smoke. 



209 




Fig. 186. Scrub strung meat with stiff 
brush and hot (110° to 125° F.) water 
so it will take brighter color in smoke. 



any air pockets underneath. Distribute more of the curing mixture 
evenly over the top of the meat and then pack another layer of meat 
and continue this operation until the box is full. 

Do not fail to sprinkle the top layer of meat with a portion of the 
cure mixture when it is packed. In a few days a curing pickle will 
be formed through the action of the curing ingredients on the juices 
of the meat. In a short time there will be enough brine to cover 
the entire pack. The time for curing is the same as for the other 
methods of curing described previously. 

Repacking or overhauling is necessary in from 7 to 10 days after 
the start of the cure. At this time any lef tover portion of the original 
dry-cure mixture should be rubbed on the meat, and the top and 
bottom pieces should be reversed when they are repacked, 



Corning Beef 

Corning, which means curing with brine, is used to preserve the 
cheaper cuts of beef for future use. The foremost products of beef 
processed in this manner are corned beef and dried or chipped beef. 

In preparing corned beef, the plate, rump, and chuck are gener- 
ally used. Meat from fat animals makes better corned beef than that 
from thinner ones. 



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Cut the beef into pieces, 5 or 6 inches square. They should be 
of uniform thickness so they may be packed in even layers in the 
curing container. Just as soon as the beef is chilled it should be 
corned. Never put frozen meat into cure. 

Weigh all the pieces of beef, and for each 100 pounds allow 8 
pounds of salt. Sprinkle a layer of salt about one-quarter inch deep 
over the bottom of the vessel (a stone jar or wooden barrel which 
has been thoroughly cleaned); pack the cuts of beef as closely as pos- 
sible making a layer 5 or 6 inches thick; then add alternate layers 
of salt and meat, being careful to cover the top layer of meat with 
considerable salt. 

Allow the salted meat to remain overnight; then add a solution 
composed of ingredients in the following proportion: For 100 
pounds of meat, use 4 pounds of sugar, 2 ounces of baking soda, and 
4 ounces of saltpeter dissolved in one gallon of lukewarm water. 
Mix thoroughly and pour over the meat. Then add 3 gallons of 
water. Keep the meat entirely under the brine by using a board 
cover with a weight on it. Do not permit any meat to project above 
the liquid, for this will cause the brine to spoil in a short time. 

If the meat has been corned during the winter and must be kept 
into the summer season, watch the brine closely during spring, for 
this is the time, more than any other season, that it is likely to spoil. 
If the brine is ropy, discard it and proceed in the same manner as 
previously described for pork. 

To cure thoroughly, beef should be kept in the brine 28 to 40 
days. Meat removed from the brine should be hung up and drained 
thoroughly before wrapping or smoking. 

Curing Tongue 

Tongue is one of the most popular meat delicacies. Beef tongue 
is generally understood when "tongue" is employed as an unquali- 
fied expression, but calf, lamb, sheep, and pig tongues also are freely 
consumed. Beef tongues are used fresh, smoked, sweet pickled, and 
canned. Lamb tongue is usually pickled. Sheep tongue is generally 
used for making sausage. Pig tongue is canned. 

Tongues can be cured in the same brine as that given for corned 
beef. The time of curing is: 

Days 

Beef tongue 25 to 30 

Calf tongue 12 to 14 

Pig tongue 10 

Lamb tongue 8 



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After they are cured, washed, and drained they can be given a 
light smoke or they may be cooked without smoking. 



Among the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and some of the satellite coun- 
tries, cured mutton is regarded as quite a delicacy. The neck, shoul- 
der, and ribs are cut into small pieces and then sprinkled with salt, 
pepper, pieces of garlic, dill, and parsley. The meat is then placed 
in a stone crock and covered with boiled vinegar allowed to cool, 
to which has been added an equal quantity of water flavored with 
tarragon. The meat is allowed to remain in this mixture for several 
hours to a day. Many eat the cured meat raw without smoking or 
cooking it. 

Lamb or mutton cured in this manner is generally run on long 
skewers, separating each piece with onions, slices of bacon, and firm 
tomatoes. They are then exposed to a flame or broiler and the juice 
is collected. The meat is cooked rare and served on the skewer, gen- 
erally with rice. The Russians call this Caucasian Shachlik or 
Shahshlik. In Armenia, lamb or mutton prepared in this manner, 
with a few national variations, is known as Shish Kebab. Both are 
delicious when broiled out-of-doors over a low charcoal fire. 

Lamb is easily and quickly cured, but there is the disadvantage 
that the cuts dry rapidly after smoking and tend to become strong 
in flavor. Legs and shoulders are the parts usually cured, although 
any portion may be preserved by curing for later use. Ribs, loins, 
and breasts that have been cured and smoked may become disa- 
greeably dry and strong in flavor after only 3 or 4 weeks in storage. 
Smoked legs store better than shoulders, but even legs will become 
fairly dry and hard after 2 to 4 months' storage at room temperature. 
Some families prefer the "gamey" flavor of cured lamb, and cure 
several cuts for special use. Freshly smoked lamb may be boned and 
canned in the pressure cooker by those who wish to prevent the 
meat from drying. 

Either the brine or dry-cure method may be used in curing lamb. 

Brine-Curing Lamb. A standard formula, calls for 8 pounds of 
salt, 2 pounds of white or brown sugar, and two ounces of saltpeter. 
The mixture, dissolved in cold water to make 6 gallons, produces a 
mild brine. Pack the meat carefully and closely in a crock or other 
clean container. Pour in the cold (36° to 38 °F.) brine until the pack 
begins to float and then proceed as previously described for other 
brine-cured meat. 



Lamb 




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Six gallons of brine should cover 100 pounds of meat. If 6 gallons 
is insufficient, more brine should be made and used to submerge the 
meat. 

Overhaul the meat on the third to fifth day. Overhaul, repack, 
and cover with the brine; repeat at the end of another week. In 
about 3 weeks the large pieces of meat will be well cured. For best 
results each piece of meat should remain in the brine 3 days for 
each pound. Smaller pieces should be removed at the first overhaul- 
ing; otherwise they will be too salty. Wash the pieces in tepid water 
after curing and allow them to soak for a half hour and drain. If 
you desire the smoked flavor, hang in the smokehouse and expose 
to hardwood smoke. 

Dry-Curing Lamb. Make up a mixture of dry ingredients com- 
posed of 5 pounds of salt, 4 pounds of sugar, and 4 ounces of salt- 
peter for each 100 pounds of lamb. Mix the ingredients thoroughly, 
sprinkle a little on the bottom of the clean container and rub and 
pat the proportionate amount on each piece of lamb, fitting the 
pieces carefully into the pack. Apply about two-thirds of the mix- 
ture the first time, the remaining third being used when the meat 
is overhauled 3 to 5 days later. The meat may be left in cure until 
used or may be removed for smoking. 



Very little experimentation has been done to determine the best 
methods for curing and smoking game meats. In some localities 
where game laws permit possession of the meat after the close of 
the hunting season, curing and smoking of venison has been carried 
on. The methods followed, however, have been chiefly those com- 
monly used to preserve meat of domestic animals. 1 

Recent attempts to find methods for preserving any surplus game 
have undoubtedly contributed to the recent interest in smoked 
game. Popular articles on the smoking of game have appeared in 
sporting periodicals, the press, and a few cookbooks, but these ac- 
counts give only general information as to methods and techniques. 
Therefore, until some expansive data based on research are avail- 
able, those who wish to preserve game meat for any appreciable 
length of time will have to rely on the results obtained in curing 
and smoking domestic animal meats. 

1 Cured, smoked, and canned game meats are subject to possession limits dur- 
ing closed seasons the same as fresh game. Consult the local game warden for 
this information (Appendix E) . 



Curing Game Meats 




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Venison resembles beef and mutton in texture, color, and general 
characteristics. Its flavor is distinctive, suggesting beef rather than 
mutton. The directions given for the curing of beef and lamb may 
be used in curing venison. Corned and dried venison can be proc- 
essed in the same manner as that described for beef. Cured and 
smoked reindeer and bear loins were formerly a delicacy in Russia 
and were obtainable in the best food shops. 

Curing Fowl 

Although the curing and smoking of fowl is a recent development 
in the United States, the Chinese have been preserving ducks in this 
manner for centuries. Cured smoked turkey is a delicacy that is fast 
growing in popularity in the United States. 

Turkeys, Ducks, and Chickens. The fowl to be used for curing 
should be well fattened. Care should be taken not to break the skin 
in the dressing and handling process. Birds with badly torn skin 
should not be cured. In preparation for curing, the head, neck, 
shanks, and feet are removed, leaving the body cavity open at both 
the front and rear ends. The removal of the tendons in the drum- 
stick is suggested to provide for better penetration of the curing 
ingredients into the meat of that portion of the bird. 

Turkeys may be cured by either the brine or dry-salt method. A 
suitable brine cure mixture consists of 6 pounds of salt, 3 pounds of 
brown sugar, and two ounces of saltpeter dissolved in 4i/ 2 gallons 
of water. This brine contains approximately 13 per cent of salt and 
has a salinometer reading of about 70° at a temperature of 38°F. 
About four times this indicated quantity of brine is required to 
cover 100 pounds of moderately large, drawn turkeys when packed 
carefully in a 50-gallon barrel. 

Pack the turkeys in a suitable crock or a clean, well-soaked barrel 
in the same manner as previously described for other meat. Place 
a clean board and a stone or some other weight to hold the turkeys 
down when the brine is added. Pour the solution over the turkeys 
until they are covered with a slight excess of liquid. It is important 
that the meat and the pickle mixture be approximately 38°F. when 
the curing process is to begin and it should be kept at that point 
throughout the curing period. At weekly intervals the turkeys 
should be removed from the container and repacked in order to 
remix the brine and to insure that it will come in contact with all 
parts of the birds. 

Experiments conducted by the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
indicate that dressed turkeys weighing from 14 to 20 pounds should 



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remain in the curing solution approximately I14 days for each 
pound. After the turkeys are cured they should be removed from 
the brine and washed in warm water. Loop a stout cord under each 
wing close to the body, tying the cord in the center of the back. 
Then hang up the birds to dry. They should hang in this same 
manner when smoking. 



Gourmet Magazine recommends a dry-cure method for curing 
turkeys. In cutting off the head of the turkey leave the neck as long 
as possible. Cut the neck skin in a straight line following the back- 
bone. Pull back the neck skin, cut the windpipe, and then proceed 
to draw the bird. After the turkey has been dressed, bend the skin- 
less neck and stick it into the cavity. Flap the neck skin over the 
neck opening. Fasten it on the back of the bird with skewers and 
by bending the wing tips backward. This is necessary to catch the 
fat that will ooze out during the smoking. 

Fill a small piepan with very fine salt and heat it thoroughly in 
the oven. In a kettle large enough to hold the turkey, bring water 
to a rapid boil and submerge the turkey. When the water has 
returned to the boiling point, continue the boiling over a high 
flame for 5 to 7 minutes, depending on the weight of the turkey— 5 
minutes is sufficient for a 14-pound turkey. Remove the turkey from 




Fig. 187. Placing a turkey in brine. Turkeys, ducks and 
chickens may be cured either by brine or dry salt method. 




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the water, drain it quickly, and, working very rapidly, rub into its 
skin i/ 2 ounce finely ground saltpeter and as much of the very hot 
salt as the meat will absorb. Continue to rub salt into the bird 
until it has cooled to lukewarm, which should take about 15 to 20 
minutes. This dry-curing must be done as rapidly as possible to rub 
in the greatest amount of salt. Dissolve \/± pound of salt in 1 pint 
of boiling water, and inject this brine with a needle syringe into the 
wing and leg joints and along the flat part of the breastbone. Stuff 
the cavity of the turkey with a large bunch of fresh herbs— tarragon, 
marjoram, thyme— or any combination of the three. Secure a stout 
cord loop around the legs, wrap the turkey entirely in cheesecloth, 
and tie the ends with a cord on the legs. Now the bird is ready for 
the smoke house. Chickens and ducks can be cured in the same 
manner as turkey. 

Geese. The legs and breast of the goose are the only parts used 
in curing and smoking goose. 

The legs and the breast are cut from the goose and placed in 
brine. Trim off both sides of the breast and both legs. Place the 
two pieces of breast together, meat side in, and sew the skin all 
around. When the breast is completely enclosed fasten the twine at 
one end as a loop to hang up the meat. Trim smooth both legs and 
fasten a twine loop to each. Make a brine consisting of 1 pound of 
salt and \/± pound granulated sugar dissolved in 2 quarts of boiling 
water. Leave the meat in the pickle for 3 weeks. Remove, rinse with 
warm water, and hang up to dry. The goose meat is now ready for 
the smokehouse. 

Pheasants. A good brine cure for pheasant is a solution consisting 
of 2 pounds of sugar, cured salt, i/ 2 box of allspice, and 1 gallon of 
water. The birds are dressed similar to a roasting chicken or turkey. 
They must be completely submerged in the solution for 7 to 10 days. 
After curing, they are placed in cold water for about 12 hours and 
then hung up to drain and dry for another 12 hours. They are 
then smoked. 



Fish may be corned, brine-cured, dry salted, smoked, or pickled. 
These methods are more advantageous than canning because they 
are simpler, require little equipment, are less expensive, and permit 
utilization of fish not canned successfully. 

Preservation While Fishing. Sport fishermen, and the casual 
angler, frequently bring in fish in poor condition. Sometimes the 
fish must be relegated to the garbage can. This is often the case 
when the weather is warm and the fisherman is far from home. 



Fish 




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Even though refrigeration is not available, such waste is avoidable 
if the proper procedure is followed. Bleed the fish as soon as caught 
by pulling out the gills completely, leaving no remnants. Clean the 
fish as soon as possible, scraping out all traces of blood and intestinal 
material, Wash the body cavity thoroughly* This delays spoilage; 
if a thorough cleaning job is not done, the fish will spoil sooner 
than if it were not cleaned at all. 




Fig. 188. Do not let fish lie on the grass. Bleed it as soon as caught by pulling 
out the gills completely. Then follow proper procedure to preserve it while 

fishing. 



To one cup of fine table salt add one tablespoon of pepper. Mix 
thoroughly and rub the belly cavity well, also the flesh, at the ratio 
of about one tablespoon to s/ 4 pound of fish, sprinkling a small 
amount on the skin side. 

Place the fish in a clean basket or box. A loose packing of green 
leaves around the fish has been found effective in inland regions. 
Cover the container with several thicknesses of burlap. Do not let 
the burlap rest on the fish but keep an air space a few inches above 
them. Keep the cloth well moistened with water, since evaporation 
of moisture lowers the temperature in the container. Corned in this 
manner, fish will remain in good condition for at least 24 hours 
when ice is not available. When rinsed thoroughly in clean, fresh 
water these fish are ready for cooking in any manner desired. If 
rolled in salt and packed with as much of it as will cling to them, 



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the fish will keep for about 10 days. Before they are cooked, be sure 
to freshen them for about 10 hours in one or two changes of fresh, 
cold water. 

Almost any variety of fish may be cured at home. As a rule, the 
so-called "lean" species are salted more readily; salt brine does not 
penetrate as rapidly in "fat" fish. 

Fresh-water fishes usually salted are lake trout, whitefish, lake 
herring, blue pike, yellow pike, catfish, perch, and pickerel. Others 
that may be salted at home are sheepshead, carp, suckers, buffalo 
fish, river herring (alewife), eels— in fact, almost any fish of satis- 
factory size. 

Salt-water fishes, commonly salted at home, are cod, hake, cusk, 
pollock, bluefish, sea trout, channel bass, rock or striped bass, 
salmon, shad, sea bass, rockfish, mackerel, sea herring, and Florida 
mullet. 

Brine-Curing. Brine-curing fish at home requires stoneware 
crocks, tight fitting covers, tubs or cut-down barrels, and a few sharp 
knives. A family curing less than 50 pounds of fish needs only a 
sharp knife and two 2-gallon stoneware crocks. Stoneware crocks 
are preferable because there is little danger of leakage, foreign 
flavors are not absorbed by the container walls, and the crocks may 
be used later for other purposes. 

Use only pure, clean salt of fairly fine grain, "three-quarters" 
ground or "dairy fine." Finely ground salt is preferable because it 
forms into brine and penetrates the flesh more rapidly. 

The method of curing, in general, is the same for all varieties. 
Small fish are split down the back so as to lie out flat in one piece 
with the belly not cut through. Cut just under the backbone and 
then score the flesh with the point of a knife at intervals about one 
inch apart. Clean the fish thoroughly so no trace of blood or in- 
testinal contents remain, and remove the gills from the split head. 

Large fish are split into fillets and the backbone is removed. The 
collarbone just below the gills is not cut away. If this is done the 
fish is damaged in handling and, if it is smoked, the pieces will drop 
from the hangers in the smokehouse, because the skin and flesh will 
not hold the weight unless the collarbone is there to give it support. 
The flesh of the large pieces or filets is scored on the inside longi- 
tudinally to a depth about y 2 ^ nc ^ at intervals, 1 or 2 inches apart. 
These cuts should not be so deep that they penetrate the skin side. 
Cut the pieces Jong enough to lie flat on the bottom of the con- 
tainer. 

Thick-skinned, spiny-finned fish with large scales, such as carp, 
suckers, buffalo, black bass, channel bass, and catfish, should be 




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skinned and the fins removed. This is done by making a deep cut 
along each side of the fin and pulling it by hand from its base- 
All fish to be brined are washed thoroughly in fresh water, after 
which they are soaked for 30 minutes to 1 hour in a brine made in 
the proportion of cup of salt to 1 gallon of water. This removes 
the diffused blood from the flesh and cuts away slime from the skin. 
After brining, the fish are drained for 5 or 10 minutes. 

Obtain a shallow wooden box about 2 feet square with sides 6 
inches high. Fill it with dry salt. Scatter a thin layer of salt on the 
bottom of the crock or keg in which the fish are to be salted. Dredge 
each piece of fish with salt, and rub salt into the places where the 
flesh is scored. Pick up the fish with as much salt as will cling to it 
and pack in the container, skin side down. Arrange the pieces so 
an even layer will result. 

With large fish, this is best done if the thick side, usually the one 
with the backbone, is placed next to the wall of the container. An 
extra piece may be placed in the middle, if needed. Pieces should 
overlap each other as little as possible. Scatter a thin layer of salt 
over the layer of fish, and arrange the next layer of fish in place at 
right angles to the preceding layer. 

Small fish, such as spots, butterfish, and croakers, are packed in 
a ring with the tip of the head touching the walls of the container. 
It will be necessary to lay one or two fish across the center to keep 
the layer level. Stagger successive layers so that each fish rests on 
two fish of the layer below. Scatter salt between each layer. The 
top layer of fish, both large and small, should be packed skin side up. 




Fic. 189. Methods of packing large fish (left) and small fish (right) in container 

for brine-salting. 



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The amount of salt used, says the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
depends on the purity and grain of the salt (less is required, for 
example, if the salt is of high purity and small grain), the season of 
the year (more salt is required in warm weather), size and fatness 
(large, thick, or fat fish require more salt), and probably length of 
preservation. The proportion of salt used runs from 14 to % of 
the total weight of the fish. A general rule is to use one part salt 
to three parts fish. In salting, be careful not to exceed the proper 
proportion— an excess will "burn" the fish, lowering the quality. 

Place a loosely fitting wooden cover on the top layer of fish and 
weight it down. Fair-sized rocks or bricks, previously well washed 
and scrubbed, make good weights. The fish will make its own brine. 
Small fish, like spots or croakers, may be "struck through" or com- 
pletely brine-cured in 48 hours; thicker, larger, fatter fish will re- 
quire a week or 10 days. At the end of this time, with the exception 
of a few varieties, the fish are removed, scrubbed in a fresh saturated 
brine with a stiff bristle brush, then repacked with a very light scat- 
tering of salt between layers. Layers must be pressed down. Fill the 
container with a fresh saturated salt brine and store the container 
in a cool, dark place. After three months, or at the first sign of 
fermentation— especially if the weather is warm— change the brine 
again. Brine-cured fish generally keep longer, but should not be 
expected to remain in good condition for more than nine months. 

Dry-Salting. The dry-salt cure for fish is best adapted for warm 
climates, but it is also used in northern areas as well. This method 
is applied successfully to nearly all fish, although fatty fish are more 
difficult to cure and they keep a shorter time. As a rule, dry-salted 
fish keep longer than those cured by the brine method. 

The home curing of cod, haddock, cusk, hake, and pollock, also 
to most large nonfatty fish, is given here. 

The fish are bled by cutting the throat and pulling out the gills 
as soon as caught. When the fish reach shore they must be thor- 
oughly washed. The head is cut off, but the "lugs" (hard, bony collar 
plates) must remain. If not, the fish will separate during curing or 
afterward in handling. Cut down the left side of the backbone, with 
the knife edge at a slight downward slant, so that it scrapes the back- 
bone. If the knife blade is held level, much flesh is left on the back- 
bone. Continue the cut down to the tail so that the upper side is 
removed in one piece. Then insert the edge of the knife blade just 
below the end of the backbone at a slight upward angle, and cut 
down to the tail. The fish is now separated into two sides of fillets. 
If the cutting is well done, the sides are perfectly smooth, with 
practically no flesh left on the backbone. 




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Another method, especially adapted to smaller fish (from 2 to 5 
pounds) is to cut down the middle of the belly to the vent (anal 
opening). Lay the fish on the edge of the table so that the head 
overhangs. Grasp the head and give a quick downward jerk, which 
removes the head more quickly and easily than by cutting. With the 
fish lying on its side, cut above the backbone from neck to tail hold- 
ing the knife horizontal and working from the belly side. This cut 
must not be too deep. It must not go through the back skin. Next, 
cut the backbone below the vent (leaving about one-fifth of tail 
section as a hinge). Cut forward just below the backbone to the 
head, thus removing it. Make another cut below the remaining 
section of backbone in the tail section, so that salt may penetrate. 
The fish should now lie open in one piece. 

After the fish is split, scrub the inside of the belly cavity with a 
piece of coarse sacking to remove the black skin and to clean away 
blood, membranes, and bits of viscera. Place the fish in a tub of 
water; wash, and brush thoroughly with a stiff bristle brush. Only 
pure, fresh drinking water should be used. Brine made in the pro- 
portion of 1 cup salt to 1 gallon water is often preferable to plain 
water. Afterward, drain the fish to remove surplus moisture. 

Dredge the fish in a box of salt as in brine-salting. Stack the 
fish in rows on the floor, choosing a place where the brine formed 
will run a way to a drain. First, scatter a thin layer of salt on the 
place where the fish are to be stacked, and arrange them in place 
by alternating heads and tails. Scatter a little salt between the layers 
of fish. Fish are piled flesh side up, except for the last layer which 
is piled skin side up. The average amount of salt used is 1 pound 
to each 4 pounds of fish. 

The fish are taken out of salt after 48 hours to one week, depend- 
ing upon the size of the fish and the weather. In damp or stormy 
weather, they are allowed to remain in the salt, as it is useless to 
attempt drying. Less time is required for salting in warm weather. 

When the fish are ready for drying, they should be scrubbed in 
brine to remove all excess salt and dirt. No traces of salt should be 
visible on the surface. After draining 15 to 20 minutes, the fish are 
ready for the drying racks. These are frames of wood covered with 
chicken wire and standing on legs about 4 feet high. A slat top of 
thin poles or laths may be substituted for wire mesh, if a 2-inch 
space is left between laths. The drying racks must be placed on dry 
ground, preferably covered with gravel. 

Oxidation, or rusting of the fish, occurs mostly readily if they are 
dried in direct sunlight. If the fish are kept shaded in a breezy 




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221 



location, they will dry well with a clear colon For this reason, dry- 
ing is best done in the shade under an open-walled shed ventilated 
by air currents. If only a few fish are being dried, they may be hung 
under overhanging eaves, or from the rafters of a shed or barn where 
there is good cross-ventilation. 




Fig. 190. Drying shed and rack for dry-salting fish. 



If placed on racks, the fish are 
laid skin side down, but should 
be turned three or four times 
the first day- They should be 
gathered up and stored each 
night, for they sour and mold 
if left spread out in the open. 
The fish are stacked in rows, 
alternating heads and tails, 
flesh side up except for the top 
layer. No stack should be more 
than 2 feet high, and there 
should be a rack at the bottom 
to prevent contact with the 
floor. Each stack is weighted 
down evenly, the weights at least 
equaling that of the fish in the 




Fig, 191. Drying a few fish under over- 
hanging eves. 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



stack. Additional moisture is pressed out of the flesh. If the fish 
cannot be taken out to dry the next day because of unfavorable 
weather, they must be repiled at the close of the day, placing the top 
layers of fish at the bottom. If the weather continues to be unfavor- 
able for drying, the fish are left in the stacks, but are repiled every 
other day with a small amount of fine salt (about 1 pound to 10 
pounds of fish) scattered between layers. 




Fig. 192. Sheefish drying on racks beside Eskimo home during late summer, 

Kotzebue, Alaska. 



A smoke smudge under the drying racks may oe necessary, for the 
first day at least, to prevent the flies from "blowing* the fish. The 
smudge should be made of green wood, or a wood fire smothered by 
green branches* Resinous woods such as pine or fir must not be 
used. The time required for drying depends upon weather condi- 
tions, the size of the fish, and the length of preservation desired. 
Fairly large cod, haddock, hake, or pollock must receive 60 hours of 
air drying— about six good days of drying. The usual test to deter- 
mine sufficiency of drying is to press the thick part of the flesh be- 
tween thumb and forefinger; if no impression can be made, the fish 
are sufficiently dried. 

The cured fish are wrapped in waxed paper, packed in a thin 
wooden box, tightly covered, and stored in a cool, dry place. At the 
first signs of rust, mold, or reddening, scrub the fish off in a salt 
brine and dry in the air for a day or two. 



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Fig. 193, Shrimp sun-drying on platform. 



Pickling 

Because of the abundance of our basic meats, the average Amer- 
ican never has ventured into the culinary byways where there are 
to be discovered so many delicious surprises. We are prone to put 
into the discard such meats as tongues, brains, sweetbreads, spleens, 
hearts, kidneys, tripe, feet, and tails. Many of these meat organs 
are richer in iron and vitamins than the muscle meats. These, if 
prepared right, are just as full of food value and every bit as tasty 
as steaks and roasts. Chief difference is that some of them take 
more time in the cooking and more skill in the seasoning. But when 
one realizes that these so-called "variety meats" are not only nutri- 
tious but also delicious, he will be the first to experiment in utilizing 
them to the best advantage. 

Pickling and spicing is an excellent way to preserve some of these 
meats, and it increases their piquancy and softens the fibers. The 
term pickled, although sometimes used to include meat, fish, and 
vegetables cured in brine, is applied here only to meat and fish in 
which vinegar, plain or spiced, wine, or cider is used in preserving. 

Pickled Pigs' Feet. In the preparation of pickled pigs* feet, 
special care must be taken to clean them thoroughly as previously 
described (page 78). After the feet are cleaned and chilled they 
should be put in cure at once. The clean, chilled feet are usually 



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put in the ham brine for from 15 days to 3 weeks and then cooked i 
or simmered slowly until tender. Cook them slowly enough so that 
the skin will not part too badly and the feet pull out of shape. The 
cooked, cured feet are then thoroughly chilled and packed in cold, 
moderately strong (35 grain) vinegar, to which spices such as bay 
leaves or allspice may be added. The feet may be used at once, but | 
if kept in the vinegar for 3 weeks or even longer the quality and 
taste is greatly enhanced. 

Pigs' Feet Souse. This is made by cooking cured or uncured feet 
in a little water until the meat slips from the bones. The meat and 
strained broth in which the feet were cooked are then seasoned with 
vinegar and spice, brought to a boil, put in molds, and allowed to 
jell. Additional cooked pork trimmings may be added. 

Here is another way to make pickled pigs' feet. Split the cleaned, 
chilled feet and cover with water to which vinegar has been added. 
Cook the feet slowly enough so that the skin will not part too readily 
and the feet pull out of shape. Remove all scum. Add seasonings I 
and boil slowly for 2 hours. After cooking, chill the feet and pack 
into a tight vessel, stone crock preferred, and cover with the hot I 
broth. Later the feet can be served cold or fried in a batter of eggs, 
flour, milk, and butter. 

4 pigs' feet 6 whole cloves 

3 cups vinegar 1 bay leaf 

1 onion 1 tablespoon salt 

12 whole peppers 

Pickled Tripe. The fatty inner-lining of the stomach of cattle 
and sheep (tripe) is prepared by thorough cleansing and boiling. 
Its large proportion of connective tissue readily gelatinizes on boil- 
ing, rendering it an easily digested food. It lacks flavor, but in the 
hands of a competent housewife or cook there are a great many ' 
methods of remedying this. Beef tripe is the kind most generally 
used. It should be thick, white, and fat— if dark and thin, the qual- 
ity is poor. The "honeycomb" part is generally considered the best; 
this however, is a matter of individual opinion or taste. "Plain" or | 
"regular," tripe is smooth. "Pocket honeycomb," shaped like a 
pocket, is the end of the stomach lining, the outside smooth, and I 
the inside honeycombed. Calf's tripe is more tender than beef tripe. 

Clean the tripe thoroughly and rinse it in cold water, then scald 
it in hot water (a little below the boiling point). When sufficiently i 
scalded, the inside linings of the stomachs may be removed by scrap- 
ing, which will leave a clean, white surface. Tripe should be boiled 
until tender; this usually takes about 3 hours. Then it is placed in 



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PICKLING 225 

cold water so that the fat may be scraped from the outside. When 
this has been done, peel off the membrane from the outside of the 
stomach, and ihe clean white tripe is ready for pickling. 

Place the tripe in a clean, hardwood barrel or earthenware jar, 
and keep submerged in a strong brine for 3 or 4 days. Rinse well 
with cold water and cover with pure cider vinegar, or a spiced 
pickling liquid. Place a weight on the tripe to keep it from floating 
on the surface of the liquid. 

Spiced Corned Beef 

This is made in the same manner as corned beef, but spices, garlic, 
and onions are added to the brine. In a cheesecloth bag put 4 
ounces of pickling spices and two bulbs of garlic or 2 pounds of 
onions and place this in the brine with the meat. These amounts 
are for 100 pounds of meat. 

Pickled Tongue 1 

1 beef tongue or 2 calf tongues Salt 

Vinegar to cover 6 whole peppercorns 

Juice of one lemon 2 or 3 tablespoons sugar 

2 onions \/ A cup seeded raisins 
6 whole cloves 1 1/ 2 tablespoons flour 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 

Cover the tongue with vinegar and soak for 24 hours. Drain and 
cover with water, adding lemon juice, sliced onions, cloves, cin- 
namon, salt and pepper. Cook slowly until tender, about 1 hour 
per pound. Skin and slice while warm. Brown the sugar. Strain 
liquid from tongue, adding 2 cups of liquid to sugar. Add raisins 
and then-thicken the sauce with the flour that has been stirred until 
smooth with a small amount of cold water. Cook the sauce a few 
minutes, stirring frequently; add tongue and let simmer until 
thoroughly heated in sauce. 

Spiced Tongue Slices 1 

1 beef tongue or two veal tongues 2 bay leaves 

Y 3 cup salt 12 whole pepper corns 

1 quart water 2 cups sugar 

2 pounds veal bones 2 cups vinegar 

3 pieces celery 2 cups water 
12 cloves 6 small onions 

1 Courtesy of Department of Home Economics, National Live Stock and Meat 
Board, Chicago, 111. 



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Wash tongue thoroughly. Soak for two days in brine made by 
combining salt and water. Pour off brine. Cover tongue with fresh 
water. Add the veal bones, celery, and spices. Cook slowly until 
tender, about 1 hour per pound. Skin and slice. Cook sugar, 
vinegar, and water 10 minutes. Pour over tongue. Add thinly sliced 
onions. Store in cool place and use as desired. 

Fish. Although few species of fish are pickled commercially, al- 
most any kind may be preserved for home use. 

Herring, both sea and river, are the most important fish for pick- 
ling. Other popular species are haddock, mullet, catfish, salmon, 
carp, buffalo fish, eels, lake herring, lake trout, pike, pickerel, and 
shellfishes, especially shrimp, oysters, clams, and mussels. Prac- 
tically all other food fishes, both fresh and salt water, are pickled by 
noncommercial or home methods to some extent. 

Fish that are pickled or marinated do not keep as long as those 
preserved by salting or drying. This difference is due partly to local 
weather conditions, species of fish, and the method of pickling. The 
acetic-acid content of the vinegar is also a factor. To stop bacterial 
growth requires a vinegar with an acetic-acid content of 15 per cent. 
The ordinary commercial vinegar contains 5 to 6 per cent, and even 
this may be too strong for the average palate. Pickling solutions 
containing as little as 3 per cent acetic acid, however, will retard 
spoilage for a week or more, and the product may even be preserved 
for months if stored in a cool place at a temperature of about 50°F. 

Distilled vinegar is preferred since it has a standardized acetic- 
acid content. Cider or other fruit vinegars are usually considered 
unsuitable since the acetic-acid content is extremely variable, and 
the fruit residues in the vinegar may give the fish an "off" taste. 
Spices and herbs used in pickling should be fresh. Best results are 
obtained by securing whole spices and herbs and crushing and 
grinding sufficient quantities to make up the recipe at the time of 
pickling. 

Herring. The first step in pickling herring is to cut off the head, 
and trim off the thin belly-flesh to the vent. Clean the cut herring 
thoroughly, paying special attention to removal of the kidney which 
is a dark streak along the backbone. Wash the fish in fresh water 
and drain. Pack the drawn fish loosely in a crock, and cover with 
a brine testing 80° salinometer (% cup of salt to 1 quart of water) 
and containing sufficient vinegar to give it an acidity of 2.5 per cent. 
This requires about equal quantities of water and distilled vinegar. 

The fish are left in this brine until the salt has "struck through," 
but must be removed before the skin starts to wrinkle or lose color. 



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Length of cure, therefore, depends upon the judgment of the 
pickler, and varies with the temperature, freshness, and size of the 
fish. The average time is about 5 days, but may vary from 3 to 7 
days. 

When the herring are judged sufficiently cured, they are repacked 
more tightly, a very little dry salt is scattered among them, and they 
are covered with a salt vinegar pickle one-half the strength of that 
previously stated. The crock is stored in a cool place. At this stage, 
the fish cannot be kept for more than 2 or 3 weeks. 

The final process in pickling herring is the soaking of the herring 
in a tub of cold water for 8 hours. Remove the fish, drain, and place 
in a crock and cover with a solution of vinegar, salt, and water for 
48 hours. This solution is made up in the proportions of 1 gallon 
of 6 per cent distilled vinegar, 1 gallon of water, and 1 pound of 
salt. Some prefer to eliminate this last step, utilizing the herring 
immediately after they have been freshened in cold water. 



The quantities given in the following recipe are sufficient for 10 
pounds of cleaned herring. Whole spices are used. 



1 ounce black pepper 

Cut the vinegar-salt-cured herring across the body in pieces 1 to 
\i/ 2 inches long. Pack in layers in a crock with sliced onions, bay 
leaves, and spices. Cover with vinegar diluted with water in which 
the sugar is dissolved. Allow this liquid to stand in a cool place at 
least 24 hours before using. The cut, spiced herring may be re- 
packed in pint or quart glass jars. If packed in jars, the herring may 
be stored in a refrigerator where it will remain in good condition for 
as long as 6 months. Add to each jar a few fresh spices, a bay leaf 
or two, and a slice of lemon at the side of the jar to give an attrac- 
tive appearance. Rubber jar rings should not be used, since the 
vinegar causes them to deteriorate. 

There are more formulas for pickled herring and other species 
such as carp, pike, salmon, eels, clams, oysters, mussels, and shrimp, 
but that would require more space than is available for fish in this 



Cut Spiced Herring 



1 quart vinegar 

1 pint water 

3 ounces allspice 

2 ounces bay leaves 

2 ounces mustard seed 



1 ounce red peppers 

1 ounce white peppers 

1 ounce sugar 

i/ 2 ounce cloves 

1/2 ounce sliced onions 




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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



book. These additional formulas and instructions are given in 
Fishery Leaflet 18, Home Preservation of Fishery Products (a copy 
of which may be obtained on request to the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, United States Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C). 

Drying Meat and Fish 

Probably the first method used to preserve meat and fish was dry- 
ing in the wind and sun, sometimes with smoke to intimidate the 
flies. Thus treated, fish and meat became an article of commerce 
and of food for man and beast; could be stored for years if kept 
dry; were portable, durable, nourishing; and could be eaten with or 
without boiling. 

This method of preserving meat and fish on the North American 
continent was developed by the Indians, and the white man learned 
it from these aborigines. 

Not only do times change but names change with it. Dried meat 
was desiccated meat in World War I and dehydrated meat during 
World War II. This dried meat, a concentrated protein material, is 
nutritious, palatable, and easily stored for months at ordinary at- 
mospheric temperatures. It was developed to meet an emergency 
and to save refrigeration facilities and tin-plate cans. 

Char qui from the French also means dried meat. Biltong is a 
Dutch South African term for strips of sun-dried meat of antelope, 
buffalo, and other animals. "Jerky" or jerked beef is the name given 
by our pioneers to meat dried in this manner. 

Pemmican. This is the Cree Indian word for meat prepared in 
such a way as to contain the greatest amount of nourishment in the 
most compact form. The Indians made it of lean parts of meat- 
deer, antelope, and buffalo—dried in the sun and pounded or 
shredded and mixed into a paste with melted fat. They flavored it 
with acid berries. If kept dry, it would keep for an indefinite time 
and is thus particularly serviceable in Arctic and other explorations. 

Pemmican is not only used as an emergency ration by explorers, 
but hunters, canoers, and hikers rely upon it. Here is how it is 
made. 

Cut the lean meat of venison or beef into very thin slices. Hang 
them in the sun where flies and dirt cannot contaminate them and 
allow them to dry thoroughly. The strips may also be dried by sus- 
pending them over a low fire made of hickory or ash wood until 
they become brittle. The drying process may require a few hours 
or a day depending on the humidity. 



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229 



Pound or grind the dry strips of meat into a coarse powder and 
work in enough hot fat to make a thick dough. Dried fruits such as 
raisins, apricots, or prunes may be pounded or ground with the 
meat before the fat is added. 

Form the pemmican into one or more loaves and enclose it in a 
canvas or muslin casing so that it resembles an old-fashioned plum 
pudding. Dip the loaf into melted paraffin to seal the wrapping 
and make it watertight, and then store it in a dry place. 

Jerked Beef (dried beef). This was originally made by cutting 
beef into long, thin strips dried in the air, without having been 
previously immersed in brine. Later on it became the custom to 
cure the meat lightly in brine before it was air-dried. The word 
"jerked" comes from the Spanish-American charqui. 

Jerked Venison. Nearly every hunter has his own ideas about 
making "jerky." It is customary to cut the meat into strips 2 to 3 
inches thick. They are then dipped into boiling hot brine. The 
meat is placed on a smoking rack built of sticks. A fire is made with 
green maple or other hardwood and, when the fire burns low, the 
rack with the meat on it is placed over the fire and the meat is 
thoroughly seared. The fire should not be permitted to blaze, only 
to smoke, or the meat will be cooked instead of jerked. Flies will 
not bother this meat. After it is smoked the meat should be dried 
in the sun as much as possible. 

Dried Beef. Our modern dried beef, sometimes called chipped 
beef, is generally made from the round. The three muscles com- 
prising this portion of the beef are split lengthwise along the natural 
seams. This is done so that the muscle fibers may be cut crosswise 
when the dried beef is sliced for table use. The larger muscle may 
be split farther in order to have more uniform size of pieces. The 
inside of the thigh is considered the choicest piece because it is 
generally more tender. Cure the meat in the same manner as that 
described for corned beef (page 209) with the exception of adding 
an additional pound of sugar per 100 pounds of meat. Allow the 
meat to cure about 2 days for each pound of weight of the pieces. 
After being removed from the brine, drained and dried, it is ready 
) for the smokehouse. 

The drier the climate in general, the more easily can meats be 
dried. In arid regions, good dried meat can be made by exposing it 
fresh (if protected from flies and dirt) to the air. 

Fish. Preserving fish solely by drying in the open is not practiced 
extensively in this country. This is because the weather is not suit- 
able in many localities and because the flesh of many species avail- 




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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



able to the noncommercial fisherman has a fat content of 5 per cent 
or more. Therefore it is difficult to preserve fish by air-drying alone. 
Another reason is that a combination of salting and drying requires 
much less time and skill than air-drying alone. However, the In- 
dians in Alaska and Canada still air-dry fish to some extent. In the 
North Pacific and Atlantic States (and for shrimp drying, in the 
Gulf of Mexico area), air-drying offers some possibilities for those 
desiring to preserve fish at home. 

Rackling. This product was introduced to this country by Scan- 
dinavian fishermen who prepare it for home use. Large flounder, 
halibut, pollock, cusk, hake, rock cod, or similar fish with a fat 
content of about 2 per cent are suitable. The head is removed, leav- 
ing the collarbone. The fish is split into two sides and the back- 
bone removed. Then the sides are cut in long, narrow strips about 
an inch in width, left joined together at the collarbone. They are 
washed thoroughly so that all traces of blood are removed and then 
soaked in saturated salt brine for 1 hour. They are hung out to 
dry, preferably in a shady place where they will not be exposed to 
direct sunlight. Drying requires from 1 to 2 weeks. When wanted 
for use, the rackling may be soaked for a few hours, and steamed 
and made into fish cakes, fish loaf, or creamed fish. It is most often 
eaten like jerked meat, however, without any preliminary prepara- 
tion. 

Dried Shrimp. Small shrimp not suitable for the commercial 
market, or large catches which cannot be used fresh, may be dried 
at home. The shrimp are first washed thoroughly, picking out all 
bits of seaweed and other foreign material, and allowed to drain. 
Prepare salt brine in the proportions of i/ 2 cup of salt to one quart 
of water. Bring to a boil, put in the whole washed shrimp. Allow 
them to boil for about 10 minutes, counting the time from the mo- 
ment when the brine begins to boil after the shrimp have been 
added. When the meat has separated from the shell it is cooked, 
which may be determined by breaking open a shrimp. Spread the 
boiled shrimp in a thin layer to dry in the sun. A slanting shed 
roof makes an excellent drying platform. The layer of shrimp must 
not be more than 1 inch thick. Turn them at half-hour intervals 
during the first day of drying, so that all parts of the layer will be 
equally dried. The shrimp are gathered at night and stored in a 
dry, well-ventilated place. This must also be done at the first sign 
of rain. Do not place a covering directly on the shrimp or they will 
start to heat and sour. 




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231 



Drying requires about 3 days if the weather is good, and longer 
if drying conditions are unfavorable. When the shrimp are 
thoroughly dry and hard, place them in a sack. Beat the sack with 
a piece of board. This separates the shells from the meats. Then 
take a wooden-frame, wire-mesh screen with \/± inch mesh and set 
it up at an angle. Shovel the mixture of meats and shells against 
the screen as in sifting sand. The bits of shell and waste fall 
through, while the meats roll down to the bottom of the screen. 
From 100 pounds of green shrimp, 12 or 13 pounds of dry shrimp 
should be obtained, together with an equal amount of shell. The 
dried shrimp meat may be soaked in water for a few hours, wiped 
dry, rolled in butter or in oil, and fried. They are also excellent in 
curries, gumbos, and jambalayas. When the dried meats are ground 
and mixed with butter and spices, they make an excellent sandwich 
spread. The dried meats are also used with beverages as appetizers. 



Smoked meats are those preserved by wood smoke following their 
curing by the dry- or brine-cured methods. Cured meats are gen- 
erally smoked before they are put into storage. If the smoky flavor 
is not desired and the meat is not smoked, it should be hung up to 
dry until the dry-cured meat loses about 5 per cent of its cured 
weight and the brine-cured meat loses about 10 per cent. 

Cured meats are smoked primarily to give them their familiar 
color and flavor. Smoking lowers the moisture content, imparts an 
attractive mahogany brown color and mild, smoky aroma, and fur- 
nishes some protection against bacteria and oxidation. Relatively 
high smokehouse temperatures (110°F. or above) with a light smoke 
will speed up the drying; lower temperatures (80° to 110°F.) with a 
dense fog of smoke will intensify the smoky flavor in meat. 

Smokehouse temperatures vary according to the type of cured 
and smoked product that is being produced. Meat for storage at air 
temperatures should be smoked in a temperature of 135°F. until 
the inside of the meat has reached 110°. Then the smokehouse 
temperature is lowered to 110° and maintained until the desired 
color is attained. 

After the meat has been cured, it is removed from cure, washed, 
and hung up to dry, or it is soaked and then dried. Meat that has 
remained in cure too long should be soaked for an hour in warm 
water to dissolve some of the surface salt. After it is washed it 
should be allowed to dry overnight. 



Smoking Meat and Fish 




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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



Smokehouses, Many types of smokehouses are used successfully 
to smoke meats, fowl, and fish. These houses range from the tem- 
porary "one-hog" type made from a 50-gallon barrel to permanent 
structures suitable for both smoking and storing meat. 

Smokehouses should be of reasonably tight construction to permit 
easy regulation of temperature and flow of smoke and air. A rapid 
flow of air past the meat is needed at the beginning of the smoking 
operation to drive off surplus moisture. Less rapid air movement 
near the end of the smoking period prevents excessive shrinkage in 
the weight of the meat. 

The drawings that follow were made by the agricultural engi- 
neers, United States Department of Agriculture. These drawings 
show details, so that blueprints will not be required by the builder. 

Barrel Smokehouse. A 50-gallon barrel, with both heads removed, 
or a box with tight sides, can be used for smoking small quantities 
of meat, fowl, or fish. Set the barrel, with head and body removed, 
over the upper end of a shallow, sloping, covered trench and dig a 
pit at the lower end for the fire. The heat of the fire can be con- 
trolled by covering the pit with a piece of sheet metal and mound- 
ing earth around the edges, so as to cut off most of the draft. Clean 
muslin or burlap hung over the top of the barrel will protect a 
1-inch opening between the barrel and the cleated top, which rests 
on broomsticks supporting the meat. 

Frame or Concrete Type. A smokehouse large enough for the 
average family needs is easily constructed out of wood and concrete. 
The outside fire pit makes temperature control easy and reduces 
the fire hazard. Tight construction and well-fitted ventilators pro- 



Fic. 194. Barrel smokehouse. Smokepipe, or tile if available, could be used for 




Metal cover 



iO-0'to 12-0* 



Broom 




the flue. 



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233 



vide effective regulation of the air flow past the meat. Movable 
two-by-fours across the house for hanging the meat enable the oper- 
ator to adjust the hangers to the size of the pieces of meat being 
smoked. Two or more tiers of meat can be hung in the house. A 
taller house, holding four more tiers of meat, can be served by the 
same fire pit. 

The cost of the lumber and other materials for this 6-by-6 by 
8-foot smokehouse will be about $65 if they must be bought new. If 
built of commercial concrete blocks the cost will be about $85. 
These prices may range widely in different localities. Masonry con- 
struction reduces the fire hazard. Local stone which does not require 
much dressing or skill for shaping the pieces can be used at low 
cash cost. Logs are satisfactory if well fitted and chinked. 

The frame type of smokehouse should not be located nearer than 
50 feet to any other buildings. 

A solid frost-proof foundation is essential. A concrete floor is 
desirable, as it can be made rat-proof and is more easily cleaned 
than wood. 

The picnic-type firebox with a removable cover can also be used 
for cooking meals out-of-doors. Broiled and barbecued dishes can 
be prepared on this outside fireplace. The smoke pipe leading to 
the house must be plugged when the firebox is used as a stove or 
grill. A simple earthen pit at the end of the flue could be used in- 
stead of the concrete or brick firebox shown. Also a small wood- 
burning stove could be connected with the smoke pipe. In all cases, 
it is desirable to slope the pipe slightly upward toward the outlet 
in the smokehouse and to cover it with earth or masonry. This 
covering will hold the heat and, in connection with the slope, give 
a more positive draft. 

Ventilators should be built into the gables as shown in the draw- 
ings; a ventilator built in the roof is difficult to keep watertight. 

Meat can be crowded into a smokehouse, the only rule being 
that no piece touch another or the wall. The space required varies 
with the weight of the cut, but 12 inches in width both ways and 2 
feet in height for each piece is a fair basis for estimating the capacity 
of the house. Movable rails and staggered hooks will make it pos- 
sible to adapt the equipment to the quantity of meat to be smoked. 

Remember that well-built, fly-tight smokehouses are not safe 
places to store unbagged smoked meat. Ultimately flies or fly eggs 
will get in, either on a piece of meat or when the door is opened. 
Smokehouses are used satisfactorily for storing meat if each piece is 
properly wrapped, bagged and hung separately, provided it is fly- 
proof and, perhaps, thief-proof. 




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2*4 roffmrs 24 a 




PLAN 



BILL OF MATERIALS 

SMOKCMOUSt 
Comcxete t-3:S mix 

10 bogs cement feuyd sand, fjfcuydk §mmi 

3 pieces 2*x 6'x 6 -0* cross ties. 

* 2 m x 4'x tZ-O' header bench **/ hangers. 

* Z'x 4\ fO'-o'sitts, studs,and rafters, 

* Z'x 4'x 8'-Q' *. pkrtes.and hangers. 

* l*x K>"x B'-O* bench and vent doors. 

* fx 6"x f0-0 m ridge and trim. 
» fx 6*x 7-0* door battens. 
" fx 4 m x to'-O* corner boards and trim. 

fx4*x8 , '0'trim 
fx B"x 7-0 Ti a boards for door 
275 ft &M G'drop siding. 
f20 ft&M roof sheaihtng. 

hoofing or asphalt shingms to cover 100 Sf ft root area 

Miscellaneous 

7- i x 12 "anchor bolts, with nots and nvshers. 
/ pair 8 *7ee hinges, t safety hasp 
2- pair 2*x 2* hinges for vent doors, 
h piece metal flashing -6 m x40 * 

4 /in ft *30-mesh wire screen ~tO'wfde. 

4 lengths €"TC sewer pipe, h G* 30* TC e/bcmt 
Noils, hanging books, and potnt not included 

me box 

Concrete / < 2 < 3 mix. t 

6 bags cement Jcuyd sand. Scuyd* broken 
hard brick, gravel or stone (bnck more heat resistant) 

Miscellaneous 

tO /in ft 6 x fi'Ab. $ wire fabric jo'wfde. 

€ pieces J 'steel rods 42* long. 

10 h * * « 22' » 

2 " /J' P'P* 36' ktng. 

/- piece 24"x 32" metal, sliding door 



Frc. 195 A. Drawing and bill of material for frame smokehouse. 



Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



SMOKING MEAT AND FISH 



235 



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rftrtged door 

Tight sheathing 

2x4*raffers 24 oc. 

"vent both ends. 
fSOmesh screen 

Wood 
panel 

fx/4 anchor bolts 

Removable 
2%4'benyers 





+ — 7jm 8* /5$ masonry units V^* ^ <^S* 



PERSPECTIVE 



f Earth mound over tile frods Soc. Both wa\ 



CROSS SECTION 






Brick orch 
Sliding metis/ door 
uprights 



ILL OF MATERIALS 
SMOKEHOUSE 
CONCRETE AW MoRTAR. 

Concrete t *9<5mix. Mortar / 3 + /0%fime. 
14 bogs cement tfcuydssand 2 cuyois gravel 
65/t>± ^rafedlime * r 

142 8/ t'x l& smooth face masonry units. 
12 8"x4xlS 



2 
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52 
12 
12 



8'x 4'x 8" 
8 m xS m x6 m 

a ft e'x ib" 

8 m x 8'x 16" 
$'* 8 m x 3" 



« half * 
* Corner 
' jamb 
'half " 



PLAN 



100 common brick 
Iumber 

4 pieces Z'x 6"x 8*- a* plates and door Jambs 

6 • 2>6>7-cr- "cross ties 

2 I £.* < * W °. niters, gable end studs. 

7 * 2.x 4 a 6 - 0 bench oftd remombie hangers 

3 * 2 MS x 8 ~0 door casing. ^ 

5 r rx6\j(fo' : ol ;> bat fens, rtdge, tnm 
3 " f*4xK>-0 trim ^ 

/ » /" x 12' xe''0' bench 

I " rxKf* t0'-0 m « and vent doors 

120 ft BM roof sheathing 56 ft 8 m f*6 m T^6 door gobies 

Roofing or ospha/t shingles to cover KkQ&fft roof area 

MiSCCLLANCOUS 

8- i \j4 anchor both ipr 8*X+ binges f pr 2x2%nges 
b*38 metal flashy 4 /in ft *x>mtjJt screen to "mde 

Nails, hangtng nook* and paint not included 

firebox 

1 bags cement, icu.yd.sand 4 cu yd grove/ 
4 £0 common brKk 90 firebrick 

9- Jst*etmds 40'hng t 6 : Jstee/ rods 44'hng 

2 p*Ke* iffxpmM'kmg y 
I metal ShtAng door 24**51* 



Fig. 195B. Drawing and bill of material for cement-block smokehouse. 



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236 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 




Fig. 196. Picnic-type firebox. 



Proper Wood. Woods used for smoking depend much upon the 
locality and availability. In order of preference for smoking are 
hickory, maple, birch, ash, oak, dried apple wood, and dry willow. 
Green hickory wood and sawdust are the standard fuels for smoking 
meat. Where timber is scarce corncobs may be used. Soft or resinous 
wood should not be used, for it will blacken the meat and give it 
an undesirable flavor. If paper or pine shavings are used to kindle 
the green hardwood, be sure that all have been completely burned 
or removed from the fire before the smokehouse door is closed. It is 
better, however, to start the fire with the used woods and not with 
paper or shavings from soft woods, because the ashes of these prod- 
ucts rise and stick to the meat. 



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SMOKING MEAT AND FISH 



237 



All pieces to be smoked should be strung and scrubbed with 
warm water to remove the excess salt and grease. Hams and shoul- 
ders should be strung through the shank. Unless a regular stringing 
needle is at hand, make an opening through the shank with the 
narrow blade of the boning knife and pull a stout string through 
with a wire loop. A wooden or wire skewer is usually run through 
the flank end of the bacon strip and the string inserted just below 
it. In the case of bacon, it is better to insert two loops just off the 
center so that the piece hangs smoothly without wrinkling. If 
wrinkling is permitted, the meat is hard to slice and some waste 
will occur* 




Fig. 197. Well-trimmed and smoked ham, bacon and shoulder. It pays to trim 

cuts smoothly and evenly. 

A good procedure is to hang the cured washed meat in the smoke- 
house overnight to drain and dry. Start the fire in the morning. If 
the meat is still dripping when smoking begins, hang the lower 
pieces in such a manner that the drippings do not strike the meat 
and make it streaked. Do not permit any two pieces of hanging meat 
to come in contact. 

Pork, Cured pork may be smoked at a temperature of 100° to 
120°F. The ventilators should be left open, especially at first, to 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



permit the moisture to escape. A heavy fog of smoke is not neces- 
sary. Continue the smoking until the meat has the desired color. 
Two days smoking should make it a rich mahogany brown. 

Meat that is to be aged or held for summer use is usually smoked 
more slowly. The temperature is held at 70° to 90°F. and the fires 
rebuilt intermittently over a period of from one to several weeks. 
This smoking and drying process helps to preserve the meat and to 
develop a mellow flavor characteristic of smoked pork that has been 
aged several months. 

Beef and Lamb. Cured beef and lamb are smoked in the same 
manner as pork. The pieces to be smoked should be removed from 
the cure 2 or 3 days before being put into the smokehouse. If cured 
in a strong brine, it is best to soak the pieces about 3 hours in cold 
water to prevent a crust of salt from forming on the outside when 
the beef is smoked. Washing the meat in tepid water and scrub- 
bing clean with a brush is a good practice. The pieces should then 
be hung up to drain. After being drained they may be hung in 
the smokehouse. 

When the fire is kept going steadily and an even temperature is 
maintained, from 24 to 36 hours will be required to finish one lot 
of meat. The meat should be cooled by opening the ventilators or 
doors as soon as it is smoked sufficiently. When hard and firm, it 
may be wrapped properly and stored for use later. Dried beef may 
be used any time after it is smoked, although the longer it is stored, 
the drier it will become. 

Lamb may be exposed to hardwood smoke for about two days at 
a temperature of about 100° to 120°F. in the same manner as cured 
pork. The meat may be removed from the smokehouse as soon as 
it is satisfactorily colored, or left in for longer or intermittent smok- 
ing if desired. 

Fowls. Turkeys, ducks, and other birds after taken from the cure 
should be rinsed in fresh water and drained thoroughly. Be sure 
that none of the cure is left in the pockets of the body cavities. Put 
the bird in a stockinette and hang breast down. Another method 
is to loop a cord under each wing close to the body, tying the cord 
in the center above the back. Hang the birds and let them drip until 
dry. Allow them to hang in this manner, breast down, when being 
smoked. This provides for maximum exposure of skin as well as 
an opportunity for further drainage. 

For cured turkeys, make a fire of hardwood and maintain a tem- 
perature of 135° to 140°F. for about 16 hours. This is more effective 
in producing desirable color than lower temperatures. However, a 




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SMOKING MEAT AND FISH 



239 



temperature of approximately 110°F. for 20 hours results in about 
3 per cent less weight loss in the smokehouse than the higher tem- 
perature for a shorter period of time. After smoking the turkeys 
should be aged 4 weeks at 68°. The smoked turkey produced by 
this process must be cooked before eating. 

To produce a smoke-cooked turkey that is ready for eating with- 
out further cooking, the following procedure is recommended by the 
Extension Service, Texas A. and M. College, College Station, Texas: 

Make a brine of the following: 10 gallons of water; 9 pounds of 
salt; 1 pound of prague powder; H/ 2 pounds of sugar; 4 ounces of 
ham spice emulsion. This mixture should give a reading of 45 to 
50 per cent saturation when measured with a sodium chloride 
salinometer. 




Fig. 198. Turkeys and ducks smoking in stockinettes. 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



After the bird has been dressed and chilled thoroughly, it must 
be pumped for curing. Pump the fowl with the brine mixture by 
injecting 10 per cent of its weight. Stitch with pressure pump, using 
small or medium-sized needle. Pump bird to give uniform distri- 
bution of brine in all muscles. This will require on each side of 
the bird three stitches in the breast, one in the thigh, one in each 
drumstick, one in each wing, and one in the back. 

After pumping has been completed cover the bird with the brine 
mixture and be sure it is completely submerged. Keep it in the 
solution for 3 days. Remove and drain thoroughly. Be sure that 
none of the brine is left in the pockets of body cavities. Put it in 
stockinette and hang breast down. After it is about dry, put it in 
the smokehouse with the heat control set at 170°F. As soon as it is 
completely dry, smoke can be applied. Smoke to a light lustrous 
pecan-nut brown. This usually takes 8 to 10 hours. 

When the desired color is obtained, increase the temperature in 
the smokehouse to 185°F. Cook the bird until the inside tempera- 
ture at the thickest breast muscle area is 160°F. To determine the 
heat accurately it is necessary to insert an inside meat thermometer 
in the bird at the thigh joints and breast muscles. Approximately 
20 per cent shrinkage may be expected. 

This process will cook the bird sufficiently to be eaten without 
additional cooking. The cooked product will not keep under an or- 
dinary refrigerator temperature any longer than other meats, such as 
cured ham. If the birds are to be held longer than two weeks they 
should be frozen, packaged, and held at 0°F. 

Fish. Smoking is a method which should be used more extensively 
in home food preservation of fishery products, says the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service. When the curing is properly done, it is in- 
expensive and the product is of high quality, attractive in appear- 
ance and taste. Although preservation by smoking usually lasts for 
a shorter time than by salting, the product is more appetizing. 
If smoked fish spoils quickly and is poor in quality, it is because 
the smoking has been done improperly. If proper attention is 
given to materials and methods, little difficulty should be expe- 
rienced. 

The efficiency of smoking depends on the drying action; it is 
only a flavoring and coloring agent. According to species, fish may 
be smoked either in the round, gutted, split and beheaded, or cut 
into pieces with or without the skin removed. 

There are two general methods of smoking fish: hot-smoking or 
barbecuing, and cold-smoking. In hot-smoking, the fish are hung 
near the fire, usually not more than 3 or 4 feet distant, and smoked 




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SMOKING MEAT AND FISH 



241 





Fig. 199., Various methods of hanging fish for smoking. 



at temperatures from 150° to 200°F. so that they are partially or 
wholly cooked. Therefore, while hot-smoked fish is very appetizing, 
and requires no preparation, it will keep for only a short time. In 
cold-smoking, the fish are hung at some distance from a low smould- 
ering fire and smoked at temperatures usually lower than 90°F. (a 
temperature of 90 °F. may be used occasionally). The degree of 

i*i f^rtrt^L-* Original from 

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242 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



preservation depends on the length of time the fishes are smoked; 
fish cold-smoked a few hours, for example, will keep only a short 
time. If an extended period of preservation is desired, fish must be 
cold-smoked from a few days to a week or more. The same general 
principles governing the smoking, handling, and storing of cured 
meats should be followed with fish. 

Hot-Smoking. Almost any species may be hot-smoked. Mullet, 
shad, Spanish mackerel, mackerel, alewives or river herring, herring, 
lake herring, whitefish, and king mackerel. This method is recom- 
mended if it is desired to prepare a fish that can be used imme- 
diately without cooking. Fish smoked by this method may be kept 
longer without molding or souring, but even so, it will preserve for 
only a short time. 

Split the fish along the back, just above the backbone so that it 
will be open in one piece, leaving the belly solid. Scrape out all 
viscera, blood, and membrane. Make an additional cut under the 
backbone for the smaller fish. For the larger fish, cut out the for- 
ward three-fifths of the backbone. Wash thoroughly and soak in 
a 70° salt brine (i/ 2 cup salt to 1 quart water) for 30 minutes to 
leach blood out of the flesh. Then prepare a brine, using the fol- 
lowing ingredients: 2 pounds salt, 1 ounce saltpeter, 1 ounce crushed 
black peppercorns, 1 ounce crushed bay leaves. This makes a 90 
per cent brine (saturated salt solution). The amounts of ingredients 
are increased in proportion to the amount of brine to be made. The 
spices used may be increased both in variety and quantity. 

The fish are held in this brine for periods varying from 2 to 4 
hours, depending upon their size and thickness, amount of fat, and 
the desire for a light or heavily cured fish. Weather conditions also 
make a difference; the exact length of time must be determined by 
experiment. Rinse off the fish in fresh water and hang outside in a 
cool, shady and breezy place to dry for about 3 hours before hanging 
in the smokehouse, or until a thin shiny "skin" or pellicle has 
formed on the surface. 

For the first 8 hours that the fish are in the smokehouse, the fire 
is low and smoldering. The temperature should not be higher than 
90°F. A dense smoke should then be built up. After 4 hours of 
heavy smoking, the fire is increased until the temperature is be- 
tween 130° and 150°F. The fish are cured at this temperature for 
2 to 3 hours, or until they have a glossy, brown surface. This 
partially cooks, or hot-smokes, the fish. 

When smoking is finished, the fish must be cooled for 2 or 3 hours. 
They may be brushed over lightly with vegetable oil (usually cot- 




Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



SMOKING MEAT AND FISH 



243 



tonseed) while warm. This is sometimes done just after finishing 
the cold-smoking part of the process. The oil forms a light pro- 
tective coating, but the chief value of this treatment is to make the 
appearance more attractive. Another method is to dip the fish in 
melted paraffin; thus, a more effective protective coating is formed, 
but the fish must be handled carefully as the coating is brittle. The 
paraffin must be peeled off when preparing the fish for the table. 
Each fish should be wrapped in waxed paper and stored in a cool, 
dry place. Spoilage occurs more rapidly if the fish are stored in a 
warm place or under damp and cold conditions. 

Cold-Smoking. Small fish, such as sea herring, alewives (river 
herring), spots, or butter fish may be cold-smoked in the round 
(without cleaning), but they should be gibbed. Gibbing consists of 
making a small cut just below the gills and pulling out the gills, 
heart, and liver, leaving the belly uncut. Fish larger than one pound 
should be split along the back to lie flat in a single piece, leaving 
the belly portion uncut. All traces of blood, black skin, and viscera 
must be removed, paying special attention to the area just under the 
backbone. The head does not need to be removed. If the head is 
cut off, the hard bony plate just below the gills is allowed to remain, 
as it will be needed to carry the weight when the fish are in the 
smokehouse. 

Next wash the fish thoroughly, whether gibbed or split, and place 
them in a brine made in the proportion of 1 cup of salt to 1 gallon 
of water. They should be left in the brine at least 30 minutes to 
soak out blood diffused through the flesh. At the end of this time 
rinse in fresh water to remove surplus moisture, and drain for a 
few minutes. 

Each fish is dropped singly into a shallow box of fine salt and 
dredged thoroughly. The fish is picked up with as much salt as will 
cling to it, and packed in even layers in a box or tub. A small 
amount of salt may be scattered between each layer. The fish are 
left in salt from 1 to 12 hours, depending upon the weather, size of 
fish, fatness, length of time for which preservation is desired, and 
whether the fish are round or split. 

When the fish are taken out of the salt, they should be rinsed 
thoroughly. All visible particles of salt or other waste should be 
scrubbed off. They are hung to dry in the shade as described in 
dry-salting (page 220) of fish. An electric fan may be used if there is 
not enough breeze. The chicken-wire drying racks used in dry-salt- 
ing may be utilized if they are not exposed to direct sunlight. The 
fish will dry on both sides but the impression of the chicken wire 




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244 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



detracts from its appearance. The fish is dried until a thin skin, 
or pellicle, is formed on the surface. This should take about 3 hours 
under average conditions. If smoking is begun while the fish are 
still moist, the time required is longer, the color will not be as desir- 
able, the fish will not have as good a surface, and will steam and 
soften in smoking. 

Start a low, smoldering fire an hour or two before the fish are 
hung in the smokehouse. It must not give off too much smoke dur- 
ing the first 8 or 12 hours if the entire cure is 24 hours, or for the 
first 24 hours if the cure is longer. The temperature in the smoke- 
house should not be higher than 90°F. in California or the southern 
states, or 70°F. in the northern states. If available, a thermometer 
should be used in controlling smokehouse temperature; if not, a rule- 
of-thumb test is to insert a hand in the smokehouse and if the air 
feels distinctly warm, the temperature is too high. 

At the end of the first smoking process, a dense smoke may be 
built up and maintained for the balance of the cure. If the fish are 
to be kept for 2 weeks, they should be smoked for 24 hours, or for 
a longer time. Smoking may require 5 days or even more. Hard- 
smoked or red herring may require 3 or 4 weeks. 

Keep the fire low and steady; if hardwood sawdust is not avail- 
able, use chips and bark; they serve almost as well. The fire must 
not be allowed to die out at night. Do not build it up before leav- 
ing, as this will create too much heat. It must be tended regularly 
during the night. 




Fig. 200. Hanging fillets for smoking. 



Here is the best way to smoke fillets. Any white-fleshed, "lean" 
fish will produce fillets weighing more than 1 pound which are satis- 
factory for smoking. Cut the fish into fillets, removing the backbone 
and skin. Cover with a 90° brine (saturated salt solution) and hold 
for 2 hours. Remove and drain for 10 to 15 minutes and air-dry 
for 2 hours. Hang across a three-sided smokestick, each side about 

3 inches in width. Smoke over a fire with a fairly light smoke for 

4 hours at a temperature not higher than 90°F. Turn the fillets so 
that the side resting on the smokestick is uppermost and smoke 4 
hours longer. Smother the fire so that a dense cloud of smoke is 



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TESTING SMOKED MEAT 



245 



produced, and smoke until the fillets are a deep straw yellow, turn- 
ing the fillets once or twice so that both sides will be evenly colored. 
This operation should take about 6 hours. 



When the warm meat is removed from the smokehouse it should 
be tested for spoilage. Sourness and putrefaction can often be de- 
tected at this time, and often a taint will be noticeable a week or 
two after smoking. However, most of the meat that has safely 
passed through all the processes of curing and smoking m<iy be con- 
sidered sound. 

The instrument used to test smoked meats is called a "ham trier." 
It resembles an old-fashioned ice pick or a harness awl. A 10-inch 
skewer or brochette will serve the purpose, or a length of stiff wire 
pointed at one end. This gadget is run along the bone to the center 
of the ham from both hock and loin ends. In withdrawing the trier, 
smell it. If the odor is sweet and pleasant, the meat is sound. If, 
however, the trier carries an unpleasant sour odor, the piece should 
be cut open and examined carefully for spoilage. If there is a defi- 
nite odor of putrefaction it is best to destroy the entire piece. Shoul- 
ders are tried in the shank, at the shoulder point, and under the 
blade bone. 



Cured smoked meats are an important part of the home food sup- 
ply; consequently it is essential to protect and store them properly 
so they are in the best condition for future use. 

The objects sought in storing are protection from insects, control 
of molds, and the prevention of excessive drying and rancidity. Ex- 
cessive humidity and lack of ventilation are conducive to molding. 
Rancidity is attributable mainly to light. Lack of protection per- 
mits insect infestation. 

After the smoked meat has cooled, it is ready to be wrapped and 
stored. At this time, farmers, in particular, rub ground black pepper 
mixed with a little red pepper on the meat to add flavor. The meat 
is then well wrapped in parchment paper and put into muslin bags. 
The paper wrapping should be heavy enough to keep the fat from 
soaking the bottom of the bag. The top of the bag should be folded 
over and tied securely, a loop for hanging the meat being made in 
the outside tie string. Do not hang the meat by the string that is 
fastened to the meat as insects may enter the package along this 



Testing Smoked Meat 



Storing Cured and Smoked Meat 




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246 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



string. As a further protection against insects, the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture recommends painting each bag or sack with yellow 
wash before storing for future use. In preparing the yellow wash 
for 100 pounds of hams or bacon, use the following: 3 pounds of 
barium sulphate, I14 ounces yellow ocher, 1 ounce of glue (dry), 
and 6 ounces of flour. 

Fill a pail half full of water and mix in the flour, breaking up 
all the lumps thoroughly. Mix the ocher in a quart of water in a 
separate vessel, add the glue, and pour them into the flour-and-water 
mixture. Bring this mixture to a boil and add the barium sulphate 
slowly, stirring constantly. Make the wash the day before it is re- 
quired. Stir it frequently while using it and apply it with a brush. 
Lime, clay, flour, or a similar substance mixed with water to a 
rather thick consistency may also be used to paint the bags. 

The date for killing, curing, and smoking should be planned, if 
possible, so that the smoked meat can be bagged or put in an insect- 
proof place before the flies appear in the spring. Careful watch 
should be kept for insect infestation throughout the storage period. 

If the meat has been properly cured and smoked, it should store 
satisfactorily in a dry, dark, cool, well-ventilated place. Hams and 
shoulders stored in this manner will keep a year or longer. Storing 
cured smoked meats, especially hams, for long periods also develops 
a product that has unique characteristics and is highly regarded for 
its culinary value. During this period significant changes take place, 
which develop a most pleasurable taste sensation. With the excep- 
tion of a few special kinds, such as Virginia and Westphalia hams 
which are improved by one or two years' keeping, the best ham and 
bacon, other things being equal, are those which are freshest cured 
and smoked. 

Generally, mold will appear on "naked* ' or unwrapped hams and 
bacons; it is not a sign of poor quality or deterioration. In humid 
climates, mold may develop very rapidly on the meat but usually 
can be rubbed or trimmed off without serious loss. A light mold 
may be easily removed by rubbing with a cloth slightly moistened 
with sweet oil and lard. This application is sometimes desirable 
even when no mold appears, as it tends to prevent mold formation 
and gives the meat a bright, fresh appearance. Meat should be 
watched closely for evidence of mold penetration into the pieces. 
Once the mold works in between the muscles it injures the flavor. 

The shrinkage of dry-cured hams and shoulders just after being 
smoked will range from 8 to 15 per cent of the fresh weight. Brine- 
cured hams and shoulders will shrink from 3 to 8 per cent. The 
shrinkage of either may run from 15 to 30 per cent at the end of 
several months' storage. 




Original from 
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HOME CANNING 



247 



Bacon does not store as well as hams and shoulders and is usually 
most appetizing when freshly cured and smoked. 



Since ancient times foods have been preserved by various methods, 
such as drying, salting, and smoking; but it was not until early in 
the nineteenth century that canning was developed. Although can- 
ning principles are fundamentally the same for all foods, the meth- 
ods and equipment employed must be suited to each type if a safe 
and satisfactory pack is to be obtained. 

Canning is one of the most satisfactory methods yet developed for 
the preservation of perishable foods. Canning prevents the develop- 
ment of bacteria within the food and contamination from without. 

Beef, veal, lamb, pork, poultry, and fish may be canned success- 
fully in the home provided they are processed according to approved 
methods. Choice cuts may be canned in a number of ways to pre- 
serve their identities and to add variety to the canned meat prod- 
ucts. It is possible to can steaks, roasts, chops, ground beef, sausage, 
spareribs, dried beef, and liver, as well as meat for stews, meat pies, 
and other dishes. Canning chicken, beef, pork, rabbit, and other 
home produced meats gives the family a greater variety of meat dur- 
ing the year. Canned meat on the shelf is a real help when company 
arrives unexpectedly, and a good timesaver for busy days. 

Turkey, squab, other poultry, and small game should be canned 
like chicken. Can veal, lamb, mutton, and large game animals like 



All meat for canning should be handled in a strictly sanitary man- 
ner and completely chilled before cutting and canning. 

Frozen meat may be canned, but it does not make a high-quality 
product. If meat has become frozen, do not thaw it before canning. 
Cut or saw the meat into uniform strips 1 to 2 inches thick and 
plunge at once into boiling water. Simmer until the color of raw 
meat has almost disappeared, then pack and process. 

Utensils and Equipment. Meat may be canned successfully in the 
home only if it is processed under steam pressure. This means that 
the meat must be processed in a steam-pressure canner to insure per- 
fect safety. It requires a temperature of 240°F. for effective steriliza- 
tion; and this high temperature, which can be obtained only under 
steam pressure, is absolutely essential for canning meats safely. "If 
a steam pressure canner is not available," says the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, "other methods of preservation should be used for 
meats." Complete instructions for canning meats come with each 
pressure canner and one should become thoroughly familiar with 



Home Canning 



beef. 




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248 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



all the canning-machine working parts and all the specific directions 
and cautions. 

Be sure to have every utensil and piece of equipment perfectly 
clean. Leave everything thoroughly clean after the day's work. The 
best utensils for meat canning are of enamelware, aluminum, re- 
tinned metal, stainless metal, and porcelain. Copper or iron utensils 
may discolor meat, and meat allowed to remain in galvanized iron 
containers for more than 30 minutes may absorb harmful quantities 
of zinc. 

Cutting boards and table tops where meat has rested must be 
scrupulously clean. They need special treatment to keep bacteria 
under control, so scrape them, scrub with hot soapy water, and rinse 
with boiling water. Then disinfect, using a hypochlorite solution 
or a chloride-of-lime bleaching fluid diluted according to directions 
on the can. Let this stay on about half an hour; then wash off with 
scalding water. Do not let meat lie on linoleum. The cloths used 
should be rinsed with cool water to remove meat juices. They 
should then be washed in soapy hot water and boiled. Rinse in the 
same kind of disinfectant you use for wood. 

Containers for Canned Meats. Either tins or wide-top glass jars 
may be used in canning meats, but they must be of the type that 
can be sealed airtight to prevent the entrance or development of 
bacteria, yeasts, and molds. 

If tin cans are used, be sure you have a sealer in good working 
order. It should be properly adjusted. To test it put a little water 
into a can, seal it, then submerge the can in hot water for a few 
minutes. If air bubbles rise from around the lid of the can, the 
seam is not tight, and the sealer needs further adjusting. 

Use only plain tin cans for meat, preferably with paper gaskets. 
The sizes generally preferred are No. 2, which holds 2i/2 cups (20 
ounces); No. 21/4, 3i/£ cups (28 ounces); No. 3, about 4 cups (33 
ounces). 

Glass jars should be those made especially for canning, because 
others may not withstand the heat or the processing period. It is 
important that the glass jars be in good condition, with no nicked 
or chipped edges to prevent proper seal. New lids and jar rubbers 
should always be used in meat canning— the exception being the 
glass tops. 

There are four main types of glass jars suitable for preserving 
meat. These glass containers and how to manipulate them when 
canning and after canning are illustrated and described by the Bu- 
reau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, in the following manner: 



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Glass Jars and How to Use Them 




Porcelain 
lined 

screw cap 



Rubber 



Seals here 



Before filling the jar, fit a wet rubber 
ring down on the jar shoulder. Do not 
stretch more than needed. Fill jar. Par- 
tially seal by screwing lid down firmly 
tight and turning it back 14 inch. At the 
end of the processing period remove the 
jar from the water bath or pressure cooker 
and immediately screw the lid down tight 
to complete the seal. 




Metal 

screw band 




1 



± 



Before filling the jar, fit the wet rub- 
ber ring on the jar. Fill jar. Put on glass 
lid. Partially seal by pushing the long 
wire bail over top of lid, so it fits into 
groove. Leave short wire bail up. At the 
end of the processing period remove jar 
from the water bath or pressure cooker 
and immediately push short wire bail 
down to complete the seal. 



Before filling the jar, fit the wet rubber 
ring on the glass lid. Fill jar. Put lid on 
with rubber side down. Partially seal by 
screwing the deep metal band on firmly 
tight; then turn back a quarter of a turn 
but make sure it really catches. At the 
end of the processing period remove jar 
from the water bath or pressure cooker 
and immediately screw band down tight. 
When the jar is cold remove the screw 
band. 




Metal 

screw band 

Metal lid with 
sealing 
compound 

Seals here 



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Fill the jar. Dip metal lid in boiling 
water, place on top of the jar with sealing 
compound next to the glass. Screw shal- 
low metal band on firmly tight but not 
hard enough to cut through the com- 
pound. At the end of the processing pe- 
riod remove the jar from the pressure 
cooker or water bath. Do not tighten fur- 
ther unless the band is very loose, then 
hold the lid firmly while the band is tight- 
ened. When the jar is cold remove the 
screw band. 
249 



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250 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



Number of Glass Jars and Tin Cans Required. It is necessary to 
know approximately the yield of canned meat from fresh before 
one can approximate how many glass jars or tin cans will be re- 
quired to accommodate the meat. 

For a quart jar or No. 3 can, allow 1 about— 

5 to 5\/ 2 pounds of pork loin (untrimmed); 
5 to 5 1/2 pounds of beef rump (untrimmed); 
3 to 3 1/2 pounds of beef round (untrimmed); 
4i/2 to 514 pounds of chicken (dressed, undrawn) to be canned 
with bone; 

7 to 8 pounds of chicken (dressed, undrawn) to be canned 



Preparation of Meat for Canning. There are four general ways 
in which meat may be prepared for canning. It may be packed raw, 
hot (seared or boiled), cured, or smoked. 

Select the loin, roast cuts, steaks, or chops as the large pieces of 
meat to be canned. The less tender and smaller pieces are best for 
stew or soup meat. 

Trim the meat from the bones. Keep the bones to make broth 
or soup. Trim away most of the fat without slashing the lean. Re- 
member to cut the larger pieces, with the grain running lengthwise, 
into pieces that will slip into the glass jars or tin cans. The smaller 
pieces of stew meat are handled and processed just like the larger 
pieces. 

Raw Pack. Some prefer to salt meat in the canning, others add 
it later when the meat is being prepared for table. If salt is desired, 
a level teaspoonful may be put into the clean, empty pint jars or 
No. 2 cans; $/ 4 teaspoonful into No. 2]/ 2 cans; 1 teaspoonful in quart 
jars or No. 3 cans. 

Pack the containers with the raw, lean meat, leaving about 1 inch 
above the meat in glass jars; fill tin cans to the top; then set the 
open jars or cans in a large vessel with warm water about 2 inches 
below the rim of the jar or the can. Cover the vessel and heat the 
water at a slow boil until the meat in all the jars or cans is steaming 
hot and medium done. This requires about 50 minutes in tin cans 
and 75 minutes in glass jars. When a thermometer placed in the 
center of the jar or can registers 170°F., the meat is done. Press the 
meat down into the tin cans i/ 2 inch below the rims and add boiling 
water, if needed, to fill to the top. Adjust the lids on the glass jars 

1 Adapted from Home and Garden Bulletin No. 6, Home Canning of Meat, 
II. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



without bone. 




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251 




■ 

Fig. 201. Canning meat in large pieces. Select cuts commonly used for roasts, 
steaks, or chops. Trim away most of the fat without unduly slashing the lean. 
Too much fat makes meat hard to process. 




Fig. 202. Cut meat in can-length strips, so that grain of the meat runs the 
length of the can. Use small pieces and bits to fill space, or use them for stew 
meat, ground meat, or soup. Fill cans to top with strips of meat* 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 




Fig. 203. Insert thermometer to center of can. Meat is ready when temperature 
at center of can is 170° F. If no thermometer is available, cook meat until 

medium done, about 50 minutes. 




Fig. 204. Seal cans immediately, but follow directions that came with your sealer.. 



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HOME CANNING 



253 




Fig. 205. Remove cans with tongs or thick cloth and cool at once in clean, cold 
water— preferably running water— until cans are lukewarm. 




Fig. 206. Dry cans quickly to prevent rust. Stagger them as you stack the cans, 

to hasten cooling. 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



(page 249); seal the tin cans. Process at once in the steam-pressure 
canner at 10 pounds pressure (240 °F.) 



Hot Pack. Beef, veal, pork, lamb, and venison may be seared 
before canning. The time required to sear these meats depends 
upon their size and thickness. Steaks 2 inches thick will take about 
15 minutes; other pieces require more or less time in proportion 
to their thickness. Roasts, meat loaves, sausage patties, steaks, and 
chops should be seared without flour until they are light brown on 
the surface and heated through thoroughly. Floured meat causes a 
thick, hard crust which retards heat penetration and often gives the 
meat a charred, inferior flavor. Lamb and mutton should have 
most of the fat removed and can be seared in bacon drippings, lard, 
or butter. Care should be taken not to brown the meat too much 
or burn it. Additional browning can be done when the meat is 
reheated for serving. 

Heat the fat in a roasting pan or skillet and sear meat quickly on 
all sides to prevent the loss of juice during cooking. Add salt, pep- 
per, and other seasoning to taste. Add boiling water to the fat in 
the pan. Turn and baste the meat frequently until nicely browned 
and heated through. Pack the hot meat into the containers solidly. 
Leave above 1 inch above meat for head space in glass jars; i/ 2 inch 
in tin cans. Add 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of liquid from the searing 
pan. Again leave 1 inch at the top of glass jars for head space; fill 
tin cans to the top. Work out the air bubbles with a knife and add 
more liquid, if necessary, to cover the meat. Adjust the lids on glass 
jars and seal tin cans. Process at once in the steam-pressure cooker 
at 10 pounds pressure (240°F.) 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2i/ 2 and No. 3 cans. 90 min. 

Meat may also be boiled before canning. Cut the raw meat into 
serving portions. Put it into a stew pot and barely cover with boil- 
ing water. Simmer for 10 or 15 minutes until completely heated 
through. Do not use any more water than necessary. All that is 
required is a sufficient quantity with the meat to fill the containers. 
It is not necessary to cook the meat tender, as the canning process 
will complete the cooking. 

Pack the meat firmly into the cans and fill up all the spaces be- 
tween the meat with the liquid in which the meat was boiled. Add 
seasoning and seal at once. Then process in the steam-pressure can- 
ner as previously given for hot pack. 



Pint jars . 
Quart jars 



75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

90 min. No. 2]/ 2 and No. 3 cans. 90 min. 




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255 



Ground meat may be packed either by the raw or hot process. 
Small pieces of clean, fresh, cold lean meat can be ground. Do not 
add any lump of fat in grinding. If desired, add 1 level teaspoon of 
salt per pound of ground meat and mix thoroughly. 

For raw pack, fill the tin cans with the ground meat, level with 
the top. It is difficult to get the canned ground meat out of glass 
jars when packed this way. Place the open cans in a large vessel 
with water about 2 inches below the can rim. Cover the vessel and 
heat at slow boil until meat in all the cans is steaming hot and 
medium done. This requires about 75 minutes or until center of 
the can registers 170°F. Press the meat down into the cans about 
i/ 2 inch below the rim. Seal the tin cans and process at once in the 
steam-pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure (240°F.). 

No. 2 cans 100 min. 

No. 2 ]/ 2 an d No. 3 cans. . . 135 min. 

Prepare fresh sausage as directed on page 273, or use any tested 
sausage recipe, but omit seasoning, except salt and pepper. Sage and 
other herbs give the meat a bitter taste after processing. Shape the 
sausage meat into fairly thin cakes that can be packed in the con- 
tainers without breaking. Put the cakes in a baking pan and pre- 
cook them in the oven until medium done. Pack hot. Proceed as 
directed for ground meat, hot packed. 

Canning Corned Beef. After corned beef is cured it can be pre- 
pared for canning. Wash the meat and cut into pieces suited for 
packing. Place the pieces of corned beef in a kettle, cover with cold 
water, and bring slowly to a boil. If the broth tastes very salty, drain 
and cover the meat *vith fresh water and parboil again. Pack 
the pieces of hot meat ip glass jars and leave about 1 inch above the 
meat for head space; l^^inch in tin cans. Cover the meat with the 
hot broth or hot water, using about \/ 2 to % cup for each quart 
container. Leave 1 inch for head space in jars and fill the cans to 
the top. Then work out all the air bubbles with a knife and add 
more liquid, if needed, to cover the meat. Be sure to leave 1 inch 
head space in jars and fill cans to the top. Adjust the lids on jars 
(page 249); seal tin cans. Process at once in the steam-pressure 
canner at 10 pounds pressure (240°F.). 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars .90 min. No. 2\/ 2 and No. 3 cans. 90 min. 

Many excellent recipes for canning meats, such as beef-vegetable 
stew, pork and beans with sauce, baked beans with pork, and many 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



others including soup stock, are given in Home and Garden Bulletin 
No. 6, Home Canning of Meat, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

Poultry. Chicken, turkey, and other domestic and wild fowl, as 
as well as rabbit, squirrel, muskrat, and ground hog, are all canned 
successfully at home. Canning provides a good way to use the cock- 
erels and nonlaying hens, as well as stewing chickens. The direc- 
tions for killing and plucking fowl have been given previously in 
Chapter XI. The plucked bird is washed and wiped immediately 
with a damp cloth. Do not soak it in water. Instead of drawing 
the bird, cut away the edible portions from the carcass. 

With a sharp knife, cut off the wings and the legs at the joint 
next to the body. Pulling on the wing or the leg while cutting will 
aid in disjointing the bird. Turn the bird on its side and make a 
cut beginning at the end of the breastbone along the side on a line 
with the ends of the ribs. Do not make the cut so deep as to cut 
into the body cavity and puncture the entrails. Turn the bird over 
and cut the other side in a similar manner. Now lay the bird on 
its back and break the backbone. Cut around the vent and remove 
the entrails. Save the giblets. Carefully remove the gall bladder 
from the liver without breaking it or the meat will get contaminated 
and taste bitter. Remove lungs and kidneys, also cut out the oil 
sack in the tail head. Discard these with the entrails. To remove the 
breast meat from the bone, cut straight down between the wishbone 
and the point of breast. Leave the meat attached to the breastbone. 
Now remove the breast meat from the center bone by cutting down 
the side of the breast. Leave the bone in the other meaty pieces. 
Cut the legs into drumsticks and second joints. Saw or chop drum- 
sticks off short, if desired. As you cut, trim off the large lumps of 
fat. Sort the pieces into three piles— meaty pieces, bony pieces, and 
giblets. The bony pieces are used to make broth which will be 
needed later. Cover these pieces with water and simmer until the 
meat is tender. 

Drain broth into a bowl and skim off the fat. Remove the meat 
from the bones and, if desired, can as little pieces. 

Hot Pack With Bone. Place the pieces of chicken to be canned 
in a cooking pan and pour the hot broth or hot water over the meat. 
The liquid should almost cover it. Cover the pot with a lid and 
precook the meat. Stir or shake the pot occasionally so the meat 
will heat and cook evenly. Cook until the meat is medium done, 
or when cut, shows no pink color at the center of the pieces. 




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HOME CANNING 



257 



If salt is desired, put level measure into clean empty containers: 
i/ 2 teaspoonful in pint jar or No. 2 can; $/ 4 teaspoonful in No. 2]/ 2 
can; 1 teaspoonful in quart jar or No. 3 can. Pack the second joints 
and drumsticks with the skin next to the glass or tin. Fit the breast 
meat into the center and the smaller pieces in vacant spaces where 
needed. Leave about 1 inch above the meat for head space in the 
glass jars and \/ 2 inch in the tin cans. Cover the meat with the hot 
broth and leave 1 inch for head space in the jars and fill the tin 
cans to the top. Work out all the air bubbles with a knife and 
then add more liquid to cover the meat if necessary. Be sure to 
leave 1-inch head space in the jars and fill the tin cans to the top. 
Now adjust the lids on the glass jars (page 249) and seal the tin 
cans. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds 
pressure (240 °F.). 

Pint jars 65 min. No. 2 cans 55 min. 

Quart jars 75 min. No. 2i/ 2 and No. 3 cans. 75 min. 

Hot Pack Without Bone. The procedure for this process is prac- 
tically the same as for hot-packed poultry with bone, except the 
bone is removed and the skin is left with the meat. Boning can be 
done while the meat is raw or after precooking. Boned poultry 
requires longer processing in the steam-pressure canner than poultry 
with bone. Process bone poultry at 10 pounds pressure (240°F.). 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2]/ 2 and No. 3 cans. 90 min. 

Raw Pack, With Bone. Bone the fowl in the same manner as di- 
rected for hot pack with bone. If salt is desired, use the quantity of 
salt recommended; also pack the pieces of meat in the containers 
in the same way. Now set the open jars or cans in a large vessel con- 
taining warm water about 2 inches below the tops of the containers. 
Cover the vessel and heat at a slow boil until the meat in all the 
containers is steaming hot and medium done. This requires about 
50 minutes in tin cans and 75 minutes in glass jars. If you have a 
thermometer, place it in the center of the container, and when it 
registers 170°F. the meat is heated sufficiently. Adjust the lids on 
the glass jars (page 249) and seal the tin cans. Process at once in the 
steam-pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure (240°F.). 

Pint jars 65 min. No. 2 cans 55 min. 

Quart jars 75 min. No. 2i/£ and No. 3 cans. 75 min. 




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258 PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 




Fig. 207. Pour hot broth or hot water over the pieces of raw chicken in a cooking 

pan, almost covering them. 




Fig. 208. Pack second joints and drumsticks with skin next to glass; breast in 
center of jar; smaller pieces fitted in. 



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HOME CANNING 259 




Fig. 209. Put on glass lid so groove on top is at right angles to bail. Push long 
wire bail over lid into groove. Leave short wire loose. Work quickly. 




Fig. 210. Return each jar into canner as soon as it is filled and sealed. Be sure 
that the proper amount of water is in the canner so it will not boil dry and be 

damaged. Fasten lid securely. 



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i 



260 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



Raw Pack, Without Bone. Proceed as directed for raw-packed 
poultry with bone, but remove the bone and leave the skin with 
the meat. Pack the pieces. Boned chicken requires longer process- 
ing in the steam-pressure canner than chicken with bone, so process 
at 10 pounds pressure (240°F.). 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2]/ 2 and No. 3 cans. 90 min. 

Giblets. Giblets, livers, hearts, and gizzards can be canned success- 
fully, but it is good practice to can the livers separately. In this 
way the taste will be preserved more perfectly. Gizzards and hearts 
may be canned together. Chicken giblets with white turnips, chicken 
liver saute, en brochette, chicken liver omelet, giblet soup, giblet 
stew, and giblet pie are only a few tasty and unusual dishes, not to 
mention dressings and gravies that can be made from these tasty 
by-products. 

Clean the giblets thoroughly and wash them well in cold water. 
Put them in a cooking pot and cover with chicken broth or hot 
water. Cover the pot with a lid and precook the giblets until 
medium done. Shake the pot or stir frequently while cooking. If 
salt is desired, put level measure into clean, empty containers. In 
the average family, giblets are canned in such small quantities that 
only pint jars and No. 2 cans are considered. Here again, if salt is 
desired, put a level measure into the clean empty containers: 1 tea- 
spoon in a pint jar or No. 2 can. Pack the giblets hot and leave 
about 1 inch above the meat in the glass jars for head space and \/ 2 
inch in the tin cans. Cover the giblets with hot broth or hot water. 
Leave 1 inch for head space in jars and fill the tin cans to the top. 
Adjust the lids on the glass jars (page 249) and seal the tin cans. 
Then process in the steam-pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240°F.) . 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Small Game. Wild rabbits constitute the largest, cheapest, and 
most generally available supply of game in the United States. More 
of them are taken each season by hunters and trappers than any 
other species of game, large or small. 

Abundant most everywhere, shot for sport or market, and free 
from nonsale restrictions in many states, they form an important 
item of food supply. Squirrels are one of the most widely hunted 
of the smaller game animals. Rabbit and squirrel meat, if properly 
prepared, is truly delicious. Woodchuck is also good eating, believe 




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HOME CANNING 



261 



it or not, as is opossum and raccoon. All this game meat, including 
quail and pheasant can be prepared and canned the same way as 
chicken, with or without bone- 1 

Fishery Products. There is an ever-increasing number of home- 
makers who find it advantageous to can seafoods. The information 
given here is for the guidance of all who desire to can such foods 
in the home. Methods that are simple, practical, and safe have 
been developed for the more important varieties of seafoods that 
are suitable for canning. Only by adhering to these methods and 
applying uniform workmanship will the homemaker bring forth a 
product that will be welcomed at the family table. 

The equipment necessary is practically the same as that required 
for canning meats. Here, again, it must be emphasized that under 
no circumstances should any fishery product be canned unless a 
pressure canner is used. It is impossible to process thoroughly by 
any other means. Keep in mind also that the temperature-pressure- 
time relationships recommended for processing each product must 
be adhered to if a safe and satisfactory product is to be obtained. 

A wide-mouth jar with a short neck, 1 pint capacity, is best for 
most fishery products. The type with a glass top that fits down on 
a rubber ring and is sealed with a wire clamp is satisfactory. There 
is always a chance of some breakage occurring with the glass tops. 
Jars of the self- or vacuum-sealing type, fitted with enameled metal 
tops edged with an inner composition gasket, are regarded as pref- 
erable to all other types. They are somewhat more expensive because 
the caps are not reusable. 

Tin cans are used extensively for home canning of fishery prod- 
ucts, especially on the Pacific Coast. Best results are obtained if 
such products are packed in plain tin cans. Enamel-lined cans are 
not satisfactory. Cans have some disadvantages in comparison with 
glass jars, but they also have points in their favor. Glass jars cost 
more than tin cans, but the jars can be used over and over. The 
reuse of tin cans is dangerous and should not be practiced. In con- 
tinuous service, therefore, the jars will prove the more economical. 
The advantages of tin cans are that the product cannot be light- 
struck, as may happen with glass jars. Cans are lighter than glass 
jars and easier to handle, and there is no danger of breakage. Final 
choice depends upon the individual. Perhaps a large quantity of 
glass jars are on hand, if so, it would not be economical to purchase 
a supply of cans. If, however, no containers are on hand and the 

1 Cooking Wild Game, by Frank G. Ashbrook and Edna N. Sater, Orange Judd 
Publishing Company, New York, N. Y. 




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262 



PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



plan is to pack large quantities, then the relative merits of the 
two types of containers should be considered carefully before mak- 
ing a selection. 

Machines are required for sealing the covers on tin cans after 
they are exhausted and put into the pressure-canner. These sealers 
for home use are adjustable to various size cans. 

The cans recommended for packing fish products at home vary 
from half-flat to the No. 2 can. The larger sizes are not suitable 
for home canning. Information on the various sizes of tin cans 
suitable for home canning of fishery products are given in the fol- 
lowing table: 



Specifications of, and Uses for, the Various Sizes of Standard Cans 



Common 
designation 


Can size 


Can makers' 
designation 


Dimensions 
(inches) 


Capac- 
ity 
(fl. oz.) 2 


Con- 
tents 
(cups) 


Recommended 
use 


Half-flat . . 


No. i/ 2 


307 x 202i/ 2 




9 


1 


Minced clams 
and tuna- 
style packs 


Eastern 
oyster . . . 


No. 1 


211 x400 


2%x4 


11 


1/3 




Tall salmon 


Xo. 1 tall 


301 x 411 


3i/ 1G x 4i% fl 


17 


2 




Pint 


No, 2 


307 x 409 


37/ 16 x 4% G 


21 


2i/ 2 









1 Adapted from Conservation Bulletin 28, Home Canning of Fishery Products, 
U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

2 The capacity as given indicates the approximate contents in terms of fluid 
ounces and is not a recommended fill. 



Procuring Raw Fish 

Studies by the Fish and Wildlife Service, U, S. Department of the 
Interior, indicate that fish purchased at average wholesale prices 
make the cost of home-canned products higher than those canned 
commercially. A saving is made only when the raw material is 
brought in by the members of the family and no outlay of money 
is involved, or when it is obtained at prices well below wholesale- 
Surplus catches of noncommercial fishermen are one of the best 
sources of raw material for the home canner. Only the freshest of 
fish should be canned. 

How to handle, transport, inspect, dress and wash fish for preser- 
vation have been discussed in Chapter XII and previously in this 
chapter. 



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263 



Even if the fish are cleaned when caught, they still require further 
cleaning and washing before canning. Naturally the fins must be 
removed, the fish scraped free of scales and slime, the heads and 
tails cut off, and any remaining bits of viscera or membranes cleaned 
from the cavity. After the fish have been thoroughly washed in fresh 
water, the color of the flesh usually can be improved by soaking 15 
to 60 minutes in a light brine, made in the proportion of one-half 
cup of salt to 1 gallon of water. This drains diffused blood out of 
the flesh. Use only water of drinking quality in canning fish. 



Some fish are packed raw, with no preparation other than cutting 
into container-length pieces. Others are precooked for a short time 
before they are packed. Precooking removes excess moisture, thus 
making the canned product firmer, makes packing easier, helps to 
create a vacuum, and eliminates the exhausting. The time required 
for processing is also shortened. Containers should be prepared as 
previously directed under the various discussions of glass jars and 
cans. 

Raw-packed fish should be put into the containers flush with the 
rim. The shrinkage occurring during processing will create sufficient 
head space. If space is left below the rim, the space in the processed 
can will be excessive and the container will be underfilled. This 
will permit the contents to break up and become mushy when 
moved. For precooked fish, the head space allowed is % 6 of an inch 
from the top. 

Precooked fish packed into tin cans when hot and sealed immedi- 
ately, need not be exhausted, because the shrinkage of the product 
in cooling creates sufficient vacuum. Exhaust before sealing is nec- 
essary only for cold-filled, raw-pack, or precooked fishery products 
in tin containers. Products packed in glass, however, need not be 
put through an exhaust process. Exhaust will occur during process- 
ing, because the containers are not then completely sealed. 

After the tin cans are exhausted and before they are put into the 
pressure canner the covers must be sealed on the cans. The princi- 
ple of operation is the same as that for meat canning, and the direc- 
tions that accompany the can-closing machine should be carefully 
and completely followed. This also applies to the steam-pressure 
canner instructions on processing in both glass and tin containers. 

All containers must be cooled as rapidly as practicable after 
processing; otherwise the stored-up heat will continue the cooking 
and the contents will be over-cooked. Plunge the tin cans into cold 



How to Pack the Container 




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Labeling. Label each glass jar and tin can that has passed in- 
spection so that you will know the contents and date. If more than 
one lot of food has been canned during the day, add a lot number. 

To fasten paper labels on tin, use rubber cement; or if the labels 
are long enough, put glue along one end and wrap the label 
smoothly around the can and lap the glued end over the other. Oc- 
casionally, a tin can packed too full will bulge at the ends after 
processing has been completed. Such a can should be marked to 
distinguish it from one that may bulge later because of food spoilage. 




Fig. 211. Label plainly each good glass jar or tin can so you will know the con- 
tents and date. If more than one lot was canned in a day, add the lot number. 



Storing. Canned food should be stored in a cool place, as heat 
will increase the loss of color, flavor, and food value, and may cause 
flat-sour or other kinds of spoilage. Make sure the canned food will 
not be kept warm by a chimney, hot pipes, or a stove. It should be 
stored in a dry place, as dampness may cause rusting of lids and 
favors mold growth. Light causes food to fade and lose quality, 
so glass jars should be protected from light. Freezing softens food. 
But unless the freezing cracks the jars or breaks the seal the product 
will continue to keep. 



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A good sturdy shelf, with ample space, should be provided for 
home canned foods. A good plan is to build the shelves so that the 
jars are only two deep and can be handled easily. The jars and cans 
can be arranged on the shelf in the order in which they are to be 
used. This will simplify the planning of meals and distribute the 
use of the canned food through the yean 

Most canned fishery products require 2 or 3 months in storage to 
ripen properly; that is, to allow sufficient time for complete absorp- 
tion of the salt and other seasoning substances. 

Using Home Canned Food. Before opening any jar or tin can, 
examine it thoroughly. Bulging covers or rubber rings, gas bubbles, 
or leakage evident on a glass jar may indicate spoilage. Press the 
end of the tin can. Neither end should bulge or snap back, unless 
the can was sprung when processed. Both ends should look flat and 
curved slightly inward. Seams should be tight and clean, with no 
sign of leaks. 




Fig. 212- Cured tongue slightly smoked is a popular cold cut. 



When you open a jar or tin can there should be no outburst or 
sucking in of air or sputtering of liquid. Always smell the food as 
soon as the jar is opened. The odor should be characteristic of the 
product. Note any off-odor and look carefully for any signs of off- 
color, mold, or softening of the meat. These are signs of spoilage. 
A tin can should be smooth and clean inside and show very little 
corrosion. If a metal cap of a jar or tin can has turned dark inside, 
this is not harmful. The sulphur from the meat caused this. The 
broth over the meat may or may not be jellied. If it is liquid, this 
is not a sign of spoilage. 



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PRESERVING MEAT, FOWL, AND SEAFOOD 



It is possible for meat to contain botulinus poison without show- 
ing it, but it can usually be identified by a bad odor when the meat 
is heated. So as a safety precaution before tasting, turn out the meat 
into a pan, add a little water if needed, cover the pan and boil 
twenty minutes before adding any other ingredients. If any meat 
smells queer after this, destroy it without tasting. Spoiled meat and 
fish should be burned to eliminate the possibility of it being eaten 
by chickens and animals. If the meat is good and not to be used 
at once after it has been boiled, chill it immediately in a refrig- 
erator. 




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MEAT PRODUCTS AND 



BY-PRODUCTS 



Because there are so many kinds of meat and so many ways to 
prepare it, we can have just as much variety as we want. 

Aside from the standard cuts there are heads, tails, feet, hocks, 
trimmings, internal organs, blood, and fat that can be utilized in 
making sausages, puddings, scrapple, headcheese, pickled pigs' feet, 
pickled and smoked tongue, dried beef, and meat loaf. Many of 
these products require no further cooking, for they can be served 
as cold cuts. Others must be grilled, fried, or boiled before they are 
served. 

Commercially in the large packing houses these products are made 
exclusively of trimmings, scraps, and hard-to-sell irregular cuts of 
meat and other parts of the carcass not included in the standard cuts. 

When the family's meat supply is prepared at home, certain 
primary whole cuts can be used efficaciously and, with care and 
attention, the result is a choicer meat delicacy instead of a means of 
using scraps. Many of these easy-to-make specialties require very 
little preparation. 



To most people the term "sausage" means ground pork. Really 
it means any ground or chopped meat. Technically, sausage is a 
mixture of minced meat or meats seasoned, spiced, and stuffed into 
casings which originally consisted of the intestines of hogs, sheep, 
or cattle— sheep being most tender. The stuffed casing is tied shut 
usually at short intervals to form a string of plump cylindrical sec- 
tions with rounded ends. Some kinds are used fresh and can be 
prepared for the table by grilling, frying, and boiling. Other 
sausages, not classed as fresh meat, are boiled, smoked, or boiled 



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MEAT PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS 



and smoked, or air dried. Some of these can be eaten as cold cuts 
without any further preparation, while others require further cook- 
ing to make them palatable. 



Pudding is a variety of sausage also made of spiced, minced meats 
and edible entrails mixed with cereal, blood, milk, suet, shredded 
onions, eggs, breadcrumbs, and other ingredients. The mixture is 
stuffed into a casing, tied shut at both ends, and boiled directly 
after it is made. The puddings are then kept in a cool place and, 
before serving, they may be boiled again or grilled. 

Pudding making had its greatest modern development in Eng- 
land, Scotland, and France. Boudins or boudins noir, or black pud- 
dings as they are called in England and in some parts of Scotland, 
are made of hogs' blood, shredded suet, dried oatmeal, and minced 
onions with plenty of pepper and salt added. Seasoning varies in 
different localities. In some sections of England, coriander and cara- 
way are preferred; in others, major am and thyme. In France, beet- 
root and garlic are favorites; in Spain, fennel; in Germany, thyme 
and majoram; whereas sage is a predominate favorite in the United 
States. 




Fig. 213. Meat should be cold when it is ground, Cleancut 
meat assures fine texture. 




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Strange as it may seem, sausages and puddings are age-old meat 
products, dating back to the time of the ancient Greeks. As long 
ago as the fifth century B.C., Aristophanes makes an allusion in his 
comedy The Clouds, "Let them make sausages of me and serve me 
up to the students." And then later, a.d. 288, in the oldest cookbook 
that has come down to us Diepnosophists, Athenaeus says, "Epi- 
charmus mentions sausages, calling them oryae, a name by which 
he even entitles one of his plays the Orya." 

Hundreds of years later in Europe we find the highest peak of 
development and appreciation of sausage and pudding making. 
Originally these meat products were made to preserve fresh meat, 
and salt and spices were added. Historically, Germany, Austria, 
Italy, Czechoslovakia, and other European countries vied with one 
another in their various varieties of sausages. 

The Germans have been among the largest consumers of sausage 
and have developed many kinds, the names of which often end in 
wurst, meaning sausage. Thus we have wienerwurst, liverwurst, 
bockwurst, and mettwurst. 

The delicious flavor of sausage appeals to the entire family alike; 
consequently sausage has grown in popularity. Because of its palata- 
bility and economy, sausage is a popular item in our diet, and its 
use in our country is increasing. Of all meats produced commer- 
cially, about one pound in eight is eaten as sausage. In 1952, we 
consumed li/ 2 billion pounds of federally inspected sausage. 

Preparing Sausage. Sausage of superior quality is one of the most 
palatable of pork products. Good sausage is indeed a wholesome 
food and is easy to make. Whether you make a few pounds or many 
pounds, your sausage will always be appetizing if you exercise a 
little patience and follow carefully the directions given here. 

There are many kinds of sausage varying according to the kind 
of meat or combination of meats used; whether cooked or uncooked; 
fresh or cured; the character and combination of spices and herbs; 
whether or not cereals have been added; the style of casing; whether 
natural or artificial; or where cloth is used, with or without a para- 
ffin covering. 

Fresh sausages are made from fresh, uncured meat. They are not 
precooked and usually not smoked; consequently their keeping qual- 
ities are no better than those of ground fresh meat. Pork sausage, 
either in bulk or in link stuffed into casings, is the most popular 
fresh sausage. Smoked-pork sausage, bockwurst, bratwurst, and fresh 
thuringer are other types. Fresh sausages comprise only a small 
percentage of the total amount of sausages consumed. Fresh sausages 
are cooked before eating. 




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Cooked sausages are made of meat that has been given a light cure 
or marinade before grinding and chopping. Such sausages are 
cooked and usually smoked. Their keeping qualities are much 
better than fresh sausages. The frankfurter, also known as the 
wiener or "hot dog," is the most popular of the cooked sausages. 
These are cooked and smoked— also cooked before serving. Bologna 
sausage is quite similar and is a close second in popularity. Braun- 
schweiger liverwurst is also stuffed into casings and cooked and 
smoked. Both these sausages are sliced and eaten as cold cuts. 

Dry or "summer" sausages, such as salami and cervelat, are not 
generally made in the home, because in many sections of the coun- 
try the humidity is excessively high and the sausage does not dry 
out. Therefore, it is likely to be green in the center when cut 
because it is not thoroughly dried before smoking. 

Good sausage makers prefer to use the shoulders, loins, hams, and 
the bacon strips along with the pork trimmings. Sausage, however, 
is usually made from the pork trimmings alone. In order to pro- 
duce sausage that will keep and be of good quality, it is necessary to 
use fresh meat that is in good condition, this also applies to sausages 
that require the meat to be cured. Be sure to use only the meat that 
has been thoroughly cooled and in good condition, free from soiled 
or bloody portions. Only materials of superior quality should be 
used. This is also true of the spices, herbs, and other ingredients 
used in making sausages. 

Trim all of the meat from the bones and then trim out all the 
gristle and blood clots. Cold meat makes trimming easier. Now cut 
the meat into strips and then into small cubes. Cut both the fat 
and lean in this manner, but keep them separate. The next step is 
to weigh the fat and lean meat separately. Then mix together in 
the proportion called for in the sausage recipe. After the meat is 
weighed, the general practice is to mix the fat and lean together 
in the proportion specified and apply the seasoning for the total 
amount of meat. Then mix the seasoning and meat together before 
grinding. As the meat is ground, the seasoning will be thoroughly 
mixed and blended with it. The meat should be cold when it is 
ground, for this makes the nicest sausage. 

A good sausage grinder with stuffer spout and equipped with four 
plates, having %-; %-; %g"J anc ^ %-inch holes, certainly facilitates 
making sausage. With this equipment you have a choice, when 
grinding, of coarse- or fine-cut sausage. Most people prefer coarsely 
ground to finely ground meat in loose or bulk sausage. This per- 
tains chiefly to an all-pork sausage or a pork-and-beef combination 




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when it is used for patties or molded and sliced for cooking. If 
the meat is ground too fine, it has a tendency to become hard and 
dry in cooking. In either case, too much fat causes a large cooking 
loss; while not enough fat will make the sausage hard, dry, and diffi- 
cult to brown. 

For coarse-cut sausage, use the cutting plate with the standard 
%o"i nc h holes and run it through the grinder once. For a fine-cut 
sausage, run the meat through the grinder twice, the first time using 
the cutting plate with large %-inch holes, and the second time using 
the plate with the standard % 6 -inch holes. If a still finer cut is 
desired, a %-inch hole plate may be used for the second grinding. 

If sausage is run through the grinder twice, it should stand over- 
night in a cool place between the first and second grindings. This 
will prevent the meat from becoming heated by being ground twice 
in succession. It will also give the seasoning a chance to permeate 
the meat and will insure better flavor. Remember that, in cutting 
meat for sausage, the cutting knife and plate on the grinder must be 
sharp and the meat cool. A dull knife and plate will crush out the 
meat juices and result in inferior sausage. 

Small quantities of loose or bulk sausage for immediate use may 
be kept in a crock or jar in the refrigerator or where it is cool. If it 
is to be kept for a longer period, it should be molded into patties 
and partially fried. The sausage is then placed in stone crocks and 
covered with melted lard. 

Fresh pork sausage made of beef and pork, or mutton and pork, 
and headcheese may be used without being stuffed into casings. 
Nevertheless, these so-called fresh sausages are also stuffed into cas- 
ings. Sausages similar to liver sausage and Bologna-style sausage 
should be stuffed into casings. 

Pork casings are excellent for stuffing sausage when properly 
cleaned and handled. For small link sausage, however, use sheep 
casings. For medium link sausage, use medium sheep casings or 
narrow hog casings. For large link or country-style sausage, use 
regular hog casings. Beef casings are too tough to use for sausage. 
Bundles or sets of salted casings may be purchased from many local 
butchers. Several types of manufactured casings are also on the 
market. Animal casings should be soaked for several minutes in 
warm water and then flushed out immediately before being used. 
Sausage may also be stuffed in muslin bags. These can be made by 
stitching strips of muslin to form bags about 2 to 2]/ 2 inches in 
diameter and about 12 to 15 inches long. Muslin casings should be 
dipped in water and wrung out before they are used. After being 
chilled, these stuffed bags are usually dipped in paraffin. 




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In stuffing, first attach the stuffer spout and force enough sausage 
into it to fill the spout. Now slip the casing over the spout and 
feed on as much as it will hold. If a muslin casing is used, pull 
the closed end of the casing up tightly against the end of the stuffing 
tube. These precautions will prevent the formation of air pockets 
in the casing. 

To stuff sausage efficiently and successfully, the meat specialists of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture recommend that the operator 
support the casing at the end of the stuffer with the first finger of 
his left hand while he turns the crank with his right hand. Pressing 
upward with the left forefinger and raising the stuffed casing above 
the end of the stuffer spout will pack the casing more tightly, 
thereby eliminating air pockets. Animal casings are cut after the 
proper-sized ring or length has been stuffed and a new length is then 
begun. 




Fig. 214. Force sausage into stuffer spout. Slip casing over the spout and start 
filling casing; put in as much as it will hold. 



To tie the casings, the meat specialists advise driving a tenpenny 
nail into the far corner of the table and fasten to it one end of a 
stout, soft, white string 3 feet long. Grasp both cut ends of the cas- 



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277 



ing, for example, a ring sausage or pudding, in the left hand and tie 
them together with two half-hitches of the string. Tie the first ring 
near the nail and each succeeding one a little farther down the 
string. When the string is full, cut it free and attach a new one. 




Fig. 215. Some popular varieties of sausage— country style, sausage meat, and 

breakfast links. 



Fresh Pork Sausage 

Fresh pork sausage is undoubtedly the favorite in the farm home 
and is made more often there than in any other home. That is why 
the all-pork ground-meat product is called "country sausage." It is 
made of fresh pork about one-third fat and two-thirds lean. More 
fat will make the sausage too rich and in cooking there will be con- 
siderable shrinkage or cooking loss. Less fat will make the sausage 
rather hard and dry. 

For the beginner, it is recommended that a small quantity of 
sausage be made as a test of the recipe and the family's taste. After 
all, more or less salt, pepper, or sage may be desired and this can be 
determined by first experimenting with a small quantity of meat. 
The following recipe is suggested as a family test. 



4 pounds pork (% fat and % 

lean) 

5 level teaspoons salt 

4 level teaspoons ground sage 
2 level teaspoons ground black 
pepper 



y 2 level teaspoon ground cloves 
or 

1 level teaspoon ground nut- 
meg 

1 teaspoon sugar 



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The meat may have been cut too fine or too coarse. It may be de- 
sirable to omit the cloves, the nutmeg, or perhaps the sage; or just 
omit the cloves and nutmeg and increase the sage. Maybe less salt 
and pepper are preferable. It is all a matter of taste, and this is 
essentially a try out. 

Fresh seasonings, mixed in the proper proportions, are required 
to produce a delicious flavor in sausage. The herbs, peppers, and 
other condiments must have retained a considerable portion of 
their essential oils in order that their characteristic aromas will 
permeate the meat. To simplify the seasoning of sausage and insure 
the same delicious flavor every time, Morton Salt Company has 
prepared a complete mixture of spices, sage, peppers, and other sea- 
soning ingredients blended with salt in exactly the right proportions 
to make delicious sausage. This mix is ready to use as you obtain 
it, and you do not have to add or mix any other ingredients. If you 
like a well-seasoned sausage or prefer one of mild seasoning you 
simply use Morton's sausage seasoning as directed. 

So, grind, season, and mix your sausage as you like it. That is 
one of the many advantages derived from preparing meat products 
at home. 

For 100 pounds of pork trimmings and meat one-third fat and 
two-thirds lean, use the following: 

iy 4 pounds of salt i/ 2 to 1 ounce of red pepper 

2 to 4 ounces of ground sage 1/2 to 1 ounce ground cloves, or 

2 to 4 ounces of ground black 1 ounce of ground nutmeg 



12 ounces of sugar may also be included if the sausage is to be 
used reasonably soon. 

The seasoning should be spread over the mixture of fat and lean 
meat, and the whole quantity ground as previously described. If 
the sausage is to be put into casings, it should be stuffed immedi- 
ately after the last grinding. It should then be soft enough to pack 
tightly in the casings without the addition of cold water. It may 
be fried and preserved in lard or canned. 

To make bulk sausage that will slice and fry without crumbling, 
add a half cup of cold water to each 4 pounds of the ground sea- 
soned sausage and knead with the hands until the meat becomes 
very sticky and dough-like. Pack tightly in small molds or pans and 
chill thoroughly before slicing. 



pepper 




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279 



Smoked Pork Sausage 

Use pork sausage made with 2 pounds of salt, instead of 13^ 
pounds per 100 pounds of meat. If it is too stiff to stuff properly, 
add from 3 to 5 per cent of cold water and knead until the mass 
becomes dough-like. Stuff tightly in casings and allow it to cure for 
about 24 hours in a cool place. Smoke and dry at a temperature of 
70° to 90°F. for a day or two until a dark mahogany color is ob- 
tained. The sausage should not be kept until hot weather unless 
it is canned. 

Cured Pork Sausage 

The meat is handled in the same manner as for fresh sausage 
and cut in medium-sized pieces, approximately 2 to 3 inches square. 
Make the following curing mixture for each 100 pounds of meat. 

5 pounds salt (good quality) 

1 pound sugar 

2 ounces saltpeter 

These ingredients should be thoroughly mixed with the meat. 
Then pack the meat in a crock or other suitable container. Be sure 
the meat is protected from the air as much as possible. This meat 
will cure in one or two days and will be ready for further process- 
ing. After meat is cured, add pepper, sage, and spice to taste. Addi- 
tional salt may not be required. Then grind, stuff into sheep or 
narrow hog casings, and smoke. 

Beef, pork, and veal trimmings can be cured in large and small 
amounts with this same formula. 

There are many delicious types and kinds of sausages that can 
be made with beef, veal, and pork or a combination of these meats 
with hearts, livers, and tongues. Different combinations of these 
meats and internal organs are possible, and seasoning and spices 
may be used to suit the individual taste. Sausages made of various 
meat combinations may be fresh, cooked, and may or may not be 
smoked. 

Beef and Pork Sausage 

A favorite and a very tasty sausage is made of a mixture of beef 
and pork. Beef is naturally less fatty than pork, so its addition to 
the mixture not only reduces the shrinkage in cooking but main- 
tains the size of the original sausage. Whether used as a fresh bulk 
sausage or stuffed into casings, this sausage is most popular with 
many people. A good proportion to use is 2 pounds of lean beef in 
combination with 2 pounds of lean pork and 1 pound of fat pork. 



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Mutton and Pork Sausage 



Another tasty sausage is made by mixing two parts of lamb or 
mutton with one part each of lean and fat pork. The meat is cut 
in squares, mixed, seasoned, and ground in the same manner as 
previously given for making sausage. 



The less tender portions of deer, antelope, elk, moose, and other 
big game animals (venison) can certainly be used to best advantage 
in making a palatable sausage. All these meats can be mixed in the 



In some sections of the United States this sausage is also called 
country sausage. The following ingredients are used in making 
this delectable product: 



4 ounces black pepper 

Cut all the meat into small pieces and sprinkle the seasoning 
over it; then run it through the grinder using the small plate. Store 
the mixture in a cool place for 24 to 36 hours, then add a little 
water and knead the mixture well. Stuff into hog casings and smoke 
in a very cool smoke until the sausage takes on a dark mahogany 
color. 



This sausage can be made by cooking pig heads, tongues, skins, 
hearts, and other pieces. Put all the pieces of meat in a kettle, cover 
with water, and simmer for 2 or 3 hours until the meat can be 
boned. Do not cook too long or until the meat falls from the bones. 
Veal or beef can be added and cooked with the pork. Liver con- 
tributes a definite flavor to this sausage; 10 to 20 per cent of liver, 
by weight, is usually added to the other cooked products. Scald the 
livers last. If they are deeply cut with a knife they should be suffi- 
ciently seared in about 10 minutes. Some formulas call for the addi- 
tion of raw liver. 

Grind all the cooked materials moderately fine and add about 



Game or Hunters Sausage 




85 pounds lean pork 
15 pounds beef 
to 2 pounds salt 



1 ounce red pepper 

1 ounce sweet marjoram 

1 ounce mace 



Liver Sausage 



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one-fifth as much broth by weight, using enough to make the mix- 
ture soft but not sloppy. Season to taste and mix thoroughly. The 
following are standard quantities of seasonings for 100 pounds of 
the mixture: 

2 to 2 1/2 pounds salt 14 to 1 ounce red pepper 

2 to 4 ounces black pepper 1 to 2 ounces allspice 

1 to 3 ounces sage 

The seasoned, well-mixed sausage is usually stuffed in beef cas- 
ings and simmered in water until it floats; the time required is 
10 to 30 minutes. After being cooked, the sausage is plunged into 
cold water, chilled for at least 30 minutes, and hung up to drain. 

If the meat is cooked too long in the first kettle, the second cook- 
ing, after the sausage has been stuffed, will destroy the tight "live" 
texture of the finished sausage. 

Another liver sausage can be made in accordance with the fol- 
lowing formula: 

35 pounds pork trimmings 2 ounces sweet marjoram 

(heads, shanks, etc.) 1 ounce allspice 

15 pounds lean veal or beef 10 pounds meat broth 

7 pounds dry bread Garlic or onions 

1 pound salt 

Cook all meat as instructed in previous formula. Separate it from 
bones and add raw liver and the water-soaked bread from which 
the surplus water has been squeezed. 

The whole mass is then ground through the fine plate. Now add 
the 10 pounds of meat broth in which the meat was cooked and the 
rest of the seasoning. Chop the onion or garlic fine. The mass is 
then thoroughly mixed with the hands or a paddle for about 15 
minutes. Stuff into beefxasings which have been soaked in warm 
water. 

Liver sausage tied in strings of five or six sausages can be most 
easily handled. When the sausage is tied, it is cooked in water, not 
quite boiling, until it floats, then plunged into cold water to cool. 
This sausage must be kept in a cool place or it may spoil. It is best 
fried, but it may be cooked in other ways. 

Frankfurt or Vienna Sausage 

Frankfurt or Vienna-style sausages are more popular with the 
meat packers and the trade than any other kind. They are also 



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282 MEAT PRODUCTS AND BYPRODUCTS 

known as "wienies" and "hot dogs," depending on the size and style 
of casings used. 

The recommended proportions of beef and pork are two parts of 
lean beef to one part of fat pork. This may be varied to suit in- 
dividual tastes. The beef may be increased to three parts to one of 
pork. 

20 pounds beef 3 ounces black pepper 

10 pounds fat pork li/ 2 ounces sage, mace or nut- 

4 pounds water meg finely ground 

i/4 or y A pound salt Garlic or onions (if desired) 

Mix the salt, pepper, and other seasoning together; then 
thoroughly mix with the cut meat and run through the grinder, 
using the fine plate. Grind the mixture two or three times to make 
sure that the seasoning is evenly distributed and that the meat is 
ground very fine. Add water and mix thoroughly to make a pliable 
mass. Stuff into sheep or hog casings, depending on whether you 
want fat or thin frankfurters. After the sausage is stuffed into the 
casings by means of the thumb and forefinger, press the casing to- 
gether at about 4-inch intervals. Twist the first link two or three 
times. The next link made should be twisted in the opposite direc- 
tion to keep the casing from untwisting. Hang the twisted links in 
the smokehouse and smoke for about 2 hours at a temperature not to 
exceed 125°F. or until they are a rich orange color. Then cook in 
water to 155° until they float. If the water is hotter the casings may 
burst. The time required for cooking depends upon the thickness 
of the frankfurters. After cooking, rinse them in hot water, plunge 
them into cold water, and hang them in a cool place. Frankfurters 
should be used soon after they are made. If they are to be kept 
longer, they should be canned. 



Bologna Sausage 

This is one of our most commonly used sausages. Its name is de- 
rived from the town of Bologna in Italy, where it was first made and 
where the people use it extensively to this day. However, our supply 
is chiefly of domestic make. There is a comparatively small impor- 
tation from both Italy and Germany. 

Bologna sausage consists of ground pork and beef mixed with 
enough water to give the sausage the desirable fine, tenacious tex- 
ture. 

The recipe that follows is a good one: 



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60 pounds beef 

40 pounds pork 

20 pounds cold water 

2 to 2]/ 2 pounds salt 

1 ounce saltpeter 



2 to 4 ounces black pepper 
1 to li/£ ounces coriander 
1 ounce mace 

Onions or garlic (if desired) 



Grind the chilled beef trimmings with salt at the rate of 2 pounds 
per 100 pounds of beef. Use the coarse grinding plate, and allow 
the meat to cure in a cool place for about 48 hours. Salt, in the same 
proportion, is added to the coarsely ground pork the next evening 
and the pork is allowed to cure overnight. Many persons do not 
cure the pork. 

Regrind the cured beef, using the plate with i^-inch holes. Then 
add the pork and grind the mixture again. If the pork was not 
cured add the salt (13 ounces for each 40 pounds of pork) before 
grinding. Add the spices and the water and stir or mix vigorously 
until the whole mass has become sticky. It often takes 30 minutes 
to mix this sausage properly. 

Stuff the sausage tightly into beef casings or muslin bags and 
allow it to hang and cure in a cool place until the next morning. 
Put it in a well-ventilated smokehouse heated to 110° to 120°F. 
Protect the casings from a direct blaze that might scorch them. The 
sausage should take on a rich mahogany-brown color in about 2 
hours. 

Put the hot, freshly smoked sausage immediately into water heated 
to 160° to 175°F., and cook it until it squeaks when the pressure of 
the thumb and finger on the casing is suddenly released. The usual 
cooking time for sausage stuffed in beef 4 'rounds" is 15 to 30 minutes. 
Plunge the cooked sausage into cold water and chill it. Hang it in 
a cool place to dry. Use as soon as possible. 



Summer Sausage 

Summer sausage or cervelat is similar to salami in preparation. 
It is made in the country during the winter and kept for use during 
the summer. As a lunch sausage it has become very popular because 
of its keeping qualities. Summer sausage is a hard, dry sausage that 
is highly seasoned. It may be mixed in the following proportions: 



35 pounds cured beef 
15 pounds fresh pork fat 
7 ounces of white pepper 
V\~~V% ounce coriander 



1 ounce whole mustard seed 
1 ounce sage 

Garlic finely ground if desired 



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Cure the beef in the same manner and with the same cured meat 
mixture as that recommended for cured pork sausage. No addi- 
tional salt is required in the mixture because the cured meat will 
supply enough. The beef is ground through both the coarse and 
fine plate of the grinder, but the pork fat is ground only through 
the coarse plate, preferably two or three times. The ground meat 
should be seasoned and the pork and beef mixed thoroughly for at 
least 30 minutes. It should then be spread out on a tray, table, or 
bench in a cold, dry place and allowed to dry and chill for 1 to 4 
days, depending upon the weather. It should be turned once or 
twice so that all the meat is thoroughly chilled. After it has been 
allowed to cool and dry, it should be stuffed tightly in beef straights, 
or beef intestines, and then hung up to dry for about two more days 
to give the seasoning a chance to act on the meat. 

In smoking summer sausage, be careful not to allow the tempera- 
ture to go above 70 °F. In other words, the sausage should be 
smoked with cold smoke. This requires 36 to 48 hours of continu- 
ous fire. A large piece of wood with a knot in it will smoke all night. 

The sausage should be kept in a cool, ventilated place. A little 
mold will improve the sausage, but if it spreads all over the casing, 
it is harmful because it will give the sausage a moldy taste. If it 
begins to get too moldy, rub off the mold with a cloth dipped in a 
mixture of salt and lard. 

Salami, a favorite in Italy, Hungary, and Germany, and to a con- 
siderable extent in this country is a large sausage made of about 
two-thirds of lean pork, coarse-chopped, and one-third lean beef, 
finely chopped, moistened with red wine (or grape juice), flavored 
with garlic and various spices, stuffed into beef casings, and air 
dried. Hung in a suitable place it will keep for years. 



Domestic goose liver sausage undoubtedly stems from pate de 
foie gras, the principal form developed in France. In Strasbourg 
and Toulouse, geese are fed to enlarge their livers. These livers are 
cooked, seasoned with wine and aromatics, and, with cut truffles 
added, are filled into earthenware "terrines" and surrounded and 
covered with a forcemeat made of liver trimmings and pork. In 
the best grades the livers are whole; the lesser qualities are of cut 
pieces. The finest is made from fresh goose livers. It should always 
be served very cold. 

Domestic goose liver sausage, put up in cans of cylindrical shape, 
consists of the liver cut up in small pieces. Pistachio nuts and pieces 



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OTHER MEAT PRODUCTS 285 

of truffle are added, and the whole is mixed with liver trimmings 
and pork and forced into casings and cooked. If made of goose 
livers exclusively, the product then compares favorably with the 
imported pate de foie gras. 

It is surprising to know that most of our domestic goose liver 
sausage contains very little goose liver, if any at all. Generally, it 
is made of the parboiled livers from all our four-footed domestic 
animals, roast pork, and spices. It may or may not contain thin 
slices of goose liver. This mixture is stuffed into hog casings. 

Some folks make a very fair goose liver sausage by using the 
wings, necks, backs, and giblets. All of these are cooked until they 
are tender or until the meat falls from the bones. Cooked hog liver 
is also added to the goose meat. 

8 pounds cooked goose meat Salt, black pepper, red pepper, 
2 pounds cooked hog liver and allspice to taste 

Goose broth 

Grind all ingredients together through the fine plate. Add some 
of the liquid in which the goose meat was cooked. Then add sea- 
soning and mix thoroughly. 

Stuff into casings and simmer in hot water until they float, which 
requires from 15 to 30 minutes. After cooking, plunge into cold 
water and chill thoroughly. This sausage may be eaten as fresh 
liver sausage or it can be smoked. A light smoke greatly improves 
the flavor. 

Another good formula for this sausage is the following: 

50 pounds lean pork necks 3 ounces white pepper 

cured 1 ounce nutmeg 

50 pounds goose livers 1 ounce marjoram 

1 1/ 2 pounds salt ]/ 2 ounce ground cloves 

8 ounces sugar 16 ounces finely chopped pis- 
1 ounce saltpeter tachio nuts or truffles 

Grind pork and goose livers through fine plate of grinder. Add 
all other ingredients and mix thoroughly. Stuff in medium-wide 
hog bungs or beef middle casings. Cook for about 1 hour at 155°F. 
Cool the sausage and allow it to dry overnight. Smoke it the next 
day in a warm smokehouse. 

Other Meat Products 

In addition to sausages, numerous other meat products can be 
made (with pork the principal ingredient) to furnish a means of 



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utilizing the edible parts of cuts difficult to bone, such as head, feet, 
and tail. Cooking is a convenient means of preparing these parts 
and of utilizing miscellaneous pieces of trimmings, liver, heart, 
tongue, and the broth in which the meat has been cooked. All the 
meat should be well trimmed and washed before being cooked. Hog 
and calf heads should be split and cleaned thoroughly, removing the 
eyes, eardrums, and nasal passages, and chopping off the teeth. Pig 
jowls are usually cut off and cured as previously described. It is 
better not to cook the jowls with the other meat in making head- 
cheese and scrapple, because it will make these products too fat. 

The feet should be well shaved, cleaned, and the glandular tissue 
between the toes trimmed out. The toes and dewclaws should have 
been removed when the carcass was dressed. They may be included 
with the meat cooked for headcheese and scrapple or they may be 
prepared separately as pickled pigs' feet. 

Beef trimmings are frequently mixed with the pork, principally 
because the product with pork added is more desirable than when 
made solely from beef trimmings. 



Headcheese is easily made. Make deep cuts in the thick pieces of 
meat, cover with water, and simmer until the meat is well done and 
slips from the bones. The skin, if used, should be cooked in a sack 
so that it may be removed from the pot when so tender that a finger 
can be pushed through it. The thick ears and snouts will require 
longer cooking than the other skin. The skin is ground with the 
plate having i/£-inch holes. The other pieces of meat are boned 
after they are cooked. These, with the boneless pieces such as the 
heart, are ground with the plate that has l/^-inch holes. Some per- 
sons prefer to cut the tongue and some of the larger pieces of fat 
into strips instead of grinding them. Others prefer not to grind 
any of the meat but pick or cut it in pieces. 

The meat, whether part of it is ground and some cut or all picked 
to pieces, is then mixed with enough of the broth— the water in 
which the meat was cooked— to make the mass soft without being 
sloppy. This mixture is returned to the kettle and brought to a 
boil. This reheating serves to mix the gelatin thoroughly through 
the broth so that when the headcheese is poured into shallow pans 
and chilled it will slice without crumbling. 

Seasoning is added at the beginning of the second cooking. Usu- 
ally it is safe to season to taste, though the following quantities of 



Headcheese 



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seasoning per 100 pounds of cooked meat, including the added 
broth, are a satisfactory guide: 



More piquancy to the flavor can be obtained by adding one or 
two bay leaves, some cut or chopped parsley, and minced onion 
fried tender but not brown. A little vinegar or lemon juice or 
minced lemon rind also gives a desirable flavor. 

If the headcheese is stuffed into casings, this should be done after 
seasoning and before the second cooking. The stuffed headcheese 
should then be placed in the remaining liquid and simmered until 
it floats (10 to 30 minutes). Then take it out, chill and hang away. 
Headcheese is usually sliced and eaten cold. 

Headcheese is usually made from pork, but some beef or veal may 
be added in the following proportions: 

20 pounds pork i/£ ounce allspice 

5 pounds beef }4 ounce cloves 

l A pound pepper ]/ 2 ounce caraway 

\/ 2 pound salt 4 pounds broth 

The meat is cooked as previously described. It is cut up by hand 
into half- or quarter-inch cubes. Then the broth in which the meat 
was cooked is added with the seasoning, and the mass is thoroughly 
mixed by hand until the seasoning is properly worked through the 
meat. This mixture is then put into casings (hog paunches or beef 
straights) and laid out to cool. They may be pressed by laying a 
weighted board over them. 



Scrapple or ponhaws originated with the Germans who settled 
in the eastern part of the key-stone State. They came to be known 
as Pennsylvania Dutch instead of Pennsylvania Deutsch. The old- 
fashioned formula for ponhaws they developed calls for young pig's 
head boiled until the meat is readily separated from the bones. The 
meat is then chopped or ground very fine and put back into the 
broth (the water in which the meat was cooked) and then thickened 
with buckwheat or cornmeal, and seasoned with spices and herbs. 
When of the consistence of mush, it is run into pans to cool, to be 
later sliced and fried for the table. 

There are numerous formulas or recipes for making scrapple. 



2 to 2 1/2 pounds salt 

3 to 5 ounces black pepper 
1/4 to 1 ounce red pepper 



1 ounce ground cloves 

1 ounce coriander 

2 ounces sweet marjoram 



Scrapple Recipes 



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Therefore, at this juncture it is pertinent to clarify just what is the 
accepted idea of ponhaws and scrapple. In the process of time, in- 
ferior recipes have lowered the general conception of ponhaws and 
today scrapple made by the best recipes stands for what originally 
was ponhaws. Not only have the fine basic recipes for ponhaws been 
corrupted but the term as well; for example— panhas and pon house. 

Most of the scrapple sold in the stores and served in the restau- 
rants today is for the most part nothing more than a glorified mush, 
flavored with a trace of pork liquor, and seasoned with over-aged 
spices and herbs. 

Ponhaws 

Here is a most delicious ponhaws of old Pennsylvania vintage in 
which pork plays a prominent part. 

Clean a pig's head thoroughly (page 80), split it, and remove the 
brains, tongue, and eyes. The tongue may or may not be included 
with the meat to be cooked. Put the head pieces and tongue, if de- 
sired, into a large kettle, cover with 4 or 5 quarts of cold water and 
simmer gently for 2 or 3 hours, or until the meat falls from the 
bones. After the meat is cooked, let it stand a while until the fat 
collects on the surface. Skim off this grease carefully; remove meat 
and chop fine. Strain the broth to remove all bones and gristle. 
Hold out a little broth to mix with cereal later. Return the re- 
mainder of the liquid to the kettle, put in the chopped meat, and 
bring the mixture to a boil. Add the finely ground yellow cornmeal, 
moistened with some of the cooled broth, so that it may be added 
to the hot mixture of meat and broth without forming lumps. Boil 
slowly for about one-half hour, stirring almost constantly to prevent 
sticking and scorching. Just a few minutes before cooking is com- 
pleted or when the mixture attains the consistency of soft mush, 
add one teaspoon of powdered sage, salt, and pepper; stir in well. 
Pour the hot scrapple into small, shallow, greased pans and chill as 
promptly as possible. Later, when it molds, the scrapple can be 
sliced and fried to a crisp brown. If properly made it will not 
separate when sliced nor crumble when fried. The slices may be 
floured before they are frfed. 

Scrapple 

The scrapple of general consumption, an especially favored break- 
fast dish, is made chiefly of cornmeal, pigs' feet, tails, skin, and all 
trimmings not used for sausage. The high standard of meat products 



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is largely determined by the quality of meat and other ingredients 
that enter into their making, as well as the correct proportion of 
each. 

Cook the heads, tongue, hearts, and trimmings all together until 
the bones and much of the gristle can be removed. If skin is in- 
cluded, cook until tender. Skin and gristle, no matter how long 
they are cooked, will not contribute much quality to the meat por- 
tion of the mixture or to the finished product. However, these two 
items will enrich the broth in which it is cooked. Pour off the liquid 
through a strainer and remove all bones and large portions of gristle. 
A small portion of skin may be left with the meat. Grind all this 
material through the fine plate. Pour all the broth in which the 
meat was cooked back into the kettle and then add all the ground 
meat. 

The cereal to be added may be only finely ground yellow corn- 
meal or a cereal mixture, one consisting of 7 parts cornmeal and 3 
parts of white or buckwheat flour; or 7 parts cornmeal, 2 parts 
shorts, and 1 part of buckwheat flour. 

Four parts ground-meat products with a low content of gristle and 
skin, 3 parts of meat broth, and 1 part dry cereal or cereal mixture 
(by weight) will produce a richly flavored and generally satisfactory 
scrapple. More meal and broth may be used if desired. The same 
is true of the meat. 

In adding the cereal or cereal mixture, moisten it with some of 
the cooled broth so that it may be added to the hot ground-meat 
and broth without forming lumps. Boil the mixture for about one- 
half hour, stirring it frequently or constantly to prevent sticking. 
Add the seasoning shortly before the cooking is finished and stir 
it well. 

Salt, pepper, and a few or many spices may be added depending 
upon the preference of the individual. The following seasonings 
may be used for 100 pounds of scrapple, including the meat broth 
and the dry cereal mixture: 



2 to 2 1/2 pounds of salt 
2 to 4 ounces black pepper 
2 to 4 ounces sweet marjoram 
2 to 4 ounces sage (if desired) 
1 ounce red pepper (if desired) 



1 ounce nutmeg (if desired) 
]/ 2 ounce of mace (if desired) 

2 ounces of ground onions dur- 
ing second cooking (if de- 
sired) 



When the scrapple is cooked it is poured into small shallow pans 
and chilled as promptly as possible. 



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Scrapple 



Select 3 pounds of bony pieces of pork. Simmer in 3 quarts of 
water until the meat drops from the bone. Strain off the broth, 
remove the bone, taking care to get all of the tiny pieces, and chop 
the meat fine. There should be about 2 quarts of broth, and if nec- 
essary add water to make this quantity. Bring the broth to the boil- 
ing point, slowly add 2 cups of cornmeal, cook the mixture until it 
is thick mush, and stir almost constantly. Add the chopped meat, 
salt, and any other seasoning desired, such as onion juice, sage, and 
thyme. Pour the hot scrapple into oblong enamelware pans which 
have been rinsed with cold water. Let stand until cold and firm, 
slice, and brown in a hot skillet. If the scrapple is rich with fat, 
no more fat is needed for frying. 



Cook a pork bone, on which there is still some meat, until it falls 
from the bone. Steam a cupful of oatmeal in the meat broth. Clean 
the bone of all pork and run it through the meat grinder. Add to 
it the cooked oatmeal until it attains the consistency of soft mush. 
Season with sage, or other herbs, salt, and pepper. Pour into shallow 
pans and let stand until stiff and cold. Slice and fry to a crisp brown. 



Here is a good way to use some of the left-over roast turkey: 



1 teaspoon poultry dressing 

Chop together in a chopping bowl the meat and stuffing. Break 
the turkey bones, cover with cold water and boil slowly 45 minutes. 
Strain and pick all meat off the bones. There should be about 12 
cups of liquid. Add meat and stuffing, gravy, salt, and poultry dress- 
ing. Put into a large kettle over a slow fire and gradually add the 
cornmeal, stirring constantly. When very thick pour into well-but- 
tered bread pans to cool and harden. This will keep for a month in 
a cool place. Slice as desired and fry in butter to a crisp brown. 



Oatmeal Scrapple 



Turkey Scrapple 



4 cups turkey meat 
4 cups celery stuffing 
1 teaspoon salt 



\\/ 2 cups cornmeal 
Turkey bones 
Giblet gravy 



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Mincemeat 

Originally mincemeat was a mixture of finely chopped or minced 
meat, suet, fresh and dried fruits, and nuts, citron, molasses, sugar, 
spices, and brandy and other spirituous liquor, or cider. Today, not 
only is the spirituous liquor omitted but frequently the meat and 
suet also, leaving a mixture chiefly of fruits, molasses or sugar, and 
spices. 

To be sure, the good grades of commercially prepared mincemeat 
are very convenient, but the person who is seeking the full-bodied 
richness, which is so characteristic of the genuine article, must either 
begin from scratch to make it or supplement the commercial 
product. 

This Thanksgiving and Christmas necessity, as originally made in 
many sections of the United States, contained a portion of venison, 
rabbit, beef, or veal. It may or may not have been the tougher 
portions of the carcass. Tongues of deer, antelope, elk, calves, and 
cattle are also used to make mincemeat and some of the oldtimers 
claim that tongue makes a more delicate product than the muscle 
meat. 

Here are the ingredients for an excellent mincemeat: 



5 pounds boiled beef or 
tongues 
2 1/4 pounds suet 
2 pounds raisins 

1 pound raisins (seeded) 

2 pounds currants 

i/ 2 pound citron (cut or 

chopped fine) 
1/2 pound candied orange peel 

(cut fine) 
1/2 pound candied lemon peel 

(cut fine) 



6 pounds chopped peeled apples 
1 tablespoon cinnamon 
1 tablespoon allspice 
1 tablespoon cloves 
1 tablespoon nutmeg 
1 tablespoon salt 
1/2 pound almonds (grated or 

chopped) 
4 pounds sugar 

Rind and juice or 4 oranges and 

4 lemons 
Brandy and whiskey 



Cook the meat. After it is cool, chop or cut very fine, add sugar, 
raisins, currants, citron. Mix these ingredients together. Chop or 
cut apples fine but do not mash them, and add to chopped meat. 
Add spices and mix thoroughly. Pour over the mixture one quart 
of brandy and two quarts of whiskey; add rind, and juice of oranges 
and lemons. 

Put mixture into an earthen crock with a lid. Place a cloth over 



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292 MEAT PRODUCTS AND BYPRODUCTS 

the top and then put on the lid. Keep in a cool place for about three 
weeks. Then add more salt and spices if taste requires this. Let 
stand for about 4 weeks before using. At this time it can be packed 
in glass fruit jars. When making mincemeat pies, always bake this 
filling between two crusts. 



Mincemeat (Small Portion) 

Here is a formula for making a small portion of mincemeat 
(about 3 cups): 



1 cup coarsely chopped beef 
14 cup chopped suet 

1/2 cup raisins 

1/2 cup currants 

1/2 cup citron (chopped) 

2 cups apples (chopped) 

1 cup cider or apple juice 



Juice and grated rind from 1 
lemon 

1 cup brown sugar, firmly"- 

packed 
1 teaspoon salt 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 
1 teaspoon allspice 
1 1/2 teaspoons brandy 



Put all the ingredients except the brandy in a saucepan. Cook 
slowly for about 1 hour and 15 minutes. Stir in brandy after the 
cooked mincemeat has cooled. 



Deer Mincemeat 

The following is a formula that can be used with any venison- 
deer, elk, or antelope, also rabbit and bear meat. 



2 pounds cooked venison 2 

chopped or ground 1 1/ 2 

4 pounds chopped apple (not i/ 2 

mashed) i/ 2 

4 cups sugar brown or white i/ 2 

$/4 pound chopped suet 2 



pounds raisins 
teaspoons cinnamon 
teaspoon nutmeg 
teaspoon cloves 
teaspoon mace 
teaspoons salt 



Mix all the ingredients together. Add enough cider to cover 
mixture. If cider is not available, use fruit juices or water with i/ 2 
cup of vinegar. Sweet fruit juices reduce the amount of sugar re- 
quired. Cook very slowly until the fruits are tender (about 1 hour). 
This mincemeat will keep indefinitely if put in fruit jars. 



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Deer Mincemeat, Canadian Method 



5 pounds of deer meat 

5 pounds of unpeeled apples 

2 pounds of seedless raisins 

2 pounds currants 

1 cup molasses 

1 cup candied citron 

1 tablespoon cinnamon 

1 tablespoon allspice 



black pepper 
1/4 cup of good brandy 



2 cups tarragon vinegar 
5 pounds granulated sugar 
1 pound beef or deer suet 
1 cup chopped lemons 
1 cup chopped orange peel 
Salt to taste and a pinch of 



1 teaspoon cloves (more or less, 
according to taste) 

Cover the deer meat with cold water, add a bouquet garni made 
of 10 sprigs of parsley, 10 sprigs of green celery leaves, 2 large bay 
leaves, and one large or two small sprigs of thyme, tied together with 
kitchen thread, and cook until tender; the time of cooking depends 
upon the age of the deer, but the meat should be ready to fall from 
the bones when done. Then remove the bones and put the meat 
through a food chopper (using a coarse blade) together with all the 
remaining ingredients. Put the entire mixture in a large kettle 
with enough of the broth in which the meat was cooked barely to 
cover, and cook for 1 hour over a medium flame, stirring occasion- 
ally. Pack while still hot in hot, sterilized quart jars, and before 
sealing pour over each jar 1 generous tablespoon fine brandy. Store 
in a cool, dry, dark place until wanted. 



Good homemade lard, the rendered fat from the hog, is one of 
the choicest fats the housewife can use. The leaf fat, back fat, and 
fat trimmings are usually rendered together. The caul and ruffle 
fats from the offal yield a darker product and should be rendered 
separately. This fat which is obtained from the internal organs 
(killing fat) promptly chilled makes fair lard, but many prefer to 
use it as soap stock. 

All the lean meat should be trimmed out of the fat before it is 
rendered. If lean meat remains in the fat it drops to the bottom 
of the kettle and is likely to scorch and discolor the lard. 

Fat will render more rapidly and yield a higher percentage of 
lard if it is cut into small pieces of uniform size. It is not necessary 
to remove the skin, but many persons prefer to remove it and then 
run the pieces of fat through the coarse plate of the sausage grinder. 



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This is a good practice for home rendering where small kettles are 
used. The lard will render more quickly, yield more, and it will 
not be necessary to use a lard press for the cracklings. 

Be sure that the pieces of fat are clean. Place the fat, cut into 
pieces or ground, in a cool and thoroughly cleaned kettle. Do not 
fill the kettle too full or the lard may boil over and catch fire. 

Cooking should be very slow until the fat has begun to melt and 
it can be stirred freely in the kettle. Then a moderately hot fire 
may be applied so that the rendering process is not too slow. The 
fat should be stirred frequently during the entire cooking process 
to prevent the crackling from sticking or scorching. 

As the rendering progresses, the crackling will turn light brown 
and float. This is an indication that it is soon time to remove the 
kettle from the fire. Lift some of the cracklings from the fat and, if 
they are dry and crisp, the lard is rendered. However, when they 
are more completely rendered they gradually sink to the bottom of 
the kettle. Many persons stop cooking the fat when the cracklings 
are still floating. The more complete rendering, however, removes 
a greater proportion of the moisture, thus producing lard that will 
keep better. 

Allow the rendered lard to settle and cool slightly. Then dip the 
lard out of the kettle and strain through a double thickness of 
cheesecloth into containers which have been thoroughly cleaned. 
If the fat has been cut into small pieces or cubes, the cracklings 
should be run through the lard press and strained. 

Finer-grained lard may be obtained by cooling quickly. Slowly 
cooled lard tends to separate and become quite granular in texture. 
Stirring the lard slowly while cooling makes it whiter, more uniform 
in texture, and finer-grained, but the lard will not keep as long as if 
it were not stirred. A method often used to whiten lard is to put a 
potato in long enough to absorb some of the impurities. 

Exposure to air and light help to develop rancidity in lard. For 
this reason the containers should be filled as nearly full as possible, 
sealed and stored in a dark, cool place. Lard should not be covered 
tightly until it is thoroughly cooled. If the moisture has been elim- 
inated from the lard by a thorough rendering no water-souring 
should develop during storage. 

Light, air, and moisture coming in contact with lard start deterio- 
ration. So, avoid digging down into your lard supply if it is packed 
into large cans. Scrape off from the top surface the amount you re- 
quire, keeping the main body of lard level in the container. Once 
lard has become rancid it is impossible to bring it back. 




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295 



Preserving Meat in Lard 



Good lard has so many uses, it is so digestible, and forms a foun- 
dation for so many tasty dishes that it pays to render and store it 
with extreme care. It is also a satisfactory preservative for meat if 
only fresh meat is used and if precautions are taken to keep every- 
thing clean and sterile. 

Cook meat as you would cook it for serving. Place it in a dry, 
sterilized crock and cover immediately with hot lard. Cover with 
clean wax paper and place on this a crock cover or plate. Store in 
a cool, dry place. Do not keep meat packed in lard during hot 
weather unless the storage place is always cold. 

When meat is removed from the crock, be sure to pack down the 
remaining meat and cover it again with melted lard so that no air 
will reach it. It is better to store this meat in small crocks than in 
large ones, for then it will not be disturbed so often. 

Roast pork, pork chops, pork steaks, and sausage patties can be 
cooked and preserved in lard. 



Waste lard or fat from cooking and fats rendered from tallow 
and meat trimmings may be used in making soap at home. The 
quality of the soap obtained depends on the kind and condition 
of the fat. A combination of tallow and lard makes the best soap. 
Poultry fat and vegetable oils should be combined with other fats, 
as soap made from them alone is soft and spongy. Waste fat should 
be clarified. 

To clarify waste fat, melt it slowly and strain it through two 
thicknesses of cheesecloth. Then add an equal volume of hot water, 
stir well, and bring to a boil. Remove from the fire, and with con- 
stant stirring, add one quart of cold water. Set aside to cool. When 
firm, the clean fat on top is ready to make into soap. 

The other materials combined with fat to make soap are borax, 
lye, and water. The addition of borax is not necessary. It is some- 
times used, however, to improve the appearance and suds of the 
soap. 

Lye can be obtained in grocery stores. Care should be taken 
in dissolving it in water as the fumes are irritating and heat is gen- 
erated. Avoid contact of the dry lye or the lye solution with the skin 
or clothing. If this occurs, wash well with water and rinse with 
diluted vinegar. Lye attacks aluminum. Therefore, never use alum- 
inum utensils in making soap. 



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Soft water (rain water) is best for making soap. If hard water 
must be used, add 1 to 2 tablespoons of lye per gallon, depending 
on the hardness of the water, and let it stand for 2 days until the 
hardness settles out. 

Equipment. Enamel, iron, or earthenware containers must be 
used for dissolving the lye and for mixing the soap ingredients. 
Never use aluminum. Stir with a wooden paddle or with a wooden 
or enamel spoon. A dairy thermometer is convenient for measuring 
temperatures. 

Molds for the soap may be made from cardboard or wooden 
boxes or shallow enamel pans. The soap is more easily removed if 
the mold is lined with waxed paper or with cotton cloth dipped in 
cold water and wrung dry. 

Soap Formulas 

To make about 9 pounds of soap the following is recommended: 

6 pounds of clean fat (about 13 cups) 1 can lye (13 ounces) 
\/ A cup borax (optional) 21/4 pints soft water 

To make one bar of soap use the following: 

1 cup clean fat 5 teaspoons lye 

1 teaspoon borax (optional) i/ 2 cup soft water 

Procedure. Weigh or measure the clarified fat, heat slowly until 
completely melted, and cool to approximately 110°F. (slightly higher 
than blood heat). If borax is desired, it should be added to the fat 
at this point. Stir the fat occasionally during cooling to prevent 
crystals from forming. Meanwhile, dissolve the lye in the water and 
cool to about 85°F. (lukewarm). Pour the lye solution into the fat 
in a thin, steady stream with slow, even stirring. Continue stirring 
until a thin honey-like texture is obtained. This should take from 
10 to 20 minutes. Always add the lye solution slowly to the fat, this 
is important. Too rapid addition of the lye or too vigorous stirring 
may cause separation of the ingredients. 

If the soap mixture does not become thick within half an hour 
and there is a greasy layer on top, perhaps it is too warm. In this 
case, set the container in cool water and keep stirring from the sides 
and bottom. On the other hand, if the mixture is lumpy, it may be 
too cold. Then set it in a pan of warm water and stir until the 
lumps disappear. 

Pour the thickened soap mixture into the prepared molds. Cover 
and keep warm for at least 24 hours. Remove the soap and cut it 



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into bars. Before the soap is ready for use, the bars should age for 
about 2 weeks in a dry place. 

If the soap is crumbly or has streaks of grease it may be reclaimed. 
To do this, cut the soap into fine pieces, add water (7 pints for 9- 
pound-soap formula, and 1 cup for the 1-bar formula) and dissolve 
over low heat. Stir occasionally. When the lumps have disappeared, 
increase the heat and boil until the soap appears thick. Pour into 
molds. 

After proper aging, soap carefully prepared according to the pre- 
ceding directions makes a good general household product. Home- 
made soap will sometimes contain enough free alkali to be harmful 
to the skin; hence it is not generally recommended for toilet use. 




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XV 



HELPFUL REFERENCES 



Appendix A 
Appendix B 
Appendix C 

Appendix D 
Appendix E 
Appendix F 



Publications of the Department of Agriculture 

Publications of the Department of the Interior 

Motion Pictures Produced by the Departments 
of Agriculture and the Interior 

Reference Books 

State Game Departments 

United States Agricultural Experiment Stations 



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Appendix A 



Publications of the Department of Agriculture 

The bulletins and leaflets listed below are available for dis- 
tribution by members of Congress; Office of Information, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C; or by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D. C. Some are for sale only, at the price quoted. For these 
send order and remittance to the Superintendent of Documents. 

farmers' bulletins 



Number Title Price 

684 Squab raising 

697 Duck raising 

767 Goose raising — 

840 Farm sheep raising for beginners 

849 Capons and caponizing 

920 Milk goats 

1055 Country hides and skins, skinning, curing and marketing .15 

1186 Pork on the farm; killing, curing and canning 

1334 Home tanning of leather and small fur skins .15 

1377 Marketing poultry .15 

1378 Marketing eggs .15 

1391 The guinea fowl 

1409 Turkey raising 

1415 Beef on the farm; slaughtering, cutting and curing 

1424 Making vinegar in the home and on the farm .10 

1508 Poultry keeping in back yards 

1524 Farm poultry raising 

1592 Beef production on the farm 

1730 Rabbit production 

1753 Livestock for small farms 

1807 Lamb and mutton on the farm 

1815 Grading dressed turkeys 

1888 Poultry cooking 

2011 Turkey on the table the year round 



LEAFLETS 

Number Title Price 

L273 Curing pork country style 

L 279 Chicken in the freezer 

L310 U. S. Grades of beef 

C706 Meat dehydration .10 
C 731 Composition and nutritive value of pork as related 

to weights of animals and cuts .10 

C803 Feathers from domestic and wild fowl .10 

C886 The lymph glands of cattle, hogs and sheep .10 

301 



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HELPFUL REFERENCES 



Number Title Price 

IS 52 Protect home cured meat from insects 

IS 56 How to choose and use your refrigerator 

M 687 Home freezers— their selection and use .10 

M 5241 Handling your big game kill 

BULLETINS 

Numbei Title Price 

G 1 Family fare— food, management and recipes .25 

G6 Home canning of meat 

G 13 Food for families with school children 

G 27 Meat for thrifty meals 

A.H. 8 Composition of foods— raw, processed, prepared .35 
Tech. Bui. 

No. 926 Estimation of composition of beef carcasses and cuts 

Tech. Bui. 

No. 944 Estimation of the composition of lamb carcasses and cuts .05 



Appendix B 

Publications of the Department of the Interior 

Publications listed with a price quotation can be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C. Those without a price quotation can be ob- 
tained free from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the 
Interior, Washington 25, D. C. 



Number Title Price 

1 TKS Fish cookery for one hundred .30 

2 TKS Basic fish cookery .20 

3 TKS How to cook oysters .10 

4 TKS How to cook salmon .15 

5 TKS How to cook ocean perch .10 

6 TKS How to cook shrimp .15 

19 FL Cooking carp 

35 FL Fish cookery in the open ■ 



36 FL Food value of fish and shellfish 

53 FL Sauces for seafood 

61 FL Garfish recipes 

69 FL Market and recipes for fresh water turtles 

90 FL Nutritive value of canned fishery products 

106 FL How to cook fish 

116FL Composition of fish 

194 FL Recipes for Pacific rockfish 

202 FL Pacific salmon 

247 FL Fish for breakfast and why not? 

269 FL Cod ... the beef of the sea 

275 FL Fish and Shellfish canapes and hors d'oeuvre 

295 FL Chemical composition of some canned fishery products 

320 FL Rose-fish cookery 

18 FL Home preservation of fishery products (salting, smoking 
and other methods of curing fish at home) 



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303 



Number Title Price 

377 FL Cosmopolitan fish cookery for the Philippines 

404 FL Title fish recipes 

308 Sep. Crab recipes 

60 FL Mild curing, pickling, dry salting and smoking salmon — - 

122 FL Smoking lake herring, white fish, lake trout and carp 

196 FL Smoked herring 

270 FL Electrostatic smoking of sardines 

312 FL Smoking shrimp 

115FL Handling fresh fish 

128 FL Refrigerated locker storage of fish for home use 

181 FL Fish can be stored in refrigerated lockers with other food 

213 FL Wrapping materials for frozen fish 

214 FL Fish refrigeration 

229 WL Recipes for cooking muskrat meat 

246 WL Save game meat; it is valuable 



Appendix C 

Motion Pictures Produced by the Departments of Agriculture 

and the Interior 

Motion pictures produced by the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
are a great help in classroom and cooperative extension work, as 
they are designed to demonstrate improved methods in agriculture 
and home economics. These films, as well as the slidefilms, may be 
procured on a loan basis. Prints of the motion pictures may also be 
purchased. Agriculture Handbook No. 14, Motion Pictures of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, tells all about the films and how 
they may be obtained and used to promote a better agriculture. A 
copy may be obtained from Motion Picture Service, Office of In- 
formation, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 

Some of the current films pertaining to this book and related 
subjects are listed below. 

Title 



Biology: 

How Animal Life Begins 
In the Beginning 

Ovulation, Fertilization, and Early 
Development of the Mammalian 
E gg 

Transplanting Hen's Ova 

Curing Meat: 

Curing Pork Country Style 
Pork on the Farm 
Meats With Approval 



Livestock: 

Do Unto Animals 
Feeding Farm Animals 
Livestock and Mankind 
Livestock Cooperatives in Action 

Nutrition: 

For Health and Happiness 
Kids Must Eat 
Something You Didn't Eat 

Poultry: 

Duck Farming 

Poultry— A Billion Dollar Industry 
Producing Quality Poultry 



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HELPFUL REFERENCES 



Related Slidefilms 
Title 



Frozen Food Lockers and Your Food 

Supply 
Canning Chicken 
Canning Meat 

Cooking Meat According to Cut 



Cooking Poultry, Older Birds 
Cooking Poultry, Young Birds 
Home Grown Food: Production 

Preservation 
Federal Meat Inspection 



Motion pictures may be borrowed from the U. S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service without cost except that of returning the film. Those 
listed below are of interest in connection with this book. 



Conservation in Action 
Food for Thought 
Filleting and Packaging Fish 
It's the Maine Sardine 



Title 

Pacific Halibut Fishing 
Retailing Fish 

Wildlife of the Aleutian Islands 



Address all correspondence about these motion pictures to U. S. 
Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Box 128, 
College Park, Maryland. 



Meat 

Title 

Meats and Meat Products 
Farm Meats 
Meat for the Table 
The Meat We Eat 

The Construction and 
Composition of Foods 

Home Meat Curing Made 
Easy 

No. 6 Meat— Better 
Buymanship 



Appendix D 
Reference Books 



Author 
William Henry 

Tomhave 
M. D. Hesler 

Sleeter Bull 

P. Thomas Ziegler 

Winton and Winton 



Publisher 
J. B. Lippincott Company, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
The Macmillan Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
The Interstate Printers and 

Publishers, Danville, 111. 
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Morton Salt Company, 

Chicago, 111. 
Household Finance Corporation, 

Chicago, 111. 



Cooking 



The Pennsylvania Dutch 

Cook Book 
Louis Diat's Home Cook 

Book 

The Boston Cooking- 
School Cook Book 



William K. Dorman 
Leonard Davidow 
Louis Diat 

Fannie Merritt 
Farmer 



Dorman and Davidow, 

P. O. Box 250, Reading, Pa. 
J. B. Lippincott Company, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Little, Brown and Company, 

Boston, Mass. 



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305 



Title 

The Alice Bradley Menu- 
Cook Book 

Meta Given's Modern En- 
cyclopedia of Cooking 

Ida Bailey Allen's Step- 
by-Step Cook Book 

Gay Nineties Cook Book 

As The World Cooks 

Picayune Creole Cook 
Book 

Jessie Marie Deboth's 

Cook Book 
Shaker Cook Book 

Better Homes and Gar- 
dens New Cook Book 

Six American Home Mag- 
azine Cooking Booklets 

Hungarian Cooking 

Clementine in the 

Kitchen 
Specialties de la Maison 

The Joy of Cooking 

The Best from Midwest 
Kitchens 

The Garland Cook Book 

Fannie Engle's Cook Book 

The Settlement Cook 
Book 

The Good Housekeeping 

Cook Book 
Mother Hubbard's Cook 

Book 

Sunset's Kitchen Cabinet 

Recipes 
American Women's Cook 

Book 

The Philadelphia Cook 
Book of Town and 
Country 

Edith Barber's Cook Book 

America's Cook Book 

Ann Batchelder's Own 

Cook Book 
The Escoflier Cook Book 

The New American Cook 
Book 

Cook at Home in Chinese 

How to Cook and Eat in 

Chinese 
The Epicure in Imperial 

Russia 

Guilded Notes on Cook- 
ery 



Author 
Alice Bradley 

Meta Given 

Ida Bailey Allen 

F. Meredith Dietz 
August Dietz, Jr. 



Jessie Marie Deboth 
Caroline B. Piercy 



Katalin Frank 
Phineas Beck 

Irma S. Rombauer 

Ada B. Lothe 
Breta L. Greim 
Ethel M. Keating 
Laura K. Leonard 
Ruth W. Crosby 
Fannie Engle 

Lizzie B. Kander 

Marion White 

Ruth Berolzheimer 
Anna W. Reed 

Edith M. Barber 

Ann Batchelder 

A. Escoflier 

Lily Haxworth 

Wallace 
Henry Low 

Buwei Yang Chao 

Marie Alexandre 
Markevitch 



Publisher 
The Macmillan Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
J. G. Ferguson and Associates, 

Chicago, 111. 
Gosset and Dunlop, Inc. 

New York, N. Y. 
The Dietz Press, Inc., 

Richmond, Va. 
International Institute of Lowell, 

Inc., Lowell, Mass. 
The Times Picayune Publishing 

Company, New Orleans, La. 
Whitman Publishing Company, 

Racine, Wis. 
Crown Publishers, 

New York, N. Y. 
Meredith Publishing Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
Doubleday, Page & Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
British Book Center, 

New York, N. Y. 
Hastings House Publishers, 

New York, N. Y. 
American Friends of France, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
The Bobbs-Merril Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
M. S. Mill Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 

Chester R. Heck, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Duell, Sloan and Pierce, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
The Settlement Cook Book Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Rinehart and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
M. S. Mill Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Lane Publishing Company, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Garden City Publishing Company, 

Inc., Garden City, N. Y. 
Barrows and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 

New York, N. Y. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 

New York, N. Y. 
M. Barrows and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Crown Publishers, 

New York, N. Y. 
Books Incorporated, 

New York, N. Y. 
The Macmillan Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
The John Day Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
The Colt Press, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Wesleyan Service Guild, 

Lavonia, Ga. 



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HELPFUL REFERENCES 



Tide 
Tropical Cooking 

Fish and Game Cookery 

Cooking Wild Game 

Fowl and Game Cookery 

Fish and Game Cook 
Book 

Fish and Seafood Cook 

Book 
Seafood Cookery 

Casserole Cookery 

Casserole Magic 

The Outdoorsman's Cook 
Book 

A Cook Book of Left- 
overs 

Short Cuts and Leftovers 
The Kitchen Cook Book 
Pressure Cookery 
Pressure Cooking 
Herbs for the Kitchen 

How to Carve Meat, 
Game and Poultry 

The Complete Meat Cook 
Book 



Author 
Gladys R. Grayam 

Roy Wall 

Frank G. Ashbrook 
Edna M. Sater 
James Beard 

Harry Botsford 

Rose and Bob Brown 

Lily Haxworth 

Wallace 
Marion and 

Nino Tracy 
Lousene Rosseau 

Brunner 
Arthur H. Carhart 

Clare Newman and 
Bell Wiley 
Hannah W. Schloss 

Ruth Taylor 

Leone Rutledge 

Carroll 
Ida Bailey Allen 

Irma Goodrich 

Mozza 
M. O. Cullen 

Beth Bailey McLean 
Thora Hegstad 
Campbell 



Publisher 
The Panama American Press, Inc., 

Canal Zone, U.S.A. 
M. S. Mill Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Orange Judd Publishing Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
M. Barrows and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Cornell Maritime Press, 

New York, N. Y. 
J. B. Lippincott Company, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
M. Barrows and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Modern Age Books, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Harper and Brothers, 

New York, N. Y. 
The Macmillan Company, 

New York, N. Y. 
Little, Brown and Company, 

Boston, Mass. 
M. Barrows and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 

New York, N. Y. 
M. Barrows and Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Garden City Publishing Company, 

Inc., Garden City, N. Y. 
Little, Brown and Company, 

Boston, Mass. 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 

New York, N. Y. 
Chas. A. Bennett Co., Inc., 

Peoria, III. 



Appendix E 
State Game Departments 

Those who desire to preserve and store wild game and fish should 
contact the State Game Department in the State in which these 
pursuits are contemplated. 



State Organization 

Alabama Director, Department of Conservation 

Alaska Fish and Wildlife Service 

Arizona Director, Arizona Game and Fish Commission 

Arkansas Executive Secretary, Game and Fish Commis- 

sion 

California Director, Department of Fish and Game 

Colorado Superintendent of Fur Resources, State Game 

and Fish Commission 
Connecticut Game Technician, State Board of Fisheries 

and Game 

Delaware Chief Game Warden, Board of Game and 

Fish Commissioners 



Location 
Montgomery 4 
Juneau 

State Bldg., Phoenix 
State Capitol, Little 

Rock 
Ferry Bldg., San 

Francisco 11 
1350 Sherman Street, 

Denver 5 
Hartford 1 

Dover 



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APPENDIX E 



State 



Florida 
Georgia 
Hawaii 



Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 



Organization 

Director, Game and Fresh Water Fish Com- 
mission 

Director, State Game and Fish Commission 

Director, Division of Fish and Game, Board 
of Commissioners of Agriculture and For- 
estry 

Director, Department of Fish and Game 
Director, Department of Conservation 
Director, Division of Fish and Game, Depart- 
ment of Conservation 



Iowa 



Director, State Conservation Commission 



Kansas 

Kentucky 
Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 
Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey 
New Mexico 
New York 
North Carolina 

North Dakota 
Ohio 

Oklahoma 
Oregon 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 

South Carolina 



Director, Forestry, Fish and Game Commis- 
sion 

Director, Department of Conservation 

Director, Division of Furs and Refuges, De- 
partment of Wildlife and Fisheries 

Chief Warden, Department of Inland Fish- 
eries and Game 

State Game Warden, Board of Natural Re- 
sources, Department of Game and Inland 
Fish 

Commissioner, Department of Conservation 

Game Division, Conservation Commission 
Commissioner, Department of Conservation 

Director, State Game and Fish Commission 

Director, State Conservation Commission 

State Fish and Game Warden, State Dept. of 

Fish and Game 
Project Leader, Pittman-Robertson Project, 

Game Forestation and Parks Commission 
Secretary, State Fish and Game Commission 
Director, Fish and Game Department 

Division of Fish and Game, Department of 
Conservation and Economic Development 

State Game Warden, Department of Game 
and Fish 

Director, Division of Fish and Game, Con- 
servation Department 

Commissioner, Division of Game and Inland 
Fisheries, Department of Conservation and 
Development 

Game Warden, State Game and Fish Depart- 
ment 

Chief, Division of Wildlife, Department of 

Natural Resources 
Superintendent, Game Division, Game and 

Fish Department 
State Game Commission 

Executive Director, Pennsylvania Game Com- 
mission 

Administrator, Division of Fish and Game, 
Department of Agriculture and Conserva- 
tion 

Director, Division of Game, Wildlife Re- 
sources Department 



307 

Location 
Tallahassee 

412 State Capitol, 

Atlanta 3 
P. O. Box 3319, 

Honolulu 1 

Boise 

Springfield 

311 West Washing- 
ton Street, Indian- 
apolis 9 

East 7th and Court 
Streets, Des Moines 
8 

Pratt 
Frankfort 

Civil Courts Bldg., 
New Orleans 16 
State House, Augusta 

510-514 Munsey 
Bldg., Baltimore 2 

15 Ashburton Place, 

Boston 8 
Lansing 13 

State Office Building, 
St. Paul 1 

330 East Pearl Street, 
Jackson 104 

Monroe Bldg., Jeffer- 
son City 

Helena 

Lincoln 9 

Box 678, Reno 
State House Annex, 

Concord 
State House Annex, 

Trenton 7 
Santa Fe 

Albany 7 

Raleigh 



Bismarck 

1500 Dublin Road, 
Columbus 

State Capitol, Okla- 
homa City 5 

P. O. Box 4136, 
Portland 8 

Harrisburg 

State House, 
Providence 2 

Columbia 



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State 
South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Canada 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Manitoba 

New Brunswick 

Newfoundland 

Northwest 
Territories 

Nova Scotia 
Ontario 

Prince Edward 

Island 
Quebec 

Saskatchewan 

Yukon 

Mexico 



Organization 

Director, Department of Game, Fish and 
Parks 

Director, Division of Game and Fish, Depart- 
ment of Conservation 

Executive Secretary, Game and Fish Com- 
mission 

Director, State Fish and Game Commission 



Director, Fish and Game Service, Department 

of Natural Resources 
Executive Director, Commission of Game and 

Inland Fisheries 
Director, Department of Game, State Game 

Commission 

Chief, Division of Game Management, Con- 
servation Commission of West Virginia 

Game Management Division, Conservation 
Department 

State Game Warden, Wyoming Game and 
Fish Commission 

Chief, Canadian Wildlife Service, Depart- 
ment of Resources and Development 

Fish and Game Commissioner, Department of 
Lands and Forests 

Game Commission 

Director of Game and Fisheries, Department 
of Mines and Natural Resources 

Chief Game Warden, Department of Lands 
and Mines 

Chief Game Warden, Department of Mines 
and Resources 

Director, Northern Administration and Lands 
Branch, Department of Resources and De- 
velopment 

Director, Department of Lands and Forests 
Chief, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Depart- 
ment of Lands and Forests 
Deputy Minister of Industry and Natural Re- 
sources 

Superintendent General, Department of Fish 
and Game 

Game Commissioner, Department of Natural 
Resources 

Director, Yukon Game and Publicity Depart- 
ment 

Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia Direc- 
cion General Forestal y de Caza 



Location 

Pierre 

304 State Office Bldg., 

Nashville 3 
Austin 

1S96 West North 
Temple, Salt Lake 
City 16 

Montpelter 

Richmond 13 

509 Fairview North, 

Seattle 
Charleston 

Madison 2 

Cheyenne 

Ottawa 

Edmonton 

567 Burrard Street, 

Vancouver 1 
Winnipeg 

Fredericton 

St. Johns 

Ottawa, Ontario 

Halifax 

Parliament Building, 

Toronto 
Charlottetown 

Quebec 

Regina 

Whitehorse, Yukon 
Mexico, D. F. 



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APPENDIX F 



309 



Appendix F 

Publications relative to the subject matter in this book are issued 
by State Agricultural Colleges, experiment stations, or extension 
services. Such publications on various agricultural subjects may be 
obtained from the director of the station. They are usually free of 
charge. 

United States Agricultural Experiment Stations 



State 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut: 
State station 
Storrs station 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York/ 
State station 
Cornell station 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 
Ohio 

Oklahoma 



City 

Auburn 
Palmer 
Tucson 
Fayetteville 
Berkeley 4 
Fort Collins 

New Haven 4 

Storrs 

Newark 

Gainesville 

Experiment 

Honolulu 14 

Moscow 

Urbana 

La Fayet te 

Ames 

Manhattan 
Lexington 29 
University Sta. 
Baton Rouge 3 
Orono 

College Park 
Amherst 
East Lansing 
University Farm, 

St. Paul 1 
State College 
Columbia 
Bozeman 
Lincoln 1 
Reno 
Durham 
New Brunswick 
State College 

Geneva 
Ithaca 

State College 
Sta., Raleigh 

State College 
Sta., Fargo 

Wooster 

Stillwater 



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State 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Puerto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



City 

Corvallis 

State College 

Rio Piedras 

Kingston 

Clemson 

Brookings 

Knoxville 16 

College Station 

Logan 

Burlington 

Blacksburg 

Pullman 

Morgantown 

Madison 6 

Laramie 



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INDEX 



Age of animal: 
judging, 10 

and ripening period, 12 
Agricultural experiment stations, 
309-310 

Agricultural Marketing Service, U. 
S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, 56 
American Indians: 
dried fish, 230 
eating customs, of, 3-5 
pemmican, 228-229 
Antelope, 117 
Ashbrook, Frank G., 122 

Bacon, 133, 134 

bacon brisket, 135 

bacon square, 130 

box-cured, 207-209 

Canadian-style, 136, 180 
Bacteria, growth of, 9 
Barrel smokehouse, 232 
Bear meat, cured and dried, 213 
Beaver, 36, 37, 122 
Beef: 

corned beef, spiced, 225 
cutting the carcass, 137-145 
forequarter, 138-140 
hindquarter, 141-145 
freezing: 

cutting for, 179-181 
packaging for, 183-185 
grade descriptions, 53-54 
smoking, 238 
Beef and pork sausage, 279 
Big game: 

dressing, 117-121 
ripening, 12 

311 



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Birds: 

game, 164-168 (see also Wild fowl) 

ripening, 12-13 
Black puddings, 272 
Blood pudding, 272 
Bockwurst, 273 

Bologna sausage, 274, 275, 282-283 
Botulinus poison, identifying, 270 
Box-cured bacon, 207-209 
Bratwurst, 273 

Braunschweiger liverwurst, 274 
Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme, 2 
Brine-curing: 

fish, 217-219 

fowl, 213-215 

lamb, 211-212 

pork, 201-203 
Bromfield, Louis, 57 
Buffalo fish, 42 
Buffalo meat, 4-6 
Butchering, 57 

equipment, tools, 58-64 

examining carcass for disease, 71- 
72 

improper, results of, 66 
killing animals, 67 
knives, 60-64 
preparing for, 58 
selection of animals for, 64-66 
skinning or flaying, 67-70 
Butchering cattle, 91-104 

abdominal cavity, opening, 97-99 
bleeding, 91-92, 94 
calves, 104 
chilling, 103 
cleaning the tripe, 104 
edible organs, composition of, ta- 
ble, 93 



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INDEX 



Butchering cattle (cont.): 

head, skinning and removing, 94, 

95, 96 
hoisting, 99 
offal: 

loosening and removing, 101 
stripping fat from, 103 
percentages of parts, table, 93 
removing heart, lungs, gullet, 101 
removing tongue and brains, 102, 
103 

skinning carcass, 97, 98, 101 

splitting carcass, 99 

stunning, 91, 92 
Butchering hogs, 73-90 

chilling, 87-90 

edible organs: 
handling, 84-86 
table, 74 

entrails, removing, 81-84 

head, removing, cleaning, 80-81 

intestines, cleaning, 86-87 

percentages of parts, table, 74 

scalding, 76-78 

scraping, 78-80 

selection of animals, 73 

sticking, 73-76 
Butchering lambs and sheep, 105- 
116 

chilling, 116 

fisting pelt from carcass, 111-112 
internal organs, care of, 115-116 
lambs, percentage of fat, table, 
106 

opening carcass, 115 

removing heart and lungs, 116 

removing pelt, 113-114 

selection of, 106-107 

sheep, edible organs, composition 
of, table, 106 

skinning the legs, 109-111 

sticking and stunning, 107-109 
B vitamins, 18-19 
By-product meats, 271-297 

Calcium, 18 

Calves: 

hides, salting and curing, 126 
slaughtering, 104 
Canned goods: 

examining jars after canning, 267 



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Canned goods (cont.): 
labeling, 268 

signs of spoilage, 269-270 
storing, 268-269 
using, 269-270 
Canning, 247-270 
corned beef, 255-256 
fishery products, 261-267 
carp and suckers, 266 
equipment and containers, 261- 
262 

fish roe, 265-266 

Florida mullet, 266-267 

lake trout, 266-267 

mackerel, 266-267 

packing containers, 263-264 

procuring fish, 262-263 

river herring, 264-265 

whitefish, 266-267 
giblets, 260 
glass jars, 248-250 
hot pack, 254-255, 256-257 
mincemeat, 292 

number of utensils required, 250 

poultry, 256-260 

preparing meat for, 250-255 

raw pack, 250, 254, 257-260 

small game, 260-261 

tin cans, 248, 250 

utensils and equipment, 247-250 
Carp, 41 

canning, 266 
Cattle: 

butchering (see Butchering cattle) 

hides, salting and curing, 124-125 
Caul fat, 104, 293 
Charcoal in crop, 13 
Cheese, 18 
Chickens, 39 

curing, 213-215 

cutting up, 162, 163 

federal-state grading of, 56 

freezing, 187-188 

killing and plucking, 157-159 

vital organs, 164 
Chitterlings, 86 
Clams, freezing, 193 
Cold-storage locker plants, 197-198 
Cook books, listed, 304-306 



Original from 
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INDEX 



313 



Corned beef: 

canning, 255-256 

spiced, 225 
Crabs, freezing, 193, 194 
Cracklings, 294 
Cubing meat, 14 
Cullen, M. O., 10, 63 
Cured pork sausage, 279 
Curing, 198-228 

chickens, 213-215 

ducks, 213-215 

fish: 

brine curing, 217-219 

dry-salting, 219-222 

fresh- water, 217 

salt-water, 217 
game meats, 212-213 
geese, 215 

ingredients used in, 199-201 

lamb: 

brine curing, 211-212 
dry-curing, 212 

motion pictures, 303 

pheasants, 215 

pork, 201-209 

box-cured bacon, 207-209 
brine curing, 201-203 
dry-salt curing, 203-208 
Smithfield processed ham, 207 

processes, 198-201 

standard curing mixture, 201 

storing, 245-247 

tongue, 210-211 

turkeys, 213-215 
Cutting the carcass, 127-154 

beef, 137-145 

lamb and mutton, 148-150 
veal, 146-148 
venison, 152-154 

Daily dietary needs, 47-49 
Deer (see also Venison), 8, 117 
field-dressing, 118-119 
hanging, butchering, 119-121 
head, saving, 120 
hides, salting and curing, 126 
removing tongue and brain, 120 
Deer mincemeat, 292-293 
Digestibility of meat, 9 
Dodge, Colonel Richard, 4 
Doves, 164 



Drawing poultry, 160-164 

wild fowl, 165 

roasting chickens, 161, 164 
Dried beef, 229 
Dried fish, 229-230 
Drying meat and fish, 228-231 

dried beef, 229 

dried shrimp, 230-231 

fish, 229-231 

jerked (dried) beef, 229 

pemmican, 228-229 
Dry-salt curing: 

fish, 219-222 

fowl, 213-215 

lamb, 212 

pork, 203-208 
curing time, 206 
Morton method, 206-207 
Ducks, 40 

curing, 213-215 

killing and plucking, 159-160 

wild, 164, 166 

Edible organs: 

beef, 93, 103-104 

deer, 119 

hogs, 74, 84-86 

lamb, 115-116 

mutton, 106 

pork, 74, 84-86 
Eggs, 18 
Elk, 117 
Enzymes: 

action in tenderizing meat, 10-11 

chemical action caused by, 177 
Experiment stations, state, 309-310 

Farmers' bulletins, 301, 302 
Fat: 

caul, 104 

leaf, 87 

Federal meat inspection, 50-51 

grading and stamping, 51-56 
Federal-state grading and inspec- 
tion, poultry, 55-56 
Fish, 41-43 

canning, 261-267 (see also Can- 
ning: fishery products) 
procuring for, 262-263 
catching, 171 
cleaning, 172-175 



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314 



INDEX 



Fish (cont.)'. 

composition of, table, 20-28 
curing {see Curing: fish) 
drawn, 170 

dressed or pan-dressed, 170 

fillets, 171, 244-245 

freezing, packaging for, 188-189, 

192 
fresh, 169 

fresh-water, curing, 217 
frozen, 170, 171 
gibbing, 243 

government publications, 302-303 

inland, 41-42 

marinated, 226 

marine curiosities, 42 

ocean species, 42 

periods for processing, 181 

pickling, 226-228 

preserving, 215-222 

rackling, 230 

salt-water, 217 

small, 218, 220, 243 

smoking, 240-245 

cold-smoking, 243-244 

fillets, 244-245 

hot-smoking, 242-243 
state regulations re storage of, 181 
steaks, 170 
sticks, 171 

whole, or round, 170 
Fishery Leaflet 18, 228 
Florida mullet, canning, 266-267 
Food nutrients, 18-28 

daily allowance, table, 49 
Food planning, 44-56 

daily dietary needs, 47-49 

economy in, 46-47 

figuring family's needs, 45-46 
Foreign countries, consumption of 

meat in, table, 32 
Fowl {see also Birds; Game birds; 
Poultry; Wild fowl): 

Fowl: 

curing, 213-215 
smoking, 238-240 

Frankfurters, 274, 281, 282 

Freezing, 7, 11-12, 176-198 
cutting meat for, 178-181 
drying or freezer burn, 178 
ice formation in meat, 177-178 



Freezing {cont.): 

labeling packages, 194 
packaging meat for, 181-194 {see 
also Packaging meat for 
freezing) 
when to freeze, 183 
Frozen-food locker plants, 197-198 
Frozen meats: 
cooking, 196 

storage in home freezer, 194-195 

thawing, 195-196 

time limit on storage, 195 

Game: 

nutrition tests, 36-38 
periods for processing, 181 
ripening, 12-13 

state regulations re storage of, 181 
Game animals, dressing, 117-123 

big game, 117-118 

small game, 122-123 

removing scent glands, 122-123 
skinning, 122, 123 
Game birds: 

drawing, 165 

plucking, 165 
Game meats, 35-39 

curing, 212 
Game sausage, 280 
Geese: 

curing, 215 

killing and plucking, 160 

wild, 164, 166 
Giblets, 41, 165 

canning, 260 

freezing, 187 
Glass jars: 

for canning, 248-250 

for freezing, 189, 192 
Goose, 40 

Goose liver sausage, 284-285 
Gourmet Magazine, 152, 214 
Government bulletins, 301-303 
Grading and stamping of meat, fed- 
eral, 51-56 
grade descriptions, 53-54 
Guinea fowl, 40-41 

Ham, Smithfield processed, 207 
Ham trier, 245 
Hankins, O. G., 65 



Digitized by Google 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



INDEX 



315 



Head cheese, 275 

recipe, 286-287 
Herring: 

cut spiced, 227-228 

pickling, 226-228 

river, canning, 264-265 
Hides and skins: 

having them tanned, 126 

keeping, 126 

removing, 67-70 

salting and curing, 124-126 

shipping, 125 
Hogs, butchering, 73-90 (see Butch- 
ering hogs) 
Horse hides, salting and curing, 124- 
125 

Horsemeat, 2 
Hot dogs, 282 
Hunters' sausage, 280 

Insect infestation, stored meats, 245- 
246 

Inspection of meat, federal, 50-51 
Iodine, 18 
Iron, 18 

Jack rabbits, 123 
Jerked beef, 229 

Knives: 

grinding, 62-63 
honing, 63 

killing, for fowl, 157-158 
steeling, 63-64, 65 
Kosher meat, marking, 51 

Labeling frozen packages, 194 
Lake trout, canning, 266-267 
Lamb: 

butchering (see Butchering sheep 
and lambs) 

curing, 211-212 

cutting the carcass, 148-150 

freezing: 

cutting for, 180 
packaging for, 183-185 

mutton breeds, 106 

smoking, 238 
Lamb skins, handling, 126 



Lard: 

preserving meat in, 295 

rendering, 293-294 
Leaf fat, 87, 293 
Liver, 18, 19 

Liver sausage, 274, 280-281 
Liverwurst, 274, 275 
Lobsters, freezing, 193, 194 

Mackerel, canning, 266-267 

Marinating, 14 

Meat: 

changes after slaughter, 9-10 
composition of, 16-17 

table, 20-28 
digestibility of, 9 
enzymes in, 10 

federal grading and stamping, 51- 
56 

federal inspection (U.S. and Can- 
ada), 50-51 

freezing, 7, 11-12, 13, 176-198 

fresh and seasoned, 10-14 

fresh vs. high, 13 

judging age of, 10 

modern consumption, 32-35 

production and consumption, ta- 
bles, 29-33 

ripening, 10-14 

structure of, 15-16 

tenderizing, 10-14 

value of, in diet, 7-9 
Meat-eating, 3-6 
Milk, 18 

Mincemeat, 291-292 

deer, 292-293 
Moose, 1 1 7 

Morton Salt Company, 127 
Motion pictures, 303-304 
Mountain sheep, 117 
Muskrats, 37, 122, 123 

compared with beef, 36 
Mutton: 

curing, 211 

cutting the carcass, 148-150 
meaning of word, 107 
Mutton and pork sausage, 280 

Niacin, 18, 19 
Nutriants, food, 18-28 
daily allowance, table, 49 



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316 



INDEX 



Nutrition: 

good, food plan for, 48 

motion pictures, 303 

science of, 18 
Nutrition tests, game, 36-38 

Oatmeal scrapple, 290 
Oil sac, removing, 166 
Opossums, 8, 36, 37, 122 
Organ meats (see Edible organs) 
Oysters, freezing, 193 

Packaging meats for freezing, 181- 
194 

fish, 188-189, 192 

labeling, 194 

methods, 181-186 

poultry, 186-188 

shellfish, 193-194 

wrapping materials, 181-183 
Paraffin plucking, 157, 166 
Partridge, ripening, 12-13 
Peacocks, meat of, 8 
Pennsylvania Germans, scrapple rec- 
ipes, 287-288 
Pheasants, 8, 164 

curing, 215 
Pickling: 

fish, 226-228 

pigs' feet, 223-224 

pigs' feet souse, 224 

spiced corned beef, 225 

spiced tongue slices, 225-226 

tongue, 225 

tripe, 224-225 
Plucking feathers, 155, 157 
Poison, botulinus, 270 
Ponhaws, 288 
Pork: 

bacon (see Bacon) 

Boston butt, 131 

Canadian style bacon, 136, 180 

casings, 275 

curing, 201-209 (see also Curing: 
pork) 

cutting, for freezing, 179, 180 
cutting the carcass, 127-136 
digestibility of, 9 
freezing, packaging for, 183-185 



Pork (cont.): 

ham: 

skinned, 132 
taking off, 131 

lard, rendering, 293-294 

picnic shoulder and butt, 131 

sausages, 273-284 

scrapple recipes, 287-290 

smoking, 237-238 

spare ribs, 132 

tenderloin, 132, 135, 137 

trimming methods, 130 

trimmings, 127 
Poultry: 

average percentages, table, 156 
canning, 256-260 
composition of, table, 20-28 
drawing, 160-164 
dressing, 155-164 

chickens, 157-159 

ducks, 159-160 

geese, 160 

squabs, 160 

turkeys, 159 
federal-state grading and inspec- 
tion, 55-56 
freezing, packaging for, 185, 187- 
188 

killing, methods of, 155, 156 

motion pictures, 303 

removing feathers, 155, 157 

removing oil sac, 166 

types of, 39-40 
Prehistoric man, food of, 2 
Preserving meats, fowl, seafood (see 
also under separate head- 
ings): 

curing, 198-228 

drying, 228-231 

fish, 215-222 

freezing, 176-198 

home canning, 247-270 

pickling, 223-228 

smoking, 231-247 
Proteins, 18 
Publications: 

Department of Agriculture, 301- 
302 

Department of the Interior, 302- 
303 

Puddings, 272-273 



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Original from 
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INDEX 



317 



Quail, 8, 164 

Rabbits, 8, 36, 37, 122 

canning, 260-261 

cutting the carcass, 154 

disease of, 122 

domestic, 38 

scent glands, 123 

skinning, 122, 123 

wild, 35, 260-261 
Raccoons, 8, 36, 37 

scent glands, 122, 123 
Rackling, 230 
Recipes: 

cut spiced herring, 227 

headcheese, 286-287 

mincemeat, 291-293 
deer, 292-293 

pickled herring, 226-227 

pickled pigs' feet, 223-224 

pickled tongue, 225 

pickled tripe, 224-225 

pigs' feet souse, 224 

ponhaws, 288 

sausage, 277-285 
beef and pork, 279 
bologna, 282-283 
cured pork, 279 

Frankfurt or Vienna-style, 281- 
282 

fresh pork, 277-278 

game or hunters', 280 

goose liver, 284-285 

liver, 280-281 

mutton and pork, 280 

smoked, 280 

smoked pork, 279 

summer, 283-284 
scrapple, 287-290 

oatmeal, 290 

ponhaws, 288 

turkey, 290 
soap-making formulas, 296 
spiced corned beef, 225 
spiced tongue slices, 225-226 
standard curing mixture, 201 
tomato sauce, 267 
venison, 152-154 
Reference books, 304-306 
Riboflavin, 18, 19 



River herring, canning, 264-265 
Roe of fish, canning, 265-266 

Sater, Edna N., 122 
Sausage, 271-285 

beef and pork, 279 

bologna, 274, 275, 282-283 

casings, 271, 273, 275-277 

cured pork, 279 

freezing, 180, 181 

fresh pork, 277-278 

game or hunters', 280 

goose liver, 284-285 

liver, 274, 280-281 

mutton and pork, 280 

preparing, 273-277 

smoked, 280 

smoked pork, 279 

summer, 274, 283-284 
Sausage grinder, 274-276 
Scallops, freezing, 193 
Scent glands, removal of, 122-123 
Scoring meat, 14 
Scrapple recipes, 287-290 

oatmeal scrapple, 290 

turkey scrapple, 290-291 

ponhaws, 288 

scrapple, 288-290 
Seafoods, composition of, table, 20- 
28 

Sheep: 

butchering (see Butchering sheep 
and lambs) 

mountain, 117 

skins, handling, 126 
Shellfish: 

dried shrimp, 230-231 

freezing, packaging for, 193-194 
Shipping meat, regulations for, 72 
Shrimp: 

dried, 230-231 

freezing, 193-194 
Skinning or flaying animals, 67-70 
Skins and hides (see Hides and 

skins) 
Small game: 

canning, 260-261 

ripening, 12-13 
Smithfield processed ham, 207 
Smoked meats: 

insect infestation, 245-246 



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Original fro m 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



318 



INDEX 



Smoked meats (cont.): 

storing, 245-247 

testing, 245 
Smoked sausage, 279, 280 
Smokehouses, 231-237 

arrangement of meats in, 237 

barrel type, 232 

frame or concrete type, 232-236 

temperatures, 231 

woods used, 236 
Smoking meat and fish, 231-247 

beef, 238 

fish, 240-245 

fowl, 238-240 

lamb, 238 

pork, 237-238 

shrinkage after, 246 
Soap making, 295-297 

formulas, 296-297 
Souse, pigs' feet, 224 
Spiced corned beef, 225 
Spiced tongue slices, 225-226 
Spicing, 223 
Squabs, 39 

killing and plucking, 160 
Squirrels, 122 

State experiment stations, 309-310 
State game departments, 306-308 
Suckers, 42 

canning, 266 
Summer sausage, 274, 283-284 
Sunshine vitamin (D), 19 
Swans, meat of, 8 

Tenderay process, 13-14 
Thiamine, 18, 19 
Thuringer, fresh, 273 
Tin cans, 248, 250, 261-262 
Tongue: 

buffalo, 5, 6 

curing, 210-211 
Tongue slices, spiced, 225-226 
Tripe, 104 

Tularemia, testing for, 122 



Turkey, 39-40 

curing, 213-215 

digestibility of, 9 

killing and plucking, 159 

smoke-cooked, 239 

wild, 37-38 
Turkey scrapple, 290-291 

Variety meats, 223 
Veal, 104 

cutting the carcass, 146-148 
freezing: 

cutting for, 179, 180 
packaging for, 183-185 
Venison, 36 
curing, 213 

cutting the carcass, 152-154 

jerked, 229 

pemmican, 228 

recipes, 152-154 
Vienna sausage, 281-282 
Vitamin B, 18-19 
Vitamin C, 19 
Vitamin D, 19 
Vitamin G, 39 
Vitamins, 18-19 

in meat, poultry, seafoods, table, 
20-28 

Waterfowl, dressing, 159-160 

Wax plucking, 157 

Whalemeat, 43 

Whitefish, canning, 266-267 

Wieners, 282 

Wild fowl: 

drawing, 165 

dressing, 164-168 

plucking, 165-166 

singeing, 167 
Woodchucks, 8, 122, 123 
Woodcocks, 164 
Woods: 

for drying, 222 

for smoking, 236 
Wurst, kinds of, 273 



Digitized byGoOgle 



Original from 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



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Vj-UUglt CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



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CORNELL UNIVERSITY