Historic, Archive Document
Do not assume content reflects current scientific knowledge,
policies, or practices.
JUNE -AUGUST 1954
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE
Washington 25, D.C
IN THIS ISSUE
PRE- PREPACKAGING PEARS AND APPLES
By Fisk Gerhardt Page 3
Pears and apples in boxes lined with sealed plastic films retain
quality longer during and after cold storage. The author is with the
Biological Sciences Branchy AMS, at the Wenatchee, Wash. , USDA laboratory.
EGG MARKETING MARGINS
By Robert Conlogue Page 6
Mr. Conlogue , with the Marketing Organization and Costs Branchy AMS,
reports on a continuing study of marketing charges on eggs coming into
the Washington, D. C. market from nearby and midwestern production areas.
WINDOWS ARE IMPORTANT
By L. B. Darrah and K. S. Carpenter Page 9
Letting consumers see the carton's contents sells more eggs at re-
tail. Dr. Darrah is Professor of Marketing at Cornell University and Mr.
Carpenter is a cooperative employee with Cornell and AMS.
GRAPE STORAGE LOSSES CUT Page 12
OILSEED PROCESSING TRENDS
By George Kromer . Page 13
Changes in the major oilseed processing industries during the 1952-53
period are analyzed by Mr. Kromer, who is with the Special Crops Section,
(This issue of MARKETING ACTIVITIES covers the period June-August ±95h so
as to make possible the issuance of the publication on the first day of
succeeding months. The September 195U issue will be published September
1, and subsequent issues on the first day of each month.)
Address all inquiries
J. Grant Lyons, Editor,
U. S. Department of
Washington 25, D. C.
Material in this publica-
tion may be reprinted with-
out special permission.
A monthly publication of the United
States Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C. The printing of this
publication has been approved by the
Director of the Bureau of the budget
(March 2U, 1953). Copies may be ob-
tained from the Superintendent of Doc-
uments, Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C, at a subscrip-
tion price of |l.75 a year (domestic),
$2.25 a year (foreign), payable by
check or money order. Single copies
are 15 cents each.
Pears And Apples
By FIsk Gerhardt
Transparent plastic films such as Pliofilm, polyethylene , and cello-
phane have demonstrated their value in the prepackaging of fresh fruits
and vegetables. In fact, in many instances, these materials have made
the prepackaging of certain products possible. Now, some of these same
transparent films have proved their worth in what might be described as
the "ore-prepackaging" of certain fruits.
Studies made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture over the past
several years have demonstrated that certain sealed film box liners for
fall and winter pears and Golden Delicious apples not only substantially
lengthen the cold-storage life and maintain the quality of these fruits,
but also extend their "shelf-life" after removal from refrigerated storage.
Use of transparent film for packaging boxes of pears and apples des-
tined for prolonged cold storage is not as simple as the prepackaging of
fruits and vegetables for retail sale, however. Only a few of the various
types of Pliofilm, polyethene, and cellophane are suitable. When these
are used as sealed box liners, the work has to be done carefully. Some
types of film have to be perforated as soon as the boxed fruit is removed
from cold storage and all of them should be opened before the fruit is
shipped for retail sale. In addition, only sound fruit, treated with fungi-
cide, and handled with care, should be stored in sealed film box liners.
All commercial varieties of fall and winter pears produced in the
Pacific Northwest - Bartlett, Cornice, Anjou, and Bosc - lose their capa-
city to ripen normally after rather definite periods of storage at 31 de-
grees Fahrenheit. During extended storage they also lose moisture and at
relative humidities under 90 percent they eventually shrivel and lose
their fresh appearance. Methods of packaging the fruit to extend its stor-
age life and preserve its appearance and dessert quality were needed to
successfully market the increasing tonnange of the fruit which was being
produced in the Pacific Northwest Area.
For the past five years, research personnel of what is now the Bio-
logical Sciences Branch of the Agricultural Marketing Service have been
developing information on the packaging of pears and apples in various
kinds of sealed plastic films before placing them in storage. Special *
attention was given to the influence of the films on storage condition,
ripening capacity, dessert quality, and the physiology of the stored fruits.
The studies developed evidence
demonstrating that the appearance,
storage life and dessert quality of
fall and ■winter pears and Golden De-
licious apples can be improved by
packing the fruit in certain kinds
of sealed film box liners.
The types of films which may be
safely used as sealed liners during
storage at 31 degrees F. are: Plio-
films 75 FF, 80 and 100 Ml, 80 and
100 HP; cellophane 300 LSATj and
polyethylene 100 and 150. To avoid
injury to the fruit when such filmfe"
as Pliofilm 75 FF, 80 and 100 HP and
cellophane 300 LSAT are used, the
film liners should be perforated im-
mediately upon removal of the boxed
fruit from cold storage.
Commercial pear pack in film liner showing
method of closure by twist seal.
The other Pliofilms and polyeth-
ylene films cited possess sufficient
permeability to respiratory gasses
to permit safe handling of the fruit
at room temperature for at least h
days after removal from cold storage
without perforating the sealed liner.
All sealed film box liners for pack-
aged pears and apples should be per-
forated at shipping point before en-
tering into unsupervised handling at
Certain types of transparent
Fold-over of plastic film liner in commercial films - those with limited rates of
^ck of Golden Delicious apples in cell-type gaseOUS diffusion - Can Cause Severe
carton prior to sealing. Colored foil wraps injury or "off" flavor to packaged
are used to decorate top layer of fruit. fruit when Used as Sealed film box
liners, even at 31 degrees F. storage. The damage is done by the accum-
ulation of carbon dioxide being held within the liner and the failure of
the film to admit sufficient oxygen to support normal respiration of the
fruit. For this reason, films such as cellophane 300 and hS MSAT, and
Pliofilms 120 ?k and 120 P6 should not be used as sealed box liners with-
out suitable perforations.
During the research gas concentrations of 1 to 5 percent carbon di-
oxide and 10 to 18 percent oxygen were found in boxes of pears and apples
at 31 degrees F. storage when the various kinds of the recommended sealed
film box liners were used.
Physiological changes in pears, generally associated with progressive
ripening of the fruit in cold storage, were definitely retarded by the
use of sealed film liners. The "shelf-life" of the fruit when ripened
was generally increased several days by use of this packing procedure.
Pears in these sealed films possessed a fresher appearance, a greater free-
dom from shrivel, and cold storage life (with normal ripening capacity)
of 6 to 8 weeks longer than comparable fruit packed without protection of
the sealed film.
Apple Shriveling Reduced
While biochemical tests did not always reflect the benefit of sealed
film box liners for Golden Delicious apples, visual and taste examinations
and a check on weight loss of the fruit during storage did show the value
of this method of packing. Visible shriveling of these apples occurs when
they lose approximately 3 to 5 percent of their original weight during
storage. Without the protection of sealed film box liners such a con-
dition existed in all Golden Delicious apples, both in cartons and wooden
boxes when stored for extended periods - past January of each marketing
year. The greatest protection against shrivel in stored apples was pro-
vided by polyethylene film.
When polyethylene 1$0 and Pliofilms 80 EMI and 80 HP were used for
sealed box liners for apples, the fruit, even after prolonged storage, had
a fresh look, a firm feel to hand pressure, and a delicate aromatic flavor
characteristic of the variety when sampled early in its storage life.
Liners Must Be Used Carefully
Certain precautions must be taken when pears and apples are packed
in sealed film liners. Every effort should be made to use fruit free from
surface abrasions and potential fungi infection^ it should be washed with
an effective fungicide and handled carefully to minimize bruising, as
moisture conditions within the sealed package are conducive to the develop-
ment of decay. Care should be excercised in handling and in closing the
film box liner to assure a perfect seal. Even a small tear will prevent
the accumulation of a necessary amount of carbon dioxide in the package.
Trade Acceptance Excellent
Commercial use of sealed film box liners for storage packing pears
and Golden Delicious Apples has increased considerably, and trade accept-
ance of fruit packed in this manner has been excellent. Terminal market
handlers have been particularly impressed with the fresh appearance and
uniformity of excellent color development of such fruit when it has rip-
ened. As one of them said:
"It would be wonderful if all winter pears were packed this way
throughout the season. These look as if they were picked only yesterday."
The work on sealed film box liners reported in this article was done
at the research laboratory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture at Wen-
June -August 19 5U
Egg Marketing Margins
By Robert M. Conlogue
What are the costs of marketing eggs? Who receives the difference
oetween what producers are paid for their eggs and what city consumers
pay for" them.
These and other questions are being answered for at least one large
city market — Washington, D. C. — in a study now under way in the Agricul-
tural Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. The study covers
the total spread between prices paid to producers and prices paid by con-
sumers for eggs entering the Washington, D. C, market. The marketing
margins are those received by country egg assemblers (including transpor-
tation costs), margins received by primary receivers (wholesalers in the
District of Columbia market), and retailers' "mark-ups."
In November 1953, the total marketing margin on eggs from the time
they left the farm until they were sold to consumers in Washin 0 ton, D. C.,
ranged from 27^ cents to 3&g cents a dozen. Of this total, country as-
semblers typically received about 7 cents a dozen; primary receivers
(wholesalers) got 10 cents; and large retailers, 10f cents. Small re-
tailers took 13-g- cents a dozen for their services.
Eggs coming into the Nation's Capital were lar 0 ely from flocks in
concentrated producing areas in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and
Virginia, and in Minnesota and Iowa. Total costs of marketing eggs varied
considerably, depending upon distance of production area from the market,
handling techniques, the weather, quality losses, and other factors. A
breakdown of these costs follows:
Country Assemblers' Margins
For eggs marketed in Washington which came from nearby States, coun-
try assemblers received a gross margin of about 7 cents a dozen. This 7
cents included about 1 cent per dozen for pickup at farms; cases, flats,
and fillers, about 1-3/U cents; transportation, 1-^ cents; plant labor,
other operating expenses, and profit, about 3 cents.
Prices paid midwestern producers for eggs shipped to the Washington
market in November 1953 were $\ cents lower than prices paid to producers
in nearby States. Most of this difference can be accounted for by trans-
portation costs, which amount to 3 to 3\ cents per dozen from the Midwest,
and by the loss in grade caused mainly by the long haul and additional
time it takes to move eggs from midwestern producers to eastern consumers.
The eggs are candled and generally D raded after reaching eastern markets.
The loss in grade is estimated equivalent to about 2 cents per dozen on
the average. Other direct costs to midwestern country assemblers, on the
basis of preliminary findings, were similar to those encountered by east-
ern assemblers. These were: Pickup at farms, 1 to 1^ cents a dozen;
cases, flats and fillers, 2 cents; plant labor, 1-2/10 to 1-8/10 cents a
dozen; and other operating costs, \ to l]=r cents.
City Wholesalers' Margins
Primary receivers (wholesale handlers) in Washington, D. C, got a
gross margin of 10 cents per dozen for eggs during the November 195>3 peri-
od. The operating costs of these handlers were the same whether the eggs
came from nearby States or the Midwest. Typical costs for this group of
handlers are approximately 1^- to 3 cents a dozen for labor and candling;
3 cents for cartons; 2 cents for breakage, spoilage, and grade loss; and
about 1 to l|- cents for plant overhead and other expenses.
Large retailers purchasing eggs from Washington, D. C. wholesalers
received a gross margin of 10^- cents per dozen, and small retailers pur-
chasing from wholesalers and others (principally hucksters) had a gross
margin of 13^ cents per dozen. Information on the costs of handling eggs
at the retail level were not obtained since many of the services provided
by retailers are common to all commodities in the store. Gross percentage
margins on eggs, however, approximate average margins on all products com-
bined sold by retail food stores in the Washington, D. C, area.
Seasonal Change in Margin
Preliminary data for February l°5Uj when compared with the November
1953 study, show a narrowing of the total spread between producers and
consumers of about 3^ cents per dozen. This can be partly accounted for
by heavier egg production, which resulted in a greater volume marketed
with a consequent reduction of costs. In general, eggs coming to the
Washington market in February are of somewhat better average quality than
eggs coming to market in November, depending upon the weather and other
factors. This makes it possible for distributors to lower their margins
somewhat in February since overall costs of handling are less when a small-
er percentage of undergrade eggs are being received.
Handling Metnods Improve Quality
The study revealed that eggs marketed in Washington usually were
purchased by country assemblers, both in nearby States and the Midwest,
on the basis of size and expected "grade-out." In many instances the pro-
ducer's name or a code was attached to the case in which nearby eggs were
shipped to Wasnington. When the eggs were candled by the wholesaler, a
record was kept of the grade-out — the number of grade "A" large, grade
"A" medium, grade "A" small, "B's," "C's," "checks," and "leakers." If
the record on a particular case snowed th t the "undergrades" it contain-
ed were more than would normally be expected, a report of this was for-
warded to the country assembler. The assembler then contacted the pro-
ducsr and informed him that his eggs were under the expected grade and
advised hijri to correct the situation on his next shipment. This type of
check, or a variation of it has been successful in encouraging producers
to follow production practices which provide country assemblers a high
proportion of top-quality eggs.
Where such a practice was not followed, eggs often were purchased
by country assemblers, small stores, and others as current receipts. Bay-
ers purchasing eggs this way with no later followup on production practices
affecting quality, have experienced poor yields and therefore tended to
pay producers less for their eggs.
It was quite noticeable duringthe preliminary study that top-quality
eggs which had been purchased on a "producer-check" basis graded out much
better and yielded producers a greater return than eggs coming into the
Washington market from areas where there was no check on the producer.
Selling "On Grade" Pays
Producers who sold eggs on a graded basis to dealers supplying the
Washington market received prices which were above average for sales in
regular wholesale channels. It was evident that they had followed pro-
duction practices which are conducive to the maintenance of quality, since
other producers in the same production areas who failed to maintain quali-
ty were forced to sell on a current receipts basis.
As handlers pointed out, it costs as much to pick up "undergrade"
eggs at farms and transport them to consuming areas as it does to pick up
and transport grade "A" eggs. In addition, replacement costs for the
"undergrades" increase in proportion to the number of them that come into
consuming areas. "Undergrades" must be sold for a relatively low price
compared with the price paid for them.
Results of the study so far clearly indicate that it is profitable
for producer to follow production methods which result in shipment of
top quality eggs and to choose outlets which will pay according to the
quality of eggs delivered. When a greater proportion ' of quality eggs
are sent to market, producers receive better returns, handlers may re-
duce their costs because of the lower number of undergrade handled, and
consumers benefit by a lower price.
FARM TO LIVE. ..LIVE TO FARM
President Eisenhower has proclaimed the week beginning July 25, 195U,
as National Farm Safety Week. The National Safety Council and USDA are
again sponsoring National Farm Safety Week in cooperation with State and
local groups, farm organizations, farm press and radio, trade and other
associations and many others interested in agriculture. The concerted
action of all of these groups during the past 11 years has done much to
affect a substantial reduction in farm injuries.
Windows Are Important
By L. B. Darrah and K. S, Carpenter
Housewives are interested in what 1 s inside an egg carton before they
purchase it. Quite a few of them handle the closed type of cartons now
in use - turning them on end or prying open the cover to inspect their
contents - before they make a selection in retail food stores.
This trait - probably more a good buying habit than just feminine
curiosity - considered in connection with advances in use of transparent
containers for other food products indicated that egg cartons with windows
in the top might be practical and probably would increase egg sales.
Research personnel of Cornell University and the Agricultural Market-
ing Service, USDA, designed window type egg cartons, providing more open
space in the cover than cartons currently in use, and tested them for
effect on sales in supermarkets in New York State.
Preliminary results indicated that the window type cartons have a fa-
vorable effect on egg sales and those with the largest window space in the
top of the carton gave the greatest increase in egg sales.
Egg Cartons Do Many Things
Egg cartons are used for several reasons: They protect eggs in the
marketing process; make it easy for the customer to purchase and handle
eggs since picking up a carton of eggs from a display is a simple matter,
and little attention has to be given to handling methods between the dis-
play and the home. Another use for cartons is to separate the eggs into
desirable units of sale.
Egg cartons also can aid in establishing a brand name. Although few
retailers seem to realize it, the eggs they handle can have a distinctive
brand name and become a specialty item for the retailer.
Perhaps one of the most important reasons for using an egg carton is
to improve the appearance of and stimulate interest in the product. Many
people marketing eggs have attempted to do this through a carton design
embodying a glorified selection of colors, figures, and printing — but
still the housewife has to turn the typical egg carton on its end or pry
open the cover to inspect the eggs.
Evidence that the customer is interested in the contents of a carton
of eggs was obtained during three egg merchandising studies in Central New
York State. In all three studies over 50 percent of the customers who
were purchasing eggs hesitated before selecting the package they were go-
j_ug to Duy. Nearly one-l'ifth of the customers, 10 percent , nanu_Lt;u. uiic
cartons — comparing weights, feeling the tops, viewing the eggs through
the end of the cartons or opening the cartons in making their choice.
These observations, coupled with the trend in recent years towards
the use of transparent containers and packages for many other products,
indicated that egg sales might be increased if customers were able to
view the contents of an egg carton.
To determine if this might be true, three types of cartons with rela-
tively large windows were designed for experimental testing in retail
stores. One type of carton had six small windows which accounted for
about 25 percent of the top cover area (table 1). The second had three
medium-size windows occupying nearly U0 per cent of the carton cover, while
in a third type approximately one-half of the top cover was used for two
The average of four types of windowed cartons currently in use shows
that about 11 percent of the top cover area is devoted to windows. Thus,
the experimental cartons developed for the study had considerably more
window space than any cartons in current usage.
Table 1. PROPORTION OF TOP COVER USED FOR
WINDOWS IN VARIOUS TYPES OF CARTONS
Proportion of cover
used for windows
Average of k types of windowed cartons
currently in use
Cartons Used in the Study:
(l) Six small windows
(2) Three medium-sized windows
(3) Two large windows
The three types of windowed cartons and the regular non-windowed
cartons used in the study are shown in the chart on page 11. Before offer-
ing eggs for sale in these cartons, each carton was inscribed with the
same brand name, color of egg, size, and grade markings. For better egg
protection and to improve the attractiveness of the package, the windows
in the experimental cartons were covered with cellophane.
The experimental cartons were tested for consumer acceptance in a
supermarket in each of four Central New York cities during February 195U.
This study, known as a "latin square test" permitted the four types of
cartons to be offered for sale in the four different markets during four
separate time periods. This type of test was selected because it mini-
mized the effects on egg sales of variables other than the type of carton.
In the study, each week was divided into two time periods, Monday through
Thursday being used as one time period and Friday and Saturday serving
as the other. With this design, it was possible to complete the test in
two weeks and the experiment, with one replication, in. a month.
The results of the experiment are* shown in Table 2. The regular non-
windowed cartons were used as a base with sales per 100 customers of 5.3
dozens. With the three -windowed carton, sales averaged 6.1 dozen or 15
percent more than for the regular non-windowed carton. With the six-win-
dowed carton, sales averaged 6.3 dozen or 19 percent above the regular
carton. Highest sales were obtained with the two-windowed carton (where
half of the cover was devoted to windows ) — 6.7 dozen, or 26 percent above
the standard carton used.
Table 2. EFFECT OF WINDOWED CARTONS ON EGG SALES
k Central New lork Supermarkets, February 195U
Egg sales per
Per cent of
Regular (no windows)
-X- Sales of eggs in regular type carton used as Standard.
EFFECT OF VISUAL-TYPE CARTONS ON EGG SALES
4 CENTRAL NEW YORK SUPERMARKETS, FEB. - MARCH, 1954
TYPE OF PER 100 CUSTOMERS % OF STANDARD
CART0N DOZENS PERCENT
HR 1 6.7 126
^px^^r 63 119
Tl 6.1 115
Kate: The egg cartons shown in this chart are the cctual types used in the experiment described in the
article. Only the labeling has been removed.
June-August 195h U
These data, while based on one experiment, need further testing be-
fore conclusive statements can be made concerning the relative value of
different-sized windows in cartons. Nevertheless, the evidence strongly
suggests that the window-type cartons do favorably affect egg sales with
greatest sales per 100 customers occurring with cartons having the great-
est space devoted to windows.
Grape Storage Losses Cut
Substantial savings from the reduction of storage losses in Cali-
fornia table grapes are indicated by results of two separate, but relat-
ed, research projects conducted by the Biological Sciences Branch, Agri-
cultural Marketing Service, USDA. One is a finding that the major source
of decay in stored grapes can be reduced by field applications of fungi-
cides, used as an adjunct to usual fumigation of the grapes in storage.
The other is a method of forecasting the amount of decay that will develop
in grapes during storage.
California table grapes usually are harvested in October and Novem-
ber. Most of the crop - $ to 6 million lugs of 28 pounds each, in recent
years - goes into cold storage and is marketed during the winter and spring
months. Grapes going into storage are fumigated with sulfur dioxide im-
mediately after packing and at intervals during cold storage. While this
fumigation will kill fungus spores on the surface of grapes and will in-
hibit the spread of decay through contact during storage, it does not kill
fungus mycelium which already has invaded the tissue of the grapes. Much
decay which occurs in storage is due largely to incipient field infections
not detectable at harvest, but which can be prevented by applying an ap-
propriate fungicide in the field.
Tests over the past three years, have shown that use of certain fungi-
cides on growing grapes as an adjunct to post-harvest fumigation signifi-
cantly reduced decay in stored Emperor grapes. These chemicals are Captan
(N-trichloromethylinercapto-U-cyclohexene-l, 2-dicarboximide), B-622 (2,U-
dichloro-6-(0-chloroanilino)-S-triazine) and Crag $\\Q0 (Alpha, alpha-tri-
thiobis-(N-dimethyl thiof ormamide) .
Decay in experimental lots of stored grapes has been successfully
forecast in studies over the past two years by measuring the incipient in-
fections in grapes at time of harvest. Representative samples of each lot
of grapes were collected immediately before storage, fumigated with sulfur
dioxide to destroy surface infection and incubated under aseptic, moist
conditions at room temperatures for 10 days. The amount of decay which
developed under these conditions indicates the amount that will develop
in several months at lower sturage temperatures.
Such a forecast should be of great economic value since knowledge of
the potential decay makes it possible to market poor-keeping grapes before
serious losses occur and hold for longer storage those grapes with better
Oilseed Processing Trends
By George Kroner
Within each of the major oilseed processing industries two shifts in
structure and operation have been significant and continual since World
War II. One has been a decrease in number of mills, with an accompanying
increase in average mill size. The other has been an increase in oil
yield, resulting from the building of new mills of more efficient types-
screw press and chemical solvent extraction - and a large number of mills
converted to these processes. At the request of USDA, the Bureau of the
Census has made periodical surveys since 19U5 of soybean, cottonseed and
flaxseed processing plants for quantities of seed processed and oil pro-
duced, by method of extraction.
Changes that the surveys have disclosed are of such importance in
planning new mills and mill locations, remodeling mills, operating and
merchandising methods and practices, farm and commercial storage, trans-
portation, and Government programs, that requests for the information far
precede the summarization and publication of the information collected.
The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the 1952-53
survey, showing the problems of the oilseed industries ana their efforts
to adjust to shifting crop areas, improved processing techniques, and the
resultant over-capacity and close competition.
The industry expanded facilities rapidly after World War II in re-
sponse to expanded acreages and oilseed supplies and to relatively high
prices for fats and oils and oilseed meals. In the more recent years fats-
and-oils prices have been far below their post-war highs, and processors'
margins have narrowed. Nevertheless, the processor has had to compete
strongly for sufficient seed to utilize his full capacity for operating
efficiently and lower unit cost.
The domestic soybean processing industry has continued to shift to
the more efficient solvent extraction method. While inl9U5-l|.6 this meth-
od represented only 28 percent of all soybeans processed, it accounted
for 86 percent in 1952-53. Conversely a decrease in the quantity process-
ed by the screw press during this period has resulted in only 13 percent
being handled by this method in 1952-53. Almost all of this change took
place in the eight central soybean States - Illinois, Iowa, Ohio., Indiana,
Minnesota, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska - where about 90 percent of the
soybeans are processed. The hydraulic press method, gradually fading out
for soybean processing, accounted for less than 1 percent of the total
processed in 1952-53 and was restricted to mills in the Cotton Belt.
Significant changes are also taking place in number . nd size of soy-
bean oil mills. In 1951-52, 193 mills processed soybeans in the United
States as compared with only I7I4 in 1952-53. Solvent extraction mills
increased in number from the earlier year — 70-76 — and all this increase
was in States outside the Soybean Belt. Furthermore, the solvent mills
increased in size, as measured by the average quantity processed per mill.
Screw press mills dropped in number from 92 in 1951-52 to 79 in 1952-53.
Three-fourths of the mills which disappeared were located in the 8 cen-
tral soybean States. Hydraulic mills processing soybeans dropped from
31 in the earlier season to only 19 in 1952-53. This decrease represents
about a UO percent decline in hydraulic mills.
Oil yield per bushel of soybeans processed, for "the industry as a
whole, increased from 10.00 in 1951-52 to 10.82 pounds in 1952-53. Both
the solvent extraction and screw press methods increased oil outturns
slightly more than a half pound while the hydraulic press method decreas-
ed outturns. Solvent extraction processors recovered on the average 11.11
pounds of oil per bushel, or two pounds more oil than the screw press
processors and three pounds more oil than the hydraulic processors.
Among the individual States, Illinois had the highest oil outturn,
11.20 pounds, and Indiana ranked second with 11.00 pounds. Tre eight cen-
tral soybean States averaged nearly a pound more oil recovery than the
other soybean States (table 1, page 16).
In the 1952-53 season, the 76 solvent extraction mills represented
about kk percent of the soybean mills in the industry but accounted for
86 percent, or 201 million bushels, of "the 23h million processed. Further-
more, because of superior recovery rate, the solvent extraction method pro-
duced 88 percent of the crude soybean oil in the United States.
The cottonseed processing industry is also continuing its trend to-
ward more efficient extraction methods — more solvent and screw press op-
erations and fewer hydraulic presses. The direct- and prepress- solvent
extraction methods together accounted for about 21 percent of the 5.5
million tons processed during 1952-53, compared with only 11.5 percent in
1951-52. A simultaneous decrease from 57 percent to I4.6 percent took place
in the hydraulic press method. While the hydraulic method remains the most
important single process, this is the first time in industry history that
this method has accounted for less than half of the total crush.
During the 1952-53 season, 303 cottonseed oil mills operated in com-
parison with 328 in 1951-52. (The 1952-53 figures do not include 8 mills
which delint, hull, and ship the cottonseed meats to a central solvent
plant.) The decrease represents a sharp drop in the number of hydraulic
mills. The screw press and solvent extraction mills each increased by 5«
Tne distribution of mills by method of extraction in 1952-53 was as follows:
Hydraulic press, 205; screw press. 80: direct -solvent extraction, 10; and
prepress-solvent extraction, 8 (table 2, page 16).
Oil yield per ton averaged 328 pounds in 1952-53, an increase of 8
pounds over 1951-52. Average oil recovery by the different methods was:
Prepress- solvent , 380 pounds; direct-solvent, 358 pounds, screw press,
327 pounds; and hydraulic press, 310 pounds (table 3, page 17). The
greatest increase in oil outturn was attained by the solvent extraction
methods. The prepress-solvent method extracted 12 pounds more oil and
direct -solvent 10 pounds more oil in 1952-53 than in the previous year.
The flaxseed processing industry is apparently the most stable one
of the three considered here insofar as quantities processed by method of
extraction and oil outturn are concerned. Of the 25 million bushels pro-
cessed during the 1952-53 season, 53.5 percent was by the screw press
method in comparison with 52.6 percent in 1951-52 (table U, page 17).
The remainder in both years was processed primarily by the prepress-sol-
vent method. Regarding linseed oil outturn per bushel for the industry
as a whole, it was 20.3 pounds in 1951-52 and 20.1 pounds in 1952-53.
The most important change in the flaxseed processing industry appears
to be the decline in number of linseed oil mills from 23 in 1951-52 to 18
in 1952-53. All seven mills that went out were screw press type.
Soybeans: Quantities processed, by method of extraction, 19U5-U6 to 1952-53 and oil
yield per bushel 19U7-U8 to 1952-53 1/
Oct. 1 -
19U5-U6 102, Mi2 6U.2 144,907 28.2 12,111 7.6 159,1160
19U6-U7 108, 7hh 63.9 US ,22k 26.6 16,271 9.5 170,239
I9I+7-I4.8 88,233 Sh.h 61,000 37.6 12,933 8.0 162, 166
19U8-U9 101,535 55.3 72,773 39.6 9,35l 5.1 183,659
19U9-50 80,5U6 Ul.2 109,258 55.9 5,729 2.9 195,533
1951- 52 60,1^0 2U.9 178 , 9 2 2 7 3 . 7 3,1480 I.I4 2.).?,8l42
1952- 53 31,096 13.3 200,702 85. 8 2,082 .9 233,880
Oil yield per bushel
Crop year \ Pounds Pounds [ Pounds
19147-U8 8.86 10.67 8.I46 9.51
19U8-U9 9.16 10.914 8.67 9.314
19U9-50 8.96 10.73 8.38 9.93
1951- 52 8.57 10.52 8.39 10.00
1952- 53 9,11 11.11 8.11 10.82
1/ Data for 1950-51 not available.
SOURCE: Special survey by Bureau of the Census and U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Table 1. — Soybeans: Number of mills, quantities processed, and oil yield, by method of extraction, United States,
by states, 1952-53 1/
: solvent >.vXv cti-jjj :
: Quantity :
: Quantity :
Oil yield :
0.: , L. id
■ ." U .
c\JU s (Uc
11 • 11
10 7 3
1/ October 1, 1952 to September 30, 1953-
2j Mills classified by their major type of process.
3/ The discrepancy between total and the detailed columns is due to 19 hydraulic press mills, in the Cotton Belt,
that processed 2,082 bushels of soybeans averaging 8.11 pounds of oil per bushel.
h/ Not shown to avoid disclosure of individual processors' operations.
SOURCE: Special survey by
bureau of Census and U.
Table 2. — Cottonseed:
of mills, quantities processedj
by regions and states
and oil yield, by method of extraction, United States,
, 1952-53 1/
Screw ; rts:
Region and State
: Oil yield
: per ton
Missouri and New
1/ August 1, 1952 to July 31, 1953.
2/ Mills classified by their major type of process.
3/ The discrepancy between total and the detailed columns is due to 18 solvent extraction mills. Ten direct-sol-
vent mills processed 512,1*39 tons, averaging 358 pounds of oil. Eight prepress-solvent mills processed 638,915 tons,
averaging 380 pounds of oil.
k/ Not shown to avoid disclosure of individual processors' operations.
SOURCE: Special survey by Bureau of Census and U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Table 3. — Yield of crude cottonseed oil per ton of cottonseed, by method of extraction, United States, by regions
and states, 1952-53 season 1/
Region and State
: Hydraulic :
: press :
: Direct solvent
: Prepress solvent :
: extraction :
1/ August 1, 1952 through July 31, 1953-
2/ Not shown to avoid disclosure of individual processors' operations.
SOURCE: Special survey by Bureau of Census and U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Table 1*. — Soybeans, cottonseed and flaxseed: Number of mills, quantity processed, and oil yield, by method of
extraction, United States, 1951-52 and 1952-53
Method of :
Number of mills
: Quantity processed
sld per bushel
: Change :
1,000 bu. Percent
60,1U*0 21*. 9
Oil yield per
1/ Not shown to avoid disclosure of individual processors' operations.
2/ The difference between total and screw press method primarily processed by prepress solvent.
SOURCE: Special survey by Bureau of Census and U. S. Dept. of A-r.
The following address and publications, issued recently, may be ob-
tained upon request. To order, check on this page the publications de-
sired, detach and mail to the Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.
The Economics of Marketing Meat-Type Hogs. Statement by Gerald
Engelman. May 195U. 17 pp. (AMS) (Processed)
Public ations :
Rules and Regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture Governing the
Grading and Certification of Meats, Prepared Meats, and Meat Products; and
Administrator's Instructions Thereunder. Service and Regulatory Announce-
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Livestock Slaughter, By States, 1953 Revised Monthly Estimates. May
195k. Ik PP. (AMS) (Processed)
Livestock Slaughter - Meat and Lard Production 1952-1953. May 195km
2 pp. (AMS) (Processed)
Farm Production, Farm Disposition and Value of Principal Crops 1952-
1953, By States. May 195k. hi pp. (AMS) (Processed)
Get More Good From Milk. May 1951*. 15 pp. (AMS and ARS) (Pro-
Outer-Market Distribution of Milk in Paper Containers in the North
Central Region. October 1953. kk PP» (AMS in cooperation with Indiana
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Wholesale Produce Markets of San Diego, Calif. May 195U. 30 pp.
Lespedeza Seed Production by Varieties, Average 19U2 -1951, 1952, 1953.
May 195k. 1 p. (AMS) (Processed)
Charges for Ginning Cotton, Costs of Selected Services Incident to
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Processing Costs of Soybean-Oil Mills 1951-52 and 1952-53. May 195U
15 pp. (AMS) (Processed)
Processing the Three Major Oilseeds. Marketing Research Report No.
58. April 195k. 37 pp. (AMS) (Printed)
Studies of Watermelon Loading for Rail Shipment, 1953. Marketing Re-
search Report No. 62. May 195U. 27 pp. (AMS) (Printed)
18 Marketing Activities
United States Standards for Green Corn. Effective May 18, 195k. k
pp. (AMS) (Processed)
United States Standards for Grades of Cucumber Pickles. Effective
April 30, 195k. 2U pp. (AMS) (Processed)
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10, 195k. 9 pp. (AMS) (Processed)
Carlot Shipments of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables by Commodities, States
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