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CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 

INFORMATION REPORT 


This Document contains information affecting the Na- 
tional Defense of the United 8tates, within the mean- 
ing of Title 18. Sections 793 and 794, of the U.S. Code, as 
amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents 
to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited 
by law. The reproduction of this form is prohibited 


SECRET 

SECURITY INFORMATION 


COUNTRY 

SUBJECT 


USSR/East Zone of Germany 

1. Electronics at Mil 11, Gorkjy, 
and at 0SW 

2. Living Conditions in the USSR 


DATE OF INFO. 
PLACE ACQUIRED 


REPORT 

DATE DISTR. 

NO. OF PAGES 
REQUIREMENT NO. 
REFERENCES 


30 June 1953 

1 


(This is UNEVALUATED Information! 


THE SOURCE EVALUATIONS IN THIS REPORT ARE DEFINITIVE. 
THE APPRAISAL OF CONTENT IS TENTATIVE. 

(FOR KEY SEE REVERSE) 


25 YEAR RE-REVIEW 




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STATE X ARMY 

X |NAVY | X 

AIR 

X | FBI 

AEC 

1 


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ELECTRONICS 
N.U 11 GORKI ( USSR) 


1-» /Laboratory No* 2 at N. I, I. 11 under Dr» HA.SSBLBECK 


/ 


(i) Field Strength Meter 
Range - 80*4*00 Me/ s« 

Type of input - Pulse or CW 
Band-width - 2 Me/ s. 

S/N . - 7 KTo 

(ii) Field Strength Meter 
Range - 20-100 Mc/s. 

Type of input - Pulse or O.V 

It was stipulated that the sensitivity was to be as high as possible. 

The valve© used in the field strength meters were manufactured in SVETLANA 
and were types 2 Q (now designated TM 1) and LD 1. The band-widths of 
both ( i) and (ii) had to be great enough to deal with a 1 /y^s pulse* A 
peak voltage meter in the output provided satisfactory indication under 
various conditions of attenuator adjustment. It was specified that the 
equipment should be capable of working in close proximity to a pulse trans- 
mitter, The direot pulse was intended to blook the meter receiver and to 
olear the receiver in time to Measure the reflected pulse. The blocking 
arrangement could be switched off so that Ol' measurements in the range 
2 fx V/m - 100 mV/m could be taken. 

2. Parallel to the above work, ZIGANKE and FL0ER worked in a neighbouring 
laboratory on development of a signal generator for the range 80-4-00 Mc/s. 

The output waB said to be 1 a/v* — 100 n/v into.. 73 Ohms, Dr, HASSELHEGK 

at this time, together with' Ing. K. CERTEt, developed a. signal generator 
of 80-400 Mo/s frequency range, but adapted for external pulse modulation. 

3, N. I. L .11 is located in the MUSA suburb of GORKI. The Institute covered 
an area of approximately 80 x 30 ire and had three stories, with a flat roof. 

The building was erected in 1920, and is centrally heated# although the rooms 
at the end of the heating ducts are heated by stoves. Detailed layou t of 
the- building is not included in this report^ 


4. LENIN. ZAVOD 

Situated on the railway ARZAMAS-G0HKI, about 500 m north east of FBUNSE 
This is purely a product ion plant. Geimans w ere enrol oy o d 


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5. FRUN3S. ZAVOD (Opposite LENIN Works) 


HERZOG -wo rked here, clearing production jifficult ieBj 


— ^ ■ . r — — — — __i Prototypes frcm N. 1, 1. 11 

ere taken to the FRUNSE ZAVOD for series production. They generally 
started up with batches of 100. * & -W 


AT 

of the following i- 


om 


SOVIET orders fbr the development 


(i) Field strength measuring receiver for 1.25 Mc/s (cw) 
sensitivity 1 yuV/m with frame. 

(ii) Field strength measuring receiver for 20-100 Mo/s (.Off) 
sensitivity 1 w^m with frame and with dipole aerial. 


3 In June 1952 a Soviet order for the 

development of a field strength measuring receiver 80-450 Mq/s (pulse) 

was received. This was completed xn December 1952. Completely conventional 

techniques were employed in these tasks. | 

- ZZ7 1 


7* H lsboratory was given the task of 

developing the following field Strength measuring gear for the Soviets:- 

(i) 370 Mc/s - 1500 Mc/s (CSV) 

(ii) 1500 Mc/'s - 10,000 Mq/s (pulse) 


8. In May 1952 the ASTRO -PHYSICAL INSTITUTE, POTSDAM, placed an order 
for GALACTIC noise measuring set in the band 1 60-200 Mc/s. J 1 

— r l SACHSENWERK, 

RADEBERG is developing a 50 cm reoeiver for POTSDAM ASTRO-PHYSICAL INSTITUTE, 
and also that the HEINRICH HERTZ INSTITUTE is working on a 80 cm reoeiver 
for them. Dr. Kurt MIE of POTSDAM does the liaison work with the OSVV, 
HEINRICH HERTZ INSTITUTE and RADEBERG, He is said to have a Dipl. Ing. 
SCHNEEWOLF of the TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, DRESDEN as his collaborator. 


9. I 

OS W. f 
band* 


or the band ,8-100 Mo/s, giving 


a transmitter is being developed at 
200 Watts and wobbled over an unknown 


10* Miscellaneous QSff News 

(i) Dr. BIN GEL, who had been working on germanium detectors and trans- 
istors, was dismissed in November 1952 

|_ HELSfe/IG- has taken over but is much hampered by lack 

of germanium. He is making germanium deteotors for RAIEBERG* 

( ii) Dr* NEIDHAKDT (DRAGON Returnee from MONINO) gave in December 1952 
four illustrated lectures in the ™orks on "The G-lories of the 
SOVIET UNION, 11 No one attended. 

(iii) Gerhard ME OLA of SACHSEMERK, RAIGFERG, visits 09ff frequently 
and is said to be very active politically. 


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SCI Ed’TIEIC (M)ER OlT BAT TLE 


PE RSON- ALI TIBS (Russian) - N.I.I. 11. 


Director SKIBAHKA Head of the Institute in ERUJNfSE until- about 

1948. 

Cert, En^. DOih Z'EV Head of the UHF- Laboratory for reo.eivers , 

transmitters and acces sorias* 


Cert* .Eng# G-E^SDEV 

Designer j.U^AblN 

IiALITSCHEV 


SUYEV 


Director GURSHKOV 
■Director EETROV 


IWOV 


Hoad of ■ Laboratory for receivers , UHF field 
strength .measurements etc* 

In. charge of designing 

Engineer and prganisor. " He was the man 
competent for^tbe German specialists* 

Head of personnel* 

Successor to SftIBARKA 

Was the man responsible for food, 
accommodation and transport in ICARPOVKA. 

Medical officer in M‘(lsU* 


BIELAIEV 


Trade Union functionary? 

Game from Ministry in MOSCOW* 


KURLATSGHW 


Laboratory . manager* 


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HKSONAIJT-IES (German) -N.I.I, n 
Ere HAS3EL3ECK 

Dr, Otto BAIER (went 1 948/4-9 to GORKI) 

Dr. WEIZENl^LLER 
tir. RHODE 
Dr. 3PLE0NTITA 
Dr, B<UJER 
Dipl, Ing. ZIGANKE 

Dipl.- Ing, i'LQER 

" " KOLCKMAR 

» « REfERX 

Ing, HERZOG 

" OERTEL, Kurt 

" ffiEISSNKR (Moved' 1 Sk£ to MOSCOW) 

" . RIEDEL 

" MARKS 

" TABGE 

" BUNSEMBR 

" BRADE 

Designer OERTEL, Wilhelm 

" b(5hm 

" krOger 

" 3TERNAGBL 

" GUERT 

" REIDT (KOHSNICk) 

LENIN ZAVQD 
Dr. HOiadhjIER 
Dr. EAI2TER 

Dr. SCHLOEMILCH (Moved 194.8 to MOSCOW) 

Dr. HERRMANN 

Dipl, Ing. WACHEIffiOsEN 
Ing, WERNER 
Ing. BIERSACK 

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ivlISCEI.f AN RnTtfl 

Th e Sta ndard of ..Living in th e Soviet Un io n 


In order to assess the standard of living in the Soviet Union oorreotly 
the modest requirements of the Soviet people must be taken into account. One 
often finds . that money is wasted on excessive indulgence in alcohol without ahv 
^rl^s^ccs 76 '’ and at th ^ same ti ^ ^aVoeople Vegetate" in extremely 


"r, r. , _ ... ■ - L . t I*" J - 0 

of the population who favour such short drinking bouts. 


it is precisely the lowest-paid sections. 


jlu x xi ‘ — — uuui/ti, It may be. of course 

that those wh o are better si tuated hold their celebrations in a manner which ’ 
! , / could not ob serve . 7 " : — — 


„ ov . In £ ® nerai * groups emerged clearly. These were the politically-employed 
party members and those persons who do not belong to any organisation. 7 Thb 7 
tb ? trade union assists “politicians" in big and little positions right 
up to the time they receive old age pensions, camp in KARPOVKA is a good 

example of this. All auxiliary labour was organised, from the bo Herman to the 
nurse , who was entered on the list as “female stoker" and had no idea of sick- 

of ^UKERTNOV 8 W ^h triQd „ to obtaia , a domestic help . from the neighbouring village 

°* _ S he was ^ non-political ^ director PETROV let her work, after 

m c negotiation. ~ I she is only permitted to do “colchose" 

+u. roadmakm,^ work. This category of villagers has no identity card. It is 
the lowest class, if one does not count pensioners and disabled persons. 


1 . 


Monthly earnings may be regarded as an outward sign of evaluation,' 

There are people who earn far more than 10,000 roubles a month. Party 
leaders, scientists and artists, writors etc, with a warty membership 
book form tnis class, ' 


Doctors, such as those in municipal hospitals, earn little. Dr. ARCHIN 
surgeon, received about 2000 roubles a month. He repeatedly emphasized* that 
he was a patriot. Ho was not in the party. 

2. Persons with an academic training receive 2000 - 10,000 roubles per month 
according to their job. To this must be added the bonuses, which are not 
paid out to any apparent system. A laboratory worker could reckon with a 
monthly basic salary of 2,500 roubles. 

3. Engineers and technicians earned between 600 roubles and 2,000 roubles. 

That was the basic salary, which was very seldom increased by bonuses." 

4. Mechanics were already included in the lower groups. If they worked very 
quickly and skilfully they reached a monthly income of 1,500 roubles. 
Mechanics' earnings fluctuate between 250 and 800 roubles,. 

5. Unskilled workers, women on road-work etc. earned 100 - 300 roubles per 

month. 1 

6. Pensioners and disabled persons from groups 4 and 5 must have recourse to 
part-time earnings, begging, black market trading etc. 

The housing conditions arc* fcfery bad. It can be said that there is one living 
room for each family. The space prescribed by the Government, namely- 5 m 2 per 
person is by no means adhered to, 3 generations live in one room* This 

though, applies to tho lower categories, • A reasonable allocation of accommodation 
commences 'at a monthly salary of about 2,000 roubles and more. 


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New buildinp cannot cover housing needs. Some neoole are buildinp, their 
own homes . i.c. one -fam il y wooden hous es. Bricks .are practically unobtainable, 
£ or J "the brickraills have no clay . 


Inheritance loads to particularly painful situations, 

that an inheritance must be taken up. L~ 

- ; ' ^ ' ** * « 


The State decrees 
inherited a. 


house7a'lon£ ’way" away from hia- place of' work. ho -one wanted to buy it from him, 

unless at a very cheap price, So he pulled the house down and drove it| — _ _ 1 

into the town, in order to build it up again. Removals with furniture and house- 
hold goods over long distancos happen very seldom. One sells everything and 
travels with a suitcase to the new job*. 

Interior furnishing is ver y simple; a loudspeaker, rarely a radio receiver, 
a samovar and the indispens able f cooker are among the most important • 

thinps. The lamp must not be -forgotten, even if electric light is av 1 

able, Electric cookers etc. are not allowed. Efforts are made to distribute 
the load on the electricity works as evenly as possible with the current-consuming 
works in the area, by switching the supplies to blocks of houses on and off , 
Normally, there was current in the houses when the factories switched off, from ^ 
about 1900 hours in the evening to i)600 hours in tho morning* [_ — — — 
any meters for checkin; electricity consumption, either in K0T0V0 or in other 
villaaes. One pays a lump sum. Beds, cupboards, tables, otc. are in a more 

or less good condition. The dwellings I Igavo an impression of emptiness. 

Some of the furniture was old-fashioned. ButLJneverL ja baoly kept home,... 
even whch goats and young pigs shared the living room during tho winter months. 

Town and country dwellers are provided with a full programme by tho State. 
Mobile cinemas with many, foreign films travel about, equipped, with more or less 
good projection apparatus. About of ail films are Eastern Products. With 
few exceptions these films are produced for educational purposes. bO/o of ail 
films, however, originate from abroad. Theatre shows and oonoerts are held in 
big. towns every day. They are well attended. Youth is greatly attr *f^ 
sport and especially hunting. Bear hunts lasting up to .8 days w ere not uncommon. 

nhM rirnn i am ; to fish before they go to school. _ — — — — — — — ^ 

p- - — : / Even the"Russian^irectors went fishing on Saturday, 

not returning before Sunday. 

medical care is very wcU organised. There are hospitals everywhere except 

in villages or very small towns. Hospitalisation is free of charge. ^ The foo 
is adequate. If. however, ,a worker has an illness of long duration ht v/ill 
suddenly (after 3 months) find himself -without money. He receives the money to 
be 'paid by the trade union only after 5-6 months. The hospital equipments 
are clean, but there is ofton alack of medicaments. They are usually bought 
on the black market by the patients. So long as coupon books andfood cards 
were iBSued, supplies of textiles, shoes, soap and food were very bad. The 
worker received cards according to his grading in the factory. 

There were 3 grades for clothing alone. Coupon books over 750 rbubles were 
met in special shops. The holders seldom succeeded in getting the coupons honou- 
red The supply of goods was inadequate. The coupon books were simply bought 
up immediately, and the things not required were sold on the black market above 
the proper price. Those who worked during the day usually found when they had 
finished work th^t there were no goods to be had. 

Things were similar with foodstuffs, Hero, too, t^iere were gradings. 

No shopping was done however, as Director PETROV was responsible for obtaining- 
the food. The population was badly supplied. 


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Coupon books and food cards were issued through the works only. Those who 
did not work* e.g. the members of their families, did not receive ration 
Food for the family had to be bought in the “free” shoos, { 

r~ : ' ' ' , . 

purchases, suit, coat etc. are not taken into account. 


caras* 


Larger 


Rights and Obligations 

The phrase "Every Soviet citizen has a right to work" is out of place. Any- 
one who does not work for the State finds it hard to live. All consumer goods, 
from cabbage to soap, were distributed by the works, at fairly reasonable prices, 
whether in kind or in the form of permits. Not until 19-4-9 did the price levels 
start to become reasonable. Flour, however, seems still to be scarce. It was 
sold twice a year by the works, until December 1950. The supply of butter was 
worse in .1950 than in 1949 . Nevertheless, it was possible to exert a certain 
pressure on the non-working population. Those who had no dwelling of their own, 
and they were many,, had difficulty in f inding accommodation. Each works had its 
own housing estate. New building was for the major- part financed by the works. 
Those who did not work for the State did not get accommodation. Every worker was 
obliged to adhere strictly to the works 1 regulations. The works, on the other 
hand, did not fulfil the obligations laid down in the contract. There were in 
the first place the salaries. The dates of payment are fixed in the salary book. 
Wages and salaries were paid out up to 20 days late. No overtime was paid, If 
a mechanic or technician is unluoky in his work, he is obliged to repair the error 
at his own expense. His superior has to make the decision in each case. 

The fight against slackers is a hobby of the Soviet supervisors. Anyone who 
arrives iate^at his work three times, without having an adequate excuse, is put 
into a punishment camp. In this case, too, the decision rests with the supervisor, 
mostly a party functionary. The traffic conditions were so bad in 'GORKI that a 
delay was usual. Directors and the higher employees wore taken from their homes 
to the works in .a works* car, so that they were seldom subjected to traffic dela ys. 


/ Every worker must work wherever the undertaking sends him. 
Separation grants are not paid [ | This regulation hits building 

operatives, chauffeurs etc. particularly hard. 

Errors in planning have to be ironed out by the staff. Work often continues 
on the last Sunday of the month and instead the first workday of the following is 
free. This is done to assure fulfilment of the month *s quota. 


The potato operation starts in October every year. On a Sunday fixed by the 
town Soviet the staff goes out to the neighbouring "colchoses". The sudden order 
for the potato harvest is supposed to speed things up. 


The average Soviet person. has few rights. He may give notioe, but the works 
may retain him as long as the worker is needed. 

Every worker receives sufficient leave, .also it has often been found that 
workers have been sent awa y for convalescence, 

A labour court repre sents the worker in complaints against the works, T 
p " /decisions are usually given in favour of the works. 

In the Soviet Union women are to be found in almost all occupations. What was dis- 
liked was the employment of women as building operative s. Women we re to be found 

doing house-buiading as well as repair work on railways [ HI They carried 

railway sleepers and dug foundations. 


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There is seldom any family life as we know it. Usually, man and wife 
work in different undertakings. If there are children, the nursery furnished 
by the works replaces the oriental homo, Children from 8 weeks to school age 
are cared for there during tho day, and from there they £ o to school later on. 
lXrring the holidays, the schools go to a pioneer” camp in a collective group. 
These camps are either organised by the school or the works take over the care 
of them. 

Orphan children are housed in special homes. The boys mostly have pre- 
military training and provide officer recruits. 


The main transoort route is the .highroad. 
The railways play a modest part. 


The waterways come second. 


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