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ENGINEERING 


AND 















John A. Bauscher, Class of '43 
speaks from experience when he says 


• • • 



“United States Steel 
offers first-rate opportunities 
in research and product development” 


Tohn Bauscher graduated from col- 
" lege in 1943 with a B.S. degree in 
Metallurgy. After a stint in the Navy, 
he returned to college as a metallurgi¬ 
cal research assistant. In 1949 he re¬ 
ceived his M.S. in Metallurgy and 
then came to work at the U.S. Steel 
Applied Research Laboratory. After 
just four and a half years, Mr. 
Bauscher had progressed to Division 
Chief for Sheet Products Develop¬ 
ment — responsible for the improve¬ 
ment of present sheet steel products 
and the development of new and im¬ 
proved types. 

Why did Mr. Bauscher choose U.S. 
Steel? Because, says he, “U.S. Steel 
produces such a great diversity of 
products and maintains such a thor¬ 
ough research program on all its prod¬ 
ucts — not only theoretical research, 
but also applied research or product 
development. The graduate engineer 


has unusual latitude in selecting the 
type of products and the type of re¬ 
search that interest him most. Work is 
done not only on steel, but on many 
raw materials and by-products as well. 

“And,” says Mr. Bauscher, “Oppor¬ 
tunities at U.S. Steel are better now 
than ever before because of the em¬ 
phasis on product development and 
the recent expansion of research 
facilities.” 

If you are interested in a challeng¬ 


ing and rewarding career with U.S. 
Steel and feel that you can qualify, 
you can get details from your college 
placement director. And we will gladly 
send you a copy of our informative 
booklet, “Paths of Opportunity,” 
which describes U.S. Steel and the 
openings in various scientific fields. 
Just write to United States Steel Cor¬ 
poration, Personnel Division, Room 
1622, 525 William Penn Place, Pitts¬ 
burgh 30, Pennsylvania. 



sec THE UNITED STATES STEEL HOUR. It’s a full hour of top flight 
TV drama, presented every other week by United States Steel. Con¬ 
sult your local newspaper for time and station. 


UNITED STATES STEEL 


AMERICAN BRIDGE .. AMERICAN STEEL 8 WIRE and CYCLONE FENCE . COLUMBIA-GENEVA STEEL .. CONSOLIDATED WESTERN STEEL .. GERRARD STEEL STRAPPING . NATIONAL TUBE 
OIL WELL SUPPLY .. TENNESSEE COAL 8 IRON . . UNITED STATES STEEL PRODUCTS . . UNITED STATES STEEL SUPPLY . . DIvWom of UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION. PITTSBURGH 
UNITED STATES STEEL HOMES, INC, ■ UNION SUPPLY COMPANY • UNITED STATES STEEL EXPORT COMPANY • UNIVERSAL ATLAS CEMENT COMPANY 5-47 







A MESSAGE TO 
COLLEGE ENGINEERING 
STUDENTS 


from Donald C. Efrirnhain, Vice-President 
Manufacturing, 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation 
Purdue University, 1936 


To the young engineer with a creative mind 


America is on the thi-eshold of the automation era. 

New automatic machines with their electronic brains are 
opening the way to a tremendous industrial development in 
which machines will largely replace man’s routine brainwork 
and handwork. 

Westinghouse is taking a leading part in developing equip¬ 
ment for the automatic factory. At our new Columbus, Ohio 
plant, refrigerators move along 27 miles of automatic conveyors, 
with many parts being installed by automatic assembling 
machines...refrigerator controls are automatically calibrated... 
automatic testing devices main tain quality control.. .and the crat¬ 
ed refrigerator is automatically conveyed to warehouse storage. 


At Westinghouse, young engineers like you are playing an 
increasingly important role in such new developments for all 
kinds of industry. Here, there is plenty of room for your creative 
talents to expand — in designing new products . . . and in 
developing new improvements for existing products. It’s a 
fascinating job that offers you real opportunities for growth. 

And at Westinghouse, we recognize individual ambition as well 
as technical ability. There will always be a place for the young 
engineer who wants to forge ahead. For professional develop¬ 
ment you can do graduate work toward Master’s and Ph.D. 
degrees in 19 universities. You will be treated as an individual and 

Westinghouse will do all in its power to help you reach your goal. 

' G-10282 

Ask your Placement Officer about career 
opportunities at Westinghouse, or write 
for these two booklets: Continued Educa¬ 
tion in Westinghouse (describing our Grad¬ 
uate Study Program) and Finding Tour 
Place, in Industry. 

To get these booklets, write: Mr. S. H. 
Harrison, Regional Educational Co-or- 
dinator, Westinghouse Electric Corpora¬ 
tion, 410 Bush St., San Francisco, Calif. 


YOU CAN BE SURE ... IF IT'S 

Vfestinghouse 



JANUARY, 1955 


1 









NORTH AMERICAN HAS BUILT MORE AIRPLANES THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY IN THE WORLD 


ENGINEERING AHEAD FOR A BETTER TOMORROW 

Horth American Aviation, inc. 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 


DIVERSITY CREATES OPPORTUNITY 


Although best known for design and production of world-famous 
aircraft like the Korea-famed F-86 Sabre Jet and the new, record- 
smashing F-100 Super Sabre ... North American Aviation also 
offers engineers excellent opportunities in other technical fields. 


North American needs engineers with imagination to help 
design and build the aircraft of the future. Other fascinating 
careers are created daily in its rapidly developing guided missile, jet, 
propulsion systems, electronic and atomic energy programs. 


When you are ready to enter the engineering profession, consider 
the well-paid opportunities at North American. Meanwhile, 
write for information on your future in the aircraft industry. 


Contact: Your College placement office or write : 


Engineering Personnel Office 
5701 West Imperial Highway, 
Los Angeles 


12214 South 
Lakewood Blvd., 
Downey, Calif. 


North American 
Aviation, Inc. 
Columbus 6, Ohio 


A 

"SB 





SCIENCE 


ENGINEERING AND 


IN THIS ISSUE 



On the cover is a portrait of Dr, 
A. H. Sturtevant, Thomas Hunt Mor¬ 
gan Professor of Genetics at Caltech 
—and author of “The Genetic Effects 
of High-Energy irradiation of Human 
Populations” on page 9 of this issue. 

Last June, in. an address before the 
Pacific Division of the American 
Association for the Advancement of 
Science (of which he was president 
in 1954) Dr. Sturtevant stated that, 
though the immediate or future bene¬ 
fits of atomic explosions might be 
great, it should be clearly under¬ 
stood that ail of Us have been subjected 
to irradiation from these sources— 
and this radiation should be considered 
as potentially dangerous to future 
generations. 

Dr. Sturtevant? talk (“The Social 
Implications of the Genetics of Man”) 
stirred tip a certain amount of con¬ 
troversy arid concern. Enough, in fact, 
to cause Dr. Sturtevant to set down 
the basic facts about the genetic effects 
of high-energy irradiation which you 
will find on page 9. 

Dr. Arthur L. Klein, Caltech Professor 
of Aeronautics, and design consultant 
for the past 24 years for Douglas 
Aircraft, makes some predictions of 
what to expect in the way of aircraft 
50 years from today—on page 20. 


PICTURE CREDITS 


Cover 

pps. 13,14 

p. 1 6 

p. 17 


Ross Madden, Black Star 
Wide-Wdrld Photos 
Ben Olender 
Byron Johnson, Jr., '56 



JANUARY, 1955 VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 4 

PUBLISHED AT THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 


CONTENTS 


In This Issue 3 

Books 4 

The Genetic Effects of High-Energy Irradiation of 

Human Populations 9 

How much , of what, is happening to how many 
people? A consideration of the effects of radiation 
on exposed individuals—and their descendants 

by A. H. Sturtevant 


The Month at Caltech 

13 

Some Notes on Student Life 

17 

State of Mind 


by Martin Tangora, '57 


The Future of Aircraft Engineering 

by A. L. Klein 

20 

Personals 

30 

Alumni News 

38 


STAFF 

Publisher . 

Editor and Business Manager 

Student ^/ews . 

Staff Photographer . 

Editorial Consultant .. 


..Richard C. Armstrong ! 28 

.Edward Hutchings, jr. 

.Martin Tangora '57 

.Byron Johnson, Jr. ’56 

.George R. MacMinn 

Professor of English, Emeritus 


Published monthly. October through June, at the California Institute of Tech¬ 
nology, 1201 East California St., Pasadena 4, Calif., for the undergraduates, 
graduate students and alumni of the Institute. Annual subscription $3.50, 
single copies 50 cents. Entered as second class matter at the Post Office at 
Pasadena, California, on September 6, 1939, under act of March 3, 1879. 
All Publisher’s Rights Reserved. Reproduction of material contained herein 
forbidden without written authorization. Manuscripts and all other editorial 
correspondence should be addressed to: The Editor, Engineering and Science, 
California Institute of Technology. 


JANUARY, 1955 


Printed in Pasadena 



6 


3 










BOOKS 



ENGINEERING WRITING 


Here is an ideal way 
for the engineer or 
physicist with some 
aptitude for writing to 
enter the field of advanced 
electronics. In this 
relatively new and 
expanding area you can 
make immediate and 
effective use of your 
academic training while 
acquiring additional 
experience. 

Hughes Research and Development 
Laboratories are engaged in a continu¬ 
ing program for design and manufac¬ 
ture of integrated radar and fire con¬ 
trol systems in military all-weather 
interceptor aircraft. Engineers who 
produce the maintenance and opera¬ 
tional handbooks for this equipment 
work direcdy with engineers and 
scientists engaged in development of 
radar fire control systems, electronic 
computers, and other advanced elec¬ 
tronic systems and devices. 

Your effort in the field of engineer¬ 
ing writing through these publica¬ 
tions transmits information to other 
engineers and technical personnel on 
operation, maintenance and modifi¬ 
cation of Hughes equipment in the 
field. 

You will receive additional training 
in the Laboratories at full pay to be¬ 
come familiar with Hughes equip¬ 
ment. Seminars are conducted by 
publications specialists to orient new 
writers. After-hours graduate courses 
under Company sponsorship are 
available at nearby universities. 

HUGHES 

RESEARCH AND 

DEVELOPMENT 

LABORATORIES 

SCIENTIFIC AND 

ENGINEERING STAFF 

Culver City, Los Angeles County, California 

Photograph above: Engineer-writer John Burnett (left) 
works with engineers John H. Haughawovi (right) and 

Donald King to compile handbook information. 


4 


TABLES OF INTEGRAL 
TRANSFORMS, Vol. II 

Edited by A. Erdelyi with the 
Bateman Project Staff 
McGraw-Hill, 1954 $8.00 

This is the second of two volumes 
of tables of integrals involving high¬ 
er transcendental functions, designed 
for the use of mathematicians, physi¬ 
cists and engineers. Based, in part, 
on notes left by the late Harry Bate¬ 
man, Caltech Professor of Mathe¬ 
matics, Theoretical Physics, and 
Aeronautics, the material was com¬ 
piled by the staff of the Bateman 
Manuscript Project. 

This project was originally con¬ 
ceived by Dr. Bateman, After his 
death in 1946, Caltech, with the fi¬ 
nancial support of the Office of Naval 
Research, assumed responsibility for 
carrying out Bateman’s plans. A. 
Erdelyi, Caltech Professor of Mathe¬ 
matics, supervised preparation and 
editing of the work. His staff con¬ 
sisted of Professor Wilhelm Magnus 
of New York University; Professor 
Fritz Oberhettingger of the American 
University in Washington; Professor 
Francesco G. Tricomi of the Univer¬ 
sity of Turin, Italy; and several 
younger mathematicians. 

The project consists of five books: 
three volumes on Higher Transcen¬ 
dental Functions, and two supple¬ 
mentary volumes on Tables of Inte¬ 
gral Transforms. 

These books carry out Bateman’s 
objective of compiling an encyclo¬ 
pedic reference work describing the 
properties and interrelations of spe¬ 
cial functions, bringing together for 
the first time information previously 
scattered through numerous journals 
and books. 


ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS 

by H. S. Tsien 

McGraw-Hill, 1954 $6.50 

Qr. Tsien is Robert U. Goddard 
Professor of Jet Propulsion at Cal¬ 
tech’s Daniel and Florence Guggen¬ 
heim Jet Propulsion Center. In this 
text and reference work—developed 
for a course on Theory of Stability 
and Control—he aims to place the 
study of Engineering Cybernetics on 
an equal footing with other, older 
branches of engineering science such 
as Fluid Mechanics, Elasticity, and 
Theory of Vibration. 

ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 




COUNT VON ZEPPELIN—MODESTY PREVAILS 

If Zeppelin had said his dirigible was "just a big bag of wind,” he'd have shown 
vision. He knew that its record of 60 miles in two hours was only a beginning. 

And so it was. Now the sound barrier has been smashed . . . and New Departure 
has helped. With ball bearings to withstand high jet engine temperatures. With 
ball bearings to carry heavy propeller loads. With ultra-precise instrument ball 
bearings that help make "blind flight" and pinpoint navigation possible. 

Just as New Departure was ready for today’s advances in aviation. New Departure 
will be ready tomorrow, too—with the finest in ball bearings . . . first. 

NEW DEPARTURE •* DIVISION OF GENERAL MOTORS .* BRISTOL, CONNECTICUT 




Navy’s new vertical take-off fighter, the "pogo 
stick,” has some 80 New Departure ball bearings in 
Hs Allison T40 turbo-prop engine. New Departures 
also carry heavy thrust and combination loads in 
the Curtiss-Wrighf Turbdiectric propellers, /' 


JANUARY, 1955 


5 










today by Hercules’ business . . . the 
production of synthetic resins, cellulose products, chemical cotton, 
terpene chemicals, rosin and rosin derivatives, chlorinated products, 
and many other chemical processing materials—as well as explo¬ 
sives. Through close cooperative research with its customers, Hercules 
has helped improve the processing or performance of many indust rial and 
consumer products. 



4 * VERSATILE RAW MATERIAL— The linlers left on 
cotton seed are made into chemical cotton (bleached 
cotton linters) by Hercules’ Virginia Cellulose 
Department. In high-grade paper, chemical cotton 
replaces rags, eliminates costly rag sorting. And 
chemical cotton is the best source of cellulose, key 
to products ranging from lacquers to plastics. 


HERCULES 



IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT EXPLOSIVES—Modern highway construction, such as the 
3555'inillion, 427-mile New \ork State Thruway, would be impossible without ex¬ 
plosives. Whether it means cutting through a mountain? spanning a gorge, or even 
mdtihg a river-—the iiiodern highway can go straight and level, thanks to the con¬ 
trolled energy sypphed by Hercules® explosives. 


HERCULES POWDER COMPANY 


Wilmington 99, Del. 

Sales Offices in Principal Cities aM .„ 

ENGINEERING ArilD SCIENCE 


6 







1. Dr. Burton F. Miller 

2. Dr. James C. Fletcher 

3. Robert B. Muehmore 

4. Dr. John M. Richardson 

5. Dr. Howard S. Siefert 

6. Robert J. Barrett, Jr. 

7. William B. Hebenitreit 

8. Dr. Ralph P. Johnson 

9. Jack H. Irving 

10. Dr. Louis G. Dunn 

11. Dr. Eldred C. Nelson 

12. A. J. F. Clement 

13. Dr. Milton U. Clauser 

14. V. G. Nielsen 

15. Dr. Eugene M. Grabbe 

16. Manon F. Thorne 

17. Dr. Robert R. Bennett 

18. Robert J. Hight 

19. Dr. Andrew Vazsonyi 

20. Emory Lakatos 

21. Richard A. Hartley 

22. Dr. Howard L. Engel 

23. Dr. Donald L. Drukey 


The Senior Staff of The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, 

shown above, is comprised of scientists, engineers, and science 
administrators with outstanding records of past performance 
in positions of responsibility. By means of meetings of the entire 
group, supplemented by frequent smaller sessions, these key 
men participate actively in the establishment of company plans 
and policies. 

Existing project commitments require that the current rapid 
rate of expansion of the company continue throughout the 
coming year. Unusual opportunities, encompassing a wide 
variety of challenging research and development problems, 
exist for additional scientists and engineers who would like to 
participate in the development of a company in which, from the 
outset, all features of the organization and of the operational 
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special needs. 


The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation 

8820 BELIANCA AVENUE, LOS ANGELES 45. CALIFORNIA, 


POSITIONS ARE 
AVAILABLE FOR 
SCIENTISTS AND 
ENGINEERS IN 
THESE FIELDS OF 
CURRENT ACTIVITY 


Guided Missile Research and Development 
Digital Computer Research and Development 
Business Data Systems Development 
Radar and Contra! Systems Development 
Communication Systems Development 


JANUARY, 1955 


7 




19 chambers of hell 


You are looking at the units of a $2,000,000 Martin test¬ 
ing laboratory —part of a man-made hell of fire and 
water, shock and vibration, explosion and corrosion, 
designed to torture electronics equipment! 

For these vital components of today’s aircraft, guided 
missiles and weapons systems must carry tremendous 
responsibilities. Consider, for example, the electronic 
system of the Martin B-61 Matador: 

Incredibly versatile, it comprises the entire brain and 
nervous system of America's first successful pilotless 
bomber. Yet this sensitive equipment must withstand 


the shock of many tons of thrust in the first second of 
take-off— violent changes in temperature and pressure 
— and ground conditions ranging from sand storms to 
arctic blizzards, desert dryness to tropical downpour. 

Today, Martin’s facilities are among the finest in the 
world for design, production and proving in the field 
of avionics...one of the major developments of Martin 
Systems Engineering which is now tailoring airpower 
to previously impossible requirements. 

You will hear more about Martin! 



8 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 





Volume XVIIi 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 


January, 1955 


THE GENETIC EFFECTS OF 
HIGH ENERGY IRRADIATION 
OF HUMAN POPULATIONS 

by A. H. STURTEVANT 


||UMAN POPULATIONS are now being subjected to 
increases in high-energy radiation, through the explosion 
of A-bombs and H-bombs, and through the widespread 
medical use of X-rays. 

The genetic effects of such exposures have recently 
been the subject of some public discussions. Since the 
matter is of public concern, and is also of considerable 
complexity, it seems desirable to elaborate somewhat on 
previous comments. 

Two types of radiation hazard may be distinguished— 
those to the exposed individuals, and those to their 
descendants. 

The present discussion is based on the latter class of 
effects—the genetic results, which will come to expres¬ 
sion in the descendants of the exposed individuals. 

It is not to be inferred that the direct effects on ex¬ 
posed individuals are negligible. In particular, there is 
evidence that irradiation does increase the incidence of 
leukemia and other malignant growths. These are diffi¬ 
cult to estimate quantitatively, and there may perhaps be 
a dosage threshold, such that low doses of the sort here 
considered are ineffective. However, no such threshold 
has been demonstrated, and the safest course at present 
is to suppose that it does not exist—i.e., that even at 
very low doses there is a real, though small, hazard to 
the exposed individual. 


How much, of what, is 
happening to how many 
people? A consideration 
of the effects of radiation 
on exposed individuals 
—and their descendants. 


JANUARY, 1955 


9 



The genetic effects of irradiation arise through effects 
on the germ cells of exposed individuals. These germ 
cells, like the other cells of the body, contain numerous 
separate hereditary elements, or genes, which are re¬ 
sponsible for the inherited properties of individuals. The 
genes in any one individual are of many different kinds, 
but each particular kind is ordinarily transmitted un¬ 
changed from one generation to the next. On rare occa¬ 
sions, however, a gene may mutate —i.e., undergo a 
change to a new kind of gene, which is then transmitted 
to the following generations in the new, changed, form. 
The genetic interest in high-energy irradiation arises 
from the fact that it increases the frequency of such 
mutations. 

As previously formulated, the basic facts here are: 

(1) High-energy irradiation produces mutations. 

(2) The frequency of induced mutations is directly 
proportional to the dosage of irradiation. There 
is almost certainly no threshold value below 
which irradiation is ineffective. 

(3) The effects of successive exposures are cumulative. 

(4) The effects are permanent in the descendants of 
the affected genes. There is no recovery. 

(5) The overwhelming majority of these mutations 
is deleterious; that is, they seriously affect the 
efficiency of individuals in later generations in 
which they come to expression. These deleterious 
effects may lead to early death or to any of a 
wide variety of defects, often gross ones. 

(6) There is a store of such undesirable genes already 
present in any population. What irradiation does 
is to add to this store. 

A further elaboration of these facts falls naturalh 
under two major headings. First, what are the quantita¬ 
tive relations between irradiation dosage and genetic 
damage? Second, to what dosages are people being ex¬ 
posed? Unfortunately, both of these questions are in¬ 
herently difficult to answer, and only very rough approx¬ 
imations are possible. No scientist interested in exact 
quantitative results would touch the subject, were it 
rot that its social significance leaves us no alternative. 
We must, like it or not, try to get some sort of idea as 
to how much, of what, is happening to how many people. 

Irradiation and mutation 

The quantitative determination of the relation be¬ 
tween irradiation and mutation requires careful and elab¬ 
orately controlled experiments, which must he carried 
out on a very large scale. It is quite impossible to get 
significant data directly concerning man, so we are 
forced to turn to other organisms, and it is also clear 
that our criteria for mutations in other organisms leave 
out of account some of the more important kinds that 
are to be expected in man—more especially those having 
to do with behavior. The most satisfactory data con¬ 
cern the small fly, Drosophila, and were collected by 
Spencer and Stern. Their data lead to the conclusion 


that 1 standard “Roentgen unit” of irradiation (written 
1 r) will induce 1 lethal mutation per 10,000 treated germ- 
cells of Drosophila (sperm cells, in this experiment). 

It has recently been suggested that there is a much 
greater effect in mice, and presumably ip people, but I 
cannot agree that this evidence is convincing. ]t would 
seem safest to assume—and it must be recognized that 
this is only an assumption—that the rate in man is 
roughly the same as that in Drosophila. In any case 
there appears to be no reason to suppose that man has 
a lower response to irradiation. 

The ahove rate refers to lethal mutations. In general, 
according to the usual scheme, such a mutated gene has 
no effects on an individual that carries it—unless one of 
the same kind was received from each parent. (It may 
be estimated that, in man, something like 3 percent of 
the mutant genes will be expressed in males who re¬ 
ceived them only from their mothers; i.e., will be 
“sex-linked”). The result would be that an induced 
mutation of this type would not usually come to expres¬ 
sion until numerous generations had passed. However, 
Stern et al have recently shown that, in Drosophila, even 
the individuals with only a single “dose” of a lethal 
mutation have, on the average, about a 4 percent im¬ 
pairment of efficiency, so the undesirable effects from 
these genes must be supposed to begin appearing in the 
generations immediately following irradiation. 

Time and mutqtion 

Some of the induced mutations will also be substan¬ 
tially the same as (in genetical terminology, will be 
allelic to) some of those already present in the popula¬ 
tion; these may come to expression before there is inter¬ 
marriage among the descendants of a single exposed 
individual. This consideration does not lead to any 
change in the probable average amount of damage due 
to induced mutations, but it does lead to a decrease in 
the estimate of the probable average time interval be¬ 
tween exposure to radiation and the expression of the 
effect of the induced mutations. 

There are other, non-lethal, types of mutations that 
are induced by irradiation. The measurement of their 
frequencies is difficult, and it may be doubted whether 
their frequency, relative to that of Jethafs, will be the 
same in man as it is in Drosophila. In the latter organ¬ 
ism the evidence is that non-lethal mutations leading to 
the production of clearly distinct changes in the struc¬ 
ture of viable individuals are distinctly less frequent 
than lethals; mutations leading only to a somewhat low¬ 
ered efficiency of the individual are roughly twice as 
frequent as lethals. 

On the whole, then, it seems a reasonable guess that 
the rate of induction of lethals in Drosophila may be 
used as a very rough index of the probable rate of in¬ 
duction of undesirable mutations in man—an index that 
is more likely to he too low than too high. This rate— 
1 in 10,000 germ-cells per r unit—will be used here 
without attempting any corrections. 


10 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 



The physical measurement of radiation has been de¬ 
veloped to a high degree of refinement. But the esti¬ 
mation of the effective doses received by man is a com¬ 
plex matter, and at best can yield only approximate 
values. We are all of us receiving radiation in small 
amounts all the time, from cosmic radiation and from 
naturally occurring radioactive elements in the ground, 
in the walls and floors of rooms, in the air, and in our 
bodies. Further, the amount of this radiation varies from 
time to time and from place to place. We can, at most, 
get an approximate average value for irradiation per 
unit time. Since altitude is an important variable in the 
cosmic ray component of this normal “background” ra¬ 
diation, I have given two values—one for approximately 
sea-level, and one for an elevation of 6000 feet. 

Fall-out from bombs 

It is especially difficult to arrive at a value for the 
increase in irradiation due to fall-out from the bombs, 
since this varies erratically from one place to another, 
since the activity from any one explosion rapidly de¬ 
creases with time, and since the effectiveness of a radio¬ 
active element will be greater if it happens to become 
incorporated in the tissues of the body. It is for these 
reasons, rather than because of any policy of secrecy, 
that it is very difficult to obtain from the published ac¬ 
counts any very satisfactory figure for the average in¬ 
crease in background. The value I have taken from AEG 
reports appears to represent an estimate for an average 
locality in the United States in Sept. 1954. 

In the following table I have included (from the sum¬ 
mary by Plough, 1952, Nucleonics Vol. 10) some figures 
for dosages resulting from a few types of X-ray ex 
posures to which people are sometimes exposed in medi¬ 
cal practice. These again are averages, and there is much 
variation in the output of different machines. There is 
some scattering of radiation in any X-ray treatment, so 
that areas other than those intentionally treated will get 
some effect. The amount of such scattering is difficult 
to estimate. Accordingly I have included in the table 
only those treatments involving areas close to the ovaries 
or testes, and have not included the two exposures to 
which the largest numbers of people are subject—dental 
and chest examinations. 

Irradiation, in r-units 

Background, at sea level — 0.1 per year 3.0 per generation 
Background, at 6000 feet — 0.15 per year 4-5 per generation 
Increase in background 0.1 per 

due to bomb fall-out — 0.0035 per year generation 

X-ray examinations— 
lumbar, spine, anterior- 

posterior — 1.5 per treatment 

lumbar, spine, lateral — 5.7 per treatment 

pregnancy, anterior-posterior — 3.6 per treatment 

pregnancy, lateral — 9.0 per treatment 

ga.-tro-intestinaJ fluoroscopy — 10 to 20 per minute 
Irradiation of ovaries to 

induce fertility — 200 or more 

Recommended maximum 
permissible for radiological 

workers — 0.3 per week 15 per year 

Average, Oak Ridge and 
Hanford workers, 1949 — 0.2 per year 

JANUARY, 1955 


From a genetical point of view, what we are interested 
in is the product of the dosage received multiplied by 
the mutation rate per unit dose. In other words, what 
will be the frequency of deleterious mutations resulting 
from the various radiation sources to which people are 
subjected ? 

Considering first the natural background, 3.0 to 4.5 r 
per generation would yield from 3 to 4.5 mutations per 
10,000 germ cells. This is probably less than the amount 
of mutation that would be present if it were possible to 
screen people from all irradiation of any kind. In Dro¬ 
sophila only a small fraction of the norma) mutation 
rale is due to natural background irradiation; but the 
proportion due to that cause in man is presumably much 
larger because the length of a generation is hundreds 
of times greater, and the total background irradiation 
per generation is greater by the same factor, whereas 
the number of mutations not due to irradiation is prob¬ 
ably proportional more nearly to the number of cell- 
generations than to time—and man and Drosophila do 
not differ greatly in this factor. 

Incidentally, many discussions of irradiation and muta¬ 
tion emphasize the natural rate, and start with an 
attempt to determine the amount of irradiation necessary 
to double this rate. This seems to me a wrong approach, 
since the natural rate is not known and will not be easy 
to determine, and since the induced mutations are added 
to the natural ones and the two types do not have any 
fixed proportionality. The natural mutation rate is no 
more relevant than is the death rate from bacterial 
infection. 

Natural background radiation 

The natural background radiation is something that is 
always present, and discussion of whether it is a good 
thing or a bad one is pointless, since nothing can be 
done about it. The other sources here listed, however, 
are man-made, and it is legitimate to inquire what they 
may be expected to do to human populations. 

If the increase due to bomb fall-out persists at current 
levels it may he expected to give about 1 deleterious 
mutation per 100,000 germ cells per generation—or, 
since each individual arises from two germ cells, 1 per 
50,000 conceptions. 

It may seem that this is a negligible proportion, and 
it should be emphasized that it is such a low number that 
no individual should be particularly disturbed about the 
probability that his immediate descendants will be 
affected. 

But, according to the Population Division of the 
United Nations, there are something like 3,900,000 births 
per year in the United States, and about 90 million per 
year in the world. This means that, if the increase in 
irradiation due to fall-out continues at the estimated 
present rate, it will lead to the functioning of about 78 
mutated germ cells every year in the United States; and, 
if the same level of irradiation occurs in the rest of the 
world, of about 1800 per year in the population of the 

1 1 




world. These will go on arising at this rate, year after 
year, as long as the irradiation continues and the num¬ 
ber of births stays in this same range. 

Another calculation may be made that is of some in¬ 
terest. The Pacific tests of 1954 apparently gave an aver¬ 
age total of about .0035 r for any one locality in the 
United States. It may be estimated that the people now 
living in the United States will produce, during their 
lifetimes, over 100 million offspring; i. e.. over 200 
million of their germ cells will ultimately function. The 
estimate then is that 70 of these offspring will carry 
deleterious genes induced by this one series of tests. 

A conservative estimate 

It may still seern that these numbers are too small to 
be seriously considered, but there are several points to 
be made. I have made every effort to be conservative; 
the numbers given should be considered minimal ones— 
the true value could possibly he 100 times greater. And 
there is a possibility that the irradiation of the germ- 
cells may sometimes be much greater than is here esti¬ 
mated, if there is a heavy fall-out, especially if some of 
the radioactive elements become incorporated in the tis¬ 
sues. Finally, from a humanitarian point of view, any 
increase at all in the number of individuals that are de¬ 
fective either mentally or physically is not to he lightly 
dismissed. 

[n any case, it is inexcusable to state, as has been 
done, that no hazard exists. One might agree that the 
hazard is slight when weighed against the possible bene¬ 
fits; and [ would agree that the hazard to any one 
individual remote from the site of an explosion is so 
small as to be disregarded. Rut the fact remains that 
there is a hazard, and that it may become a significant 
one in terms of large populations. 

The “maximum permissible’’ exposure has been set. 
by the International Commission on Radiological Pro¬ 
tection, evidently on the basis of probable effects ori ex¬ 
posed individuals themselves, without regard to genetic 
effects. If one imagines a situation where an entire pop¬ 
ulation should be exposed to this amount of irradiation 
continuously, the dose per generation would add up to 
about 450 r corresponding to about 4.5 percent of all 
germ cells undergoing mutation—i.e.. every year about 
orie-third of a million infants would he horn with newly- 
arisen deleterious mutations, in the United States alone. 

This is ari amount that some authorities believe might 
endanger the survival of the rare if it were repeated in 
every generation, and even if the race survived its mem¬ 
bers would probably decrease in efficiency. It does not 
seem likely that any such general level of irradiation 
will he reached—unless possibly in the event of all-out 
atomic warfare—hut to describe an exposure this large 
as “permissible" is misleading, to =ay the least, when 
one thinks in terms of populations. 

The "maximum permissible" exposure will become a 
matter for careful consideration if nuclear reactors come 
to he widely used as power sources, since under those 


conditions also there will he an increase in the back¬ 
ground radiation. The amount and character of such 
increases will depend in part on the type of reactors 
used, and on the details of their design and operation— 
and it is a matter of public concern that this factor, as 
well as economic ones, he taken into account in a pro¬ 
gram for the non-military development of atomic energy. 

The figures for the medical uses of X-rays run higher 
than those we have been considering, and there can be no 
doubt that in much of the world this is a far more 
effective cause of mutation than is radioactive fall-out. 
The published dosage values are in some respects mis¬ 
leading, since many irradiations—especially among the 
more drastic therapeutic ones—are most often given to 
patients who are unlikely to have any further children. 
But in such cases as the pregnancy examinations here 
listed it must be remembered that not only the mother’s 
ovaries but also the germ-cells of the child are being 
exposed. If all members of the population were to re¬ 
ceive even I r-unit just before birth, as would be possible 
here, the expected result would be that about one in 5000 
of the next generation would carry a new mutation due 
to the treatment, hi the case of the irradiation of the 
ovaries of a sterile woman to induce fertility it may he 
calculated that the resulting child has at least 1 chance 
in 50 of carrying a new mutation due to the treatment. 

Medical use of X-rays 

In general, the conclusion seems warranted that the 
medical use of X-rays is dangerous, and should be ap¬ 
plied with caution and with full realization of the genetic 
hazards involved. In any given case the potential gains 
should be weighed against the potential damage; and in 
order to do this intelligently it is necessary to get as good 
an estimate as possible for the weight to be assigned to 
each side of the balance. 

The medical use and the fall-out danger are different 
not only in the amounts of irradiation involved, but 
also in some ethical respects. An individual does not 
usually have to submit to an X-ray examination, or treat¬ 
ment, and when he does so the irradiation is adminis¬ 
tered for his own personal advantage. But we are all 
of us submitted, willy-nilly, to fall-out. and while it may 
he argued that some of this is for our ultimate advantage, 
it must be recognized that we get fall-out from Russian 
bombs as well, and that the rest of the world gets it from 
Russian and American bombs alike. 


REFERENCES: 

Plough, H. H., “Radiation Tolerance and Genetic Effects.’ - 1952, 
Nucleonics, 10: p. 16-20. 

Spencer. W. P., and Stern, C., “Experiments to Test the Validity 
of the R-Dose/.Mutation Frequency Relation in Drosophila at 
Low Dosage." 1948. Genetics, 33: p. 43-74, 

Stern. C„ Carson, G., Kinst, M., Novitski, E., and Uphoff, I)., 
“The, Viability of Heterozygotes for Lethals." 1937. Genetics 
37: p. 413-449. 

Sturtevant, A. H.. “Social Implications of the Genetics of Man." 
Science. 120: p. 405-407. 


12 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 




THE MONTH 


The Road to Stockholm 

THE POPULAR gentleman pictured above is Dr. Linus 
Pauling, chairman of Caltech's Division of Chemistry 
and Chemical Engineering, just a few moments after 
receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1954. He is 
being duly congratulated by his daughter-in-law Anita, 
his daughter Linda, and his wife Helen. 

JANUARY, 1955 


AT CALTECH 


Dr. Pauling’s award, which was presented to hint by 
King Gustav Adolf VI in Stockholm on December 10, 
consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a check for 
$35,000. 

On the eve of his departure for Stockholm last month. 
Dr. Pauling was honored by the Caltech faculty, trustees 
and associates at a dinner in the Athenaeum on campus, 
followed by an entertainment in Culbertson Hall, fea- 

13 






Linus Paiding receives ovation after being presented uith his Nobel Prize. Swedish royal family is at right. 


' FSH 


m/ * 


m 








. - 



Five of the seven 1954 
Nobel Prizewinners — Dr. 
Thomas Weller. Dr. Max 
Born, Dr. Frederick C. 
Robbins, Dr. John F. 
Enders, and Dr. Linns 
Raiding. Weller, Robbins 
and Enders shared the 
prize in Medicine and 
Physiology for their work 
on polio; Born shared 
the Physics prize with 
Dr. Walter Bothe. 


14 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 









turing a hastily-organized Chemistry-Biology Stock 
Company in a rousing musical and dramatic production 
entitled "The Road to Stockholm.” 

Dr. Pauling's actual trip to Stockholm, via the polar 
flight from Los Angeles to Copenhagen, was the first 
leg of a three-month journey around the world, and 
the, occasion for a Pauling family reunion. Dr. Pauling 
was accompanied from Pasadena by his wife, his 17- 
year-old son Crellin, his son Linus, Jr.. 29. (now Resi¬ 
dent in Psychiatry at Queens Hospital. Honolulu) and 
daughter-in-law Anita. In Copenhagen they were joined 
by the two other Pauling children—Peter, 23, and Linda, 
22, who are students at Cambridge University in 
England. 

After the award ceremonies in Stockholm last month 
Dr. and Mrs. Pauling set off on a toUr which will take 
them to Norway, Israel, India, Thailand, Japan and 
Hawaii. Dr. Pauling is lecturing at a number of uni¬ 
versities and research institutes during the trip. He 
expects to return home hv the middle of March. 

Achievement and Service 

“ACHIEVEMENT and service have been the hallmarks 
of Dr. William B. Munro’s long and brilliant career, 
which has been associated principally with Harvard 
University and the California Institute of Technology. 
One of the distinguished educators of Twentieth Century 
America, he is universally known and admired as admin¬ 
istrator, scholar, author, and lecturer. He has long been 
a recognized authority on government, history, econom¬ 
ics, and banking. Throughout his life he has been art 
intelligent and Constructive influence in everything with 
which he has been associated.” 

With this tribute. Dr. Munro's colleagues saluted him 
this month on his retirement from the Board of Directors 
of the Security-First National Bank—which followed 
close on the heels of Dr. Munro’s 80th birthday, on 
January 5. 

Dr. Munro retired in 1945 as Edward S. Harkness 
Professor of History and Government at Caltech, and as 
a member of the Executive Council, to become Treasurer 
of the Institute and a member of the Board of Trustees— 
retiring, as Board Chairman James R. Page put it at the 
time, from a 40-houf-a-week job to take on a 180-hour 
one. In addition, Dr. Munro continues to serve as a 
director of the Southern California Edison Co., as a 
member of the Pasadena Advisory Board of the Security- 
First National Bank, as chairman of the Board of 
Trustees of the Huntington Library and Art Gallery in 
Salt Marino, and chairman of the Board of Trustees of 
the Huntington Memorial Hospital. 

Born in Almonte, Ontario, William B. Munro got his 
BA, MA, and LLB degrees at Queens University, then 
went on to take MA and PhD degrees at Harvard. For 
three years he taught history and political science at 
Williams College, then joined the faculty at Harvard, 
where he remained for 24 years. In 1925 he was Jona¬ 
than Trumbull Professor of History and Government at 



William B. Munro 


Harvard, and chairman of the Department of History. 
Government and Economics when he came to spend at 
sabbatical year in Pasadena and, at the invitation of 
R. A. Millikan, agreed to divide his time between Har¬ 
vard and Cal l ech. 

Dr. Munro’s first big pioneering job at Caltech was 
the planning and promotion of a humanities building on 
the campus—Dabney Hall, built in 1928. In 1927 he 
became a member of the Institute’s Executive Council, 
and in 1929 came to devote his full time to Caltech. In 
addition to teaching, he went on to make plans, let con¬ 
tracts, and supervise construction of most of the other 
buildings on campus. 

As R. A. Millikan said of Dr. Munro in 1947, at the 
presentation of the portrait of him which hangs above 
the fireplace in Dabney Lounge—“As a teacher, scholar, 
writer, financier, businessman, promoter, wise counsel¬ 
lor. able administrator, and great humanitarian, William 
B. Munro rates as one of the most important builders of 
the California Institute of Technology.” 

American Universities Field Service 

JAMES G. MADDOX, agricultural economist, visits 
Caltech from January 10 to 19 to report to the faculty 
and students on Current conditions in Latin America. 
Willard A. Hanna, ail expert On the Far East—and par¬ 
ticularly Japan—will be oh campus from January 24 
to February 2. Richard H. Nolte. specialist on the Arab 
nations of the Middle East w'ill he here from February 
7 to 17. And Fred Warner Neal, a political scientist 
whose field is eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia, is 
scheduled to be here from February 21 to March 3. 

All four men are representatives of the American 

15 


JANUARY, 1955 



Dr. Theodore von Karman, 
winner of the Wright, 
Brothers Memorial Trophy 
fur significant public ser¬ 
vice in supersonic research. 


Universities Field Staff, the organization set iip in 1951 
by Caltech and seven other educational institutions in 
this country to send qualified young men out as their 
correspondents in foreign areas. In addition to sending 
back regular reports to the sponsoring colleges and uni¬ 
versities, each of these men returns home every two years 
to visit the campus of each of the sponsoring institutions 
to report in person on current conditions, problems, and 
personalities in the area he is studying. 

Wright Trophy 

DR. THEODORE VON KARMAN. director of Caltech's 
Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1928 to 
1945 and now chairman of the Air Force Scientific Ad¬ 
visory Board, was presented with the Wright Brothers 
Memorial Trophy last, month for his significant public 
service in supersonic research. 

Described by the National Aeronautical Association 
as “dean of all aeronautical scientists of the world,’’ Dr. 
von Karman received the trophy for such accomplish- 

16 


merits as development of the theory of supersonic drag, 
for setting up the nation’s first supersonic wind tunnel 
project, and for conceiving and developing jet-assisted 
takeoff for aeroplanes. 

Dr. von Karman came to Caltech in 1928 as Professor 
of Aeronautics and retired in 1949-—only to become 
even more active as NATO director of the group he 
originally founded during World War II, when the Air 
Force established its Scientific Advisory Board. 

Scientific Monument 

^ MFMORAL PLAQUE honoring Dr. Chester Stock, 
Professor of Paleontology and chairman of the Division 
of the Geological Sciences at Caltech from 1947 until 
his death in 1951, was Unveiled in Los Angeles’ Hancock 
Park last month. The plaque, located at the site of the 
famous La Brea tar pits, which have furnished paleon¬ 
tologists with a wealth of fossil material, honors Dr. 
Stock as “a man who forwarded the development of 
Hancock Park as a scientific monument.” 

ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 






STUDENT LIFE 


STATE 
OF MIND 



SHUTTING THE DOOR to his room behind him and 
tugging at his clip-on how tie, the sophomore looked 
sadly at his desk. 

Damn, he thought, it’ll be hard to get back to work. 
Two and a half weeks with the gang at home sure can 
do it to a guy when it comes to studying. 

He hung up his house coat and sat down at the desk, 
his eyes scanning the row of hooks on the little book¬ 
case in front of him. He pulled out the Theory of 
Matrices and flipped through it disconsolately. What am 
I doing, registering for this course? he asked himself. 
Better that than Physics 20, the answer came hack. 

What a hell of a way to die! More physics, more cal¬ 
culus, more history (how did that get squeezed in?), 
biology, and now Matrices and Quadratic Forms. 

Suddenly he wasn’t sure at all he wanted to he at Tech. 
When he had shown that exhibit at Students’ Day last 
month he had felt sort of guilty. Look at all these guys, 
he thought, full to the gills with love of science (being 
a physicist, lie never remembered to think of the engi¬ 
neers), bot to go to a school that’s tough, so they could 
come away w jth that much better a technical education. 
Tough! They didn’t know what tough was. And here he 
was, an A student all through high school, glad here 
to get a 2.3—here he was trying to give these innocent 
high-school seniors a sales talk for Caltech. 

That’s what he needed, the Sophomore thought, a good 
sales talk for Caltech. If he didn’t get one pretty soon 
the dean’s office just might not need to worry about him 


after this year. Now is the time to transfer out if I’m 
going to, he told himself. End of the sophomore year. 
I’m still passing!—and my record’s clean, and lots of 
schools would he glad to have me now. Next year might 
be too late. 

With a sudden inspiration he pulled out a large sheet 
of typing paper. Getting a pencil from his desk drawer, 
he drew a vertical line down the middle of the page 
the long way. Not a very straight one at that, he noticed. 

Then at the top of the sheet, on the left-hand side, he 
put in bold letters the word "PRO”; on the right-hand 
side. “CON.” 

Always look at both sides of an argument, he said to 
himself. What’s good about this place, and what isn’t? 

He started with the CON side: that’ll be easy, he 
thought. 

Academic, load, he wrote: 1 guess that’s a con, he said 
aloud, and was suddenly embarrassed. 1 may not have 
the Caltech Twitch yet, he smiled grimly, but already I’m 
talking to myself. 

Academic Load. He underlined it twice. Sure, he 
thought, half the college kids in the country complain 
about their load, 1 guess—but it couldn’t be like this. Ail 
my friends at other schools are taking four easy courses; 
but here 1 am, taking five tough ones—and against more 
competition. 

He thought a while and then put down Small Campus. 
This won’t be in order of importance, he thought with 
another smile, But dammit, I always thought of a college 


JANUARY, 1955 


17 


as being a great spacious park, almost like a forest pre¬ 
serve, with old gnarled trees and ivy-covered classroom 
buildings and couples in matched sweaters studying to¬ 
gether on the great grassy lawns. 

I cep 1 ant! he snarled. Why don’t they plant grass? A 
little voice inside him told him that grass was too expen¬ 
sive, that the guys would walk across it and ruin it. It 
was unconvincing. 

He thought back to a ‘Y’ fireside at Dr. DuBridge’s 
home the spring of his frosh year. The President had 
told the group of his plans to shoehorn a half-dozen 
more buildings into the pitiful little four blocks. He was 
even thinking of putting a library between Crellin and 
Bridge, where the only grove of trees on the campus 
held out against the tide of progress. Jizas! Once he 
had gotten a real thrill when he was walking back to 
school from the Caltech Barbers and had come around 
the corner of Mudd and seen the Institute spread out 
before him—the long portales and those funny little 
trees, and, ’way down at the end of the field of view, old 
Throop Hall overlooking the whole vista, with fluffy 
little clouds in the sky behind the dome. And he wants 
to spoil that! the Sophomore thought angrily. 

Look what they did to Kerckhoff Jungle, he mused. 
Could have made that spot into the prettiest, shadiest, 
greenest spot in Pasadena. So they put up a new bio¬ 
chemistry building. 

No girls, he wrote, changing the subject. Or maybe 
that’s my fault, he reflected. Certainly are enough col¬ 
lege girls in L.A. to satiate the Russian Navy, if 1 only 
would kick myself in the butt a few times to make a few 
dates. He remembered that when ASC1T threw a sock 
hop in December he had tried for a whole evening to 
get an Oxy girl on the phone and got nothing but busy 
signals—and what had he done? Given up and not gone 
at all. My fault, he sighed. Even when 1 was home for 
Christmas 1 wasn’t moving very fast, even with the old' 
gang, all the girls I knew in high school. 

Dry subjects. He had been so hot to go when he came 
to Tech. Now' every day’s classes set his motivation back 
another notch. Was it because of the teachers—good 
scientists and poor educators? Maybe. 

Cynical upperclassmen, he penciled with a grin. All 
he needed to completely destroy his interest in science 
and in Tech was a half-hour bull-session w ith any senior 
in the house. He heard that half a dozen seniors had 
quit science and were planning to go into medicine. An¬ 
other gave up physics for law ; another, for psychology. 
Must be dozens more 1 don’t know about, he thought; 
and that doesn’t even account for the flunk-outs who go 
into other fields. It struck him that Caltech ought to be 
investigated; every year it drives fifty top-notch scientists 
out of the field. 

Good God, he said, I’d better start listing pro points 
or I’ll be in UCLA in a month. 

Good education. No getting around that, he smiled; 
even the seniors haven’t talked me out of that yet. 

Small school atmosphere. What hell it must be to go 
to MIT! All these headaches, and a huge student body 

18 


besides! At Caltech he played baseball (at least he hoped 
he could make the varsity this spring), sang in the Glee 
Club, helped with the Big T. Coudn’t do all that at 
UCLA, that’s for sure. Baseball sometimes seemed like 
enough fun to make the whole business worthwhile. 

Besides, it was nice to know most of the kids, to be 
able to eat dinner with his prof, or play football with 
the head of the geology department. He was sure he 
couldn’t get that at any other good tech schools. 

Student houses, he wrote; and, as an after-thought, 
liberal administration. He was really sold on the houses. 
After New Year’s he could hardly wail to see the guys 
again, even if he had to come back to Pasadena to do 
it. And he liked the loose honor-system, give-a-guy-a- 
chance philosophy which stuck out all over the deans 
and the administration in general. He almost entered 
student house food on the other side of his sheet, but 
it struck him that you couldn’t expect really too much 
for what you paid, and besides, all the seniors said the 
food was much better than it used to be, and the kitchen 
staff was open to suggestions. 

Social program. he wrote, and underlined it. Girls or 
no girls, he thought, you can’t beat it. He had heard 
from an SC girl while home for Thanksgiving that all 
the girls in her sorority talked about the fabulous Cal¬ 
tech parties—that is, if you could find a nice guy to go 
with, you know, ’cause so many of them are creeps. 

It had been a pretty rude shock when a friend of his 
at Purdue had boastfully produced his frat’s social cal¬ 
endar at a holiday party. Any house at Tech with a 
social program that bare would die of sexual starvation 
in a month. No, a guy at Tech with a steady girl could 
take her to the neatest round of parties on the Coast; 
he was convinced of that. 

The Sophomore leaned back on the rear legs of his 
chair and looked over the list. 

Wonder what I’ve left out, he thought. Couldn’t have 
left out any cons, he smiled; I’ve heard that list from 
every senior in the house, and they wouldn’t forget any¬ 
thing. 

He pondered for a while, thinking how just a guy’s 
frame of mind—so flexible—could make him love Tech 
or hate it. Maybe 1 can love it if I try, the Sophomore 
mused. Maybe that’s a good resolution for 1955. 

Flash! He suddenly remembered that he had forgotten 
his New Year’s Resolutions this year. 

He turned over the paper and was on the verge of 
starting a list when there was a knock on the door. It 
was a buddy; be wanted to take in a show. Classes for 
second term started in the morning. 

The Sophomore knew without looking at his blue card 
that he had an eight o’clock the next day. He also knew 
full well that that didn’t mean a thing to him. He was, 
used to getting only half a night’s sleep. 

When he had his jacket on, he turned and looked 
again at his desk. Maybe I’ll get around to those reso¬ 
lutions over spring vacation, he thought with a smile. 
Doubt it. 

—Martin Tangora ’57 

ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 




“Always something new” 


“Different types of work appeal to different 
men,” says Donald O’Brian (A.B.,Indiana, ’50), 
in the Traffic Department with Indiana Bell Tele¬ 
phone Company. “For me, I’ll take a job that 
keeps me hopping. And that’s just the kind of 
job I have. 

“You’d think that after two years I’d have all 
the variables pinned down. But it doesn’t work 
that way. When you supervise telephone service 
for thousands of different customers whose needs 


are always changing, there’s always something 
new coming up. 

“I started with Indiana Bell in 1952, after 
two years in the Army. My training program 
exposed me to many different kinds of tele¬ 
phone work—customer contact, personnel, ac¬ 
counting, operations. I saw a lot of jobs which 
looked as interesting as mine. As much as I 
like what I’m doing now, I bet I’ll like my next 
spot even better.” 


Don’s enthusiasm for his job is pretty typical of how 
most young college men feel about their telephone 
careers. Perhaps you’d be interested in a similar oppor¬ 
tunity with a Bell Telephone operating company, such 
as Indiana Bell ... or with Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
Western Electric or Sandia Corporation. See your Place¬ 
ment Officer for more information. 



BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM 


I-1 

JANUARY, 1955 19 











Looking to the future — 
Convair’s XFY-1 A avy fight¬ 
er, the l J ogo, takes off and 
lands vertically, is capable 
of high-speed horizontal 
flight. 


by A. L. KLEIN 


POWERED FLIGHT will he one hundred and one years 
old on the one hundredeth anniversary of the Society of 
Automotive Engineers. Industries of this age are noted 
for their stodginess ana lack of imagination. Let us hope 
that our industry "ill maintain its rate of progress and 
its freshness of approach. 

Vi e hope that the present crop of juvenile imbeciles 
will not undo our work in building our industry to its 
present size and usefulness. Vic often are tempted to 
lake the classical attitude that the new generation can¬ 
not amount to anything, forgetting that our generation 
was one of the most harebrained that ever came along. 
Vie actually believed that flying machines would work 
and be useful. We can therefore hope that with the aid 
of the psychologists and "human engineers" the new 
generation of aircraft engineers will make our future 
vehicles safer, more efficient and useful, and may. by 
means of some as yet unknown powerplants. enable us 
to escape into space. 

We in this Activity are in all our efforts constrained 
by the requirements and needs of our customers and the 
output and opinions of the producers of powerplants. 
We are continually in the position of a chef who is 
asked to prepare filet mignon from round steak for a 


customer who can only pay for a hamburger. Fortunately 
for us, our fairy godmother, namely, the Armed Forces, 
has waved her magic wand and provided us with enough 
resources to make the above-mentioned miracle occur. 
Whether the international tensions that presently exist 
will continue for the next fifty years or whether a re¬ 
laxed peaceful civilization or a war will replace the 
present turmoil is anyone's guess. I could, therefore, 
take the simple (and perhaps too simple-minded) course 
that the present international and internal conditions will 
continue. 1 hope that our industry and the communica¬ 
tion industry will continue to do as they have in making 
world-wide access and knowledge available to everyone. 

Our principal achievement, not without its disadvan¬ 
tages, is to provide cheap and rapid transportation for 
the world. We have now made it possible to get anywhere 
in our country in one day. Surely in fifty years the whole 
world will be reachable in the same time. This implies 
an average speed of at least 1000 miles per hour, which 
will lie attained long before fifty years elapse. To be 
practical commercially such speeds must be economical. 

The threshold of the supersonic era is on us and as 
the knowledge of the phenomena that exist at these 
speeds continues to accumulate there is an indication 


“The Future. f>f Aircraft Engineering' was originally presented at the Golden Anniversary 
Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers in Detroit on January 10, 1955. 


20 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 




Search is exciting! 

Scientists are constantly probing deeper into the secrets of nature 
— bringing new and better things to you 


AS THE PROSPECTOR thrills to the search for treasure, 
so does the scientist as he searches out the secrets of 
the earth, air, and water. 

THE TREASURE that the scientist seeks is better un¬ 
derstanding of nature, and ways to bring better living 
for all of us. To find them, he is constantly probing, 
taking the elements apart, putting them hack together 
in different ways—always looking for something new 
and promising. 

How important is such research? Today, more than 
one-third of the work of the people of Union Carbide is 
in providing products and processes that did not exist 
in commercial quantities 15 years ago. Each new prod¬ 
uct, each new process, was born of intensive search. 

FROM CHEMICALS TO METALS- The results of these 
achievements are serving all of us today—chemicals 


for life-saving medicines and many other uses...a wide 
range of carbon and graphite products . .. oxygen for 
the sickroom and industry... a variety of wonderful 
new plastics ... alloying metals for stainless and other 
fine steels. 

SEARCH . . . RESEARCH? To the scientists of Union 
Carbide, search and research are the same—an excit¬ 
ing key to a brighter future for all. 

STUDENTS AND STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about career 
opportunities with Union Carbide in Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals, 
Casks and Plastics. II rite for booklet M-2. 

Union Carbide 

AND CARBON CORPORATION 

30 EAST ♦ 2 N D STREET NEW YORK 17, N . Y. 

In Canada: UNION CARBIDE CANADA Limited 


- VCCs Trade-marked Products include --- 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals Ei.ectromet Alloys and Metals Haynes Stellite Alloys Union Carbide Linde Oxygen 
Eve READY Flashlights and Batteries Linde Silicones Dynel Textile Fibers Prestone Anti-Freeze National Carbons 
Bakelite, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics PREST-O-LlTE Acetylene PyrOKAX Gas ACHESON Electrodes 


JANUARY, 1955 


21 











AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING ... co M 


that supersonic flight will be in some ways easier than 
subsonic. High speeds imply high altitudes and the 
studies that have been made indicate that altitudes up to 
nearly 100,000 feet present few unusual problems. 
Whether we stay with winged vehicles, nuclear engines, 
or some new and unknown powerplant, the key problem 
will still be, as now, that of landing and takeoff. 

With airplanes the power needed for the desired (arid 
economical) high speeds will automatically give a satis¬ 
factory takeoff. In the case of nuclear powerplants the 
landing problem becomes acute as the nuclear airplane 
is as heavy at landing as it is at takeoff and therefore 
the entire airframe, and in fact the entire proportions 
of the airplane, will be determined by the landing case. 
The nuclear aircraft will therefore have large and com¬ 
paratively lightly loaded wings and will have its best 
performance at comparatively high altitudes. 

Supersonic design 

At the present time the major problems with super¬ 
sonic aircraft are low speed and landing control. Man¬ 
euverable supersonic missiles of either the rocket type 
or the airplane type are not too difficult to design, but 
with them every landing is a crash. We have achieved 
a good deal of competency in supersonic design and are 
at last getting to have some feeling and intuition about 
this region. Up to now we have had to proceed either 
by inventorism, or by the elaborate procedure of calcula¬ 
tion and testing to get a satisfactory vehicle. 

Though difficulties have occurred, they have been 
superable arid we are now at the point where supersonic 
design is becoming a matter of engineering judgment. 
The striking thing has been the small number of draw¬ 
ings that are made and the large number of calculations 
and discussions that are needed. Perhaps this is the way 
to the future. 

Using true rockets (without wings and having thrust 
larger than their weight), the way to the future is less 
clear. The low speed control of these vehicles is difficult 
indeed and has only been solved by the science fiction 
writers. The true rocket, to be commercially useful, must 
achieve a landing reliability equal to that of other air¬ 
craft. If this is done by the use of reversed thrust we 
must also answer the problem of powerless landing. 

As far as extra-terrestrial travel is concerned the ve¬ 
hicle designer is completely at the mercy of the power- 
plant industry. Financing for such an endeavor must be 
provided non-commercially as the only immediate uses 
are military and scientific. 

The vehicle except for the landing problem mentioned 
above, is fairly straightforward, there being only two 
other important problems. One of these, the auxiliary 
power problem, is apparently going to be solved by 
either the solar energy converter, some models of which 


were displayed lately by some highly reputable organi¬ 
zations, or by means of the direct partial conversion of 
the energy of radioactivity into electricity. The atmos¬ 
pheric re-entry problem seems to be of an engineering 
type and needs a great deal of effort but its difficulties are 
not fundamental. 

To reiterate, something is required to replace chemical 
fuels if extra-terrestrial flight is to be achieved; there 
are no other serious difficulties other than the financial 
one. 

In the next fifty years the helicopter will come into its 
own. I have never been a believer in aircraft for every¬ 
one and am still less a believer in helicopters as a per¬ 
sonal vehicle. If our colleagues in the other Activities 
of the SAE cannot solve the automobile accident prob¬ 
lem, we in this Activity have no chance of solving the 
problem of safe personal aircraft. 

With helicopters the problem is even more aggravated 
as mere contact with another helicopter can be fatal. 
These infuriated windmills will destroy each other like 
creatures in a nightmare. Their present difficulties will 
be overcome when aircraft designers determine how to 
design high speed precision machinery. The convenience 
of the helicopter is so outstanding that its full utilization 
waits only on improvements in its reliability and safety 
with a consequent reduction in costs. Twenty years should 
see these problems solved. 

Aircraft safety 

The problem of safety for aircraft is largely psy¬ 
chological. It is notable that “safe” small aircraft do 
not sell. People do not buy small aircraft because they 
are safe; they buy them to inflate their egos and there¬ 
fore the more dangerous, the better. The psychological 
attitude is similar to that of mountain climbers and hot 
rodders, and if everyone were properly adjusted none 
of these would exist. There is something to be said for 
teaching every young man to fly, if it is possible to do 
it without terrific carnage. Unfortunately the accidents 
don’t always involve only the pilots. 

This Activity is also concerned with aircraft acces¬ 
sories. It is safe to say that within another fifty years 
most of these devices should work. Some of orir present 
accessories, such as capacitance fuel gages, being based 
on unsound physical principles, will be replaced. Fifty 
years from now most of these gadgets will be about as 
reliable as telephones are now. 

Our present instrument flying system must be replaced 
by something less confusing. Twenty years of trying to 
get a satisfactory instrument arrangement should prove 
to anyone that our present system is unsound psycho¬ 
logically and physiologically. The pilot must be given 
a 3D television type of presentation in the windshield 
so that he will have a natural view of the situation. Any- 


22 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 






Carl Vrooman, icing tunnel group 
head, studies hot-air cyclic de-icing 
test on wing section of C-130 
transport. The tunnel has a 
temperature range of —40° F. to 
+150° F. and maximum air speed 
of more than 270 mph. 


Designed to meet a constantly increasing volume of thermo¬ 
dynamics work, Lockheed’s new icing research tunnel now 
provides year ’round testing in meteorological environments 
normally found only in flight. It is the first icing research 
tunnel in private industry. 

Lockheed thermodynamics scientists were formerly limited to 
testing time available at installations such as Mt. Washington. 
Now they are able to study in greater detail problems such as: 
thermal anti-icing; cyclic de-icing; various methods of ice 
removal; distribution of ice; rale of temperature changes in 
aircraft components; thermodynamic correlation between lab¬ 
oratory and flight testing; and development and calibration of 
special instrumentation. 


Thermodynamicist Ed Dean monitors main control 
panel in picture at left. Temperature, air speed, 
water flow rate, air pressure and other variables 
can be regulated independently. 


C. H. Fish, design engineer assigned to the tunnel, 
measures impingement limits of ice on C-130 wing 
section. The tunnel has refrigeration capacity of 
100 tons, provides icing conditions of 0 to 4 grams 
per cubic meter, droplet sizes from 5 to 1000 microns. 


New icing tunnel 
speeds thermodynamics 
research at Lockheed 


Career Opportunities at Lockheed 

Increasing research and development work on nuclear energy, turbo¬ 
prop and jet transports, radar search planes, supersonic aircraft and 
a number of classified projects offers engineers outstanding 
opportunity for creative work. 

This is true not only for men in thermodynamics but for Aero- 
dynamicists and Aerodynamics Engineers, Structures Research 
Engineers, Airborne Antenna Designers, Flight Test Analysis 
Engineers, Physicists in fields of optics and acoustics. Mathema¬ 
ticians, and almost every other type of engineer. 

You are invited to write for the brochure, “Your Future is Now” 
which describes life and work at Lockheed. Address E. W. Des 
Lauriers. 


LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 
BURBANK CALIFORNIA 


B. L. Messinger, department head, analyzes test 
results with Thermodynamics Engineer E. F. Vcrsaw, 
right, and Thermodynamicist Tom Sedgwick, left. 
The report was in their hands only two days after it 
was decided to conduct the test. 












AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING 


CONTINUED 


thing less does violence to his instincts. In fifty years 
we can hope that the uniformity of design so typical 
of a mature industry will appear in these accessories and 
their functioning. 

We can expect a great deal of progress in metallurgy. 
Duralumin as an alloy is not yet fifty years old. We can 
probably expect greater developments in this field than 
in many others since the metallurgists are just beginning 
to come out of the kitchen and to do their thinking at 
desks. Our structural alloys should be at least twice as 
strong as the ones we are now using; the non-metallic 
materials will also be improved in an even greater ratio. 
As a consequence of the improved materials, improved 
manufacturing, and assembly techniques, our aircraft 
fifty years from now will be as superior to our present 
best performance as today’s aircraft are to those of the 
First War. 

These aircraft may be made of metal or they may not. 
Some of the properties of long, fully saturated molecules 
are surprising. Who knows?—within fifty years perhaps 
someone will even come up with a non-destructive method 
for the measurement of incipient fatigue failure. 

Engineering organization 

We can expect engineering departments of the future 
to be differently organized. The problem of large engi¬ 
neering organizations operating on a small number of 
products is a new thing in human experience and as yet 
no standardization has developed. Let us consider the 
engineering organization of the future to be headed by 
a chief engineer and his immediate assistants: the sum 
of his detailed duties may be divided among several 
groups. A partial listing of these follows: 


I. Internal Affairs 2. Mechanical 


1. 

Personnel 


3. Electrical 

3. 

3. 

Housekeeping 

Clerical services 


4. Thermodynamics 

5. Fluid Mechanics 

6. Controls 

External Affairs 

3. 

Services 

i. 

Customer contacts 


a. Applied mathematics 

2. 

Project co-ordination 


and computing 

3. 

Field service 


b. Analog machines and 

A. 

Licensing agency contacts 


simulation 

Engineering 


c. Metallurgical and 
Material services 

i. 

Intelligence 


d. Production design 


a. Aerodynamics 


e. Technical information 


b. Structural 


f. Miscellaneous 


c. Stress analysis 


consultants 


a. Loads 




e. Weight 

IV. Research and Testing 


f. Systems onalysis 

g. Powerplants and 


Facilities 


thermodynamics 

i. 

Aerodynamics 


H. Human engineering 

2. 

Structural 


1. Acoustics 

3. 

Electronic 


2. Physiology 

4. 

Electrical 


3. Comfort and 

5. 

Mechanicoi 


safety engineering 


a. Hydraulic 


i. Testing and Research 


b. Pneumatic 

2. 

Design 


c. Power Plant 


a. General 


d. Miscellaneous 


b. Specialists 

6. 

Simulation 


1. Structural 

7. 

Flight Research 


It will be noticed that all the information for the shop 
originates in Section III, 2—the only part of the entire 
department that makes drawings and transmits other in¬ 
formation to the manufacturing organization. This group, 
which must weigh the information given to it by the 
other parts of the engineering department arid must 
make the basic decisions which determine the general 
and specific nature of the product, is now inadequately 
educated, staffed and supported. In order for such a 
group to work at all, and for an organization to come 
up with sensible results, the members of this group must 
have an adequate training in evaluating the opinions of 
specialists. This means that this group requires a more 
complete, and broader education and training than that 
of the specialists groups. 

Basically these people need the scientific background 
of a physicist with the practical approach of a mechanic. 
They need knowledge and skill capable of determining 
the optimum design in a multidimensional field. These 
men are frequently in the position of a family physician 
who can. according to the advice of specialists, have his 
patient’s teeth pulled, operate on him for appendicitis, 
have him given psychiatric treatments, or put him on a 
special diet. The future education for these people will 
be discussed later. 

Fifty years from now 

Fifty years from now the designer will be much more 
of a mathematician than his present counterpart. He will 
be used to large calculating machines, and familiar with 
the characteristics and capabilities of analogs. He may 
work at his desk with a miniaturized multidimensional 
analog and solve some of his polydimensional and non¬ 
linear problems directly. 

It is difficult for ns in the kindergarten epoch of the 
art to realize what fifty years will bring. The designer 
will think in terms of rates, not of magnitudes; problems 
will not be approached by sampling but will be opti¬ 
mized. Problems will be formulated in terms of physic¬ 
ally independent variables and hot in terms of mean¬ 
ingless parameters.* These aircraft design problems 
will contain from fifty to a hundred independent vari¬ 
ables; the solution in terms of the desired operating 
characteristics, such as takeoff run, high speed, cost 
per ton mile, etc., will determine the values of wing 
thickness, sweep back angle, wing area, span, etc. 

A further investigation will be made to determine the 
sensitivity of the results to variations in the excellence 
of manufacture and the quality of the detail design. A 
further study of the effects of powerplant growth and 
of changing economic conditions will permit an ade- 

*The writer has come to the conclusion that a parameter is some¬ 
thing that is used by a specialist to confuse his readers. 


24 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 



A nother page for 




How to beat shock loads 
in a big dragline 

Imagine the shock loads put on this big dragline’s 
intermediate swing shaft when the cab, the boom 
and an 8-yard load of dirt being swung through the 
air are suddenly stopped and the direction reversed! 
Engineers solved this problem by specifying 
Timken'" tapered roller bearings. Timken bearings 
not only take radial and thrust loads in any combi¬ 
nation, they also assure long, trouble-free operation. 


Why TIMKEN' bearings have 
high load capacity 

This cross section of a Timken tapered roller bearing 
illustrates one reason why Timken bearings do such a good 
job under heavy load conditions. Notice that there is full 
line contact between the rollers and races. It’s this full line 
contact that distributes the load over a wider area, gives 
Timken bearings their extra load-carrying capacity. 



TIMKEN 

TRADE-MARK REG. li. S. PAT OFF. 

TAPERED ROLLER BEARINGS 



Want to learn more about 
bearings or job opportunities? 

Some of the engineering problems you’ll face after 
graduation will involve bearing ap¬ 
plications. For help in learning more 
about bearings, write for the 270- 
page Genera] Information Manual 
on Timken bearings. And for infor¬ 
mation about the excellent job op¬ 
portunities at the Timken Company, 
write for a copy of "This Is Timken’’. 

The Timken Roller Bearing Com¬ 
pany, Canton 6, Ohio. 



NOT JUST A BALL O NOT JUST A ROLLER <t=> THE TIMKEN TAPERED ROLLER a=> 
BEARING TAKES RADIAL 4 ) AND THRUST LOADS OR ANY COMBINATION 


JANUARY, 1955 


25 






AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING . . 


. CONTINUED 


quate evaluation of the probable economic success or 
failure of the design. This method can be applied to any 
products, the characteristics of which can be expressed 
by mathematical relations. At the present time it can 
only be used where comparatively simple functional re¬ 
lations can be found. Let us give the mathematicians the 
next fifty years to produce better methods. 

The engineer of the future will be much better edu¬ 
cated than his present-day counterparts. He will have a 
solid foundation in the basic sciences, and will, in addi¬ 
tion, be given a background in economics, industrial 
management, and psychology. He will be trained in the 
conveying of ideas, both upward and downward in his 
organization. He will know that the number of geniuses 
available in the industry is effectually zero. 

He will know that materials do not maintain fixed 
dimensions. He will know that neither mechanics nor 
pilots can be expected to give continuous and unfailing 
attention. He will know that all devices fail and what 
failure rate to expect from different kinds of equipment. 
He will be immune to false objectives such as “do it 
electrically.” 

He will recognize from his psychological studies when 


he, himself, is prejudiced and in important cases will 
accept good suggestions even if they come from disagree¬ 
able individuals. He will know the fields in which he is 
competent and will not hesitate to ask for help in others. 
He will be trained to recognize the cycles in human op¬ 
timism and pessimism so that he can evaluate his per¬ 
formance properly. He will not be pressured into making 
impossible commitments, and he hopes that his custom¬ 
ers will have reached the state where they do not need 
to be bolstered up by false expectations. 

Education to prepare the designing engineer for his 
job will consist of an academic training roughly equiva¬ 
lent to that for a present-day PhD. plus an interneship 
under careful supervision. 

The men who are to exercise judgment and to com¬ 
promise the differences between the specialists must be 
carefully trained. They not only must understand the 
basic facts involved in each specialty but also must under¬ 
stand the personalities of the individuals concerned, and 
how far to believe them. In order to get the time to train 
these people a new synthesis of the scientific background 
will occur and the old breakdown into specialities will 
be avoided. 


SIT BAC K AND RELAX 


PM-284 COLLEGIATE 


SKYLIKE 


Wh 

FJrX 


M 


FLOODS 




168 


RECESSED 

TROFFER 


LUMINATION EQUIPHE 


educator' 


SMOOT-HOLMAH 


INGLEWOOD. CALIFORNIA 


INGLFWOOD, CALIFORNIA 


OFFICES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 






Let Calmec Manufacturing Company 
Worry About 

Your Metal Parts and Products 

We have the most modern facilities and most 
complete plant to give you the maximum of 
service, whether it is a small part, a large part, 
or a product from your ideas to the shipped article 
direct to your customers, under your name, from 
our plant. 

CALMEC MANUFACTURING CO. 

Robert A. McIntyre, M.S. ’38 Kimball 6204 

5825 District Blvd. Los Angeles 22, Calif. 

ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 










University 6f Southern California 


ENGINEERS 

or 

PHYSICS 

GRADUATES 


To those interested in 
advanced academic study 
while associated with important 
research and development 
in industry, Hughes offers 
this practical program: 




r-“-1 

| Hughes Cooperative Fellowship Program for Master of Science Degrees 

u_J 


A program to assist individuals in studying for the 
Master of Science Degree while employed in industry 
and making contributions to important military work. 
Open to students who will receive the B. S. degree in 
Electrical Engineering, Physics or Mechanical Engi¬ 
neering during the coming year, and to members of 
the Armed Services honorably discharged and 
holding such B. S. degrees. 

Candidates must meet entrance requirements for 
advanced study at University of California at Los An¬ 
geles or the University of Southern California. Partic¬ 
ipants will work full time during the summer in the 
Hughes Laboratories and 2 j hours per week while 
pursuing a half-time schedule of graduate study at the 
university. As many as ioo Fellowships will be award¬ 
ed each year. 

Salary is commensurate with the individual’s ability 
and experience. Tuition, admission fees and books for 
university attendance are provided. Provision is made 
to assist in paying travel and moving expenses from 
outside Southern California. 

JANUARY, 1955 


HOW 

TO 

APPLY 


for the Hughes Cooperative Fellowship 
Program: Address all correspondence to the 
Committee for Graduate Study. Brochure with 
complete details will be sent to you promptly. 


HUGHES 


Research 

and Development 

Laboratories 

Culver City, 

Los Angeles County, 
California 


27 







JL hese planes are some of America’s 
newest, biggest, best — setting new 
standards for speed, maneuverability, 
reliability. 

Widely separated airframe engineer¬ 
ing groups developed these record 
makers. Yet each plane has one vital 
feature in common — 

the engines are Pratt & Whitney 
Aircraft's J-57 turbojets — the most 
powerful production aircraft engines 
in the world! 

Is it any wonder that so many young 
engineering graduates want to work for 
the world’s foremost designer of air¬ 
craft engines? 


CONVAIR F-102 


DOUGIAS A3D 


DOUGIAS F4D 


Division of United Aircraft Corporation 
East Hartford 8, Connecticut 


BOEING 707 


28 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 







Auto motic testing ond recording 
permits accurate evaluation of a 
[greater rfumber of resistors. 


B8j@m 


BASIC REQUIREMENTS 

JAN and MIL Specifications are basic 
guideposts for electronic advance¬ 
ment, whether used os engineering 


another reason why engineers prefer IRC Resistors 


56 different IRC resistors is today’s figure—all equiva¬ 
lent to JAN or MIL specifications. Manufacturers of 
military equipment who must meet these specifications 
depend on IRC for all their resistor requirements. 
Offering the widest line of resistors in the industry— 
138 different types in all—IRC is the logical source of 
JAN and MIL type units. 


PECIFIC EXAMPL 


INTERNATIONAL 
RESISTANCE CO. 


^ 401 N. Bread St., Phila. 8, Pa. 

-Wv- In Canada: International Resistance Co., Toronto, Licensee 














■4M 

JS 1 ® 




physics majors 


engineering 

learn how yoii can assure 
your future 




Read North American Aviation’s 
“Time, Space, and You”— 
a new booklet offering you a 
more challenging career in the 

fields of Guided Missiles, 
Rocket Engines, and 
Nuclear Engineering ... and an 
opportunity to live in 
Southern California. Send for 
your free copy today. 


write to : 

DIRECTOR, ENGINEERING PERSONNEL 
MISSILE AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT 
NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC. 
Downey, Los Angeles County, California 


Name. 


Address. 
City _ 



-Zone. 


-State. 


PERSONALS 

1926 

Ted C. Coleman with two associates 
started the Coleman Engineering Company 
in 1950, to engage in research and de¬ 
velopment in the guided missile and re¬ 
lated fields. Since then, the Coleman En¬ 
gineering Company has been incorporated 
and has 110 employees working in the 
engineering offices and plant in Los 
Angeles. Ted’s company was recently se¬ 
lected by the Air Force as the chief con¬ 
tractor in the design and construction of 
Project SMART—a supersonic research 
track to be built early in 1955 on top of 
a mesa near Ziori National Park. It will be 
2% miles in length and accommodate 
rocket-propelled vehicles at supersonic 
speed. The Colemans have two children, 
a daughter in college and son in junior 
high. 

1927 

Robert Crert lint; is how a grandfather 
—and he proudly reports that his daugh¬ 
ter named the first grandchild after him. 
Bob has been with the Sandia Corporation 
in Albuquerque since 1951. 

1928 

W . Motion Jacobs was recently appoint¬ 
ed vice president and assistant general 
manager of the Southern California Gas 
Company, and another Caltech man, Frank 
M. Foster, '25, has been named to fill 
Morton’s former position, that of vice 
president in charge of sales and customers 
functions within the company. Both men 
have been with the gas company a long 
time—Morton joined the company in 1930 
and has been a vice president since 1949. 
a director since 1950. Frank, who has been 
general sales manager since 1949, first 
joined the company in 1936. 

Edwin M. McMillan, MS "29, has been 
appointed to the General Advisory Com¬ 
mittee of the Atomic Energy Commission 
by President Eisenhower. As a member of 
the Committee, Ed will attend monthly 
meetings in Washington, D.C., where he 
and other members will advise with the 
Commission. This appointment will expire 
on August 1, 1960. Ed has been a faculty 
member of the University of California 
since 1932, except for the war period when 
he worked on atomic energy projects and 
was one of the Los \.bonus project found¬ 
ers. Iti 1951 he was cO-recipient of the 
1951 Nobel Prize iti physics for his work 
On new elements beyond uranium. 

1929 

Howard G. Dodge died on November 21 
from a heart attack. This information was 
sent in by Henry P. Henderson, "26, who 
says: "For a number of years Howard had 
been senior engineer in the San Fran¬ 
cisco office of the Underwriters Labora¬ 
tories, Inc. and recently had been spend¬ 
ing a great deal of time in getting their 
new Santa Clara plant ready for opera- 


30 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 











This scene is reminiscent of earlier times, 
but the shots being fired are neutrons. Here 
at the Materials Testing Reactor, operated 
by Phillips Petroleum Company for the 
Atomic Energy Commission near Idaho 
Falls, Idaho, radiation level is checked 
preparatory to placing a sample of material 
under “neutron bombardment.” 


' LtXukh- 

U 1955 STYLE 


Broad assignments in atomic energy represent to produce and improve our automotive fuels 

just one phase of the widely diversified in- and lubricants. Others develop and manufac- 

terests of Phillips Petroleum Company. ture such products as carbon black, synthetic 

Whatever your specialty in engineering or rubbers, chemical fertilizers, sulfur com- 
the sciences, you may be sure that we are pounds, and chemicals used in synthetic fibers, 

interested in your abilities and your achieve- If you’re looking for a career with a future 
mehts. Already, well over 2,800 technical we invite you to write to our Employee Re¬ 
graduates are found among our 23,000 em- lations Department for further information 

ployees. about opportunities with Phillips Petroleum 

Some of these scientists and engineers work Company and its subsidiaries. 


PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY, Bartlesville, Oklahoma 



JANUARY, 1955 


31 











PERSONALS 


» * 


CONTINUED 


tiori sometime in the early part of 1955. 

“You will recall that he was a very 
active member of the Tech tennis team 
. . . in connection with his tennis activi¬ 
ties, it might be interesting to note that 
he carried this through Until very recently, 
and, because of his very active participa¬ 
tion in the junior Tennis Tournament 
every year on the San Francisco Bay 
Peninsula, received the Valuable Citizen 
award from the Chamber of Commerce 
in Burlingame several times. 

“Those of us who knew Howard will 
miss his jolly laughter at our get-togethers 
as well as his valuable help and advice. 
He leaves a son, Howard, who is in the 
Armed Forres, and his wife Gwen, who 
resides at the family home. 444 Bloomfield 
Road, Burlingame.” 

William G. Young. PhD, has been re¬ 
elected to a three year term on the hoard 
of directors of the American Chemical 
Society, Bill will he regional director for 
the Society’s Sixth District, which consists 
of eighteen Western states. Alaska and 
Hawaii. Since 1930 he has been a member 
of the UCLA faculty, and in 1046 was 
named dean of the physical sciences. 


1930 

John L. Hall is the general staff super¬ 
visor, hew business sales, of the Southern 
California Gas Company, and for more 
than 20 years has been giving the “gas 
pitch” to Los Angeles building industries. 
John started with the gas company right 
after graduation, and since 1944 has beefi 
-supervising, in one capacity or another, 
the company’s dealings with the construc¬ 
tion industries. 

1933 

John E. Meskell has been elected presi¬ 
dent of the Building Contractors Associa¬ 
tion of California for the year 1955. John 
served as director of the association during 
1954 and was largely responsible for ne¬ 
gotiations with UCLA which led towards 
the establishment of a full four-year course 
in general contracting in the School of 
Business. John is a partner in the firm 
of Thiesen Company, which specializes in 
commercial construction. 

1935 

Robert C. Warner is now Associate Pro¬ 
fessor of the Department of Biochemistry 
at New York University College of Medi¬ 
cine. Bob. a member of the staff of New 


York University College since 1946, has 
been doing extensive research On the 
chemistry of proteins, and is presently a 
member of the Panel on Plasma, Division 
of Medical Sciences, National Research 
Council. 

1936 

Richard W oilman, MS, is now president 
of the Leonard Melton Company of Nash¬ 
ville, Tennessee, a wholesale sporting goods 
firm. Dick has two children, a girl and a 
boy.. 

1939 

/. Scott Gassaway , who is leading an 
active life trying to keep Up with his 
four boys, writes: “We (wife Marilyn and 
I) are still owners of the engineering 
company in Los Angeles which bears my 
name. We have four boys and I am a 
neighborhood commissioner with the Boy 
Scouts, and a vice-president of a Lion’s 
(iltlb. We have an interest in the nation¬ 
ally known Bank Coin machines, which 
are sold Under the M.P. trademark. (I 
designed them). We love the outdoors and 
are ardent trailer campers—about 10 trips 
a year.” 

1941 

Roy M. Acker is a member of the tech- 
ttical staff of the Guided Missiles Division 
for the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation in 
Los Angeles. Roy was formerly with 
Hughes Aircraft in Culver City. He and 
his wife Hazel have two daughters, Cheryl, 
age 4, arid Janet, one year. 

Richard M. Vaughn was married on De¬ 
cember 18 to Constance Ellis of Los An¬ 
geles, and they are now living in Beverly 
Hills. Dick is president of the Town and 
Country Builders of Beverly Hills. 

Claud S. Rupert, who received his PhD 
in physics from Johns Hopkins in 1951, has 
been appointed assistant professor of bio¬ 
physics at Johns Hopkins. Claud joined 
the Biophysics Department in 1952 as an 
American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fel¬ 
low in cancer research. He was married 
to Clara M. Sorensen of Baltimore last 
July. 

Roger IFallace is now employed in the 
health physics division of the Radiation 
Laboratory, of the University of California 
at Berkeley. Roger received his PhD in 
physics from UC in ’53. The Wallace fam¬ 
ily now numbers three; their first child, 
Elizabeth, was born last April. 

1943 

Jack L. Malaya, MS, is in the geophy¬ 
sical office of the Stanolind Oil and Gas 
Company at Tyler, Texas. 

Leonard S. Alpert was transferred by 
the Shell Chemical Corporation to their 
Ventura Ammonia Plant, where he is 
senior engineer. Leonard and his wife live 
in Ojai, California, and with the recent 
addition of Evelyn Ann, now boast three 
beautiful daughters. 

ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 



njenuity... 

A Key to K&E Leadership 

To design a slide rule that makes even the most complex 
calculations simple takes ingenuity. Years of ingenious 
developments and improvements by K&E, first to make 
slide rules in America, produced the Log Log Duplex 
Decitrig®, the slide rule most used by engineers and 
students alike. Ingenuity—of design, of manufacture—is 
one of the keys to K&E’s eighty-seven years of leader¬ 
ship in drafting, reproduction, surveying and optical 
tooling equipment and materials, in slide rules and 
measuring tapes. 


Chicago 


KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. 

New York • Hoboken, N. J. 

• St Louis • Detroit • San Francisco • Los Angeles * Montreal 


32 




RICHARD CONWAY checks 
cutting tool with machinist 
before milling a pump casing. 


After completing his general training which brought him in 
contact with all departments, Richard J. Cohway decided that 
manufacturing engineering was his field. He says, “I chose the 
Manufacturing Engineering Department after completing my 
general training at Worthington because as a graduate in In¬ 
dustrial Engineering I can learn the practical aspects of my 
field while applying theory I learned in college. 

“The personnel of this department work together as a team 
toward the solution of the numerous problems which arise 
daily. We have the cooperation of all other departments in the 
corporation in getting the necessary facts pertinent to the solu¬ 
tion of these problems. In the course of our day it may be 
necessary for us to meet the Plant Manager, Chief Engineer, 
Comptroller, several department heads, clerks, foremen, ma¬ 


chinists and many others throughout the company. 

“I have contributed to the solution of many problems han¬ 
dled by this department including metal spraying, machining 
procedures, purchasing new equipment and designating proper 
dimensions to obtain desired fits between mating parts. 

“I enjoy my work because I'm doing the work I want and 
my formal education is being supplemented with practical 
knowledge gained from the tremendous wealth of knowledge 
available to me at Worthington. I know from personal contact 
with many other departments in the Corporation that Wor¬ 
thington can and will find their young engineers a spot which 
wi II give them the same opportunities as have been afforded me.” 

When you're thinking of a good job, think high —think 
Worthington, 


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, see your College 
Placement Bureau or write to the Personnel and Training 
Department, Worthington Corporation, Harrison, N. J. 


WORTHINGTON 


The Sign of Value 
Around the World 


JANUARY, 1955 


33 













The desigh engineer trained in 
welded steel tonstruction is best 
able to meet industry's need hr 
low cost manufacture betause 

WELDED DESIGNS 
CUT COSTS 50 % 

B Y using steel instead of cast iron, 
'design engineers today make their 
products more efficient . . . many times at 
half the cost. Product designs are strong¬ 
er, more rigid, take less material to build. 

Too little attention is usually devoted to 
simplification of product designs to elim¬ 
inate costly manufacturing manhours 
once a basic design is established. Where 
designers reappraise product details for 
welded steel construction, production 
costs are being cut an average of 5 0% com¬ 
pared with manufacture using castings. 

Manufacturing operations are simpli¬ 
fied with welded steel design. Rejections 
due to inferior metal are eliminated. Less 
machining and finishing are required. 
Finished machines are streamlined, more 
modern in appearance. 

In the example below, an economy- 
minded design engineer lowered manu¬ 
facturing cost on a machine arm and cut 
weight of the arm. 

Before conversion to steel, the machine 
arm required 182 pounds of gray iron 
and cost $38.25 to cast and machine. 
Welded steel design weighs only 86.8 
pounds .. . costs $20.06. 



DISIGN DATA for wmldwd construction it avoif- 
abfm to ongtnooring itudonts in tho form of bullotim 
and handbook*. Writo 

THE LINCOLN ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Cleveland 17, Ohio 

THE WORLD'S LARGEST MANUFACTURER OF 
ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT 


PERSONALS . . . CONTINUED 

1944 

Eric Weiss is now a member of the tech¬ 
nical staff, Research and Development, at 
Hughes Aircraft in Culver City. Before 
joining Hughes, Eric was employed as 
project engineer for the J. B. Rea Com¬ 
pany of Los Angeles. 

1946 

John P. Calligeros has been acting as 
senior development engineer for the 
Arabian-American Oil Company, and is 
located at the Company's general offices in 
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Last summer he 
and his wife Jae made a tour through most 
of Europe in their little Fiat, and during 
this vacation did some skiing in the Swiss 
and Austrian Alps. 

Eberhurdt Rechtin, PhD ’50, is the new 
section chief of electronics research at 
Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He 
succeeds Frank Lehan, '44, who has joined 
the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation. 

1947 

Col. John A. Graf. MS, is now in com¬ 
mand of the San Francisco district, Corps 
of Army Engineers. John, who graduated 
from West Point in 1940, will direct a 20 
million dollar construction program during 
the next six months. Included in this pro¬ 
gram is the completion of NTKE guided 
missile launching sites, and the building 
of a hydraulic model of San Fran¬ 
cisco Bay. Before this assignment John was 
executive officer of the Portland, Oregon, 
district office. The Grafs have two chil¬ 
dren. 

1948 

Kurt Barnett, MS, writes from Montreal. 
Canada: “Here’s some news. I was mar¬ 
ried on November 25 th to Charlotte 
Hojtasova, honeymooned in New York. 
Working with a firm of consulting engi¬ 
neers in Montreal on the design of in¬ 
dustrial electrical installations. Did quite 
a lot of cross-country skiing up here last 
year. Miss folk dancing. Always happy to 
hear of visitors here from Caltech.” 

Richard A. Spellman joined the Cali¬ 
fornia Research Corporation in Richmond 
last spring. Formerly he had been with 
the Lago Oil & Transport Company. 

Robert C. Hopkins, MS, is now a mem¬ 
ber of the technical staff of the Field En¬ 
gineering Department at the Hughes Re¬ 
search and Development Laboratories in 
Culver City. He was formerly employed 
by the Digital Computor Laboratory. 

1949 

Lloyd P. Geldarl is the chief geophysi¬ 
cist for Dominion Oil Ltd., (a subsidiary of 
Standard Oil Company of California), 
and is located at Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. 
Lloyd reports that after two years of ex¬ 
ploration the company has “spudded” in 
their first wildcat well. 

Jack L. White sent in the following re¬ 
port of his recent activities: “We’re re¬ 


turning to the States after 1^2 years of 
research at the Imperial College in Lon¬ 
don. Managed to cap off our time in 
Europe with a two-month, 10-country tour 
through Scandinavia and the Continent by 
automobile—6,600 miles in all. Looking 
forward to spending some time in the 
States now, though the exact location and 
position are not known." 

1950 

John P. Francis left the National Bu¬ 
reau of Standards nearly a year ago to 
become a member of the Magnavox Com¬ 
pany Research Laboratories in West Los 
Angeles. John is working on the design 
of digital data, handling systems, and the 
research and development of components. 
He was married last June to Jean How 
ard in Westwood, California. 

Edmund A. Milne , MS, PhD ’53, is as¬ 
sistant professor at the Naval Postgradu¬ 
ate School in Monterey, California. Before 
this, Ed held a resident fellowship here 
at Caltech. 

1951 

Richard B. Campbell. MS, lias moved 
from Vancouver, British Columbia, where 

he was in the B. C. office of the Geo- 

- . £ - 

logical Survey of Canada, to Whitehorse, 
Alaska. Right now Dick is in the process 
of opening and organizing a new survey 
office for the Yukon. 

Gunnar Bergman, PhD, and wife Judy 
announce the birth of Charles Kimball, 
their first child, oh November 11. Gunnar 
is Assistant Professor of Chemistry and 
Mechanical Engineering at Caltech. 

1952 

Richard Von Herzen, a Corporal in the 
Army, is due for a discharge at the end 
of this month, and he plans to enroll im¬ 
mediately in the Harvard University 
Graduate School to study geophysics. Dick 
hopes to make the U. S. Pan-American 
games swimming team, and for the past 
month has been training with other Armed 
Forces swimmers at the Treasure Island 
Naval Base. After his discharge he will 
continue his training at Harvard right up 
to the time of the preliminary trials at 
Yale in February. Dick never swam com¬ 
petitively until he entered Caltech—but 
in spite of the late start, he won blue 
ribbons at the California Conference meets 
in 1951 and 1952. 

Clinton Lew has been in the Guided 
Missile Division of the Hughes Research 
and Development Laboratories since leav¬ 
ing Caltech. Last January he received his 
MS in physics from UCLA. Clinton’s due 
to marry Hawn Young of Buena Park, 
California, next February. 

1953 

Robert L. Smith was married on Decem¬ 
ber 18 to Susan Zugsmith of Brentwood, 
California. Bob is doing graduate work at 
Caltech. 


34 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 




1954—Boeing's Seattle plant as it appears today. New Engineering Building is shown in foreground. 


1916—The First Boeing plant, Seattle 


Is career stability important to you? 


Then the chart below will be of interest. 
It shows that 46% of Boeing’s engineers 
have been with this company for five 
or more years; 25% have been here 10 
or more years, and 6% for 1 5 years. 

*»*l 105 MS 305 «05 505 

I 

20 -■ 



One reason for this stability is that 
Boeing has grown steadily for 38 years, 
providing plenty of room for advance¬ 
ment. Another reason is the highly in¬ 
teresting type of work at Boeing, such 
as designing and building America’s first 
jet transport and the revolutionary B-47 


and B-52 jet bombers, as well as work 
on pilotless aircraft, supersonic flight 
and research in nuclear-powered aircraft. 

Still another reason is this: Boeing 
always has put dominant emphasis on 
engineering development. Pioneering in 
this field has meant that Boeing con¬ 
stantly has increased its engineering staff 
in relation to total employees. Fifteen 
years ago, one out of 16 employees was 
in engineering. Five years ago the pro¬ 
portion of engineers had been raised 
to one in ten and today it has climbed 
to one in seven. 

Boeing has rewarding openings for 
engineers of EVERY category—electri¬ 
cal, civil, mechanical, aeronautical and 
related fields, as well as for applied 


physicists and mathematicians with ad¬ 
vanced degrees. 

Careers at Boeing afford a wide vari¬ 
ety of experience in research, design and 
production, as well as work with new 
materials and techniques, and contacts 
with a cross section of industry through 
Boeing’s vast subcontracting program. 

Boeing promotes from within and 
holds regular merit reviews to assure in- 
dividual recognition. Engineers are en¬ 
couraged to take graduate studies while 
working and are reimbursed for all tui- 
tion expense. 

For further Boeing career information 
consult your PLACEMENT OFFICE, or write 

JOHN C. SANDERS, Staff Engineer —Personnel 
Boeing Airplane Company, Seattle 14, Wash. 




JANUARY, 1955 


SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 


WICHITA, KANSAS 

35 







Elastic Stop Nut Corporation of America 
Dept. N34-152, 2330 Vauxhall Road, Union, N. J. 

Please send me the following free fastening information: 


im Elastic Stop Not Bulletin 
im Rollpin Bulletin 
ClAN-ESNA Conversion Chart 


□ Here is a drawing of our 
product. What fastener would 
you suggest? 


HIGH TENSILE NUT 


ELASTIC STOP NUT CORPORATION d0jjf||| 
OF AMERICA 


dia. from 1/16" fo 1/2" 


RoIIpins are slotted, tubular steel, pressed-fit pins 
with chamfered ends. They drive easily into holes 
drilled to normal tolerances, compressing as driven. 
Extra assembly steps like hole reaming or peening 
are eliminated. RoIIpins lock in place, yet are read¬ 
ily removed with a punch and may be reused. 

Cut assembly costs by using RoIIpins as set 
screws, positioning dowels, clevis or hinge pins. 
Specify them in place of straight, serrated, tapered 
or cotter type pins. 


CLINCH NUT 


^ GANG 
CHANNEL NUTS 


HIGH-TEMP. NUT 


FLOATING ANCHOR NUT 


Every major aircraft now being assembled relies on the 
vibration-proof holding power of ELASTIC STOP nuts. 
Only ESNA manufactures a complete line of all types 
and sizes of self-locking nuts. 


SPLINE NUT 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 


36 







ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

cU all academic dea/iee. leveh 




electrical and mechanical engineering design and development, 
stress analysis, airborne structural design, electrical and electronic 
circuitry, systems studies, instrumentation, telemetering, electro¬ 
mechanical test, applied physics problems. 


a! Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Western Electric Company, offers 
^ outstanding opportunities to graduates with Bachelor’s or advanced degrees, with 
or without applicable experience. 

Sandia Corporation engineers and scientists work as a team at the basic task of 
9 applying to military uses certain of the fundamental processes developed by 
nuclear physicists. This task requires original research as well as straightforward 
development and production engineering. 

*4 A new engineer's place on the Sandia team is determined initially by his 
training, experience, and talents . . . and, in a field where ingenuity and 
resourcefulness are paramount, he is afforded every opportunity for professional 
growth and improvement. 

# Sandia engineers design and develop complex components and systems 
that must function properly under environmental conditions that are much 
more severe than those specified for industrial purposes. They design and 
develop electronic equipment to collect and analyze test data; they build 
instruments to measure weapons effects. As part of their work, they are 
engaged in liaison with the best production and design agencies in the 
country, and consult with many of the best minds in all fields of science. 

# Sandia Laboratory, operated by Sandia Corporation under contract 
with the Atomic Energy Commission, is located in Albuquerque 
the heart of the healthful Southwest A modern, mile-high city of 150,000, 
Albuquerque offers a unique combination of metropolitan facilities plus 
scenic, historic and recreational attractions — and a climate that is 
sunny, mild, and dry the year around. New residents have little diffi 
culty in obtaining adequate housing. 

M Liberal employee benefits include paid vacations, sickness bene 
T fits, group life insurance, and a contributory retirement plan 
Working conditions are excellent, and salaries are commensurate 
with qualifications. 

A limited number of positions for Aeronautical Engineers 
Mathematicians, and Physicists are also available. 

Make apfdioatiOH to-: PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT 
DIVISION A-f 

Or contact through your Placement Office the Sandia 
Corporation representative with the Bell Telephone 
System College Recruiting Team for an 
interview on your campus. 




JANUARY, 1955 





aeronautics 

astronomy 

biology 

business 

chemistry 

economics 

electronics 

engineering 

geology 

management 

mathematics 

mechanics 

metallurgy 

meteorology 

mineralogy 

nucleonics 

petroleum 

physics 

plastics 

statistics 


aeronautics 

J. S. Shapiro, PRINCIPLES OF 
HELICOPTER ENGINEERING 
(McGraw, $10) 

All technical books are available at 

VROMAN’S 

Technical Book Division 

695 E. Colorado St., Pasadena 
S’?. 3-1171 RY. 1-6669 

Industrial Discount Write for 

Inquiries Welcomed Free Catalog 


Faculty Members Only 

Up to 30% Off on Auto Insurance 

We can obtain insurance for faculty mem¬ 
bers at preferred rates in large nation-wide 
company. Standard provisions in policy. 

call or write 

F. G. JOHNS at PACIFIC UNDERWRITERS, INC. 

1250 Wilshire Blvd., L. A. 17 MAdlson 6-5576 

References: Secretary of the Institute 


ALUMNI NEWS 


Class News Letter 

JHE CLASS OF 1950 is hoping to get out a brief news 
letter concerning as many members of the class as pos¬ 
sible in order to have it available for the fifth reunion 
of the class in June. Anyone having any information or 
personal news ileitis concerning members of the class 
of ’50 is requested to pass them along to Ralph Stone, 
P. (). Box 3546, Phoenix, Arizona. 

Seminar Day 

THE ANNUAL Alumni Seminar Day falls this year oil 
April 16, the Saturday following Easter. The committee 
promises an outstanding program of interest to every¬ 
one, to he climaxed by flintier at the Elks Club. 

Here is your opportunity to meet old friends, spend 
an enjoyable day on campus, entertain your wife and 
guests, and thoroughly enjoy yourself. You will prob¬ 
ably want to inspect the new Alumni Swimming Pool. 
Scott Brown Gymnasium, and athletic offices. 

A copy of the program and reservation forms will he 
mailed to all alumni in southern California iti March. 
Any alumnus not living here, hut who will he in this 
area on Seminar Day, should send a card to the alumni 
office for information. 


ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OFFICERS 


PRESIDENT 

Kenneth F. Russell ’29 

VICE-PRESIDENT 

C. Vernon Newton ’34 


SECRETARY 

Donald S. Clark ’29 

TREASURER 

George B. Holmes ’38 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Willard E. Baier ’23 Philip Cravitz 

Robert R. Bennett ’45 Douglas G. Kingman 

Hugh C. Carter ’49 William F. Nash, Jr. 

Charles P. Strickland "43 


ALUMNI CHAPTER OFFICERS 


New York Chapter: 

VICE-PRESIDENT G. William Boutelle '48 

Bulova Watch Co., Bulova Park, Flushing 

SECRETARY-TREASURER Frank F. Scheck ’48 

Attorney, 247 Park Ave., New York 


Washington, D. C. Chapter: 

PRESIDENT Thomas S. Southwick ’27 

U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington 25, D. C. 

SECRETARY-TREASURER Clarence A. Burmister ’25 

U.S.C. & G.S., RadioSonic Laboratory, Wash. 25 


San Francisco Chapter: 

PRESIDENT Robert G. Heitz ’36 

Dow Chemical Company, Pittsburg, California 

VICE-PRESIDENT Louis H. Erb '22 

Pacific Tel, & Tel. Co., San Francisco, California 

SECRETARY-TREASURER Harrison W. Sigworth ’44 

California Research Corp., Richmond, California 


Chicago Chapter: 

PRESIDENT Ehen Vey 

Dept, of Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology 
VICE-PRESIDENT E. T. Groat 

840 S. Canal Street, Chicago 80, Illinois 
SECRETARY-TREASURER L. H. Nobles 

Department of Geology, Northwestern University 

Sacramento Chapter: 

PRESIDENT Mervin A. Schuhart 

State Division of Highways, 1120 “N” Street 
VICE-PRESIDENT Luther J. Eastman 

California Board of Equalization 
SECRETARY-TREASURER Harris K. Mauzy 

California Division of Highways, Bridge Department 


San Diego Chapter: 


CHAIRMAN Maurice R. Ross ' 

3040 Udal Street. San Diego 6, Calif. 

SECRETARY Frank John Dore, Jr, 

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. 

PROGRAM CHAIRMAN JIf Tman S. Englander 

U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory 


38 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 










CALTECH CALENDAR 

January, 1955 


FRIDAY DEMONSTRATION LECTURES 

Lecture Hall, 201 Bridge, 7*.3Q p.m. 

Jan. 1 4— Jan. 28— 

The Earth’s Atmosphere— The Size of the Un 

Dr. Oliver Wulf Dr. William Baum 


Jan. 21 — 

Pistons or Pinwheels?- 
Dr. Peter KyropOulos 


Jan. 2 8— 

The Size of the Universe— 
Dr. William Baum 
Feb, 4— 

A Demonstration of Same 
Critical Phenomena— 

Dr. Bruce Sage 


ALUMNI CALENDAR 


YMCA LUNCHEON FORUMS 

Athenaeum, 12 Noon 



Dinner Meeting 

Jah. 26— 

Feb. 9— 

Jan, 12 

Problems Arising out af 
American Military Bases in 

United Nations War Relief 
arid the Palestine Refugee 

Feb. 5 

Dinner Dance 

Japan—Willard A. Hanna 

Feb. 2— 

—Richard H. Nalte 

Feb. 16™ 

April 16 

Seminar Day 

Planned Parenthood and 
HiimOri Relations— 

Modern Drama and the 
Human Predicament— 

June 8 

Annual Picnic 

Dr. Ofeila Mendoza, M.D. 

Dr. William Hawley 


ATHLETIC SCHEDULE 

Varsity Basketball 
Jan. 1 8—Pomona at Caltech 
Jan. 21—Whittier at Caltech 
Jan. 25—Nazorenes at Caltech 
jan. 28—Caltech at L. A. State 
Feb. 5—Caltech at Redlands 
Feb. 8—Chapmdn at Caltech 
Feb. 11-—Caltech at Whittier 
Feb. 15—LoVerne at Caltech 
Feb. 1 9—Caltech at NazarertO 
Feb, 19—Coltetch at L B. State 


Oil Properties Consultants, Inc. 

Complete Petroleum and Production 
Engineering Service 

Subsurface Geology • Micropaleontology 
Reservoir Mechanics 
Secondary Recovery and Evaluation 
Registered Engineers 

Petroleum Engineering 
Associates, Inc. 

Complete Laboratory Service 

Core-Analysis • PVT • Fractional Analysis 
Florent H. Bailly, ’27 Rene Engel, Ph.D. ’33 

709-711 South Fair Oaks Avenue SYcamore 3-1156 

Pasadena 2, California RYan 1-8141 


Life Insurance 

Annuities 

Estate Planning 

HAROLD 

O. GRONDAHL 

NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE 

COMPANY 

234 E. Colorado Street 


Pasadena 1, Calif. 

SYcamore 2-7141 Res.: SY. 3-5514 

RYan 1-8431 


OLNEY BROTHERS 

RUG AND FURNITURE CLEANING 

ORIENTAL RUG EXPERTS 
312 N. Foothill Blvd. Pasadena 8, Calif. 

SYcamore 3-0734 


ALLEN MACHINE & TOOL CO. 

Designers and Builders of Special Machinery and Tools 
Also General Machine Work 

13409 S. Alameda Street Compton, California 

Phones: NEvada 6-1219 — NEwmark 5-8141 


lOF PASADENA 

455 EL DORADO, PA5ADENA 5, CALIFORNIA 


(Zt&indon 

LABORATORY 


COLOR FILM PROCESSING * COLOR PRINTS • PHOTO CHEMICALS 


RALPH B. ATKINSON '30-7273 SANTA MONICA BLVD., HOLLYWOOD 46, CALIF. 


SMITH-EMERY COMPANY 

since 1910 
Chemists-Engineers 

Chemical and Physical Testing Laboratories 
781 E. Washington Blvd. Los Angeles 21, California 
Member American Council of Commercial Laboratories 


DAMES & MOORE 

Trent R. Dames ’33 William W. Moore ’33 

Soil Mechanics Investigations 

General Offices: 816 West Fifth Street, Los Angeles 17 
Regional Offices: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, 
Seattle, Salt Lake City, Chicago. New York, Atlanta, London 


TRUESDAIL 

LABORATORIES, INC. 


Consultation - Analyses - Testing 


C. E. P. Jeffreys, 
Ph.D. '31 
Technical Director 


CHEMISTS • BACTERIOLOGISTS • ENGINEERS 

Write for Brochure * 4101 North Figueroa Street 
Los Angeles 65, California • CApitol 4148 


Charter Member 
ACIL 


ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE 















Westbound Rio Grande freight in Ruby Canyon of Colorado River. 


The freight rolls away an hour sooner 

because photography cuts yard bookkeeping 


The Denver and Rio Grande Western 
Railroad microfilms its waybills in 
minutes, cuts running schedules, 
saves costs in train idling time. 

You don’t find a Rio Grande freight idling at the 
terminal while waybills are copied by hand. In¬ 
stead, Recordak Microfilming copies them. Then 
they’re put aboard and the train is off in just 
about one-fifth the time it tised to take, thus sav¬ 
ing hours of valuable crew and train time. Then 
the wheel reports are made up from the films and 
teletyped ahead. 

Railroading is but one of over a hundred types of 
businesses now saving money, time and space with 


microfilming. It is one of the fast growing and widely 
used ways photography works for industry. 

Small businesses and large are finding that photog¬ 
raphy helps in simplifying routine procedures, in 
product design, in personnel relations. It improves 
production, saves time and cuts costs. 

Graduates in the physical sciences and in engi¬ 
neering find photography an increasingly valuable 
tool in their new occupations. Its expanding use has 
also created many challenging opportunities at 
Kodak, especially in the development of large-scale 
chemical processes and the design of complex pre¬ 
cision mechanical-electronic equipment. Whether 
you are a recent graduate or a qualified returning 
service man, if you are interested in these opportuni¬ 
ties, write to Business & Technical Personnel Dept., 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N.Y. 


Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N.Y. 














Return Postage Guaranteed 
Engineering & Science 
Calif. Inst, of Technology 
Pasadena, Calif. 



CHARLES SNYDER, R.P.I., (center) adjusting 5250 triple-unit d-c Engineers RICHARD RENK, IOWA STATE, (left) and ALLEN FRINK, 

mill motor for use in a steel mill. CATHOLIC UNIV., make last-minute check on 1600-hp diesel-electric 

switcher before it is moved to test track. 


THEY’RE "GOING PLACES" 
AT GENERAL ELECTRIC 


Like these young men pictured here, hundreds of scien¬ 
tists, engineers, chemists, physicists and other college 
graduates are "getting ahead” fast at General Electric .... 
and they are working on projects with the assurance that 
their contributions are meaningful and important. 

They are moving up rapidly because at General Electric 
a world of opportunity awaits the college man of today—a 
w'orld limited only by his own ability and interest. The 
variety of General Electric products and the diversity of 
the Company’s operations provide virtually unlimited 
fields of opportunity and corresponding rewards, both 
materially and in terms of personal satisfaction to young 
men who begin a G-E career. 

New developments-—in silicones, electronics, semi-con¬ 
ductors, gas turbines, atomic power, and others—spring¬ 
ing from G-E research and engineering, arc creating 


exciting new opportunities, and are giving college gradu¬ 
ates the chance of finding satisfying, rewarding work. 

And by placing prime importance on the development of 
talent and skill, developed through G-E training pro¬ 
grams and broadened through rotational job programs, 
and by providing incentives for creative minds. General 
Electric is hurrying young men into success in an in¬ 
dustry that is devoted to serving all men through the 
ever-increasing and ever-widening uses for electricity, 
man’s greatest servant. 

If you are interested in building a career with General Elec¬ 
tric see your college placement director for the date of the 
next visit of the General Electric representative on your cam¬ 
pus. Meanwhile, for further information on opportunities with 
General Electric write to College Editor, Dept. 2-123, Gen¬ 
eral Electric Company, Schenectady 6, New York. 



Test engineers E. K. VON FANGE, U. OF 
NEB., (left) and R. E. IOVE, U. OF TEXAS, 
work on slacker and stapler built by them for 
homework project. 


Physicist ROGER DEWES, BROOKLYN POLY., 
working with scintillation counter in G.E.’s 
Engineering Laboratory. 


ANTHONY TERZANO, PRATT INSTITUTE, 
checks connections on direct-current rectifier 
which charges 7,500,000-volt impulse genera¬ 
tor in G.E.’s new High-voltage Laboratory. 


GENERAL 



ELECTRIC