John A. Bauscher, Class of '43
speaks from experience when he says
• • •
“United States Steel
offers first-rate opportunities
in research and product development”
Tohn Bauscher graduated from col-
" lege in 1943 with a B.S. degree in
Metallurgy. After a stint in the Navy,
he returned to college as a metallurgi¬
cal research assistant. In 1949 he re¬
ceived his M.S. in Metallurgy and
then came to work at the U.S. Steel
Applied Research Laboratory. After
just four and a half years, Mr.
Bauscher had progressed to Division
Chief for Sheet Products Develop¬
ment — responsible for the improve¬
ment of present sheet steel products
and the development of new and im¬
Why did Mr. Bauscher choose U.S.
Steel? Because, says he, “U.S. Steel
produces such a great diversity of
products and maintains such a thor¬
ough research program on all its prod¬
ucts — not only theoretical research,
but also applied research or product
development. The graduate engineer
has unusual latitude in selecting the
type of products and the type of re¬
search that interest him most. Work is
done not only on steel, but on many
raw materials and by-products as well.
“And,” says Mr. Bauscher, “Oppor¬
tunities at U.S. Steel are better now
than ever before because of the em¬
phasis on product development and
the recent expansion of research
If you are interested in a challeng¬
ing and rewarding career with U.S.
Steel and feel that you can qualify,
you can get details from your college
placement director. And we will gladly
send you a copy of our informative
booklet, “Paths of Opportunity,”
which describes U.S. Steel and the
openings in various scientific fields.
Just write to United States Steel Cor¬
poration, Personnel Division, Room
1622, 525 William Penn Place, Pitts¬
burgh 30, Pennsylvania.
sec THE UNITED STATES STEEL HOUR. It’s a full hour of top flight
TV drama, presented every other week by United States Steel. Con¬
sult your local newspaper for time and station.
UNITED STATES STEEL
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A MESSAGE TO
from Donald C. Efrirnhain, Vice-President
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Purdue University, 1936
To the young engineer with a creative mind
America is on the thi-eshold of the automation era.
New automatic machines with their electronic brains are
opening the way to a tremendous industrial development in
which machines will largely replace man’s routine brainwork
Westinghouse is taking a leading part in developing equip¬
ment for the automatic factory. At our new Columbus, Ohio
plant, refrigerators move along 27 miles of automatic conveyors,
with many parts being installed by automatic assembling
machines...refrigerator controls are automatically calibrated...
automatic testing devices main tain quality control.. .and the crat¬
ed refrigerator is automatically conveyed to warehouse storage.
At Westinghouse, young engineers like you are playing an
increasingly important role in such new developments for all
kinds of industry. Here, there is plenty of room for your creative
talents to expand — in designing new products . . . and in
developing new improvements for existing products. It’s a
fascinating job that offers you real opportunities for growth.
And at Westinghouse, we recognize individual ambition as well
as technical ability. There will always be a place for the young
engineer who wants to forge ahead. For professional develop¬
ment you can do graduate work toward Master’s and Ph.D.
degrees in 19 universities. You will be treated as an individual and
Westinghouse will do all in its power to help you reach your goal.
Ask your Placement Officer about career
opportunities at Westinghouse, or write
for these two booklets: Continued Educa¬
tion in Westinghouse (describing our Grad¬
uate Study Program) and Finding Tour
Place, in Industry.
To get these booklets, write: Mr. S. H.
Harrison, Regional Educational Co-or-
dinator, Westinghouse Electric Corpora¬
tion, 410 Bush St., San Francisco, Calif.
YOU CAN BE SURE ... IF IT'S
NORTH AMERICAN HAS BUILT MORE AIRPLANES THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY IN THE WORLD
ENGINEERING AHEAD FOR A BETTER TOMORROW
Horth American Aviation, inc.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
DIVERSITY CREATES OPPORTUNITY
Although best known for design and production of world-famous
aircraft like the Korea-famed F-86 Sabre Jet and the new, record-
smashing F-100 Super Sabre ... North American Aviation also
offers engineers excellent opportunities in other technical fields.
North American needs engineers with imagination to help
design and build the aircraft of the future. Other fascinating
careers are created daily in its rapidly developing guided missile, jet,
propulsion systems, electronic and atomic energy programs.
When you are ready to enter the engineering profession, consider
the well-paid opportunities at North American. Meanwhile,
write for information on your future in the aircraft industry.
Contact: Your College placement office or write :
Engineering Personnel Office
5701 West Imperial Highway,
Columbus 6, Ohio
IN THIS ISSUE
On the cover is a portrait of Dr,
A. H. Sturtevant, Thomas Hunt Mor¬
gan Professor of Genetics at Caltech
—and author of “The Genetic Effects
of High-Energy irradiation of Human
Populations” on page 9 of this issue.
Last June, in. an address before the
Pacific Division of the American
Association for the Advancement of
Science (of which he was president
in 1954) Dr. Sturtevant stated that,
though the immediate or future bene¬
fits of atomic explosions might be
great, it should be clearly under¬
stood that ail of Us have been subjected
to irradiation from these sources—
and this radiation should be considered
as potentially dangerous to future
Dr. Sturtevant? talk (“The Social
Implications of the Genetics of Man”)
stirred tip a certain amount of con¬
troversy arid concern. Enough, in fact,
to cause Dr. Sturtevant to set down
the basic facts about the genetic effects
of high-energy irradiation which you
will find on page 9.
Dr. Arthur L. Klein, Caltech Professor
of Aeronautics, and design consultant
for the past 24 years for Douglas
Aircraft, makes some predictions of
what to expect in the way of aircraft
50 years from today—on page 20.
p. 1 6
Ross Madden, Black Star
Byron Johnson, Jr., '56
JANUARY, 1955 VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 4
PUBLISHED AT THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
In This Issue 3
The Genetic Effects of High-Energy Irradiation of
Human Populations 9
How much , of what, is happening to how many
people? A consideration of the effects of radiation
on exposed individuals—and their descendants
by A. H. Sturtevant
The Month at Caltech
Some Notes on Student Life
State of Mind
by Martin Tangora, '57
The Future of Aircraft Engineering
by A. L. Klein
Editor and Business Manager
Student ^/ews .
Staff Photographer .
Editorial Consultant ..
..Richard C. Armstrong ! 28
.Edward Hutchings, jr.
.Martin Tangora '57
.Byron Johnson, Jr. ’56
.George R. MacMinn
Professor of English, Emeritus
Published monthly. October through June, at the California Institute of Tech¬
nology, 1201 East California St., Pasadena 4, Calif., for the undergraduates,
graduate students and alumni of the Institute. Annual subscription $3.50,
single copies 50 cents. Entered as second class matter at the Post Office at
Pasadena, California, on September 6, 1939, under act of March 3, 1879.
All Publisher’s Rights Reserved. Reproduction of material contained herein
forbidden without written authorization. Manuscripts and all other editorial
correspondence should be addressed to: The Editor, Engineering and Science,
California Institute of Technology.
Printed in Pasadena
Here is an ideal way
for the engineer or
physicist with some
aptitude for writing to
enter the field of advanced
electronics. In this
relatively new and
expanding area you can
make immediate and
effective use of your
academic training while
Hughes Research and Development
Laboratories are engaged in a continu¬
ing program for design and manufac¬
ture of integrated radar and fire con¬
trol systems in military all-weather
interceptor aircraft. Engineers who
produce the maintenance and opera¬
tional handbooks for this equipment
work direcdy with engineers and
scientists engaged in development of
radar fire control systems, electronic
computers, and other advanced elec¬
tronic systems and devices.
Your effort in the field of engineer¬
ing writing through these publica¬
tions transmits information to other
engineers and technical personnel on
operation, maintenance and modifi¬
cation of Hughes equipment in the
You will receive additional training
in the Laboratories at full pay to be¬
come familiar with Hughes equip¬
ment. Seminars are conducted by
publications specialists to orient new
writers. After-hours graduate courses
under Company sponsorship are
available at nearby universities.
Culver City, Los Angeles County, California
Photograph above: Engineer-writer John Burnett (left)
works with engineers John H. Haughawovi (right) and
Donald King to compile handbook information.
TABLES OF INTEGRAL
TRANSFORMS, Vol. II
Edited by A. Erdelyi with the
Bateman Project Staff
McGraw-Hill, 1954 $8.00
This is the second of two volumes
of tables of integrals involving high¬
er transcendental functions, designed
for the use of mathematicians, physi¬
cists and engineers. Based, in part,
on notes left by the late Harry Bate¬
man, Caltech Professor of Mathe¬
matics, Theoretical Physics, and
Aeronautics, the material was com¬
piled by the staff of the Bateman
This project was originally con¬
ceived by Dr. Bateman, After his
death in 1946, Caltech, with the fi¬
nancial support of the Office of Naval
Research, assumed responsibility for
carrying out Bateman’s plans. A.
Erdelyi, Caltech Professor of Mathe¬
matics, supervised preparation and
editing of the work. His staff con¬
sisted of Professor Wilhelm Magnus
of New York University; Professor
Fritz Oberhettingger of the American
University in Washington; Professor
Francesco G. Tricomi of the Univer¬
sity of Turin, Italy; and several
The project consists of five books:
three volumes on Higher Transcen¬
dental Functions, and two supple¬
mentary volumes on Tables of Inte¬
These books carry out Bateman’s
objective of compiling an encyclo¬
pedic reference work describing the
properties and interrelations of spe¬
cial functions, bringing together for
the first time information previously
scattered through numerous journals
by H. S. Tsien
McGraw-Hill, 1954 $6.50
Qr. Tsien is Robert U. Goddard
Professor of Jet Propulsion at Cal¬
tech’s Daniel and Florence Guggen¬
heim Jet Propulsion Center. In this
text and reference work—developed
for a course on Theory of Stability
and Control—he aims to place the
study of Engineering Cybernetics on
an equal footing with other, older
branches of engineering science such
as Fluid Mechanics, Elasticity, and
Theory of Vibration.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
COUNT VON ZEPPELIN—MODESTY PREVAILS
If Zeppelin had said his dirigible was "just a big bag of wind,” he'd have shown
vision. He knew that its record of 60 miles in two hours was only a beginning.
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has helped. With ball bearings to withstand high jet engine temperatures. With
ball bearings to carry heavy propeller loads. With ultra-precise instrument ball
bearings that help make "blind flight" and pinpoint navigation possible.
Just as New Departure was ready for today’s advances in aviation. New Departure
will be ready tomorrow, too—with the finest in ball bearings . . . first.
NEW DEPARTURE •* DIVISION OF GENERAL MOTORS .* BRISTOL, CONNECTICUT
Navy’s new vertical take-off fighter, the "pogo
stick,” has some 80 New Departure ball bearings in
Hs Allison T40 turbo-prop engine. New Departures
also carry heavy thrust and combination loads in
the Curtiss-Wrighf Turbdiectric propellers, /'
today by Hercules’ business . . . the
production of synthetic resins, cellulose products, chemical cotton,
terpene chemicals, rosin and rosin derivatives, chlorinated products,
and many other chemical processing materials—as well as explo¬
sives. Through close cooperative research with its customers, Hercules
has helped improve the processing or performance of many indust rial and
4 * VERSATILE RAW MATERIAL— The linlers left on
cotton seed are made into chemical cotton (bleached
cotton linters) by Hercules’ Virginia Cellulose
Department. In high-grade paper, chemical cotton
replaces rags, eliminates costly rag sorting. And
chemical cotton is the best source of cellulose, key
to products ranging from lacquers to plastics.
IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT EXPLOSIVES—Modern highway construction, such as the
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trolled energy sypphed by Hercules® explosives.
HERCULES POWDER COMPANY
Wilmington 99, Del.
Sales Offices in Principal Cities aM .„
ENGINEERING ArilD SCIENCE
1. Dr. Burton F. Miller
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3. Robert B. Muehmore
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6. Robert J. Barrett, Jr.
7. William B. Hebenitreit
8. Dr. Ralph P. Johnson
9. Jack H. Irving
10. Dr. Louis G. Dunn
11. Dr. Eldred C. Nelson
12. A. J. F. Clement
13. Dr. Milton U. Clauser
14. V. G. Nielsen
15. Dr. Eugene M. Grabbe
16. Manon F. Thorne
17. Dr. Robert R. Bennett
18. Robert J. Hight
19. Dr. Andrew Vazsonyi
20. Emory Lakatos
21. Richard A. Hartley
22. Dr. Howard L. Engel
23. Dr. Donald L. Drukey
The Senior Staff of The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation,
shown above, is comprised of scientists, engineers, and science
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men participate actively in the establishment of company plans
Existing project commitments require that the current rapid
rate of expansion of the company continue throughout the
coming year. Unusual opportunities, encompassing a wide
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exist for additional scientists and engineers who would like to
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The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation
8820 BELIANCA AVENUE, LOS ANGELES 45. CALIFORNIA,
THESE FIELDS OF
Guided Missile Research and Development
Digital Computer Research and Development
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Radar and Contra! Systems Development
Communication Systems Development
19 chambers of hell
You are looking at the units of a $2,000,000 Martin test¬
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water, shock and vibration, explosion and corrosion,
designed to torture electronics equipment!
For these vital components of today’s aircraft, guided
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responsibilities. Consider, for example, the electronic
system of the Martin B-61 Matador:
Incredibly versatile, it comprises the entire brain and
nervous system of America's first successful pilotless
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the shock of many tons of thrust in the first second of
take-off— violent changes in temperature and pressure
— and ground conditions ranging from sand storms to
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Today, Martin’s facilities are among the finest in the
world for design, production and proving in the field
of avionics...one of the major developments of Martin
Systems Engineering which is now tailoring airpower
to previously impossible requirements.
You will hear more about Martin!
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
THE GENETIC EFFECTS OF
HIGH ENERGY IRRADIATION
OF HUMAN POPULATIONS
by A. H. STURTEVANT
||UMAN POPULATIONS are now being subjected to
increases in high-energy radiation, through the explosion
of A-bombs and H-bombs, and through the widespread
medical use of X-rays.
The genetic effects of such exposures have recently
been the subject of some public discussions. Since the
matter is of public concern, and is also of considerable
complexity, it seems desirable to elaborate somewhat on
Two types of radiation hazard may be distinguished—
those to the exposed individuals, and those to their
The present discussion is based on the latter class of
effects—the genetic results, which will come to expres¬
sion in the descendants of the exposed individuals.
It is not to be inferred that the direct effects on ex¬
posed individuals are negligible. In particular, there is
evidence that irradiation does increase the incidence of
leukemia and other malignant growths. These are diffi¬
cult to estimate quantitatively, and there may perhaps be
a dosage threshold, such that low doses of the sort here
considered are ineffective. However, no such threshold
has been demonstrated, and the safest course at present
is to suppose that it does not exist—i.e., that even at
very low doses there is a real, though small, hazard to
the exposed individual.
How much, of what, is
happening to how many
people? A consideration
of the effects of radiation
on exposed individuals
—and their descendants.
The genetic effects of irradiation arise through effects
on the germ cells of exposed individuals. These germ
cells, like the other cells of the body, contain numerous
separate hereditary elements, or genes, which are re¬
sponsible for the inherited properties of individuals. The
genes in any one individual are of many different kinds,
but each particular kind is ordinarily transmitted un¬
changed from one generation to the next. On rare occa¬
sions, however, a gene may mutate —i.e., undergo a
change to a new kind of gene, which is then transmitted
to the following generations in the new, changed, form.
The genetic interest in high-energy irradiation arises
from the fact that it increases the frequency of such
As previously formulated, the basic facts here are:
(1) High-energy irradiation produces mutations.
(2) The frequency of induced mutations is directly
proportional to the dosage of irradiation. There
is almost certainly no threshold value below
which irradiation is ineffective.
(3) The effects of successive exposures are cumulative.
(4) The effects are permanent in the descendants of
the affected genes. There is no recovery.
(5) The overwhelming majority of these mutations
is deleterious; that is, they seriously affect the
efficiency of individuals in later generations in
which they come to expression. These deleterious
effects may lead to early death or to any of a
wide variety of defects, often gross ones.
(6) There is a store of such undesirable genes already
present in any population. What irradiation does
is to add to this store.
A further elaboration of these facts falls naturalh
under two major headings. First, what are the quantita¬
tive relations between irradiation dosage and genetic
damage? Second, to what dosages are people being ex¬
posed? Unfortunately, both of these questions are in¬
herently difficult to answer, and only very rough approx¬
imations are possible. No scientist interested in exact
quantitative results would touch the subject, were it
rot that its social significance leaves us no alternative.
We must, like it or not, try to get some sort of idea as
to how much, of what, is happening to how many people.
Irradiation and mutation
The quantitative determination of the relation be¬
tween irradiation and mutation requires careful and elab¬
orately controlled experiments, which must he carried
out on a very large scale. It is quite impossible to get
significant data directly concerning man, so we are
forced to turn to other organisms, and it is also clear
that our criteria for mutations in other organisms leave
out of account some of the more important kinds that
are to be expected in man—more especially those having
to do with behavior. The most satisfactory data con¬
cern the small fly, Drosophila, and were collected by
Spencer and Stern. Their data lead to the conclusion
that 1 standard “Roentgen unit” of irradiation (written
1 r) will induce 1 lethal mutation per 10,000 treated germ-
cells of Drosophila (sperm cells, in this experiment).
It has recently been suggested that there is a much
greater effect in mice, and presumably ip people, but I
cannot agree that this evidence is convincing. ]t would
seem safest to assume—and it must be recognized that
this is only an assumption—that the rate in man is
roughly the same as that in Drosophila. In any case
there appears to be no reason to suppose that man has
a lower response to irradiation.
The ahove rate refers to lethal mutations. In general,
according to the usual scheme, such a mutated gene has
no effects on an individual that carries it—unless one of
the same kind was received from each parent. (It may
be estimated that, in man, something like 3 percent of
the mutant genes will be expressed in males who re¬
ceived them only from their mothers; i.e., will be
“sex-linked”). The result would be that an induced
mutation of this type would not usually come to expres¬
sion until numerous generations had passed. However,
Stern et al have recently shown that, in Drosophila, even
the individuals with only a single “dose” of a lethal
mutation have, on the average, about a 4 percent im¬
pairment of efficiency, so the undesirable effects from
these genes must be supposed to begin appearing in the
generations immediately following irradiation.
Time and mutqtion
Some of the induced mutations will also be substan¬
tially the same as (in genetical terminology, will be
allelic to) some of those already present in the popula¬
tion; these may come to expression before there is inter¬
marriage among the descendants of a single exposed
individual. This consideration does not lead to any
change in the probable average amount of damage due
to induced mutations, but it does lead to a decrease in
the estimate of the probable average time interval be¬
tween exposure to radiation and the expression of the
effect of the induced mutations.
There are other, non-lethal, types of mutations that
are induced by irradiation. The measurement of their
frequencies is difficult, and it may be doubted whether
their frequency, relative to that of Jethafs, will be the
same in man as it is in Drosophila. In the latter organ¬
ism the evidence is that non-lethal mutations leading to
the production of clearly distinct changes in the struc¬
ture of viable individuals are distinctly less frequent
than lethals; mutations leading only to a somewhat low¬
ered efficiency of the individual are roughly twice as
frequent as lethals.
On the whole, then, it seems a reasonable guess that
the rate of induction of lethals in Drosophila may be
used as a very rough index of the probable rate of in¬
duction of undesirable mutations in man—an index that
is more likely to he too low than too high. This rate—
1 in 10,000 germ-cells per r unit—will be used here
without attempting any corrections.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
The physical measurement of radiation has been de¬
veloped to a high degree of refinement. But the esti¬
mation of the effective doses received by man is a com¬
plex matter, and at best can yield only approximate
values. We are all of us receiving radiation in small
amounts all the time, from cosmic radiation and from
naturally occurring radioactive elements in the ground,
in the walls and floors of rooms, in the air, and in our
bodies. Further, the amount of this radiation varies from
time to time and from place to place. We can, at most,
get an approximate average value for irradiation per
unit time. Since altitude is an important variable in the
cosmic ray component of this normal “background” ra¬
diation, I have given two values—one for approximately
sea-level, and one for an elevation of 6000 feet.
Fall-out from bombs
It is especially difficult to arrive at a value for the
increase in irradiation due to fall-out from the bombs,
since this varies erratically from one place to another,
since the activity from any one explosion rapidly de¬
creases with time, and since the effectiveness of a radio¬
active element will be greater if it happens to become
incorporated in the tissues of the body. It is for these
reasons, rather than because of any policy of secrecy,
that it is very difficult to obtain from the published ac¬
counts any very satisfactory figure for the average in¬
crease in background. The value I have taken from AEG
reports appears to represent an estimate for an average
locality in the United States in Sept. 1954.
In the following table I have included (from the sum¬
mary by Plough, 1952, Nucleonics Vol. 10) some figures
for dosages resulting from a few types of X-ray ex
posures to which people are sometimes exposed in medi¬
cal practice. These again are averages, and there is much
variation in the output of different machines. There is
some scattering of radiation in any X-ray treatment, so
that areas other than those intentionally treated will get
some effect. The amount of such scattering is difficult
to estimate. Accordingly I have included in the table
only those treatments involving areas close to the ovaries
or testes, and have not included the two exposures to
which the largest numbers of people are subject—dental
and chest examinations.
Irradiation, in r-units
Background, at sea level — 0.1 per year 3.0 per generation
Background, at 6000 feet — 0.15 per year 4-5 per generation
Increase in background 0.1 per
due to bomb fall-out — 0.0035 per year generation
lumbar, spine, anterior-
posterior — 1.5 per treatment
lumbar, spine, lateral — 5.7 per treatment
pregnancy, anterior-posterior — 3.6 per treatment
pregnancy, lateral — 9.0 per treatment
ga.-tro-intestinaJ fluoroscopy — 10 to 20 per minute
Irradiation of ovaries to
induce fertility — 200 or more
permissible for radiological
workers — 0.3 per week 15 per year
Average, Oak Ridge and
Hanford workers, 1949 — 0.2 per year
From a genetical point of view, what we are interested
in is the product of the dosage received multiplied by
the mutation rate per unit dose. In other words, what
will be the frequency of deleterious mutations resulting
from the various radiation sources to which people are
Considering first the natural background, 3.0 to 4.5 r
per generation would yield from 3 to 4.5 mutations per
10,000 germ cells. This is probably less than the amount
of mutation that would be present if it were possible to
screen people from all irradiation of any kind. In Dro¬
sophila only a small fraction of the norma) mutation
rale is due to natural background irradiation; but the
proportion due to that cause in man is presumably much
larger because the length of a generation is hundreds
of times greater, and the total background irradiation
per generation is greater by the same factor, whereas
the number of mutations not due to irradiation is prob¬
ably proportional more nearly to the number of cell-
generations than to time—and man and Drosophila do
not differ greatly in this factor.
Incidentally, many discussions of irradiation and muta¬
tion emphasize the natural rate, and start with an
attempt to determine the amount of irradiation necessary
to double this rate. This seems to me a wrong approach,
since the natural rate is not known and will not be easy
to determine, and since the induced mutations are added
to the natural ones and the two types do not have any
fixed proportionality. The natural mutation rate is no
more relevant than is the death rate from bacterial
Natural background radiation
The natural background radiation is something that is
always present, and discussion of whether it is a good
thing or a bad one is pointless, since nothing can be
done about it. The other sources here listed, however,
are man-made, and it is legitimate to inquire what they
may be expected to do to human populations.
If the increase due to bomb fall-out persists at current
levels it may he expected to give about 1 deleterious
mutation per 100,000 germ cells per generation—or,
since each individual arises from two germ cells, 1 per
It may seem that this is a negligible proportion, and
it should be emphasized that it is such a low number that
no individual should be particularly disturbed about the
probability that his immediate descendants will be
But, according to the Population Division of the
United Nations, there are something like 3,900,000 births
per year in the United States, and about 90 million per
year in the world. This means that, if the increase in
irradiation due to fall-out continues at the estimated
present rate, it will lead to the functioning of about 78
mutated germ cells every year in the United States; and,
if the same level of irradiation occurs in the rest of the
world, of about 1800 per year in the population of the
world. These will go on arising at this rate, year after
year, as long as the irradiation continues and the num¬
ber of births stays in this same range.
Another calculation may be made that is of some in¬
terest. The Pacific tests of 1954 apparently gave an aver¬
age total of about .0035 r for any one locality in the
United States. It may be estimated that the people now
living in the United States will produce, during their
lifetimes, over 100 million offspring; i. e.. over 200
million of their germ cells will ultimately function. The
estimate then is that 70 of these offspring will carry
deleterious genes induced by this one series of tests.
A conservative estimate
It may still seern that these numbers are too small to
be seriously considered, but there are several points to
be made. I have made every effort to be conservative;
the numbers given should be considered minimal ones—
the true value could possibly he 100 times greater. And
there is a possibility that the irradiation of the germ-
cells may sometimes be much greater than is here esti¬
mated, if there is a heavy fall-out, especially if some of
the radioactive elements become incorporated in the tis¬
sues. Finally, from a humanitarian point of view, any
increase at all in the number of individuals that are de¬
fective either mentally or physically is not to he lightly
[n any case, it is inexcusable to state, as has been
done, that no hazard exists. One might agree that the
hazard is slight when weighed against the possible bene¬
fits; and [ would agree that the hazard to any one
individual remote from the site of an explosion is so
small as to be disregarded. Rut the fact remains that
there is a hazard, and that it may become a significant
one in terms of large populations.
The “maximum permissible’’ exposure has been set.
by the International Commission on Radiological Pro¬
tection, evidently on the basis of probable effects ori ex¬
posed individuals themselves, without regard to genetic
effects. If one imagines a situation where an entire pop¬
ulation should be exposed to this amount of irradiation
continuously, the dose per generation would add up to
about 450 r corresponding to about 4.5 percent of all
germ cells undergoing mutation—i.e.. every year about
orie-third of a million infants would he horn with newly-
arisen deleterious mutations, in the United States alone.
This is ari amount that some authorities believe might
endanger the survival of the rare if it were repeated in
every generation, and even if the race survived its mem¬
bers would probably decrease in efficiency. It does not
seem likely that any such general level of irradiation
will he reached—unless possibly in the event of all-out
atomic warfare—hut to describe an exposure this large
as “permissible" is misleading, to =ay the least, when
one thinks in terms of populations.
The "maximum permissible" exposure will become a
matter for careful consideration if nuclear reactors come
to he widely used as power sources, since under those
conditions also there will he an increase in the back¬
ground radiation. The amount and character of such
increases will depend in part on the type of reactors
used, and on the details of their design and operation—
and it is a matter of public concern that this factor, as
well as economic ones, he taken into account in a pro¬
gram for the non-military development of atomic energy.
The figures for the medical uses of X-rays run higher
than those we have been considering, and there can be no
doubt that in much of the world this is a far more
effective cause of mutation than is radioactive fall-out.
The published dosage values are in some respects mis¬
leading, since many irradiations—especially among the
more drastic therapeutic ones—are most often given to
patients who are unlikely to have any further children.
But in such cases as the pregnancy examinations here
listed it must be remembered that not only the mother’s
ovaries but also the germ-cells of the child are being
exposed. If all members of the population were to re¬
ceive even I r-unit just before birth, as would be possible
here, the expected result would be that about one in 5000
of the next generation would carry a new mutation due
to the treatment, hi the case of the irradiation of the
ovaries of a sterile woman to induce fertility it may he
calculated that the resulting child has at least 1 chance
in 50 of carrying a new mutation due to the treatment.
Medical use of X-rays
In general, the conclusion seems warranted that the
medical use of X-rays is dangerous, and should be ap¬
plied with caution and with full realization of the genetic
hazards involved. In any given case the potential gains
should be weighed against the potential damage; and in
order to do this intelligently it is necessary to get as good
an estimate as possible for the weight to be assigned to
each side of the balance.
The medical use and the fall-out danger are different
not only in the amounts of irradiation involved, but
also in some ethical respects. An individual does not
usually have to submit to an X-ray examination, or treat¬
ment, and when he does so the irradiation is adminis¬
tered for his own personal advantage. But we are all
of us submitted, willy-nilly, to fall-out. and while it may
he argued that some of this is for our ultimate advantage,
it must be recognized that we get fall-out from Russian
bombs as well, and that the rest of the world gets it from
Russian and American bombs alike.
Plough, H. H., “Radiation Tolerance and Genetic Effects.’ - 1952,
Nucleonics, 10: p. 16-20.
Spencer. W. P., and Stern, C., “Experiments to Test the Validity
of the R-Dose/.Mutation Frequency Relation in Drosophila at
Low Dosage." 1948. Genetics, 33: p. 43-74,
Stern. C„ Carson, G., Kinst, M., Novitski, E., and Uphoff, I).,
“The, Viability of Heterozygotes for Lethals." 1937. Genetics
37: p. 413-449.
Sturtevant, A. H.. “Social Implications of the Genetics of Man."
Science. 120: p. 405-407.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
The Road to Stockholm
THE POPULAR gentleman pictured above is Dr. Linus
Pauling, chairman of Caltech's Division of Chemistry
and Chemical Engineering, just a few moments after
receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1954. He is
being duly congratulated by his daughter-in-law Anita,
his daughter Linda, and his wife Helen.
Dr. Pauling’s award, which was presented to hint by
King Gustav Adolf VI in Stockholm on December 10,
consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a check for
On the eve of his departure for Stockholm last month.
Dr. Pauling was honored by the Caltech faculty, trustees
and associates at a dinner in the Athenaeum on campus,
followed by an entertainment in Culbertson Hall, fea-
Linus Paiding receives ovation after being presented uith his Nobel Prize. Swedish royal family is at right.
Five of the seven 1954
Nobel Prizewinners — Dr.
Thomas Weller. Dr. Max
Born, Dr. Frederick C.
Robbins, Dr. John F.
Enders, and Dr. Linns
Raiding. Weller, Robbins
and Enders shared the
prize in Medicine and
Physiology for their work
on polio; Born shared
the Physics prize with
Dr. Walter Bothe.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
turing a hastily-organized Chemistry-Biology Stock
Company in a rousing musical and dramatic production
entitled "The Road to Stockholm.”
Dr. Pauling's actual trip to Stockholm, via the polar
flight from Los Angeles to Copenhagen, was the first
leg of a three-month journey around the world, and
the, occasion for a Pauling family reunion. Dr. Pauling
was accompanied from Pasadena by his wife, his 17-
year-old son Crellin, his son Linus, Jr.. 29. (now Resi¬
dent in Psychiatry at Queens Hospital. Honolulu) and
daughter-in-law Anita. In Copenhagen they were joined
by the two other Pauling children—Peter, 23, and Linda,
22, who are students at Cambridge University in
After the award ceremonies in Stockholm last month
Dr. and Mrs. Pauling set off on a toUr which will take
them to Norway, Israel, India, Thailand, Japan and
Hawaii. Dr. Pauling is lecturing at a number of uni¬
versities and research institutes during the trip. He
expects to return home hv the middle of March.
Achievement and Service
“ACHIEVEMENT and service have been the hallmarks
of Dr. William B. Munro’s long and brilliant career,
which has been associated principally with Harvard
University and the California Institute of Technology.
One of the distinguished educators of Twentieth Century
America, he is universally known and admired as admin¬
istrator, scholar, author, and lecturer. He has long been
a recognized authority on government, history, econom¬
ics, and banking. Throughout his life he has been art
intelligent and Constructive influence in everything with
which he has been associated.”
With this tribute. Dr. Munro's colleagues saluted him
this month on his retirement from the Board of Directors
of the Security-First National Bank—which followed
close on the heels of Dr. Munro’s 80th birthday, on
Dr. Munro retired in 1945 as Edward S. Harkness
Professor of History and Government at Caltech, and as
a member of the Executive Council, to become Treasurer
of the Institute and a member of the Board of Trustees—
retiring, as Board Chairman James R. Page put it at the
time, from a 40-houf-a-week job to take on a 180-hour
one. In addition, Dr. Munro continues to serve as a
director of the Southern California Edison Co., as a
member of the Pasadena Advisory Board of the Security-
First National Bank, as chairman of the Board of
Trustees of the Huntington Library and Art Gallery in
Salt Marino, and chairman of the Board of Trustees of
the Huntington Memorial Hospital.
Born in Almonte, Ontario, William B. Munro got his
BA, MA, and LLB degrees at Queens University, then
went on to take MA and PhD degrees at Harvard. For
three years he taught history and political science at
Williams College, then joined the faculty at Harvard,
where he remained for 24 years. In 1925 he was Jona¬
than Trumbull Professor of History and Government at
William B. Munro
Harvard, and chairman of the Department of History.
Government and Economics when he came to spend at
sabbatical year in Pasadena and, at the invitation of
R. A. Millikan, agreed to divide his time between Har¬
vard and Cal l ech.
Dr. Munro’s first big pioneering job at Caltech was
the planning and promotion of a humanities building on
the campus—Dabney Hall, built in 1928. In 1927 he
became a member of the Institute’s Executive Council,
and in 1929 came to devote his full time to Caltech. In
addition to teaching, he went on to make plans, let con¬
tracts, and supervise construction of most of the other
buildings on campus.
As R. A. Millikan said of Dr. Munro in 1947, at the
presentation of the portrait of him which hangs above
the fireplace in Dabney Lounge—“As a teacher, scholar,
writer, financier, businessman, promoter, wise counsel¬
lor. able administrator, and great humanitarian, William
B. Munro rates as one of the most important builders of
the California Institute of Technology.”
American Universities Field Service
JAMES G. MADDOX, agricultural economist, visits
Caltech from January 10 to 19 to report to the faculty
and students on Current conditions in Latin America.
Willard A. Hanna, ail expert On the Far East—and par¬
ticularly Japan—will be oh campus from January 24
to February 2. Richard H. Nolte. specialist on the Arab
nations of the Middle East w'ill he here from February
7 to 17. And Fred Warner Neal, a political scientist
whose field is eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia, is
scheduled to be here from February 21 to March 3.
All four men are representatives of the American
Dr. Theodore von Karman,
winner of the Wright,
Brothers Memorial Trophy
fur significant public ser¬
vice in supersonic research.
Universities Field Staff, the organization set iip in 1951
by Caltech and seven other educational institutions in
this country to send qualified young men out as their
correspondents in foreign areas. In addition to sending
back regular reports to the sponsoring colleges and uni¬
versities, each of these men returns home every two years
to visit the campus of each of the sponsoring institutions
to report in person on current conditions, problems, and
personalities in the area he is studying.
DR. THEODORE VON KARMAN. director of Caltech's
Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1928 to
1945 and now chairman of the Air Force Scientific Ad¬
visory Board, was presented with the Wright Brothers
Memorial Trophy last, month for his significant public
service in supersonic research.
Described by the National Aeronautical Association
as “dean of all aeronautical scientists of the world,’’ Dr.
von Karman received the trophy for such accomplish-
merits as development of the theory of supersonic drag,
for setting up the nation’s first supersonic wind tunnel
project, and for conceiving and developing jet-assisted
takeoff for aeroplanes.
Dr. von Karman came to Caltech in 1928 as Professor
of Aeronautics and retired in 1949-—only to become
even more active as NATO director of the group he
originally founded during World War II, when the Air
Force established its Scientific Advisory Board.
^ MFMORAL PLAQUE honoring Dr. Chester Stock,
Professor of Paleontology and chairman of the Division
of the Geological Sciences at Caltech from 1947 until
his death in 1951, was Unveiled in Los Angeles’ Hancock
Park last month. The plaque, located at the site of the
famous La Brea tar pits, which have furnished paleon¬
tologists with a wealth of fossil material, honors Dr.
Stock as “a man who forwarded the development of
Hancock Park as a scientific monument.”
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
SHUTTING THE DOOR to his room behind him and
tugging at his clip-on how tie, the sophomore looked
sadly at his desk.
Damn, he thought, it’ll be hard to get back to work.
Two and a half weeks with the gang at home sure can
do it to a guy when it comes to studying.
He hung up his house coat and sat down at the desk,
his eyes scanning the row of hooks on the little book¬
case in front of him. He pulled out the Theory of
Matrices and flipped through it disconsolately. What am
I doing, registering for this course? he asked himself.
Better that than Physics 20, the answer came hack.
What a hell of a way to die! More physics, more cal¬
culus, more history (how did that get squeezed in?),
biology, and now Matrices and Quadratic Forms.
Suddenly he wasn’t sure at all he wanted to he at Tech.
When he had shown that exhibit at Students’ Day last
month he had felt sort of guilty. Look at all these guys,
he thought, full to the gills with love of science (being
a physicist, lie never remembered to think of the engi¬
neers), bot to go to a school that’s tough, so they could
come away w jth that much better a technical education.
Tough! They didn’t know what tough was. And here he
was, an A student all through high school, glad here
to get a 2.3—here he was trying to give these innocent
high-school seniors a sales talk for Caltech.
That’s what he needed, the Sophomore thought, a good
sales talk for Caltech. If he didn’t get one pretty soon
the dean’s office just might not need to worry about him
after this year. Now is the time to transfer out if I’m
going to, he told himself. End of the sophomore year.
I’m still passing!—and my record’s clean, and lots of
schools would he glad to have me now. Next year might
be too late.
With a sudden inspiration he pulled out a large sheet
of typing paper. Getting a pencil from his desk drawer,
he drew a vertical line down the middle of the page
the long way. Not a very straight one at that, he noticed.
Then at the top of the sheet, on the left-hand side, he
put in bold letters the word "PRO”; on the right-hand
Always look at both sides of an argument, he said to
himself. What’s good about this place, and what isn’t?
He started with the CON side: that’ll be easy, he
Academic, load, he wrote: 1 guess that’s a con, he said
aloud, and was suddenly embarrassed. 1 may not have
the Caltech Twitch yet, he smiled grimly, but already I’m
talking to myself.
Academic Load. He underlined it twice. Sure, he
thought, half the college kids in the country complain
about their load, 1 guess—but it couldn’t be like this. Ail
my friends at other schools are taking four easy courses;
but here 1 am, taking five tough ones—and against more
He thought a while and then put down Small Campus.
This won’t be in order of importance, he thought with
another smile, But dammit, I always thought of a college
as being a great spacious park, almost like a forest pre¬
serve, with old gnarled trees and ivy-covered classroom
buildings and couples in matched sweaters studying to¬
gether on the great grassy lawns.
I cep 1 ant! he snarled. Why don’t they plant grass? A
little voice inside him told him that grass was too expen¬
sive, that the guys would walk across it and ruin it. It
He thought back to a ‘Y’ fireside at Dr. DuBridge’s
home the spring of his frosh year. The President had
told the group of his plans to shoehorn a half-dozen
more buildings into the pitiful little four blocks. He was
even thinking of putting a library between Crellin and
Bridge, where the only grove of trees on the campus
held out against the tide of progress. Jizas! Once he
had gotten a real thrill when he was walking back to
school from the Caltech Barbers and had come around
the corner of Mudd and seen the Institute spread out
before him—the long portales and those funny little
trees, and, ’way down at the end of the field of view, old
Throop Hall overlooking the whole vista, with fluffy
little clouds in the sky behind the dome. And he wants
to spoil that! the Sophomore thought angrily.
Look what they did to Kerckhoff Jungle, he mused.
Could have made that spot into the prettiest, shadiest,
greenest spot in Pasadena. So they put up a new bio¬
No girls, he wrote, changing the subject. Or maybe
that’s my fault, he reflected. Certainly are enough col¬
lege girls in L.A. to satiate the Russian Navy, if 1 only
would kick myself in the butt a few times to make a few
dates. He remembered that when ASC1T threw a sock
hop in December he had tried for a whole evening to
get an Oxy girl on the phone and got nothing but busy
signals—and what had he done? Given up and not gone
at all. My fault, he sighed. Even when 1 was home for
Christmas 1 wasn’t moving very fast, even with the old'
gang, all the girls I knew in high school.
Dry subjects. He had been so hot to go when he came
to Tech. Now' every day’s classes set his motivation back
another notch. Was it because of the teachers—good
scientists and poor educators? Maybe.
Cynical upperclassmen, he penciled with a grin. All
he needed to completely destroy his interest in science
and in Tech was a half-hour bull-session w ith any senior
in the house. He heard that half a dozen seniors had
quit science and were planning to go into medicine. An¬
other gave up physics for law ; another, for psychology.
Must be dozens more 1 don’t know about, he thought;
and that doesn’t even account for the flunk-outs who go
into other fields. It struck him that Caltech ought to be
investigated; every year it drives fifty top-notch scientists
out of the field.
Good God, he said, I’d better start listing pro points
or I’ll be in UCLA in a month.
Good education. No getting around that, he smiled;
even the seniors haven’t talked me out of that yet.
Small school atmosphere. What hell it must be to go
to MIT! All these headaches, and a huge student body
besides! At Caltech he played baseball (at least he hoped
he could make the varsity this spring), sang in the Glee
Club, helped with the Big T. Coudn’t do all that at
UCLA, that’s for sure. Baseball sometimes seemed like
enough fun to make the whole business worthwhile.
Besides, it was nice to know most of the kids, to be
able to eat dinner with his prof, or play football with
the head of the geology department. He was sure he
couldn’t get that at any other good tech schools.
Student houses, he wrote; and, as an after-thought,
liberal administration. He was really sold on the houses.
After New Year’s he could hardly wail to see the guys
again, even if he had to come back to Pasadena to do
it. And he liked the loose honor-system, give-a-guy-a-
chance philosophy which stuck out all over the deans
and the administration in general. He almost entered
student house food on the other side of his sheet, but
it struck him that you couldn’t expect really too much
for what you paid, and besides, all the seniors said the
food was much better than it used to be, and the kitchen
staff was open to suggestions.
Social program. he wrote, and underlined it. Girls or
no girls, he thought, you can’t beat it. He had heard
from an SC girl while home for Thanksgiving that all
the girls in her sorority talked about the fabulous Cal¬
tech parties—that is, if you could find a nice guy to go
with, you know, ’cause so many of them are creeps.
It had been a pretty rude shock when a friend of his
at Purdue had boastfully produced his frat’s social cal¬
endar at a holiday party. Any house at Tech with a
social program that bare would die of sexual starvation
in a month. No, a guy at Tech with a steady girl could
take her to the neatest round of parties on the Coast;
he was convinced of that.
The Sophomore leaned back on the rear legs of his
chair and looked over the list.
Wonder what I’ve left out, he thought. Couldn’t have
left out any cons, he smiled; I’ve heard that list from
every senior in the house, and they wouldn’t forget any¬
He pondered for a while, thinking how just a guy’s
frame of mind—so flexible—could make him love Tech
or hate it. Maybe 1 can love it if I try, the Sophomore
mused. Maybe that’s a good resolution for 1955.
Flash! He suddenly remembered that he had forgotten
his New Year’s Resolutions this year.
He turned over the paper and was on the verge of
starting a list when there was a knock on the door. It
was a buddy; be wanted to take in a show. Classes for
second term started in the morning.
The Sophomore knew without looking at his blue card
that he had an eight o’clock the next day. He also knew
full well that that didn’t mean a thing to him. He was,
used to getting only half a night’s sleep.
When he had his jacket on, he turned and looked
again at his desk. Maybe I’ll get around to those reso¬
lutions over spring vacation, he thought with a smile.
—Martin Tangora ’57
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
“Always something new”
“Different types of work appeal to different
men,” says Donald O’Brian (A.B.,Indiana, ’50),
in the Traffic Department with Indiana Bell Tele¬
phone Company. “For me, I’ll take a job that
keeps me hopping. And that’s just the kind of
job I have.
“You’d think that after two years I’d have all
the variables pinned down. But it doesn’t work
that way. When you supervise telephone service
for thousands of different customers whose needs
are always changing, there’s always something
new coming up.
“I started with Indiana Bell in 1952, after
two years in the Army. My training program
exposed me to many different kinds of tele¬
phone work—customer contact, personnel, ac¬
counting, operations. I saw a lot of jobs which
looked as interesting as mine. As much as I
like what I’m doing now, I bet I’ll like my next
spot even better.”
Don’s enthusiasm for his job is pretty typical of how
most young college men feel about their telephone
careers. Perhaps you’d be interested in a similar oppor¬
tunity with a Bell Telephone operating company, such
as Indiana Bell ... or with Bell Telephone Laboratories,
Western Electric or Sandia Corporation. See your Place¬
ment Officer for more information.
BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM
JANUARY, 1955 19
Looking to the future —
Convair’s XFY-1 A avy fight¬
er, the l J ogo, takes off and
lands vertically, is capable
of high-speed horizontal
by A. L. KLEIN
POWERED FLIGHT will he one hundred and one years
old on the one hundredeth anniversary of the Society of
Automotive Engineers. Industries of this age are noted
for their stodginess ana lack of imagination. Let us hope
that our industry "ill maintain its rate of progress and
its freshness of approach.
Vi e hope that the present crop of juvenile imbeciles
will not undo our work in building our industry to its
present size and usefulness. Vic often are tempted to
lake the classical attitude that the new generation can¬
not amount to anything, forgetting that our generation
was one of the most harebrained that ever came along.
Vie actually believed that flying machines would work
and be useful. We can therefore hope that with the aid
of the psychologists and "human engineers" the new
generation of aircraft engineers will make our future
vehicles safer, more efficient and useful, and may. by
means of some as yet unknown powerplants. enable us
to escape into space.
We in this Activity are in all our efforts constrained
by the requirements and needs of our customers and the
output and opinions of the producers of powerplants.
We are continually in the position of a chef who is
asked to prepare filet mignon from round steak for a
customer who can only pay for a hamburger. Fortunately
for us, our fairy godmother, namely, the Armed Forces,
has waved her magic wand and provided us with enough
resources to make the above-mentioned miracle occur.
Whether the international tensions that presently exist
will continue for the next fifty years or whether a re¬
laxed peaceful civilization or a war will replace the
present turmoil is anyone's guess. I could, therefore,
take the simple (and perhaps too simple-minded) course
that the present international and internal conditions will
continue. 1 hope that our industry and the communica¬
tion industry will continue to do as they have in making
world-wide access and knowledge available to everyone.
Our principal achievement, not without its disadvan¬
tages, is to provide cheap and rapid transportation for
the world. We have now made it possible to get anywhere
in our country in one day. Surely in fifty years the whole
world will be reachable in the same time. This implies
an average speed of at least 1000 miles per hour, which
will lie attained long before fifty years elapse. To be
practical commercially such speeds must be economical.
The threshold of the supersonic era is on us and as
the knowledge of the phenomena that exist at these
speeds continues to accumulate there is an indication
“The Future. f>f Aircraft Engineering' was originally presented at the Golden Anniversary
Meeting of the Society of Automotive Engineers in Detroit on January 10, 1955.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Search is exciting!
Scientists are constantly probing deeper into the secrets of nature
— bringing new and better things to you
AS THE PROSPECTOR thrills to the search for treasure,
so does the scientist as he searches out the secrets of
the earth, air, and water.
THE TREASURE that the scientist seeks is better un¬
derstanding of nature, and ways to bring better living
for all of us. To find them, he is constantly probing,
taking the elements apart, putting them hack together
in different ways—always looking for something new
How important is such research? Today, more than
one-third of the work of the people of Union Carbide is
in providing products and processes that did not exist
in commercial quantities 15 years ago. Each new prod¬
uct, each new process, was born of intensive search.
FROM CHEMICALS TO METALS- The results of these
achievements are serving all of us today—chemicals
for life-saving medicines and many other uses...a wide
range of carbon and graphite products . .. oxygen for
the sickroom and industry... a variety of wonderful
new plastics ... alloying metals for stainless and other
SEARCH . . . RESEARCH? To the scientists of Union
Carbide, search and research are the same—an excit¬
ing key to a brighter future for all.
STUDENTS AND STUDENT ADVISERS: Learn more about career
opportunities with Union Carbide in Alloys, Carbons, Chemicals,
Casks and Plastics. II rite for booklet M-2.
AND CARBON CORPORATION
30 EAST ♦ 2 N D STREET NEW YORK 17, N . Y.
In Canada: UNION CARBIDE CANADA Limited
- VCCs Trade-marked Products include ---
Synthetic Organic Chemicals Ei.ectromet Alloys and Metals Haynes Stellite Alloys Union Carbide Linde Oxygen
Eve READY Flashlights and Batteries Linde Silicones Dynel Textile Fibers Prestone Anti-Freeze National Carbons
Bakelite, Vinylite, and Krene Plastics PREST-O-LlTE Acetylene PyrOKAX Gas ACHESON Electrodes
AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING ... co M
that supersonic flight will be in some ways easier than
subsonic. High speeds imply high altitudes and the
studies that have been made indicate that altitudes up to
nearly 100,000 feet present few unusual problems.
Whether we stay with winged vehicles, nuclear engines,
or some new and unknown powerplant, the key problem
will still be, as now, that of landing and takeoff.
With airplanes the power needed for the desired (arid
economical) high speeds will automatically give a satis¬
factory takeoff. In the case of nuclear powerplants the
landing problem becomes acute as the nuclear airplane
is as heavy at landing as it is at takeoff and therefore
the entire airframe, and in fact the entire proportions
of the airplane, will be determined by the landing case.
The nuclear aircraft will therefore have large and com¬
paratively lightly loaded wings and will have its best
performance at comparatively high altitudes.
At the present time the major problems with super¬
sonic aircraft are low speed and landing control. Man¬
euverable supersonic missiles of either the rocket type
or the airplane type are not too difficult to design, but
with them every landing is a crash. We have achieved
a good deal of competency in supersonic design and are
at last getting to have some feeling and intuition about
this region. Up to now we have had to proceed either
by inventorism, or by the elaborate procedure of calcula¬
tion and testing to get a satisfactory vehicle.
Though difficulties have occurred, they have been
superable arid we are now at the point where supersonic
design is becoming a matter of engineering judgment.
The striking thing has been the small number of draw¬
ings that are made and the large number of calculations
and discussions that are needed. Perhaps this is the way
to the future.
Using true rockets (without wings and having thrust
larger than their weight), the way to the future is less
clear. The low speed control of these vehicles is difficult
indeed and has only been solved by the science fiction
writers. The true rocket, to be commercially useful, must
achieve a landing reliability equal to that of other air¬
craft. If this is done by the use of reversed thrust we
must also answer the problem of powerless landing.
As far as extra-terrestrial travel is concerned the ve¬
hicle designer is completely at the mercy of the power-
plant industry. Financing for such an endeavor must be
provided non-commercially as the only immediate uses
are military and scientific.
The vehicle except for the landing problem mentioned
above, is fairly straightforward, there being only two
other important problems. One of these, the auxiliary
power problem, is apparently going to be solved by
either the solar energy converter, some models of which
were displayed lately by some highly reputable organi¬
zations, or by means of the direct partial conversion of
the energy of radioactivity into electricity. The atmos¬
pheric re-entry problem seems to be of an engineering
type and needs a great deal of effort but its difficulties are
To reiterate, something is required to replace chemical
fuels if extra-terrestrial flight is to be achieved; there
are no other serious difficulties other than the financial
In the next fifty years the helicopter will come into its
own. I have never been a believer in aircraft for every¬
one and am still less a believer in helicopters as a per¬
sonal vehicle. If our colleagues in the other Activities
of the SAE cannot solve the automobile accident prob¬
lem, we in this Activity have no chance of solving the
problem of safe personal aircraft.
With helicopters the problem is even more aggravated
as mere contact with another helicopter can be fatal.
These infuriated windmills will destroy each other like
creatures in a nightmare. Their present difficulties will
be overcome when aircraft designers determine how to
design high speed precision machinery. The convenience
of the helicopter is so outstanding that its full utilization
waits only on improvements in its reliability and safety
with a consequent reduction in costs. Twenty years should
see these problems solved.
The problem of safety for aircraft is largely psy¬
chological. It is notable that “safe” small aircraft do
not sell. People do not buy small aircraft because they
are safe; they buy them to inflate their egos and there¬
fore the more dangerous, the better. The psychological
attitude is similar to that of mountain climbers and hot
rodders, and if everyone were properly adjusted none
of these would exist. There is something to be said for
teaching every young man to fly, if it is possible to do
it without terrific carnage. Unfortunately the accidents
don’t always involve only the pilots.
This Activity is also concerned with aircraft acces¬
sories. It is safe to say that within another fifty years
most of these devices should work. Some of orir present
accessories, such as capacitance fuel gages, being based
on unsound physical principles, will be replaced. Fifty
years from now most of these gadgets will be about as
reliable as telephones are now.
Our present instrument flying system must be replaced
by something less confusing. Twenty years of trying to
get a satisfactory instrument arrangement should prove
to anyone that our present system is unsound psycho¬
logically and physiologically. The pilot must be given
a 3D television type of presentation in the windshield
so that he will have a natural view of the situation. Any-
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Carl Vrooman, icing tunnel group
head, studies hot-air cyclic de-icing
test on wing section of C-130
transport. The tunnel has a
temperature range of —40° F. to
+150° F. and maximum air speed
of more than 270 mph.
Designed to meet a constantly increasing volume of thermo¬
dynamics work, Lockheed’s new icing research tunnel now
provides year ’round testing in meteorological environments
normally found only in flight. It is the first icing research
tunnel in private industry.
Lockheed thermodynamics scientists were formerly limited to
testing time available at installations such as Mt. Washington.
Now they are able to study in greater detail problems such as:
thermal anti-icing; cyclic de-icing; various methods of ice
removal; distribution of ice; rale of temperature changes in
aircraft components; thermodynamic correlation between lab¬
oratory and flight testing; and development and calibration of
Thermodynamicist Ed Dean monitors main control
panel in picture at left. Temperature, air speed,
water flow rate, air pressure and other variables
can be regulated independently.
C. H. Fish, design engineer assigned to the tunnel,
measures impingement limits of ice on C-130 wing
section. The tunnel has refrigeration capacity of
100 tons, provides icing conditions of 0 to 4 grams
per cubic meter, droplet sizes from 5 to 1000 microns.
New icing tunnel
research at Lockheed
Career Opportunities at Lockheed
Increasing research and development work on nuclear energy, turbo¬
prop and jet transports, radar search planes, supersonic aircraft and
a number of classified projects offers engineers outstanding
opportunity for creative work.
This is true not only for men in thermodynamics but for Aero-
dynamicists and Aerodynamics Engineers, Structures Research
Engineers, Airborne Antenna Designers, Flight Test Analysis
Engineers, Physicists in fields of optics and acoustics. Mathema¬
ticians, and almost every other type of engineer.
You are invited to write for the brochure, “Your Future is Now”
which describes life and work at Lockheed. Address E. W. Des
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
B. L. Messinger, department head, analyzes test
results with Thermodynamics Engineer E. F. Vcrsaw,
right, and Thermodynamicist Tom Sedgwick, left.
The report was in their hands only two days after it
was decided to conduct the test.
thing less does violence to his instincts. In fifty years
we can hope that the uniformity of design so typical
of a mature industry will appear in these accessories and
We can expect a great deal of progress in metallurgy.
Duralumin as an alloy is not yet fifty years old. We can
probably expect greater developments in this field than
in many others since the metallurgists are just beginning
to come out of the kitchen and to do their thinking at
desks. Our structural alloys should be at least twice as
strong as the ones we are now using; the non-metallic
materials will also be improved in an even greater ratio.
As a consequence of the improved materials, improved
manufacturing, and assembly techniques, our aircraft
fifty years from now will be as superior to our present
best performance as today’s aircraft are to those of the
These aircraft may be made of metal or they may not.
Some of the properties of long, fully saturated molecules
are surprising. Who knows?—within fifty years perhaps
someone will even come up with a non-destructive method
for the measurement of incipient fatigue failure.
We can expect engineering departments of the future
to be differently organized. The problem of large engi¬
neering organizations operating on a small number of
products is a new thing in human experience and as yet
no standardization has developed. Let us consider the
engineering organization of the future to be headed by
a chief engineer and his immediate assistants: the sum
of his detailed duties may be divided among several
groups. A partial listing of these follows:
I. Internal Affairs 2. Mechanical
5. Fluid Mechanics
a. Applied mathematics
b. Analog machines and
Licensing agency contacts
c. Metallurgical and
d. Production design
e. Technical information
c. Stress analysis
IV. Research and Testing
f. Systems onalysis
g. Powerplants and
H. Human engineering
3. Comfort and
i. Testing and Research
c. Power Plant
It will be noticed that all the information for the shop
originates in Section III, 2—the only part of the entire
department that makes drawings and transmits other in¬
formation to the manufacturing organization. This group,
which must weigh the information given to it by the
other parts of the engineering department arid must
make the basic decisions which determine the general
and specific nature of the product, is now inadequately
educated, staffed and supported. In order for such a
group to work at all, and for an organization to come
up with sensible results, the members of this group must
have an adequate training in evaluating the opinions of
specialists. This means that this group requires a more
complete, and broader education and training than that
of the specialists groups.
Basically these people need the scientific background
of a physicist with the practical approach of a mechanic.
They need knowledge and skill capable of determining
the optimum design in a multidimensional field. These
men are frequently in the position of a family physician
who can. according to the advice of specialists, have his
patient’s teeth pulled, operate on him for appendicitis,
have him given psychiatric treatments, or put him on a
special diet. The future education for these people will
be discussed later.
Fifty years from now
Fifty years from now the designer will be much more
of a mathematician than his present counterpart. He will
be used to large calculating machines, and familiar with
the characteristics and capabilities of analogs. He may
work at his desk with a miniaturized multidimensional
analog and solve some of his polydimensional and non¬
linear problems directly.
It is difficult for ns in the kindergarten epoch of the
art to realize what fifty years will bring. The designer
will think in terms of rates, not of magnitudes; problems
will not be approached by sampling but will be opti¬
mized. Problems will be formulated in terms of physic¬
ally independent variables and hot in terms of mean¬
ingless parameters.* These aircraft design problems
will contain from fifty to a hundred independent vari¬
ables; the solution in terms of the desired operating
characteristics, such as takeoff run, high speed, cost
per ton mile, etc., will determine the values of wing
thickness, sweep back angle, wing area, span, etc.
A further investigation will be made to determine the
sensitivity of the results to variations in the excellence
of manufacture and the quality of the detail design. A
further study of the effects of powerplant growth and
of changing economic conditions will permit an ade-
*The writer has come to the conclusion that a parameter is some¬
thing that is used by a specialist to confuse his readers.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
A nother page for
How to beat shock loads
in a big dragline
Imagine the shock loads put on this big dragline’s
intermediate swing shaft when the cab, the boom
and an 8-yard load of dirt being swung through the
air are suddenly stopped and the direction reversed!
Engineers solved this problem by specifying
Timken'" tapered roller bearings. Timken bearings
not only take radial and thrust loads in any combi¬
nation, they also assure long, trouble-free operation.
Why TIMKEN' bearings have
high load capacity
This cross section of a Timken tapered roller bearing
illustrates one reason why Timken bearings do such a good
job under heavy load conditions. Notice that there is full
line contact between the rollers and races. It’s this full line
contact that distributes the load over a wider area, gives
Timken bearings their extra load-carrying capacity.
TRADE-MARK REG. li. S. PAT OFF.
TAPERED ROLLER BEARINGS
Want to learn more about
bearings or job opportunities?
Some of the engineering problems you’ll face after
graduation will involve bearing ap¬
plications. For help in learning more
about bearings, write for the 270-
page Genera] Information Manual
on Timken bearings. And for infor¬
mation about the excellent job op¬
portunities at the Timken Company,
write for a copy of "This Is Timken’’.
The Timken Roller Bearing Com¬
pany, Canton 6, Ohio.
NOT JUST A BALL O NOT JUST A ROLLER <t=> THE TIMKEN TAPERED ROLLER a=>
BEARING TAKES RADIAL 4 ) AND THRUST LOADS OR ANY COMBINATION
AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING . .
quate evaluation of the probable economic success or
failure of the design. This method can be applied to any
products, the characteristics of which can be expressed
by mathematical relations. At the present time it can
only be used where comparatively simple functional re¬
lations can be found. Let us give the mathematicians the
next fifty years to produce better methods.
The engineer of the future will be much better edu¬
cated than his present-day counterparts. He will have a
solid foundation in the basic sciences, and will, in addi¬
tion, be given a background in economics, industrial
management, and psychology. He will be trained in the
conveying of ideas, both upward and downward in his
organization. He will know that the number of geniuses
available in the industry is effectually zero.
He will know that materials do not maintain fixed
dimensions. He will know that neither mechanics nor
pilots can be expected to give continuous and unfailing
attention. He will know that all devices fail and what
failure rate to expect from different kinds of equipment.
He will be immune to false objectives such as “do it
He will recognize from his psychological studies when
he, himself, is prejudiced and in important cases will
accept good suggestions even if they come from disagree¬
able individuals. He will know the fields in which he is
competent and will not hesitate to ask for help in others.
He will be trained to recognize the cycles in human op¬
timism and pessimism so that he can evaluate his per¬
formance properly. He will not be pressured into making
impossible commitments, and he hopes that his custom¬
ers will have reached the state where they do not need
to be bolstered up by false expectations.
Education to prepare the designing engineer for his
job will consist of an academic training roughly equiva¬
lent to that for a present-day PhD. plus an interneship
under careful supervision.
The men who are to exercise judgment and to com¬
promise the differences between the specialists must be
carefully trained. They not only must understand the
basic facts involved in each specialty but also must under¬
stand the personalities of the individuals concerned, and
how far to believe them. In order to get the time to train
these people a new synthesis of the scientific background
will occur and the old breakdown into specialities will
SIT BAC K AND RELAX
OFFICES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES
Let Calmec Manufacturing Company
Your Metal Parts and Products
We have the most modern facilities and most
complete plant to give you the maximum of
service, whether it is a small part, a large part,
or a product from your ideas to the shipped article
direct to your customers, under your name, from
CALMEC MANUFACTURING CO.
Robert A. McIntyre, M.S. ’38 Kimball 6204
5825 District Blvd. Los Angeles 22, Calif.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
University 6f Southern California
To those interested in
advanced academic study
while associated with important
research and development
in industry, Hughes offers
this practical program:
| Hughes Cooperative Fellowship Program for Master of Science Degrees
A program to assist individuals in studying for the
Master of Science Degree while employed in industry
and making contributions to important military work.
Open to students who will receive the B. S. degree in
Electrical Engineering, Physics or Mechanical Engi¬
neering during the coming year, and to members of
the Armed Services honorably discharged and
holding such B. S. degrees.
Candidates must meet entrance requirements for
advanced study at University of California at Los An¬
geles or the University of Southern California. Partic¬
ipants will work full time during the summer in the
Hughes Laboratories and 2 j hours per week while
pursuing a half-time schedule of graduate study at the
university. As many as ioo Fellowships will be award¬
ed each year.
Salary is commensurate with the individual’s ability
and experience. Tuition, admission fees and books for
university attendance are provided. Provision is made
to assist in paying travel and moving expenses from
outside Southern California.
for the Hughes Cooperative Fellowship
Program: Address all correspondence to the
Committee for Graduate Study. Brochure with
complete details will be sent to you promptly.
Los Angeles County,
JL hese planes are some of America’s
newest, biggest, best — setting new
standards for speed, maneuverability,
Widely separated airframe engineer¬
ing groups developed these record
makers. Yet each plane has one vital
feature in common —
the engines are Pratt & Whitney
Aircraft's J-57 turbojets — the most
powerful production aircraft engines
in the world!
Is it any wonder that so many young
engineering graduates want to work for
the world’s foremost designer of air¬
Division of United Aircraft Corporation
East Hartford 8, Connecticut
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Auto motic testing ond recording
permits accurate evaluation of a
[greater rfumber of resistors.
JAN and MIL Specifications are basic
guideposts for electronic advance¬
ment, whether used os engineering
another reason why engineers prefer IRC Resistors
56 different IRC resistors is today’s figure—all equiva¬
lent to JAN or MIL specifications. Manufacturers of
military equipment who must meet these specifications
depend on IRC for all their resistor requirements.
Offering the widest line of resistors in the industry—
138 different types in all—IRC is the logical source of
JAN and MIL type units.
^ 401 N. Bread St., Phila. 8, Pa.
-Wv- In Canada: International Resistance Co., Toronto, Licensee
JS 1 ®
learn how yoii can assure
Read North American Aviation’s
“Time, Space, and You”—
a new booklet offering you a
more challenging career in the
fields of Guided Missiles,
Rocket Engines, and
Nuclear Engineering ... and an
opportunity to live in
Southern California. Send for
your free copy today.
write to :
DIRECTOR, ENGINEERING PERSONNEL
MISSILE AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT
NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC.
Downey, Los Angeles County, California
Ted C. Coleman with two associates
started the Coleman Engineering Company
in 1950, to engage in research and de¬
velopment in the guided missile and re¬
lated fields. Since then, the Coleman En¬
gineering Company has been incorporated
and has 110 employees working in the
engineering offices and plant in Los
Angeles. Ted’s company was recently se¬
lected by the Air Force as the chief con¬
tractor in the design and construction of
Project SMART—a supersonic research
track to be built early in 1955 on top of
a mesa near Ziori National Park. It will be
2% miles in length and accommodate
rocket-propelled vehicles at supersonic
speed. The Colemans have two children,
a daughter in college and son in junior
Robert Crert lint; is how a grandfather
—and he proudly reports that his daugh¬
ter named the first grandchild after him.
Bob has been with the Sandia Corporation
in Albuquerque since 1951.
W . Motion Jacobs was recently appoint¬
ed vice president and assistant general
manager of the Southern California Gas
Company, and another Caltech man, Frank
M. Foster, '25, has been named to fill
Morton’s former position, that of vice
president in charge of sales and customers
functions within the company. Both men
have been with the gas company a long
time—Morton joined the company in 1930
and has been a vice president since 1949.
a director since 1950. Frank, who has been
general sales manager since 1949, first
joined the company in 1936.
Edwin M. McMillan, MS "29, has been
appointed to the General Advisory Com¬
mittee of the Atomic Energy Commission
by President Eisenhower. As a member of
the Committee, Ed will attend monthly
meetings in Washington, D.C., where he
and other members will advise with the
Commission. This appointment will expire
on August 1, 1960. Ed has been a faculty
member of the University of California
since 1932, except for the war period when
he worked on atomic energy projects and
was one of the Los \.bonus project found¬
ers. Iti 1951 he was cO-recipient of the
1951 Nobel Prize iti physics for his work
On new elements beyond uranium.
Howard G. Dodge died on November 21
from a heart attack. This information was
sent in by Henry P. Henderson, "26, who
says: "For a number of years Howard had
been senior engineer in the San Fran¬
cisco office of the Underwriters Labora¬
tories, Inc. and recently had been spend¬
ing a great deal of time in getting their
new Santa Clara plant ready for opera-
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
This scene is reminiscent of earlier times,
but the shots being fired are neutrons. Here
at the Materials Testing Reactor, operated
by Phillips Petroleum Company for the
Atomic Energy Commission near Idaho
Falls, Idaho, radiation level is checked
preparatory to placing a sample of material
under “neutron bombardment.”
U 1955 STYLE
Broad assignments in atomic energy represent to produce and improve our automotive fuels
just one phase of the widely diversified in- and lubricants. Others develop and manufac-
terests of Phillips Petroleum Company. ture such products as carbon black, synthetic
Whatever your specialty in engineering or rubbers, chemical fertilizers, sulfur com-
the sciences, you may be sure that we are pounds, and chemicals used in synthetic fibers,
interested in your abilities and your achieve- If you’re looking for a career with a future
mehts. Already, well over 2,800 technical we invite you to write to our Employee Re¬
graduates are found among our 23,000 em- lations Department for further information
ployees. about opportunities with Phillips Petroleum
Some of these scientists and engineers work Company and its subsidiaries.
PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY, Bartlesville, Oklahoma
tiori sometime in the early part of 1955.
“You will recall that he was a very
active member of the Tech tennis team
. . . in connection with his tennis activi¬
ties, it might be interesting to note that
he carried this through Until very recently,
and, because of his very active participa¬
tion in the junior Tennis Tournament
every year on the San Francisco Bay
Peninsula, received the Valuable Citizen
award from the Chamber of Commerce
in Burlingame several times.
“Those of us who knew Howard will
miss his jolly laughter at our get-togethers
as well as his valuable help and advice.
He leaves a son, Howard, who is in the
Armed Forres, and his wife Gwen, who
resides at the family home. 444 Bloomfield
William G. Young. PhD, has been re¬
elected to a three year term on the hoard
of directors of the American Chemical
Society, Bill will he regional director for
the Society’s Sixth District, which consists
of eighteen Western states. Alaska and
Hawaii. Since 1930 he has been a member
of the UCLA faculty, and in 1046 was
named dean of the physical sciences.
John L. Hall is the general staff super¬
visor, hew business sales, of the Southern
California Gas Company, and for more
than 20 years has been giving the “gas
pitch” to Los Angeles building industries.
John started with the gas company right
after graduation, and since 1944 has beefi
-supervising, in one capacity or another,
the company’s dealings with the construc¬
John E. Meskell has been elected presi¬
dent of the Building Contractors Associa¬
tion of California for the year 1955. John
served as director of the association during
1954 and was largely responsible for ne¬
gotiations with UCLA which led towards
the establishment of a full four-year course
in general contracting in the School of
Business. John is a partner in the firm
of Thiesen Company, which specializes in
Robert C. Warner is now Associate Pro¬
fessor of the Department of Biochemistry
at New York University College of Medi¬
cine. Bob. a member of the staff of New
York University College since 1946, has
been doing extensive research On the
chemistry of proteins, and is presently a
member of the Panel on Plasma, Division
of Medical Sciences, National Research
Richard W oilman, MS, is now president
of the Leonard Melton Company of Nash¬
ville, Tennessee, a wholesale sporting goods
firm. Dick has two children, a girl and a
/. Scott Gassaway , who is leading an
active life trying to keep Up with his
four boys, writes: “We (wife Marilyn and
I) are still owners of the engineering
company in Los Angeles which bears my
name. We have four boys and I am a
neighborhood commissioner with the Boy
Scouts, and a vice-president of a Lion’s
(iltlb. We have an interest in the nation¬
ally known Bank Coin machines, which
are sold Under the M.P. trademark. (I
designed them). We love the outdoors and
are ardent trailer campers—about 10 trips
Roy M. Acker is a member of the tech-
ttical staff of the Guided Missiles Division
for the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation in
Los Angeles. Roy was formerly with
Hughes Aircraft in Culver City. He and
his wife Hazel have two daughters, Cheryl,
age 4, arid Janet, one year.
Richard M. Vaughn was married on De¬
cember 18 to Constance Ellis of Los An¬
geles, and they are now living in Beverly
Hills. Dick is president of the Town and
Country Builders of Beverly Hills.
Claud S. Rupert, who received his PhD
in physics from Johns Hopkins in 1951, has
been appointed assistant professor of bio¬
physics at Johns Hopkins. Claud joined
the Biophysics Department in 1952 as an
American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fel¬
low in cancer research. He was married
to Clara M. Sorensen of Baltimore last
Roger IFallace is now employed in the
health physics division of the Radiation
Laboratory, of the University of California
at Berkeley. Roger received his PhD in
physics from UC in ’53. The Wallace fam¬
ily now numbers three; their first child,
Elizabeth, was born last April.
Jack L. Malaya, MS, is in the geophy¬
sical office of the Stanolind Oil and Gas
Company at Tyler, Texas.
Leonard S. Alpert was transferred by
the Shell Chemical Corporation to their
Ventura Ammonia Plant, where he is
senior engineer. Leonard and his wife live
in Ojai, California, and with the recent
addition of Evelyn Ann, now boast three
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
A Key to K&E Leadership
To design a slide rule that makes even the most complex
calculations simple takes ingenuity. Years of ingenious
developments and improvements by K&E, first to make
slide rules in America, produced the Log Log Duplex
Decitrig®, the slide rule most used by engineers and
students alike. Ingenuity—of design, of manufacture—is
one of the keys to K&E’s eighty-seven years of leader¬
ship in drafting, reproduction, surveying and optical
tooling equipment and materials, in slide rules and
KEUFFEL & ESSER CO.
New York • Hoboken, N. J.
• St Louis • Detroit • San Francisco • Los Angeles * Montreal
RICHARD CONWAY checks
cutting tool with machinist
before milling a pump casing.
After completing his general training which brought him in
contact with all departments, Richard J. Cohway decided that
manufacturing engineering was his field. He says, “I chose the
Manufacturing Engineering Department after completing my
general training at Worthington because as a graduate in In¬
dustrial Engineering I can learn the practical aspects of my
field while applying theory I learned in college.
“The personnel of this department work together as a team
toward the solution of the numerous problems which arise
daily. We have the cooperation of all other departments in the
corporation in getting the necessary facts pertinent to the solu¬
tion of these problems. In the course of our day it may be
necessary for us to meet the Plant Manager, Chief Engineer,
Comptroller, several department heads, clerks, foremen, ma¬
chinists and many others throughout the company.
“I have contributed to the solution of many problems han¬
dled by this department including metal spraying, machining
procedures, purchasing new equipment and designating proper
dimensions to obtain desired fits between mating parts.
“I enjoy my work because I'm doing the work I want and
my formal education is being supplemented with practical
knowledge gained from the tremendous wealth of knowledge
available to me at Worthington. I know from personal contact
with many other departments in the Corporation that Wor¬
thington can and will find their young engineers a spot which
wi II give them the same opportunities as have been afforded me.”
When you're thinking of a good job, think high —think
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, see your College
Placement Bureau or write to the Personnel and Training
Department, Worthington Corporation, Harrison, N. J.
The Sign of Value
Around the World
The desigh engineer trained in
welded steel tonstruction is best
able to meet industry's need hr
low cost manufacture betause
CUT COSTS 50 %
B Y using steel instead of cast iron,
'design engineers today make their
products more efficient . . . many times at
half the cost. Product designs are strong¬
er, more rigid, take less material to build.
Too little attention is usually devoted to
simplification of product designs to elim¬
inate costly manufacturing manhours
once a basic design is established. Where
designers reappraise product details for
welded steel construction, production
costs are being cut an average of 5 0% com¬
pared with manufacture using castings.
Manufacturing operations are simpli¬
fied with welded steel design. Rejections
due to inferior metal are eliminated. Less
machining and finishing are required.
Finished machines are streamlined, more
modern in appearance.
In the example below, an economy-
minded design engineer lowered manu¬
facturing cost on a machine arm and cut
weight of the arm.
Before conversion to steel, the machine
arm required 182 pounds of gray iron
and cost $38.25 to cast and machine.
Welded steel design weighs only 86.8
pounds .. . costs $20.06.
DISIGN DATA for wmldwd construction it avoif-
abfm to ongtnooring itudonts in tho form of bullotim
and handbook*. Writo
THE LINCOLN ELECTRIC COMPANY
Cleveland 17, Ohio
THE WORLD'S LARGEST MANUFACTURER OF
ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
PERSONALS . . . CONTINUED
Eric Weiss is now a member of the tech¬
nical staff, Research and Development, at
Hughes Aircraft in Culver City. Before
joining Hughes, Eric was employed as
project engineer for the J. B. Rea Com¬
pany of Los Angeles.
John P. Calligeros has been acting as
senior development engineer for the
Arabian-American Oil Company, and is
located at the Company's general offices in
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Last summer he
and his wife Jae made a tour through most
of Europe in their little Fiat, and during
this vacation did some skiing in the Swiss
and Austrian Alps.
Eberhurdt Rechtin, PhD ’50, is the new
section chief of electronics research at
Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He
succeeds Frank Lehan, '44, who has joined
the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation.
Col. John A. Graf. MS, is now in com¬
mand of the San Francisco district, Corps
of Army Engineers. John, who graduated
from West Point in 1940, will direct a 20
million dollar construction program during
the next six months. Included in this pro¬
gram is the completion of NTKE guided
missile launching sites, and the building
of a hydraulic model of San Fran¬
cisco Bay. Before this assignment John was
executive officer of the Portland, Oregon,
district office. The Grafs have two chil¬
Kurt Barnett, MS, writes from Montreal.
Canada: “Here’s some news. I was mar¬
ried on November 25 th to Charlotte
Hojtasova, honeymooned in New York.
Working with a firm of consulting engi¬
neers in Montreal on the design of in¬
dustrial electrical installations. Did quite
a lot of cross-country skiing up here last
year. Miss folk dancing. Always happy to
hear of visitors here from Caltech.”
Richard A. Spellman joined the Cali¬
fornia Research Corporation in Richmond
last spring. Formerly he had been with
the Lago Oil & Transport Company.
Robert C. Hopkins, MS, is now a mem¬
ber of the technical staff of the Field En¬
gineering Department at the Hughes Re¬
search and Development Laboratories in
Culver City. He was formerly employed
by the Digital Computor Laboratory.
Lloyd P. Geldarl is the chief geophysi¬
cist for Dominion Oil Ltd., (a subsidiary of
Standard Oil Company of California),
and is located at Port-of-Spain, Trinidad.
Lloyd reports that after two years of ex¬
ploration the company has “spudded” in
their first wildcat well.
Jack L. White sent in the following re¬
port of his recent activities: “We’re re¬
turning to the States after 1^2 years of
research at the Imperial College in Lon¬
don. Managed to cap off our time in
Europe with a two-month, 10-country tour
through Scandinavia and the Continent by
automobile—6,600 miles in all. Looking
forward to spending some time in the
States now, though the exact location and
position are not known."
John P. Francis left the National Bu¬
reau of Standards nearly a year ago to
become a member of the Magnavox Com¬
pany Research Laboratories in West Los
Angeles. John is working on the design
of digital data, handling systems, and the
research and development of components.
He was married last June to Jean How
ard in Westwood, California.
Edmund A. Milne , MS, PhD ’53, is as¬
sistant professor at the Naval Postgradu¬
ate School in Monterey, California. Before
this, Ed held a resident fellowship here
Richard B. Campbell. MS, lias moved
from Vancouver, British Columbia, where
he was in the B. C. office of the Geo-
- . £ -
logical Survey of Canada, to Whitehorse,
Alaska. Right now Dick is in the process
of opening and organizing a new survey
office for the Yukon.
Gunnar Bergman, PhD, and wife Judy
announce the birth of Charles Kimball,
their first child, oh November 11. Gunnar
is Assistant Professor of Chemistry and
Mechanical Engineering at Caltech.
Richard Von Herzen, a Corporal in the
Army, is due for a discharge at the end
of this month, and he plans to enroll im¬
mediately in the Harvard University
Graduate School to study geophysics. Dick
hopes to make the U. S. Pan-American
games swimming team, and for the past
month has been training with other Armed
Forces swimmers at the Treasure Island
Naval Base. After his discharge he will
continue his training at Harvard right up
to the time of the preliminary trials at
Yale in February. Dick never swam com¬
petitively until he entered Caltech—but
in spite of the late start, he won blue
ribbons at the California Conference meets
in 1951 and 1952.
Clinton Lew has been in the Guided
Missile Division of the Hughes Research
and Development Laboratories since leav¬
ing Caltech. Last January he received his
MS in physics from UCLA. Clinton’s due
to marry Hawn Young of Buena Park,
California, next February.
Robert L. Smith was married on Decem¬
ber 18 to Susan Zugsmith of Brentwood,
California. Bob is doing graduate work at
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
1954—Boeing's Seattle plant as it appears today. New Engineering Building is shown in foreground.
1916—The First Boeing plant, Seattle
Is career stability important to you?
Then the chart below will be of interest.
It shows that 46% of Boeing’s engineers
have been with this company for five
or more years; 25% have been here 10
or more years, and 6% for 1 5 years.
*»*l 105 MS 305 «05 505
One reason for this stability is that
Boeing has grown steadily for 38 years,
providing plenty of room for advance¬
ment. Another reason is the highly in¬
teresting type of work at Boeing, such
as designing and building America’s first
jet transport and the revolutionary B-47
and B-52 jet bombers, as well as work
on pilotless aircraft, supersonic flight
and research in nuclear-powered aircraft.
Still another reason is this: Boeing
always has put dominant emphasis on
engineering development. Pioneering in
this field has meant that Boeing con¬
stantly has increased its engineering staff
in relation to total employees. Fifteen
years ago, one out of 16 employees was
in engineering. Five years ago the pro¬
portion of engineers had been raised
to one in ten and today it has climbed
to one in seven.
Boeing has rewarding openings for
engineers of EVERY category—electri¬
cal, civil, mechanical, aeronautical and
related fields, as well as for applied
physicists and mathematicians with ad¬
Careers at Boeing afford a wide vari¬
ety of experience in research, design and
production, as well as work with new
materials and techniques, and contacts
with a cross section of industry through
Boeing’s vast subcontracting program.
Boeing promotes from within and
holds regular merit reviews to assure in-
dividual recognition. Engineers are en¬
couraged to take graduate studies while
working and are reimbursed for all tui-
For further Boeing career information
consult your PLACEMENT OFFICE, or write
JOHN C. SANDERS, Staff Engineer —Personnel
Boeing Airplane Company, Seattle 14, Wash.
Elastic Stop Nut Corporation of America
Dept. N34-152, 2330 Vauxhall Road, Union, N. J.
Please send me the following free fastening information:
im Elastic Stop Not Bulletin
im Rollpin Bulletin
ClAN-ESNA Conversion Chart
□ Here is a drawing of our
product. What fastener would
HIGH TENSILE NUT
ELASTIC STOP NUT CORPORATION d0jjf|||
dia. from 1/16" fo 1/2"
RoIIpins are slotted, tubular steel, pressed-fit pins
with chamfered ends. They drive easily into holes
drilled to normal tolerances, compressing as driven.
Extra assembly steps like hole reaming or peening
are eliminated. RoIIpins lock in place, yet are read¬
ily removed with a punch and may be reused.
Cut assembly costs by using RoIIpins as set
screws, positioning dowels, clevis or hinge pins.
Specify them in place of straight, serrated, tapered
or cotter type pins.
FLOATING ANCHOR NUT
Every major aircraft now being assembled relies on the
vibration-proof holding power of ELASTIC STOP nuts.
Only ESNA manufactures a complete line of all types
and sizes of self-locking nuts.
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
cU all academic dea/iee. leveh
electrical and mechanical engineering design and development,
stress analysis, airborne structural design, electrical and electronic
circuitry, systems studies, instrumentation, telemetering, electro¬
mechanical test, applied physics problems.
a! Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Western Electric Company, offers
^ outstanding opportunities to graduates with Bachelor’s or advanced degrees, with
or without applicable experience.
Sandia Corporation engineers and scientists work as a team at the basic task of
9 applying to military uses certain of the fundamental processes developed by
nuclear physicists. This task requires original research as well as straightforward
development and production engineering.
*4 A new engineer's place on the Sandia team is determined initially by his
training, experience, and talents . . . and, in a field where ingenuity and
resourcefulness are paramount, he is afforded every opportunity for professional
growth and improvement.
# Sandia engineers design and develop complex components and systems
that must function properly under environmental conditions that are much
more severe than those specified for industrial purposes. They design and
develop electronic equipment to collect and analyze test data; they build
instruments to measure weapons effects. As part of their work, they are
engaged in liaison with the best production and design agencies in the
country, and consult with many of the best minds in all fields of science.
# Sandia Laboratory, operated by Sandia Corporation under contract
with the Atomic Energy Commission, is located in Albuquerque
the heart of the healthful Southwest A modern, mile-high city of 150,000,
Albuquerque offers a unique combination of metropolitan facilities plus
scenic, historic and recreational attractions — and a climate that is
sunny, mild, and dry the year around. New residents have little diffi
culty in obtaining adequate housing.
M Liberal employee benefits include paid vacations, sickness bene
T fits, group life insurance, and a contributory retirement plan
Working conditions are excellent, and salaries are commensurate
A limited number of positions for Aeronautical Engineers
Mathematicians, and Physicists are also available.
Make apfdioatiOH to-: PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT
Or contact through your Placement Office the Sandia
Corporation representative with the Bell Telephone
System College Recruiting Team for an
interview on your campus.
J. S. Shapiro, PRINCIPLES OF
All technical books are available at
Technical Book Division
695 E. Colorado St., Pasadena
S’?. 3-1171 RY. 1-6669
Industrial Discount Write for
Inquiries Welcomed Free Catalog
Faculty Members Only
Up to 30% Off on Auto Insurance
We can obtain insurance for faculty mem¬
bers at preferred rates in large nation-wide
company. Standard provisions in policy.
call or write
F. G. JOHNS at PACIFIC UNDERWRITERS, INC.
1250 Wilshire Blvd., L. A. 17 MAdlson 6-5576
References: Secretary of the Institute
Class News Letter
JHE CLASS OF 1950 is hoping to get out a brief news
letter concerning as many members of the class as pos¬
sible in order to have it available for the fifth reunion
of the class in June. Anyone having any information or
personal news ileitis concerning members of the class
of ’50 is requested to pass them along to Ralph Stone,
P. (). Box 3546, Phoenix, Arizona.
THE ANNUAL Alumni Seminar Day falls this year oil
April 16, the Saturday following Easter. The committee
promises an outstanding program of interest to every¬
one, to he climaxed by flintier at the Elks Club.
Here is your opportunity to meet old friends, spend
an enjoyable day on campus, entertain your wife and
guests, and thoroughly enjoy yourself. You will prob¬
ably want to inspect the new Alumni Swimming Pool.
Scott Brown Gymnasium, and athletic offices.
A copy of the program and reservation forms will he
mailed to all alumni in southern California iti March.
Any alumnus not living here, hut who will he in this
area on Seminar Day, should send a card to the alumni
office for information.
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OFFICERS
Kenneth F. Russell ’29
C. Vernon Newton ’34
Donald S. Clark ’29
George B. Holmes ’38
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Willard E. Baier ’23 Philip Cravitz
Robert R. Bennett ’45 Douglas G. Kingman
Hugh C. Carter ’49 William F. Nash, Jr.
Charles P. Strickland "43
ALUMNI CHAPTER OFFICERS
New York Chapter:
VICE-PRESIDENT G. William Boutelle '48
Bulova Watch Co., Bulova Park, Flushing
SECRETARY-TREASURER Frank F. Scheck ’48
Attorney, 247 Park Ave., New York
Washington, D. C. Chapter:
PRESIDENT Thomas S. Southwick ’27
U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington 25, D. C.
SECRETARY-TREASURER Clarence A. Burmister ’25
U.S.C. & G.S., RadioSonic Laboratory, Wash. 25
San Francisco Chapter:
PRESIDENT Robert G. Heitz ’36
Dow Chemical Company, Pittsburg, California
VICE-PRESIDENT Louis H. Erb '22
Pacific Tel, & Tel. Co., San Francisco, California
SECRETARY-TREASURER Harrison W. Sigworth ’44
California Research Corp., Richmond, California
PRESIDENT Ehen Vey
Dept, of Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology
VICE-PRESIDENT E. T. Groat
840 S. Canal Street, Chicago 80, Illinois
SECRETARY-TREASURER L. H. Nobles
Department of Geology, Northwestern University
PRESIDENT Mervin A. Schuhart
State Division of Highways, 1120 “N” Street
VICE-PRESIDENT Luther J. Eastman
California Board of Equalization
SECRETARY-TREASURER Harris K. Mauzy
California Division of Highways, Bridge Department
San Diego Chapter:
CHAIRMAN Maurice R. Ross '
3040 Udal Street. San Diego 6, Calif.
SECRETARY Frank John Dore, Jr,
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp.
PROGRAM CHAIRMAN JIf Tman S. Englander
U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
FRIDAY DEMONSTRATION LECTURES
Lecture Hall, 201 Bridge, 7*.3Q p.m.
Jan. 1 4— Jan. 28—
The Earth’s Atmosphere— The Size of the Un
Dr. Oliver Wulf Dr. William Baum
Jan. 21 —
Pistons or Pinwheels?-
Dr. Peter KyropOulos
Jan. 2 8—
The Size of the Universe—
Dr. William Baum
A Demonstration of Same
Dr. Bruce Sage
YMCA LUNCHEON FORUMS
Athenaeum, 12 Noon
Problems Arising out af
American Military Bases in
United Nations War Relief
arid the Palestine Refugee
Japan—Willard A. Hanna
—Richard H. Nalte
Planned Parenthood and
Modern Drama and the
Dr. Ofeila Mendoza, M.D.
Dr. William Hawley
Jan. 1 8—Pomona at Caltech
Jan. 21—Whittier at Caltech
Jan. 25—Nazorenes at Caltech
jan. 28—Caltech at L. A. State
Feb. 5—Caltech at Redlands
Feb. 8—Chapmdn at Caltech
Feb. 11-—Caltech at Whittier
Feb. 15—LoVerne at Caltech
Feb. 1 9—Caltech at NazarertO
Feb, 19—Coltetch at L B. State
Oil Properties Consultants, Inc.
Complete Petroleum and Production
Subsurface Geology • Micropaleontology
Secondary Recovery and Evaluation
Complete Laboratory Service
Core-Analysis • PVT • Fractional Analysis
Florent H. Bailly, ’27 Rene Engel, Ph.D. ’33
709-711 South Fair Oaks Avenue SYcamore 3-1156
Pasadena 2, California RYan 1-8141
NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE
234 E. Colorado Street
Pasadena 1, Calif.
SYcamore 2-7141 Res.: SY. 3-5514
RUG AND FURNITURE CLEANING
ORIENTAL RUG EXPERTS
312 N. Foothill Blvd. Pasadena 8, Calif.
ALLEN MACHINE & TOOL CO.
Designers and Builders of Special Machinery and Tools
Also General Machine Work
13409 S. Alameda Street Compton, California
Phones: NEvada 6-1219 — NEwmark 5-8141
455 EL DORADO, PA5ADENA 5, CALIFORNIA
COLOR FILM PROCESSING * COLOR PRINTS • PHOTO CHEMICALS
RALPH B. ATKINSON '30-7273 SANTA MONICA BLVD., HOLLYWOOD 46, CALIF.
Chemical and Physical Testing Laboratories
781 E. Washington Blvd. Los Angeles 21, California
Member American Council of Commercial Laboratories
DAMES & MOORE
Trent R. Dames ’33 William W. Moore ’33
Soil Mechanics Investigations
General Offices: 816 West Fifth Street, Los Angeles 17
Regional Offices: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland,
Seattle, Salt Lake City, Chicago. New York, Atlanta, London
Consultation - Analyses - Testing
C. E. P. Jeffreys,
CHEMISTS • BACTERIOLOGISTS • ENGINEERS
Write for Brochure * 4101 North Figueroa Street
Los Angeles 65, California • CApitol 4148
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
Westbound Rio Grande freight in Ruby Canyon of Colorado River.
The freight rolls away an hour sooner
because photography cuts yard bookkeeping
The Denver and Rio Grande Western
Railroad microfilms its waybills in
minutes, cuts running schedules,
saves costs in train idling time.
You don’t find a Rio Grande freight idling at the
terminal while waybills are copied by hand. In¬
stead, Recordak Microfilming copies them. Then
they’re put aboard and the train is off in just
about one-fifth the time it tised to take, thus sav¬
ing hours of valuable crew and train time. Then
the wheel reports are made up from the films and
Railroading is but one of over a hundred types of
businesses now saving money, time and space with
microfilming. It is one of the fast growing and widely
used ways photography works for industry.
Small businesses and large are finding that photog¬
raphy helps in simplifying routine procedures, in
product design, in personnel relations. It improves
production, saves time and cuts costs.
Graduates in the physical sciences and in engi¬
neering find photography an increasingly valuable
tool in their new occupations. Its expanding use has
also created many challenging opportunities at
Kodak, especially in the development of large-scale
chemical processes and the design of complex pre¬
cision mechanical-electronic equipment. Whether
you are a recent graduate or a qualified returning
service man, if you are interested in these opportuni¬
ties, write to Business & Technical Personnel Dept.,
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N.Y.
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, N.Y.
Return Postage Guaranteed
Engineering & Science
Calif. Inst, of Technology
CHARLES SNYDER, R.P.I., (center) adjusting 5250 triple-unit d-c Engineers RICHARD RENK, IOWA STATE, (left) and ALLEN FRINK,
mill motor for use in a steel mill. CATHOLIC UNIV., make last-minute check on 1600-hp diesel-electric
switcher before it is moved to test track.
THEY’RE "GOING PLACES"
AT GENERAL ELECTRIC
Like these young men pictured here, hundreds of scien¬
tists, engineers, chemists, physicists and other college
graduates are "getting ahead” fast at General Electric ....
and they are working on projects with the assurance that
their contributions are meaningful and important.
They are moving up rapidly because at General Electric
a world of opportunity awaits the college man of today—a
w'orld limited only by his own ability and interest. The
variety of General Electric products and the diversity of
the Company’s operations provide virtually unlimited
fields of opportunity and corresponding rewards, both
materially and in terms of personal satisfaction to young
men who begin a G-E career.
New developments-—in silicones, electronics, semi-con¬
ductors, gas turbines, atomic power, and others—spring¬
ing from G-E research and engineering, arc creating
exciting new opportunities, and are giving college gradu¬
ates the chance of finding satisfying, rewarding work.
And by placing prime importance on the development of
talent and skill, developed through G-E training pro¬
grams and broadened through rotational job programs,
and by providing incentives for creative minds. General
Electric is hurrying young men into success in an in¬
dustry that is devoted to serving all men through the
ever-increasing and ever-widening uses for electricity,
man’s greatest servant.
If you are interested in building a career with General Elec¬
tric see your college placement director for the date of the
next visit of the General Electric representative on your cam¬
pus. Meanwhile, for further information on opportunities with
General Electric write to College Editor, Dept. 2-123, Gen¬
eral Electric Company, Schenectady 6, New York.
Test engineers E. K. VON FANGE, U. OF
NEB., (left) and R. E. IOVE, U. OF TEXAS,
work on slacker and stapler built by them for
Physicist ROGER DEWES, BROOKLYN POLY.,
working with scintillation counter in G.E.’s
ANTHONY TERZANO, PRATT INSTITUTE,
checks connections on direct-current rectifier
which charges 7,500,000-volt impulse genera¬
tor in G.E.’s new High-voltage Laboratory.