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November 1959 

Student Houses . .. page 30 

Published at the California Institute of Technology 

Under fire^ the performance of men and machines depends on what they are made of. United States Steel 
makes the materials for the machines, whether it’s a very tough armor plate, or heat-resistant alloy, or Stainless Steels. 

You might be interested in some of the USS steels developed specifically for aircraft and missiles: 

USS Strux, an alloy steel with close to 300,000 psi tensile strength primarily for aircraft landing gears; 

USS Airsteel X-200, an air-hardenab/e alloy steel with 230,000 psi yield strength for aircraft sheet and missile 
applications; USS 12MoV and USS 17-5 MnV Stainless Steels for high-speed aircraft and missiles; 

Stainless "W", a precipitation-hardenable Stainless Steel. 

New “exotic” metals, new methods for making them, present an exciting challenge. Men willing to accept this 
challenge—civil, industrial, mechanical, metallurgical, ceramic, electrical or chemical engineers have a future 
with United States Steel. Write to: United States Steel, Personnel Division, Room 2316, 

525 William Penn Place, Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania. 

USS is a registered trademark 

UsS) United States Steel 
 vivvu univr> The automatic highway, 

demonstrated in this working model of General Motors experimental 
Auto-Control System, is an electronic marvel that takes over steering, 
speed, braking and obstacle detection for drivers. 

If you’re thinking ahead in the field of 
science or engineering, General Motors 
is the place for you. Here are many 
challenging opportunities for young men 
who want to do things, do things better, 
solve problems on projects that probe 
into the future. 

Among many available fields and 
products in which GM engineers and 
scientists work are: electronics, rocket 
propulsion, automotive, solar energy, 
astronautics, diesel engines and house¬ 
hold appliances. 

GM has plenty of room in which you 
can grow. As you move forward, you 
take on jobs of greater responsibility in 
your Division and can bridge across to 
positions of responsibility in other Divi¬ 
sions of the Corporation. And if you 
wish to continue with advanced studies, 
GM offers financial assistance. 

For more information on a fine posi¬ 
tion with an exciting future, write to 
General Motors, Personnel Staff, 
Detroit 2, Michigan. 

GAvA positions now 
available in these fields 
for men holding 
Bachelor’s, AvAaster’s 
and Doctor's degrees: 
AAechanical Engineering 
Electrical Engineering 
Industrial Engineering 
Metallurgical Engineering 
Chemical Engineering 
Aeronautical Engineering 
Ceramic Engineering 
Industrial Design 
Physics • Chemistry 
Engineering Mechanics 
Business Administration 
and Related Fields 

November 1959 


Space Technology Laboratories' new corporate symbol represents a bright history in a stimulating age.^f stl has 
provided the over-all systems engineering and technical direction for the Air Force Ballistic Missile Program since it 
was assigned the highest national priority in 1954. Five years of accelerated effort produced epic advances in science 
and technology , and propelled the art of missilery through three distinct generations of progress. Stl contributed 
technical leadership to the science/government /industry team which has built this solid, expandable foundation 
for future advances in space, and is daily adding new strength to our national security. 4 c In addition to its major 
management functions, stl also conducts advanced space probe experiments for the Air Force at the direction of 
such agencies as NASA and Arpa. ^ To those scientists and engineers » with capabilities in propulsion, electronics, 
thermodynamics, aerodynamics, structures, astrophysics, computer / technology, and other related fields and 
disciplines, stl now offers unique professional opportunities. Inquiries A regarding staff positions at STL are invited. 

a new symbol 
for a new era of 

Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. P.O.BOX 95004, LOS ANOELES 45, CALIFORNIA 

2 Engineering and Science 




On Our Cover 

an idyllic view of one of Caltech’s 
Student Houses (Fleming, to be spe¬ 
cific). On page 30, a more acid view 
of the Student Houses by an under¬ 
graduate, Douglas W. Shakel ’60. 

James A. Lockhart 

research fellow in biology, received 
his BA from the University of Wis¬ 
consin in 1944, then went to Michi¬ 
gan State for his BS in 1946 and his 
MS in 1949. He came to Caltech to 
do plant research after receiving his 
PhD in plant physiology from the 
University of California in 1954. In 
his research, he has concentrated on 
the plant hormone, gibberellin, and 
the relationship between this remark¬ 
able plant-growing substance and the 
effects of light. He writes about this 
interesting relationship in his article, 
“Gibberellin — A New Plant Hor¬ 
mone,” on page 15 — and about the 
colorful history and background of 
the hormone which may someday 
help agriculture to new highs of pro¬ 

Picture Credits: 

Cover — Harvey 

15 — R. J. Weaver, University of 
California, Davis 
20-23 — Graphic Arts 
John G. Bolton 

24 — Mt. Wilson-Palomar Observatories 
26 — Graphic Arts 
34, 35 — Graphic Arts 
John Andelin 


Books 6 

Gibberellin — A New Plant Hormone 15 

by James A. Lockhart 

Central Engineering Services 20 

How the Hale Telescope led to a thriving 
industry on campus 

Search for Supernovae 24 

Data on supemovae may be used to calibrate 
distances to the very periphery of the visible 
by Fritz Zwicky 

Earthquakes to Order 26 

The Month at Caltech 27 

Space Science 29 

Caltech and JPL exchange ideas in a new field 
of research 

by Henry L. Richter, Jr. 

Student Life 30 

The Student Houses 

— The last chance to observe the old order? 
by Douglas W. Shakel ’60 

Alumni News 42 

Personals 46 

Lost Alumni 58 


Publisher . 

Editor and Business Manager . 

Editorial Assistant .. 

Student News .. 

Richard C. Armstrong ’28 

.Edward Hutchings, Jr. 

.Gerda Chambers 

.Brad Efron ’60 

Martin Carnoy ’60 
Stan Sajdera ’61 

Published monthly, October through June, at the California Institute of 
Technology, 1201 East California St., Pasadena, Calif., for the under¬ 
graduates, graduate students and alumni of the Institute. Annual subscrip¬ 
tion $4.50 domestic, $5.50 foreign, single copies 50 cents. Second class post¬ 
age paid at Pasadena, California. All Publisher’s Rights Reserved. Reproduc¬ 
tion of material contained herein forbidden without written authorization. 
Manuscripts and all other editorial correspondence should be addressed to: 
The Editor, Engineering and Science, California Institute of Technology. © 
1959, Alumni Association, California Institute of Technology. 

November 1959 


ship Program offers unusual opportunities for academic training 
leading to a master’s degree... and, in addition, provides each fellow 
with practical experience in the professional field of his choice. 

Approximately one hundred new awards will be made by Hughes in 
1960 to qualified applicants who possess a bachelor's degree in 
science or engineering. Additional awards are open to qualified appli¬ 
cants interested in business administration and education. 

Hughes conducts extensive research and development in the scientific 
and engineering fields. While working for Hughes, fellows may be 
assigned to such areas of Research & Development as: microwave 
devices, parametric amplifiers, masers, infrared search and track 
systems, microminiaturization, antenna arrays, simulation methods, 

propagation, data handling, human factor analysis-and to a 

variety of engineering areas such as guided missiles, weapons con¬ 
trol systems and systems analysis. 

A selected group of award winners will be offered a FULL STUDY 

PROGRAM, Participants in this program will receive fellowships tha 
permit them to attend an outstanding university on a full time basi 
during the regular academic year with a Substantial stipend. 

Other award winners will be assigned to the WORK STUDY PROGRAf 
and will attend a university sufficiently near a facility of the Hughe 
Aircraft Company to permit them to obtain practical experience, i 
a professional field of their choice, by working at the company pai 
time each week. An appropriate stipend will also be awarded. 

After completion of the Master’s Program, fellows are eligible to appl 

The classified nature of work at Hughes makes eligibility for securit 
clearance a requirement. 

Closing date for applications: January 15, 1960. 

Howto apply: Write Dr. C. N. Warfield, Scientific Education, Hughe 
Aircraft Company, Culver City, California. 


ested in studies leading to a doctor’s degree in physics or engineering, 
you are invited to apply for one of approximately 10 new awards in the 
1960 Howard Hughes Doctoral Fellowship Program. 

This unique program offers the doctoral candidate the optimum 
combination of high-level study at an outstanding institution plus 
practical industrial experience in the Hughes laboratories. 

Each Howard Hughes Doctoral Fellowship provides approximately 
$8,000 annually. Of this amount $1,800 is for tuition, books, fees, 
thesis and research expenses. The remainder is the award of a cash 
stipend and salary earned by the fellow. 

Hughes conducts extensive research and development in the scientific 
and engineering fields. Typical programs include: network analysis 
and synthesis, semiconductor materials, plasma electronics, commu¬ 
nications, computing...and solid state physics, atomic and nuclear 
physics, tests of the general theory of relativity, chemistry, physical 
chemistry and metallurgy, information theory, mechanics of struc¬ 

tures, electro-mechanical propulsion systems, and systems analysis. 

Howard Hughes Doctoral Fellowships are open to outstanding stu¬ 
dents qualified for admission to graduate standing. A master's 
degree, or equivalent graduate work, is considered very desirable 
before beginning the Fellowship Program. 

The classified nature of work at Hughes makes eligibility for security 
clearance a requirement. 

Closing date for applications: January 15, 1960. 

How to apply: Write Dr. C. N. Warfield, Scientific Education, Hughes 
Aircraft Company, Culver City, California. 

Creating a new world 





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store today. 




Soap Bubbles 
The Neutron Story 
How Old is the Earth? 

Echoes of Bats and Men 

Doubleday-Anchor Books . . 95c each 

These are the first five paperbacks 
to be published in a new Science 
Study Series, “designed to bridge the 
gap between scientists and laymen.” 
The series is one of the by-products of 
the work of the Physical Science Study 
Committee, set up at MIT in 1956 to 
revise the teaching and study of high- 
school physics. The committee is writ¬ 
ing a new physics textbook, producing 
a library of classroom films, and de¬ 
signing simple apparatus that can be 
constructed by teachers and students. 
The Science Study Series has been 
conceived as supplementary reading 
to this program, and about 15 titles 
will be published every year. 

The books are designed for both 
students and the general public. High 
school pupils who have these paper¬ 
backs forced on them are going to be 
delighted with most of the books. But 
the general public, unless it is en¬ 
couraged to seek them out, is likely 
to avoid the books because their 
straightforward titles promise only dry 
accounts of specialized (even esoteric) 
fields. But this is far from the fact. 
Magnets and Soap Bubbles, in par¬ 
ticular, are little masterpieces of pop¬ 
ular science writing. Magnets, as it 
turns out, is the absorbing autobiog¬ 
raphy of a physicist, Francis Bitter. 
(Now professor of physics at MIT, he 
was at Caltech on a National Research 
Fellowship in the late ’20s, working 
under R. A. Millikan on the magnetic 
properties of gases). Soap Bubbles is 
a charming, and famous, series of talks 
given by Sir Charles Vernon Boys to 
an audience of children at the London 
Institution in 1889 and 1890. 

Of the other books, The Neutron 
Story is perhaps the most “difficult.” 
Its author, Donald J. Hughes, is a 
senior physicist at the Brookhaven 
National Laboratory. Patrick H. Hur¬ 
ley, author of How Old is the Earth?, 
is a geophysicist at MIT. Donald R. 
Griffin, who wrote Echoes of Bats and 

Men, has spent most of his scientific 
career investigating the navigating 
techniques of animals. He is professor 
of zoology at Harvard. 

Forthcoming titles in this new 
Science Study Series (in 1960) in¬ 
clude The Physics of Television, Ga¬ 
lileo, Crystals and Crystal Growing, 
Radio Astronomy, The Birth of a New 
Physics, and Waves and the Ear. 

Men and Atoms 

by William L. Laurence 

Simon ir Schuster . $4.50 

Reviewed by Robert F. Christy, 
professor of theoretical physics 

Mr. William L. Laurence has had 
almost unparalleled opportunities as 
a writer in the field of atomic energy. 
Through his position as science editor 
of the New York Times, he was ac¬ 
quainted with the beginnings of fis¬ 
sion work in this country in the New 
York area. Later, he was chosen as 
official correspondent in the last 
stages of the atom bomb project. Since 
dien he has witnessed tests and fol¬ 
lowed the developments in atomic 
energy with a tremendous advantage 
over other writers. 

This book. Men and Atoms, covers 
the field of atomic energy from its 
inception with the discovery of radio¬ 
activity by Becquerel, through the 
discovery of fission by Hahn and 
Strassman, to the explosion of an 
H-bomb, and then to a discussion of 
the aging process in man and the 
bearing thereon of isotope research. 
Parts of this wide-ranging story are 
fascinating, but the book lacks the 
underlying unity that might tie to¬ 
gether what ends up as a strange 
collection of essays. 

The book starts with the remark¬ 
able story of the discovery of fission 
and the spread of that knowledge 
around the world. It is on the whole 
well told and is indeed one of the 
classic episodes of physics discovery. 
It tells how Hahn and Strassman tried 
for years to understand the radio¬ 
activities associated with the capture 
of neutrons by uranium, until they 
continued on page 10 


Engineering and Science 

Five Vought Divisions 
Provide Engineers 
Greater Opportunity for 
Space-Age Advancement 

Young engineers, particularly, will be interested in the new 
opportunities created by Chance Vought’s recent realignment 
into five divisions. 

Today, for every Vought engineer, there is a division to 
make fullest use of his talents and to speed his personal 
advancement. And, of course, he is backed by the four other 
divisions whose balanced activities add security to his 
company and his future. 

Vought’s realignment was the result of considerable study 
of both company capabilities and new business opportuni¬ 
ties. The move intensifies a diversification program which 
began early in 1959. It specifically gears this progressive, 
42-year-old aircraft firm for the challenges and opportunities 
of the age of space. 


Vought is taking fullest advantage of its existing capabilities 
and is drawing on 12 years’ experience in the missile field to 
obtain broader responsibilities in the race for space. Concen¬ 
tration will be on advanced vehicles for space exploration, 
and On ballistic and anti-ballistic missile systems. 

Under a current contract, Vought is readying the four-stage 
Scout research rocket and its launcher for the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration. Also, Vought and 
other members of the Boeing team are participating in the 
development of the Dyna-Soar boost-glide vehicle in compe¬ 
tition for an Air Force contract. In the human factors of 
flight, Vought is taking the lead with its orbital flight 
simulator and space-oriented Cockpit Laboratory. 


Weapons of many types will take shape here. For example: 
new generations of manned aircraft and atmospheric mis¬ 
siles, and devices for antisubmarine warfare. Systems to 
support these weapons, and subcontracting assignments are 
other Aeronautics activities. 

Among this division’s current contracts: a Navy order for 
development of an environmental protection and escape 
capsule for aircraft pilots. Other work includes production 
Contracts for three versions of F8U Crusader aircraft, study 
contracts in submarine detection and classification, and 
subcontracts for military and commercial aircraft assemblies. 


Vought electronics will be developed, manufactured and 
marketed in increasing volume. Military systems under devel¬ 
opment include antennas and related electronics, ground 
support electronics and antisubmarine warfare apparatus. 

November 1959 


In a new Research Center, scientists of this division will mine 
new knowledge from many fields. Basic research is planned 
into astronautics, undersea warfare, the life sciences (relat¬ 
ing to human factors of flight), electrogravities and other 
areas. As it evolves into applied research, this advanced 
work will materially support other Vought divisions. 


Twelve years’ experience in remote base operation qualifies 
Vought for additional business in this new field. The Range 
Systems team will establish and operate test ranges and test 
equipment for missiles and space vehicles. 

Genesys Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary company, 
intensifies Vought’s diversification into commercial elec¬ 
tronics. Company emphasis is on automation, and its key 
personnel are engineers experienced in the fields of 
electronics, computers, magnetic memory, and associated 
electro-mechanical devices. 

You live at a discount in Dallas 

In Texas there is no state income tax and no local or state 
sales taxes. Low school and property levies add to your 
savings. Home construction costs — as well as house and 
apartment rentals — are below the national average. Fuel 
costs are negligible, and most groceries cost less. 

Dallas has grown faster since 1950 than any other U. S. city. 
One reason is the city’s wealth of entertainment and cultural 
centers. Another reason is the attractive cost of living. 
Student engineers are invited to write for further informa¬ 
tion about new Vought activities, and how you can start 
your career with one of Vought’s five divisions. Please 
address inquiries to: 

Professional Placement Office 
Dept. CM-25 

CW»/VCfJ — 



All-weather auditorium in Pittsburgh steel dome. Largest of its kind in 
will be covered by a 415-foot the world, the dome will protect 
diameter Nickel-containing stainless an audience of more than 13,000. 

For Pittsburgh’s new auditorium... 

A"push-button umbrella roof” of Nickel stainless steel 
...the roof design of tomorrow 

Here’s the first of a revolutionary 
new type of roof design, destined to 
introduce a new concept in building. 

A simple concept, but a daring one. 
The domed roof of a building is 
divided into eight sections which 
nest together when opened. Push a 
button, and six of these sections 
glide quietly together around an out¬ 
side track. 

In Pittsburgh’s new all-weather 
auditorium, the push-button 
umbrella roof can be closed at the 
first sign of bad weather without 
disturbing the show. In private 
homes, a roof design like this could 
bring the beauty of nature right into 
the home. 

But what material is lasting 
enough for a dome like this? Archi¬ 
tects and designers of the audito¬ 
rium looked into all types of 
materials. They selected Nickel- 
containing stainless steel. They 
selected Nickel stainless because it 
has the best combination of proper¬ 
ties for this purpose. For example 
it is one of the most weather-resist¬ 
ing, corrosion-resisting metals. 

Naturally, this is just one example 
of how designers are taking advan¬ 
tage of the unique properties of 
Nickel-containing metals. In the 
future, however, you may be design¬ 
ing a machine—not a spectacular all- 

weather push-button roof. You might 
need a metal that resists corrosion, 
or wear, or high temperatures. Or 
one that meets some destructive 
combination of conditions. Here, too, 
a Nickel-containing metal could be 
the answer. 

But, whatever your field of study, 
in the future you can count on Inco 
for all the help you need in metal 
selection. Right now, if you’d like to 
get better acquainted with Nickel 
Stainless Steel, why not, write Inco 
for “Stainless Steel in Product 
Design.” Write: Educational Serv¬ 
ices, The International Nickel Com¬ 
pany, Inc., New York 5, N. Y 

<s^lnco Nickel 

makes metals perform better, longer 

Engineering and Science 

An Announcement of Importance 

to Engineering 

and Physical Science Majors 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Division is engaged in a broad spectrum 
of scientific exploration. The Division has complete capability in more than 
40 areas of technology — from concept to operation. 

Diversity of the work areas is typified by the programs in such fields as: 
magnetohydrodynamics; space medicine; oceanography; sonics; propulsion 
and exotic fuels; metallurgy; advanced systems research; manned space 
vehicles; reconnaissance; optics and infrared; electromagnetic wave propa¬ 
gation and radiation; electronics; physics; chemistry; mathematics; computer 
design; aero and thermo dynamics; test; design and operations research 
and analysis. 

PROJECTS— Current major projects include the Navy polaris Fleet Ballistic 
Missile; the discoverer program; midas and samos; Air Force Q-5 and X-7 
and the Army kingfisher. Project midas is an early warning infrared 
system against ballistic missile attacks, based on the use of satellites. Project 
samos is designed for the development of an advanced satellite reconnais¬ 
sance system. Discoverer, midas, and samos are programs of the Advanced 
Research Projects Agency under the direction of the Air Force Ballistic 
Missile Division with Lockheed as systems manager. 

LOCATIONS— You have a selection of two of the choicest living areas in the 
country at Lockheed. Headquarters for the Division are at Sunnyvale, Cali¬ 
fornia, on the San Francisco Peninsula. Research and development facilities 
are located in the Stanford Industrial Park in Palo Alto and at Van Nuys, 
in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. Testing is conducted at Santa 
Cruz and Vandenberg AFB, California; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and 
Alamogordo, New Mexico. 

Together, the Division’s facilities occupy more than two million, six 
hundred thousand square feet of laboratory, engineering, manufacturing and 
office space and provide the latest in technical equipment, including one of 
the most modern computing centers in the world. 

continue their education and secure advanced degrees Lockheed maintains 
two programs. The Graduate Study Program permits selected engineers and 
scientists to obtain advanced degrees at the company’s expense while working 
part time at Lockheed. 

The Tuition Reimbursement Plan remits fifty per cent of the tuition for 
approved evening courses for salaried employees who are working full time. 

For Information regarding career opportunities at Lockheed, please write 
Professional Placement Staff, Dept. K-96, Lockheed Missiles and Space 
Division, 962 West El Camino Real, Sunnyvale, California, or see your 
Placement Director for date of Lockheed campus visit. 




November 1959 


Books . . . continued 

were finally forced to the conclusion 
that meant fission. Laurence tells of 
the spread of this discovery to New 
York. The reviewer can attest that it 
was no less exciting on its arrival in 
Berkeley a few days later. 

Atomic energy project 

Laurence then tells of the early 
work in fission in America and the 
struggling beginnings of the atomic 
energy project. He was close to these 
developments and offers some inter¬ 
esting sidelights to the story. 

There follows a wonderful action 
story of the raids on the Norwegian 
heavy water plants. This, in fact, 
makes one of the most exciting epi¬ 
sodes in the book. 

The fact that Laurence had no 
connection with the most important 
years in the atom project — the vital 
and exciting years at Berkeley, Col¬ 
umbia, Chicago, Oak Ridge, Han¬ 
ford, and Los Alamos — is reflected 
in the ahnost entire absence of the 
1942-1945 period in the book. This 
is an unfortunate omission from the 

point of view of the overall picture, 
since these were the big years of 
the project. 

The book then returns to episodes 
that Laurence is best known for — 
his reporting of the Alamogordo test 
and of the dropping of bombs on 
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These are 
competently reported by someone who 
was there. There follows a remark¬ 
able chapter — which appears to be 
based largely on a report of Father 
Siemes, S. J., who went through it — 
of the bombing of Hiroshima and its 
aftermath. The report tells in simple 
form of the intial explosion, which 
seemed, in the suburbs, just like a 
blockbuster going off nearby. The un¬ 
folding of the story then shows the 
slow dawning of the magnitude of 
the disaster, as it becomes clear that 
it was not just one house, or just a 
block, or a neighborhood, or a dis¬ 
trict, but indeed a whole city that had 
been engulfed. 

The rest of the book seems to lack 
any coherence whatsoever. One of 
the best known, and indeed dramatic, 
stories of the H-bomb development 

— the arguments and discussions lead¬ 
ing to the Oppenheimer hearings — 
is not even mentioned in Part Two, 
“The Hydrogen Bomb.” Perhaps Lau¬ 
rence was afraid that he would be 
damned no matter what he said on 
that subject. 

People in science 

Part Three seems little more than 
a collection of essays — on people 
from the Curies to Einstein — which, 
although occasionally of interest, don’t 
seem to be tied into the book at all. 

Part Four, “Looking Forward,” also 
reads like excerpts from various news¬ 
paper stories on the future of atomic 
energy, rather than the kind of well- 
organized material one expects to find 
in a book. 

At this point the reviewer broke 
down and did not read Part Five, 
“Atomic Primer”—24 pages on the atom 
according to William L. Laurence. 

Robert F. Christy, professor of theo¬ 
retical physics at Caltech, worked on the 
atomic energy program at the Los 
Alamos Scientific Laboratory from 1943 
through 1946. 

Edison offers challenge...and the chance to grow 

with one of the fastest-growing electric utilities in the U.S. 

If you’re a civil, mechanical or electrical engineer, we at 
Edison would like to talk to you. 

We’d like to show you how the Southern California 
Edison Company—to keep pace with the electrical needs of 
one of the fastest growing areas in the U.S.—has embarked 
upon the most progressive research and development pro¬ 
gram in its history. A sample of that development: the 
Pacific Coast’s first experimental atomic generating plant. 

And we’d like to explain the part that you can play in 
this expansion, both in the growth of Southern California, 
and in the Edison Company itself. Your job would be 

challenging — your prospects unlimited. 

Attractive working conditions, opportunity for advance¬ 
ment, liberal employee benefits (including medical and 
sick leave, insurance plan, vacation and retirement) — 
all these add up to an interesting and rewarding career 
with Edison. 

For full details, write or call: 

Mr. C. T. Malloy 

Southern California Edison Company 
P.O. Box 351—MAdison 4-7111 
Los Angeles 53, California 




Engineering and Science 

Hypothetical Model 

1 Nuclear Reactor 

2 Propellant 

3 Turbo-Generator 

4 Radiator 

5 Crew Cabin for 8 

6 Landing Craft 
Length: 600 feet 

Gross Weight: 350,000 lbs. 
Power; 12,600 KW 
Thrust: 58 lbs. 


NASA’s space efforts are directed toward two specific ob¬ 
jectives. First, to make it possible for man to achieve the 
same mastery over space he has already secured in every 
other region he has attempted to make his own ... on the 
surface of the earth, under it, or in the air above it. 

Second, to free man from one additional element of intel¬ 
lectual bondage—that is, to gain for all mankind additional 
knowledge about the cosmos. 

To accomplish these objectives NASA’s broadly conceived 
programs encompass intensive work in the following areas: 

Scientific investigations in space by means of sounding 
rockets, scientific satellites, lunar probes, deep space 

Research and development of spacecraft, missiles and 

Meteorological and communications satellite systems. 

Space operations technology — Project Mercury and 
space rendezvous techniques. 

Space propulsion research, including solid propellant 
rockets, high energy propellant rockets, l 1 / 2 -million-pound- 
thrust single-chamber rocket engine, nuclear and electric 
rocket engines. 

Orbiting space laboratories. 

and Engineers: 

Career opportunities for graduates at 
NASA are as unlimited as the scope of 
our organization. 

Please address your inquiry to the 
Personnel Director of any of the 
following NASA research centers: 

• Langley Research Center 
Hampton, Virginia 

• Ames Research Center 
Mountain View, California 

• Lewis Research Center 
Cleveland, Ohio 

• High-Speed Flight Station 
Edwards, California 

• Goddard Space Flight Center 
4555 Overlook Avenue, S.W. 
Washington 25, D. C. 


National Aeronautics and Space Administration 


November 1959 



As an engineering, mathematics or physics 
major, you will soon be called upon to make 
one of the most important decisions of your life: 
Choice of Association. 

In making that decision, we hope you will choose 
the aerospace industry and Convair/San Diego. But 
whatever your choice, the selection of association 
must be made with meticulous care and keen aware¬ 
ness of what that decision will mean, not only 
immediately, but in years to come. 

To arrive at such an important decision, you will 
need all the information available to you. That is 
why Convair/San Diego is suggesting that you care¬ 
fully read a new booklet prepared for the express 
purpose of helping you make this vital decision. 
Within the twenty-four pages of this brochure, you 
will find detailed information about Convair, the 
General Dynamics Corporation, and the work of 
each group within the Convair/San Diego engineer¬ 
ing Department. 

Whether or not you decide to discuss your career 
with us in more detail, we sincerely believe you will 
be better equipped to make your decision after 
reading this brochure. 

If your placement office does not have a copy, we 
will be pleased to mail you one. Simply write to 
Mr. M. C. Curtis, Industrial Relations Administra¬ 
tor, Engineering, 


Engineering and Science 

Westinghouse mathematicians Burnham Moffat and Dr. Richard Durstme check on an electronic 
computer working out solutions to a heat transfer problem for the company’s Atomic Power Division. 

The Mathematics Department helps you to use 
high-speed computers to solve your problem 

The Mathematics Department helps Westinghouse 
engineers take advantage of modern methods of mathe¬ 
matics and new developments in this field. If new tech¬ 
niques are needed to use a digital computer for solving 
an engineer’s problem, these men will develop them. 

This department, the second of its kind in American 
industry, is staffed by 15 Ph.D.’s, 3 M.S.’s, and 6 B.S. 
mathematicians. Among other accomplishments, it is 
credited with developing OPCON, an electronic brain 
for optimizing control of processing systems. OPCON 
won for Westinghouse the 1958 industrial Science 
Achievement Award of the A.A.A.S. 

Supporting the work of about 150 other mathemati¬ 
cians with operating divisions, the Mathematics Dept, 
is actively studying industrial logistics (called OR or 
Operations Research by some), fatigue of metals (pio¬ 
neering work using statistical techniques), equipment 
and system design, and a variety of other challenging 

The young engineer at Westinghouse isn’t expected to 

November 1959 

know all of the answers. Our work is often too advanced 
for that. Each man’s work is backed up by specialists— 
like the men in this Mathematics Dept. Even tough 
problems are easier to solve with this kind of help. 

If you’ve ambition and real ability, you can have a 
rewarding career with Westinghouse. Our broad product 
line, decentralized operations, and diversified technical 
assistance provide hundreds of challenging opportuni¬ 
ties for talented engineers. 

Want more information? Write to Mr. L. H. Noggle, 
Westinghouse Educational Dept., Ardmore & Brinton 
Roads, Pittsburgh 21, Pa. 

you CAN BE SURE . ..IF IT& 




William Wlie well.. .on mind and matter 

.. these metaphysical discussions are not to he put in 
opposition to the study of facts: hut are to be stimulated, 
nourished and directed by a constant recourse to experi¬ 
ment and observation. The cultivation of ideas is to be 
conducted as having for its object the connexion of facts: 
never to be pursued as a mere exercise of the subtlety of 
the mind, striving to build up a world of its own, and 
neglecting that which exists about us. For although man 

may in this way please himself, and admire the creations 
of his own brain, be can never, by this course, bit upon 
tlie real scheme of nature. With his ideas unfolded by 
education, sharpened by controversy, rectified by meta¬ 
physics, he may understand the natural world, but he 
cannot invent it. At every step, he must try the value 
of the advances he has made in thought by applying his 
thoughts to things. 

— Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, 1847 


A nonprofit organization engaged in research on problems related to national security and the public interest 

Engineering and Science 

How gibberellin affects Thompson Seedless grapes. The grapes at the left got no gibberellin at all; the center 
ones were sprayed with 20 parts per million; those at the right with 50 ppm. 

Gibberellin — 

A New Plant Hormone 

by James A. Lockhart 

One of the knottiest problems of plant physiology 
has been to explain the peculiar growth of dwarf 
plants. At one time or another, plant physiologists 
have attempted to explain it in terms of every known 
growth factor and metabolic act — and always without 
success. What seemed to be needed was an entirely 
new and different plant growth hormone. As it turned 
out, this hormone had already been found. It was only 
necessary to recognize it. 

Growth of a corn plant may be reduced 80 percent 
by a defect in only one of the thousands of genes 
which control its heredity. Among these thousands of 
genes there are several dozen which must function 
properly for corn (or other plants) to attain normal 
size. A malfunction of any one of these genes results 
in a dwarf plant. The mature, dwarf corn plant may 
be only a foot high, with almost no stem, short, wide 
leaves, and an ear three to four inches long with only 
half a dozen kernels on it. This is certainly not a desir¬ 
able or useful plant, but for many years plant physi¬ 
ologists have been at a loss to explain the cause of 
this dwarf growth. 

We know that, as a general rule, each gene is re¬ 
sponsible for forming one kind of enzyme. Each 

November 1959 

enzyme, in turn, is required for one step in the path¬ 
way of synthesis of one of the many chemical com¬ 
pounds necessary for normal metabolism and growth. 
Clearly, then, one or more chemical compounds are 
required — not for respiration, photosynthesis or organ 
formation, but simply to promote a normal increase 
in plant size. 

In some species of plants — for example, in many 
deciduous fruit trees — the seeds require a cold treat¬ 
ment consisting of several weeks of low temperature 
(40-50°F.) before normal germination will occur. It 
is possible to force these seeds to germinate without 
a cold treatment, but when this is done the seedlings 
grow as dwarfs, similar in many respects to dwarf 
corn. Roots develop normally, leaves grow, but almost 
no stem elongation occurs and the plant appears as a 
rosette. As soon as these dwarf tree seedlings are 
given a cold treatment, stem growth begins and a 
normal plant results. This is a “physiological” dwarf — 
a plant which remains dwarfed until a certain tem¬ 
perature requirement is fulfilled. Here again, though, 
plant physiologists had no idea what the cold treat¬ 
ment supplied to the plant. 

Another example of growth restriction and control 


is related to flowering in many long-day and biennial 
plants. In early spring or fall, when the days are short, 
long-day plants grow as rosettes. They form many 
leaves, but they have no stems and do not flower. Dur¬ 
ing May and June, when day length is longest, these 
plants send up stems or flower stalks which bear 
flowers and fruits. Biennial plants generally grow in 
a similar fashion, but they form flowering stalks only 
after exposure to several weeks of cold weather. In 
some plants, day length may instead control vegeta¬ 
tive stem growth. Many bushes and trees become 
dormant in the fall because of the shortening day 
length. They will resume growth only when the day 
length again becomes long in the spring. 

Light may also inhibit stem growth. When seeds, 
tubers and bulbs germinate in complete darkness, the 
stem grows extremely rapidly and soon becomes very 
long and thin. Everyone has seen examples of this, 
as when potatoes or onions sprout in a closet or cup¬ 
board. In these dark places, stems become extremely 
long and spindly — while if these same plants were 
grown in sunlight, the stems would be short and 
stocky. Light is, of course, necessary for photosyn¬ 
thesis, and plants growing in darkness die when they 
exhaust the reserve food stored in the seed or tuber. 
In the meantime, however, they grow very rapidly. 
Some growth factor — probably a hormone — seemed 
to be involved here, too, but workers were unable 
then to gain an insight into the nature of this hormone. 

Again and again, simple environmental factors exert 
an astonishing control over the type and extent of 
plant growth. The question plant physiologists ask is: 
How does the plant convert an environmental stim¬ 
ulus into a growth response? 

Foolish seedling 

While plant physiologists throughout the world 
were puzzling over these problems involving stem 
growth, a number of plant pathologists and biochem¬ 
ists in Japan were struggling with what appeared to 
be a completely unrelated problem. This was the 
“Bakanae” disease of rice. “Bakanae” means foolish 
seedling, so called because rice seedlings infected with 
this disease grow much faster and taller than normal 
plants. The seriousness of the disease lies in the fact 
that many seedlings die before forming grain, while 
the rest give very low yields. 

It was only after a great deal of difficulty that K. 
Sawada and his student, E. Kurosawa, working at the 
Taiwan (Formosa) Agricultural Experiment Station 
in 1924, were able to demonstrate that the disease was 
caused by a fungus, Gibberella fujikuri. Soon after, in 
1926, Kurosawa reported that the disease symptoms 
could be produced equally well by a culture solution 
in which the fungus had previously grown. Thus, the 
active principle causing overgrowth of rice had been 
extracted from the fungus. 

Kurosawa, as well as a group from Hokkaido Uni¬ 

versity, soon demonstrated that the active principle 
was a small organic molecule. A group of chemists 
from the University of Tokyo, headed by Professor 
Yabuta, immediately took up the problem of purify¬ 
ing and identifying the active chemical. This proved 
to be a long and arduous task. Since much larger 
quantities of material were needed for purification, 
the Tokyo group had to work out a quantitative bio¬ 
assay, then establish cultural conditions for maximum 
yields from the fungus, and solve other technical 

Isolation of gibberellin 

Chief among these problems was the fact that the 
fungus also produced a potent plant growth inhibitor. 
In fact, the disease caused by Gibberella is sometimes 
characterized by growth inhibition rather than by 
overgrowth, a fact which created considerable con¬ 
fusion when Sawada and Kurosawa were trying to 
identify the organism which caused the disease. By 
1934, Yabuta’s group had identified the inhibitor and 
named it fusaric acid (5-n-butylpicolinic acid). They 
systematically developed a procedure for isolating 
the growth-promoting substance which is used, with 
only minor modifications, throughout the world today. 
In 1938, Yabuta and Sumiki announced the isolation 
of two crystalline, biologically active materials which 
they named gibberellins A and B. 

Today, we know of five different gibberellins, dif¬ 
fering only slightly, chemically and biologically. The 
structure of gibberellin A 3 , the one most studied so 
far, is illustrated below. In general, the other gib¬ 
berellins differ from gibberellin A 3 only in having 
different numbers of double-bonds. Two of them 
(gibberellins Ai and A 5 ) have so far been isolated 
from higher plants. 

Anyone familiar with the principles of organic 
chemistry will recognize that gibberellin A 3 has eight 
asymmetric carbon atoms. This means that an ordin¬ 
ary organic synthesis of this compound will yield 
256 different compounds with the same basic struc- 

Tentative structure proposed for gibberellin A :; 
worked out by Professor Sumiki and his group at the 
University of Tokyo, and also by organic chemists at 
Imperial Chemical Industries in Qreaf Britain. 

Engineering and Science 


ture, only one of which will be the same as the natural 
compound. No one knows yet how many of these 
compounds wall have biological activity. But judging 
from previous experience with isomers of this kind, 
it may be expected that only a few will have the 
expected activity. Thus, gibberellin will be produced 
commercially by the fungus for a long time to come. 
However, synthesis and separation of the isomers 
might yield compounds with new and interesting 

CAhherellin in the West 

When the first gibberellins were isolated, the quan¬ 
tities available to Japanese plant physiologists were 
very small, and tests of the effects of gibberellin on 
higher plants were limited. Gibberellins were ob¬ 
served to have marked growth-promoting effects on 
many higher plants, but no real hint of their subse¬ 
quent importance was found. Due partly to the lim¬ 
ited number of scientists in Europe and America who 
read Japanese, and partly to the wartime interruption 
of the normal flow of scientific literature, relatively 
little was known about gibberellin in the West until 
about 1950. 

Investigations by plant pathologists in both the 
U.S. and Great Britain started at that time. However, 
physiologists in the West only became interested in 
gibberellin with the publication of a paper in 1955 
by a group from Imperial Chemical Industries in 
Great Britain, headed by the plant pathologist, Dr. 
P. W. Brian. This work demonstrated that growth 
rate of dwarf pea plants w»as increased 5-6 times by 
gibberellin treatment, while gibberellin treatment of 
tall (non-dwarf) peas had relatively little effect. Here, 
then, published in one of the world’s outstanding 
plant physiology journals (Phtjsiolngia Plantarum, 
journal of the Scandinavian Society of Plant Physi¬ 
ology ) was a striking indication that this new growth- 
promoting substance was, in fact, of direct natural 
significance for higher plants. It appeared to be able 
to change the growth habit of peas from dwarf to 

Immediately, Professor B. O. Phiimey, at UCLA, 
who had been working for several years on the prob¬ 
lem of dwarf mutants, began investigations on the 
physiological significance of gibberellin which were 
to prove conclusively that gibberellin would com¬ 
pletely and quantitatively restore a genetic dwarf to a 
normal plant. Phinney had inbred a large number of 
single-gene dwarf mutants of corn until he had gene¬ 
tic lines identical except for the single gene for dwarf¬ 
ness. Now he treated the dwarf plants periodically 
with gibberellin, and his highest hopes were realized. 
With proper gibberellin treatment, dwarf plants could 
not be distinguished from normal ones. 

Gibberellin, then, could completely overcome the 
dwarf character and restore plants to normal growth. 
Genetically identical normal plants provided a quan- 

Carrots must he grown in low temperatures before 

they will flower. The rosette plant at the left has not 
been exposed to low temperatures; the flowering plant 
at the right has. The center plant was simply treated 
with gibberellin, which completely replaces low tem¬ 
perature in the carrot. 

titative measure of what the normal should look like. 
Thus, gibberellin application completely replaced the 
factor present in normal plants, but lacking in dwarfs, 
which was responsible for dwarf growth. 

Flotuering biennials 

And now the rush was on. One of the major con¬ 
tributors to recent research in the field has been 
Anton Lang, who came to Caltech this fall from 
UCLA, as professor of biology. Professor Lang had 
long been interested in the problem of flowering in 
biennial plants; he had, in fact, published his first 
paper on the subject as early as 1939. Since flowering 
of biennial and long-day plants is characterized by a 
rapid concurrent elongation of the stem, Lang de¬ 
cided to find out whether gibberellin would induce 
flowering of these plants without the usual cold (or 
long-day) treatment. Again success. 

In many species, the presently known gibberellins 
are fully as effective as the most favorable environ¬ 
ment, but further work has shown that gibberellin 
will not always — or not completely — replace the ef¬ 
fects of the long-day or cold requirement. Similarly 
Phinney found that gibberellin A 3 would correct the 

November 1959 


Corn plants showing the different effects of gibherel- 
lin on normal plants and. dwarf mutants. Gibberellin 
has little effect on normal plants (left), but the dwarf 
mutant on the right shows a complete conversion to 
normal as a result of the gibberellin. 

dwarf habit of only 5 of 11 genetic dwarfs of corn. 

While Lang and Phinney were doing this work, Dr. 
Lela Barton, at the Boyce Thompson Institute in 
New York, was examining the effect of gibberellin 
on physiological dwarfs — germinated seeds of apple 
which had not been given a cold treatment. She found 
that here, too, added gibberellin would completely 
replace the cold treatment and promote normal stem 
growth in these plants. It appears, then, that a natural 
gibberellin hormone must accumulate in those plants 
which require cold for normal development. 

At the same time Caltech investigations were show¬ 
ing that gibberellin affected light inhibition of stem 
growth. It was easy to show that pea seedlings grown 
in light and treated with gibberellin would grow just 
as tall as if they had been grown in complete dark¬ 
ness. Adding gibberellin to dark-grown plants had no 
effect on growth. These results suggested, that light 
was destroying some naturally-occurring gibberellin 
in the plant. 

Gibberellin is indeed a natural hormone of higher 
plants. As soon as plant physiologists knew what to 
look for, it was relatively easy to find gibberellins in 
higher plants, This was first repotted by Dr. Margaret 
Radley, working with Brian at Imperial Chemical In¬ 

dustries, and, soon after, Phinney and his students 
reported the extraction of substances with gibberellin 
activity from some 23 species of higher plants. Earlier 
workers had extracted gibberellin from higher plants 
occasionally, but it was not recognized at the time 
that these active extracts contained activity different 
from the known growth hormone — auxin. 

Chemically, gibberellin and auxin are quite dif¬ 
ferent, and yet they are both organic acids of rela¬ 
tively small molecular weight with generally similar 
solubilities. Thus, the crude purifications usually used 
in biological studies would not separate the two hor¬ 
mones. Some of their biological properties are also 
similar. Work in Caltech’s Division of Biology showed 
that gibberellin, like auxin, is produced in the stem 
tip and they both move down the stem to the grow¬ 
ing region. Furthermore, gibberellin, like auxin, acts 
primarily on the cell wall, increasing the plasticity 
of the cell wall and in this way permitting greater 
stem elongation. How'ever, it is very easy to distin¬ 
guish the two known plant growth hormones, auxin 
and gibberellin, by their various physiological activi¬ 

Auxin Gibberellin 

Site of production 



Primary activity 

cell wall 

cell wall 

Cure dwarfism 



Reverse light inhibition 



Replace vernalization 



Promote flowering of long-day plants 



Prevent abscission of leaves 



Maintain apical dominance 



High concentrations inhibitory 

4 - 


Cause curvatures, e.g., in Avena 



fn the past, plant physiologists attempted to explain 

dwarf growth and many other physiological responses 
in terms of the action of auxin. Correlations were 

Bean plants are fast growers, hut gibhtrrllin will 
markedly stimulate growth even in these plants. The 
one at the left is untreated; the rest have received 
varying amounts of gibberellin up to 1/300,000 



Engineering and Science 

often found between auxin and growth responses, but 
few causal relations could be demonstrated. It is now- 
clear that both gibberellin and auxin must be present 
for normal stern growth. Auxin, due to the unique 
transport system by which it moves through the plant, 
is utilized for tropic responses, i.e., bending of the 
stem toward light ( phototropism) and bending away 
from — or toward — the force of gravity (geotropism). 
Gibberellin, on the other hand, appears to be used 
for control of many of the development processes 
which take place in plants, as described here. 

Here, in the last four years, is one of the most excit¬ 
ing chapters in the history of plant physiology, com¬ 
parable only to the years immediately following the 
discovery of the first plant growth hormone — auxin — 
by Dr. Frits Went in 1928. Thus, a major step has 
been taken in the understanding of not one, but sev¬ 
eral, of the major subjects of plant physiology re¬ 
search in a single flurry of discovery. For the first 
time, we have the beginning of an insight into the 
general nature of the hormonal control of develop¬ 
mental processes in plants. 

Frenzied activity 

Since these basic physiological discoveries were re¬ 
ported, literally hundreds of agricultural workers have 
sprayed, poured, dipped and dusted gibberellin on 
thousands and thousands of plants. One of the reasons 
that gibberellin is so popular is that almost any plant 
will show a marked response to gibberellin treat¬ 
ment. Furthermore, it is nearly impossible to injure 
most species, no matter how much is applied. Thus, 
experiments with gibberellin are almost always a 
“success,” and no one knows how many thousands of 
plants have been measured, weighed, cut up, and 
each individual part measured and weighed again. 
It is, of course, always possible that something of 
interest or practical use will come of this frenzied 

Naturally, many other excellent plant physiologists, 
horticulturists, and other plant investigators through¬ 
out the world are contributing greatly to our under¬ 
standing of the gibberellins. In this, as in most other 
work which develops completely new insights into 
wide fields of research, no one person can be singled 
out as being the discoverer. The efforts of many 
workers — those mentioned here and many others as 
well — made possible the understanding that has been 
achieved in this new field. 

What of the practical uses of this great discovery? 
Mostly, they are yet to come. Some of the largest 
chemical companies in many countries — especially 
those with experience in the fermentation processes 
necessary to grow the gibberellin-producing fungus — 
have initiated programs to study production and uses 
of gibberellin. And it was, of course. Imperial Chem¬ 
ical Industries in Great Britain which was responsible 
for the breakthrough which started this flood of 
knowledge and understanding. But, in spite of some 

Chronological History of the Discovery 
of the Gibberellins 

1924 Kurosawa and Sawada demonstrated that the fun¬ 
gus Gibberella Fujikuri was the casual agent of 
“Bakanae” disease of rice. 

1926 Kurosawa showed that the active principle caus¬ 
ing disease symptoms could be extracted from 
the fungus. 

1934 Yabuta and his group identified fusaric acid, a 
growth inhibitor also produced by fungus. 

1938 Yabuta and Sumjki crystallized two biologically 
active materials and named them gibberellin 
A and B. 

1950 Work on isolation of gibberellin begun at IJ.S 
Department of Agriculture and imperial Chem¬ 
ical industries. 

1955 Publication of paper by Brian and Hemming on 

the effects of gibberellin on dwarf peas. 

1956 Phinney reported complete reversal of dwarf 

habit in single-gene mutants of com by gib¬ 

1956 Lockhart reported reversal of light inhibition ol 
stem growth by gibberellin. 

1956 Lang reported induction of flowering in biennial 
plant without a cold treatment by gibberellin, 

1956 Barton reported reversal of dwarf growth habit 
of non-cold-treated seeds by gibberellin. 

1956 Radley reported extraction of gibberellin-like com¬ 
pounds from pea seedlings. 

1956 1 ,ona reported induction of vegetative growth in 

a tree on short-days by gibberellin. 

of the most extensive applied research programs in 
the history of the agricultural chemicals industry, 
commercial applications of gibberellin to agriculture 
have so far been limited. One worries whether the 
failure to find immediate large-scale commercial uses 
of gibberellin may jeopardize further large-scale re¬ 
search in this field. 

One of the most successful applications so far in¬ 
volves spraying grapes, especially the Thompson 
Seedless variety. Gibberellin has been found to loosen 
the naturally tight bunches, and this actually results 
in larger fruit and bigger bunches. The next time you 
eat Thompson Seedless grapes, see if the individual 
fruit doesn’t look more elongate and less nearly spher¬ 
ical than it did two to three years ago. Tin's is a good 
indication that gibberellin helped to grow bigger 
grapes. (Since gibberellin is a natural product found, 
probably, in all plant products, it certainly cannot 
injure people at the levels used.) 

This use on grapes, however, is of only minor im¬ 
portance compared to what has been visualized by 
many people for the future. It was 10 or 15 years 
before the discovery of auxin led to the commercial 
weed-killers of today, but now the agricultural chem¬ 
ical industry which grew from this discovery amounts 
to many millions of dollars a year. It may well be that 
in another 10 years an equally unexpected but revolu¬ 
tionary use for gibberellin will be helping agriculture 
to new highs of productivity. 

November 1959 


Caltech’s new high temperature x-ray spectrometer analyzes the atomic structure of space-age metals. Pol Duwez, 
professor of mechanical engineering (left), and graduate student Ronald Willetts, designed it. CES built it. 

Big Business on Campus 

Scientific research calls for a steady flow of original and 
intricate equipment — most of which must be newly cre- 
ted. In fact, Caltech has had to create a separate unit to 
keep the Institute’s countless research projects supplied 
with this necessary equipment. This unique organization, 
Central Engineering Services, was originally formed to de¬ 
sign and build Palomar s 200-inch telescope in the early 
thirties. Today, it has grown into a $1.75,000-a-year busi¬ 
ness. Some of the equipment it makes is so effective that 
other universities and research institutes ask for duplicates. 
On these pages, a sampling of some of the original instru¬ 
ments designed and built in Central Engineering Services. 

Engineering and Science 

Bruce Rule (center), di¬ 
rector of Central 
Engineering Services, and 
co-workers gingerly 
handle a block of fragile 
crystal. This will 
eventually be a part of 
a Cerenkov counter 
which detects high energy 

John Teem, senior research fellow in physics, and research assistant Joe Mullins 
operate a new bubble chamber which receives x-ray pulses from the Caltech 
synchrotron and photographs the tracks of pi and k mesons. 

November 1959 


An astronomer uses the 

Fred Birri, superintend¬ 
ent: Frank Tennant, 
precision machinist; and, 
Robert Harrington, engi¬ 
neer-designer, examine a 
new CES instrument. 

This is a dual viscometer, 
which measures the 
viscosity of liquids used 
in basic studies of 

blink comparator, a view¬ 
ing device which allows 
comparison of an old 
and a new picture of 
one astronomical field. 
This is how supernovae 
and other astronomical 
phenomena are found. 

Thomas Shortridge, 
precision machinist, 
shapes a piece of Incite for 
use as an x-ray beam 
catcher for the 


Engineering and Science 

At Caltech’s new radio astronomy installation in Bishop, California, giant reflectors 
receive radio signals from space. All control apparatus, tracking equipment, timing 
mechanisms and differential drives for the project were built by Central Engineering Services. 

Original specifications were set up by John G. Bolton, professor of radio astronomy; 

and Bruce Rule, chief engineer of the radio astronomy project. 

November 1959 23 

The spiral galaxy, NGC 4725, photographed by the 100-inch telescope at Mt. Wilson. The picture on the left 
shows the galaxy before the supernova explosion. At right the arrow indicates the supernova. 

Search for Supernovae 

by Fritz Zwicky 

Supernovae are cosmic explosions which, at maxi- important ones were discovered by a collaborator in 

mum brightness, radiate away as much energy every my group. Dr. M. L. Hu mas on (who retired in June 

day (in the form of light and corpuscular radiation) 1957 as a staff member of the Mount Wilson and 

as the sun does in a hundred million years. Palomar Observatories). 

Studies of these phenomena may be of great irn- Existence of the supernova phenomenon was first 

port a nee for views on the evolution of stars and clearly proved from observations at the Palomar 

stellar systems, the nature of neutron stars, and the Observatory in 1937, with the aid of the IB-inch 

origin of cosmic rays. Also, there is the possibility Schmidt telescope. With this instrument, specifically 

that data on supernovae may be used to calibrate built for the supernova search. Dr. J. J. Johnson 

distances to the very periphery of the visible universe. (then research fellow in astrophysics) and I. diseov- 

The original supernova search began at Caltech ered 19 supernovae in the period from September 

in 1933 and continued until 1942, when the war— 193(5 to January 1942. This investigation showed that, 

and the work load — forced its abandonment. In 195G on the average, one supernova flares up in a normal 

it was decided to renew the search for supernovae galaxy about once in 360 years. 

through the cooperative effort of several observa- It was also found, from the analysis of the light 

tories. such as Palomar Lick, and Steward in this curves and of the spectra, that there are several types 

country, and Berne in Switzerland. This international of supernovae. The two most prominent are desig- 

enterprise. of which I am director, is largely financed nated as types I and II. 

by funds from the National Science Foundation and Perhaps the most important result to come from 

from the Swiss National Science Fund. this study was the conclusion, drawn first in 1937 

From this combined effort, a dozen supernovae (long before the H-bomb experiments) that the su- 

have been found in the last few years. (Only about pernova phenomenon is caused by a stupendous 

60 have been recorded in history.) Twm of the most nuclear fusion chain reaction. 

Engineering and. Science 


Data on super novae may be used 
to calibrate distances 
to the very periphery of the visible universe 

Type I supemovae are the brightest known so far. 
Their spectra, which consist of ill-defined bands, have 
completely defied interpretation in spite of con¬ 
certed efforts by the world’s best spectroscopists. 
This failure to understand the origin of even one 
single feature in the spectrum of the brightest super¬ 
novae is one of the reasons the search for supemovae 
was resumed a few years ago. 

In some cases the decline in luminosity (as seen in 
blue light only) of type I supernovae is approximately 
exponential for periods of several hundred days, 
starting from 50 to 100 days after maximum. This 
means that the photographic magnitude increases 
linearly with time. 

During the past few years, some observers have 
published data indicating that the photographic 
brightness of supernovae of type I, regardless of 
absolute brightness, declines by one magnitude every 
52 days. This supposition induced a number of in¬ 
vestigators to propose that the light curves of super¬ 
novae of type 1 can be explained by assuming that 
the decay of some radioactive isotope (Californium 
254, for instance) is responsible for the emission of 
light by the gas clouds expelled by the supernova. 
This theory has proved to be incorrect because the 
decay rates of supernovae of type I, found so far, are 
not all the same; they lie in the range from 28 to 52 

From our extended search with the 18-inch Schmidt 
telescope on Palomar Mountain, between 1936 and 
1941, it was found that supernovae of type II are 
intrinsically fainter than those of type I. In contra¬ 
distinction to the spectra of those of type I, the 
spectra of type II supernovae seem to show con¬ 
siderable similarity with the spectra of some of the 
common novae. In fact. Dr. R. L. Minkowski (staff 
member of the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observa¬ 
tories) obtained strong evidence, from the widths of 
the emission lines of hydrogen, that gas clouds are 
being ejected with velocities between 5000 and 7000 

Two new supernovae 

The first of the two important new supemovae dis¬ 
covered by Dr. Humason last June appeared next to 
a spiral arm, and slightly within an absorbing lane, 
of the giant spiral galaxy, NGC 7331. This object is 
probably the brightest supemovae of type II ever 

found. Its apparent magnitude was 4-12.5 and its 
absolute photographic magnitude was estimated as 
about “17 (or about 600 millions times brighter than 
the sun). 

Fortunately, Dr. J. L. Greensteim (Caltech pro¬ 
fessor of astrophysics and staff member of the Mount 
Wilson and Palomar Observatories) and Dr. Minkow¬ 
ski were at hand to repeatedly photograph the spec¬ 
trum of this explosion. As a result of their efforts, it 
was clearly established that the spectrum is actually 
similar to that of some common novae — as Min¬ 
kowski’s spectra had indicated 20 years ago. The gas 
clouds, which are ejected at a velocity of about 6000 
km/sec instead of only 1000 km/sec —as in common 
novae — seem to be of unexpectedly large mass. 

Contrary evidence 

Also, not only were the emission lines of the 
Balmer series of hydrogen photographed, but emis¬ 
sion lines of other elements such as helium and 
highly ionized carbon could be identified as well. 
There is no indication, however, that heavier ele¬ 
ments were ejected in any great abundance, which is 
clearly contrary to the idea advocated by Professor 
Fred Hoyle (now visiting professor of astronomy at 
Caltech, from Cambridge University) and others, that 
supernovae populate interstellar space with the 
heavier elements. 

The second bright supernova discovered by Dr. 
Humason made its appearance in an open barred 
spiral galaxy which may be a member of the large 
Virgo cluster of galaxies. This supernova was of type 
I and, spectacularly enough, at maximum it was 
several times as bright as the entire galaxy of stars 
in which it occurred. Its apparent photographic mag¬ 
nitude at maximum was about 4-13.5. 

The two newly discovered supernovae have tem¬ 
porarily disappeared from sight. Early in 1960, when 
the respective constellations come into reach of our 
telescopes again, we hope to be able to photograph 
them at later stages of their development. Then we 
may be able to determine the physical characteristics 
of the tail ends of their light curves by photographing 
them in several colors, This should enable us to estab¬ 
lish the necessary data for the use of supernovae as 
distance indicators to the most remote parts of the 
universe which can be reached with present telescopic 

November 1959 


Research in Progress 

Earthquakes to Order 

Because nature only comes up with the genuine 
article at rare intervals, Caltech engineers have now 
designed a machine that will manufacture earth¬ 
quakes on demand. When it Ls placed in a building, 
this instrument can shake and crack the structure 
with all the violence of a natural quake. And by 
cracking some real buildings under controlled condi¬ 
tions, the Caltech engineers hope to produce infor¬ 
mation that will lead to practical, economical designs 
for buildings, dams and bridges that can withstand 
earthquakes without damage. 

Because of the wide demand for this information 
in countries where earthquakes are prevalent, scient¬ 
ists from Japan, India, Argentina and Chile are co¬ 
operating on this research in the Caltech earthquake 
engineering laboratories. The work is under the direc¬ 
tion of George W. Housner, professor of civil engi¬ 
neering and applied mechanics; and Donald E. Hud¬ 
son, professor of mechanical engineering. The project 
is sponsored by the Earthquake Engineering Research 
Institute, a nationwide non-profit agency composed 
of engineers and scientists and headed by Dr. Hous¬ 
ner, under a contract with the California State De¬ 
partment of Architecture. 

Thomas K. Caughey, associate professor of applied 
mechanics , and the new earthquake-making machine. 

The CSDA's chief concern is with public school 
buildings. Many school buildings in California do not 
conform to earthquake codes, though they are still in 
use because school building programs haven’t caught 
up with the population growth. 

The shake-making machine is small compared with 
the formidable quake it can produce. It is compact 
enough to carry through doorways — with help. It 
weighs about 500 pounds, including its 114-horse¬ 
power motor. The shaking is produced by a pair of 
20-inch swing boxes that counter-rotate unbalanced 
amounts of lead weights horizontally. Up to 400 
pounds of the weights can be packed into each box. 
The boxes swing between heavy triangular steel 
plates, 46 inches long by 26 inches on the shorter two 
sides. The 15-inch-high assembly is bolted to the floor. 

Varying the quakes 

The ability to vary the weights in the boxes and to 
regulate the speed of the rotations between four and 
five hundred revolutions per minute makes it possible 
to produce quakes of varying magnitudes. The direc¬ 
tion of the shaking is also controlled. The machines 
can be used singly or in teams on each floor of a 
building to produce motions in various phase rela¬ 

Present plans call for constructing four of the ma¬ 
chines, which w'ere designed by Dino Morelli, asso¬ 
ciate professor of mechanical engineering. Thomas 
K. Caughey, associate professor of applied mechanics, 
devised the electrical design. 

Drs. Hudson and Housner are now looking for a 
building in which to give the device a shakedown 
test. The ideal situation for testing the machine and 
for producing earthquake engineering data would 
be the erection of a test building about 20 feet square 
and 40 to 50 feet high. Such a structure would require 
only a steel framework and floor slabs. 

Additional work is planned on other buildings, 
such as commercial structures or warehouses sched¬ 
uled to be tom down on freeway clearance projects. 

With data produced by the vibrator, and by some 
100 small seismographs that are being installed in 
Los Angeles and San Francisco, Drs. Hudson and 
Housner hope to develop quake-resistant designs for 
structures, and to help produce sound building codes 
in areas subject to earthquakes. 


Engineering and Science 

Caltech on the Air 

Caltech’s 1959-60 series of radio programs, “Atomic 
Age Answers,” can now be heard on Wednesdays 
from 7:05 to 7:30 pan. on KFI, Los Angeles. Programs 
coming up include: 

November 18— 

“The San Andreas Fault and What a Geologist Does.” 
Clarence Allen, associate professor of geology. 

November 25— 

“Techniques Involved in Modern Geology. Methods of 
Determining the Age of Rocks.” 

Charles McKinney, senior research fellow in geology. 
December 2— 

"Neuron Pathways of the Brain. Brain Mechanisms.’' 
Roger Sperry, professor of biology. 

December 9— 

“The New ONR Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator at 

Ward Whaling, associate professor of physics. 

December 16— 

“An Astronomer at Work.” 

Halton C. Arp, staff member of Mt. Wilson and Palomar 

December 23— 


George Beadle, chairman of the Division of Biological 

December 30— 

“The Many Facets of Chemical Engineering.” 

George Neal Richter, assistant professor of chemical 

January 6— 

“Disappearing Boundaries Between the Basic Sciences.” 
Norman Davidson, professor of chemistry. 

Ford Foundation Grant 

Caltech has . received a grant of $3,200,000 from the 
Ford Foundation for the advancement of engineering 
education. The grant was part of $19,050,000 which 
will go to 10 educational institutions in the Founda¬ 
tion’s new program in support of science and engi¬ 

The grants have two objectives: to help promote 
excellence on engineering faculties, both by addi¬ 
tional training of present faculties and by recruiting 
and development of increased numbers of well trained 
engineering teachers; and to support promising plans 
for the development of imaginative educational pro¬ 
grams. The Caltech grant is to be used over a period 
of 10 to 15 years. 

Of the total amount, $800,000, together with the 
10-to-15-year income from it, will be used for salaries 
for four new senior professorships in engineering. 

Approximately $900,000, plus income, will be used 
for salaries or salary supplements for a minimum of 
seven additional assistant and associate professor¬ 

Approximately $800,000, plus income, will provide 
salaries for senior positions for four or five key pro¬ 
fessors now on the engineering faculty. 

Approximately $500,000, plus income, will be used 

The Month 
at Caltech 

November 1959 


The Month . . . continued 

to provide or construct equipment needed for fac¬ 
ulty or graduate research in engineering. 

An additional $100,000 is earmarked for use over a 
period of one to three years, for fellowships and 
loans to graduate students: $75,000 is allocated to 
provide travel and study opportunities for faculty 
members at the Institute; and $25,000 will cover 
costs of faculty members from sister institutions who 
come to Caltech to study. 

Honors and Aivards 

Norman H. Brooks, associate professor of civil 
engineering, has won two 1959 awards of the Amer¬ 
ican Society of Civil Engineers for his paper on 
‘Mechanics of Streams with Movable Beds of Fine 
Sand,” the J. C. Stevens Award and the Colling- 
wood Prize for Junior Members, each consisting of 
a cash award and a certificate. 

President DuBridge received the Arthur R. Ber¬ 
man Human Relations Award on October 19 at a 
ceremony in the Pasadena Jewish Temple and Center. 
The award is presented annually by the Pasadena 
Lodge of B’nai B’rith to a member of the community 
who, in public or private life, has made a significant 
contribution to the betterment of human relations 
in the community or in the nation. 

Renato Dulbecco, professor of biology, and Dr. 
Marguerite Vogt, senior research fellow in biology, 
have received the $1,000 Kimble Methodology Re¬ 
search Award for their technique that speeds up both 
research and control of virus diseases. The award is 
sponsored by the Kimble Glass Company, an Owens- 
Illinois subsidiary. The Dulbecco-Vogt technique 
uses animal tissue, instead of the entire animal, in 
virus research. 

Wesley L. Hershey, executive secretary of the Cal¬ 
tech YMCA, has been elected national president of 
the Student YMCA Secretaries Association. During 
his tliree-vear term, he will head a professional staff 
of more than 100,000 members. 

Lester Lees, professor of aeronautics, will receive 
a Fellow Membership in the American Rocket So¬ 
ciety at their 14th annual meeting in Washington, 
D.C., November 16-20. The award is given in recog¬ 
nition of his outstanding contributions to aeronautics 
and space technology. 

Milton Plesset, professor of applied mechanics; and 
Frank Press, director of the Caltech Seismological 
Laboratory, have been appointed by Governor Ed¬ 
mund G. Brown to the scientific advisory committee 
of California’s new office of Atomic Energy Develop¬ 
ment and Radiation Protection. 

Bruce H. Sage, professor of chemical engineering, 
will receive the 1959 William H. Walker Award of 
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers at the 
52nd annual meeting of the Institute in San Fran¬ 
cisco, December 6-9. The award has been made each 
year since 1936 to some of the nation’s outstanding 
chemical engineers for authorship of important 

Hallett D. Smith, chairman of the Humanities Divi¬ 
sion, has been appointed a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting 
Scholar for the 1959-60 academic year. The appoint¬ 
ment involves appearances for lectures and informal 
talks at eight colleges and universities that have 
chapters of the national scholarship fraternity. 

Undergraduate Chemical Engineering 

Caltech is offering an undergraduate program in 
chemical engineering for the first time this year. In 
the past, undergraduates interested in this field ma¬ 
jored in applied chemistry; chemical engineering 
courses were available only at the graduate level. 

This change has been made possible by several 
curriculum changes, including the introduction of 
rigorous quantitative analysis in the freshman year. 
Both chemistry and chemical engineering students 
now complete their basic organic chemistry by the 
end of the junior year, making it possible for them 
to include several chemical engineering courses in 
the junior and senior years. The new program is 
also facilitated by an increase in the professional 
staff and an expansion of laboratory facilities. 

Josef J. Johnson 

Josef J. Johnson, research associate in astrophysics 
at Caltech from 1935 to 1952, died of cerebral throm- 
hosis at his home in Pasadena on September 30. He 
had been retired from the Institute since 1952 be¬ 
cause of ill health. Dr. Johnson was a graduate of 
Caltech (BS ’30, PhD ’35) and received an MS 
from Ohio Wesleyan. His particular interests in astro¬ 
physics were the observation of solar eclipses, theories 
of the solar corona, and studies of. spiral nebulae. 

Paul Perigord 

Paul Perigord, who was professor of European his¬ 
tory at Caltech from 1919 to 1924, died on November 
4 at his home in Palisades, N. Y. Dr. Perigord was a 
graduate of the University of Toulouse and received 
his PhD from the University of Minnesota; In 1924 
he left Caltech to become professor of. French Civil¬ 
ization at UCLA. 

Engineering and Science 


Space Science Research Conference 

by Henry L. Richter, Jr. 

As a sign of the times, a new weekly seminar has 
been added to the list of regular academic activities. 
The establishment of the Space Science Research 
Conference is a direct result of the interest on the 
part of both faculty and students in this new and 
expensive research activity. It is also an indication 
of the ever-closer association between the Jet Pro¬ 
pulsion Laboratory and the Institute. As far as we 
know, this is the first organized seminar of its type 
at any American academic institution. 

Until the influence of the IGY programs, and with 
the exception of some upper atmosphere rocket re¬ 
search work, the bulk of American rocketry has been 
shielded from the public view by military secrecy. 
Even the contacts between the Caltech campus and 
JPL have been restricted in recent years by the mili¬ 
tary nature of much of the work at the Lab. But since 
JPL’s participation in the launching and instrument¬ 
ing of the Explorer satellites — and particularly since 
JPL was transferred to the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration — the work at the Lab has been 
approaching that of scientific and supporting research. 

It seems logical that, along with the Laboratory’s 
proven ability as a maker of rocket and satellite vehi¬ 
cles, many of the fundamental experiments in space 
research should be carried out by JPL personnel 
working in conjunction with scientists and engineers 
on the Caltech campus. A space science division has 
recently been formed at JPL, to work with interested 
persons on campus and elsewhere in the carrying out 
of space, planetary and lunar exploration. 

It seemed that one method of strengthening the 
contact between those at JPL and the campus would 
be the establishment of a regular weekly research 
conference in which both groups could participate 
and exchange ideas. A committee was appointed to 
plan and oversee the Space Science Research Con¬ 
ference, consisting of Albert R. Hibbs (Chairman) 
and Henry L. Richter, Jr., from JPL; and R. B. Leigh¬ 
ton and Harrison S. Brown, representing the campus. 

A series of lectures has been scheduled for the 

Caltech and JPL exchange ideas 
in a new field of research 

first ten meetings; these are aimed toward two goals. 
One is the dissemination and discussion of the results 
obtained from scientific experiments carried aboard 
spacecraft. The second is to expose people who have 
been sheltered from the limitations and constraints 
imposed on spaceborne instruments to the factors 
that must be considered when planning, designing 
or constructing instruments for space research; or 
when interpreting scientific data received from instru¬ 
ments carried in such vehicles. Every effort is going 
to be made to avoid describing our glorious plans for 
the future. 

The first seminar consisted of a discussion of 
the purposes of the Space Science Research Con¬ 
ference, and a summary of the scientific spacecraft 
launched to date, along with the instruments known 
to be aboard each. Subsequent and future seminars 
for the first quarter include: 

October 13 

Rolf Dyce 

Radiation Around 

Stanford University 

the Earth 

October 20 

Eberhardt Rechtin 

Space Communications 


October 27 

Harrison S. Brown 

Meteorites and Their 


Properties (I) 



Harrison S. Brown 

Meteorites and Their 
Properties (II) 



L.G. Jacchia 

Solar Radiation and the 

Smithsonian Astro- 

Atmospheric Drag of 

physical Observatory 

Artificial Satellites 



H. C. Urey 

Problems of Lunar 

University of Califor¬ 
nia, La Jolla 




H. C. Urey 

Some Chemical and 
Physical Properties 
of the Meteorites 



H. C. Urey 

Some Observations on 
the Origin of the 

Solar System 



G. Kuiper 

Yerkes Observatory 





Satellite Geodesy 



R. Richardson 

Griffith Observatory 


November 1959 


Student Life 


- The last chance to observe the old order? 

The opinions expressed in this article are those of 
the author; they are not an expression of editorial 
opinion by Engineering and Science. All complaints 
and comments should be addressed to the author 
c/o E & S — Ed. 

The atmosphere that has confined rivalry between 
the Houses in recent years to organized competi¬ 
tions, semi-subtle political machinations, and private 
conversations has also resulted in a lack of open 
criticism. Although everyone is eager to point up 
the separate identity of each House, few are willing 
to proceed to concrete descriptions. With three new 
Houses in the works, this may be the last chance to 
observe the old order. 

Life at Caltech centers about the four Student 
Houses. (The official “four Student Houses and 
Throop Club” is a diplomatic fiction that extends 
little beyond the structures of interhouse govern¬ 
ment. ) Sharing some of the characteristics of fra¬ 
ternities, dormitories, and eating clubs, the Houses 
share little else. Meals are served from a central 
kitchen, but each House has its own physical appear¬ 
ance, symbols, traditions, behaviors and attitudes. 

Though the Houses were established at Caltech 
in the early thirties, it was not until after World 
Wav II, and a period of general reorganization, that 
each House became interested in some particular 
element of its pre-war tradition and proceeded to 
develop this element into a full-fledged basic prin¬ 
ciple. Social evolution has carried things to the point 
where now the character of each House —. from cam¬ 
paign issues to off-campus behavior — is influenced 
bv a single fundamental concept. 


The least restrictive of House fundamentals is 
Blacker’s “individualism.” Its main purpose is to 
rule against any action even remotely akin, to social 
pressure. In this way, the individual is assured of 
expression, and the advantages thereof may be en¬ 
joyed by all. Unfortunately, the desire to be different 
often finds expression before one’s individuality has 

developed. As a result, Blacker is uniformly non¬ 
conformist, exerting a militant social pressure to 
stamp out all other social pressures. Instead of pro¬ 
ducing a greater concentration of creative persons, 
this environment is inclined to inhibit their appear¬ 
ance and growth. Thus, when a worthwhile person 
does turn up in Blacker, he must be a truly capable 
individual to have pushed his way through the con¬ 
fused clutter of common Blacker men. 

To the other Houses, Blacker represents a homo¬ 
geneous group of Nebbish-like creatures, all looking 
somewhat alike (usually barefoot and unshaven) 
and seldom doing anything of note. By design, 
Blacker is not a House. It is just a group of guys 
who happen to live together. 

Reform movements have never made significant 
gains in Blacker. Its leaders have always found 
enough “House spirit” to hold things together in 
spite of the conflict with basic doctrine. But many 
are the times when a little more unity would have 
been enough to put Blacker on top. And last year’s 
revolt and consequent banishment of Hell Alley 
may have shaken foundations sufficiently to cause 
an overall reappraisal. The other Houses will con¬ 
cede that Blacker has the greatest amount of un¬ 
tapped potential. So, if an internal policy change is 
in the offing, this may really be the year to “look 
out for Blacker.” 


For as long as any of them have been at Tech, 
members of the other Houses have been predicting 
the decline of Ricketts. As soon as the first trophy 
leaves, spectators begin to gather to witness the fall. 
But the mild skid is usually followed by an over¬ 
whelming comeback that sends the crowds reeling 
home to cry in their beer and ask, “How do they 
do it?” 

Two interconnected ideals enable Ricketts to at¬ 
tract bright and shiny young frosh to the Land of 
Millikan’s Pot. The first is the basic idea of the 
“Ricketts Rowdy.” The second is the guarded tra- 

continued on page 34 

Engineering and Science 


W.E. DEFENSE PROJECTS ENGINEERS are often faced with challenging assign¬ 
ments such os systems testing far the SAGE continental air defense network. 

ENGINEERS explore exciting frontiers 

at Western Electric 

If guided missiles, electronic switching systems and Western Electric Company, 195 Broadway, New 

telephones of the future sound like exciting fields York 7, N. Y. And sign up for a Western Electric 

to you, a career at Western Electric may be just interview when the Bell System Interviewing Team 
what you're after, visits your campus. 

Western Electric handles both telephone work 
and defense assignments.., and engineers are 
right in the thick of it. Defense projects include the 
Nike and Terrier guided missile systems ... 
advanced air, sea and land radar.. . the SAGE 
continental air defense system ... DEW Line and 
White Alice in the Arctic. These and other defense 
jobs offer wide-ranging opportunities for all kinds 
of engineers. 

In our main job as manufacturing and supply 
unit of the Bell System, Western Electric engineers 
discover an even wider range of opportunity. Here 
they flourish in such new and growing fields as 
electronic switching, microwave radio relay, min¬ 
iaturization. They engineer the installation of tele¬ 
phone central offices, plan the distribution of equip¬ 
ment and supplies. . . and enjoy, with their defense 
teammates, the rewards that spring from an engi¬ 
neering career with Western Electric. 

Western Electric technical fields include me¬ 
chanical, electrical, chemical, civil and industrial 
engineering, plus the physical sciences. For more 
detailed information pick up a copy of “Consider a 
Career at Western Electric” from your Placement 
Officer. Or write College Relations. Room 200D, 

Principal manufacturing locations at Chicago, III.; Kearny, N. J.; Baltimore. Md.; Indianapolis. Ind.; Allentown and Laureidale Pa.; 

Burlington, Greensboro and Winston-Salem, N. C.; Buffalo, N. Y.; North Andover. Mass.; Lincoln and Omaha Neb.; Kansas Ci y. Mo.; 

Columbus Ohio; Oklahoma City, Okta.; Teletype Corporation, Chicago, III. and Little Rock, Ark. Also Western Electric 

Distribution Centers in 32 cities and Installation headquarters in 16 cities. General headquarters; 195 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y. 

November 1959 

TELEPHONES OF THE FUTURE-Moking telephone products for the 
Beli System colls for first-rate technical know-how. Tomorrow's 
telephone system will demand even more imaginative engineering. 



and what they dc 

The field has never been broader 
The challenge has never been greater 

Engineers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft today are concerned 
with the development of all forms of flight propulsion 
systems—air breathing, rocket, nuclear and other advanced 
types for propulsion in space. Many of these systems are so 
entirely new in concept that their design and development, 
and allied research programs, require technical personnel 
not previously associated with the development of aircraft 
engines. Where the company was once primarily interested 
in graduates with degrees in mechanical and aeronautical 
engineering, it now also requires men with degrees in 
electrical, chemical, and nuclear engineering, and in physics, 
chemistry, and metallurgy. 

Included in a wide range of engineering activities open to 
technically trained graduates at all levels are these four 
basic fields: 

activity are concerned with fundamental investigations in 
the fields of science or engineering related to the conception 
of new products. They carry out detailed analyses of ad¬ 
vanced flight and space systems and interpret results in 
terms of practical design applications. They provide basic 
information which is essential in determining the types of 
systems that have development potential. 

DESIGN ENGINEERING The prime requisite here is an 
active interest in the application of aerodynamics, thermo¬ 
dynamics, stress analysis, and principles of machine design 
to the creation of new flight propulsion systems. Men en¬ 
gaged in this activity at P&WA establish the specific per¬ 
formance and structural requirements of the new product 
and design it as a complete working mechanism. 

and coordinate fabrication, assembly and laboratory testing 
of experimental apparatus, system components, and devel¬ 
opment engines. TTiey devise test rigs and laboratory setups, 
specify instrumentation and direct execution of the actual 
test programs. Responsibility in this phase of the develop¬ 
ment program also includes analysis of test data, reporting 
of results and recommendations for future effort. 

MATERIALS ENGINEERING Men active in this field 
at P&WA investigate metals, alloys and other materials 
under various environmental conditions to determine their 
usefulness as applied to advanced flight propulsion systems. 

They devise material testing methods and design special 
test equipment. They are also responsible for the determina¬ 
tion of new fabrication techniques and causes of failures or 
manufacturing difficulties. 

Frequent informal discussions among analytical 

engineers assure continuous exchange of ideas 
on related research projects. 

Under the close supervision of an engineer, 
final adjustments are made on a rig for 
testing an advanced liquid metal system. 


Automatic systems developed by instrumentation 
engineers allow rapid simultaneous recording 
of data from many information points. 

For further information regarding an engineer¬ 
ing career at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, consult 
your college placement officer or write to Mr. 
R. P. Azinger, Engineering Department, Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Connecticut. 


Division of United Aircraft Corporation 


Exhaustive testing of full-scale rocket engine thrust chambers is 
carried on at the Florida Research and Development Center, 

dition of “The House of Politicians.' These phrases 
embody two cherished aims of almost every new 
college student — and particularly of new Techmen. 

High school seniors enter college filled with visions 
of college pranks, gleaned from the reminiscences 
of parents and teachers, and the pages of the Satur¬ 
day Evening Post. And the lad who comes to Tech 
is especially ready to be Joe College after having had 
to be a good boy in high school. 

Then there is the political prospect. The new Tech- 
man was either president and/or chairman of every¬ 
thing in his school — or else he was little noticed 
outside of the Chess Club. Both types come to Tech 
with ideas of easy political conquests at a school 
where most people are too busy studying to run for 
anything. So much for science-fiction. 

The “rowdy” feeling is adaptable to many forms 
and varying degrees, and is therefore easy to live 
with. But the politics angle is a constant source of 
friction. A large portion of Ricketts House is thor¬ 
oughly uninterested in politics, and the constant 
emphasis on same leaves them cold. Defeated candi¬ 
dates make up another large portion of the House. 

Although less sharply defined now, the three social 
Strata of Ricketts House are just as important as 
when the)' formed a few years ago. The Outs are 
such a large minority that they take pride in their 
status and strive to remain “out of it” at all costs. 
The Ins, on the other hand, find it all the more nec¬ 
essary to be in things if they are to maintain any 
feeling of confidence in the face of the exuberant 
spirit displayed by the Outs. The third group, known 
as the Straw' Hat Set, consists of rebels dissatisfied 
with the cheap contrivances of the Ins, yet too proud 
to be “out of it.” So they go in for carefully chosen 



Engineering and Science 

activities in a most devoted manner, and remain out 
of things not up to their standards. The members of 
this group iro longer wear their straw hats, but their 
superior nature is still to be detected. 

Let no one say Ricketts is divided: outside com¬ 
petition is sufficient to keep the three groups united 
and strong. Rut if the other Houses could conceiv¬ 
ably ignore Ricketts for a time, the spectators would 
really be treated to a spectacle; Ricketts is not split 
— but the strain gages are being worked overtime. 


Members of Dabney have frequently seemed some¬ 
what aloof to the men in the other Houses. This L 
because Dabney men are often preoccupied with 
internal issues. Their most common controversy is the 
abstract principle that is Dabney’s tradition: Dab¬ 
ney is tlie House of Gentlemen.” 

The range of opinion on this type of ideal is ex¬ 
treme. The crux of the controversy is where to draw 
the line between acceptable social conduct and hav¬ 
ing a good time. Darbs don’t like to be labeled 
prudes, yet they are determined to display a degree 
of courtesy that is higher than the Caltech norm. 

The issue is further confused by a slight feeling of 
inferiority, brought on by the fact that Dabney is 
smaller than the other Houses by 20 to 25 members. 
Feeling an extra need to guarantee House unity, 
members try to maintain a greater than normal 
number of contacts within the House, and the usual 
group formation along lines of common interests is 
consequently diluted. 

This hyper-desire for unity is behind the effort to 

continued on page 38 



November 1959 

Basic Research at IBM 

IBM scientist Gerald Burns 
studies ferroelectrics 
to improve understanding 
of their basic properties. 

A basic research project 

"I'm using nuclear resonance to explore ferro¬ 
electrics,” says IBM scientist Gerald Burns, 
"We re trying to discover how the ions in a ferro¬ 
electric crystal are arranged, and why and how 
they change position and structure with tempera¬ 
ture changes. Ferroelectric crystals have a revers¬ 
ible spontaneous polarization . ., that is. they can 
be polarized in either of two directions, and, by 
the application of an electric field, polarization can 
be reversed.” 

How did Gerry Burns come to work on this prob¬ 
lem? "I started this particular research project be¬ 
cause it was related to other work I had been doing 
and I felt it would prove challenging and reward¬ 
ing. Little is known about what goes on in a ferro¬ 
electric crystal—or why. Our basic objectives are 
to find out what and why. 

"At the planning stage, the project seemed to offer 
a great research potential, but none of us was 
sure how long the project might last or what its 
ramifications might eventually be. It's a good ex¬ 
ample of the basic research done at IBM.” 

A day at the laboratory 

One of the eight scientists in the Ferroelectric Re¬ 
search Group, 26-year-old Gerald Burns began a 
recent day by setting up equipment for the first 
daily run. 

"The experiment is conceptually quite simple." he 
explained. "A ferroelectric crystal is placed in the 
tank circuit of an oscillator, between the pole 
pieces of a large electromagnet. The sample is sur¬ 
rounded by a dewar so that the temperature can be 
accurately regulated. Then the magnetic field is 
slowly decreased. When the field reaches certain 
values, the nuclei in the crystal absorb energy from 
the oscillator. The trick is to detect this absorption 
which is quite small. Runs at various temperatures 
are made, and the temperature dependence of this 
absorption is studied. 

After setting up the first run, Gerry Burns met 
with the head of his group. Together, they dis¬ 
cussed the temperature dependence of the nuclear 
quadrupole resonance coupling constants. Several 
helpful suggestions were made. 

Gerry Burns then talked with chemists who grow 
the crystals used in the experiments. They dis¬ 
cussed possible variations in the crystal-growing 
method and considered the growth of other crys¬ 
tals in order to broaden the experiments. 

Early in the afternoon, he attended a seminar con¬ 
ducted by a visiting professor on the subject of 
the atomic structure of solids. Each week, several 
such seminars on a variety of technical matters 
are given. 

After the seminar, Gerry Burns returned to set up 
another run at a different temperature. He also 
talked to a technician about building a new piece 
of equipment to be used in future experiments. 

Engineering and Science 

Excellent facilities and programs 

“Besides these experiments, I'm also doing some 
theoretical calculations in the field of nuclear 
quadrupole resonance. The actual computations 
were done here at the Laboratory on an IBM 704, 
which can perform in minutes computations which 
would take weeks if done by other methods. 

-This is one of the advantages of working at IBM. 
Large-scale high-speed computers are available to 
research scientists when needed. Furthermore you 
will find your colleagues always willing to help 
when you are stumped by a problem. Many of 
these men are recognized authorities in their 
fields. The exchange is always informative and 
often stimulates new ideas and approaches. 

“Our Company offers many educational opportu¬ 
nities—both in general education and for ad¬ 
vanced degrees,” Gerry Burns said. “As an exam¬ 
ple, engineers and scientists may earn a Master’s 
Degree in a post-graduate program conducted by 
Syracuse University right here in Poughkeepsie. 
"We also have a very useful library. Just the other 
day I dropped in to pick up some technical papers 
I needed as source material for an article. I’ve al¬ 
ready published one paper on my experiments,” 
he noted. “You’re encouraged to publish your 
findings and to participate in professional society 
meetings. It’s important for a research man to 
work in an atmosphere where independent think¬ 
ing is encouraged and where every effort is made 
to facilitate research investigations." 

Some IBM advantages 

Employee-benefit plans, paid for by the Company, 
are comprehensive, liberal, and kept up to date 
to meet changing conditions. They include life 
insurance, family hospitalization, major medical 
coverage, sickness and accident pay, permanent 
disability pay, and retirement benefits. 

* * * 

Talented college graduates will find exciting, re¬ 
warding careers at IBM. Excellent opportunities 
are now available in research, development, manu¬ 
facturing, and programming. Find out from your 
College Placement Office when our interviewers 
will next visit your campus. Or, for information 
about careers of interest to you, write to: 

Director of Recruitment, Dept. 839 
IBM Corporation 

590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, New York 



November 19 59 


Student Life . . . continued 

keep domestic problems inside the confines of House 
meetings. The entire House acts as one large lobby, 
and a concerted effort is made to achieve unanimity 
on any issue even before it is brought to a vote. 

It is as though the members fear that any sign of 
disagreement would be sufficient to split the House 
beyond repair. Parliamentary procedure is followed 
to the letter, yet is hardly needed. A House meeting 
in Dabney is one of the more useless gatherings on 
campus, yet nowhere else is there such an abundance 
of railroad-sensitive voters. The result is a House of 
unparalleled unity that is too busy with discussion 
of policy to find time to apply its findings. 

Capable as it is in other fields of endeavor, Dab¬ 
ney tends to be childish about its attempts at gentle¬ 
manly behavior. With a lesser emphasis on the pica- 
yunish elements of Emily Post, and a more positive 
attempt at common courtesy as dictated by common 
sense, Dabney might closer approach its ideal. 


With the founding of three additional Houses next 
fall, the nature of each of the existing four will tend 
to become established in its present form. Assuming 
that the average House would like to be on top of the 
heap every so often, this could be the year that 
showed whether Fleming would ever make it. 

Even before the war, Fleming was identified by 
the big bohunk type — beer-drinking, ruckus-raising, 
proud of slovenly living, sacrilegious activities, and 
fast eating. Fleming’s one and only claim to fame was 

in being Caltech’s “Jock House.” But since the war, 
the athletic Techman has ceased to be a bohunk. The 
Varsity Rating Trophy is the last trophy on Fleming’s 
mantelpiece — and it may even leave soon. Fleming 
is still the “Jock House” — it’s just that all the campus 
athletes live in other Houses. 

Phlegms now pursue their art of slovenly living 
with a strong bent toward obscenity. Needless to say, 
few new frosh find this type of atmosphere inviting. 
Each year produces its inevitable crop of Fleming 
frosh who are dissatisfied with their house assign¬ 
ment — and who thus help to further the cynicism 
that is already so rampant in the House. So the 
vicious circle continues. 

Some of the most cultured members of the student 
body, as well as some of the most effective campus 
leaders, have lived in Fleming. But, so far, they have 
been unable or unwilling to reshape the House. 

Caltech students have not relished the reputation 
the Institute has gained through the actions of various 
members of Fleming House. And their contrived 
excuses for such actions (viz., those displayed on last 
spring’s Economy Run and Glee Club Tour) only 
cloud the problem and antagonize the home front. 

Members of other Houses were involved in these 
incidents, to be sure. But when Fleming House takes 
significant action against such behavior, Caltech’s 
“great unwashed” will be defenseless. When members 
of Fleming can bring their parents or wives to dinner 
without advance warning, and not be afraid of em¬ 
barrassment, a milestone will have been reached. 

— Doug Shakel ’60 









House color 



Red (House 
coats are black 

Maroon (Brown 
when maroon 
is hard to get) 

Yellow (or what¬ 
ever is left) 

Symbol on 

House coat 

Script “B” 

Coat of Arms 

Coat of Arms 

Coat of Arms 

(No House coat) 



(Maybe that 
blue stripe 
around their 

Green elephant 




Wives and kids 








Are considered 




ASCIT also-rans 

Out of it 



Faculty tea 


Beer blast 

Apache dance 









Coe trophy 

Brass spittoon 

Brake drum 

Skill games 


38 Engineering and Science 


RCA Electronics creates the “501” to streamline the paper work 
of business —it reads, writes, figures and remembers on tape 

Much of today’s traffic jam in paper 
work is being eliminated by electronic 
data processing. But to build a system 
that would be practical and economical 
for even medium-sized organizations 
was a job for electronic specialists. 

To solve the problem, RCA drew on 
its broad experience in building com¬ 
puters for military applications and 
combed its many laboratories for the 
latest electronic advances that could 
help. The result was the RCA “501” 
high-speed electronic data processing 
system—the most compact, flexible, and 
economical ever built. It is a pioneer sys¬ 

tem with all-transistor construction for 
business use. 

The “501” cuts out paper work bottle¬ 
necks for many government agencies 
and businesses, from stock brokerage 
firms to public utilities, banks, insurance 
companies, and steel mills. 

It “remembers” millions of letters, 
numbers, and symbols that are “read” 
onto its magnetic tapes by such things 
as punch cards and paper tapes. In a 
fraction of a second, it can do thousands 
of calculating, sorting, and comparing 
operations—and checks each step. 
Finally, it writes such things as bills, re¬ 

ports, payrolls in plain English at 72,000 
characters per minute. 

This economical and practical answer 
to an acute business problem is another 
way RCA Electronics is helping to sim¬ 
plify the growing complexity of business. 



November 1959 


Grinnell Constant Supports are avail¬ 
able in a range of sizes to provide capa¬ 
cities for loads from 27 lbs. to 57,500 
lbs., with travels up to 16 inches. 

Both vertical and horizontal hangers 
are designed to operate in extremely 
limited space. In the selection of types, 
there is a choice of 11 methods of 
attachment to structures—either above, 
between, or below supporting steel. 

Grinnell Constant Supports provide 
mathematically perfect load support 

throughout all positions of travel . . . 
also a full 70 percentage points of 
adjustability is built into them. No less 
than 1 0 % of this adjustability is allowed 
either side of calibration for plus or 
minus change in load. Field readjust¬ 
ments are easily made by turning a 
single load adjustment bolt. 

Call on Grinnell’s Pipe Suspension 
Department for help with your pipe sus¬ 
pension problems. Grinnell Company, 
Providence 1, Rhode Island. 









Engineering and Science 


(and the "right turn” toward a gratifying career) 

Like the dimensions of the universe 
itself, the future of space technology 
is beyond imagination. The fron¬ 
tiers of space will edge farther and 
farther from us as engineering and 
scientific skills push our knowledge 
closer to the stars. Bendix Aviation 
Corporation, long a major factor in 
America’s technological advance, 
offers talented young men an out¬ 
standing site from which to launch 
a career. 

In the field of controls alone, for 
example, Bendix (which makes con¬ 
trols for almost everything that 
rolls, flies or floats) has developed 
practical, precision equipment for 
steering and controlling the atti¬ 

tude of space vehicles. It consists 
of a series of gas reaction controllers 
(actually miniature rockets) which 
are mounted around the satellite. 
Individually controlled by a built- 
in intelligence system, they emit 
metered jets of gas on signal when¬ 
ever it is necessary to change the 
orientation of the satellite. 

The development of this unique 
control equipment is but one of the 
many successful Bendix projects 
involving knowledge of the outer 
atmosphere and beyond. Bendix, a 
major factor in broad industrial re¬ 
search, development and manufac¬ 
ture, is heavily engaged in advanced 
missile and rocket systems and com¬ 

ponents activities. These include 
prime contract responsibility for 
the Navy’s advanced missiles, Talos 
and Eagle. 

The many career opportunities 
at Bendix include assignments in 
electronics, electromechanics, ultra¬ 
sonics, computers, automation, 
radar, nucleonics, combustion, air 
navigation, hydraulics, instrumen¬ 
tation, propulsion, metallurgy, com¬ 
munications, carburetion, solid 
state physics, aerophysics and 
structures. See your placement 
director or write to Director of 
University and Scientific Relations, 
Bendix Aviation Corporation, 
1108 Fisher Bldg., Detroit 2, Mich. 

A thousand products 


Fisher Bldg., Detroit 2, Mich. 

a million ideas 

November 1959 


Alumni News 

Alumni Scholar 

school letterman in both 

Karvel K. Thornber, a 
freshman from Portland, 
Oregon, is the sixth Cal¬ 
tech student to receive an 
Alumni Scholarship. The 
award — a four-year, full- 
tuition grant made possible 
by an endowment created 
by Caltech alumni, through 
past contributions to the 
Alumni Fund — has been 
given each fall since 1954. 
Karvel ranked first in his 
class of 360 at Franklin 
High School, and was on 
the Honor Roll for four 
years. His athletic activities 
include swimming and 
basketball (he was a high- 
track and mountaineering. 

His father is a civil engineer for the U.S. Government. 
Karvel hopes to go on to graduate work in electrical 
or mechanical engineering after he gets his BS. 

Alumni Tour 

Word is reaching the Alumni Association of the 
interest and enthusiasm with which Professor and 
Mrs. Royal W. Sorensen are being greeted on their 
tour across the country, visiting alumni in many 
cities, in order to show the tremendous changes 
taking place on campus. 

Professor Sorensen spoke before about 54 alumni 
and wives at a dinner meeting held on October 12 
at the Fior D’ltalia Restaurant in San Francisco, 
according to Lee A. Henderson ’54, secretary-treas¬ 
urer of the San Francisco Chapter. 

Richard G. King ’49, secretary of the Washington, 
D. C., Chapter, also writes of a successful dinner 
meeting attended by about 20 alumni and wives. 






typify Lockheed's 
vast program of 

Air/Space Science 


New programs under development at Lockheed's California 
Division are planned to solve America's future exploration 
projects into space. The new multimillion-dollar Research 
Center in nearby San Gabriel mountains is further evidence 
of Lockheed's determination to support and supplement its 
already extensive research and development activities. 

Important forward-looking research and development 
projects now being cpnducted at Lockheed in Burbank are: 
Space Transports; Infrared System studies; Vertical Take-off 
and Landing Vehicles; Helicopters and Supersonic Transports. 

Career opportunities exist in: Aero-thermodynamics; pro¬ 
pulsion; armament; electronics—research and systems; 

servomechanisms —flight controls; sound and vibration; 
operations research; physics; antenna and telemetry; under¬ 
water sound propagation; and forengineers with experience 
in structural, electrical and mechanical design. 

Write today to: Mr. E. W. Des Lauriers, Manager Profes¬ 
sional Placement Staff, Dept. 321 IB, 2400 North Hollywood 
Way, Burbank, California. 

■ m 1 ■■■ wg* 

Ink n Eub Iot 

CALIFORNIA DIVISION / burbank California 

Engineering and Science 


Professor and Mrs. Sorenson were the guests at a 
meeting held on October 19 in the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel, New York City, attended by nearly 50 alumni 
and wives. Harry J. Moore ’48, current secretary of 
the New' York Chapter, reports that this was the 
annual meeting at which new officers for 1960 were 
elected. Professor Sorensen showed slides and talked 
on the building program at Caltech and about his 
India trip. A second meeting at the Bell Telephone 
Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, was at¬ 
tended by 21 alumni. 

On October 23 Professor and Mrs. Sorensen were 
guests of the Detroit area alumni at a dinner held 
at Kingsley Inn in Bloomfield Hills, arranged by jay 
C. Taylor ’35. 

A dinner and meeting is planned for alumni in and 
near Houston, Texas, for November 16 or 17, to honor 
the Sorensens and learn of the development program 
at the Institute. John C. McLean ’38 and W. F. Wil¬ 
son ’22 are working to make this an outstanding 

— Donald S. Clark, Secretary, Alumni Association 

Frontiers in Science 

Frontiers in Science, the book made up of articles 
from Engineering and Science, has sold over 17,500 
copies since it vvas published in May, 1958, by Basic 
Books, Inc. Royalties received to date amount to 

and only 


has this 

This scientific Smoot-Holman analogue computer can find the solution 
to your lighting problem. After being fed all relevant facts, it scientif¬ 
ically determines requirement specifications of fixtures that will deliver 
desired performance. Contact Smoot-Holman for the correct solution to 
your lighting problem. 

SMOOT - HOLMAN COMPANY Inglewood, California 

$9,029.90. The Board of Directors of the Caltech 
Alumni Association has voted to contribute all royal¬ 
ties to the Development program, for credit to fac¬ 
ulty salaries. 

Dinner, Game and Dance 

Caltech students have invited the alumni and their 
wives and friends to join them for a buffet dinner in 
the Student Houses before the Claremont-Harvey 
Mudd game in the Bose Bowl on November 20. This 
is Caltech’s last football game of the season. A dance 
will be held in the Fleming-Bicketts courtyard after 
the game. This will be a fine opportunity for a social 
gathering of alumni and undergraduates. Make up a 
group and corne along for dinner and an enjoyable 
evening. Announcements will be in the mail to all 
alumni in southern California early this month. 

— John D. Gee, Chairman, Program Committee 

Among the Missing 

The Alumni Association is trying to complete its 
file of Caltech publications and is still lacking some 
early issues of the school’s annuals. Would anyone 
who has copies of the following publications be will¬ 
ing to send them to the Association? 

1896 through 1912— The Polytechnic 
1913 through 1920 — The Throop Tech 



Positions in 
Southern California 

Ph. D. or equivalent in: 

Space Research Laboratories of 
Litton Industries in Southern Cali¬ 
fornia has openings now for men 
who are capable of conceiving and 
conducting advanced research in 
the above fields. 

For further information please con¬ 
tact Mr. Joseph Cryden, Litton 
Industries, 336 No. Foothill Road, 
Beverly Hills, California. 


Electronic Equipments Division 
Beverly Hills, California 

November 1959 


...who are Engineers, look twico 
at the many advantages 

NEW PROGRAMS at Convair-Pomona, offer excellent 
opportunities today for Engineers. Convair-Pomona, created 
the Army's newest weapon, REDEYE, Shoulder Fired MISSILE and 

Many other, still highly classified programs, 
stimulating the imagination of the most progressive thinking 
scientist and engineer are presently at various stages 

of development. 

Positions are open for experienced and inexperienced 
Bachelors , Masters and Doctorates in the fields 
of Electronics, Aeronautics, Mechanics and Physics. 

ADVANCEMENT opportunities are provided for the 
competent engineer as rapidly as his capabilities will permit 
in currently expanding programs. 

facility is of modern design and completely air-conditioned. 
You Will work with men who have pioneered the missile 
industry and are now engaged in some of the most advanced 
programs in existence. 

ADVANCED EDUCATION — Tuition refund is provided 
for graduate work in the field of your speciality. Company 
sponsored in-plant training courses offer the Engineer the 
finest of educational opportunities. 

CALIFORNIA LIVING — Suburban Pomona offers lower 
living costs and moderate priced property, unexcelled recre¬ 
ational facilities, freedom from rush hour traffic and the 
ultimate in comfort and gracious living. 

Contact your placement office immediately to assure yourself of a 
compos interview with Convair-Pomona. 

If personal interview is not possible send resume and grade transcript 
to B. L. Dixon, Engineering Personnel Administrator, Dept. CM513 
Pomona, California. 


a Division of 




Engineering and Science 









;4>/# t . 

, ■'(!. 







*• F f, '»>■** 

■ . ■ f;;.ti 


^ . - v"•/ -af^ 




= 75 


Heat lost except at absolute zero? 

A measure of disorder? 

A statistical probability of state? 

The gradient of a scalar? 

Macrocosmic phenomenon or 
microcosmic, too? 

The fundamental concept of entropy 
is involved in many phases of our 
technology. Hence we have a funda¬ 
mental need to know everything we 
can about its significance. This 
knowledge is critical to our work of 
energy conversion. 

Thus we probe and inquire, search 
without wearying — call upon the 
talents of General Motors Corpora¬ 
tion, its Divisions, and other indi¬ 
viduals and organizations — for a 
complete appreciation of all phases 
of scientific phenomena. By apply¬ 
ing this systems engineering con¬ 
cept to new research projects, we 
increase the effectiveness with 
which we accomplish our mission — 
e xploring the needs of advanced 
ropulsion and weapons systems. 

Want to know about YOUR opportunities on 
*+ the Allison Engineering Team? Write: Mr. R.C. 
(I Smith, College Relations, Personnel Dept. 

Energy conversion is our business 

Division of General Motors, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 

November 1959 




Charles H. Wilcox, retired staff engi¬ 
neer of the Southern California Gas Com¬ 
pany in Los Angeles, died of heart failure 
on September 8. Charles was a member 
of the Lafayette Escadrille and had won 
several Croix de Guerres with palms and 
stars. In 1915-16 he served as vice presi¬ 
dent of the Caltech Alumni Association. 
He leaves his wife and sister. 


George N. Hawley, vice president of 
the Southern California Edison Company 
in Los Angeles, died on September 8 of 
a heart attack. George had been with the 
Edison Company since 1928, when he 
joined the firm as an industrial heating 
specialist. He was made vice president 
in 1952. 


Robert I. Stirton, PhD ’34, formerly 
manager of the product development de¬ 
partment of the Oronite Chemical Com¬ 
pany in San Francisco, is now general 
manager of the company’s new commer¬ 
cial development department. 


Elburt F. Osborn , PhD, dean of the 
College of Mineral Industries at Pennsyl¬ 
vania State University in University 
Park, Pa., is now a fellow of the Ameri¬ 
can Ceramic Society. 

Robert Barry, president of Barry and 
Company, consulting management engi¬ 
neers, in Los Angeles, is also keeping 
busy this year as a member of the Sales 
Executives Club, Oneonta Club, National 
Association of Accountants and the Jona¬ 
than Club, besides serving as president of 
the South Pasadena Community Chest. 

Charles F. Robinson, MS, PhD ’49, has 
been appointed associate director of re¬ 
search at the Consolidated Electrody¬ 
namics Corporation in Pasadena. He has 
been with CEC since 1947, and was 
formerly chief research physicist. 


William B. Hebenstreit is now pro¬ 
gram director for communication satel¬ 
lites in the Systems Engineering Division 
of Space Technology Laboratories, Inc., 
in Los Angeles. 

Col. Carl W. Carlmark, MS, has re¬ 
tired from the U.S. Air Force and is now 
at the Hawaiian Preparatory Academy in 
Kamuela, Hawaii. 

John R. White, MS ’42, is manager of 
the new monitor and control division of 
Fenwal, Inc., in Ashland, Mass. He was 
previously manager of airborne systems 
sales for the company, which manufac¬ 
tures fire detectors, electronic systems 
and temperature controls. 

Robert E. Rundle, PhD, professor of 
chemistry at Iowa State College and 
senior chemist in the Ames Laboratory 
of the Atomic Energy Commission, has 
won the 1959 Iowa Medal of the Ameri¬ 
can Chemical Society’s Iowa Section. The 
medal is awarded to an Iowa chemist or 
chemical engineer annually for meritori¬ 
ous achievement in teaching, research or 


E. W. Van Ness has been elected a 
vice president of the Ralph M. Parsons 
Company in Los Angeles. He is mana¬ 
ger of the construction company’s petrol- 
continued on page 50 


who design airplanes, build 
bridges, solve equations, 
run factories, teach physics, 
and do all sorts of clever 




.— SY 3-1171 MU 1-6669 

New Kind of Missile with 

HiGGins mii 

. . . carry it with you wherever you go/ 

Good news for draftsmen! New HIGGINS 
AMERICAN INDIA INK Cartridge always feeds 
the right amount of ink into pens and drawing 
instruments. No mess, no waste! 

Compact, rigid, plastic cartridge fits easily in 
pocket, purse or drafting sets. 

Stands on table, shelf, desk — won’t roll off 
inclined drafting boards! Most convenient way 
to fill pens — and so economical! 






Ask your art or drafting 
supply dealer for this new item. 



. Brooklyn 15, New York 
The basic art medium 
since 1880 


Engineering and Science 


Since its inception nearly 23 years ago, 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has given 
the free world its first tactical guided mis¬ 
sile system, its first earth satellite, and 
its first lunar probe. 

In the future, underthe direction of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin¬ 
istration, pioneering on the space fron- 

"We do these things because of the unquenchable curiosity of Who, at this present time, can predict what potential benefits 

Man, The scientist is continually asking himself questions and to man exist in this enterprise? No one can say with any accu- 

then setting out to find the answers. In the course of getting racy what we will find as we fly farther away from the earth, 

these answers, he has provided practical benefits to man that first with instruments, then with man. It seems to me that we 

have sometimes surprised even the scientist. are obligated to do these things, as human beings'.' 

"Who can tell what we will find when we gel lo Ihe planets? DR. w. H. PICKERING, Director, JPl 



A Research Facility operated for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 


Employment opportunities for Engineers and Scientists interested in basic and applied research in these fields: 

Send professional resume for our immediate consideration. Interviews may be arranged on Campus or at the Laboratory. 

November 1959 

tier wjll advance at an accelerated rate. 

The preliminary instrument explora¬ 
tions that have already been made only 
seem to define how much there is yet 
to be learned. During the next few years, 
payloads will become larger, trajectories 
will become more precise, and distances 
covered will become greater. Inspections 

will be made of the moon and the plan¬ 
ets and of the vast distances of inter¬ 
planetary space; hard and soft landings 
will be made in preparation for the time 
when man at last sets foot on new worlds. 

In this program, the task of JPL is to 
gather new information for a better un¬ 
derstanding of the World and Universe. 


The word space commonly represents the outer, airless regions of the universe. 
But there is quite another kind of “space” close at hand, a kind that will always 
challenge the genius of man. 

This space can easily be measured. It is the space-dimension of cities and the 
distance between them . , . the kind of space found between mainland and off¬ 
shore oil rig, between a tiny, otherwise inaccessible clearing and its supply 
base, between the site of a mountain crash and a waiting ambulance—above all, 
Sikorsky is concerned with the precious “spaceway” that currently exists be¬ 
tween all earthbound places. 

Our engineering efforts are directed toward a variety of VTOL and STOL 
aircraft configurations. Among earlier Sikorsky designs are some of the most 
versatile airborne vehicles now in existence; on our boards today are the ve¬ 
hicles that can prove to be tomorrow’s most versatile means of transportation. 

Here, then, is a space age challenge to be met with the finest and most practical 
engineering talent. Here, perhaps, is the kind of challenge you can meet. 


For information about careers with us, please ad¬ 
dress Mr. Richard L. Auten, Personnel Department. 

One of the Divisions of United Aircraft Corporation 


Engineering and Science 

DOW is tomorrow-minded 

A chemist, with his mind on his own specialty exclu¬ 
sively, might say: "The chief raw materials for 
Dow products are sea water, brine, petroleum, coal, 
oyster shells.” Up to a point he would be right. But 
in fact he would be overlooking the most important 
ingredient of all—people of a certain exceptional kind 
and quality of mind. 

Let’s look at a quick profile of the kind of person Dow 
looks for. His mind and ambitions are not limited by 
the dimensions of the job he is doing. His horizons 
take in tomorrow, while he does his job well today. 
Problems appear to him in a dynamic context of both 
today and tomorrow. The "big picture” is not just a 
cynical phrase to him. 

This broader view makes him plan well—for his family 
as well as for his job. As the phrase goes, he is "a 
good provider.” He owns his own car. Chances are he 
owns his own home. Along with some 80,000 others he 
has invested in Dow stock because he believes in his 

company and wants to back up that belief with cash. 

He is a builder at work or in his community. He gets 
a kick out of creating new things. Such products as 
Saran Wrap*, Separan* for the mining industry, the 
new fiber Zefran*, and others. Making things that do 
some important job for the human community, better 
than it has ever been done before, gives him a real thrill. 

Not everyone who works for Dow, whether at Midland 
or the other 23 United States locations (plus 23 foreign 
and 5 Canadian), fits this profile. But by and large 
most of those who do well tend to. Though they have 
more than their share of "creative discontent,” they 
have found a good place to grow, and work out their 
hopes, plans and ambitions. 

If you would like to know more about the Dow oppor¬ 
tunity, please write: Director of College Relations, 
Department 2427FW, the now chemical company, 
Midland, Michigan. ^TRADEMARK 


November 1959 


Personals . . . continued 

etim and chemical engineering division. 

Capt. Sheldon W. Broum, AE (U.S.N., 
Ret.) has been appointed as a consult¬ 
ant on the general planning staff of the 
All American Engineering Company in 
Wilmington, Delaware. Before his retire¬ 
ment from the Navy, he was Force Ma¬ 
terial Officer, Naval Air Force, Atlantic 


Hewson Lawrence, MS, is now direc¬ 
tor of division customer relations at the 
Aerojet - General Corporation of Azusa. 
He has been with the company since 


Harrison W. Sigworth, research engi¬ 
neer at the California Research Corpora¬ 
tion, is now at the Stanford Graduate 
School of Business on a Sloan Fellow¬ 
ship from the Standard Oil Company of 
California. Harrison was secretary-treas¬ 
urer of the San Francisco Chapter of the 
Caltech Alumni Association in 1954, vice 
president in 1955, and president in 1956. 
The Sigworths have four children — 

three boys, 13, 10 and 8, and a girl 2*4. 

Paul H. Winter, structural engineer 
with Neptune &• Thomas and Associates 
in Pasadena, has now been made vice 
president of the firm. Paul, who has 
headed the structural engineering de¬ 
partment for the past three years, was 
formerly director of the Afghan Institute 
of Technology, and advisor on school 
building projects as a member of the 
United Nations Technical Assistance 
Mission to Afghanistan. He is currently 
lecturing in the School of Engineering 
at USC, and spending all his spare time 
with bis family aboard their 30-foot 
auxiliary sloop. The Intrepid. 


Albert R. Hihbs, PhD '55, is acting 
chief of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s 
new Space Science Division, which has 
been formed to devise, plan, develop, 
operate and analyze experiments for the 
NASA-JPL space exploration program. 


William N. Lipscomb, Jr., PhD, for¬ 
merly chief of the division of physical 

chemistry at the University of Minne¬ 
sota, is now professor of chemistry at 
Harvard University. 

John E. Richter has been named hous¬ 
ing specialist in the Los Angeles office 
of the Portland Cement Association. He’s 
been with the company since 1956. The 
Richters, who live in La Canada, have 
three children. 

Morris Lebovits, MS. is section chief 
of aerodynamics at the Solar Aircraft 
Company in San Diego. He was formerly 
chief of aerodynamics at Radioplane, a 
division of the Northrop Corporation. 


Adrian Fauw, MS, PhD ’52, writes 
that “I left the Rice Institute at Hous¬ 
ton, Texas, in 1953, and have been with 
the University of Missouri in Columbia 
since then as professor of civil engineer¬ 
ing. We now have four children — three 
boys and a girl, Janet, who is 3. We 
spent last summer in Austin, Texas, 
where I was visiting professor at the 
University of Texas.” 

Manfred Eimer, MS ’48, PhD ’53, is 
continued, on page 52 












CRESCENT HYVOLT insulation is made from butyl rubber which is inherently resistant to 
ozone, heat, moisture and aging with exceflent electrical characteristics. For 5000 Volt 
or higher service, HYVOLT cables are provided with shielding to protect them from surface 
burning, corona, and lightning surges. 




Engineering and Science 

IN 1980-61 

The Raytheon Graduate Program has been established 
to contribute to the technical development of scientists 
and engineers at Raytheon. It provides the opportunity 
to selected persons employed by Raytheon, who are 
accepted as graduate students by Harvard University, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and California 
Institute of Technology, to pursue at Raytheon’s ex¬ 
pense, regular courses of study leading to a master’s 
or doctor’s degree in science or engineering in the institu¬ 
tion of their choice. 



The Program requires, in general, two or three semesters 
of study, depending on circumstances, with the summer 
months spent in the Company’s research, engineering, or 
manufacturing divisions. It includes full tuition, fees, 
book allowances and a salary while at school. Students 
are eligible for health, accident, retirement and life insur¬ 
ance benefits, annual vacation and other privileges of 
full-time Raytheon employees. 

To be considered for the Program, applicants must have 
a bachelor’s degree in science or engineering, and should 
have outstanding student records, show technical prom¬ 
ise, and possess mature personal characteristics. They 
may apply for admission to the Program in anticipation 
of becoming employees of Raytheon. 

to Dr. Ivan A. Getting, Vice President, Engineering 
and Research, outlining your technical background, 
academic record, school preference, and field of interest, 
prior to December 1, 1959. 

RAYTHEON COMPANY, Waltham 54, Mass, 

Excellence in Electronics 

Space Technology Laboratories’ 
new corporate symbol 
represents a bright history in 
a stimulating age. 

STL has provided the over-all 
systems engineering and 
technical direction for the Air 
Force Ballistic Missile Program 
since it was assigned the high¬ 
est national priority in 1954. 

In addition to its major 
management functions, STL 
also conducts advanced space 
probe experiments for the Air 
Force at the direction of such 
agencies as NASA and ARPA. 

To those scientists and 
engineers with capabilities in 
propulsion, electronics, 
thermodynamics, aerody¬ 
namics, structures, 
astrophysics, computer 
technology, and other related 
fields and disciplines, STL 
now offers unique professional 
opportunities. Inquiries 
regarding staff positions 
are invited. 

a new symbol 
for a new era 
of technology 

Space Technology 
Laboratories, Inc. 

P.O. Box 95004 

Los Angeles 45, California 

Personals . , . continued. 

now section chief of the Research Anal¬ 
ysis Section of JPL's new Space Science 
Division. He has been with JPL since 
1953 and also serves on the NASA Com¬ 
mittee for Missile and Space Craft Aero¬ 


Max Garber, formerly manager of Con¬ 
solidated Electrodynamics Corporation’s 
Eastern Regional Office in Philadelphia, 
has now been appointed director of a 
new division in Rochester, N.Y. 

Howard B. Lewis, Jr., BS ’48 ME, BS 
’51 EE, is now chief engineer of the 
transducer division of the Consolidated 
Electrodynamics Corporation in Pasa¬ 
dena. He has been with the company 
since 1952. 


Col. John A. Dodge, MS, has now 
joined Dr. Herbert J. York, director of 
Defense Research and Engineering in 
the Office of the Secretary of Defense. 
He has headed the Re-entry Vehicle De¬ 
velopment program for the Ballistic Mis¬ 
sile Division since September, 1955, and 
has been directly concerned with the 
Air Force-Lockheed X-17 project. 

John Hann is now test project engi¬ 
neer on the DC-8 project at Douglas 
Aircraft’s Long Bench plant. 

R. L. Walquist is now manager of the 
communications and tracking depart¬ 
ment of the Telecommunications Labora¬ 
tory of Space Technology Laboratories, 
Inc., in Los Angeles. He has been with 
STL since 1955. The VValqUists and their 
son live in Rolling Hills. 


Allan Beek has been appointed senior 
project engineer in the Lockheed Elec¬ 
tronics and Avionics Division. He W'as 
formerly with the AUvac Division of El- 
Tronies arid the Electrodata division of 
the Burroughs Corporation. 


Thomas U . Layton is now associate 
manager of the inertial guidance depart¬ 
ment in the electromechanical laboratory 
at Space Technology Laboratories in Los 
Angeles. He has been with the company 
since 1955. 

Bruce B. Hedrick has been senior sales 
engineer and manager of special equip¬ 
ment sales for Dynapak'Convair Pomona 
since January. The Hedricks have two 
girls, 7 and 5, and a boy, 1V 2 - 


Henry Richter, Jr., PhD ’56, heads the 
Space Instruments Section of the new 1 
Space Science Division at JPL. He has 
been with the Lab since 1955. 

continued cm page 54 


Endevco is the leading manufacturer in 
the nation of vibration and shock meas¬ 
uring systems. These are precision 
proprietary products, we have no gov¬ 
ernment development contracts As a 
rapidly growing business, we need more 
help at all levels—from supervisory per¬ 
sonnel to trainees 

As electronic firms go, we are small 
(under 20(3 employees) but our people 
find this an advantage. It gives everyone 
a chance to do the kind of work he likes 
best with plenty of freedom and an 
excellent opportunity for advancement 
Benefits include profit-sharing, insur¬ 
ance, regular salary reviews and many 
others. All positions permanent, citizen¬ 
ship not required. 

Application Engineers ... 

tomer applications Knowledge of trans¬ 
ducers desirable BS ME, EE r Phy 
... uii 

Product Development Engineers - 

sign and analyze products in th-: 1 ele:tro 
mechanica; instrument and eiecnor .. 
fields. Men needed at Se- , : 


Mechanical Standards Engineer 

tabiish new . -oduct test procedures, 
mechanical standards and design of test 
fixtures Desire BS, ME with vibration 
test experience 

Quality Control Supervisor to supervise; 
inspection, instrument calibration and 
electronic test department Administra¬ 
tive experience in quality control desired. 

Design Draftsmen to des grr tooling and 
fixtures 5 years experience. 

Send for free bookie!: "This Is Endevco'" 

Interviews arranged a! your conven¬ 
ience and in complete confidence Apply 
Personnel Department 9 to 5. MUrray 
1 -5231, Extension 100. 


r-e\i Ufct A 

dynam ic instrumenta t ion 

Engineering and Science 

Engineer Larry Ktivqns reviews ihe results of a computer- at Norair Division, Larry came to Radioplane in 1955, At 
simulated ground checkout of Radioplane Division's 31, he is Manager of the Division's 140-man Electronic 

near-sonic RP-76 rocket-powered target drone. Formerly Support Group, is working toward his doctorate at UCLA. 


Northrop Corporation’s dynamic and diversified corporate struc- RADIOPLANE DIVISION, Creator of the world’s first drone family; has 

ture creates an ideal work climate for forward-thinking scientists 
and engineers. Our three autonomous divisions are all in Southern 
California - are all headed by progressive management eager to 
examine and try new ideas. 

Let’s assume that you are a man who can qualify for one of our 
engineering teams - a man who can create history! 

YOU'LL EARN what you’re worth, get increases as often as you earn 
them-based on your own individual achievements. Our salary 
structure is unique in the industry; our vacation policy extra-liberal, 
as are all of our other fringe benefits. 

YOU'LL LEARN while you earn, with no-cost and low-cost education 
opportunities at leading Southern California institutions - earn ad¬ 
vanced degrees and keep abreast of latest technological advances 
in your own chosen field. 

YOU’LL WORK with men who are acknowledged leaders in their fields 
— men chosen for their own capabilities and for skills in guiding 
and developing the creative talents of younger men. And, these 
are men who delegate authority, assuring your fair share of credit 
for engineering triumphs. 

YOU'LL BE FLEXIBLE-able to apply your talents to the work you enjoy, 
in the field best suited to your own inclination and ability. Northrop 
Corporation and its divisions offer wide diversity, with over 30 
operational fields to choose from. All offer challenge aplenty- 
opportunity unlimited 1 

produced and delivered tens of thousands of drones for all the U.S. 
Armed Forces. Now developing ultra-advanced target drone sys¬ 
tems for weapon evaluation, surveillance drone systems, and mis¬ 
sile systems. 

NORTRONICS DIVISION. Pioneer in celestial and inertial guidance. 
Currently exploring infrared applications, airborne digital com¬ 
puters and interplanetary navigation; developing ground support, 
optical and electro-mechanical, and data-processing equipment. 

NORAIR DIVISION. Creator of SAC’s intercontinental USAF Snark 
SM-62. Currently active in programs for the ballistic recovery of 
orbiting man; flight-testing the USAF T-38 supersonic trainer; 
readying the N-156F NATO-SEATO fighter for flight tests. 

NOW WRITE! Get full information on Northrop Corporation and all 
of its Divisions. Then choose the division that offers you the most 
challenge. To reserve your spot where news is happening, write: 
Engineering & Scientific Personnel Placement Office, Northrop 
Corporation, P.O. Box 1525, Beverly Hills, California. 

November 1959 


Personals . . . continued 


Purdue University '53 

j^^EANF. Keuch. one of 136 Dunham-Bush sales 
engineers, knows the advantages of being associated with a 
dynamic young company with extensive product lines. 

Following his engineering studies at Purdue, Deane joined 
Dunham-Bush as a trainee and soon became an application 
engineer. After a relatively short time he was assigned his own 
territory, working out of the Cleveland area sales office. 

In calling on consulting engineers, architects, plant engineers, 
wholesalers, contractors and building owners, Deane (like all 
Dunham-Bush sales engineers) finds it reassuring to be backed by 
his area office and the facilities of Dunham-Bush laboratories. 

Equally reassuring is the availability of complete lines. The range 
of Dunham-Bush refrigeration products runs from compressors 
to complete systems; the range of air conditioning products 
extends from motel room conditioners to a hospital’s entire air 
conditioning plant. The heating line is equally complete: from a 
radiator valve to zone heating control for an entire apartment 
housing project. The Dunham-Bush product family even includes 
specialized heat transfer products applicable to missile use. 

If you’d like to know' more about the company 
that offers “Sales Engineering Unlimited ". send for a copy of 
“ This is Dunham-Bush’’. 



Oynham-Bushp Inc. 




John S. Winslow, MS ’59, is now a re¬ 
search engineer in the solid state division 
of Electro-Optical Systems, trie., in Pasa¬ 
dena. He had been working with the 
Consolidated Electrodynamics Corpora¬ 

J. Morgan Ogitvie, formerly Chicago 
sales service representative in the Du 
Pont Company’s petroleum chemicals di¬ 
vision, is now sales promotion coord¬ 
inator in the division’s Eastern Region. 
He has been with the company since 


Donald B. Roberts writes that he “just 
started in the first year class of Harvard 
Medical School. After graduating from 
CIT in June, 1955, I spent two years in 
the Air Force at McClellan AFB in Sac¬ 
ramento, one year in physics at MIT 
graduate school, and 15 months working 
at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory and the 
MITRE Corporation, where I was doing 
logical design of digital computers for 
processing of radar data.” 


Ralph O. Kelde, MS ’57, writes that he 
is now “instructor of mathematics in the 
Natural Science Division, General Col¬ 
lege. University of Minnesota, in Minne¬ 
apolis . . . and also registered as a grad¬ 
uate student in the department of geo¬ 
logy where I shall complete my PhD 

“Until September 16 I was employed 
by the University of Michigan as a re¬ 
search associate in the department of 
geology. For six months I worked under 
the direction of Dr. James H. Zumberge 
on the fGY-sponsored Shelf Ice Deforma¬ 
tion Project. We compiled and analyzed 
data collected during the 1957-58 and 
1958-59 antarctic field seasons.” 


James E. Contd. MS, is at Caltech, 
working for liis PhD iii geophysics on a 
Pan American Petroleum Foundation fel¬ 

Gerd A. Tiichen, MS, engineer with 
the Bell Telephone Laboratories, re¬ 
ceived his MS from New York University 
in June, after completing a two-year pro¬ 
gram of advanced study at the new NYU- 
Bell Laboratories graduate Center in Mur¬ 
ray Hill, N.J. 


Nelson Byrne is studying for his PhD 
in physics at Stanford on a National Sci¬ 
ence Foundation grant. 

Robert J. Kwik MS, is in his first year 
of study at the Princeton Theological 
Seminary. He is married arid has one son. 

Engineering and Science 


• The small gas turbine is an important aircraft and weight mark it as an important power source 
support item used primarily for starting jet engines for common commercial use. AiResearch is the 
and providing on-board auxiliary power. The high largest producer of lightweight gas turbines, ranging 
compressed air and shaft outputs for its small size from 30 H.P. to the 850 H.P. unit pictured above. 


Diversity and strength in a company offer the 
engineer a key opportunity, for with broad knowl¬ 
edge and background your chances for responsibil¬ 
ity and advancement are greater. 

The Garrett Corporation, with its AiResearch 
Divisions, is rich in experience and reputation. Its 
diversification, which you will experience through 
an orientation program lasting over a period of 
months, allows you the best chance of finding your 
most profitable area of interest. 

Other major fields of interest include: 

• Aircraft Flight and Electronic Systems —pioneer and 
major supplier of centralized flight data systems 

and other electronic controls and instruments. 

• Missile Systems— has delivered more accessory power 
units for missiles than any other company. AiResearch 
is also working with hydraulic and hot gas control 
systems for missile accessory power. 

• Environments Control Systems — pioneer, leading 
developer and supplier of aircraft and spacecraft air 
conditioning and pressurization systems. 

Should you be interested in a career with The 
Garrett Corporation, see the magazine "The Garrett 
Corporation and Career Opportunities” at your 
College placement office. For further information 
write to Mr. Gerald D. Bradley... 



AiResearch Manufacturing Divisions 

Los Angeles 45, California • Phoenix, Arizona 

Systems, Packages and Components for: aircraft, missile, nuclear and industrial applications 
November 1959 55 

Air brake for a spaceliner 

56 Engineering and Science 

The earth's atmosphere, one of the biggest obstacles to getting into outer 
space, can be one of our biggest assets corning back. At Douglas we are 
investigating how we can use its braking effects on rockets returning from 
deep space trips at far faster than ICBM speeds. Success will allow us to 
increase payloads by reducing the weight of soft landing systems. This 
technique also will aid us in pinpointing landing areas. Current reports show 
real progress. Douglas is engaged in intensive research on every aspect of 
space planning, from environmental conditions on other planets to the 
destroyer-sized space ships necessary to get there. We invite qualified 
engineers and scientists to join us. Write to C. C. LaVene, Box 600-E, Douglas 
Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California. 

Arthur Shef, Chief, Advanced Design Section, Missiles and Space Sys¬ 
tems, irons out a problem with Arthur E. Raymond, |\A||f*{ A Q 
Senior Engineering Vice President of i/UUULHw 


help airplanes haul 

bigger payloads 

lAJlxesvxs aXo 

November 1959 

Drop Forging Association •’Cleveland 13, Ohio 

Names of sponsoring companies on request to this magazine 

a* Ah&uodO fpaxfc*, JUb Xo Aye/ 

In an airliner, every pound of weight saved is worth hundreds of dollars 
. . . in revenue-making payload. And in military aircraft, pounds saved mean 
added miles-per-hour... or added load carried. 

In commercial products ... trucks, cars, materials-handling equipment... 
the pounds of dead weight you eliminate by using forgings make money 
year-after-year for the operator. The forging process lets you put the metal exactly 
where you need it to carry the load, withstand shock or vibration, 
endure torsion. And with not a surplus ounce of non-working weight going 
along just for the ride. 

Forged parts are the designer’s friend_strong where strength is needed, 

lowest in weight, twice-worked by original rolling of the best metals 
plus the hammer blows or high pressures of the forging process. 

Write for literature to help you specify, design, and procure forged parts. 

brings 'em back alive 

Today’s burning problem in space flight is how 
to ease a rocket safely back to earth, without being 
consumed by the metal-melting friction of our dense 
atmosphere. Design Engineer Carl J. Rauschenberger’s 
ingenious suggestion is a pair of wings, locked for¬ 
ward at blast-off, later folded back into flying position 
(insert) by hydraulic cylinder controls for a slow, safe 
descent. Mr. Rauschenberger also envisions a retract¬ 
able glass nose cone, heatproof to withstand the take- 
ofl, drawn back to admit air to a jet engine on the 
return flight. 

This outstanding solution to a timely design 
problem may already exist in working drawings on 
somebody’s drafting board, or even in mock-up form. 
But whether a project is developed today, tomorrow 
or the year after next, it will always be important to 
shape ideas into realities with the best of drafting tools. 

In pencils, of course, that means Mars, long the 
standard of professionals. Some outstanding new prod¬ 
ucts have recently been added to the famous line of 
Mars-Technico push-button holders and leads, Lumo- 
graph pencils, and Tradition-Aquarell painting pencils. 
These include the Mars Pocket-Technico for field use; 
the efficient Mars lead sharpener and “Draftsman” 
pencil sharpener with the adjustable point-length fea¬ 
ture; Mars Lumochrom, the color-drafting pencils and 
leads that make color-coding possible: the new Mars 
Non-Print pencils and leads that “drop out” your 
notes and sketches when drawings are reproduced. 

Tho 2886 Mars-Lumogrciph drawing pencil, 19 de¬ 
grees, EXEXB to 9H. The 1001 Mars-Technico 
push-button lead holder. 1904 Mars-Lumograph 
imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB to 9H. Mars- 
Lumochrom co/or-draffing pencil, 24 colors. 



at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 

Lost Alumni 

The Institute has no record of the present 
addresses of these alumni. If you know the 
current address of any of these men, please 
contact the Alumni Office, Caltech. 


Norton, Frank E. 

191 1 

Lewis, Stanley M. 


Arnold Jesse 
Fletcher, Harold O. 


Cox, Edwin P. 
Cronin, John A. 


Hickey, George I. 
Skinner, Richmond H. 


MeKaig, Archibald 
MerceraeU, James T. 
Springer, Harold O. 
Tracy, Willard H. 
Sheffield, Harold C. 


Chang, Hung-Yuan 
McCarter, Kenneth C. 
Yang, Kai Jin 


Evjen, Haakon M. 
Langer, R. Meyer 


Chou, F’ei-Yuan 
Hicks, Hervey C. 
Martin, Francis C. 
Morgan, Stanley C. 
Wingfield, Baker 


Briggs. Thomas H., Jr. 
Burns, Martin C. 
Nelson, Julius 
Robinson, True W. 
Sandberg. Edward C 
Wolfe, Karl M. 


Chao, Churig-Yao 
Douglass, Paul W., Sr 
Janssen, Philip 
Lea. William F. 
Shields, John C. 
White, Dudley 


Hall Marvin W. 

Ho, Tseng-Loh 
Voak, Alfred S. 

West, William T. 
Woo, Sho-Chow 
Yoshoka, Carl K. 


Patterson, J. W. 
Schroder, L. D. 
Wright, Lowell J. 


Applegate, Lindsay M 
Ayers, John K. 

Downie, Arthur J. 

Hsu, Chuen Chang 
Kitusda, Kaname 
Koch, A. Arthur 
Larsen, William A. 
Lockhart, E. Ray 
Miehal, Edwin B. 
Murdock, Keith A. 
Rice, Winston H. 
Shappell, Maple D. 
Smith, Warren H. 


Harshberger, John D. 
Liu, Yun Pu 
Lutes, David W. 
Radford, James C. 
Read, John 


Becker, Leon 
Bertram, Edward A. 
Huang, Fun-Chang 
McNeal, Don 


Chu, Djen-Yuen 
Creal, Albert 
Kelch, Maxwell 
Kurihara, Hisayuki 
Ohashi, George Y. 


Axelrod, Joseph 
Bumight, Thomas R. 
Cheng, Ju-Yung 
Easton, Anthony 
Fan, Hsu Tsi 
lories, Paul F. 

Lotzkar, Harry 
Maginnis, Jack 
Moore, Charles K. 
Munier, Alfred E. 
Nojima, Noble 
Penn, William L., Jr. 
Rechif, Frank A. 
Servet, Abdurahim 
Shaw, Thomas N. 


Gershzohn, Morris 
Goodman. Hyman D. 
Kanemitsu, Sunao 
Lowe, Frank C. 
Ofsthun, Sidney A. 
Oktiri, Daniel A. 

Rhett, William 
Tilker, Paul O. 

Tsao, Chi-Cheng 
Wang, Tsun-Kuei 
Watson, James W. 


Asakawa, George 
Brown, William Lowe 
Bums, Martin B. 
Easton, R. Loyal 
Liang, C. Chia-Chang 
Neal, Wilson H. 

Ortiz, Jose Pulido 
Robertson, Francis A. 
Tatom, John F. 

Tsien, Hsue-Shen 
Wilson, Harry D. 

continued on page 62 

Engineering and Science 










/ ! 


. best combination of ideas 

• 0 

At Convair-Fort Worth, you’ll find a new 
outlook ... a new perspective in the engi¬ 
neering organization . . . one whose objective 
is to provide a framework from which each 
engineer can contribute his best individual 
effort toward achieving the best combination 
of ideas. 

This is one reason why so many experienced, 
well-trained men with creative ability and 
inquiring minds are taking a close look at 
the advantages of joining a team whose 
advanced thinking is so vividly portrayed 

by the all-new B-58, America’s first and 
fastest supersonic bomber. 

Living in Fort Worth has its advantages, too. 
There is no state income or sales tax, ade¬ 
quate housing in all price ranges, no com¬ 
muting problem. Descriptive literature will be 
supplied on request, or send a complete res¬ 
ume of your training and experience for care¬ 
ful evaluation by engineers in the areas best 
suited to your qualifications. To be assured 
of prompt attention and strict confidence, 
address your inquiry to P. O. Box 748C. 




November 1959 


Tl's new semiconductor solid circuits measure less than X A xH x Vn of an inch and incorporate 
up to 12 integral electronic components. Complete working multivibrator circuit shown. In 
addition to extreme size and weight reduction, reliability also has been greatly increased. 

join Tl engineers in such challenging programs 

as micro-miniaturization 

TI develops new semiconductor solid circuit with component 

densities up to million per cubic foot! 

Prom one of many stimulating research and development pro- You will also benefit from Tl’s up-to-date personnel policies 
grams at Texas Instruments comes another major “first” . . . which include profit sharing plan (in 1958, 15% of base earn- 
new semiconductor solid circuits! Born from Tl-sponsored ings), semi-annual salary and advancement reviews, educa- 
research studies, the basic concept was carried through to tional assistance, insurance, hospitalization, and retirement 
reality by the Semiconductor-Components division. Utilizing programs. You will enjoy the temperate Southwestern climate 
TI developments in semiconductor manufacturing techniques and the many year-round recreational, amusement and cul- 
(controlled masking, etching, diffusion), TI has formed diode tural activities. 

and transistor elements, as well as passive elements of resist- To join this f ast - m0 ving company at the forefront of scientific 
ance and capacitance, to provide a complete circuit function technologies, please send resume to W. T. Hudson, Dept. 1306 
normally requiring up to 12 components! 

Such significant developments naturally result from Tl's 
great emphasis on creative ability and freedom of pro¬ 
fessional expression. You’ll find many challenging oppor¬ 
tunities at Texas Instruments where such technological 
advances are a frequent occurrence. At the Apparatus division, 
weight and size are critical factors in its missile and aircraft 
electronic and electromechanical systems. You may explore new 
possibilities for making these systems even smaller and more 
reliable using the new semiconductor solid circuits. Or, with 
the GeoSciences and Instrumentation division, you may exercise 
this new concept in circuitry to create new and more compact 
commercial and industrial instrumentation. 

A rewarding opportunity awaits you in one of the many pro¬ 
grams now in progress at Tl’s Central Research Laboratory, 

Semiconductor-Components, Apparatus, and GeoSciences and 
Instrumentation divisions. 

(Graph courtesy of Dallas Times Herald, January 7,1959) 

Dallas’ 12-month weather chart shows that temperature averaged 65.9° 
in 1958, with humidity at a comfortable low level. Dallas skies are 
predominantly clear and sunny, devoid of industrial haze or smog. 

What is a 



I T’S an anti-friction bearing that’s geometrically de¬ 
signed to give true rolling motion —and precision- 
made to live up to that design. Here’s how you, as an 
engineer, can benefit from Timken® bearings: 

A Tapered design enables a Timken roller bearing 
• to take any combination of both radial and 
thrust loads. You’ll often find that one Timken bearing 
does the load - carrying job of two ball or straight 
roller bearings. 

B Full line contact between rollers and races gives 
• Timken bearings extra load-carrying capacity. 
This enables a design engineer to cram maximum 
capacity into minimum space. And Timken bearings can 
be pre-loaded for accurate gear or spindle alignment. 

C Case carburization makes the steel of Timken 
• bearing races and rollers hard on the outside 

BETTER-NESS rolls on 

to resist wear, tough on the inside to resist shock. 
This prolongs the life of Timken bearings. And the 
steel we start with is the best. It’s nickel-rich for 

What is Better-ness? It’s our word for the 

result of the ceaseless American urge to make machines 
that do more, do better, do faster. Our engineers help 
make Better-ness possible. They’ve pioneered every 
major tapered roller bearing advance. And they work 
right at the drawing board with engineers of every 
major industry. It’s exciting, rewarding work with a 

If you would like to help create Better-ness on our 
engineering team, write Manager, College Relations, 
The Timken Roller Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 

1 tapered roller bearings 

First in bearing value for 60 years 

November 1959 




holds lead firmly 
at any length you 
want. Lead can’t be 
pushed back into 
barrel —and won't 
twist in sharpener. 


knurled for easier 
holding. Its extra 
length gives more 
accurate control, 
less finger tension. 



REL is unbreak¬ 
able. And it can’t 
rolloff the board be¬ 
cause it’s hexagon¬ 

stantly releases the 
chuck’s grip on the 
lead at the touch of 
the thumb. It’s col¬ 
ored for quick iden¬ 
tification of grade. 


This lifetime lead holder for just 



L _ 1 

All-metal construction 
makes it the buy of a lifetime. 



Lost Alumni . . . continued 


Batu, Buhtar 
Brasch, Martin F. 
Green, William J. 

Hsu, Chang-Pen 
Menis, Luigi 
Paul, Ralph G. 

Tajima, Yuji A. 

Tao, Sliih Chen 
Torrey, Preston C. 
Ustel, Sabih A. 

Wang, Tsung-Su 


Arnold, John K. 

Clark, Morris R. 
Dieter, Darrell W. 
Easley, Samuel J. 
Geitz, Robert C. 
Green, Jerome 
Harvey, Donald L. 
Hubbard, Jack M. 
Kuo, I. Cheng 
Noland, Robert L. 
Robinson, FrederickG. 
Spitzer, Ralph W. 
Standridge, Clyde T. 
Taylor, D. Francis 
Tiemann, Cordes F. 
Waigand, LeRoy CL 
Whitfield, Hervey H. 
Yui, En-Yirig 


Bebe, Mehmet F. 
Chastain, Alexander 
Curtis, Thomas G. 

Go, Chong-Hu 
Hughes, Vernon W. 
Johnston, William C. 
Levin, Daniel 
MacKenzie, Robert E 
Martinez, Victor H. 


Angel, Edgar P. 
Bethel, Horace L. 
Bridgland, Edgar P. 
Brown, James M. 
Bryant, Eschol A. 

Bu rlington, W illiam J. 
Carlson, Arthur V. 
Colvin, James H. 
Emmett, Glenn E. 
Hamilton, William M, 
Hillyard, Roy L. 
Hilsenrod. Arthur 
King, Edward G. 
Koch. Robert PI. 
Kong, Robert W. 
LaForge, Gene R. 

Lee. Edwin S.. Jr. 
Leeds, William L. 
Ling, Shih-Sang 
Lobban. William A. 
Lundquist, Roland E. 
Mainpell, Klaus 
McNeil Raymond F. 
Mixsell, Joseph W. 
Moore, Robert A. 
Nesley. William L. 
Neuschwarider, Leo Z. 
Newton, Everett C. 
O’Brien, Robert E. 
Patterson, Charles M. 
Pearson, John E. 
Rarnbo, Lewis 
Rivers, Nairn E. 
Roberts, Fred B, 
Rupert, James W., Jr. 
Scholz, Dan R. 
Shannon, Leslie A. 
Srnitherman, Thos. B. 
Tiridle, Albert W„ Jr. 
Vincente, Ernesto 

Walsh, Joseph R. 
Washburn, C. L. 

Weis, William T. 
Wood, Stanley G. 


Alpan, Rasit H. 
Baranowski, John J. 
Barriga, Francisco D. 
Bell, William E. 
Benjamin, Donald G. 
Berkant, Mehmet N. 
Birlik, Ertugrul 
Btidney, George S. 
Burch, Joseph E. 
Burke, William G. 
DeMedeiros, Carlos A. 
Fu, Ch’eng Yi 
Gray, J. Doyle 
Harrison, Charles P. 
Hu, Ning 

Johnson, William M. 
Kern, Jack C., Jr. 
Labananskas, Paul J. 
Leenerts, Lester O. 

' Marshall, John W. 
Nicholson, James C. 
Pi, Te-Hsien 
Rasof, Bernard 
Shults, Mayo G. 
Stanford, Harry W. 
Stein, Roberto L. 
Sullivan, Richard B. 
Simalp, Halit 
Trimble, William M. 
Llnayral, Niistafa A. 
Wadsworth, Jos. F., Jr. 
Williams, Robert S. 
Wolf, Paul L. 

Writt, John J. 

Yik, George 


Ari, Victor A. 
Arreguin-Lozano, B. 
Bunze, Harry F. 
Gibson, Charles E. 
Jenkins, Robert P. 
Kuo, Yung-Huai 
Levy, Charles N. 
Pooler, Louis G. 
Romney, Carl F. 
Tatlock, William S. 
Tseu, Pay son S. 


Allison, Charles W., Jr. 
Barber, John H. 
Burger, Glenn W. 
Conradt, Robert H. 
Dethier, Bernard 
Dyson, Jerome P. 
Esner, David R. 
Foster, R. Bruce 
Hayne, Benj. S., HI 
Huestis, Gerald S. 
Lang, Serge 
1 evds, Fiedc rick W. 
Maxwell, Frederick W. 
Parker. James F. 
Pollack, A. D. 

Prasad, K. V. Krishna 
Simmons, George F. 
Sledge, Edward C. 
Smith, Harvey F. 
Tung, Yu-Sin 
Uberoi, Mahinder S. 
Weldon, Thomas F. 


Ateneio, Adolfo J. 
Clarke, Frederic B. 
Clements, Robert E. 
Clock, Raymond M. 

Dagnall. Brian D. 
Darling, Donald A. 
Hsu, Chi-Nan 
Hsueh, Chi-Hsun 
Huang, Ea-Qua 
Leo, Piorello R. 
MacAlister, Robert S. 
McClellan,Thomas R. 
Miller, Curtis E. 
Molloy, Michael K. 
Monoukian, John 
Moorehead, Basil E.A. 
Mowery, Irl H. 

Nelson, Conrad N. 
Orr, John L. 
Guruvayur S. 
Ruderrnan, Malvin A. 
Sanders, Lewis B. 
Sappington, Merrill H. 
Vanden Heuvel,G. R. 
Wan, Pao Kang 
Wellman, A lonzo H. Jr. 
Ying, Lai-Chao 


Agnew, Haddon W. 
Bingham, Andrew T. 
Blue, Douglas K. 
Bunce, James A. 

Burt, Frederick B. 
Collins, Burgess F. 
Cotton, Mitchell L. 
Crawford, William D. 
Garber, Max 
Hager, James W. 
Holm, John D, 

Hsieh, Cilia Lin 
Hsiao, Chien 
Latson, Harvey H., Jr. 
Lawton, Elmore G. 
Leavenworth, C. D. 
Mason, Herman A. 
McCollam, Albert E. 
Morehouse, Gilbert G. 
Oliver, Edward D. 
Rhynard, Wayne E. 
Swain, John Sabin 
Swank, Robert K. 
Winniford, Robert S. 
Woods, Marion C. 
Yanak, Joseph E. 


Barker, Edwin F., Jr. 
Bauman, John L., Jr, 
Baumann, LaurenceL. 
Clancy, Albert H„ Jr. 
Clendening, If. C, 
Cooper, Harold D. 
Foster, Francis C. 
Calstan, Robert H. 
Heirnan, Jarvin R, 
Krasin, Fred E. 
Laberge, Jerome G. 
I.owrey. Richard O. 
MacKinnon, Neil A. 
McElligott, R. PL 
Morrell, Richard L. 
Orrne, Eric C, 

Petty, Charles C. 
Ringness, William M. 
Rndiii, Marvin B, 
Stappler, Robert F. 
Weiss, Mitchell 
Yi, Sien-Chiue 


Bryan, William C. 
Edelstein, Leonard 
Hendrickson, James B. 
Li, Chung Plsien 
McDaniel, Edward F. 
McMillan, Robert 
Merrifield. Donald P. 

Nelson, Robert C. 

Pao, W. K. 

Paulson, Robert W. 
Petzold, Robert F. 
Roberts, Morton S. 
Scherer, Lee R., Jr. 
Schneider, William if. 
Vivian, James A. 
Wright, Amos L. 


Arosemena, Ricardo M. 
Chong, Kwok-Ying 
Davison, Walter F. 
Denton, James Q. 
Hawk, Riddell L. 
Lafdjian, Jacob P. 

Li, Cheng-Wu 
Padgett, Joseph E., Jr. 
Pfieffer, Walter F. 

St. Amand, Pierre 
Summers, Allan J. 


Abbott, John R. 
Arcoulis, Elias G. 
Gerington, Thomas E. 
Jepson, James O. 
Loftus, Joseph F. 

Long, Ralph F. 
Lunday, Adrian C. 
O’Brien, Joseph 
Primbs, Charles L. 
Robieux, Jean 
Schaufele, Roger D. 
Shelly, Thomas L. 

Weber, Ernesto J. 
Wiberg, Edgar 
Woods, Joseph F. 
Zacha, Richard B. 


Clark, David J. 

Fink, George B. 
Lennox, Stuart G. 
Mishaan, Alberto 
Vidal, Jean L. 


Mertz, Charles III 
Quiel, Norwald R. 
Sargent, H. L., Jr. 

Yin, Mih 


Benton, William C. 
Crowe, Thomas H. 
Lim, Macrobio 
Martin, Frederick 
Moore, William T. 
Muraru, Vasile 
Powell, Robert V. 


Hershberger, Edw. E. 
Herzog. Robert T. 

Hsu, Nan-Teh 
Matey, William L. 
Spence, William N. 
Tang, Chung-1 Jang 
Wittehom, Fred 


Howie, Archibald 
Leader, Elliot 
Lee, Wonyong 
MacGillivray, A. D. 
Moore, Robert T. 
Stuteville, Joseph E. 
West, Clinton 
Wong, Chi-hsiang 


Schenter, Robert E. 
Schumann, Thomas G. 

Engineering and Science 

... a hand in things to come 

Probing tbe atom...for yon 

The boundless energy of the uranium atom means a brighter future 

Every day brings the benefits of atomic energy closer to our 
daily living. It presents a whole new field of exploration for scientists all 
over the world. 

A longer, healthier life is hopefully ahead as radiation is help¬ 
ing doctors learn more about the basic processes of life by revealing how 
certain elements are put to work by the body. The controlled rays of the 
atom are also being used to pin-point malignant tissues for subsequent treat¬ 
ment. And radiation studies of how plants absorb nutrition from sun and 
soil are showing the way to improved food supplies. 

These are but a few of the vital jobs being done by radioisotopes 
—radioactive materials created in atomic reactors at Oak Ridge, Tennessee 
. . . the great atomic energy center operated by Union Carbide for the U. S. 
Atomic Energy Commission. The people of Union Carbide will continue 
their pioneering research in atomic energy—and in the vital fields of alloys, 
carbons, chemicals, gases and plastics—to bring you a brighter future. 
November 1959 

Learn about the opportunities 
at Union Carbide in carbons, 
chemicals, gases, metals, plastics 
and nuclear energy. Literature 
is available at your placement 
office or write to V. O. Davis, 
Union Carbide Corporation, 30 
East 42nd Street, New York 
17, N. Y. 


... a hand 
in things to come 



November 20 Football Game and Dance 
December Fall Dinner Meeting 

January Winter Dinner Meeting 

March Annual Dinner Dance 

May 7 Annual Seminar 

JuneS Annual Meeting 

June Annual Picnic 



Cross Country 
November 13 

Clarernont-H. Mudd at Caltech 
November 20 

Caltech at Redlands 

Water Polo 
November 10 

Caltech at Redlands 
November 13 

Claremont-H. Mudd at Caltech 
November 17 
Caltech at LA State 


November 14 

UC, Riverside at Caltech 
November 21 

Caltech at Redlands 
November 24 

Caltech at Pomona 


Lecture Hall, 201 Bridge, 7:30 p.rrl. 
November 13 

Regulation of California Utilities 
— Ray Untereiner 

November 20 

Cancer and Viruses 
— Howard M. Temin 

December 4 

Physiological Variations Within 
Plant Species 
— Thomas O. Perry 

December 11 

F. Scott Fitzgerald — The 
Cost of Fame 
— H. Dan Piper 





House Organs 
Books, etc. 

Pasadena’s oldest and most 
complete publication house... 



4 5 5 El Dor a do Stree t 

C A L I F O R N I A 




Frank C. Bumb, '51 

Donald S. Clark, '29 



Ralph W. Jones, '38 

George B. Holmes, 38 


Frank E. Alderman, '30 

Holley B. Dickinson, '36 

Robert J. Barry, '38 F 

rederick W. Drury, Jr., '50 

Franklin G. Crawford, '30 

William W. Haefliger, '50 

Francis E. Odell, '44 





Dudley B. Smith, '45 

Clupak, Inc., 530 Fifth Avenue 

Vice President 

Frank B. Jewett, Jr.., ‘38 

Vitro Corrsoration of America, 261 Madison Avenue 


Harry J. Moore, Jr., '48 

I. B. M. Corp,, 590 Madison Avenue 


James C. Townsend, '54 

Room 822, 445 East 69th Street 



Frank H. Shelton, '49 

I Armed Forces Special Weapons Project 

I Secretary-Treasurer 

Richard G. King, '49 

Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University 

Silver Springs, Maryland 



Norman Bulman, '52 

Shell Oil Co., Martinez 


James A. Ibers, '51 

Shell Development Co., Emeryville 


Lee A.. Henderson, '54 

Weld Rite Company, Oakland 

Meetings: Fraternity Club, 345 Bush St., San Francisco 

Informal luncheons every Thursday 



Laurence H. Nobles, '49 

Department of Geology, Northwestern 

University, Evanston 


Philip E. Smith, '39 

1 Eastman Kodak Company. 1712 Prairie Avenue 


Thorne 1 Butler, '51 

Medical Center, Northwestern University 



Alfred Schaff, Ir., '41 

Aerojet-General C'orp., 


Georae Langsner, '31 

State Division of Highways, 1120 ' N" 



Paul J. Jurach, '46 

Stare Division of High ways, 1120 "N" 


Meetings: University Club, 1319 "K" Street 

Luncheon first Friday of each month 

Visiting alumni cordially invited—no. 

eservaiion necessary 



Maurice B. Ross, '24 

3040 Udal Street 


Frank J Dore, '45 

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. 

Program Chairman 

Herman S Englander, ’39 

US. Navy Electronics Laboratory 

Engineering and Science 


Sparks fly as the plant photographer 
records a grinding technique for study. 

Photoelastic stress analysis helps the design engineer 
pinpoint areas requiring extra strength. 

Today photography plays many important roles in 
industry. It speeds engineering and production pro¬ 
cedures. It trains and teaches. It sells. In whatever 
work you do, you will find photography will play a 
part in improving products, aiding quality controls 
and increasing business. 

Giant machines produce a flow of photo-exact engi¬ 
neering drawings—save countless hours of drafting 

Careers with Kodak 

With photography and photographic processes becoming 
increasingly important in the business and industry of 
tomorrow, there are new and challenging opportunities at 
Kodak in research, engineering, electronics, design and 

If you are looking for such an interesting opportunity, 
write for information about careers with Kodak. Address: 
Business and Technical Personnel Dept., Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester 4, N.Y. 


Rochester 4, N.Y. 

Color transparencies on 
the production line aid 
operators in assembly 
operations—save time 
and reduce errors. 


Q. Mr. Savage, should young engineers 
join professional engineering socie¬ 

A. By all means. Once engineers 
have graduated from college 
they are immediately “on the 
outside looking in,” so to speak, 
of a new social circle to which 
they must earn their right to be¬ 
long. Joining a professional or 
technical society represents a 
good entree. 

Q. How do these societies help young 

A. The members of these societies 
—mature, knowledgeable men— 
have an obligation to instruct 
those who follow after them. 
Engineers and scientists—as pro¬ 
fessional people—are custodians 
of a specialized body or fund of 
knowledge to which they have 
three definite responsibilities. 
The first is to generate new 
knowledge and add to this total 
fund. The second is to utilize 
this fund of knowledge in service 
to society. The third is to teach 
this knowledge to others, includ¬ 
ing young engineers. 

Q. Specifically, what benefits accrue 
from belonging to these groups? 

A. There are many. For the young 
engineer, affiliation serves the 
practical purpose of exposing his 
work to appraisal by other scien¬ 
tists and engineers. Most impor¬ 
tant, however, technical societies 
enable young engineers to learn 
of work crucial to their own. 
These organizations are a prime 
source of ideas — meeting col¬ 
leagues and talking with them, 
reading reports, attending meet¬ 
ings and lectures. And, for the 
young engineer, recognition of 
his accomplishments by asso¬ 
ciates and organizations gener¬ 
ally heads the list of his aspira¬ 
tions. He derives satisfaction 
from knowing that he has been 
identified in his field. 

One of o series* 

Interview with General Electric’s 
Charles F. Savage 

Consultant — Engineering Professional Relations 

How Professional Societies 
Help Develop Young Engineers 

Q. What contribution is the young en¬ 
gineer expected to make as an ac¬ 
tive member of technical and pro¬ 
fessional societies? 

A. First of all, he should become 
active in helping promote the 
objectives of a society by prepar¬ 
ing and presenting timely, well- 
conceived technical papers. He 
should also become active in 
organizational administration. 
This is self-development at work, 
for such efforts can enhance the 
personal stature and reputation 
of the individual. And, I might 
add that professional develop¬ 
ment is a continuous process, 
starting prior to entering col¬ 
lege and progressing beyond 
retirement. Professional aspira¬ 
tions may change but learning 
covers a person’s entire life span. 
And, of course, there are dues to 
be paid. The amount is grad¬ 
uated in terms of professional 
stature gained and should al¬ 
ways be considered as a personal 
investment in his future. 

Q. How do you go about joining pro¬ 
fessional groups? 

A. While still in school, join student 
chapters of societies right on 
campus. Once an engineer is out 
working in industry, he should 
contact local chapters of techni¬ 
cal and professional societies, or 
find out about them from fellow 

Q. Does General Electric encourage par¬ 
ticipation in technical and profes¬ 
sional societies? 

A. It certainly does. General Elec¬ 
tric progress is built upon cre¬ 
ative ideas and innovations. The 
Company goes to great lengths 
to establish a climate and in¬ 
centive to yield these results. 
One way to get ideas is to en¬ 

courage employees to join pro¬ 
fessional societies. Why? Because 
General Electric shares in recog¬ 
nition accorded any of its indi¬ 
vidual employees, as well as the 
common pool of knowledge that 
these engineers build up. It can’t 
help but profit by encouraging 
such association, which sparks 
and stimulates contributions. 

Right now, sizeable numbers of 
General Electric employees, at 
all levels in the Company, belong 
to engineering societies, hold re¬ 
sponsible offices, serve on work¬ 
ing committees and handle im¬ 
portant assignments. Many are 
recognized for their outstanding 
contributions by honor and 
medal awards. 

These general observations em¬ 
phasize that General Electric 
does encourage participation. In 
indication of the importance of 
this view, the Company usually 
defrays a portion of the expense 
accrued by the men involved in 
supporting the activities of these 
various organizations. Remem¬ 
ber, our goal is to see every man 
advance to the full limit of his 
capabilities. Encouraging him to 
join Professional Societies is one 
way to help him do so. 

Mr. Savage has copies of the booklet 
“Your First 5 Years ” published by 
the Engineers’ Council for Profes¬ 
sional Development which you may 
have for the asking. Simply write to 
Mr. C. F. Savage, Section 959-12, 
General Electric Co., Schenectady 
5, N. Y. 

HOOK FOR other interviews dis¬ 
cussing: Salary • Why Companies 
have Training Programs • How to 
Get the Job You Want.