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November 1961 

Chemistry 1961 .. . page 11 

ublished at the 

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How cold is up? We know that outer space can never be colder than minus 459.72° Fahrenheit—that’s absolute zero, the 
point at which all molecular motion ceases. We don’t know what coldness like this will do to materials, but we’re finding out. 
Scientists are using a heat exchanger to produce temperatures as low as minus 443° Fahrenheit. They test materials in this 
extreme cold and see how they perform. Out of such testing have already come special grades of USS steels that retain much of 
their strength and toughness at -50° or below; steels like USS "T-T Constructional Alloy Steel, Tri-Ten High Strength Steel, 
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USS, "T-1” and Tri-Ten are registered trademarks. 

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throughout the world, the 
shortage of water is a 
critical problem. By 
1975, there will be 
another billion people in 
the world . . . and unless 
we find enough “new” 
water for drinking, irri¬ 
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there won’t be enough 
fresh water for them all. 
Progress is being made 
toward solving the prob¬ 
lem. At San Diego, West- 
inghouse is building the 
country’s largest sea¬ 
water plant for the U.S. 
Department of the In¬ 
terior's Office of Saline 
Water. This plan will pro¬ 
vide 7 million gallons of 
“new" drinking water a 
week from the Pacific 
Ocean. This is only one of 
the many exciting facets 
of Westinghouse re¬ 
search and development. 
To learn more about a 
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an equal-opportunity 
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can be sure. . . if it’s 





On Our Cover 

In Caltech’s freshman chemistry lab¬ 
oratory, Dr. William Schaefer checks 
Hugh Maynard as lie calibrates a 

Things are not what they used to 
be in Caltech’s freshman chemistry 
laboratory—or, for that matter, in the 
whole chemistry curriculum. 

On page II, Ernest H. Swift, chair¬ 
man of the Division of Chemistry and 
Chemical Engineering, describes the 
Institute’s new approach to the teach¬ 
ing of chemistry. 

“Keeping the Curriculum Up to 
Date” has been adapted from a talk of 
Dr. Swift’s at: a dinner given by the 
Western Chapter of the American In¬ 
stitute of Chemists in Pasadena on 
September 20, 1961. The dinner, in 
fact, was in Dr. Swift’s honor, and the 
AIC presented him with an honor 
scroll for his “many years devoted to 
teaching and for the promotion and 
development of his profession and for 
his concern and attention for those 
within the profession of chemistry.” 

Project, New Valley 

on page 20 is an account by Egon T. 
Degens, assistant professor of geology, 
of his participation in efforts to solve 
the water problems of the Egyptian 

Dr. Degens, whose principal re¬ 
search interest is in isotope and or¬ 
ganic chemistry, came to Caltech as a 
research fellow in 1958 from Penn¬ 
sylvania State University, where he 
was a research associate in 1956-57. 
He is a native of Germany, and he re¬ 
ceived his PhD from Bonn University 
in 1955. 


Books 6 

Keeping the Curriculum Up to Date 11 

Three of the more serious challenges facing the 
makers of college chemistry curricula — and 
some changes which have been made at 
Caltech in an effort to meet these challenges. 

by Ernest H. Swift 

Research in Progress 16 
Iris Genetics 
by A. H. Sturtevant 

The Changing Campus 18 
A pictorial progress report 

Project New Valley 20 

A geologist, a physicist, and a geochemist 
tackle Egypt’s water problem. 

by Egon T. Degens 

Rudolf L. Mosshauer—Nobel Prizewinner 27 

Student Life 32 

The Caltech Student 
by Lance Taylor 62 

Personals 34 

Lost Alumni 42 


Publisher . 

Editor and Business Manager. 

Assistant to the Editor ._. 

Student News .. 

Photographer . 

Richard C. Armstrong ’28 

.Edward Hutchings, Jr. 

.Cerda Chambers 

.Lance Taylor ’62 

Roger Noll ’62 
.fames McClanahan 

Published monthly, October through June, at the California Institute of 
Technology, 1201 East California St., Pasadena, Calif. Annual subscrip¬ 
tion $4.50 domestic, $5.50 foreign, single copies 50 cents. Second class post¬ 
age paid at Pasadena, California. All Publisher’s Rights Reserved. Reproduc¬ 
tion of material contained herein forbidden without written authorization. 
Manuscripts and all other editorial correspondence should be addressed to: 
The Editor, Engineering and Science , California Institute of Technology. © 
1961 Alumni Association, California Institute of Technology. 

November, 1961 


Putting Ideas to Work in Machinery , Chemicals, Defense 





Graduates planning careers in chemical, electrical or 
mechanical engineering should talk with FMC Cor¬ 
poration. FMC is on the move wherever your special 
engineering interest goes . .. new research and devel¬ 
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products for commercial application... and advanced 
assignments for the nation’s defense arsenal. 

FMC’s dynamic growth pattern puts your career 
ahead faster, widens your choice of products and 
projects; teams you with the world’s top engineering 
and leadership talent working at the forefront of your 
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you with the broad scope of career opportunities at 
FMC we invite you to write for the booklet: A Career 
With Opportunity. 

'Formerly Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

FMC offers career opportunities in these fields: 
Agricultural Chemicals • Agricultural Equipment • 
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Materials Handling Equipment • Power Gardening 
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and Processing Equipment • Petroleum Specialty 
Equipment • Pumps and Water Systems • Waste 
Disposal Equipment. 


Personnel Administration Department 

P. O. Box 760, San Jose, California, 

or Technical Recruitment Manager 

Industrial Relations Department 

161 East 42nd Street, New York 17, New York 

Engineering and Science 

current openings in 




Raytheon offers 
Graduate study 

at Harvard 
and M.l.T. 

As the major horizons in electronics 
are explored and extended, Ray¬ 
theon offers an increasing number 
of challenging projects for scientists 
and engineers. In order to accom¬ 
modate this heavy investment in 
research and development, Ray¬ 
theon is committed as never before 
to comprehensive programs for 
developing its technical staff. The 
new Advanced Study Program is 
one of these. 

This program is available to a 
selected group of outstanding scien¬ 
tists and engineers. It enables pres¬ 
ent and prospective Raytheon staff 
members, who are accepted for 
graduate study at Harvard and 
M.l.T., to pursue at Raytheon’s 
expense part-time study toward a 
master’s and/or doctor’s degree in 
electrical engineering, physics or 
applied mathematics. You too may 
be able to qualify for the Advanced 
Study Program. 

For detailed information, visit your 
placement director, obtain the bro¬ 
chure, “Raytheon’s Advanced Study 
Program,” and arrange an on- 
campus interview. Or you may 
write directly to Mr. G. C. Clifford, 
Coordinator of College Relations, 
Raytheon Company, Gore Bldg., 
Watertown, Massachusetts. 

An Equal Opportunity Employer 


November, 1961 



The Natural History Library 

Doubleday Anchor Books 
in cooperation with The American 
Museum of Natural History 

It’s hard to find a publisher these 
days who isn’t bringing out a series 
of books on science for the layman— 
but it’s even harder to find a series 
that the layman can read with much 
interest or understanding. These 
paperbacks are an exception; they can 
not only be understood—they are even 

The first 13 titles in the series, 
devoted to the life and earth sciences, 

Modern Science and the Nature 
of Life by William S. Beck ($1.45) 

A brilliant and witty book about 
modern science in general and con¬ 
temporary biology in particular. 

From Fish to Philosopher by 
Homer W. Smith ($1.45) 

A noted physiologist’s account of 
vertebrate evolution and adaption. 

White Waters and Black by Gor¬ 
don MacCreagh ($1.45) 

An absorbing record of a two-year 
expedition through some of South 
America’s wildest jungle areas. 

The Ocean Island by Gilbert C. 
Klingel ($1.45) 

Shipwiecked on Inagua, in the 
Bahamas, a naturalist (and born 
writer) settles down to explore the 
island and make a comprehensive 
study of its exotic flora and fauna. 

Other titles: 

The Pacific Islands (revised edi¬ 
tion) by Douglas L. Oliver ($1.45) 

The Exploration of the Colorado 
River by John Wesley Powell 

John and William Bertrams 
America, edited by Helen Gere 
Cruickshank ($1.45) 

John Burroughs’ America, edited 
by Farida A. Wiley ($1.45) 

The Mountains of California by 
John Muir ($1.25) 

IIorses by George Gaylord Simp¬ 
son ($1.45) 

Shear waters by R. M. Lockley 

The Wandering Albatross (re¬ 

vised edition) by William Jameson 

Dwellers in Darkness by S. H. 
Skaife ($.95) 

Mathematical Handbook for 
Scientists and Engineers 

hy Granino A. Korn and Theresa M. Korn 

McGraw-Hill . $20 

Reviewed hy Cleve Moler, ’61 

This handbook is a handy reference 
to a wide range of mathematical def¬ 
initions, formulas, theorems, methods, 
and tables. Any scientist or engineer 
who requires access to various ideas 
from mathematics should find it 

The subjects covered include mod¬ 
ern algebra, set theory, analytic geom¬ 
etry, vector analysis, Riemann and 
Lesbegue integrals, Fourier analysis, 
Laplace transforms, complex variables, 
differential and integral equations, 
matrices, Boolean algebra, tensor 
analysis, finite differences and numer¬ 
ical methods, probability and statistics, 
and special functions. 

The book is very carefully organized 
with extensive cross-referencing, boxed 
formulas, different type faces and the 
like. In a few places it appears over¬ 
organized; some of the main points 
are obscured. But for the most part, 
the presentation is clear and concise. 
Good bibliographies of the major 
works in a subject are included at 
the end of the chapters. 

The handbook can provide either a 
review of the results—all proofs are 
omitted—of a subject or an introduc¬ 
tion to its basic concepts and methods. 
In addition, the index makes it a con¬ 
venient mathematical dictionary. 

Both members of the husband-wife 
author team have worked as engineers 
in the aircraft industry. Dr. Korn is 
currently Professor of Electrical Engi¬ 
neering at the University of Arizona. 


The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies 

hy Allan Bandage 

Carnegie Institute of Washington $10 

This handsome atlas, compiled by 
Allan Sandage, member of the staff 

of the Mount Wilson and Palomar 
Observatories, contains photographs 
and technical data on .176 galaxies. 
It is based partly on material left by 
Edwin Hubble, Mount Wilson and 
Palomar astronomer, who died in 
1953. Dr. Hubble was an authority 
on spiral galaxies and was noted for 
his determination of the nature and 
distance of these stellar systems be¬ 
yond our Milky Way. 

Catalogue of Galaxies and of 
Clusters of Galaxies Vol. I 

California Institute of Technology $6 

Prepared by Fritz Zwicky, Caltech 
professor of astrophysics, with the col¬ 
laboration of E. Herzog and P. Wild, 
Volume I of this catalogue contains 
the positions, photographic magni¬ 
tudes, and other data for about 9500 
of the brightest galaxies in the area 
from Deck —3 to -[-15° of the north 
galactic cap as well as positions, pop¬ 
ulations, sizes, and estimated distances 
for about 1300 clusters of galaxies in 
the same area. 


Ballistic Missile and 
Space Vehicle Systems 

Edited by Howard S. Seifert 
and Kenneth Brown 

John Wiley A Sons . . . . $12 

A companion volume to Space Tech¬ 
nology , edited by Dr. Seifert and pub¬ 
lished two years ago. Howard Seifert 
(Caltech PhD ’38) is professor of 
aeronautical engineering at Stanford 
University and Director of Professional 
Development with the United Tech¬ 
nology Corporation. 

Radioisotope Applications 

hy Jerome Kohl, Rene D. Zentner 
and H. R. Lukens 

D. Van Nostrand Company . . $12.50 

Based on a course in properties and 
applications of radioisotopes taught by 
Mr. Kohl at the University of Cali¬ 
fornia. Jerome Kohl (Caltech ’40) is 
now coordinator of Special Products, 
General Atomic Division, General 
Dynamics Corporation in San Diego. 


Engineering and Science 

Cooling space pilots from launch to landing 

New concepts in airborne cooling have become vital to the become identified include space life support systems, solar 
progress of America’s space program. For example, Garrett and nuclear power systems, electronic systems, air condition- 
is now developing an advanced system for the Boeing Dyna- ing and pressurization systems, computer systems and small 
Soar manned space glider. It will use the liquid hydrogen gas turbines for both military and industrial uses, 
fuel for the vehicle’s own accessory power system to control Available to newly graduated engineers is a several month 
the temperature of the pilot and equipment throughout the orientation program to help you determine your future, 
flight. This is another of the many systems in development For further information about a career with The Garrett 
by Garrett to further the conquest of space. Corporation, write to Mr. G. D. Bradley in Los Angeles. 

Project areas at Garrett with which you might wish to Garrett is an “equal opportunity” employer. 

THE GARRETT CORPORATION • AiResearch Manufacturing Divisions • Los Angeles 4-5, 
California • Phoenix, Arizona • other divisions and subsidiaries: Airsupply-Aero Engineering 
AiResearch Aviation Service • Garrett Supply • Air Cruisers • AiResearch Industrial • Garrett 
Manufacturing Limited • Marwedel • Garrett International S.A. • Garrett (Japan) Limited 

November , 1961 


The continuing expansion of advanced pro¬ 
grams at Boeing offers outstanding career 
openings to graduates in engineering, scien¬ 
tific and management disciplines. At Boeing 
you’ll find a professional climate conducive 
to deeply rewarding achievement and rapid 
advancement. You’ll enjoy many advantages, 
including up-to-the-minute facilities, dynamic 
industry environment, and company-paid 
graduate study programs (Masters and Ph.D.). 

For further information, write today to Mr. 
Conrad E. Brodie, The Boeing Company, P. 0. 
Box 3822 - UCI, Seattle 24, Washington. All 
qualified applicants will receive consideration 
for employment without regard to race, creed, 
color or national origin. 

Boeing-Vertol 107 helicopter shown with famous 
Boeing 707 jetliner, world’s most popular airliner. 
Boeing is world leader in jet transportation. 

Drawing of newly announced short-to-m 
range Boeing 727 jetliner. First 727 sale was 
in transportation history. More airlines In 
dered—and re-ordered—more jetliners from 
than from any other manufacturer. 

Boeing KC-135 jet tanker-transport is U. S. Air 
Force’s principal aerial refueler. Thirty C-135 
cargo-jet models of KC-135 have been ordered for 
Military Air Transport Service. 

Dyna-Soar manned space glider is shown, in artist’s 
concept, atop Titan ICBM for launching. Design 
will permit return for conventional landing. Boeing 
is prime contractor for glider and system. 

Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories where 
scientists expand the frontiers of knowledge in re¬ 
search in solid state physics, flight sciences, mathe¬ 
matics, plasma physics and geo-astrophysics. 

Drawing of 115-foot hydrofoil craft Boeing is build¬ 
ing for U. S. Navy. Riding out of water, craft will 
"fly” at speeds up to 45 knots on underwater wings. 

Boeing gas turbine engine powers this pleasure 
boat demonstrator. In other applications, Boeing 
engines power U S. Navy boats and generators. 

Engineering and Science 

Automation through communications 

works wonders in moving 

mountains of paper work 

Today, completely new concepts in communications are 
helping business and industry to achieve undreamed-of 
efficiency. Vast volumes of day-to-day correspondence 
and data can be sent over high-speed electronic systems 
linking far-flung centers into tightly synchronized 

As a leading specialist in microwave and carrier systems, 
Lenkurt Electric is working wonders today in closing 
the “communications gap” with these modern vehicles 
of mass data transportation. 

For instance, a single system can carry all communica¬ 
tions simultaneously—telephone, teletype, video, busi¬ 

ness data—even supervisory and control instructions. 
And they are received at distant points the moment 
they are sent. 

Lenkurt Electric is working in close alliance with the 
telephone industry, railroads, pipeline companies and 
electric utilities to reduce operating costs and step up 
efficiency with microwave and carrier communications. 
Lenkurt Electric Co., Inc., San Carlos, California. 

• • • 

Engineering Graduates with inquiring minds and a 
sense for the future will find interesting opportunities 
for achievement at Lenkurt Electric. 



Subsidiary of ^ - 


November, 1961 


° O O o o ooooo0 

a kodigjM 
was sp@o^t 
to rast^ 


In days of yore, men feared not only their 
mortal enemies, but the elements too. It was 
the medieval armorer’s task to protect his 
chief against foemen, but weather-protection 
was a more difficult matter. Thus many a 
knight was spent in rusty armor. 

Engineers and scientists at Ford Motor 
Company, engaged in both pure and applied 
research, are coping even today with the 
problem of body protection (car bodies, that 
is). Through greater understanding of the 
chemistry of surfaces, they have developed 
new paint primers and undercoatings, new 
rustproofing methods, and special sealers 
that guard entire car bodies against nature’s 
corrosive forces—all of which add armor-like 
protection to Ford-built cars. 

From other scientific inquiries will undoubt¬ 
edly come new materials with protective 
properties vastly superior to those of today. 
This is another example of Ford's leadership 
through scientific research and engineering. 


The American Road, Dearborn, Michigan 



Engineering and Science 

Engineering And Science 
November 1961, Volume XXV, No. 2 

Keeping the Curriculum Up to Date 

Three of the more serious challenges facing the makers of 
college chemistry curricula — and some changes 
which have been made at Caltech in an effort to meet these challenges. 

by Ernest H. Swift 

Three serious challenges face those who are con¬ 
cerned with college science courses today. The first 
of these challenges, and one which will demand in¬ 
creasing recognition, is the result of the various efforts 
being made to improve high school mathematics and 
sciences courses. 

There is a general impression among the lay public 
that it took Sputnik I to awaken a concern for the 
teaching of science in our high schools. As evidence 
to the contrary, however, there is the ambitious proj¬ 
ect, activated a full year before Sputnik I, which had 
as its objective the improvement of the teaching of 
physics in the high schools. 

This project, initially sponsored by the National 
Science Foundation, was centered at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, and is still active. It has 
involved the cooperative effort of college and high 
school teachers from all sections of the country, and 
has cost several million dollars to date. A text and 
laboratory manual have been produced, supple¬ 
mentary monographs written, and demonstration 
experiments and various other teaching aids made 
available. The physics teachers are to be commended 
for taking the initiative in such a program. Some 
chemistry teachers are so unkind as to say that it was 
the quality of high-school physics courses which 
stimulated this initiative. 

Similar, though less ambitious, programs are now 

“Keeping the Curriculum Up to Date” has been adapted 
from a talk given by Dr. Swift, chairman of the Division of 
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, at a dinner given by the 
western chapter of the American Institute of Chemists in 
Pasadena on September 20, 1961. 

in effect for improving high school courses in chem¬ 
istry, mathematics, and biology. At the present time, 
again under the sponsorship of the National Science 
Foundation, two experimental high school chemistry 
texts are being developed. The first of these texts 
stresses the types of chemical bonds as a logical 
method for presenting chemistry to high school 
students; approximately 250 schools are using this 
text on an experimental basis this year. The second 
text emphasizes a more experimental approach; about 
125 schools are using this text this year. It seems 
inevitable that increasing availability and use of 
these texts in the future will raise the general level 
of high school chemistry courses. 

Also preceding Sputnik I was the National Science 
Foundation program of summer institutes (initiated 
in 1953) and academic-year refresher courses (ini¬ 
tiated in 1956) for both high school and college 
science and mathematics teachers. These programs 
have been expanded until there were 398 summer 
institutes held during the summer of 1961; the cost 
of the program approached $23,000,000 and stipends 
were provided for 18,000 high school teachers. 
Twenty-one of these institutes were for chemistry 
high school teachers and ten were concerned ex¬ 
clusively with training teachers to use the two experi¬ 
mental texts mentioned. Participation in the aca¬ 
demic-year institutes has grown from 95 in 1956-57 
to over 1500 for 1961-62, and the budget has gone 
from $500,000 to almost $10,000,000. 

Another activity, which began after Sputnik I, but 
which I believe has had a significant effect on high 
school teaching in both physics and chemistry, has 

November , 1961 


Freshmen chemistry students get more personal in¬ 
struction these days. Here, Professor Jurg Waser and 
a graduate teaching assistant supervise a group of 10 
students in the laboratory. 

been the televised Continental Classroom series. 
These courses are exceedingly well done and are very 
popular. It would seem inevitable that high school 
teachers, knowing that their students were viewing 
these programs, would endeavor to prepare them¬ 
selves for the inevitable barrage of questions from 
the students. 

In addition, an increasing number of high schools, 
both public and private, are already giving a second 
chemistry course which qualifies their students to 
take the College Board Advanced Placement Exam¬ 
inations, with the resultant possibility of obtaining 
credit for the college general chemistry course. 

In summary, there is definite evidence that these 
various efforts have already had a significant effect 
on the average quality of high school science courses. 
Thus the colleges are being increasingly challenged 
to recognize these trends and revise their curricula. 
Not to do so would be grossly unfair to high school 
teachers who have developed good courses and to 
students who have taken advantage of these courses. 

The second challenge to college science curricula 
arises from what Dr. Joseph B. Platt, president of 
Harvey Mudd College, has called the knowledge 
explosion. A semanticist might prefer publication 
explosion since Dr. Platt measures this phenomenon 
in publication units. When both industrial and aca¬ 
demic advancement is often dependent upon papers 
presented and articles published, one can question 
that there is a linear relation between increase in 
publications and increase in knowledge. 

In his address to a recent Conference of Academic 
Deans, which was considering the effect of the ex¬ 
pansion of knowledge on the college curriculum, 
Dr. Platt pointed out that John Harvard gave a 
library of 300 volumes to Harvard College in 1636 and 
that the current Harvard library has about six million 
volumes. These figures represent a doubling in the 
number of volumes every 20 years and this expo¬ 
nential rate of increase is representative of other 
university libraries. The publication rate increase for 
the sciences approaches a doubling every 10 years, 
and in the July 17, 1961, issue of Chemical and 
Engineering News the director of Chemical Abstracts 
Service cited data for the past 10 years showing that 
the chemical literature now doubles every 8.3 years. 

These figures raise serious questions. Do they imply 
that in order to attain the same relative competence 
in a scientific field today 30 times as much in¬ 
formation must be pumped into a science student 
as 50 years ago; or, more frightening, a thousand 
times as much 50 years hence? Obviously this process 
cannot continue indefinitely. For one thing, we 
have to recognize that our science curricula are 
likely to remain what has been termed “constant 
volume systems.” There will be strenuous resistance 
to increasing the total time spent in college and an 
equal resistance to giving a larger proportion of the 
undergraduate time to science at the expense of 
humanistic studies. I, for one, will join the opposition 
to either of these proposals. 

What methods remain for coping with this for¬ 
midable information inflation? The improvement in 
high school courses represents one method which is 
already functioning. Another is a better organization 
of this expanded information. This approach implies 
an earlier and increased emphasis on fundamental 
principles and theories which the student can use 
to systematize the information to which he is exposed; 
and, of equal importance, to find or produce addi¬ 
tional information as needed. 

This approach was emphasized and pioneered 
almost 15 years ago by Linus Pauling in the preface 
to the first edition of his General Chemistry. He 
stated: “Chemistry is a very large subject, which 
continues to grow, as new elements are discovered 
or made, new compounds are synthesized, and new 
principles are formulated. Nevertheless, despite its 
growth, the science can now be presented to the 
student more easily and effectively than ever before. 
In the past the course in general chemistry has 
necessarily tended to be a patchwork of descriptive 
chemistry and certain theoretical topics. The progress 
made in recent decades in the development of unify¬ 
ing theoretical concepts has been so great, however, 
that the presentation of general chemistry to the 
students of the present generation can be made in 
a more simple, straightforward, and logical way than 

There are some chemists who will question how 

Engineering and Science 


far one can go in emphasizing principles and theories 
at the expense of experimental and factual chemistry 
and still be able to classify the product as a chemist. 
I intend to avoid debating this question. There is 
certainly evidence that this theoretical approach can 
be pushed to a degree which engenders a disregard 
for the experimental method and which can lead to 
an unrealistic, and at times woeful, misuse of theory. 

A third challenge which faces the makers of cur¬ 
ricula is the exceptional student. For present purposes 
an exceptional student will be defined as one with 
the potentialities—perhaps as yet latent—which could 
enable him to become a creative and productive 
scientist. And this country must produce creative and 
productive scientists in increasing numbers. Other¬ 
wise we will not keep pace with the scientific and 
technological advances of the future, with a con¬ 
sequent loss of national prestige and status and even 
national security. 

One of the qualifications which this exceptional 
student must have is intelligence of a high order. 
But, of equal importance, he must have intellectual 
curiosity and imagination, scientific integrity, and 
exceptional motivation. The efforts which are being 
expended on high school science courses will bring 
more of these exceptional students into the colleges— 
students who have been motivated by good courses 
and inspired by good teachers. The challenge to the 
college is to maintain and strengthen the motivation 
of such students rather than to stifle their interest 
and curiosity with poor teaching and repetitious 

Independent research 

One method of meeting this challenge is to arrange 
the college curricula so that students are given full 
credit for work they have done and are allowed to 
proceed at whatever pace they can maintain. Another 
method of meeting this challenge is the one which I 
first saw dramatically demonstrated over 40 years ago 
by Arthur A. Noyes at Caltech. Dr. Noyes took a 
personal interest in such students. He sought them 
out and gave them the opportunity for independent 
research. I purposely avoid using the term “under¬ 
graduate research;” too often this term is taken to 
mean a required senior thesis. I am skeptical of re¬ 
quired research at the undergraduate level because 
of the belief that all students should not be required, 
regardless of their interests and qualifications, to go 
through the motions of fulfilling such a requirement. 
Likewise, I sympathize with instructors with large 
classes who are supposed to provide stimulating and 
scientifically productive problems for all of their 
students, regardless of ability and interest, and who 
then have to supervise the students’ efforts until they 
produce a required thesis. There are brilliant students 
with predominantly theoretical interests who profit 
more from advanced courses; there are mediocre stu¬ 

dents who will profit more from expending the same 
effort in more closely supervised laboratory courses. 

There is no required research in the undergraduate 
chemistry curriculum at Caltech. There has been a 
vigorous program of research in chemistry by under¬ 
graduates since the arrival of Dr. Noyes on a full¬ 
time basis in 1920. Qualified and interested students 
are encouraged and given the opportunity from their 
freshman year to undertake research under the direct 
supervision of members of the staff. They receive 
academic credit for this work and this credit can be 
used to satisfy elective requirements of the junior and 
senior years. Increasing numbers are working 
through the summer period and they receive academic 
credit for this work without payment of tuition. 

I would like to cite one recent example, unusual 
but illustrative, of the operation of this program 
with an exceptional student. Two years ago Professor 
J. D. Roberts was approached by a freshman who 
stated that he had heard of Professor Roberts’ use 
of nuclear magnetic resonance as an aid to studying 
the structure of organic compounds. He also ex¬ 
plained that he had worked with electronic equip¬ 
ment in high school, and, although he intended to be 
a physicist, he would like to undertake some nuclear 
magnetic resonance research with Dr. Roberts. Ques¬ 
tions showed that the student had taken the trouble 
to learn something about nuclear magnetic resonance, 
and that his academic record was very good, so he 
was allowed to begin work on a simple project. The 
student worked in his spare time for the remainder 
of the freshman year, worked through the following 
summer, then in his spare time during his sophomore 
year, and again during the past summer. As a result 
of this work three papers have been submitted for 
publication and another is being prepared. 

Last year, as a sophomore, the student presented 
a report of his work before our weekly Research 
Conference. The level of his report can be judged 
by the fact that one of our staff members sub¬ 
sequently asked if the speaker was a visiting lecturer 
being considered for an appointment. 

I am aware that this is an unusual case and that 
there are undergraduates who become disillusioned 
and discouraged by lack of success with a research 
problem. It is also true that directing the research 
of undergraduates is likely to be a time-consuming 
effort. I can only cite the willingness of our staff 
to give their time to directing the research of under¬ 
graduates as an indication of their estimate of its 

Revising the chemistry curriculum 

In 1956 a revision of the undergraduate chemistry 
curriculum at Caltech was put into effect in an at¬ 
tempt to meet these challenges more effectively. 
Honesty requires a confession that this revision was 
motivated by the observation that since World War II 

November, 1961 


In Caltech's freshman chemistry course each student 
is provided with a notched-beam chainomatic analyt¬ 
ical balance. 

there had been a continuous decrease in both the 
number and quality of the students electing to major 
in chemistry or chemical engineering. This election 
of a major is not made until the end of the freshman 
year, which at the Institute is uniform for all students. 
Even more disquieting was the observation that stu¬ 
dents entering the Institute with an expressed 
interest in chemistry were electing other fields at 
the end of the freshman year. 

These observations indicated that the laboratory 
work of the freshman general chemistry course was 
failing to meet the first two of the challenges men¬ 
tioned. First, although substantially all of our students 
had had high school chemistry courses, the laboratory 
work was failing to take advantage of this previous 
training. Most of the experiments were largely 
repetitious of ones they had already done or seen 
demonstrated. Some so-called quantitative experi¬ 
ments had been introduced, but as one student ob¬ 
served “we were supposed to measure some constant 
which had been measured fifty years ago fifty times 
more accurately so we just dry labbed.” That is, they 
were not being challenged. 

Secondly, many of tire'experiments were still unduly 
influenced by the period when chemistry was a 
predominantly descriptive science, and they con¬ 
formed to a pattern which has been characteristic of 
chemistry curricula. They followed the historical and 
chronological development of chemistry and re¬ 
quired the assimilation of a large mass of descriptive 
material without developing the principles which 
would systematize this material. That is, the labora¬ 
tory work was not following the approach now used 
in modern general chemistry texts. 

As a result of these considerations a committee 
composed of Professors Carl Niemann, John D. 
Roberts, and myself was asked to consider a revision 
of the work of the freshman year and, if it seemed 
appropriate, of the entire chemistry and chemical 
engineering curricula. After much discussion within 

the committee and with other staff members, the 
recommendation was made that an experimental 
curriculum be initiated in which the conventional 
laboratory work of the first two quarters of the fresh¬ 
man year was to be replaced by work essentially 
equivalent to that which was then being given in the 
sophomore course in basic quantitative analysis. At 
first this recommendation will appear questionable, 
since the freshman chemistry course is general in 
nature, and is taken by all freshmen, and since 
quantitative analysis is usually considered to be a 
specialized professional course. The recommendation 
was based on several observations and conclusions, 

Fust, there was convincing evidence that the fresh¬ 
man laboratory work had not adequately recognized 
that science and engineering were becoming progres¬ 
sively more quantitative in both theory and practice. 
For this reason there seemed strong justification for 
including in the freshman chemistry course experi¬ 
ments which would develop the ability of a student 
to plan, execute, and critically interpret quantitative 
measurements of various types. Also, because of the 
increasing emphasis on theoretical material in modern 
general chemistry texts, it seemed almost imperative 
that students should develop an appreciation and 
respect for the experimental method and a realization 
that it is the basis of scientific progress. 

It was further hoped that subsequent laboratory 
courses, regardless of their fields, would be modified 
to take full advantage of this early proficiency in 
quantitative techniques. 

Second, the committee believed that by proper 
selection of these quantitative experiments the gen¬ 
eral principles underlying the various types of chem¬ 
ical reactions could be more clearly illustrated than 
by the multiplicity of descriptive and qualitative 
experiments conventionally used. 

The recommendation of the committee also in¬ 
volved the assumption that it would not be much 
more difficult to teach freshman students quantita¬ 
tive techniques than it had been to teach these 
techniques to sophomores; there would even be 
some advantage because of the absence of dubious 
habits acquired from the use of pseudo-quantitative 
instruments and techniques in the freshman year. 
Subsequent experience demonstrated the validity of 
this assumption. 

Also, it was believed that present-day freshman 
students, at least those who had taken a high school 
course in chemistry and had enrolled in a science 
and engineering course, were sufficiently mature and 
motivated to be interested and challenged by quanti¬ 
tative work done on a professional level. 

Finally, this recommendation was based on the 
assumption—perhaps gamble would be a better word 
—that quantitative analytical experiments could be 
so taught that they would be more effective than the 
descriptive experiments previously used in arousing 


Engineering and Science 

the interest and maintaining the motivation of the 
general students entering the Institute with an in¬ 
terest in chemistry. 

The reaction to this assumption has ranged from 
raised eyebrows to profanity—both used to express 
the belief that no course in the curriculum has driven 
more students from chemistry than quantitative 
analysis. Too often this has been true, because the 
teachers and the texts of quantitative analysis have 
still taught the course as it was taught 50 years ago. 
At that time there was economic justification for train¬ 
ing the student by repetitive drill with typical gravi¬ 
metric and volumetric procedures to be able to go 
out after four years and start his career doing routine 
work in an analytical or control laboratory. This is 
not true today. In fact, it is believed that the success 
of such a course, especially for those students not 
having a strong interest in chemistry, will in large 
measure depend on how effectively both students and 
staff are convinced that training analysts is not the 
primary objective of the work. 

The laboratory course 

Initially there was justifiable criticism that too large 
a proportion of the work in this laboratory course was 
conventional gravimetric and volumetric proce¬ 
dures. Subsequently, under the direction of Professor 
Jurg Waser, there has been continuous experimenta¬ 
tion to obtain diversification of measurements. As of 
last year, in addition to conventional gravimetric 
and volumetric methods, there were gas volumetric 
methods; there were coulometric and electrolytic 
methods involving measurements of electrical poten¬ 
tial, current, resistance, and total quantity of elec¬ 
tricity passing in a given time; and there were 
colorimetric methods involving measurements of light 

As a result of shifting the quantitative analysis from 
the second year into the first, there has been a general 
shifting downwards of the chemistry courses. The 
basic organic course, both class and laboratory, was 
moved from the junior to the sophomore year. The 
basic physical chemistry course remains in the junior 
year; in place of the organic laboratory of that 
year there is now a one-quarter course in advanced 
quantitative analysis, and two quarters of physical 
chemistry laboratory which was formerly given in 
the senior year. 

Because of these shifts, a student now completes 
his basic courses by the end of his junior year. Con¬ 
sequently the senior year is completely free, except 
for required humanities work, for a student to take 
research or graduate-level courses in special fields. 
As an alternative, serious consideration is being given 
to advising unusually mature and capable students 
to enroll in graduate school after completing their 
junior year. 

To what extent has this curriculum been successful? 

An objective quantitative evaluation is difficult. The 
results have been most apparent in the first year 
where there has been a dramatic improvement in 
the application and apparent interest of the students 
in laboratory work. We believe that this has resulted 
in part from elimination of any repetition of high 
school work and from the challenge involved in using 
professional instruments to their full capacity. For 
example, freshmen learn to weigh on notched-beam, 
chainomatic balances. 

Perhaps the most objective evidence of the relative 
effectiveness of the revised freshman course is the 
fact that after the first year there was an increase of 
approximately 60 percent in the number of students 
electing to major in chemistry or chemical engineer¬ 
ing. This increase has been maintained in spite of the 
current glamor of mathematics and physics. Also, this 
revised freshman work has enabled greater emphasis 
to be placed on research d5y exceptional students. 
The proficiency in quantitative measurements and the 
understanding of principles now obtained in the 
freshman year not only enables but stimulates stu¬ 
dents to undertake research work earlier than they 
did before. In addition, the acceleration of the basic 
courses has left more time available for research or 
advanced courses in the last two years. 

Indefinitely experimental 

I wish to emphasize that the curriculum I have 
described is still considered to be experimental, al¬ 
though it is now in its fifth year. I hope that this 
attitude continues indefinitely. Also, even though this 
curriculum has been reasonably successful at the 
California Institute, one cannot conclude that it 
would be equally effective at other schools. Recently 
I was invited to participate in a project to establish 
"the ideal chemistry curriculum.” Such a concept 
frightened me, since if it were generally accepted, 
further experimentation would be inhibited. I believe 
that the ideal curriculum for a given school is deter¬ 
mined by the interests and capabilities of the staff 
and of the students of that school at that particular 
time. One of the most promising current developments 
in connection with the undergraduate chemistry cur¬ 
riculum is the widespread willingness to re-examine 
the objectives, content, and sequence of the various 
courses and to apply the experimental method to 
this re-examination. 

The establishment of this revised chemistry cur¬ 
riculum at Caltech has been a cooperative undertaking 
in both planning and execution by the members of the 
Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 
The time and effort they have contributed has been 
responsible for whatever degree of success has 
resulted. To those concerned, it is obvious that con¬ 
tinuous expenditure of both time and effort will be 
required if this or any other curriculum is to meet the 
challenges of our rapidly changing modern world. 

November, 1961 


Research in Progress 



by A. H. 


Professor A. H. Sturtevant, Thomas Hunt Morgan 
Professor of Genetics, not only carries on an active 
research program with the famed Drosophila fly at 
Caltech, hut manages to find time to carry out basic 
investigations on a very different form of living 
matter, irises. Actually, his scientific publications in¬ 
clude investigations on heredity not 07ily in flies and 
irises but also in moths, snails, evening primroses, rab¬ 
bits, mice, race horses, and men. 

Several different groups of irises are widely grown 
as ornamental garden plants. In southern California 
many types are grown: the California natives, the 
Louisiana, the Dutch, the spuria, the stylosa or 
winter iris, and others. But here, as elsewhere, by far 
the most frequent type is the bearded iris—and it is 
with this group that I have been making genetic 

Iris genetics is slow. The minimum time from seed 
to seed is two years, and three or four years is not 
unusual. To one who has worked chiefly with Droso¬ 
phila this requires patience; the difference between 
two weeks and two years is considerable! One may 
well ask—in fact many people have asked—why then 
would one study such an unfavorable organism? 

Perhaps the real answer is that I like iris, and get 
a great deal of pleasure from the blooms that come 
in the spring. But I also have a few other reasons 
which are, I hope, more convincing to people who 
are not infected with the iris virus, as I am. 

The old-fashioned “German irises” that our grand¬ 
mothers grew were diploid bearded types—that is, they 
had 12 pairs of chromosomes. They were descended 
from complex crosses involving two wild species—the 
lavender Iris pallida and the yellow and red I. 
variegate, both from southern Europe. 

Beginning about 1910 these garden diploids were 
crossed with a series of wild tetraploids (I. cypriana, 
I. mesopotamica, etc.) that had 24 pairs of chromo¬ 
somes. These forms, all from the eastern Mediter¬ 
ranean region, were all purplish blue in color, and 
were taller, larger, and more susceptible to cold and 
other unfavorable conditions than the older diploids. 
The modern tall bearded irises of our gardens have 
been developed from these crosses. Nearly all of 

these are now tetraploid, and the range of colors and 
patterns is far greater than in the older types, and 
is being extended every year. 

The complex origin of the modern forms has re¬ 
sulted in a complicated genetic situation. There are, 
for example, at least four genetically quite distinct 
types of whites, of which only one can be identified 
with reasonable certainty by its appearance. The 
genetics of the various patterns that occur is very 
sketchily known; and almost nothing is known about 
the inheritance of properties other than flower colors 
and patterns. 

The long time between generations is a distinct 
disadvantage — but there are some compensating ad¬ 
vantages. The flowers are only rarely pollinated 
naturally, but set seed freely when hand-pollinated. 
It is, therefore, unnecessary to remove the anthers 
and enclose the flowers in bags when making crosses 
—which makes it a lazy man’s job to cross-breed them. 

Irises are usually propagated by planting the under¬ 
ground stems, or rhizomes (often incorrectly called 
bulbs), which perpetuate the genetic composition of 
the original plant. It is, therefore, easy to keep parents 
indefinitely for comparison with (or crossing to) 
their descendants. I have one old diploid that was first 
offered for sale in 1844; and the common winter and 
early spring-blooming white iris in Pasadena is 
albicans —a nearly sterile hybrid that has been propa¬ 
gated through rhizomes for at least 500 years. It is 
an Arabian plant that has long been grown in 
Mohammedan graveyards, and it has escaped and 
grows like a wild plant from Spain to India. 

I started crossing irises because I wanted to get first¬ 
hand familiarity with the genetic behavior of a 
tetraploid form, and this seemed to be a favorable 
plant to use, since both diploid and tetraploid forms 
are available and can be crossed to each other. 

Since the mid-thirties, irises of another group from 
the eastern Mediterranean area have begun to be 
intercrossed with the tetraploid tall bearded. These 
are members of the Oncocyclus group. They are 
short-stemmed, large-flowered types, and they are 
very difficult garden subjects. However, they have 
added new colors, patterns, and shapes, and now some 
fertile and more easily grown hybrid types are ap- 


Engineering and Science 

Dr. A. H. 

Slurtevant and 
his wife, 
maintain their 
field of irises 
right on the 
Caltech campus, 
just west of 
the new Keck 



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pearing. These raise a whole series of new genetic 
questions—and are of interest in connection with the 
old problem of interspecific sterility. 

A great many people are interested in crossing irises. 
It has been estimated that something like a million 
new seedlings are flowered each year in this country 

—many of them by amateurs, and nearly all of them 
by people whose knowledge of genetics is rather 
slight. There is widespread interest in the basic rela¬ 
tions—which are in fact not yet well enough under¬ 
stood to make possible a coherent general account of 
the genetics of the iris. 

November, 1961 



V * ' 

#*...& t, C " 4 

.;?£*'»»■ \\*?**‘fc**V,**AV-*-*'« 

Helicopter view of the campus, October 9, 1961 


Caltech’s graduate houses opened for business at the start of the 
1961-62 academic year. The dedication of the four new 
houses (Keck, Braun, Mosher-Jorgenson, and Marks) on October 2 
marked the completion of the 13th new structure in the Institute’s 
18-building development program. Still to come: the Karman 
Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Jet Propulsion which will be 
dedicated in January; the Firestone Aeronautics Research 
Laboratory and the Winnett Student Center, now under construction; 
and the Arnold O. Beckman xAuditorium and Robert A. Millikan 
Memorial Library, now only in the planning stage. On 
the opposite page, some new faces on campus. 


Engineering and Science 







W. M. Keck 

The hatched portions 
in this map of the 
Egyptian desert show 
the areas that are 
now, or will be, 
irrigated by artesian 
water in Project New 
Valley, a long range 
plan which will bring 
from 10 to 15 million 
people to this arid area 

New Valley 

by Egon T. Degens 

In the spring of 1960, a geologist, a physicist, and a 
geochemist landed at Cairo airport. Their visit, which 
was sponsored by UNESCO, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, and the Egyptian Government, concerned 
the water problem of the Western Egyptian Desert. 

It was the time of Ramadan (which literally means 
“hot month”) when strict fasting is practiced during 
daylight hours, until the Great Bairam, the highest 
Mohammedan festival, ends the fasting. Actually, it 
seems that a great percentage of the Egyptian people 

yApie'Tov jjcv iiScjfi 

“Water is the best of all things’—Pindar (475 B.C.) 

practice Ramadan more or less permanently, for many 
of them live on only one or two cupfuls of hot beans 
a day. 

One may ask why these people cannot make a 
decent living in a Nile Valley which often looks like 
the Garden of Eden. The answer is quite simple. 
Egypt covers an area of about 400,000 square miles 
and has a population of about 26 million; that means 
65 people per square mile—a population density very 
much like that of California, But the inhabitants of 
Egypt are concentrated in the small valley of the 
Upper Nile and delta region—an area which em¬ 
braces only 14,000 square miles. In other words, there 
are 1,800 people per square mile here, making this 
one of the most densely populated spots on our 
planet. The rest of Egypt is just plain desert, with 
here and there an oasis; but only a couple of thousand 
people call such oases home. 

The population of Egypt increases by more than 
500,000 per year. A few years ago, people all over the 
world realized that something had to be done im¬ 
mediately to forestall even more serious famine, and 
the erection of a high dam near Aswan was planned. 
This would make possible the development of some 
industry and the irrigation of an additional few thou¬ 
sand square miles of desert. 

Because of the external political situation, the con¬ 
struction of the Aswan Dam is now in progress under 
Russian management and will be completed in 8 to 
10 years. The succeeding irrigation program will pro¬ 
vide subsistence to about 5 million people—but, since 
this is precisely the expected increase in population 
over the coming decade, it is somewhat unrealistic to 
regard the Aswan Dam as the final solution to Egypt’s 

Ancient history 

Not long ago, in the period of about 100,000 to 
10,000 B.C., the Western Egyptian Desert, which is a 
part of the Libyan Desert, was a center of culture 
and civilization. Since that time human beings have 
gradually disappeared from this region. The popula¬ 
tion has declined from an estimated few million 
people in the Mesolithic era to just a few thousand 
fellaheen today. 

In Mesolithic times, which cover the period from 
about 50,000 to 10,000 B.C., huge fresh water lakes 
developed naturally in the Western Egyptian Desert. 
They were fed by streams which branched from the 

old Nile near Wadi Haifa and then flowed north¬ 
westerly along the line of the so-called desert depres¬ 
sions—in which the oases Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra, 
Bahariya, and Siwa are located—to end ultimately in 
the Mediterranean. 

This picture, as outlined, is like a mirage seen 
across the sands of time, for today one sees only 
growing sand dunes, dry lakes, and a precipitation of 

less than one inch in 25 years. 


The past — key to the future 

Oases are located sporadically throughout the 
Libyan Desert, and it is a common belief that they 
have unlimited water resources at depth. It is further 
assumed, without adequate basis, that this water 
reservoir is continuously recharged from the south 
(Abyssinia-Sudan) and southwest (Equatorial Africa) 
where precipitation is abundant. 

This belief is based largely on the fact that the 
oases have stayed as a bastion in the desert for at 
least the last few thousand years, and that during this 
period the water supply has not changed significantly. 

Tlie water is mostly artesian—brought to the surface 
by natural water or gas pressure. It is stored at depths 
from 100 to 3,000 feet below the present surface. It is 
well established by geological studies that there is 
subsurface water intercommunication between some 
of the oases, which could mean that water reservoirs 
of larger dimensions are developed at greater depth 
beneath the Libyan Desert. 

This assortment of facts and vague hypotheses has 
led to one of the most fantastic cultivation programs 
the world has ever known—Project New Valley. Al¬ 
though this program will change the economy and 
the face of Egypt in a profound manner, little is 
known about the ultimate goal of the project outside 
of Egypt. Basically, the project intends to irrigate land 
now occupied by desert by means of subsurface 
waters, supplied from hundreds of bore holes to be 
drilled in the depressions of the Western Egyptian 
Desert. Some additional water will be furnished from 
the Aswan High Dam reservoir along an artificial river 
flowing through the New Valley. 

The area under consideration is hatched in the 
map at the left. This is the very same area where pre¬ 
historic man lived, and the aim of Project New Valley 
is, therefore, the recultivation of ancient farmland 
which has gradually developed into desert over the 
last 5 to 10 thousand years. As an indication of how 

November, 1961 


Project New Valley produces irrigation water at a rate of about 300,000 cubic meters a day at the oasis of Dakhla. 
Pipes like that above bring artesian water from hundreds of feet below the surface. At present the water is 
overflowing and evaporating, leaving thick layers of salts on the newly developed acres. 

the project will affect the population structure of 
Egypt, approximately 10 to 15 million Egyptians are 
expected to settle in this area within the next 10 to 
15 years. 

New Valley is an outgrowth of the General Organ¬ 
ization for the Rehabilitation of Deserts which was 
founded at Cairo about 10 years ago. One of the first 
activities of this organization was to drill a great 
number of bore holes across the desert depressions, 
hoping for unlimited water resources beneath the 

The project is only a few years old and still in its 
initial stage, yet millions of cubic meters of water are 
being continuously extracted from the subsurface 
reservoir. At Dakhla, a small community of less than 
1,000 people, the daily outflow of water is about 
300,000 cubic meters, a quantity sufficient to supply 
a town of 1-2 million inhabitants. At present, the 
water is just running down from the slope to evaporate 
at the rate of about one inch a day, leaving layers of 
salts up to a half inch in thickness on the newly 
developed acres. 

One important necessity for the success of Project 
New Valley is that the extraction rate of the water 
be matched by an influx rate of comparable magni¬ 
tude. However, there are convincing reports that such 
a sound water balance does not exist. For instance, a 
significant decrease in gas pressure and water outflow 
rate has already been registered in the first five years 
of the project. This might be an indication that the 

water resources are not as plentiful as generally 

This was the situation when our three-man research 
team landed at Cairo airport to study the origin, 
source, and distribution of the artesian waters in the 
Western Egyptian Desert. Over a period of three 
weeks we collected water samples from various places 
in the desert depressions, the location site of New Val¬ 
ley, to be analyzed later in our laboratories at home. 
A two-engine Ilyushin aircraft, furnished by the 
Egyptian Government, made this rapid collecting of 
the water specimens possible. 

The group was headed by Dr. Georg Knetsch, 
director of the Geological Institute at Wuerzburg 
University in Germany. Dr. Knetsch has spent many 
years in Africa doing temporary work as head of the 
Department of Earth Sciences at Cairo University. 
He is unanimously regarded as the outstanding 
European expert on African geology. His profound 
knowledge of Egyptian geology was the scientific 
backbone of our whole investigation. 

The physicist, Dr. Karl Otto Munnich, senior re¬ 
search associate at the Physical Institute of Heidel¬ 
berg University, working with Dr. John Vogel, asso¬ 
ciate professor at the Physical Institute of Groningen 
University, determined the age of the waters by means 
of carbon-14 analysis. 

As geochemist, I investigated the chemistry and 
stable isotope distribution of the waters and the 


Engineering and Science 

During our trip, we were associated with two 
Egyptian geologists, Dr. A. Shata and Dr. M. Shazly, 
both staff members at the Desert Institute in Cairo. 

Geological background 

To understand the water situation and the future 
of Project New Valley, it is necessary to have some 
idea of the geological setup of Egypt. 

The oldest rocks exposed in Egypt are crystalline 
rocks of Precambrian age. They cover a small strip 
of about 30 to 80 miles wide along the west coast of 
the Red Sea. They are also present in Sinai. Westward 
from the Red Sea, these Precambrian or basement 
rocks are overlaid by sediments belonging to the 
so-called Nubian Series which dip gently to the west. 

Spots of Precambrian rocks also crop out in the 
Libyan Desert, close to the border of the Sudan. 
These crystalline “islands” are oriented along an east- 
westerly line starting from about Aswan and moving 
westward to Uweinat, a small place located in the 
northeast corner of the Sudan. This is the surface 
manifestation of the Aswan-Uweinat Uplift, a gigantic 
subsurface rock dome which lifted crystalline rocks 
to, or close to, the present surface and has served as 
an effective impermeable barrier to the movement 
of ground water. 

North of this uplift, the crystalline basement dips 
northward and is covered by sediments of the Nubian 
Series which are gently inclined to the north. The 
Nubian rocks represent stratigraphically all sediments 
from at least the Cambrian up to the Cretaceous and 
sometimes the Eocene, a time period covering about 
400 million years of earth history. In the north, Upper 
Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones and clays rest 
upon the Nubian Series. 

These features indicate that Egypt is surrounded 
on the east and on the south by a girdle of crystalline 
rocks; to the west extends the Sahara Desert, and on 
the north the country is bounded by the Mediter¬ 
ranean. Inside Egypt, moving from the Aswan- 
Uweinat Uplift in the south toward the Mediterranean, 
only Nubian and younger sediments are exposed, rest¬ 
ing on the Precambrian basement. Toward the north, 
these sediment layers increase steadily in thickness 
from zero to about 10.000 feet. They hold the waters 
on which the success of Project New Valley largely 

“Tales Sunt Aquae .. 

“Waters take their nature from the strata through 
which they flow.” This statement by Plinius (23-79 
A.D.) carries a profound meaning. Practically all 
matter found in the earth’s crust is to some degree 
soluble in natural waters. Natural waters act as 
decomposing agents and solvents in the earth’s crust. 
In turn, the waters cannot remain unchanged in their 
chemical composition as long as they migrate through 

rocks. The proportion and type of soluble matter taken 
up from the strata depends on a number of factors 
such as the chemical nature of the rocks, the purity 
and temperature of the water, the ease of circulation 
of water through the rocks, the overhead pressure, 
and the velocity of water flow. 

In applying these fundamental hydrochemical laws 
to the Egyptian water problem, all the systematic 
variation in the chemistry of the waters can be ex¬ 
plained in a simple fashion. Our data show that 
waters taken from oases in the south, close to the 
Aswan-Uweinat Uplift, have about 10 times less 
solutes than waters obtained from oases in the north, 
located near the Mediterranean. In other words, there 
is an increase in salinity toward the north, and this 
increase is solely caused by contributions of chlorine, 
sulfate, and sodium ions to the water solutes. The 
remainder of the ions show no significant fluctuations 
over hundreds of miles. 

Experimental leaching studies on the Nubian Series, 
which serve as aquifers or water-carrying strata, 
reveal that chlorine, sulfate, and sodium are, in fact, 
the only ions that can be extracted in significant 
quantities from the Nubian wall rock. This feature 
suggests a cause-effect relationship between sediment 
and associated water in a manner which confirms that 
“Tales sunt aquae, qualis terra per quam fluunt.” 

Isotope analysis 

Although the chemistry of the water changes con¬ 
sistently from south to north as a result of migration 
and storage mechanisms, the ratio of the two stable 
isotopes of oxygen (O' 8 and 0 16 ) in this water does 
not change and, further, the amount of the heavy 0 1S 
is abnormally low. 

From other studies it is known that the amount 
of 0 1s in natural waters is controlled primarily by the 
temperature at which such waters precipitated from 
the atmosphere. Precipitation occurring under cold 
conditions is relatively deficient in O 18 . The fact that 
the Egyptian ground waters are abnormally low in 0 1S 
gives a clue as to the climatic conditions under which 
such water fell to earth and seeped into the ground 
to be stored in the safe-deposit box of the Egyptian 
water basin. 

Analyses of the carbonates of the waters made it 
even more possible to determine the precise age of 
the water. At Kharga, the age is about 25,000 years, and 
at Siwa, 30,000 years. The ages of the other oases fall 
in between, gradually increasing from south to north. 

The history of the water 

All geochemical, geological, and physical informa¬ 
tion indicates that the water fell in Pluvial periods of 
the Mesolithic era about 25,000 to 30,000 years ago 
and was transported in surface drainage systems from 

continued on page 26 

November, 1961 



Engineering and Science 



Almost every scientifically trained man can find stimulating and rewarding career 
opportunities within the broad spectrum of Pratt & Whitney Aircraft activities. 

From the solid foundation of 36 years as a world leader in flight propulsion 
systems, P&WA development activities and research investigations today are far 
ranging. In addition to continuing and concentrated development effort on air 
breathing and rocket engines, new and exciting avenues are being explored in 
every field of advanced aerospace, marine, and industrial power applications. 

The reach of the future ahead is indicated by current programs. Presently, 
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is exploring the fringe areas of technical knowledge in 
magnetohydrodynamics . . . thermionics and thermo-electric conversions . . . hyper¬ 
sonic propulsion . . .fuel cells and nuclear power. 

To help move tomorrow closer to today, we continually seek ambitious young 
engineers and scientists. Your degree? It can be in: MECHANICAL ■ AERO¬ 

The field still broadens. The challenge grows greater. And a future of recognition 
and advancement may be here for you. 

For further information regarding an engineering career at Pratt & Whitney 
Aircraft, consult your college placement officer or write to Mr. R. P. Azinger, 
Engineering Department, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford 8, Conn. 


Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

CONNECTICUT OPERATIONS East Hartford, Connecticut 


All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, creed, color 
or national origin. 

November, 1961 

Abyssinia and the Sudan into the Western Egyptian 
Desert in the Nile drainage system of that time. A 
significant subsurface migration of former rain waters 
from Central or East Africa into Egypt can be com¬ 
pletely ruled out, since the Aswan-Uweinat Uplift, 
which once had lifted the crystalline basement to, or 
close to, the present surface, operated as an extremely 
effective water barrier, preventing a significant sub- 
cutane influx of water from the Sudan, Abyssinia, or 
the region of Equatorial Africa. The infiltration of 
present Nile water, a hypothesis formerly suggested, 
can be excluded for various geological and geochem¬ 
ical reasons. 

Prehistoric lakes 

The large supply of water from outside into the 
center of the desert depressions in prehistoric times 
resulted in the formation of extensive fresh water 
lakes full of fish, in which sediments were deposited. 
These unobtrusive sediments are the only clues to the 
former existence of the lakes, and their present dis¬ 
tribution makes it possible to reconstruct the ancient 
shore lines. Embedded in the sediments, besides pre¬ 
historic artifacts, are small gastropod shells, whose 
isotope ratios are consistent with ratios that would 
be expected if the shells were formed in isotopic 
equilibrium with the desert water and its dissolved 

It is even possible to calculate, from the oxygen 
isotope data of the desert water and the shell carbon¬ 
ate, the mean annual temperature of the lake environ¬ 
ment at the time the shell creature lived. The pre¬ 
historic water had a mean annual temperature of 
about 15-16°C, which is appreciably lower than the 
present mean temperature of the Nile. This is not 
surprising since there was a glacial stage at about that 

The Nubian sediments, in which shales, sandstones, 
and conglomerates alternate, are quite favorable for 
the storage and transportation of the water. Aquifers 
are provided by sandstones and conglomerates, which 
are enclosed By relatively impervious shales. In those 
days the lake and river water oozed rapidly into the 
underlying Nubian Series or was carried by surface 
drainage systems into the Mediterranean along the 
line from Kharga to Siwa. 

Evaporation from the lakes that existed in pre¬ 
historic times certainly caused precipitation and af¬ 
fected the general climate considerably. It has to be 
emphasized, however, that the overwhelming part of 
the present subsurface water was derived from the 
same geographical intake area as that of the present 
Nile, whose chemistry is identical with that of the 
desert waters which have been stored in the most 
southern oases for the last 25,000 years. 

Water is never at rest. The Egyptian water migrated 
slowly from an intake area bounded by the Aswan- 
Uweinat Uplift in the south toward the Mediter¬ 

ranean, picking up more and more salts from the sur¬ 
rounding rocks during transportation. On the basis 
of carbon-14 data, it has been estimated that the 
velocity of flow is roughly 15 miles in 100 years. The 
solutes of the water increase by about two milligrams 
per liter during one mile of transportation. The low 
salt concentrations in the southern oases support 
our inference that the water did not migrate the long 
distance of about 1,000 to 1,500 miles through rocks 
from Abyssinia to the Sudan. 

Waters from greater depths rise to the surface by 
pressure of gases. The origin of these gases is not fully 
known. The most likely hypothesis is that the gas 
phase, which is mostly air, became entrapped in the 
sediments contemporaneously with the water. During 
storage and migration, the gases were separated from 
the water, and the shales, operating as a shield, pre¬ 
vented their escape. Just as compressed gas billows' 
force oil to the surface in some petroleum deposits, 
waters present in the Nubian Series may similarly be 
expelled to the outside. 

Future prospects 

The success of a project of such fantastic dimen¬ 
sions as New Valley is dubious. Waters in the Libyan 
Desert are with great probability fossil, which means 
that no significant recharge from outside takes place. 
In addition, the water reservoirs are more or less re¬ 
stricted to small sediment basins below the desert 
depressions and do not extend over the entire Libyan 
Desert. Finally, the waters are presently being wasted 
in an irresponsible manner. There is of course no 
simple way to calculate the total water reserves, but 
the decrease in outflow in some of the oases should 
make people suspicious. 

Under these circumstances it is advisable to stop 
the enormous consumption of irrigation water immedi¬ 
ately. This can easily be done by switching from a 
flooding to a sprinkling technique, which would 
simultaneously prevent the development of salt crusts 
on the newly developed acres. It should also be 
possible to irrigate the desert on a somewhat smaller 
scale during the final stage of the cultivation program. 

Under these conditions, the future of the manv 
fellaheen who will eventually settle in the desert will 
be more secure, perhaps for the next hundred years 
or two. 

I can already visualize a small stream, branching 
from the water reservoir of the Aswan High Dam into 
the Western Egyptian Desert and sending, as in pre¬ 
historic times, Nile water to the New Valley. More 
water will come from the ancient water reservoirs 
beneath the desert depressions. The climate will be¬ 
come more favorable and the New Valley will be 
transformed into a flourishing Garden of Eden. 

This vision is the same as the one Egypt has been 
dreaming of ever since those seven meager years 
recorded in the first book of Moses. 


Engineering and Science 

Rudolf L 


Nobel Prizewinner 

Rudolf L. Mossbauer, senior research fellow in 
physics at Caltech, is one of two scientists to receive 
the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics. Dr. Mossbauer was 
awarded the prize for his discovery of the radiation 
effect that bears his name. The other half of the 
$48,300 physics prize goes to Robert Hofstadter of 
Stanford University lor his discoveries about the 
structure of nucleons. 

The Mossbauer effect is a remarkably accurate 
yardstick that enables physicists to measure precisely, 
for the first time, the effects of natural forces such as 
gravity, electricity, and magnetism, on infinitely small 

particles, such as photons and parts of the nuclei of 

Basically, the Mossbauer effect states that under 
certain conditions both the atomic nucleus and the 
whole crystal that contains it will recoil when the 
nucleus emits or absorbs a gamma ray. Emitting and 
absorbing nuclei, if built into crystals, are, therefore, 
exactly in resonance. With the Mossbauer effect, 
physicists can observe this nuclear resonance more 
sharply than ever before, and can use it for extremely 
precise measurements of gravity, magnetism, and the 
structure of the nucleus. 

continued on page 30 

Mossbauer meets the press after being notified of his award. 

November, 1961 

Edward H. Sussenguth, Jr. (B.A., Harvard '54; M.S. in E.E., 
MIT ’59) has investigated the theoretical requirements of 
an automated design system for advanced cryotron-circuit 


Thin film cryotrons may make possible computers of small 
size and truly prodigious speeds. 

The speeds of today’s computers are limited mainly by 
device switchingtimes. Speeds of cryotron computers would 
be limited mainly by signal propagation times between 

Automation of Logical Circuits. Edward Sussenguth has 
studied methods of design which will reduce the distance 
between devices to a minimum. He hopes that these will 
contribute to a completely automatic design system. 

Ultimately, then, the systems designer would specify his 
needs in terms of Boolean equations and feed them into a 
computer. The computer would (a) design the logical cir¬ 
cuits specified by the equations, (b) translate the logical 
circuits into statements describing the interconnections, 
(c) from the interconnections, position the devices in an 
optimal fashion, (d) from this configuration, print out the 
masks to be used in the evaporation process by which 
these circuits are made. 

This is a big order, but Edward Sussenguth and his col¬ 
leagues have already made significant progress. Their work 
may well have a profound effect on computer systems in 
the coming years. 

Orientation: the future. One of the exciting things about 
computer development is this orientation towards the 
future. If a man wants to match his personal growth with 
the growth of computer systems, his future can be virtually 
unlimited. This is true of all the fields associated with com¬ 
puter systems —research, development, manufacturing, 
programming, marketing. The IBM representative will be 
glad to discuss any one of these fields with you. Your place¬ 
ment office can make an appointment. All qualified appli¬ 
cants will be considered for employment without regard to 
race, creed, color or national origin. You may write, outlin¬ 
ing your background and interests, to: 

Manager, Technical Employment 
IBM Corporation, Dept. 892 
590 Madison Avenue 
New York 22, N.Y. 

You naturally have a better chance to grow with a growth company. 


The Month . . . continued 


celebration for 
a Nobel 

The Mossbauer effect enables physicists to test 
phases of Einstein’s theory of relativity, and it has 
already confirmed Einstein’s prediction that gravity 
can change the frequency of a light beam. It is being 
used in laboratories in'^several countries to resolve 
mysteries in the fields of solid state physics and 
nuclear physics. And it may also help to make manned 
space flights safer. 

At Caltech Dr. Mossbauer and his colleagues are 
using his effect to study the internal magnetic and 
electric fields in isotopes of the rare earth elements. 
Information is being obtained about the complex elec¬ 
trical interactions in the crystalline structure of these 
compounds, and about the electric and magnetic prop¬ 
erties of excited nuclear states. The work is supported 
by the Atomic Energy Commission. 

Dr. Mossbauer has been at Caltech since March 
1960, on a two-year leave of absence from the Institute 
for Technical Physics at Munich, Germany. 

He was born in Munich on January 31, 1929, and 
received his academic degrees there. His PhD was 

awarded magna cum laude by the Institute for Tech¬ 
nical Physics in 1957. Dr. Mossbauer worked as a 
research fellow at the Institute until he was granted 
a leave of absence to come to Caltech. 

Formerly a mathematician, Mossbauer started his 
gamma ray research at the Institute for Technical 
Physics in 1953 when his supervisor suggested that 
he enter this new field. He made his discovery while 
working for his doctor’s degree. 

Mossbauer has received three other prizes for his 
research: The Research Corporation Award in 1960; 
the Roentgenpreis from the University of Giessen, 
Germany, last July; and the Elliott Cresson Medal, 
which he received from the Franklin Institute of 
Philadelphia last month. The Cresson Medal was 
awarded for “his discovery of recoilless emission, and 
for his penetrating analysis and understanding of the 
phenomenon which has led to a tool of unbelievable 
discrimination now widely employed in many facets 
of physical research to make measurements believed 
impossible as little as ten years ago.” 


Engineering and Science 

Admittedly, our standards are high at Western Electric. 
But engineering graduates who can meet them, and who 
decide to join us, will begin their careers at one of the best 
times in the history of the company. For plentiful oppor¬ 
tunities await them in both engineering and management. 

As we enter a new era of communications, Western 
Electric engineers are carrying forward assignments that 
affect the whole art of telephony from electronic devices to 
high-speed sound transmission. And, in the management 
category alone, several thousand supervisory jobs will be 
available to W.E. people within the next 10 years. Many 
of these new managers will come from the class of ’62. 

Now’s the time for you to start thinking seriously about 
the general work area that interests you at Western Electric, 
the manufacturing and supply unit of the Bell Telephone 
System. Then when our representative comes to your 
campus, you’ll be prepared to discuss career directions that 
will help make the interview profitable. 

After a man joins Western Electric, he will find many 
programs that will aid him in exploring the exciting course 

of his career — while advancing just as fast as his abilities 
allow. And he’ll be secure in the knowledge that he is 
growing with a company dedicated to helping America set 
the pace in improving communications for a rapidly grow¬ 
ing world. 

Challenging opportunities exist now at Western Electric for electrical, 
mechanical, industrial, and chemical engineers, as well as physical 
science, liberal arts, and business majors. All qualified applicants will 
receive careful consideration for employment without regard to race, 
creed, color or national origin. For more information about Western 
Electric, write College Relations, Western Electric Company, Room 6105, 
222 Broadway, New York 38, New York. And be sure to arrange for a 
Western Electric interview when our college representatives visit your 


Principal manufacturing locations at Chicago, III.; Kearny, N. J.; Baltimore. Md.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Allentown and Laureldale, Pa.; Winston-Salem, N. C. : Buffalo, N. Y.; North Andover, 
Mass.; Omaha, Neb.; Kansas City, Mo.; Columbus, Ohio; Oklahoma City, Okla. Engineering Research Center, Princeton, N. J. Teletype Corporation. Skokie. III., and 
Little Rock. Ark. Also Western Electric distribution centers in 33 cities and installation headquarters in 16 cities. General headquarters: 195 Broadway. New York 7, N. Y. 

November, 1961 

Student Life 


— and what makes him like that 

When the new freshmen arrive at Caltech each 
September, they are immediately bussed off to the 
mountains for three days of what is called New Stu¬ 
dent Camp. Quite unexpectedly, the purpose of Camp 
is not to haze and hector the frosh into four years 
of jolly college fun, but rather to ease their way 
into the harsh realities of Life at Tech. In recent 
years Camp has been remarkably successful in its 
chosen task. 

To the gimlet eyes of the upperclassmen and pro¬ 
fessors in charge of running Camp, the frosh are 
usually a mixture of about equal parts of high self¬ 
opinion and idealistic naivete. Thus, a great deal of 
Camp time is devoted to the twin tasks of beating 
down egos while building up ideals with a few hard 
facts. These noble aims are accomplished by a series 
of speeches and discussion groups in which three 
points are constantly reiterated: 

1) Science is fun, but it is difficult. Many smart 
high school graduates don’t know this, because most 
high schools haven’t quite caught on to the fact that 
science has progressed beyond Newtonian physics 
(without calculus) and making iron sulphate in chem¬ 
istry lab. 

2) As a consequence, Caltech — with a sincere de¬ 
sire to produce at least one Nobel laureate per class 
— crams cubic acres of content into its courses in an 

strictly competitive basis — in fact, it is probably the 
most competitive place in the country outside of the 
stricter Mafia training camps. 

The last point of the three is most important, since 
it is the competition which makes life at Tech differ¬ 
ent from life at almost every other college in the 
country. At Friendly State U. (and even at most of 
the highly-rated liberal arts colleges) academics is a 
sort of passing diversion — a passport to a degree or a 
means to get a job. At Tech, academics and the com¬ 
petition it fosters is everything. Here you either beat 
out your buddy, or flunk. 

Which is not to say that Tech students study ex¬ 
cessively; in fact, rather the opposite is true. Despite 
all the hoary rumors, the amount of midnight oil 
burned at Caltech is so small as to be almost unnotice- 
able. After all, the College Boards do assure smart 
students at Tech, and (excuse the Hackneyed 
Phrase) you either understand how to do problems 
or you don’t, and great amounts of pondering over 
a proof or formula usually don’t help you understand 
it any more than five minutes of hard concentration 

What is more important about the competition here 
is that a Techman is always trying to escape from it 
— in any of a vast number of ways. 

attempt to turn bright, dedicated, but ignorant high 
school graduates into-'tompetent scientists in four 

3) Therefore, since everybody who comes to Cal¬ 
tech is smart anyway, and since competition obviously 
breeds a love of knowledge, Caltech is operated on a 

Caltech student life is real¬ 
ly one big escape from the 
awful realities of the class¬ 


Engineering and Science 

For example, all social life is predicated on an 
attempt to forget school. Techmen, when they date 
(about half of us go out once a week or more), 
scarcely ever do so with an eye to just friendship, or 
even romance. What we go out for is escape, libera¬ 
tion, or hope. Techmen, therefore, are inclined to date 
either artsy-craftsy types who can enthrall the addled 
mind with softly-sung Bach cantatas and discussion 
about the difficulties in translating the Mundaka 
Upanishad, or else party girls who can soothe the 
senses with fine laughter and voluptuousness. Very 
rarely do Techmen escort the Jane Does of the world, 
on the theory that unless a girl is strikingly talented 
in some field or another, she cannot possibly distract 
you from that ten-problem physics assignment due 

This same philosophy carries over into all other 
aspects of non-classroom life. Other colleges pull 
pranks out of youthful high spirits, while we make 
research projects out of them, putting in endless hours 
of planning, with minds half-split between schemes 
and finals, just around the corner. Even our sports 
program is anti-rah-rah, with the players stealing a 
few hours from academic worry for a hurried practice. 

Even in its day-to-day aspects, like the intermin¬ 
able bridge games and the perpetual “goofing off,” 
Caltech student life is really one big escape from the 
awful realities of the classroom. In short, the prevail¬ 
ing undergraduate attitude is that Life at Tech is 
Hell. We sort of work at it. 

But, as the catalog and the Deans have it, there 
is a happy day by and by for even the most discour¬ 
aged of Techmen. After only four years in this place, 
you graduate, we are told. Actually what happens is 
that four-sevenths of any frosh class can count on 
graduating, while the others fall by the wayside for 
one reason or another. 

For the ones who make it, there are degrees, jobs, 
and a certain exhausted satisfaction at having mud¬ 
dled their way through. And for the three-sevenths 
who don’t make it — well, tough luck, guys; at least 
you got accepted into the Toughest School in the 

—Lance Taylor ’62 

November, 1961 




Frank Streit is now vice president of 
the Columbus and Southern Ohio Elec¬ 
tric Company in Columbus, Ohio. He 
handles all engineering and operation 
of the generation, transmission and dis¬ 
tribution systems. Frank's daughter is 
now an art major at UCLA. 


Miguel A. Basoco, PhD, professor of 
mathematics at the University of Ne¬ 
braska, received the university’s 1961 
Distinguished Teachers Award, consist¬ 
ing of a stipend of $1,000 and a medal¬ 
lion. Miguel has been on the Nebraska 
faculty for 31 years. 

Emerson M. Pugh, PhD, is now as¬ 
sociate head of the department of phys¬ 
ics at the Carnegie Institute of Tech¬ 
nology in Pittsburgh. He has been on 
the faculty since 1920. 


L. Eugene Root, MS '33 ME, MS '34, 
AE, is now president of the Lockheed 
Missiles and Space Company in Sunny¬ 
vale, Calif. He continues as vice presi¬ 
dent of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. 


j Robert Boykin manager of the gaso- 
»line plants of the Monterey Oil Company 
in Los Angeles, has been elected presi¬ 
dent of the California Natural Gasoline 
Association for 1961-62. 

Garford Gordon, research executive of 
the California Teachers Association, has 
been loaned to UNESCO for a year to 
work with the Pakistan government on 
the development of a centralized agency 
for the collection and interpretation of 
educational information. 


Lewis B. Browder has been named 
manager of advanced development in the 
Data Recorders Division of Lhe Consoli¬ 
dated Electrodynamics Corporation in 

Jesse E. Hobson, PhD, has resigned as 
vice president and director of research 
of the United Fruit Company in Boston. 


George E. Mann, MS '38, is now as¬ 
sociate professor of engineering at Los 
Angeles State College. He has been on 
the faculty since 1957. George is also 
owner-manager of an engineering firm 
in Los Angeles. 


W. Bertram Scarborough , MS ’41, 
project engineer at the Standard Oil 
Company of California, has been busy 
this year building and developing the 
new refinery for the company in Ha¬ 

waii. The family lives in Lafayette, 
Calif., where Bert has been active in 
the formation of a new library, on the 
school board, and on the citizen’s com¬ 
mittee for the development of a science 
and mathematics curriculum in the grade 
schools. The Scarboroughs have three 
children: Dave, Nancy, and Marjorie. 

Willis G. Worcester, MS, is now head 
of the department of electrical engineer¬ 
ing at the University of Colorado in 
Boulder. He also remains as assistant 
dean of the graduate school during 


Wallace D. Hayes, AE ’43, PhD ’47, 
professor of aeronautical engineering at 
Princeton University, spent the academic 
year 1960-61 in Zurich at the mathe¬ 
matics department of the Federal In¬ 
stitute of Technology. His wife and 
three daughters accompanied him. 

Donald F. J. McIntosh, is now con¬ 
troller of the Los Angeles Exploration 
and Producing Division of the Mobil 
Oil Company. He has been with the 
company since 1941. 

Eldred Hough, MS, PhD ’43, is now 
professor of petroleum engineering and 
head of the department at Mississippi 
State University in Starkville. He had 
been professor of petroleum engineering 
at the LTniversity of Texas since 1952. 
The Houghs have four children. 


Capt. Sheldon W. Brown, USN (ret.), 
is now manager of Aerojet-General’s At¬ 
lantic Division at Frederick, Md. 


Nicholas A. Begovich, MS ’44, PhD 
’48, assistant manager of the ground 
systems group and director of product 
line operations for the Hughes Aircraft 
Company in Fullerton, Calif., has been 
made a vice president of the company. 


John A. Zivic, director of manufactur¬ 
ing at the Cannon Electric Company in 
Los Angeles, is one of 150 men selected 
to attend the 40th session of the Ad¬ 
vanced Management Program at the 
Harvard Business School. The 13-week 
course (Sept. 10-Dec. 8) is designed 
for men between 36 and 50 years of age 
who are now in top management posi¬ 
tions or are likely to be in the near 


Joseph Kelley, Jr., MS, is now presi¬ 
dent and general manager of Allied Re¬ 
search Associates, Inc. in Boston. He 

had served as executive vice president 
of the organization since 1953. 

Robert J. Kieckhefer, Jr., is now vice 
president of administration and engi¬ 
neering at the Litho-Strip Corporation 
in Chicago. He was formerly assistant 
to the president. 


Sal LaFaso, MS, AE, is manager of 
the administration department at Aero¬ 
jet’s Atlantic Division in Frederick, Md. 
He has been with Aerojet since 1956 
and was formerly manager of contracts 
at the Downey plant. 

Edwin S. Gould is now a chemist in 
the petroleum chemistry department at 
the Shell Development Company’s Em¬ 
eryville Research Center. 

Alan R. Stearns has been elected a 
vice president of Marshall Industries in 
San Marino. He was formerly manager 
of special projects and will continue his 
work in the fields of acquisitions, new 
products research, and marketing. The 
Stearns’ have two children — Laura, 9, 
and Ralph, 6. 


William F. Ballhaus, PhD, has been 
appointed executive vice president of 
the Northrop Corporation in Los An¬ 
geles. He has been vice president of 
Northrop and general manager of its 
Nortronics division since August 1957, 
and has been with the company since 

Howard J. Teas, PhD, is now head of 
the recently-created agricultural bio¬ 
sciences division of the Puerto Rico 
nuclear center at the University of Puerto 
Rico at Mayaguez. He was formerly as¬ 
sociate professor of botany at the Uni¬ 
versity of Florida’s agricultural experi¬ 
ment station in Gainesville. 


Paul S. Rogell, MS, EE, now heads 
Rogell Associates, in Norwalk, Conn., 
a company appointed by the Espey 
Manufacturing and Electronics Corpor¬ 
ation as representatives to sell technical 
electronic products in New York, Con¬ 
necticut, Long Island, Westchester 
County, and Northern New Jersey. Paul 
was formerly sales manager of the elec¬ 
tron tube department of the Columbia 
Broadcasting System. 

C. Craig Paul, ID, vice president of 
Harley Earl Associates in Warren, Mich., 
is senior member of the three-man team 
which designed the U.S. section at the 
Italia ’61 exposition in Turin, Italy, 
now in progress. 

continued on page 36 


Engineering and Science 

• Minuteman was plagued with a chronic “sore throat.” 

Existing nozzle liner throat materials wouldn’t withstand 
Minuteman’s tremendous solid-fuel rocket blasts 
with temperatures exceeding 5400 °F. 

Allison metallurgists went to work on the problem. 

They tried oxyacetylene spray coating—but maximum 
attainable temperature was too low for the coating 
materials required. 

Next, electroplating was tried—but the coat bond 
was poor, the surface rough. 

Then, Allison laboratories came through with advance¬ 
ments in the application of plasma-sprayed tungsten. 

Here was the solution. The dense, sound “plasma- 
tung”® coating passed its solid-fuel firing tests with 
no erosion, guttering, or nozzle pressure drop! 

Metallurgy is but one field in which Allison is scoring 
significant advancements. We currently operate 
laboratories for virtually any requirement—space 
propulsion, physical optics, radio-isotope, infra-red, solid 
state physics, physical chemistry, direct conversion, 
heat transfer, physics of liquid metals, phase dynamics, 
fluid dynamics and rocket propulsion, to name a few. 

Our engineers and scientists working in these 
basic science and development laboratories solve the 
problems associated with our business and . . . 

Energy Conversion is Our Business 

ALLISON DIVISION general motors corporation 

November, 1961 


Personals . . . continued 

N. John Beck , MS, is now vice presi¬ 
dent of research at the Cummins Engine 
Company, Inc., in Columbus, Indiana. 
He joined the company in 1959, and has 
recently been serving as director of ad¬ 
vanced design and development in the 
company’s research division. 


William M. McCardell, MS, is now 
coordinator of long-range planning at 
the Humble Oil and Refining Company 
in Houston, Texas. 


Richard Buck, MS ’51, is now prin¬ 
cipal research chemist at the Bell & 
Howell Research Center of the Con¬ 
solidated Electrodynamics Corporation in 
Pasadena. He was formerly research 
chemist at the California Research Cor¬ 
poration in San Francisco. 

Lt. Col. William B. Higgins writes 
from Stanford that “after three years 
postgraduate work — two years at the 
Naval Postgraduate School — for a BS 
in aeronautical engineering, and a year 
and a summer here at Stanford for the 
Degree of Engineer, to be awarded in 
January, we are heading southward to 
Point Mugu. To make things merrier, 
two children were added to the family 

in the last two years — one a ready¬ 
made, and last June, one of our own, 
making our total three. 

“At Point Mugu, I will have a project 
job on the F4H and its missile system. 
The bone-creaking and other deterior¬ 
ations associated with middle age have 
not gotten so far out of hand as to 
keep me from flying jets up to now — 
and I hope they hold off a little 


Douglas Calley writes that he is 
teaching math and physics to grades 
9-12 at the Verde Valley School in 
Sedona, Arizona. He was married to 
Louise Nelson in 1959 and they now 
have a son, John, born on January 26, 
1961. Doug is currently building a small 
mountain cabin north of Flagstaff. 

Leo Baggerly, MS ’52, PhD ’56, as¬ 
sistant professor of physics at Texas 
Christian University in Fort Worth, re¬ 
ceived a silver cup last spring from 
Alpha Chi, national scholastic honor fra¬ 
ternity, as “the professor who has con¬ 
tributed the most to the intellectual 
growth of TCU during the past year.” 

Jim T. Luscombe, president of the 
Luscombe Engineering Corporation in 

San Marino, is now also vice president 
of the Pacific Division of the Valve & 
Primer Corporation in Pasadena. 

Robert E. Covey , MS ’52, is still chief 
of wind tunnel operations and environ¬ 
mental test facilities at Caltech’s Jet Pro¬ 
pulsion Laboratories. 

John W. Bjerklie, manager of the re¬ 
search and development section of Sun- 
strand Aviation in Denver, Colorado, 
writes that his main work interest is 
space conversion systems and torpedo 
propulsion engines. The Bjerklies have 
three children: John J. E., 8, David, 6, 
and Kirsten, 1. 

Ernest Dzendolet, BS ’55 Bio., is an 
assistant professor in the psychology de¬ 
partment of the University of Massachu¬ 
setts at Amherst. His interest is in sen¬ 
sory psychology — primarily electrical 
phenoma of the eye. 

George C. Dacey, PhD, is now vice 
president of research at the Sandia Cor¬ 
poration in Albuquerque, N.M. He was 
formerly director of solid state electron¬ 
ics research at the Bell Telephone Lab¬ 
oratories in Murray Hill, N.J. The 
Daceys have two children; Donna and 

continued on page 38 


Edison offers you both challenge and opportunity in the 
all-electric future. 

If you want a career with challenge, we at Edison 
would like to talk to you. 

We’d like to explain our role in the expanding economy 
of Southern California. Today, Edison serves over four 
and one half million people. In ten years it is estimated 
that one half again as many will be served. 

And we’d like to explain how you can fit into this all- 
electric future. Unlimited opportunities exist for creative 
engineers as the demands for electricity continue to grow. 
To meet these growing demands new and more efficient 

engineering, construction and operating methods must 
be developed. 

You’ll find opportunity at Edison. Because at Edison, 
you link your future with the all-electric future. 

For full details, write or call: 

Mr. C. T. Malloy 

Southern California Edison Company 
P.O. Box 351 • MAdison 4-7111 
Los Angeles 53, California 



Engineering and Science 

Build witli the carefree beauty of stainless steel 

3 * 


Handsome appliances and gleaming counter tops that stay 
bright and are so easy to wipe clean... even the kitchen sink be¬ 
comes a thing of beauty when it is made of shining stainless steel 
— the useful metal that was developed after years of research. 

Whether you’re building or remodeling, stainless steel gives 
a lifetime of value . . . saves many dollars in upkeep. You can 
now have gutters and downspouts that are almost indestructible 
because they won’t rust or rot. And the strength of stainless 
makes possible door and window screening so fine you hardly 
know it’s there. 

The secret of stainless steel lies in chromium—one of many 
indispensable alloying metals developed by Union Carbide. They 
are typical of the hundreds of basic materials created through 
research by the people of Union Carbide in metals, as well as 
carbons, chemicals, gases, plastics and nuclear energy. 

See the “Atomic Energy in Action” Exhibit at the new Union Carbide Building in New York 

FREE: Find out how stainless steel 
enhances the value of your home. 
Write for “Carefree Living with 
Stainless Steel ” Booklet T-60. 
Union Carbide Corporation, 
270 Park Avenue, New York 17, 
N. Y. In Canada, Union Carbide 
Canada Limited, Toronto. 

...a hand, 
in things to come 


November, 1961 

Personals . . . continued 


Donald E. Stewart, MS ’53, is now a 
chemical engineer in the advanced power 
systems division of Electro-Optical Sys¬ 
tems, Inc., in Pasadena. He was formerly 
technical director for the Industrial Hard 
Chrome Plating Corporation in Emery¬ 
ville, Calif. 

Howard M. Robbins, PhD, is senior 
engineer on the technical staff of the 
manager of advanced systems research 
at the IBM Federal Systems Division 
Space Guidance Center in Owego, N.Y. 
He has been with the company since 


Artur Mager, PhD, is now assistant 
director of spacecraft sciences at the 
Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles. 
He was formerly director of sciences at 
the National Engineering and Science 
Company in Pasadena. 

Major Kenneth M. Hatch, MS, com¬ 
pleted the regular course at the U.S. 
Army Command and General Staff Col¬ 
lege in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, last 
spring, and is now assigned to the 
Kansas City District Engineers Office in 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Gilbert E. Stegall, MS, supervising 
climatologist at the Weather Records 
Processing Center in Kansas City, Mo., 
recently received an award of $200 in 
recognition of extremely competent per¬ 
formance at his job from the U.S. De¬ 
partment of Commerce Weather Bureau 
in Washington. The citation read: “Un¬ 
der your capable leadership, and with 
the complete cooperation and confidence 
of the personnel under your supervision, 
a complex program is being carried out 
in an exceptional manner in your Center. 
The high degree of leadership, initiative, 
and resourcefulness you have displayed 
together with your fine personal per¬ 
formance in the program you manage, 
are most commendable and typify the 
contributions on which your award is 

Donald O. Emerson is now assistant 
professor and chairman of the rapidly ex¬ 
panding department of geological sci¬ 
ences at the Davis campus of the Uni¬ 
versity of California. Since he left Cal¬ 
tech, Don has received an MS and 
PhD from Penn State. 


Major Francis G. Gosling, Jr., MS, 
completed the regular course at the 

U.S. Army Command and General Staff 
College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 
June, and is now stationed at the De¬ 
partment of Tactics, U.S. Military Acad¬ 
emy, West Point, N.Y. 


Major Mark C. Carrigan, MS, com¬ 
pleted a 38-week course at the U.S. 
Army Command and General Staff Col¬ 
lege in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 
June and is now assigned to San Juan, 
Puerto Rico. 


Don M. Pinkerton writes that he is 
working for the electro-mechanical staff 
of the Federal Aviation Agency, en¬ 
gaged in the design and inspection of 
electrical power systems for new air 
traffic control facilities in the 11 western 

Capt. Harry M. Roper, Jr., MS, com¬ 
pleted a 38-week course at the U.S. 
Army Command and General Staff Col¬ 
lege at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 
June and is now stationed at Headquar¬ 
ters, Third U.S. Army, in Fort McPher¬ 
son, Ga. 




W hat have they got in common — the pop gun, the 
grease gun, the astronaut, the pilot in the stricken 
lighter plane, the highway builder, the baker, the surgeon, 
the locomotive engineer, the bus driver, the sand blaster, 
the painter? They’re all using air ... in direct, vital ways 
. . . for everyday tasks. Long ago, industry harnessed this 
genie . . . trained it for a thousand jobs as your invisible 

You see it building automobiles, ships, airplanes, highways, 
bridges, skyscrapers. You see it processing metals, plastics, 
foods, textiles producing chemical and rocket fuels. 

For total career preparation you need a thorough knowledge 
of compressed air and gas. Read the whole story in the 
new, enlarged 3rd Edition of the Compressed Air and Gas 
Handbook. $8.00 per copy at your local bookstore or from 
Handbook Editing and Publishing Board, Compressed 
Air and Gas Institute, 12th Floor, 55 Public Square, 
Cleveland 13, Ohio. 

This new concept in lighting produces 
higher levels of illumination with less fixtures. 

VS UGH//. 



Write for full color brochure 

SMOOT”HOLMAN Company, Inglewood, Calif. 



Engineering and Science 

Do you share his driving determination to know? 















■ ■ 

■ V; 

Nil m 1 «w w ietc\ '.v » 







- .. 







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m \ 

£ ’ ■ * 









£ Sfc? ' rj 








. « 



An unsolved problem is a nagging challenge to him. The word “impossible” is an impertinence. 

Are you tired of predigested answers? Anxious to get at work no one else has ever done? Then come to Northrop 
where you can find men like this to grow with. Work side by side with them on such projects as interplanetary navi¬ 
gation and astronertia! guidance systems, aerospace deceleration and landing systems, magnetogasdynamics for space 
propulsion, in-space rendezvous, rescue, repair and refueling techniques, laminar flow control, universal automatic 
test equipment, and world-wide communications systems. 

More than 70 such programs are now on the boards at Northrop, with many challenging problems still to be solved, 
and new areas of activity constantly opening up for creative research. m o g T r T*, 

If you want to know more about the Northrop challenge, drop us a line at i ( | * 

Box 1525, Beverly Hills, California, and mention your area of special interest. an equal opportunity employer 


Now Forming Nucleus Group To Develop & Manage 
Systems Engineering On America’s Various Defense Projects! 

Who Are Ready to GO...and Able to GROW 

• Choose From These Key Locations 

■ Philadelphia, Pa. ■ Washington, D. C. ■ Pensacola, Fla. 

■ Boston, Mass. ■ Palo Alto, Calif. ■ Montgomery, Ala. 

plus many other choice U. S. locations 

Broadly speaking, the men we are looking for will direct their professional efforts to developing and 
establishing systems engineering concepts, standards, and criteria for the overall operation of computer 
equipment and systems. 

These are long term career positions offering first rate promotional opportunities to U.S. Citizens "ready 
to go and able to grow" with America’s foremost electronic field engineering organization. 

Intermediate and Senior Level Positions Available For Men Who Are Able To Perform Systems Engineer¬ 
ing and Development Work In The Following Areas: 

REQUIRED QUALIFICATIONS: B.S., M.S., or Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, or Physics 



To develop requirements and prepare spe¬ 
cifications for design evaluation tests, to 
examine operation of experimental and 
production models of the system. Design 
of system tests and special test operating 
procedures. Will participate in live system 
testing of various complex systems. Will 
analyze test data and prepare documents 
which spell out results and conclusions to 
be derived from system tests. These con¬ 
clusions should cover adequacy of the 
design logic and implementation of 
equipments, computer programs, and con¬ 
trol manning.^ 


To integrate varied data acquisition 
equipment into complex electronic con¬ 
trol systems. 



To design and develop advanced commu¬ 
nications subsystems of ground electronic 
control system complex. 


Will be responsible for the overall plan¬ 
ning and supervision of computer pro¬ 
grams. Will assign, outline and coordi¬ 
nate work of programmers and write and 
debug complex programs involving mathe¬ 
matical equations. Requires experience in 
the operation and programming of large 
electronic data processing systems, such 
as the AN/FSQ-7N8, IBM 700 series, or 
Philco 2000 series. 


To develop and/or analyze logic diagrams, 
translate detailed flow charts into coded 
machine instructions, test run programs 
and write descriptions of completed pro¬ 
grams. Requires experience in the opera¬ 
tion and programming of large electronic 
data processing systems,- such as the 
AN/FSQ-7N8, IBM 700 series, or Philco 
2000 series. 


To write and publish technical reports on 
Communications, Radar, Fire Control Sys¬ 
tems, Electrical and Mechanical Devices 
and Computers. 


To resolve varied grounding and shielding 
problems of complex electronic equip¬ 


To work on advanced designs—to develop 
receivers using parametric amplifiers. 


To plan, prepare and generate specifica¬ 
tions for sub-systems test, data reduction 
and analysis programs. Will be respon¬ 
sible for the preparation of test plans, 
installation of equipment, test instrumen¬ 
tation, collection of test data and analysis 
of results. Resolve incompatibility and 
interface engineering problems. 


To plan, prepare and generate system 
test, data reduction, and analysis specifi¬ 
cations. Develop methods and procedures 
for test implementation. Coordinate be¬ 
tween interested agencies, and resolve 
problems between the specifications, test 
methods and actual procedures in use. 

Direct Resumes In Confidence To 
Dept. U 


■p mmm g g g— g—qfr 

I EL V/ if PC EL m 



Employment Manager 

P. O. Box 4730 Philadelphia 34, Pa. 

All Qualified Applicants Will Receive Consideration For Employ¬ 
ment Without Regard To Race, Creed, Color, or National Origin. 

Engineering and Science 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

“Now is the time to act, to take longer strides, time for a great 
new American enterprise, tune for this Nation to take a 
clearly leading role in space achievement. I believe that the 
nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the 
decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning 
him safely to earth.” 

The President 
of the United States 
May 25,1961 

The nation has committed itself to accelerate greatly the development of space science and technology , 
accepting as a national goal, the achievement of manned lunar landing and return before the end of 
the decade. This space program will require spending many billions of dollars during the next ten years. 

NASA directs and implements the nation’s research and development efforts in the exploration of space. The 
accelerated national space program calls for the greatest single technological effort our country has thus far under¬ 
taken. Manned space flight is the most challenging assignment ever given to mankind. 

NASA has urgent need for large numbers of scientists and engineers in the fields of aerospace technology 
who hold degrees in physical science, engineering, or other appropriate fields. 

NASA career opportunities are as unlimited as the scope of our organization. You can be sure to play an 
important role in the United States’ space effort when you join NASA. 

NASA positions are available for those with degrees or experience in appropriate fields for work in one of 
the following areas: Fluid and Flight Mechanics; Materials and Structures; Propulsion and Power; Data Systems; 
Flight Systems; Measurement and Instrumentation Systems; Experimental Facilities and Equipment; Space 
Sciences; Life Sciences; Project Management. 

NASA invites you to address your inquiry to the Personnel Director of any of 
the following NASA Centers: NASA Space Task Group, Hampton, Virginia; NASA 
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; NASA Marshall Space Flight 
Center, Huntsville, Alabama; NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Califor¬ 
nia; NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California; NASA Langley Research 
Center, Hampton, Virginia; NASA Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Virginia; NASA 
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Positions are filled in accordance with Aero-Space 
Technology Announcement 252B. 

All Qualified applicants will receive consideration 
for employment without regard to race, creed or 
color, or national origin. 

November, 1961 


Lost Alumni 

The Institute has no record of the present addresses of these alumni. If you know 
the current address of any of these men, please contact the Alumni Office , Caltech. 



Frank E. 


Lewis, Stanley M. 


Soyster, Charles J. 


Lavagnino, John F. 


Arnold, Jesse 


Cox, Edwin P. 

Rose, Edwin L. 


Hickey, George I. 
Skinner, Richmond H 


Goldsmith, Morris 
Tracy, Willard H. 


Waller, Conrad J. 


Chang, Hung-Yuan 

Lawrence G. 

McCarter, Kenneth C. 
Yang, K. J. 


Evjen, Haakon M. 
Moore, Rernard N. 
Riggs, Eugene H. 


Chou, P’ei-Yuan 
Martin, Francis C. 
Morgan, Stanley C. 
Wingfield, Raker 


Briggs, Thomas H., Jr. 
Burns, Martin C. 
Muskat, Morris 
Nelson, Julius 
Robinson, True W. 
Wolfe, Karl M. 


Allison, Donald K. 
Chao, Chung-Yao 
Douglass, Paul W., Sr 
Janssen, Philip 
Shields, John C. 
White, Dudley 


Ho, Tsien-Loh 
Voak, Alfred S. 

West, William T. 
Woo, Sho-Chow 
Yoshoka, Carl K. 


Brass, P. D. 

Bruderlin, Henry H. 
Patterson, J. W. 
Shockley, William 
Wright, Lowell J. 


Applegate, Lindsay M. 
Downie, Arthur J. 
Hsu, Chuen Chang 
Koch, A. Arthur 
Larsen, William A. 
Lockhart, E. Ray 
Michal, Edwin B. 
Murdock, Keith A. 
Rice, Winston R. 
Shappell, Maple D. 
Smith, Warren H. 


Harshberger, John D. 
Liu, Yuan Pu 


Becker, Leon 
Bertram, Edward A. 

Huang, Fun-Chang 
McNeal, Don 


Chu, Djen-Yuen 
Creal, Albert 
Dunn, Clarence L. 
Keleh, Maxwell 
Nelson, Loyal E. 
Ohashi, George Y. 
Van Riper, Dale H. 


Burnight, Thomas R. 
Cheng, Ju-Yung 
Easton, Anthony 
Fan, Hsu Tsi 
Jones, Paul F. 
Lotzkar, Harry 
Maginnis, Jack 
Moore, Charles K. 
Munier, Alfred E. 
Nojima, Noble 
Penn, William L., Jr. 
Rechif, Frank A. 
Servet, Abdurahim 
Shaw, Thomas N. 


Gershzohn, Morris 
Goodman, Hyman D. 
Gross, Arthur G. 

Kanemitsu, Sunao 
Li, Yuan-Chuen 
Lowe, Frank C. 
Porter, Edwin J. 

Rhett, William 
Tilker, Paul O. 

Tsao, Chi-Cheng 
Wang, Tsun Kuei 
Watson, James W. 

William W. 


Asakawa, George 
Brown, William Lowe 
Gombotz, Joseph J. 
Liang, C. Chia-Chang 
Robertson, Francis A. 
Tsien, Hsue-shen 
Weinstein, Joseph 
Wilson, Harry D. 


Batu, Buhtar 
Gentner, William E. 
Gibson, Arville C. 
Green, William J. 

Hsu, Chang-Pen 
Karubian, Ruhollah Y. 
Menis, Luigi 
Paul, Ralph G. 

Tajima, Yuji A. 

Tao, Shih Chen 
Torrey, Preston C. 


Clark, Morris R. 
Dieter, Darrell W. 
Easley, Samuel J. 
Geitz, Robert C. 
Harvey, Donald L. 
Hubbard, Jack M. 
Kuo, I. Cheng 
Levitt, Leo C. 

Noland, Robert L. 

Frederick G. 

Stand ridge, Clyde T. 
Taylor, D, Francis 
Tiemann, Cordes F. 
Waigand, LeRoy G. 
Wolfe, Samuel 


Bebe, Mehmet F. 
Callaway, William F. 
Chastain, Alexander 
Devault, Robert T. 
Emre, Orhan M. 

Go, Chong-Hu 
Hughes, Vernon W. 
Johnston, William C. 
Levin, Daniel 
MacKenzie, Robert E. 
Martinez, Victor H. 

Caltech Varsity Game Scores 




Azusa College 












Le Verne 










San Fernando State 






Pasadena City Coll. 




L.A. State 














Claremont-H. Mudd 












Mt. SAC 






2 (tie) 







UC Riverside 









Engineering and Science 

Gyron— dream car that drives it self. companies, the delta-shaped Gyron the Gyron’s sleek lines are parts coated 

This two-wheeled vehicle of the future would feature a computer that permits with bright, corrosion-resistant nickel 

envisions automatic speed and steering motorists to “program” their journey — plating. The front bumper, exhaust 

control for relaxed “hands-off” driving. distance, speed, arrival time —on a non- ports, taillight bezel, control console, all 

Designed by the advanced stylists of stop expressway. A gyroscope would get solid beauty-protection with this 

one of America’s leading automotive stabilize the car in motion. Setting off durable nickel coating system. 

How Inco Nickel helps engineers make new designs possible and practical 

The engineer is vitally concerned 
with design —inside and outside — 
whether it’s an advanced new car or 
a nuclear-powered ship. With Nickel, 
or one of the many metals containing 
Nickel, he has a material that can 
meet the demands of a wide range of 
service conditions —providing an ex¬ 
cellent choice for the equipment of 
today and the designs of the future. 

Inco’s List “A” contains descrip¬ 
tions of 200 Inco publications which 
are available to you, covering appli¬ 
cations and properties of Nickel and 
its alloys. For List “A”, write Educa¬ 
tional Services. 

The International Nickel Company, Inc. 

67 Wall Street, New York, N. Y. 




■"V.. _ ' 

The Nuclear Ship Savannah is capable 
of sailing 350,000 nautical miles with¬ 
out refueling. Her uranium oxide fuel 
is packaged in tubes of Nickel Stainless 
Steel, more than 5,000 of them. Engi¬ 
neers specified 200,000 pounds of Nickel 
Stainless Steel for use in the ship’s 
reactor to meet critical service demands. 

Monorail "Airtrain” —a compact, high¬ 
speed transportation system that will 
be automatic, almost noiseless. Develop¬ 
ment is being explored by leading U. S. 
cities. Lightweight Monorail design 
demands strong weight-saving metals. 
Logical choice: Nickel alloys to take ad¬ 
vantage of newest engineering concepts. 


The International Nickel Company, Inc., is the U.S. affiliate of The International Nickel Company of Canada, Limited (Inco-Canada) 
—producer of Inco Nickel, Copper, Cobalt, Iron Ore, Tellurium, Selenium, Sulfur and Platinum, Palladium and Other Precious Metals. 

November, 1961 43 


m your 

The 6 most important factors 
in your working life are 
your 5 skilled fingers and 
your A.W.Faber-Castell 
#9000 Drawing Pencil. 

You may prefer Locktite 
#9800SG Tel-A-Grade 
lead holder with Castell 
#9030 Drawing Leads. 

We are strictly impartial. 
You be the sole judge. In 
either case you will get 
graphite-saturated lines that 
won’t flake, feather or burn 
out—black, bold image 
density, crisply opaque for 
clean, sharp prints. 20 
rigidly controlled degrees, 

8B to 10H, each as precise as 
a machine tool. LOCKTITE 
Tel-A-Grade, with its finger- 
comforting grip, carries an 
ironclad 2-year guarantee 
from A.W.Faber-Castell. 
Pick up your selection at your 
college store today. 


Pencil Co., Inc., Newark 3, N.J. 

Now celebrating its 
200th birthday 


Lost Alumni . . . 



Angel, Edgar P. 
Bethel, Horace L. 
Bridgland, Edgar P. 
Brown, Glenn H., Jr. 
Brown, James M. 
Bryant, Eschol A. 
Burlington, William J. 
Carlson, Arthur V. 
Colvin, James H. 
Daniels, Glenn E. 
Hamilton, William M. 
Hillyard, Roy L. 
Hilsenrod, Arthur 
King, Edward G. 
Koch, Robert H. 

Kong, Robert W. 
LaForge, Gene R. 
Lee, Edwin S., Jr. 
Leeds, William L. 
Ling, Shih-Sang 
Lobban, William A. 
Lnndquist, Roland E. 
Mampell, Klaus 
Mixsell, Joseph W. 
Mowery, Irl H., Jr. 
Nesley, William L. 
Neusehwander, Leo Z. 
Newton, Everett C. 
O’Brien, Robert E. 
Patterson, Charles M. 
Pearson, John E. 
Rambo, Lewis 
Rivers, Nairn E. 
Roberts, Fred B. 
Rupert, James W., Jr. 
Scholz, Dan R. 
Shannon, Leslie A. 

Thomas B. 

Tindle, Albert W., Jr. 
Vicente, Ernesto 
Walsh, Joseph R. 

Courtland L. 

Weis, William T. 
Wood, Stanley G. 


Alpan, Rasit H. 
Baranowski, John J. 
Barriga, Francisco D. 
Bell, William E. 
Benjamin, Donald G. 
Berkant, Mehmet N. 
Birlik, Ertugrul 
Burch, Joseph E. 
Burke, William G. 
Cebeci, Ahmed 
Cooke, Charles M. 

De Medeiros, 

Carlos A. 

Fu, Ch’eng Yi 
Harrison, Charles P. 
Hu, Ning 

Johnson, William M. 
Labanauskas, Paul J. 
Leenerts, Lester O. 
Lin, Chia-Chiao 
Marshall, John W. 
Mattinson, Carl O. 
Onstad, Merrill E. 
Osborne, Louis S. 

Pi, Te-Hsien 
Pischel, Eugene F. 
Rasof, Bernard 
Ridlehuber, Jim M. 
Shults, Mayo G. 
Stanford, Harry W. 
Stein, Roberto L. 
Sullivan, Richard B. 
Trimble, William M. 
Unayral, Nnstafa A. 

Joseph F., Jr. 
Wight, D. Roger 

Williams, Robert S. 
Wolf, Paul L. 

Writt, John J. 

Yik, George 


Ari, Victor A, 

Budney, George S. 
Bunze, Harry F. 

Fanz. Martin C. 

Fox, Harrison W. 
Gibson, Charles E. 
Jenkins, Robert P. 
Knapp, Norman E. 
Kuo, Yung-Huai 
Levy, Charles N. 
Rice, Jonathan F. 
Tseu, Payson S. 
Tnrkbas, Necat 
Yank, Frank A. 


Allison, Charles W., Jr. 
Barber, John H. 
Bchroon, Khosrow 
Bowen, Mark E. 
Burger, Glenn W. 
Chen, Ke-Yuan 
Childers, Kenan C., Jr. 
Dethier, Bernard 
Dyson, Jerome P. 
Esner, David R. 
Foster, R. Bruce 
Halvorson, George C. 

Benjamin S,, III 
Hoffman, Charles C. 
Huestis, Gerald S. 
Ingram, Wilbur A. 
KeYuan, Chen 
Lewis, Frederick J. 
Lowery, Robert H. 

Frederick W. 

Olsen, Leslie R. 
Parker, James F. 
Prasad, K. V. Krishna 
Simmons, George F. 
Sledge, Edward C. 
Smith, Harvey F. 
Tung, Yu-Sin 
Webb, Milton G. 
Weldon, Thomas F. 
Winson, Jonathan 


Asher, Rolland S. 
Atencio, Adolfo J. 
Clarke, Fredric B. 
Clements, Robert E. 
Dagnall, Brian D. 
Darling, Donald A. 
Hammerle, William G. 
Hsu, Chi-Nan 
Huang, Ea-Qua 
Lane, James F. 

Leo, Fiorello R. 

Lim, Vincente H., Jr. 
MacAlister, Robert S. 
Manoukian, John 
McClellan, Thomas R. 
Miller, Curtis E. 
Molloy, Michael K. 

Basil E. A. 

Olson, Raymond L. 
Orr, John L. 
Guruvaynr S. 

Ray, Kamalesh 
Rust, Clayton A. 
Sanders, Lewis B. 

Merrill H. 

Torgeson, Warren S. 
Wan, Pao Kang 

Alonzo H., Jr. 


Clifford M. 


Edward B., Jr. 

Ying, Lai-Chao 


Agnew, Haddon W. 
Bunco, James A. 
Collins, Burgess F. 
Cotton, Mitchell L. 
Crawford, William D. 
Hager, James Ward 
Hsieh, Chia Lin 
Hsiao, Chien 
Latson, Harvey H., Jr. 

Cameron D. 

Mason, Herman A. 
Morehouse, Gilbert G. 
Oliver, Edward D. 
Rhynard, Wayne E. 
Stein, Paul G. 

Swain, John Sabin 
Swank, Robert K. 
Voelker, William H. 
Winniford, Robert S. 
Woods, Marion C. 
Wray, Robert M. 
Yanak, Joseph D. 


Barker, Edwin F., Jr. 
Bauman, John L., Jr. 
Baumann, Laurence I. 

William R. 

Bryan, Wharton W. 

Joseph F. 

Clancy, Albert H., Jr. 

Herbert C. 

Cooper, Harold D. 
Felt, Caelen L. 

Foster, Francis C. 
Galstan, Robert H. 
Heiman, Jarvin R. 
Hurley, Neal L. 
Krasin, Fred E. 
Lowrey, Richard O. 
MacKinnon, Neil A. 
McEUigott, Richard H. 
Merrell, Richard L. 
Parker, Dan M. 
Petty, Charles C. 
Rinehart, Marion C. 
Ringness, William M. 
Stappler, Robert F. 
Weiss, Mitchell 
Wilkening, John W. 
Yu, Sien-Chiue 


Bryan, William C. 
Edelstein, Leonard 
Gimpel, Donald J. 

Li, Chung Hsien 
McDaniel, Edward F. 
McMillan, Robert 
Merrifield, Donald P. 
Montemezzi, Marco A. 
Pao, W. K. 

Paulson, Robert W. 
Petzold, Robert F. 
Roberts, Morton S. 
Scherer, Lee R., Jr. 
Soldate, Albert M. 
Whitehill, Norris D. 



Ricardo M. 

Chong, Kwok-Ying 
Davison, Walter F. 
Denton, James Q. 
Hawk, Riddell L. 

Lafdjian, Jacob P. 

Li, Cheng-Wu Li 
Padgett, Joseph E., Jr. 
Palmer, John M., Jr. 
Pfeiffer, Walter F. 

St. Amand, Pierre 
Summers, Allen J. 

Van Hise, Albert E. 


Abbott, John R. 
Arcoulis, Elias G. 
Gerington, Thomas E. 
Harrison, Marvin E. 
Helmuth, James G. 
Loftus, Joseph F. 
Long, Ralph F. 
Lunday, Adrian C. 
O’Brien, Joseph 
Prirnbs. Charles L. 
Robieux, Jean 
Schaufeie, Roger D. 
Shelly, Thomas L. 
Sutton, Donald E. 
Wiberg, Edgar 
Wilson, Howard E. 
Woods, Joseph F. 
Zacha, Richard B. 


Lennox, Stuart G. 

William D. 

Ritter, Darrell L. 
Schroeder, Norman M. 
Vidal, Jean L. 
Wilburn, Norman P. 


Coughlin, John T. 

Thomas E. 

Handen, Ralph D. 
Mertz, Charles III 
Rogers', Berdine H. 


Barman, Mervyn L. 
Campbell, Douglas D. 
Crowe, Thomas H. 
Lim, Macrobio 
Negrete, Marco R. 
Wolfe, John H. 


Edwards, Robert W. 
Feige, Jacques 
Garnault, Andre F. 
McAllister, Don F. 
Romaneski, Albert L. 
Spence, William N. 
Tang, Chung-Liang 


Howie, Archibald 
Leader, Elliot 
Lee, Won yon g 
Rapaport, Seymour A. 
Stuteville, Joseph E. 
Wong, Chi-hsiang 


Marin, Jean Francois 
Rieunier, Jacques M. 
Schumann, Thomas G. 


Bodine, Alan G. 

Byun, Chai B. 
Guillemet, Michel P. 
Idriss. Izzat M. 

Ko, William 
Monroe, Louis L. 



David M. W. 


Loussararian, Serge 
Steinberg, Charles M. 

Engineering and Science 


Whatever the special fire hazard, 
Grinnell has the right system to handle it 

The basic fire extinguishing agents are shown on the chart below with the most common applications 
cross-referenced by check marks. If a production process requires a specially designed system — the 
research and test facilities of the Grinnell Company are available in case of need. 

Extinguishing blanket of foam completely covers the floor 
of this aircraft hangar. 5,897 foam-water sprinklers protect 
property worth a billion Air Force Defense dollars. 









There’s a Grinnell Fire Protection System to protect every 

type of property. Grinnell designed and installed systems are backed 
by over 90 years of fire protection experience. Grinnell Company, 
Providence 1, Rhode Island. 

Water spray, applied to outside storage of paints and sol¬ 
vents, cools to inhibit internal pressure build-up and dilutes 
to prevent flammable vapor-air mixtures from developing. 




“Hullo? . . . Oh, George? . . . oh . . . Boy, are you persistent! 
I thought we settled everything last month . . . Didn't you get 
my letter? Well, for gosh sake. Wait a minute— 

“Miss Johnson! Will you come in here for a minute? . . . 

Didn’t you mail my letter to Mr. Sternmeyer? . . . On the tenth? 
Let’s see—that was last Friday! 

“Hey, George. My secretary mailed it Friday. You should 
have gotten it by— 

“What’d it say? Well, it said I was convinced everybody 
should give to the Fund and I enclosed my check to prove it. 
Now you can’t ask for more than that, can you? 

“O.K. Apologies accepted. I mean when I say I’ll give, I mean 


“How large was the check? Oh, I guess it was about 2 1 /4 by 
Sdk. Most of them are about that size . . . All you do is take it 
down to the warehouse and present it to them and they’ll give 
you the picture. Now if it’s damaged or anything it’s insure— 

“That’s what I did say—picture. P-I-C-T- Well, it’s not 
worth a lot, but I think it would look kind of nice in Dabney 
Lounge. Auntie was from a very fine old Pasadena family. 

“George? George, you still there? George?'’ 

The Alumni Fund Would Much Prefer Money, M-O-N-E-Y 
Caltech Has Plenty of Pictures 


Engineering and, Science 

INSIDE or OUT there is only one... 




t ^RIA/<5 

Normal-Standard Standard 
Medium Duty Medium Duty 




SEALMASTER BEARINGS A Division of STEPHENS-ADAMSON MFG. CO 49 Ridgeway Avenue, Aurora, Illinois 

November , 1961 47 



January Winter Dinner Meeting 

March 3 Annual Dinner Dance 


Water Polo 

November 14 

Redlands at Caltech 
November 17 

Occidental at Caltech 

Cross Country 

November 14 

Pasadena College and Claremont- 
H. Mudd at Caltech 
November 21 

Pacific Lutheran at Caltech 
December 2 

All-Conference at Mt. Sac 


November 11 
Biola at Caltech 
November 18 

UC Riverside at Caltech 

November 21 

Redlands at Redlands 
December 2 

Pomona at Pomona 

F ootball 

November 18 

Claremont-H. Mudd at Rose Bowl 


Lecture Hall, 201 Bridge, 7:30 pan. 
November 10 

Waste Water Reclamation 
—Jack McKee 
November 17 

Sounds of the Earth 
—Stewart W. Smith 
December 1 

Computers—How They Think 
—Gilbert McCann 





” Magazines 



House Organs 
Books, etc. 

Pasadena’s oldest and most 
complete publication house ... 



455 El Dorado Street 


Holley B. Dickinson, '36 


William L. Holladay, '24 


Donald S. Clark, '29 


John R, Fee, '51 


John D. Gee, '53 Wiliam H. Saylor, '32 

Howard B. Lewis, Jr., '48 Peter V. H. Serrell, '36 

Claude B. Nolte, '37 William H. Simons, '49 

Charles P. Strickland, '43 




Victor Wouk, '40 
Electronic Energy Conversion Corp. 
342 Madison Ave., New York 17, N.Y. 
Vice-President Bruno H. Pilorz, '44 

75 Echo Lane, Larchmont, N.Y. 
Secretary-Treasurer Harry J. Moore, '48 

IBM Corp., 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y. 


Chairman Major Lothrop Mittenthal, '48 

3420 Livingston St., N. W. Washington 15, D.C. 
Secretary Willard M. Hanger, '43 

2727 29th St., N. W. ( Washington 8, D.C. 


President James A. Ibers, '51 


President James A. Jbers, '51 

Shell Development Co., Emeryville 
Vice-President Lee A. Henderson, '54 

Weld Rite Company, Oakland 

Secretary-Treasurer Edwin P. Schlinger, '52 

Scott-Buttner Electric Co., Inc., Mountain View 
Meetings: Fraternity Club, 345 Bush St., San Francisco 
Informal luncheons every Thursday 


President Laurence H. Nobles, '49 

Department of Geology, Northwestern University 

Evanston, Illinois 

Vice-President Philip E. Smith, '39 

Eastman Kodak Company, 1712 Prairie Ave. 

Chicago, Illinois 


President George Langsner, '31 

Division of Highways, State of California 
Vice-President G. Donald Meixner, Jr-, '46. 

Dept, of Water Resources, State of California 
Secretary-Treasurer John Ritter, '35 

Division of Highways, State of California 
Meetings: University Club, 1319 "K” Street 

Luncheon first Friday of each month 

Visiting alumni cordially invited—no reservation 


Chairman Maurice B. Ross, '24 

3040 Udal Street 

Secretary Frank J. Dore, '45 

Astronautics Div,, Convair 
Program Chairman Herman S. Englander, '39 


Maurice B. Ross, '24 
3040 Udal Street 
Frank J. Dore, '45 
Astronautics Div,, Convair 
Herman S. Englander, '39 
U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory 


Engineering and Science 

Kodak beyond the snapshot 

(random notes) 

A little x-ray news To John! 

A familiar force 

More precious than rubies is confidence 
in the importance of what one does for 
a living. One thing we do for a living 
is to manufacture x-ray film. Unkind 
words are rarely spoken about society’s 
need for x-ray film. Now we have news 
about x-ray film and need to make it 
seem important. Easy. 

The first piece of news has it that 
Kodak x-ray film of high contrast and 
fine grain is now obtainable with emul¬ 
sion on one side only. Ties in to the 
current push for great structural strength 
in small mass. Load-bearing members 
are now getting so thin that putative 
flaws on their radiographs have to be 
checked out with a microscope. Since 
a microscope can focus on only one side 
of the film at a time, it’s better to have 
the other side blank. Simple, yes; trivial, 
no. Manufacturing and distribution 
problems on our scale are rarely trivial. 

The second piece of news much 
exceeds the first in importance. You 
have been given estimates by various 
authorities of how much radiation you 
and your children can expect to soak 
up, barring disaster. You have been 
told how much to figure for medical 
and dental radiological examination 
over a lifetime. Meanwhile we have 
been quietly goofing up the statistics ! 
We have been upping the response of 
the films. With the latest step, the same 
amount of examination requires half or 
a third as much radiation as before. 
Just privately rejoice a little at how the 
deal has been sweetened a bit for you, 

We are not alone in polypropylene. 
Seven other large and reputable com¬ 
panies are known to be playing in the 
game against each other and us. All we 
players must be very brave, hide our 
nervousness, and raise our glasses high 
in a toast to the memory of Senator 
John Sherman, who believed in the 
great public good that comes of free 
and untrammeled competition. 

(Other nations have ambitious poly¬ 
propylene plans of their own and are 
outproducing the U.S. in polypropylene 
right now in the aggregate. The peoples 
of the earth had better start making 
their artifacts out of polypropylene — 
and fast!) 

As the game gets under way, we hold 
certain strong cards. Our Tenite poly¬ 

• Can be polymerized from propylene 
by two completely different processes of 
our own devising, both free and clear of 
the U.S. patents of others. 

• Comes in many flow' rates. 

• Comes in the widest variety of repro¬ 
ducible colors. 

• Is exceedingly well fortified by our 
own antioxidants against oxidative dete¬ 

• Has “built-in hinge,” i.e. tremendous 
fatigue resistance under flexure. 

• Weathers very well when extruded in 
monofilament for webbing and cordage, 
because of our own ultraviolet inhibitors. 

• Has high-enough softening temperature 
so that when it is extruded as sheet you 
can cook in it and yet on a yield basis it 
costs less Chan cellophane. 

Here is a picture of the basic amplifier 
used in photography. This 
amplifier can provide a gain 
of 10". There is a genie in 
the bottle. Familiarity with 
him breeds not contempt 
but admiration. 

Once upon a time, it was 
customary to summon the genie by 
retiring to a little darkroom and pour¬ 
ing him out of his bottle into a w'hite 
enameled tray. No longer does he 
demand such ceremonious treatment. 

Our wet friend now works unseen 
inside a box, responding to push but¬ 
tons. His vffry fluidity has been replaced 
by a kind of viscosity which need little 
concern the client, who merely inserts 
a probe into a disposable cartridge. 
When the work is done, the genie uses 
his private exit to the sewer. 

This newly announced Eastman 
Viscomat Processor does 36 feet of 
16mm film per minute. Not entirely by 
coincidence, this happens to be the rate 
at which film runs through a projector. 
The film spends about one minute in 
the processor. It emerges processed to 
standard commercial quality, ready to 
project. It can be stopped for seconds 
or days and restarted without loss of 
quality. Were we not so touchy about 
processing quality, the gadget w’ould 
have been on the market long before. 

Note: Whether you work for us or not, 
photography in some form will probably 
have a part in your work as years go on. 
Now or later, feel free to ask for Kodak 
literature or help on anything photographic. 




From vitamins to Verifax Cop 
plenty of lively careers to be r 
with Kodak in research, enginee 
production, marketing. Address. 


Business and Technical Personnel Department 

Rochester 4, N.Y. 

One of a series . . . 

Interview with General Electric’s Dr. J. H. Hollomon 

Manager—General Engineering Laboratory 

Society Has New Needs 
and Wants—Plan Your 
Career Accordingly 

DR. HOLLOMON is responsible for General Electric's centralized, advanced engineering 
activities. He is also an adjunct professor of metallurgy at RPI, .serves in advisory posts 
for four universities, and is a member of the Technical Assistance panel of President 
Kennedy's Scientific Advisory Committee. Long interested in emphasizing new areal of oppor¬ 
tunity for engineers and scientists, the following highlights some of Dr. Hollomon's opinions. 

Q. Dr. Hollomon, what characterizes 
the new needs and wants of society? 

A. There are four significant changes 
in recent times tliat characterize these 
needs and wants. 

1. The increases in the number of 
people who live in cities: the accom¬ 
panying need is for adequate control 
of air pollution, elimination of trans¬ 
portation bottlenecks, slum clearance, 
and adequate water resources. 

2. The shift in our economy from agri¬ 
culture and manufacturing to “serv¬ 
ices”: today less than half our working 
population produces the food and goods 
for the remainder. Education, health, 
and recreation are new needs. They 
require a new information technology 
to eliminate the drudgery of routine 
mental tasks as our electrical tech¬ 
nology eliminated routine physical 

3. The continued need for national 
defense and for arms reduction: the 
majority of our technical resources 
is concerned with research and devel¬ 
opment for military purposes. But 
increasingly, we must look to new tech¬ 
nical means for detection and control. 

4. The arising expectations of the peo¬ 
ples of the newly developing nations: 
here the “haves” of our society must 
provide the industry and the tools for the 
“have-nots” of the new countries if they 
are to share the advantages of mod¬ 
ern technology. It is now clearly recog¬ 
nized by all that Western technology is 
capable of furnishing the material 
goods of modern life to the billions 
of people of the world rather than 
only to the millions in the West. 

We see in these new wants, prospects 
for General Electric’s future growth 
and contribution. 

example, new methods of purifying 
salt water and specific techniques for 
determining impurities in polluted air. 
General Electric is increasing its inter¬ 
national business by furnishing power 
generating and transportation equip¬ 
ment for Africa, South America, and 
Southern Asia. 

We are looking for other products 
that would he helpful to these areas to 
develop their economy and to improve 
their way of life. We can develop new 
information systems, new ways of stor¬ 
ing and retrieving information, or 
handling it in computers. We can 
design new devices that do some of the 
thinking functions of men, that will 
make education more effective and per¬ 
haps contribute substantially to reducing 
the cost of medical treatment. We can 
design new devices for more efficient 
“paper handling” in the service 

Q. If I want to be a part of this new 
activity, how should I plan my career? 

A. First of all, recognize that the 
meeting of needs and wants of society 
with products and services is most 
important and satisfying work. Today 
this activity requires not only knowl¬ 
edge of science and technology but 
also of economics, sociology and the 
best of the past as learned from the 
liberal arts. To do the engineering 
involved requires, at least for young 
men. the most varied experience possi¬ 
ble. This means working at a number 
of different jobs involving different 
science and technology and different 
products. This kind of experience for 
engineers is one of the best means of 
learning how to conceive and design 
-—how to be able to meet the changing 
requirements of the times. 

For scientists, look to those new fields 
in biology, biophysics, information, and 
power generation that afford the most 
challenge in understanding the world 
in which we live. 

But above all else, the science explo¬ 
sion of the last several decades means 
that the tools you will use as an engi¬ 
neer or as a scientist and the knowledge 
involved will change during your life¬ 
time. Thus, you must be in a position 
to continue your education, either on 
your own or in courses at universities 
or in special courses sponsored by 
the company for which you work. 

Q. Does General Electric offer these 
advantages to a young scientist or 

A. General Electric is a large diver¬ 
sified company in which young men 
have the opportunity of working on a 
variety of problems with experienced 
people at the forefront of science and 
technology. There are a number of 
laboratories where research and ad¬ 
vanced development is and has been 
traditional. The Company offers incen¬ 
tives for graduate studies, as well as 
a number of educational programs 
with expert and experienced teachers. 
Talk to your placement officers and 
members of your faculty. I hope you 
will plan to meet our representative 
when he visits the campus. 

A recent address by Dr. Hollomon 
entitled "Engineering's Great Challenge 
— the 1960's," will be of interest to 
most Juniors, Seniors, and Graduate 
Students. It's available by addressing 
your request to: Dr. J. H. Hollomon, 
Section 699-2, General Electric Com¬ 
pany, Schenectady 5, N.Y. 

Q. Could you give us some examples? 

A. We are investigating techniques for 
the control and measurement of air and 
water pollution which will be appli¬ 
cable not only to cities, but to individual 
households. We have developed, for 



Ali applicants will receive consideration for employment 

without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin.