Chemistry 1961 .. . page 11
ublished at the
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Today, in many places
throughout the world, the
shortage of water is a
critical problem. By
1975, there will be
another billion people in
the world . . . and unless
we find enough “new”
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Progress is being made
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inghouse is building the
country’s largest sea¬
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On Our Cover
In Caltech’s freshman chemistry lab¬
oratory, Dr. William Schaefer checks
Hugh Maynard as lie calibrates a
Things are not what they used to
be in Caltech’s freshman chemistry
laboratory—or, for that matter, in the
whole chemistry curriculum.
On page II, Ernest H. Swift, chair¬
man of the Division of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering, describes the
Institute’s new approach to the teach¬
ing of chemistry.
“Keeping the Curriculum Up to
Date” has been adapted from a talk of
Dr. Swift’s at: a dinner given by the
Western Chapter of the American In¬
stitute of Chemists in Pasadena on
September 20, 1961. The dinner, in
fact, was in Dr. Swift’s honor, and the
AIC presented him with an honor
scroll for his “many years devoted to
teaching and for the promotion and
development of his profession and for
his concern and attention for those
within the profession of chemistry.”
Project, New Valley
on page 20 is an account by Egon T.
Degens, assistant professor of geology,
of his participation in efforts to solve
the water problems of the Egyptian
Dr. Degens, whose principal re¬
search interest is in isotope and or¬
ganic chemistry, came to Caltech as a
research fellow in 1958 from Penn¬
sylvania State University, where he
was a research associate in 1956-57.
He is a native of Germany, and he re¬
ceived his PhD from Bonn University
NOVEMBER 1961 VOLUME XXV NUMBER 2
Keeping the Curriculum Up to Date 11
Three of the more serious challenges facing the
makers of college chemistry curricula — and
some changes which have been made at
Caltech in an effort to meet these challenges.
by Ernest H. Swift
Research in Progress 16
by A. H. Sturtevant
The Changing Campus 18
A pictorial progress report
Project New Valley 20
A geologist, a physicist, and a geochemist
tackle Egypt’s water problem.
by Egon T. Degens
Rudolf L. Mosshauer—Nobel Prizewinner 27
Student Life 32
The Caltech Student
by Lance Taylor 62
Lost Alumni 42
Editor and Business Manager.
Assistant to the Editor ._.
Student News ..
Richard C. Armstrong ’28
.Edward Hutchings, Jr.
.Lance Taylor ’62
Roger Noll ’62
Published monthly, October through June, at the California Institute of
Technology, 1201 East California St., Pasadena, Calif. Annual subscrip¬
tion $4.50 domestic, $5.50 foreign, single copies 50 cents. Second class post¬
age paid at Pasadena, California. All Publisher’s Rights Reserved. Reproduc¬
tion of material contained herein forbidden without written authorization.
Manuscripts and all other editorial correspondence should be addressed to:
The Editor, Engineering and Science , California Institute of Technology. ©
1961 Alumni Association, California Institute of Technology.
Putting Ideas to Work in Machinery , Chemicals, Defense
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Engineering and Science
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The Natural History Library
Doubleday Anchor Books
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Mathematical Handbook for
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hy Granino A. Korn and Theresa M. Korn
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Reviewed hy Cleve Moler, ’61
This handbook is a handy reference
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Catalogue of Galaxies and of
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A companion volume to Space Tech¬
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Engineering and Science
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November , 1961
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Engineering and Science
Engineering And Science
November 1961, Volume XXV, No. 2
Keeping the Curriculum Up to Date
Three of the more serious challenges facing the makers of
college chemistry curricula — and some changes
which have been made at Caltech in an effort to meet these challenges.
by Ernest H. Swift
Three serious challenges face those who are con¬
cerned with college science courses today. The first
of these challenges, and one which will demand in¬
creasing recognition, is the result of the various efforts
being made to improve high school mathematics and
There is a general impression among the lay public
that it took Sputnik I to awaken a concern for the
teaching of science in our high schools. As evidence
to the contrary, however, there is the ambitious proj¬
ect, activated a full year before Sputnik I, which had
as its objective the improvement of the teaching of
physics in the high schools.
This project, initially sponsored by the National
Science Foundation, was centered at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, and is still active. It has
involved the cooperative effort of college and high
school teachers from all sections of the country, and
has cost several million dollars to date. A text and
laboratory manual have been produced, supple¬
mentary monographs written, and demonstration
experiments and various other teaching aids made
available. The physics teachers are to be commended
for taking the initiative in such a program. Some
chemistry teachers are so unkind as to say that it was
the quality of high-school physics courses which
stimulated this initiative.
Similar, though less ambitious, programs are now
“Keeping the Curriculum Up to Date” has been adapted
from a talk given by Dr. Swift, chairman of the Division of
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, at a dinner given by the
western chapter of the American Institute of Chemists in
Pasadena on September 20, 1961.
in effect for improving high school courses in chem¬
istry, mathematics, and biology. At the present time,
again under the sponsorship of the National Science
Foundation, two experimental high school chemistry
texts are being developed. The first of these texts
stresses the types of chemical bonds as a logical
method for presenting chemistry to high school
students; approximately 250 schools are using this
text on an experimental basis this year. The second
text emphasizes a more experimental approach; about
125 schools are using this text this year. It seems
inevitable that increasing availability and use of
these texts in the future will raise the general level
of high school chemistry courses.
Also preceding Sputnik I was the National Science
Foundation program of summer institutes (initiated
in 1953) and academic-year refresher courses (ini¬
tiated in 1956) for both high school and college
science and mathematics teachers. These programs
have been expanded until there were 398 summer
institutes held during the summer of 1961; the cost
of the program approached $23,000,000 and stipends
were provided for 18,000 high school teachers.
Twenty-one of these institutes were for chemistry
high school teachers and ten were concerned ex¬
clusively with training teachers to use the two experi¬
mental texts mentioned. Participation in the aca¬
demic-year institutes has grown from 95 in 1956-57
to over 1500 for 1961-62, and the budget has gone
from $500,000 to almost $10,000,000.
Another activity, which began after Sputnik I, but
which I believe has had a significant effect on high
school teaching in both physics and chemistry, has
November , 1961
Freshmen chemistry students get more personal in¬
struction these days. Here, Professor Jurg Waser and
a graduate teaching assistant supervise a group of 10
students in the laboratory.
been the televised Continental Classroom series.
These courses are exceedingly well done and are very
popular. It would seem inevitable that high school
teachers, knowing that their students were viewing
these programs, would endeavor to prepare them¬
selves for the inevitable barrage of questions from
In addition, an increasing number of high schools,
both public and private, are already giving a second
chemistry course which qualifies their students to
take the College Board Advanced Placement Exam¬
inations, with the resultant possibility of obtaining
credit for the college general chemistry course.
In summary, there is definite evidence that these
various efforts have already had a significant effect
on the average quality of high school science courses.
Thus the colleges are being increasingly challenged
to recognize these trends and revise their curricula.
Not to do so would be grossly unfair to high school
teachers who have developed good courses and to
students who have taken advantage of these courses.
The second challenge to college science curricula
arises from what Dr. Joseph B. Platt, president of
Harvey Mudd College, has called the knowledge
explosion. A semanticist might prefer publication
explosion since Dr. Platt measures this phenomenon
in publication units. When both industrial and aca¬
demic advancement is often dependent upon papers
presented and articles published, one can question
that there is a linear relation between increase in
publications and increase in knowledge.
In his address to a recent Conference of Academic
Deans, which was considering the effect of the ex¬
pansion of knowledge on the college curriculum,
Dr. Platt pointed out that John Harvard gave a
library of 300 volumes to Harvard College in 1636 and
that the current Harvard library has about six million
volumes. These figures represent a doubling in the
number of volumes every 20 years and this expo¬
nential rate of increase is representative of other
university libraries. The publication rate increase for
the sciences approaches a doubling every 10 years,
and in the July 17, 1961, issue of Chemical and
Engineering News the director of Chemical Abstracts
Service cited data for the past 10 years showing that
the chemical literature now doubles every 8.3 years.
These figures raise serious questions. Do they imply
that in order to attain the same relative competence
in a scientific field today 30 times as much in¬
formation must be pumped into a science student
as 50 years ago; or, more frightening, a thousand
times as much 50 years hence? Obviously this process
cannot continue indefinitely. For one thing, we
have to recognize that our science curricula are
likely to remain what has been termed “constant
volume systems.” There will be strenuous resistance
to increasing the total time spent in college and an
equal resistance to giving a larger proportion of the
undergraduate time to science at the expense of
humanistic studies. I, for one, will join the opposition
to either of these proposals.
What methods remain for coping with this for¬
midable information inflation? The improvement in
high school courses represents one method which is
already functioning. Another is a better organization
of this expanded information. This approach implies
an earlier and increased emphasis on fundamental
principles and theories which the student can use
to systematize the information to which he is exposed;
and, of equal importance, to find or produce addi¬
tional information as needed.
This approach was emphasized and pioneered
almost 15 years ago by Linus Pauling in the preface
to the first edition of his General Chemistry. He
stated: “Chemistry is a very large subject, which
continues to grow, as new elements are discovered
or made, new compounds are synthesized, and new
principles are formulated. Nevertheless, despite its
growth, the science can now be presented to the
student more easily and effectively than ever before.
In the past the course in general chemistry has
necessarily tended to be a patchwork of descriptive
chemistry and certain theoretical topics. The progress
made in recent decades in the development of unify¬
ing theoretical concepts has been so great, however,
that the presentation of general chemistry to the
students of the present generation can be made in
a more simple, straightforward, and logical way than
There are some chemists who will question how
Engineering and Science
far one can go in emphasizing principles and theories
at the expense of experimental and factual chemistry
and still be able to classify the product as a chemist.
I intend to avoid debating this question. There is
certainly evidence that this theoretical approach can
be pushed to a degree which engenders a disregard
for the experimental method and which can lead to
an unrealistic, and at times woeful, misuse of theory.
A third challenge which faces the makers of cur¬
ricula is the exceptional student. For present purposes
an exceptional student will be defined as one with
the potentialities—perhaps as yet latent—which could
enable him to become a creative and productive
scientist. And this country must produce creative and
productive scientists in increasing numbers. Other¬
wise we will not keep pace with the scientific and
technological advances of the future, with a con¬
sequent loss of national prestige and status and even
One of the qualifications which this exceptional
student must have is intelligence of a high order.
But, of equal importance, he must have intellectual
curiosity and imagination, scientific integrity, and
exceptional motivation. The efforts which are being
expended on high school science courses will bring
more of these exceptional students into the colleges—
students who have been motivated by good courses
and inspired by good teachers. The challenge to the
college is to maintain and strengthen the motivation
of such students rather than to stifle their interest
and curiosity with poor teaching and repetitious
One method of meeting this challenge is to arrange
the college curricula so that students are given full
credit for work they have done and are allowed to
proceed at whatever pace they can maintain. Another
method of meeting this challenge is the one which I
first saw dramatically demonstrated over 40 years ago
by Arthur A. Noyes at Caltech. Dr. Noyes took a
personal interest in such students. He sought them
out and gave them the opportunity for independent
research. I purposely avoid using the term “under¬
graduate research;” too often this term is taken to
mean a required senior thesis. I am skeptical of re¬
quired research at the undergraduate level because
of the belief that all students should not be required,
regardless of their interests and qualifications, to go
through the motions of fulfilling such a requirement.
Likewise, I sympathize with instructors with large
classes who are supposed to provide stimulating and
scientifically productive problems for all of their
students, regardless of ability and interest, and who
then have to supervise the students’ efforts until they
produce a required thesis. There are brilliant students
with predominantly theoretical interests who profit
more from advanced courses; there are mediocre stu¬
dents who will profit more from expending the same
effort in more closely supervised laboratory courses.
There is no required research in the undergraduate
chemistry curriculum at Caltech. There has been a
vigorous program of research in chemistry by under¬
graduates since the arrival of Dr. Noyes on a full¬
time basis in 1920. Qualified and interested students
are encouraged and given the opportunity from their
freshman year to undertake research under the direct
supervision of members of the staff. They receive
academic credit for this work and this credit can be
used to satisfy elective requirements of the junior and
senior years. Increasing numbers are working
through the summer period and they receive academic
credit for this work without payment of tuition.
I would like to cite one recent example, unusual
but illustrative, of the operation of this program
with an exceptional student. Two years ago Professor
J. D. Roberts was approached by a freshman who
stated that he had heard of Professor Roberts’ use
of nuclear magnetic resonance as an aid to studying
the structure of organic compounds. He also ex¬
plained that he had worked with electronic equip¬
ment in high school, and, although he intended to be
a physicist, he would like to undertake some nuclear
magnetic resonance research with Dr. Roberts. Ques¬
tions showed that the student had taken the trouble
to learn something about nuclear magnetic resonance,
and that his academic record was very good, so he
was allowed to begin work on a simple project. The
student worked in his spare time for the remainder
of the freshman year, worked through the following
summer, then in his spare time during his sophomore
year, and again during the past summer. As a result
of this work three papers have been submitted for
publication and another is being prepared.
Last year, as a sophomore, the student presented
a report of his work before our weekly Research
Conference. The level of his report can be judged
by the fact that one of our staff members sub¬
sequently asked if the speaker was a visiting lecturer
being considered for an appointment.
I am aware that this is an unusual case and that
there are undergraduates who become disillusioned
and discouraged by lack of success with a research
problem. It is also true that directing the research
of undergraduates is likely to be a time-consuming
effort. I can only cite the willingness of our staff
to give their time to directing the research of under¬
graduates as an indication of their estimate of its
Revising the chemistry curriculum
In 1956 a revision of the undergraduate chemistry
curriculum at Caltech was put into effect in an at¬
tempt to meet these challenges more effectively.
Honesty requires a confession that this revision was
motivated by the observation that since World War II
In Caltech's freshman chemistry course each student
is provided with a notched-beam chainomatic analyt¬
there had been a continuous decrease in both the
number and quality of the students electing to major
in chemistry or chemical engineering. This election
of a major is not made until the end of the freshman
year, which at the Institute is uniform for all students.
Even more disquieting was the observation that stu¬
dents entering the Institute with an expressed
interest in chemistry were electing other fields at
the end of the freshman year.
These observations indicated that the laboratory
work of the freshman general chemistry course was
failing to meet the first two of the challenges men¬
tioned. First, although substantially all of our students
had had high school chemistry courses, the laboratory
work was failing to take advantage of this previous
training. Most of the experiments were largely
repetitious of ones they had already done or seen
demonstrated. Some so-called quantitative experi¬
ments had been introduced, but as one student ob¬
served “we were supposed to measure some constant
which had been measured fifty years ago fifty times
more accurately so we just dry labbed.” That is, they
were not being challenged.
Secondly, many of tire'experiments were still unduly
influenced by the period when chemistry was a
predominantly descriptive science, and they con¬
formed to a pattern which has been characteristic of
chemistry curricula. They followed the historical and
chronological development of chemistry and re¬
quired the assimilation of a large mass of descriptive
material without developing the principles which
would systematize this material. That is, the labora¬
tory work was not following the approach now used
in modern general chemistry texts.
As a result of these considerations a committee
composed of Professors Carl Niemann, John D.
Roberts, and myself was asked to consider a revision
of the work of the freshman year and, if it seemed
appropriate, of the entire chemistry and chemical
engineering curricula. After much discussion within
the committee and with other staff members, the
recommendation was made that an experimental
curriculum be initiated in which the conventional
laboratory work of the first two quarters of the fresh¬
man year was to be replaced by work essentially
equivalent to that which was then being given in the
sophomore course in basic quantitative analysis. At
first this recommendation will appear questionable,
since the freshman chemistry course is general in
nature, and is taken by all freshmen, and since
quantitative analysis is usually considered to be a
specialized professional course. The recommendation
was based on several observations and conclusions,
Fust, there was convincing evidence that the fresh¬
man laboratory work had not adequately recognized
that science and engineering were becoming progres¬
sively more quantitative in both theory and practice.
For this reason there seemed strong justification for
including in the freshman chemistry course experi¬
ments which would develop the ability of a student
to plan, execute, and critically interpret quantitative
measurements of various types. Also, because of the
increasing emphasis on theoretical material in modern
general chemistry texts, it seemed almost imperative
that students should develop an appreciation and
respect for the experimental method and a realization
that it is the basis of scientific progress.
It was further hoped that subsequent laboratory
courses, regardless of their fields, would be modified
to take full advantage of this early proficiency in
Second, the committee believed that by proper
selection of these quantitative experiments the gen¬
eral principles underlying the various types of chem¬
ical reactions could be more clearly illustrated than
by the multiplicity of descriptive and qualitative
experiments conventionally used.
The recommendation of the committee also in¬
volved the assumption that it would not be much
more difficult to teach freshman students quantita¬
tive techniques than it had been to teach these
techniques to sophomores; there would even be
some advantage because of the absence of dubious
habits acquired from the use of pseudo-quantitative
instruments and techniques in the freshman year.
Subsequent experience demonstrated the validity of
Also, it was believed that present-day freshman
students, at least those who had taken a high school
course in chemistry and had enrolled in a science
and engineering course, were sufficiently mature and
motivated to be interested and challenged by quanti¬
tative work done on a professional level.
Finally, this recommendation was based on the
assumption—perhaps gamble would be a better word
—that quantitative analytical experiments could be
so taught that they would be more effective than the
descriptive experiments previously used in arousing
Engineering and Science
the interest and maintaining the motivation of the
general students entering the Institute with an in¬
terest in chemistry.
The reaction to this assumption has ranged from
raised eyebrows to profanity—both used to express
the belief that no course in the curriculum has driven
more students from chemistry than quantitative
analysis. Too often this has been true, because the
teachers and the texts of quantitative analysis have
still taught the course as it was taught 50 years ago.
At that time there was economic justification for train¬
ing the student by repetitive drill with typical gravi¬
metric and volumetric procedures to be able to go
out after four years and start his career doing routine
work in an analytical or control laboratory. This is
not true today. In fact, it is believed that the success
of such a course, especially for those students not
having a strong interest in chemistry, will in large
measure depend on how effectively both students and
staff are convinced that training analysts is not the
primary objective of the work.
The laboratory course
Initially there was justifiable criticism that too large
a proportion of the work in this laboratory course was
conventional gravimetric and volumetric proce¬
dures. Subsequently, under the direction of Professor
Jurg Waser, there has been continuous experimenta¬
tion to obtain diversification of measurements. As of
last year, in addition to conventional gravimetric
and volumetric methods, there were gas volumetric
methods; there were coulometric and electrolytic
methods involving measurements of electrical poten¬
tial, current, resistance, and total quantity of elec¬
tricity passing in a given time; and there were
colorimetric methods involving measurements of light
As a result of shifting the quantitative analysis from
the second year into the first, there has been a general
shifting downwards of the chemistry courses. The
basic organic course, both class and laboratory, was
moved from the junior to the sophomore year. The
basic physical chemistry course remains in the junior
year; in place of the organic laboratory of that
year there is now a one-quarter course in advanced
quantitative analysis, and two quarters of physical
chemistry laboratory which was formerly given in
the senior year.
Because of these shifts, a student now completes
his basic courses by the end of his junior year. Con¬
sequently the senior year is completely free, except
for required humanities work, for a student to take
research or graduate-level courses in special fields.
As an alternative, serious consideration is being given
to advising unusually mature and capable students
to enroll in graduate school after completing their
To what extent has this curriculum been successful?
An objective quantitative evaluation is difficult. The
results have been most apparent in the first year
where there has been a dramatic improvement in
the application and apparent interest of the students
in laboratory work. We believe that this has resulted
in part from elimination of any repetition of high
school work and from the challenge involved in using
professional instruments to their full capacity. For
example, freshmen learn to weigh on notched-beam,
Perhaps the most objective evidence of the relative
effectiveness of the revised freshman course is the
fact that after the first year there was an increase of
approximately 60 percent in the number of students
electing to major in chemistry or chemical engineer¬
ing. This increase has been maintained in spite of the
current glamor of mathematics and physics. Also, this
revised freshman work has enabled greater emphasis
to be placed on research d5y exceptional students.
The proficiency in quantitative measurements and the
understanding of principles now obtained in the
freshman year not only enables but stimulates stu¬
dents to undertake research work earlier than they
did before. In addition, the acceleration of the basic
courses has left more time available for research or
advanced courses in the last two years.
I wish to emphasize that the curriculum I have
described is still considered to be experimental, al¬
though it is now in its fifth year. I hope that this
attitude continues indefinitely. Also, even though this
curriculum has been reasonably successful at the
California Institute, one cannot conclude that it
would be equally effective at other schools. Recently
I was invited to participate in a project to establish
"the ideal chemistry curriculum.” Such a concept
frightened me, since if it were generally accepted,
further experimentation would be inhibited. I believe
that the ideal curriculum for a given school is deter¬
mined by the interests and capabilities of the staff
and of the students of that school at that particular
time. One of the most promising current developments
in connection with the undergraduate chemistry cur¬
riculum is the widespread willingness to re-examine
the objectives, content, and sequence of the various
courses and to apply the experimental method to
The establishment of this revised chemistry cur¬
riculum at Caltech has been a cooperative undertaking
in both planning and execution by the members of the
Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.
The time and effort they have contributed has been
responsible for whatever degree of success has
resulted. To those concerned, it is obvious that con¬
tinuous expenditure of both time and effort will be
required if this or any other curriculum is to meet the
challenges of our rapidly changing modern world.
Research in Progress
by A. H.
Professor A. H. Sturtevant, Thomas Hunt Morgan
Professor of Genetics, not only carries on an active
research program with the famed Drosophila fly at
Caltech, hut manages to find time to carry out basic
investigations on a very different form of living
matter, irises. Actually, his scientific publications in¬
clude investigations on heredity not 07ily in flies and
irises but also in moths, snails, evening primroses, rab¬
bits, mice, race horses, and men.
Several different groups of irises are widely grown
as ornamental garden plants. In southern California
many types are grown: the California natives, the
Louisiana, the Dutch, the spuria, the stylosa or
winter iris, and others. But here, as elsewhere, by far
the most frequent type is the bearded iris—and it is
with this group that I have been making genetic
Iris genetics is slow. The minimum time from seed
to seed is two years, and three or four years is not
unusual. To one who has worked chiefly with Droso¬
phila this requires patience; the difference between
two weeks and two years is considerable! One may
well ask—in fact many people have asked—why then
would one study such an unfavorable organism?
Perhaps the real answer is that I like iris, and get
a great deal of pleasure from the blooms that come
in the spring. But I also have a few other reasons
which are, I hope, more convincing to people who
are not infected with the iris virus, as I am.
The old-fashioned “German irises” that our grand¬
mothers grew were diploid bearded types—that is, they
had 12 pairs of chromosomes. They were descended
from complex crosses involving two wild species—the
lavender Iris pallida and the yellow and red I.
variegate, both from southern Europe.
Beginning about 1910 these garden diploids were
crossed with a series of wild tetraploids (I. cypriana,
I. mesopotamica, etc.) that had 24 pairs of chromo¬
somes. These forms, all from the eastern Mediter¬
ranean region, were all purplish blue in color, and
were taller, larger, and more susceptible to cold and
other unfavorable conditions than the older diploids.
The modern tall bearded irises of our gardens have
been developed from these crosses. Nearly all of
these are now tetraploid, and the range of colors and
patterns is far greater than in the older types, and
is being extended every year.
The complex origin of the modern forms has re¬
sulted in a complicated genetic situation. There are,
for example, at least four genetically quite distinct
types of whites, of which only one can be identified
with reasonable certainty by its appearance. The
genetics of the various patterns that occur is very
sketchily known; and almost nothing is known about
the inheritance of properties other than flower colors
The long time between generations is a distinct
disadvantage — but there are some compensating ad¬
vantages. The flowers are only rarely pollinated
naturally, but set seed freely when hand-pollinated.
It is, therefore, unnecessary to remove the anthers
and enclose the flowers in bags when making crosses
—which makes it a lazy man’s job to cross-breed them.
Irises are usually propagated by planting the under¬
ground stems, or rhizomes (often incorrectly called
bulbs), which perpetuate the genetic composition of
the original plant. It is, therefore, easy to keep parents
indefinitely for comparison with (or crossing to)
their descendants. I have one old diploid that was first
offered for sale in 1844; and the common winter and
early spring-blooming white iris in Pasadena is
albicans —a nearly sterile hybrid that has been propa¬
gated through rhizomes for at least 500 years. It is
an Arabian plant that has long been grown in
Mohammedan graveyards, and it has escaped and
grows like a wild plant from Spain to India.
I started crossing irises because I wanted to get first¬
hand familiarity with the genetic behavior of a
tetraploid form, and this seemed to be a favorable
plant to use, since both diploid and tetraploid forms
are available and can be crossed to each other.
Since the mid-thirties, irises of another group from
the eastern Mediterranean area have begun to be
intercrossed with the tetraploid tall bearded. These
are members of the Oncocyclus group. They are
short-stemmed, large-flowered types, and they are
very difficult garden subjects. However, they have
added new colors, patterns, and shapes, and now some
fertile and more easily grown hybrid types are ap-
Engineering and Science
Dr. A. H.
field of irises
right on the
just west of
the new Keck
1 ‘A A
# * *
" '» *
r/ - ?
: \ \;
: 1 s
m ■ +.
A v /% '■
<• ^ ^
i , v
f: 1 •
: :i^ v
b, ‘ *. «*l
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pearing. These raise a whole series of new genetic
questions—and are of interest in connection with the
old problem of interspecific sterility.
A great many people are interested in crossing irises.
It has been estimated that something like a million
new seedlings are flowered each year in this country
—many of them by amateurs, and nearly all of them
by people whose knowledge of genetics is rather
slight. There is widespread interest in the basic rela¬
tions—which are in fact not yet well enough under¬
stood to make possible a coherent general account of
the genetics of the iris.
V * '
#*...& t, C " 4
Helicopter view of the campus, October 9, 1961
THE CHANGING CAMPUS
Caltech’s graduate houses opened for business at the start of the
1961-62 academic year. The dedication of the four new
houses (Keck, Braun, Mosher-Jorgenson, and Marks) on October 2
marked the completion of the 13th new structure in the Institute’s
18-building development program. Still to come: the Karman
Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Jet Propulsion which will be
dedicated in January; the Firestone Aeronautics Research
Laboratory and the Winnett Student Center, now under construction;
and the Arnold O. Beckman xAuditorium and Robert A. Millikan
Memorial Library, now only in the planning stage. On
the opposite page, some new faces on campus.
Engineering and Science
W. M. Keck
The hatched portions
in this map of the
Egyptian desert show
the areas that are
now, or will be,
irrigated by artesian
water in Project New
Valley, a long range
plan which will bring
from 10 to 15 million
people to this arid area
by Egon T. Degens
In the spring of 1960, a geologist, a physicist, and a
geochemist landed at Cairo airport. Their visit, which
was sponsored by UNESCO, the Federal Republic of
Germany, and the Egyptian Government, concerned
the water problem of the Western Egyptian Desert.
It was the time of Ramadan (which literally means
“hot month”) when strict fasting is practiced during
daylight hours, until the Great Bairam, the highest
Mohammedan festival, ends the fasting. Actually, it
seems that a great percentage of the Egyptian people
yApie'Tov jjcv iiScjfi
“Water is the best of all things’—Pindar (475 B.C.)
practice Ramadan more or less permanently, for many
of them live on only one or two cupfuls of hot beans
One may ask why these people cannot make a
decent living in a Nile Valley which often looks like
the Garden of Eden. The answer is quite simple.
Egypt covers an area of about 400,000 square miles
and has a population of about 26 million; that means
65 people per square mile—a population density very
much like that of California, But the inhabitants of
Egypt are concentrated in the small valley of the
Upper Nile and delta region—an area which em¬
braces only 14,000 square miles. In other words, there
are 1,800 people per square mile here, making this
one of the most densely populated spots on our
planet. The rest of Egypt is just plain desert, with
here and there an oasis; but only a couple of thousand
people call such oases home.
The population of Egypt increases by more than
500,000 per year. A few years ago, people all over the
world realized that something had to be done im¬
mediately to forestall even more serious famine, and
the erection of a high dam near Aswan was planned.
This would make possible the development of some
industry and the irrigation of an additional few thou¬
sand square miles of desert.
Because of the external political situation, the con¬
struction of the Aswan Dam is now in progress under
Russian management and will be completed in 8 to
10 years. The succeeding irrigation program will pro¬
vide subsistence to about 5 million people—but, since
this is precisely the expected increase in population
over the coming decade, it is somewhat unrealistic to
regard the Aswan Dam as the final solution to Egypt’s
Not long ago, in the period of about 100,000 to
10,000 B.C., the Western Egyptian Desert, which is a
part of the Libyan Desert, was a center of culture
and civilization. Since that time human beings have
gradually disappeared from this region. The popula¬
tion has declined from an estimated few million
people in the Mesolithic era to just a few thousand
In Mesolithic times, which cover the period from
about 50,000 to 10,000 B.C., huge fresh water lakes
developed naturally in the Western Egyptian Desert.
They were fed by streams which branched from the
old Nile near Wadi Haifa and then flowed north¬
westerly along the line of the so-called desert depres¬
sions—in which the oases Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra,
Bahariya, and Siwa are located—to end ultimately in
This picture, as outlined, is like a mirage seen
across the sands of time, for today one sees only
growing sand dunes, dry lakes, and a precipitation of
less than one inch in 25 years.
The past — key to the future
Oases are located sporadically throughout the
Libyan Desert, and it is a common belief that they
have unlimited water resources at depth. It is further
assumed, without adequate basis, that this water
reservoir is continuously recharged from the south
(Abyssinia-Sudan) and southwest (Equatorial Africa)
where precipitation is abundant.
This belief is based largely on the fact that the
oases have stayed as a bastion in the desert for at
least the last few thousand years, and that during this
period the water supply has not changed significantly.
Tlie water is mostly artesian—brought to the surface
by natural water or gas pressure. It is stored at depths
from 100 to 3,000 feet below the present surface. It is
well established by geological studies that there is
subsurface water intercommunication between some
of the oases, which could mean that water reservoirs
of larger dimensions are developed at greater depth
beneath the Libyan Desert.
This assortment of facts and vague hypotheses has
led to one of the most fantastic cultivation programs
the world has ever known—Project New Valley. Al¬
though this program will change the economy and
the face of Egypt in a profound manner, little is
known about the ultimate goal of the project outside
of Egypt. Basically, the project intends to irrigate land
now occupied by desert by means of subsurface
waters, supplied from hundreds of bore holes to be
drilled in the depressions of the Western Egyptian
Desert. Some additional water will be furnished from
the Aswan High Dam reservoir along an artificial river
flowing through the New Valley.
The area under consideration is hatched in the
map at the left. This is the very same area where pre¬
historic man lived, and the aim of Project New Valley
is, therefore, the recultivation of ancient farmland
which has gradually developed into desert over the
last 5 to 10 thousand years. As an indication of how
Project New Valley produces irrigation water at a rate of about 300,000 cubic meters a day at the oasis of Dakhla.
Pipes like that above bring artesian water from hundreds of feet below the surface. At present the water is
overflowing and evaporating, leaving thick layers of salts on the newly developed acres.
the project will affect the population structure of
Egypt, approximately 10 to 15 million Egyptians are
expected to settle in this area within the next 10 to
New Valley is an outgrowth of the General Organ¬
ization for the Rehabilitation of Deserts which was
founded at Cairo about 10 years ago. One of the first
activities of this organization was to drill a great
number of bore holes across the desert depressions,
hoping for unlimited water resources beneath the
The project is only a few years old and still in its
initial stage, yet millions of cubic meters of water are
being continuously extracted from the subsurface
reservoir. At Dakhla, a small community of less than
1,000 people, the daily outflow of water is about
300,000 cubic meters, a quantity sufficient to supply
a town of 1-2 million inhabitants. At present, the
water is just running down from the slope to evaporate
at the rate of about one inch a day, leaving layers of
salts up to a half inch in thickness on the newly
One important necessity for the success of Project
New Valley is that the extraction rate of the water
be matched by an influx rate of comparable magni¬
tude. However, there are convincing reports that such
a sound water balance does not exist. For instance, a
significant decrease in gas pressure and water outflow
rate has already been registered in the first five years
of the project. This might be an indication that the
water resources are not as plentiful as generally
This was the situation when our three-man research
team landed at Cairo airport to study the origin,
source, and distribution of the artesian waters in the
Western Egyptian Desert. Over a period of three
weeks we collected water samples from various places
in the desert depressions, the location site of New Val¬
ley, to be analyzed later in our laboratories at home.
A two-engine Ilyushin aircraft, furnished by the
Egyptian Government, made this rapid collecting of
the water specimens possible.
The group was headed by Dr. Georg Knetsch,
director of the Geological Institute at Wuerzburg
University in Germany. Dr. Knetsch has spent many
years in Africa doing temporary work as head of the
Department of Earth Sciences at Cairo University.
He is unanimously regarded as the outstanding
European expert on African geology. His profound
knowledge of Egyptian geology was the scientific
backbone of our whole investigation.
The physicist, Dr. Karl Otto Munnich, senior re¬
search associate at the Physical Institute of Heidel¬
berg University, working with Dr. John Vogel, asso¬
ciate professor at the Physical Institute of Groningen
University, determined the age of the waters by means
of carbon-14 analysis.
As geochemist, I investigated the chemistry and
stable isotope distribution of the waters and the
Engineering and Science
During our trip, we were associated with two
Egyptian geologists, Dr. A. Shata and Dr. M. Shazly,
both staff members at the Desert Institute in Cairo.
To understand the water situation and the future
of Project New Valley, it is necessary to have some
idea of the geological setup of Egypt.
The oldest rocks exposed in Egypt are crystalline
rocks of Precambrian age. They cover a small strip
of about 30 to 80 miles wide along the west coast of
the Red Sea. They are also present in Sinai. Westward
from the Red Sea, these Precambrian or basement
rocks are overlaid by sediments belonging to the
so-called Nubian Series which dip gently to the west.
Spots of Precambrian rocks also crop out in the
Libyan Desert, close to the border of the Sudan.
These crystalline “islands” are oriented along an east-
westerly line starting from about Aswan and moving
westward to Uweinat, a small place located in the
northeast corner of the Sudan. This is the surface
manifestation of the Aswan-Uweinat Uplift, a gigantic
subsurface rock dome which lifted crystalline rocks
to, or close to, the present surface and has served as
an effective impermeable barrier to the movement
of ground water.
North of this uplift, the crystalline basement dips
northward and is covered by sediments of the Nubian
Series which are gently inclined to the north. The
Nubian rocks represent stratigraphically all sediments
from at least the Cambrian up to the Cretaceous and
sometimes the Eocene, a time period covering about
400 million years of earth history. In the north, Upper
Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones and clays rest
upon the Nubian Series.
These features indicate that Egypt is surrounded
on the east and on the south by a girdle of crystalline
rocks; to the west extends the Sahara Desert, and on
the north the country is bounded by the Mediter¬
ranean. Inside Egypt, moving from the Aswan-
Uweinat Uplift in the south toward the Mediterranean,
only Nubian and younger sediments are exposed, rest¬
ing on the Precambrian basement. Toward the north,
these sediment layers increase steadily in thickness
from zero to about 10.000 feet. They hold the waters
on which the success of Project New Valley largely
“Tales Sunt Aquae ..
“Waters take their nature from the strata through
which they flow.” This statement by Plinius (23-79
A.D.) carries a profound meaning. Practically all
matter found in the earth’s crust is to some degree
soluble in natural waters. Natural waters act as
decomposing agents and solvents in the earth’s crust.
In turn, the waters cannot remain unchanged in their
chemical composition as long as they migrate through
rocks. The proportion and type of soluble matter taken
up from the strata depends on a number of factors
such as the chemical nature of the rocks, the purity
and temperature of the water, the ease of circulation
of water through the rocks, the overhead pressure,
and the velocity of water flow.
In applying these fundamental hydrochemical laws
to the Egyptian water problem, all the systematic
variation in the chemistry of the waters can be ex¬
plained in a simple fashion. Our data show that
waters taken from oases in the south, close to the
Aswan-Uweinat Uplift, have about 10 times less
solutes than waters obtained from oases in the north,
located near the Mediterranean. In other words, there
is an increase in salinity toward the north, and this
increase is solely caused by contributions of chlorine,
sulfate, and sodium ions to the water solutes. The
remainder of the ions show no significant fluctuations
over hundreds of miles.
Experimental leaching studies on the Nubian Series,
which serve as aquifers or water-carrying strata,
reveal that chlorine, sulfate, and sodium are, in fact,
the only ions that can be extracted in significant
quantities from the Nubian wall rock. This feature
suggests a cause-effect relationship between sediment
and associated water in a manner which confirms that
“Tales sunt aquae, qualis terra per quam fluunt.”
Although the chemistry of the water changes con¬
sistently from south to north as a result of migration
and storage mechanisms, the ratio of the two stable
isotopes of oxygen (O' 8 and 0 16 ) in this water does
not change and, further, the amount of the heavy 0 1S
is abnormally low.
From other studies it is known that the amount
of 0 1s in natural waters is controlled primarily by the
temperature at which such waters precipitated from
the atmosphere. Precipitation occurring under cold
conditions is relatively deficient in O 18 . The fact that
the Egyptian ground waters are abnormally low in 0 1S
gives a clue as to the climatic conditions under which
such water fell to earth and seeped into the ground
to be stored in the safe-deposit box of the Egyptian
Analyses of the carbonates of the waters made it
even more possible to determine the precise age of
the water. At Kharga, the age is about 25,000 years, and
at Siwa, 30,000 years. The ages of the other oases fall
in between, gradually increasing from south to north.
The history of the water
All geochemical, geological, and physical informa¬
tion indicates that the water fell in Pluvial periods of
the Mesolithic era about 25,000 to 30,000 years ago
and was transported in surface drainage systems from
continued on page 26
THERE’S CHALLENGE TODAY FOR VIRTUAL L\
Engineering and Science
EVERY TECHNICAL TfllEWT AT
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every field of advanced aerospace, marine, and industrial power applications.
The reach of the future ahead is indicated by current programs. Presently,
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is exploring the fringe areas of technical knowledge in
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To help move tomorrow closer to today, we continually seek ambitious young
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For further information regarding an engineering career at Pratt & Whitney
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or national origin.
Abyssinia and the Sudan into the Western Egyptian
Desert in the Nile drainage system of that time. A
significant subsurface migration of former rain waters
from Central or East Africa into Egypt can be com¬
pletely ruled out, since the Aswan-Uweinat Uplift,
which once had lifted the crystalline basement to, or
close to, the present surface, operated as an extremely
effective water barrier, preventing a significant sub-
cutane influx of water from the Sudan, Abyssinia, or
the region of Equatorial Africa. The infiltration of
present Nile water, a hypothesis formerly suggested,
can be excluded for various geological and geochem¬
The large supply of water from outside into the
center of the desert depressions in prehistoric times
resulted in the formation of extensive fresh water
lakes full of fish, in which sediments were deposited.
These unobtrusive sediments are the only clues to the
former existence of the lakes, and their present dis¬
tribution makes it possible to reconstruct the ancient
shore lines. Embedded in the sediments, besides pre¬
historic artifacts, are small gastropod shells, whose
isotope ratios are consistent with ratios that would
be expected if the shells were formed in isotopic
equilibrium with the desert water and its dissolved
It is even possible to calculate, from the oxygen
isotope data of the desert water and the shell carbon¬
ate, the mean annual temperature of the lake environ¬
ment at the time the shell creature lived. The pre¬
historic water had a mean annual temperature of
about 15-16°C, which is appreciably lower than the
present mean temperature of the Nile. This is not
surprising since there was a glacial stage at about that
The Nubian sediments, in which shales, sandstones,
and conglomerates alternate, are quite favorable for
the storage and transportation of the water. Aquifers
are provided by sandstones and conglomerates, which
are enclosed By relatively impervious shales. In those
days the lake and river water oozed rapidly into the
underlying Nubian Series or was carried by surface
drainage systems into the Mediterranean along the
line from Kharga to Siwa.
Evaporation from the lakes that existed in pre¬
historic times certainly caused precipitation and af¬
fected the general climate considerably. It has to be
emphasized, however, that the overwhelming part of
the present subsurface water was derived from the
same geographical intake area as that of the present
Nile, whose chemistry is identical with that of the
desert waters which have been stored in the most
southern oases for the last 25,000 years.
Water is never at rest. The Egyptian water migrated
slowly from an intake area bounded by the Aswan-
Uweinat Uplift in the south toward the Mediter¬
ranean, picking up more and more salts from the sur¬
rounding rocks during transportation. On the basis
of carbon-14 data, it has been estimated that the
velocity of flow is roughly 15 miles in 100 years. The
solutes of the water increase by about two milligrams
per liter during one mile of transportation. The low
salt concentrations in the southern oases support
our inference that the water did not migrate the long
distance of about 1,000 to 1,500 miles through rocks
from Abyssinia to the Sudan.
Waters from greater depths rise to the surface by
pressure of gases. The origin of these gases is not fully
known. The most likely hypothesis is that the gas
phase, which is mostly air, became entrapped in the
sediments contemporaneously with the water. During
storage and migration, the gases were separated from
the water, and the shales, operating as a shield, pre¬
vented their escape. Just as compressed gas billows'
force oil to the surface in some petroleum deposits,
waters present in the Nubian Series may similarly be
expelled to the outside.
The success of a project of such fantastic dimen¬
sions as New Valley is dubious. Waters in the Libyan
Desert are with great probability fossil, which means
that no significant recharge from outside takes place.
In addition, the water reservoirs are more or less re¬
stricted to small sediment basins below the desert
depressions and do not extend over the entire Libyan
Desert. Finally, the waters are presently being wasted
in an irresponsible manner. There is of course no
simple way to calculate the total water reserves, but
the decrease in outflow in some of the oases should
make people suspicious.
Under these circumstances it is advisable to stop
the enormous consumption of irrigation water immedi¬
ately. This can easily be done by switching from a
flooding to a sprinkling technique, which would
simultaneously prevent the development of salt crusts
on the newly developed acres. It should also be
possible to irrigate the desert on a somewhat smaller
scale during the final stage of the cultivation program.
Under these conditions, the future of the manv
fellaheen who will eventually settle in the desert will
be more secure, perhaps for the next hundred years
I can already visualize a small stream, branching
from the water reservoir of the Aswan High Dam into
the Western Egyptian Desert and sending, as in pre¬
historic times, Nile water to the New Valley. More
water will come from the ancient water reservoirs
beneath the desert depressions. The climate will be¬
come more favorable and the New Valley will be
transformed into a flourishing Garden of Eden.
This vision is the same as the one Egypt has been
dreaming of ever since those seven meager years
recorded in the first book of Moses.
Engineering and Science
Rudolf L. Mossbauer, senior research fellow in
physics at Caltech, is one of two scientists to receive
the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics. Dr. Mossbauer was
awarded the prize for his discovery of the radiation
effect that bears his name. The other half of the
$48,300 physics prize goes to Robert Hofstadter of
Stanford University lor his discoveries about the
structure of nucleons.
The Mossbauer effect is a remarkably accurate
yardstick that enables physicists to measure precisely,
for the first time, the effects of natural forces such as
gravity, electricity, and magnetism, on infinitely small
particles, such as photons and parts of the nuclei of
Basically, the Mossbauer effect states that under
certain conditions both the atomic nucleus and the
whole crystal that contains it will recoil when the
nucleus emits or absorbs a gamma ray. Emitting and
absorbing nuclei, if built into crystals, are, therefore,
exactly in resonance. With the Mossbauer effect,
physicists can observe this nuclear resonance more
sharply than ever before, and can use it for extremely
precise measurements of gravity, magnetism, and the
structure of the nucleus.
continued on page 30
Mossbauer meets the press after being notified of his award.
Edward H. Sussenguth, Jr. (B.A., Harvard '54; M.S. in E.E.,
MIT ’59) has investigated the theoretical requirements of
an automated design system for advanced cryotron-circuit
HE WORKS WITH A NEW DIMENSION
IN COMPUTER DESIGN
Thin film cryotrons may make possible computers of small
size and truly prodigious speeds.
The speeds of today’s computers are limited mainly by
device switchingtimes. Speeds of cryotron computers would
be limited mainly by signal propagation times between
Automation of Logical Circuits. Edward Sussenguth has
studied methods of design which will reduce the distance
between devices to a minimum. He hopes that these will
contribute to a completely automatic design system.
Ultimately, then, the systems designer would specify his
needs in terms of Boolean equations and feed them into a
computer. The computer would (a) design the logical cir¬
cuits specified by the equations, (b) translate the logical
circuits into statements describing the interconnections,
(c) from the interconnections, position the devices in an
optimal fashion, (d) from this configuration, print out the
masks to be used in the evaporation process by which
these circuits are made.
This is a big order, but Edward Sussenguth and his col¬
leagues have already made significant progress. Their work
may well have a profound effect on computer systems in
the coming years.
Orientation: the future. One of the exciting things about
computer development is this orientation towards the
future. If a man wants to match his personal growth with
the growth of computer systems, his future can be virtually
unlimited. This is true of all the fields associated with com¬
puter systems —research, development, manufacturing,
programming, marketing. The IBM representative will be
glad to discuss any one of these fields with you. Your place¬
ment office can make an appointment. All qualified appli¬
cants will be considered for employment without regard to
race, creed, color or national origin. You may write, outlin¬
ing your background and interests, to:
Manager, Technical Employment
IBM Corporation, Dept. 892
590 Madison Avenue
New York 22, N.Y.
You naturally have a better chance to grow with a growth company.
The Month . . . continued
The Mossbauer effect enables physicists to test
phases of Einstein’s theory of relativity, and it has
already confirmed Einstein’s prediction that gravity
can change the frequency of a light beam. It is being
used in laboratories in'^several countries to resolve
mysteries in the fields of solid state physics and
nuclear physics. And it may also help to make manned
space flights safer.
At Caltech Dr. Mossbauer and his colleagues are
using his effect to study the internal magnetic and
electric fields in isotopes of the rare earth elements.
Information is being obtained about the complex elec¬
trical interactions in the crystalline structure of these
compounds, and about the electric and magnetic prop¬
erties of excited nuclear states. The work is supported
by the Atomic Energy Commission.
Dr. Mossbauer has been at Caltech since March
1960, on a two-year leave of absence from the Institute
for Technical Physics at Munich, Germany.
He was born in Munich on January 31, 1929, and
received his academic degrees there. His PhD was
awarded magna cum laude by the Institute for Tech¬
nical Physics in 1957. Dr. Mossbauer worked as a
research fellow at the Institute until he was granted
a leave of absence to come to Caltech.
Formerly a mathematician, Mossbauer started his
gamma ray research at the Institute for Technical
Physics in 1953 when his supervisor suggested that
he enter this new field. He made his discovery while
working for his doctor’s degree.
Mossbauer has received three other prizes for his
research: The Research Corporation Award in 1960;
the Roentgenpreis from the University of Giessen,
Germany, last July; and the Elliott Cresson Medal,
which he received from the Franklin Institute of
Philadelphia last month. The Cresson Medal was
awarded for “his discovery of recoilless emission, and
for his penetrating analysis and understanding of the
phenomenon which has led to a tool of unbelievable
discrimination now widely employed in many facets
of physical research to make measurements believed
impossible as little as ten years ago.”
Engineering and Science
Admittedly, our standards are high at Western Electric.
But engineering graduates who can meet them, and who
decide to join us, will begin their careers at one of the best
times in the history of the company. For plentiful oppor¬
tunities await them in both engineering and management.
As we enter a new era of communications, Western
Electric engineers are carrying forward assignments that
affect the whole art of telephony from electronic devices to
high-speed sound transmission. And, in the management
category alone, several thousand supervisory jobs will be
available to W.E. people within the next 10 years. Many
of these new managers will come from the class of ’62.
Now’s the time for you to start thinking seriously about
the general work area that interests you at Western Electric,
the manufacturing and supply unit of the Bell Telephone
System. Then when our representative comes to your
campus, you’ll be prepared to discuss career directions that
will help make the interview profitable.
After a man joins Western Electric, he will find many
programs that will aid him in exploring the exciting course
of his career — while advancing just as fast as his abilities
allow. And he’ll be secure in the knowledge that he is
growing with a company dedicated to helping America set
the pace in improving communications for a rapidly grow¬
Challenging opportunities exist now at Western Electric for electrical,
mechanical, industrial, and chemical engineers, as well as physical
science, liberal arts, and business majors. All qualified applicants will
receive careful consideration for employment without regard to race,
creed, color or national origin. For more information about Western
Electric, write College Relations, Western Electric Company, Room 6105,
222 Broadway, New York 38, New York. And be sure to arrange for a
Western Electric interview when our college representatives visit your
Principal manufacturing locations at Chicago, III.; Kearny, N. J.; Baltimore. Md.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Allentown and Laureldale, Pa.; Winston-Salem, N. C. : Buffalo, N. Y.; North Andover,
Mass.; Omaha, Neb.; Kansas City, Mo.; Columbus, Ohio; Oklahoma City, Okla. Engineering Research Center, Princeton, N. J. Teletype Corporation. Skokie. III., and
Little Rock. Ark. Also Western Electric distribution centers in 33 cities and installation headquarters in 16 cities. General headquarters: 195 Broadway. New York 7, N. Y.
THE CALTECH STUDENT
— and what makes him like that
When the new freshmen arrive at Caltech each
September, they are immediately bussed off to the
mountains for three days of what is called New Stu¬
dent Camp. Quite unexpectedly, the purpose of Camp
is not to haze and hector the frosh into four years
of jolly college fun, but rather to ease their way
into the harsh realities of Life at Tech. In recent
years Camp has been remarkably successful in its
To the gimlet eyes of the upperclassmen and pro¬
fessors in charge of running Camp, the frosh are
usually a mixture of about equal parts of high self¬
opinion and idealistic naivete. Thus, a great deal of
Camp time is devoted to the twin tasks of beating
down egos while building up ideals with a few hard
facts. These noble aims are accomplished by a series
of speeches and discussion groups in which three
points are constantly reiterated:
1) Science is fun, but it is difficult. Many smart
high school graduates don’t know this, because most
high schools haven’t quite caught on to the fact that
science has progressed beyond Newtonian physics
(without calculus) and making iron sulphate in chem¬
2) As a consequence, Caltech — with a sincere de¬
sire to produce at least one Nobel laureate per class
— crams cubic acres of content into its courses in an
strictly competitive basis — in fact, it is probably the
most competitive place in the country outside of the
stricter Mafia training camps.
The last point of the three is most important, since
it is the competition which makes life at Tech differ¬
ent from life at almost every other college in the
country. At Friendly State U. (and even at most of
the highly-rated liberal arts colleges) academics is a
sort of passing diversion — a passport to a degree or a
means to get a job. At Tech, academics and the com¬
petition it fosters is everything. Here you either beat
out your buddy, or flunk.
Which is not to say that Tech students study ex¬
cessively; in fact, rather the opposite is true. Despite
all the hoary rumors, the amount of midnight oil
burned at Caltech is so small as to be almost unnotice-
able. After all, the College Boards do assure smart
students at Tech, and (excuse the Hackneyed
Phrase) you either understand how to do problems
or you don’t, and great amounts of pondering over
a proof or formula usually don’t help you understand
it any more than five minutes of hard concentration
What is more important about the competition here
is that a Techman is always trying to escape from it
— in any of a vast number of ways.
attempt to turn bright, dedicated, but ignorant high
school graduates into-'tompetent scientists in four
3) Therefore, since everybody who comes to Cal¬
tech is smart anyway, and since competition obviously
breeds a love of knowledge, Caltech is operated on a
Caltech student life is real¬
ly one big escape from the
awful realities of the class¬
Engineering and Science
For example, all social life is predicated on an
attempt to forget school. Techmen, when they date
(about half of us go out once a week or more),
scarcely ever do so with an eye to just friendship, or
even romance. What we go out for is escape, libera¬
tion, or hope. Techmen, therefore, are inclined to date
either artsy-craftsy types who can enthrall the addled
mind with softly-sung Bach cantatas and discussion
about the difficulties in translating the Mundaka
Upanishad, or else party girls who can soothe the
senses with fine laughter and voluptuousness. Very
rarely do Techmen escort the Jane Does of the world,
on the theory that unless a girl is strikingly talented
in some field or another, she cannot possibly distract
you from that ten-problem physics assignment due
This same philosophy carries over into all other
aspects of non-classroom life. Other colleges pull
pranks out of youthful high spirits, while we make
research projects out of them, putting in endless hours
of planning, with minds half-split between schemes
and finals, just around the corner. Even our sports
program is anti-rah-rah, with the players stealing a
few hours from academic worry for a hurried practice.
Even in its day-to-day aspects, like the intermin¬
able bridge games and the perpetual “goofing off,”
Caltech student life is really one big escape from the
awful realities of the classroom. In short, the prevail¬
ing undergraduate attitude is that Life at Tech is
Hell. We sort of work at it.
But, as the catalog and the Deans have it, there
is a happy day by and by for even the most discour¬
aged of Techmen. After only four years in this place,
you graduate, we are told. Actually what happens is
that four-sevenths of any frosh class can count on
graduating, while the others fall by the wayside for
one reason or another.
For the ones who make it, there are degrees, jobs,
and a certain exhausted satisfaction at having mud¬
dled their way through. And for the three-sevenths
who don’t make it — well, tough luck, guys; at least
you got accepted into the Toughest School in the
—Lance Taylor ’62
Frank Streit is now vice president of
the Columbus and Southern Ohio Elec¬
tric Company in Columbus, Ohio. He
handles all engineering and operation
of the generation, transmission and dis¬
tribution systems. Frank's daughter is
now an art major at UCLA.
Miguel A. Basoco, PhD, professor of
mathematics at the University of Ne¬
braska, received the university’s 1961
Distinguished Teachers Award, consist¬
ing of a stipend of $1,000 and a medal¬
lion. Miguel has been on the Nebraska
faculty for 31 years.
Emerson M. Pugh, PhD, is now as¬
sociate head of the department of phys¬
ics at the Carnegie Institute of Tech¬
nology in Pittsburgh. He has been on
the faculty since 1920.
L. Eugene Root, MS '33 ME, MS '34,
AE, is now president of the Lockheed
Missiles and Space Company in Sunny¬
vale, Calif. He continues as vice presi¬
dent of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.
j Robert Boykin manager of the gaso-
»line plants of the Monterey Oil Company
in Los Angeles, has been elected presi¬
dent of the California Natural Gasoline
Association for 1961-62.
Garford Gordon, research executive of
the California Teachers Association, has
been loaned to UNESCO for a year to
work with the Pakistan government on
the development of a centralized agency
for the collection and interpretation of
Lewis B. Browder has been named
manager of advanced development in the
Data Recorders Division of Lhe Consoli¬
dated Electrodynamics Corporation in
Jesse E. Hobson, PhD, has resigned as
vice president and director of research
of the United Fruit Company in Boston.
George E. Mann, MS '38, is now as¬
sociate professor of engineering at Los
Angeles State College. He has been on
the faculty since 1957. George is also
owner-manager of an engineering firm
in Los Angeles.
W. Bertram Scarborough , MS ’41,
project engineer at the Standard Oil
Company of California, has been busy
this year building and developing the
new refinery for the company in Ha¬
waii. The family lives in Lafayette,
Calif., where Bert has been active in
the formation of a new library, on the
school board, and on the citizen’s com¬
mittee for the development of a science
and mathematics curriculum in the grade
schools. The Scarboroughs have three
children: Dave, Nancy, and Marjorie.
Willis G. Worcester, MS, is now head
of the department of electrical engineer¬
ing at the University of Colorado in
Boulder. He also remains as assistant
dean of the graduate school during
Wallace D. Hayes, AE ’43, PhD ’47,
professor of aeronautical engineering at
Princeton University, spent the academic
year 1960-61 in Zurich at the mathe¬
matics department of the Federal In¬
stitute of Technology. His wife and
three daughters accompanied him.
Donald F. J. McIntosh, is now con¬
troller of the Los Angeles Exploration
and Producing Division of the Mobil
Oil Company. He has been with the
company since 1941.
Eldred Hough, MS, PhD ’43, is now
professor of petroleum engineering and
head of the department at Mississippi
State University in Starkville. He had
been professor of petroleum engineering
at the LTniversity of Texas since 1952.
The Houghs have four children.
Capt. Sheldon W. Brown, USN (ret.),
is now manager of Aerojet-General’s At¬
lantic Division at Frederick, Md.
Nicholas A. Begovich, MS ’44, PhD
’48, assistant manager of the ground
systems group and director of product
line operations for the Hughes Aircraft
Company in Fullerton, Calif., has been
made a vice president of the company.
John A. Zivic, director of manufactur¬
ing at the Cannon Electric Company in
Los Angeles, is one of 150 men selected
to attend the 40th session of the Ad¬
vanced Management Program at the
Harvard Business School. The 13-week
course (Sept. 10-Dec. 8) is designed
for men between 36 and 50 years of age
who are now in top management posi¬
tions or are likely to be in the near
Joseph Kelley, Jr., MS, is now presi¬
dent and general manager of Allied Re¬
search Associates, Inc. in Boston. He
had served as executive vice president
of the organization since 1953.
Robert J. Kieckhefer, Jr., is now vice
president of administration and engi¬
neering at the Litho-Strip Corporation
in Chicago. He was formerly assistant
to the president.
Sal LaFaso, MS, AE, is manager of
the administration department at Aero¬
jet’s Atlantic Division in Frederick, Md.
He has been with Aerojet since 1956
and was formerly manager of contracts
at the Downey plant.
Edwin S. Gould is now a chemist in
the petroleum chemistry department at
the Shell Development Company’s Em¬
eryville Research Center.
Alan R. Stearns has been elected a
vice president of Marshall Industries in
San Marino. He was formerly manager
of special projects and will continue his
work in the fields of acquisitions, new
products research, and marketing. The
Stearns’ have two children — Laura, 9,
and Ralph, 6.
William F. Ballhaus, PhD, has been
appointed executive vice president of
the Northrop Corporation in Los An¬
geles. He has been vice president of
Northrop and general manager of its
Nortronics division since August 1957,
and has been with the company since
Howard J. Teas, PhD, is now head of
the recently-created agricultural bio¬
sciences division of the Puerto Rico
nuclear center at the University of Puerto
Rico at Mayaguez. He was formerly as¬
sociate professor of botany at the Uni¬
versity of Florida’s agricultural experi¬
ment station in Gainesville.
Paul S. Rogell, MS, EE, now heads
Rogell Associates, in Norwalk, Conn.,
a company appointed by the Espey
Manufacturing and Electronics Corpor¬
ation as representatives to sell technical
electronic products in New York, Con¬
necticut, Long Island, Westchester
County, and Northern New Jersey. Paul
was formerly sales manager of the elec¬
tron tube department of the Columbia
C. Craig Paul, ID, vice president of
Harley Earl Associates in Warren, Mich.,
is senior member of the three-man team
which designed the U.S. section at the
Italia ’61 exposition in Turin, Italy,
now in progress.
continued on page 36
Engineering and Science
• Minuteman was plagued with a chronic “sore throat.”
Existing nozzle liner throat materials wouldn’t withstand
Minuteman’s tremendous solid-fuel rocket blasts
with temperatures exceeding 5400 °F.
Allison metallurgists went to work on the problem.
They tried oxyacetylene spray coating—but maximum
attainable temperature was too low for the coating
Next, electroplating was tried—but the coat bond
was poor, the surface rough.
Then, Allison laboratories came through with advance¬
ments in the application of plasma-sprayed tungsten.
Here was the solution. The dense, sound “plasma-
tung”® coating passed its solid-fuel firing tests with
no erosion, guttering, or nozzle pressure drop!
Metallurgy is but one field in which Allison is scoring
significant advancements. We currently operate
laboratories for virtually any requirement—space
propulsion, physical optics, radio-isotope, infra-red, solid
state physics, physical chemistry, direct conversion,
heat transfer, physics of liquid metals, phase dynamics,
fluid dynamics and rocket propulsion, to name a few.
Our engineers and scientists working in these
basic science and development laboratories solve the
problems associated with our business and . . .
Energy Conversion is Our Business
ALLISON DIVISION general motors corporation
Personals . . . continued
N. John Beck , MS, is now vice presi¬
dent of research at the Cummins Engine
Company, Inc., in Columbus, Indiana.
He joined the company in 1959, and has
recently been serving as director of ad¬
vanced design and development in the
company’s research division.
William M. McCardell, MS, is now
coordinator of long-range planning at
the Humble Oil and Refining Company
in Houston, Texas.
Richard Buck, MS ’51, is now prin¬
cipal research chemist at the Bell &
Howell Research Center of the Con¬
solidated Electrodynamics Corporation in
Pasadena. He was formerly research
chemist at the California Research Cor¬
poration in San Francisco.
Lt. Col. William B. Higgins writes
from Stanford that “after three years
postgraduate work — two years at the
Naval Postgraduate School — for a BS
in aeronautical engineering, and a year
and a summer here at Stanford for the
Degree of Engineer, to be awarded in
January, we are heading southward to
Point Mugu. To make things merrier,
two children were added to the family
in the last two years — one a ready¬
made, and last June, one of our own,
making our total three.
“At Point Mugu, I will have a project
job on the F4H and its missile system.
The bone-creaking and other deterior¬
ations associated with middle age have
not gotten so far out of hand as to
keep me from flying jets up to now —
and I hope they hold off a little
Douglas Calley writes that he is
teaching math and physics to grades
9-12 at the Verde Valley School in
Sedona, Arizona. He was married to
Louise Nelson in 1959 and they now
have a son, John, born on January 26,
1961. Doug is currently building a small
mountain cabin north of Flagstaff.
Leo Baggerly, MS ’52, PhD ’56, as¬
sistant professor of physics at Texas
Christian University in Fort Worth, re¬
ceived a silver cup last spring from
Alpha Chi, national scholastic honor fra¬
ternity, as “the professor who has con¬
tributed the most to the intellectual
growth of TCU during the past year.”
Jim T. Luscombe, president of the
Luscombe Engineering Corporation in
San Marino, is now also vice president
of the Pacific Division of the Valve &
Primer Corporation in Pasadena.
Robert E. Covey , MS ’52, is still chief
of wind tunnel operations and environ¬
mental test facilities at Caltech’s Jet Pro¬
John W. Bjerklie, manager of the re¬
search and development section of Sun-
strand Aviation in Denver, Colorado,
writes that his main work interest is
space conversion systems and torpedo
propulsion engines. The Bjerklies have
three children: John J. E., 8, David, 6,
and Kirsten, 1.
Ernest Dzendolet, BS ’55 Bio., is an
assistant professor in the psychology de¬
partment of the University of Massachu¬
setts at Amherst. His interest is in sen¬
sory psychology — primarily electrical
phenoma of the eye.
George C. Dacey, PhD, is now vice
president of research at the Sandia Cor¬
poration in Albuquerque, N.M. He was
formerly director of solid state electron¬
ics research at the Bell Telephone Lab¬
oratories in Murray Hill, N.J. The
Daceys have two children; Donna and
continued on page 38
Edison offers you both challenge and opportunity in the
If you want a career with challenge, we at Edison
would like to talk to you.
We’d like to explain our role in the expanding economy
of Southern California. Today, Edison serves over four
and one half million people. In ten years it is estimated
that one half again as many will be served.
And we’d like to explain how you can fit into this all-
electric future. Unlimited opportunities exist for creative
engineers as the demands for electricity continue to grow.
To meet these growing demands new and more efficient
engineering, construction and operating methods must
You’ll find opportunity at Edison. Because at Edison,
you link your future with the all-electric future.
For full details, write or call:
Mr. C. T. Malloy
Southern California Edison Company
P.O. Box 351 • MAdison 4-7111
Los Angeles 53, California
Engineering and Science
Build witli the carefree beauty of stainless steel
Handsome appliances and gleaming counter tops that stay
bright and are so easy to wipe clean... even the kitchen sink be¬
comes a thing of beauty when it is made of shining stainless steel
— the useful metal that was developed after years of research.
Whether you’re building or remodeling, stainless steel gives
a lifetime of value . . . saves many dollars in upkeep. You can
now have gutters and downspouts that are almost indestructible
because they won’t rust or rot. And the strength of stainless
makes possible door and window screening so fine you hardly
know it’s there.
The secret of stainless steel lies in chromium—one of many
indispensable alloying metals developed by Union Carbide. They
are typical of the hundreds of basic materials created through
research by the people of Union Carbide in metals, as well as
carbons, chemicals, gases, plastics and nuclear energy.
See the “Atomic Energy in Action” Exhibit at the new Union Carbide Building in New York
FREE: Find out how stainless steel
enhances the value of your home.
Write for “Carefree Living with
Stainless Steel ” Booklet T-60.
Union Carbide Corporation,
270 Park Avenue, New York 17,
N. Y. In Canada, Union Carbide
Canada Limited, Toronto.
in things to come
Personals . . . continued
Donald E. Stewart, MS ’53, is now a
chemical engineer in the advanced power
systems division of Electro-Optical Sys¬
tems, Inc., in Pasadena. He was formerly
technical director for the Industrial Hard
Chrome Plating Corporation in Emery¬
Howard M. Robbins, PhD, is senior
engineer on the technical staff of the
manager of advanced systems research
at the IBM Federal Systems Division
Space Guidance Center in Owego, N.Y.
He has been with the company since
Artur Mager, PhD, is now assistant
director of spacecraft sciences at the
Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles.
He was formerly director of sciences at
the National Engineering and Science
Company in Pasadena.
Major Kenneth M. Hatch, MS, com¬
pleted the regular course at the U.S.
Army Command and General Staff Col¬
lege in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, last
spring, and is now assigned to the
Kansas City District Engineers Office in
Kansas City, Mo.
Gilbert E. Stegall, MS, supervising
climatologist at the Weather Records
Processing Center in Kansas City, Mo.,
recently received an award of $200 in
recognition of extremely competent per¬
formance at his job from the U.S. De¬
partment of Commerce Weather Bureau
in Washington. The citation read: “Un¬
der your capable leadership, and with
the complete cooperation and confidence
of the personnel under your supervision,
a complex program is being carried out
in an exceptional manner in your Center.
The high degree of leadership, initiative,
and resourcefulness you have displayed
together with your fine personal per¬
formance in the program you manage,
are most commendable and typify the
contributions on which your award is
Donald O. Emerson is now assistant
professor and chairman of the rapidly ex¬
panding department of geological sci¬
ences at the Davis campus of the Uni¬
versity of California. Since he left Cal¬
tech, Don has received an MS and
PhD from Penn State.
Major Francis G. Gosling, Jr., MS,
completed the regular course at the
U.S. Army Command and General Staff
College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in
June, and is now stationed at the De¬
partment of Tactics, U.S. Military Acad¬
emy, West Point, N.Y.
Major Mark C. Carrigan, MS, com¬
pleted a 38-week course at the U.S.
Army Command and General Staff Col¬
lege in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in
June and is now assigned to San Juan,
Don M. Pinkerton writes that he is
working for the electro-mechanical staff
of the Federal Aviation Agency, en¬
gaged in the design and inspection of
electrical power systems for new air
traffic control facilities in the 11 western
Capt. Harry M. Roper, Jr., MS, com¬
pleted a 38-week course at the U.S.
Army Command and General Staff Col¬
lege at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in
June and is now stationed at Headquar¬
ters, Third U.S. Army, in Fort McPher¬
W hat have they got in common — the pop gun, the
grease gun, the astronaut, the pilot in the stricken
lighter plane, the highway builder, the baker, the surgeon,
the locomotive engineer, the bus driver, the sand blaster,
the painter? They’re all using air ... in direct, vital ways
. . . for everyday tasks. Long ago, industry harnessed this
genie . . . trained it for a thousand jobs as your invisible
You see it building automobiles, ships, airplanes, highways,
bridges, skyscrapers. You see it processing metals, plastics,
foods, textiles producing chemical and rocket fuels.
For total career preparation you need a thorough knowledge
of compressed air and gas. Read the whole story in the
new, enlarged 3rd Edition of the Compressed Air and Gas
Handbook. $8.00 per copy at your local bookstore or from
Handbook Editing and Publishing Board, Compressed
Air and Gas Institute, 12th Floor, 55 Public Square,
Cleveland 13, Ohio.
This new concept in lighting produces
higher levels of illumination with less fixtures.
MORE UNIFORM LIGHTING
LESS EXPENSIVE TO OPERATE
Write for full color brochure
SMOOT”HOLMAN Company, Inglewood, Calif.
Engineering and Science
Do you share his driving determination to know?
Nil m 1 «w w ietc\ '.v »
' \ ;
£ ’ ■ *
£ Sfc? ' rj
An unsolved problem is a nagging challenge to him. The word “impossible” is an impertinence.
Are you tired of predigested answers? Anxious to get at work no one else has ever done? Then come to Northrop
where you can find men like this to grow with. Work side by side with them on such projects as interplanetary navi¬
gation and astronertia! guidance systems, aerospace deceleration and landing systems, magnetogasdynamics for space
propulsion, in-space rendezvous, rescue, repair and refueling techniques, laminar flow control, universal automatic
test equipment, and world-wide communications systems.
More than 70 such programs are now on the boards at Northrop, with many challenging problems still to be solved,
and new areas of activity constantly opening up for creative research. m o g T r T*,
If you want to know more about the Northrop challenge, drop us a line at i ( | *
Box 1525, Beverly Hills, California, and mention your area of special interest. an equal opportunity employer
PHILCO TECHREP DIVISION
Now Forming Nucleus Group To Develop & Manage
Systems Engineering On America’s Various Defense Projects!
Who Are Ready to GO...and Able to GROW
• Choose From These Key Locations
■ Philadelphia, Pa. ■ Washington, D. C. ■ Pensacola, Fla.
■ Boston, Mass. ■ Palo Alto, Calif. ■ Montgomery, Ala.
plus many other choice U. S. locations
Broadly speaking, the men we are looking for will direct their professional efforts to developing and
establishing systems engineering concepts, standards, and criteria for the overall operation of computer
equipment and systems.
These are long term career positions offering first rate promotional opportunities to U.S. Citizens "ready
to go and able to grow" with America’s foremost electronic field engineering organization.
Intermediate and Senior Level Positions Available For Men Who Are Able To Perform Systems Engineer¬
ing and Development Work In The Following Areas:
. ESS . SAGE . BIRDIE • BOMARC • MISSILE MASTER . ALRI • SEAWARD EXTENSION
• LARGE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS . LOW DATA RATE INPUT • NIKE
REQUIRED QUALIFICATIONS: B.S., M.S., or Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Mathematics, or Physics
To develop requirements and prepare spe¬
cifications for design evaluation tests, to
examine operation of experimental and
production models of the system. Design
of system tests and special test operating
procedures. Will participate in live system
testing of various complex systems. Will
analyze test data and prepare documents
which spell out results and conclusions to
be derived from system tests. These con¬
clusions should cover adequacy of the
design logic and implementation of
equipments, computer programs, and con¬
RADAR SYSTEMS ENGINEERS
To integrate varied data acquisition
equipment into complex electronic con¬
To design and develop advanced commu¬
nications subsystems of ground electronic
control system complex.
Will be responsible for the overall plan¬
ning and supervision of computer pro¬
grams. Will assign, outline and coordi¬
nate work of programmers and write and
debug complex programs involving mathe¬
matical equations. Requires experience in
the operation and programming of large
electronic data processing systems, such
as the AN/FSQ-7N8, IBM 700 series, or
Philco 2000 series.
To develop and/or analyze logic diagrams,
translate detailed flow charts into coded
machine instructions, test run programs
and write descriptions of completed pro¬
grams. Requires experience in the opera¬
tion and programming of large electronic
data processing systems,- such as the
AN/FSQ-7N8, IBM 700 series, or Philco
To write and publish technical reports on
Communications, Radar, Fire Control Sys¬
tems, Electrical and Mechanical Devices
To resolve varied grounding and shielding
problems of complex electronic equip¬
RADAR DESIGN ENGINEERS
To work on advanced designs—to develop
receivers using parametric amplifiers.
To plan, prepare and generate specifica¬
tions for sub-systems test, data reduction
and analysis programs. Will be respon¬
sible for the preparation of test plans,
installation of equipment, test instrumen¬
tation, collection of test data and analysis
of results. Resolve incompatibility and
interface engineering problems.
SYSTEMS TEST ENGINEERS
To plan, prepare and generate system
test, data reduction, and analysis specifi¬
cations. Develop methods and procedures
for test implementation. Coordinate be¬
tween interested agencies, and resolve
problems between the specifications, test
methods and actual procedures in use.
Direct Resumes In Confidence To
■p mmm g g g— g—qfr
I EL V/ if PC EL m
D. E. DIMMIG
P. O. Box 4730 Philadelphia 34, Pa.
All Qualified Applicants Will Receive Consideration For Employ¬
ment Without Regard To Race, Creed, Color, or National Origin.
Engineering and Science
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
“Now is the time to act, to take longer strides, time for a great
new American enterprise, tune for this Nation to take a
clearly leading role in space achievement. I believe that the
nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the
decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning
him safely to earth.”
of the United States
The nation has committed itself to accelerate greatly the development of space science and technology ,
accepting as a national goal, the achievement of manned lunar landing and return before the end of
the decade. This space program will require spending many billions of dollars during the next ten years.
NASA directs and implements the nation’s research and development efforts in the exploration of space. The
accelerated national space program calls for the greatest single technological effort our country has thus far under¬
taken. Manned space flight is the most challenging assignment ever given to mankind.
NASA has urgent need for large numbers of scientists and engineers in the fields of aerospace technology
who hold degrees in physical science, engineering, or other appropriate fields.
NASA career opportunities are as unlimited as the scope of our organization. You can be sure to play an
important role in the United States’ space effort when you join NASA.
NASA positions are available for those with degrees or experience in appropriate fields for work in one of
the following areas: Fluid and Flight Mechanics; Materials and Structures; Propulsion and Power; Data Systems;
Flight Systems; Measurement and Instrumentation Systems; Experimental Facilities and Equipment; Space
Sciences; Life Sciences; Project Management.
NASA invites you to address your inquiry to the Personnel Director of any of
the following NASA Centers: NASA Space Task Group, Hampton, Virginia; NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; NASA Marshall Space Flight
Center, Huntsville, Alabama; NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Califor¬
nia; NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California; NASA Langley Research
Center, Hampton, Virginia; NASA Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Virginia; NASA
Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
Positions are filled in accordance with Aero-Space
Technology Announcement 252B.
All Qualified applicants will receive consideration
for employment without regard to race, creed or
color, or national origin.
The Institute has no record of the present addresses of these alumni. If you know
the current address of any of these men, please contact the Alumni Office , Caltech.
Lewis, Stanley M.
Soyster, Charles J.
Lavagnino, John F.
Cox, Edwin P.
Rose, Edwin L.
Hickey, George I.
Skinner, Richmond H
Tracy, Willard H.
Waller, Conrad J.
McCarter, Kenneth C.
Yang, K. J.
Evjen, Haakon M.
Moore, Rernard N.
Riggs, Eugene H.
Martin, Francis C.
Morgan, Stanley C.
Briggs, Thomas H., Jr.
Burns, Martin C.
Robinson, True W.
Wolfe, Karl M.
Allison, Donald K.
Douglass, Paul W., Sr
Shields, John C.
Voak, Alfred S.
West, William T.
Yoshoka, Carl K.
Brass, P. D.
Bruderlin, Henry H.
Patterson, J. W.
Wright, Lowell J.
Applegate, Lindsay M.
Downie, Arthur J.
Hsu, Chuen Chang
Koch, A. Arthur
Larsen, William A.
Lockhart, E. Ray
Michal, Edwin B.
Murdock, Keith A.
Rice, Winston R.
Shappell, Maple D.
Smith, Warren H.
Harshberger, John D.
Liu, Yuan Pu
Bertram, Edward A.
Dunn, Clarence L.
Nelson, Loyal E.
Ohashi, George Y.
Van Riper, Dale H.
Burnight, Thomas R.
Fan, Hsu Tsi
Jones, Paul F.
Moore, Charles K.
Munier, Alfred E.
Penn, William L., Jr.
Rechif, Frank A.
Shaw, Thomas N.
Goodman, Hyman D.
Gross, Arthur G.
Lowe, Frank C.
Porter, Edwin J.
Tilker, Paul O.
Wang, Tsun Kuei
Watson, James W.
Brown, William Lowe
Gombotz, Joseph J.
Liang, C. Chia-Chang
Robertson, Francis A.
Wilson, Harry D.
Gentner, William E.
Gibson, Arville C.
Green, William J.
Karubian, Ruhollah Y.
Paul, Ralph G.
Tajima, Yuji A.
Tao, Shih Chen
Torrey, Preston C.
Clark, Morris R.
Dieter, Darrell W.
Easley, Samuel J.
Geitz, Robert C.
Harvey, Donald L.
Hubbard, Jack M.
Kuo, I. Cheng
Levitt, Leo C.
Noland, Robert L.
Stand ridge, Clyde T.
Taylor, D, Francis
Tiemann, Cordes F.
Waigand, LeRoy G.
Bebe, Mehmet F.
Callaway, William F.
Devault, Robert T.
Emre, Orhan M.
Hughes, Vernon W.
Johnston, William C.
MacKenzie, Robert E.
Martinez, Victor H.
Caltech Varsity Game Scores
San Fernando State
Pasadena City Coll.
Engineering and Science
Gyron— dream car that drives it self. companies, the delta-shaped Gyron the Gyron’s sleek lines are parts coated
This two-wheeled vehicle of the future would feature a computer that permits with bright, corrosion-resistant nickel
envisions automatic speed and steering motorists to “program” their journey — plating. The front bumper, exhaust
control for relaxed “hands-off” driving. distance, speed, arrival time —on a non- ports, taillight bezel, control console, all
Designed by the advanced stylists of stop expressway. A gyroscope would get solid beauty-protection with this
one of America’s leading automotive stabilize the car in motion. Setting off durable nickel coating system.
How Inco Nickel helps engineers make new designs possible and practical
The engineer is vitally concerned
with design —inside and outside —
whether it’s an advanced new car or
a nuclear-powered ship. With Nickel,
or one of the many metals containing
Nickel, he has a material that can
meet the demands of a wide range of
service conditions —providing an ex¬
cellent choice for the equipment of
today and the designs of the future.
Inco’s List “A” contains descrip¬
tions of 200 Inco publications which
are available to you, covering appli¬
cations and properties of Nickel and
its alloys. For List “A”, write Educa¬
The International Nickel Company, Inc.
67 Wall Street, New York, N. Y.
■"V.. _ '
The Nuclear Ship Savannah is capable
of sailing 350,000 nautical miles with¬
out refueling. Her uranium oxide fuel
is packaged in tubes of Nickel Stainless
Steel, more than 5,000 of them. Engi¬
neers specified 200,000 pounds of Nickel
Stainless Steel for use in the ship’s
reactor to meet critical service demands.
Monorail "Airtrain” —a compact, high¬
speed transportation system that will
be automatic, almost noiseless. Develop¬
ment is being explored by leading U. S.
cities. Lightweight Monorail design
demands strong weight-saving metals.
Logical choice: Nickel alloys to take ad¬
vantage of newest engineering concepts.
^ INTERNATIONAL NICKEL
The International Nickel Company, Inc., is the U.S. affiliate of The International Nickel Company of Canada, Limited (Inco-Canada)
—producer of Inco Nickel, Copper, Cobalt, Iron Ore, Tellurium, Selenium, Sulfur and Platinum, Palladium and Other Precious Metals.
November, 1961 43
The 6 most important factors
in your working life are
your 5 skilled fingers and
#9000 Drawing Pencil.
You may prefer Locktite
lead holder with Castell
#9030 Drawing Leads.
We are strictly impartial.
You be the sole judge. In
either case you will get
graphite-saturated lines that
won’t flake, feather or burn
out—black, bold image
density, crisply opaque for
clean, sharp prints. 20
rigidly controlled degrees,
8B to 10H, each as precise as
a machine tool. LOCKTITE
Tel-A-Grade, with its finger-
comforting grip, carries an
ironclad 2-year guarantee
Pick up your selection at your
college store today.
Pencil Co., Inc., Newark 3, N.J.
Now celebrating its
Lost Alumni . . .
Angel, Edgar P.
Bethel, Horace L.
Bridgland, Edgar P.
Brown, Glenn H., Jr.
Brown, James M.
Bryant, Eschol A.
Burlington, William J.
Carlson, Arthur V.
Colvin, James H.
Daniels, Glenn E.
Hamilton, William M.
Hillyard, Roy L.
King, Edward G.
Koch, Robert H.
Kong, Robert W.
LaForge, Gene R.
Lee, Edwin S., Jr.
Leeds, William L.
Lobban, William A.
Lnndquist, Roland E.
Mixsell, Joseph W.
Mowery, Irl H., Jr.
Nesley, William L.
Neusehwander, Leo Z.
Newton, Everett C.
O’Brien, Robert E.
Patterson, Charles M.
Pearson, John E.
Rivers, Nairn E.
Roberts, Fred B.
Rupert, James W., Jr.
Scholz, Dan R.
Shannon, Leslie A.
Tindle, Albert W., Jr.
Walsh, Joseph R.
Weis, William T.
Wood, Stanley G.
Alpan, Rasit H.
Baranowski, John J.
Barriga, Francisco D.
Bell, William E.
Benjamin, Donald G.
Berkant, Mehmet N.
Burch, Joseph E.
Burke, William G.
Cooke, Charles M.
Fu, Ch’eng Yi
Harrison, Charles P.
Johnson, William M.
Labanauskas, Paul J.
Leenerts, Lester O.
Marshall, John W.
Mattinson, Carl O.
Onstad, Merrill E.
Osborne, Louis S.
Pischel, Eugene F.
Ridlehuber, Jim M.
Shults, Mayo G.
Stanford, Harry W.
Stein, Roberto L.
Sullivan, Richard B.
Trimble, William M.
Unayral, Nnstafa A.
Joseph F., Jr.
Wight, D. Roger
Williams, Robert S.
Wolf, Paul L.
Writt, John J.
Ari, Victor A,
Budney, George S.
Bunze, Harry F.
Fanz. Martin C.
Fox, Harrison W.
Gibson, Charles E.
Jenkins, Robert P.
Knapp, Norman E.
Levy, Charles N.
Rice, Jonathan F.
Tseu, Payson S.
Yank, Frank A.
Allison, Charles W., Jr.
Barber, John H.
Bowen, Mark E.
Burger, Glenn W.
Childers, Kenan C., Jr.
Dyson, Jerome P.
Esner, David R.
Foster, R. Bruce
Halvorson, George C.
Benjamin S,, III
Hoffman, Charles C.
Huestis, Gerald S.
Ingram, Wilbur A.
Lewis, Frederick J.
Lowery, Robert H.
Olsen, Leslie R.
Parker, James F.
Prasad, K. V. Krishna
Simmons, George F.
Sledge, Edward C.
Smith, Harvey F.
Webb, Milton G.
Weldon, Thomas F.
Asher, Rolland S.
Atencio, Adolfo J.
Clarke, Fredric B.
Clements, Robert E.
Dagnall, Brian D.
Darling, Donald A.
Hammerle, William G.
Lane, James F.
Leo, Fiorello R.
Lim, Vincente H., Jr.
MacAlister, Robert S.
McClellan, Thomas R.
Miller, Curtis E.
Molloy, Michael K.
Basil E. A.
Olson, Raymond L.
Orr, John L.
Rust, Clayton A.
Sanders, Lewis B.
Torgeson, Warren S.
Wan, Pao Kang
Alonzo H., Jr.
Edward B., Jr.
Agnew, Haddon W.
Bunco, James A.
Collins, Burgess F.
Cotton, Mitchell L.
Crawford, William D.
Hager, James Ward
Hsieh, Chia Lin
Latson, Harvey H., Jr.
Mason, Herman A.
Morehouse, Gilbert G.
Oliver, Edward D.
Rhynard, Wayne E.
Stein, Paul G.
Swain, John Sabin
Swank, Robert K.
Voelker, William H.
Winniford, Robert S.
Woods, Marion C.
Wray, Robert M.
Yanak, Joseph D.
Barker, Edwin F., Jr.
Bauman, John L., Jr.
Baumann, Laurence I.
Bryan, Wharton W.
Clancy, Albert H., Jr.
Cooper, Harold D.
Felt, Caelen L.
Foster, Francis C.
Galstan, Robert H.
Heiman, Jarvin R.
Hurley, Neal L.
Krasin, Fred E.
Lowrey, Richard O.
MacKinnon, Neil A.
McEUigott, Richard H.
Merrell, Richard L.
Parker, Dan M.
Petty, Charles C.
Rinehart, Marion C.
Ringness, William M.
Stappler, Robert F.
Wilkening, John W.
Bryan, William C.
Gimpel, Donald J.
Li, Chung Hsien
McDaniel, Edward F.
Merrifield, Donald P.
Montemezzi, Marco A.
Pao, W. K.
Paulson, Robert W.
Petzold, Robert F.
Roberts, Morton S.
Scherer, Lee R., Jr.
Soldate, Albert M.
Whitehill, Norris D.
Davison, Walter F.
Denton, James Q.
Hawk, Riddell L.
Lafdjian, Jacob P.
Li, Cheng-Wu Li
Padgett, Joseph E., Jr.
Palmer, John M., Jr.
Pfeiffer, Walter F.
St. Amand, Pierre
Summers, Allen J.
Van Hise, Albert E.
Abbott, John R.
Arcoulis, Elias G.
Gerington, Thomas E.
Harrison, Marvin E.
Helmuth, James G.
Loftus, Joseph F.
Long, Ralph F.
Lunday, Adrian C.
Prirnbs. Charles L.
Schaufeie, Roger D.
Shelly, Thomas L.
Sutton, Donald E.
Wilson, Howard E.
Woods, Joseph F.
Zacha, Richard B.
Lennox, Stuart G.
Ritter, Darrell L.
Schroeder, Norman M.
Vidal, Jean L.
Wilburn, Norman P.
Coughlin, John T.
Handen, Ralph D.
Mertz, Charles III
Rogers', Berdine H.
Barman, Mervyn L.
Campbell, Douglas D.
Crowe, Thomas H.
Negrete, Marco R.
Wolfe, John H.
Edwards, Robert W.
Garnault, Andre F.
McAllister, Don F.
Romaneski, Albert L.
Spence, William N.
Lee, Won yon g
Rapaport, Seymour A.
Stuteville, Joseph E.
Marin, Jean Francois
Rieunier, Jacques M.
Schumann, Thomas G.
Bodine, Alan G.
Byun, Chai B.
Guillemet, Michel P.
Idriss. Izzat M.
Monroe, Louis L.
David M. W.
Steinberg, Charles M.
Engineering and Science
Whatever the special fire hazard,
Grinnell has the right system to handle it
The basic fire extinguishing agents are shown on the chart below with the most common applications
cross-referenced by check marks. If a production process requires a specially designed system — the
research and test facilities of the Grinnell Company are available in case of need.
Extinguishing blanket of foam completely covers the floor
of this aircraft hangar. 5,897 foam-water sprinklers protect
property worth a billion Air Force Defense dollars.
SPECIAL FIRE HAZARD
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS STORAGE
OIL QUENCHING BATH
PAINTS: MANUFACTURING, STORAGE
PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS
PETROLEUM TESTING LABORATORIES
REACTOR AND FRACTIONATING TOWERS
RUBBER MIXING AND HEAT TREATING
SOLVENT CLEANING TANKS
SOLVENT THINNED COATINGS
TRANSFORMERS, CIRCUIT BREAKERS
TRANSFORMERS, CIRCUIT BREAKERS
TURBINE LUBRICATING OIL
VEGETABLE OIL, SOLVENT EXTRACTION
There’s a Grinnell Fire Protection System to protect every
type of property. Grinnell designed and installed systems are backed
by over 90 years of fire protection experience. Grinnell Company,
Providence 1, Rhode Island.
Water spray, applied to outside storage of paints and sol¬
vents, cools to inhibit internal pressure build-up and dilutes
to prevent flammable vapor-air mixtures from developing.
ENGINEERING GRADUATES HAVE FOUND ATTRACTIVE OPPORTUNITIES WITH GRINNELL
LAST OF THE BIG SPENDERS
“Hullo? . . . Oh, George? . . . oh . . . Boy, are you persistent!
I thought we settled everything last month . . . Didn't you get
my letter? Well, for gosh sake. Wait a minute—
“Miss Johnson! Will you come in here for a minute? . . .
Didn’t you mail my letter to Mr. Sternmeyer? . . . On the tenth?
Let’s see—that was last Friday!
“Hey, George. My secretary mailed it Friday. You should
have gotten it by—
“What’d it say? Well, it said I was convinced everybody
should give to the Fund and I enclosed my check to prove it.
Now you can’t ask for more than that, can you?
“O.K. Apologies accepted. I mean when I say I’ll give, I mean
“How large was the check? Oh, I guess it was about 2 1 /4 by
Sdk. Most of them are about that size . . . All you do is take it
down to the warehouse and present it to them and they’ll give
you the picture. Now if it’s damaged or anything it’s insure—
“That’s what I did say—picture. P-I-C-T- Well, it’s not
worth a lot, but I think it would look kind of nice in Dabney
Lounge. Auntie was from a very fine old Pasadena family.
“George? George, you still there? George?'’
The Alumni Fund Would Much Prefer Money, M-O-N-E-Y
Caltech Has Plenty of Pictures
Engineering and, Science
INSIDE or OUT there is only one...
Medium Duty Medium Duty
PILLOW BLOCKS FLANGE UNITS
LFT LP LF
FLANGE UNIT PILLOW BLOCK FLANGE UNIT
SEALMASTER BEARINGS A Division of STEPHENS-ADAMSON MFG. CO 49 Ridgeway Avenue, Aurora, Illinois
PLANTS IN: LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA • CLARKSDALE, MISSISSIPPI • BELLEVILLE, ONTARIO • MEXICO CITY, D. F.
November , 1961 47
January Winter Dinner Meeting
March 3 Annual Dinner Dance
Redlands at Caltech
Occidental at Caltech
Pasadena College and Claremont-
H. Mudd at Caltech
Pacific Lutheran at Caltech
All-Conference at Mt. Sac
Biola at Caltech
UC Riverside at Caltech
Redlands at Redlands
Pomona at Pomona
Claremont-H. Mudd at Rose Bowl
Lecture Hall, 201 Bridge, 7:30 pan.
Waste Water Reclamation
Sounds of the Earth
—Stewart W. Smith
Computers—How They Think
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OFFICERS
Pasadena’s oldest and most
complete publication house ...
455 El Dorado Street
Holley B. Dickinson, '36
William L. Holladay, '24
Donald S. Clark, '29
John R, Fee, '51
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
John D. Gee, '53 Wiliam H. Saylor, '32
Howard B. Lewis, Jr., '48 Peter V. H. Serrell, '36
Claude B. Nolte, '37 William H. Simons, '49
Charles P. Strickland, '43
ALUMNI CHAPTER OFFICERS
NEW YORK CHAPTER
Victor Wouk, '40
Electronic Energy Conversion Corp.
342 Madison Ave., New York 17, N.Y.
Vice-President Bruno H. Pilorz, '44
75 Echo Lane, Larchmont, N.Y.
Secretary-Treasurer Harry J. Moore, '48
IBM Corp., 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y.
WASHINGTON, D.C. CHAPTER
Chairman Major Lothrop Mittenthal, '48
3420 Livingston St., N. W. Washington 15, D.C.
Secretary Willard M. Hanger, '43
2727 29th St., N. W. ( Washington 8, D.C.
SAN FRANCISCO CHAPTER
President James A. Ibers, '51
President James A. Jbers, '51
Shell Development Co., Emeryville
Vice-President Lee A. Henderson, '54
Weld Rite Company, Oakland
Secretary-Treasurer Edwin P. Schlinger, '52
Scott-Buttner Electric Co., Inc., Mountain View
Meetings: Fraternity Club, 345 Bush St., San Francisco
Informal luncheons every Thursday
President Laurence H. Nobles, '49
Department of Geology, Northwestern University
Vice-President Philip E. Smith, '39
Eastman Kodak Company, 1712 Prairie Ave.
President George Langsner, '31
Division of Highways, State of California
Vice-President G. Donald Meixner, Jr-, '46.
Dept, of Water Resources, State of California
Secretary-Treasurer John Ritter, '35
Division of Highways, State of California
Meetings: University Club, 1319 "K” Street
Luncheon first Friday of each month
Visiting alumni cordially invited—no reservation
SAN DIEGO CHAPTER
Chairman Maurice B. Ross, '24
3040 Udal Street
Secretary Frank J. Dore, '45
Astronautics Div,, Convair
Program Chairman Herman S. Englander, '39
Maurice B. Ross, '24
3040 Udal Street
Frank J. Dore, '45
Astronautics Div,, Convair
Herman S. Englander, '39
U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory
Engineering and Science
Kodak beyond the snapshot
A little x-ray news To John!
A familiar force
More precious than rubies is confidence
in the importance of what one does for
a living. One thing we do for a living
is to manufacture x-ray film. Unkind
words are rarely spoken about society’s
need for x-ray film. Now we have news
about x-ray film and need to make it
seem important. Easy.
The first piece of news has it that
Kodak x-ray film of high contrast and
fine grain is now obtainable with emul¬
sion on one side only. Ties in to the
current push for great structural strength
in small mass. Load-bearing members
are now getting so thin that putative
flaws on their radiographs have to be
checked out with a microscope. Since
a microscope can focus on only one side
of the film at a time, it’s better to have
the other side blank. Simple, yes; trivial,
no. Manufacturing and distribution
problems on our scale are rarely trivial.
The second piece of news much
exceeds the first in importance. You
have been given estimates by various
authorities of how much radiation you
and your children can expect to soak
up, barring disaster. You have been
told how much to figure for medical
and dental radiological examination
over a lifetime. Meanwhile we have
been quietly goofing up the statistics !
We have been upping the response of
the films. With the latest step, the same
amount of examination requires half or
a third as much radiation as before.
Just privately rejoice a little at how the
deal has been sweetened a bit for you,
We are not alone in polypropylene.
Seven other large and reputable com¬
panies are known to be playing in the
game against each other and us. All we
players must be very brave, hide our
nervousness, and raise our glasses high
in a toast to the memory of Senator
John Sherman, who believed in the
great public good that comes of free
and untrammeled competition.
(Other nations have ambitious poly¬
propylene plans of their own and are
outproducing the U.S. in polypropylene
right now in the aggregate. The peoples
of the earth had better start making
their artifacts out of polypropylene —
As the game gets under way, we hold
certain strong cards. Our Tenite poly¬
• Can be polymerized from propylene
by two completely different processes of
our own devising, both free and clear of
the U.S. patents of others.
• Comes in many flow' rates.
• Comes in the widest variety of repro¬
• Is exceedingly well fortified by our
own antioxidants against oxidative dete¬
• Has “built-in hinge,” i.e. tremendous
fatigue resistance under flexure.
• Weathers very well when extruded in
monofilament for webbing and cordage,
because of our own ultraviolet inhibitors.
• Has high-enough softening temperature
so that when it is extruded as sheet you
can cook in it and yet on a yield basis it
costs less Chan cellophane.
Here is a picture of the basic amplifier
used in photography. This
amplifier can provide a gain
of 10". There is a genie in
the bottle. Familiarity with
him breeds not contempt
Once upon a time, it was
customary to summon the genie by
retiring to a little darkroom and pour¬
ing him out of his bottle into a w'hite
enameled tray. No longer does he
demand such ceremonious treatment.
Our wet friend now works unseen
inside a box, responding to push but¬
tons. His vffry fluidity has been replaced
by a kind of viscosity which need little
concern the client, who merely inserts
a probe into a disposable cartridge.
When the work is done, the genie uses
his private exit to the sewer.
This newly announced Eastman
Viscomat Processor does 36 feet of
16mm film per minute. Not entirely by
coincidence, this happens to be the rate
at which film runs through a projector.
The film spends about one minute in
the processor. It emerges processed to
standard commercial quality, ready to
project. It can be stopped for seconds
or days and restarted without loss of
quality. Were we not so touchy about
processing quality, the gadget w’ould
have been on the market long before.
Note: Whether you work for us or not,
photography in some form will probably
have a part in your work as years go on.
Now or later, feel free to ask for Kodak
literature or help on anything photographic.
POLYPROPYLENE NEEDS GOOD PEOPLE SOPHISTICATED PHOTOGRAPHIC
ENGINEERING NEEDS GOOD PEOPLE
X-RAY FILM NEEDS GOOD PEOPLE
From vitamins to Verifax Cop
plenty of lively careers to be r
with Kodak in research, enginee
production, marketing. Address.
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
Business and Technical Personnel Department
Rochester 4, N.Y.
One of a series . . .
Interview with General Electric’s Dr. J. H. Hollomon
Manager—General Engineering Laboratory
Society Has New Needs
and Wants—Plan Your
DR. HOLLOMON is responsible for General Electric's centralized, advanced engineering
activities. He is also an adjunct professor of metallurgy at RPI, .serves in advisory posts
for four universities, and is a member of the Technical Assistance panel of President
Kennedy's Scientific Advisory Committee. Long interested in emphasizing new areal of oppor¬
tunity for engineers and scientists, the following highlights some of Dr. Hollomon's opinions.
Q. Dr. Hollomon, what characterizes
the new needs and wants of society?
A. There are four significant changes
in recent times tliat characterize these
needs and wants.
1. The increases in the number of
people who live in cities: the accom¬
panying need is for adequate control
of air pollution, elimination of trans¬
portation bottlenecks, slum clearance,
and adequate water resources.
2. The shift in our economy from agri¬
culture and manufacturing to “serv¬
ices”: today less than half our working
population produces the food and goods
for the remainder. Education, health,
and recreation are new needs. They
require a new information technology
to eliminate the drudgery of routine
mental tasks as our electrical tech¬
nology eliminated routine physical
3. The continued need for national
defense and for arms reduction: the
majority of our technical resources
is concerned with research and devel¬
opment for military purposes. But
increasingly, we must look to new tech¬
nical means for detection and control.
4. The arising expectations of the peo¬
ples of the newly developing nations:
here the “haves” of our society must
provide the industry and the tools for the
“have-nots” of the new countries if they
are to share the advantages of mod¬
ern technology. It is now clearly recog¬
nized by all that Western technology is
capable of furnishing the material
goods of modern life to the billions
of people of the world rather than
only to the millions in the West.
We see in these new wants, prospects
for General Electric’s future growth
example, new methods of purifying
salt water and specific techniques for
determining impurities in polluted air.
General Electric is increasing its inter¬
national business by furnishing power
generating and transportation equip¬
ment for Africa, South America, and
We are looking for other products
that would he helpful to these areas to
develop their economy and to improve
their way of life. We can develop new
information systems, new ways of stor¬
ing and retrieving information, or
handling it in computers. We can
design new devices that do some of the
thinking functions of men, that will
make education more effective and per¬
haps contribute substantially to reducing
the cost of medical treatment. We can
design new devices for more efficient
“paper handling” in the service
Q. If I want to be a part of this new
activity, how should I plan my career?
A. First of all, recognize that the
meeting of needs and wants of society
with products and services is most
important and satisfying work. Today
this activity requires not only knowl¬
edge of science and technology but
also of economics, sociology and the
best of the past as learned from the
liberal arts. To do the engineering
involved requires, at least for young
men. the most varied experience possi¬
ble. This means working at a number
of different jobs involving different
science and technology and different
products. This kind of experience for
engineers is one of the best means of
learning how to conceive and design
-—how to be able to meet the changing
requirements of the times.
For scientists, look to those new fields
in biology, biophysics, information, and
power generation that afford the most
challenge in understanding the world
in which we live.
But above all else, the science explo¬
sion of the last several decades means
that the tools you will use as an engi¬
neer or as a scientist and the knowledge
involved will change during your life¬
time. Thus, you must be in a position
to continue your education, either on
your own or in courses at universities
or in special courses sponsored by
the company for which you work.
Q. Does General Electric offer these
advantages to a young scientist or
A. General Electric is a large diver¬
sified company in which young men
have the opportunity of working on a
variety of problems with experienced
people at the forefront of science and
technology. There are a number of
laboratories where research and ad¬
vanced development is and has been
traditional. The Company offers incen¬
tives for graduate studies, as well as
a number of educational programs
with expert and experienced teachers.
Talk to your placement officers and
members of your faculty. I hope you
will plan to meet our representative
when he visits the campus.
A recent address by Dr. Hollomon
entitled "Engineering's Great Challenge
— the 1960's," will be of interest to
most Juniors, Seniors, and Graduate
Students. It's available by addressing
your request to: Dr. J. H. Hollomon,
Section 699-2, General Electric Com¬
pany, Schenectady 5, N.Y.
Q. Could you give us some examples?
A. We are investigating techniques for
the control and measurement of air and
water pollution which will be appli¬
cable not only to cities, but to individual
households. We have developed, for
Ali applicants will receive consideration for employment
without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin.