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For Reference 


NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THIS ROOM 





For Reference 





NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THIS ROOM 


Gs UUBRIS 


DUNERSLTACTS 
am RCAEASIS 

















THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 


“THE CALGARY AND EDMONTON RAILWAY AND THE EDMONTON BULLETIN 


by 
ie, RAYMOND ANDREW CHRISTENSON 
A THESIS 


SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES 
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 


OF MASTER OF ARTS 


DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA 


July 16, 1967 





UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 


: FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES 


The undersigned certify that they have read and recommen: 
the Faculty of Graduate Studies for acceptance, a thesis entitle 


THE CALGARY AND EDMONTON RAILWAY AND THE EDMONTON BULLETIN, subu.* te 


Qu 


by RAYMOND ANDREW CHRISTENSON in partial fulfilment of the requirements 


for the degree of Master of Arts. 





ABSTRACT 


The Calgary and Edmonton Railway, built in 1890-91, 
was essential to the early settlement and development of 
Alberta. So pervasive was its influence on the community 
that the railway came inevitably to occupy the Be te 
of the newspapers in the region it was built to serve. 

Tnis thesis is a study of he Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway in the view of the Edmonton Bulletin, one of three 
Alberta newspapers contemporary with the early years of 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway. While keenly anticipat- 
ing the benefit a railway would bring in its wake, the 
Edmonton Bulletin's usual stance toward the Calgary. and 
Edmonton Railway was critical--at times hostile. The basis 
for this attitude was the Bulletin's belief that the Calgary 
and Edmonton Railway--having the power to bring great bene- 
fit to the people and having been publicly subsidized to 
assist it in achieving this end--was pursuing policies det- 
rimental to the interests of settlers and to the development 
of the country it professed to serve. 

‘The opening chapters provide appropriate background 
by focusing on the long-felt need for railway service to the 
Edmonton district. The bulk of the thesis deals with sever- 


al aspects of the Calgary and Ednonton Railway in their im- 
iii 























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pact on the settlement and development of the region--ac- 
cording to the judgment of the Edmonton Bulletin. Aspects 
dealt with include incorporation, financing, construction, 
terminal location, early operation, relationships with the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, land grant, and regional economic 


growth following construction of the railway. 












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TABLE OF CONTENTS 


: Page 
PREFACE td a . e . A & e 2 a LA a s eo se . e ee e & oe s se a V 
Pn ee ee ee See CeGers SO ene re 1 


Chapter 
A lags ALBERTA BEFORE 1890 2 2 e e ad e e e s . @ v ad 13 


ET eeePARLNGBAIEWAY VENTURES | 0.5.6 6s. 'y © opt «253 
SME CReCRN TION! '. . . sw o's ee py os. 92 00 
Oe es es cs ess) op eine, aa 1D 

RPS SP RUG TON ee wis ke wee ne + tue LOG 
RCO ge ete wee a es sa ey oye) Led 
DUMB ORLCCORERATIONS «vo . 3 6 erties “s « » 192 
VIII. RELATIONSHIP WITH CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY . 213 
PO OMOUENG Ge ys sic tee ow acg ee wee 225 
RCEMPSUAPIER 1890 2... + so ee gue ont 25K 
Pee nee ee eS 280 
SEER Tce yee Ev Pe ow 2. ey 0 we, 280 


APPENDIX o + e es e * ° e e e 2 ° e e * e ° a e * e ; e 29 1 


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PREFACE 


This thesis is not an objective study of the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway itself. Such a study is impos- 
sible since the writer does not have access to the required 
documents. What follows is a study of that railway pri- 
marily as seen by the Edmonton Bulletin. The writer assumes 
that the Bulletin represents fairly the views of icaaread 
ers--that is, the pioneering community of the Edmonton dis- 
trict and of northern Alberta. (On several occasions, these 
readers helped elect the editor of the Bulletin as their 
Member of Parliament). What’ is herewith presented is, then, 
a public image of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway. 

The pioneering community saw this railway in its re- 
lation to local economic problems, for the solution of which 
they looked to the railway. This paper, therefore, becomes 
also a study of a "railway psychology"--of how the railway 
came to occupy a central place in the calculations and feel- 
ings, the hopes and disappointments of a community. The 
writer does not argue that other communities or newspapers 
saw other ’railways--or the Calgary and Edmonton Railway for 
that matter--in the same light in which the Edmonton Bulle- 


Vv 























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tin viewed the Calgary and Edmonton Railway (though the evi- 
dence available suggests that the Macleod Gazette and the 
Calgary Herald. were fundamentally in agreement with the Bul- 
letin). 

These considerations make clear er of the limita- 
tions of this study--a limitation relating to the sources 
upon which it is based. Abundant use has been made of the 
Edmonton Bulletin, as the title demands. It has been sup- 
plemented by two other Alberta newspapers, the Macleod Ga- 
zette and the Calgary Herald. Chapter VI (Controversy) re- 
lies almost entirely upon these newspapers since other sour- 
ces for the chapter are practically non-existent. Refer- 
ences are made to a fairly wide list of secondary materials, 
especially in Chapters I and X. In addition, public docu- 
ments provide the basis for Chapters II, III, IV, VII, VIII, 
and IX. 

There are, furthermore, two limitations as to scope. 
Firstly, the study concentrates upon the northern part of 
the line. The account is written Shop tite point of view of 
Edmonton, as the title indicates. This railway meant more 
to Edmonton than to Calgary--which had been on the Canadian 
Pacific mainline for seven years--or to Macleod--which was 
a half as far from the mainline as Edmonton was and only 
thirty ites from the railway at Lethbridge. It is to be 


vi 


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expected, therefore, that the Edmonton Bulletin should have 
much more to say about this railway than the two southern 
Alberta papers. Little useful material can be gleaned from 
local histories. There is a paucity of such historical 
writing in Alberta. What has been written is generally 
brief, sketchy, undocumented, and inferior in scholarship 
and style. Limitations in the sources, therefore, dictated 
a somewhat restricted point of view. 

A scanning of the Table of Contents reveals another 
limitation in scope. The study focuses on the genesis and 
earliest years of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, though 
the subsequent period to 1903 is not neglected. The account 
does not continue beyond 1903. If justification for this 
limitation be necessary, it lies in two facts. irect con- 
nection of Edmonton with the Calgary and Edmonton Railway 
was made in 1902, from which time Edmonton could afford to 
take the railway for granted and the Bulletin have less to 
say about it. In 1903, furthermore, the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Railway passed into full ownership of the Canadian Pa- 
cific Railway Company and was no longer separately reported 
in the Sessional Papers. 

Because of the Edmonton point of view in the thesis, 
ene is a secondary theme running through much of the fol- 
lowing account--Edmonton!s struggle for the railway which 


vii 


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would give Pee e ton with the outside world. To a consid- 
erable extent, the repeated disappointments involved in this 
struggle gave rise to the public image of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway reflected in this paper. 

The writer considers that a proper historical per- 
paentins is required in order to appreciate both: the strug- 
gle waged by the Edmonton community for a railway and the 
image of the railway which arose partly as a result of that 
struggle. Chapter I, therefore, provides a survey of con- 
ditions in Edmonton, Calgary, and Macleod and in their sur- 
rounding districts up to 1890. A comparison of Chapters I 
and X dispels doubt as to the effectiveness of this railway 
in stimulating settlement and development; it also justifies 
the expectation with which the Edmonton Bulletin and other 
newspapers greeted its advent. 

The writer expresses his appreciation to Dr. L.G. 
Thomas, Professor of History at the University of Alberta, 
for the considerable time and effort he has invested in the 
examination of the drafts and for his advice and encourage- 
ment in the completion of this study. Mr. Eric Holmgren, 
Librarian, and the staff of the Provincial Library i Ed- 
monton have also given assistance, as have Miss Hamilton of 
the Cameron Library at the University of Alberta and the 


staff of the Shortt Library at the University of Saskatchewan. 


viii 


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INTRODUCTION 


Arthur S. Morton, a pioneer historian of the set- 
tlement of western Canada, has written that "an WaT so et 
able preliminary to the settlement of the Northwest and to 
the prosperity of its settlers was quick, easy, and cheap 
transportation. This is written large in all its history." 
His statement applies well to that stretch of the North-West 
which was tributary to the line piney thrown out from 
the Canadian Pacific mainline at Calgary in 1890 and reach- 
ing Edmonton in 1891. 

Most of this line passed through land lying in the 
"fertile belt," as it was described by Palliser and Hind, 
both of whom saw the necessity of adequate transportation 
if the area was to be settled. Captain William Butler, com- 
missioned by the Canadian Government to investigate condi- 
tions in the North-West, reported in 1871 only six embryonic 
colonies--all of missionary origin and all populated by 

larthur S$. Morton and Chester Martin, EStOLY of 


Prairie Settlement and "Dominion Lands Polic cy”. (Toronto: 
The MacMillan Company ny of Canada ada Limited, MIGSRY no aye 


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2 
1 W ° W 

half-breeds. There were also a "few adventurous whites 
at Prince Albert and at the various Hudson's Bay Company 
posts in the Qu'Appelle and Saskatchewan valleys. Writing 
a year later, Butler declared: 

The "Great Lone Land" is no sensational name. . 

There is no other portion of the globe in which tbavel 

is possible where loneliness can be said to dwell so 

thoroughly. One may wander five hundred miles in a di- 

rect line without seeing a human being, 
Presbyterian missionaries who arrived in Edmonton in Novem- 


ber, 1879 claimed that there were "only twenty white. men and 


six white women within five hundred miles of Edmonton," 





These were: Prince Albert, White Fish Lake, and 
Victoria, consisting of English half-breeds; and St. Albert, 
Lac la Biche, and Lac Ste. Anne, where French half-breeds 
lived. G.F.G. Staniey, The Birth of Western Canada (Toron- 
to: University of Toronto Press, 1936), p. 177. Stanley 
points out that it is Himpossibibe bein a determine the ex- 
tent of the population of the North-West at this time owing 
to the unsettled nature of some of the communities and the 
nomadic habits of their half-breed members." Ibid., p. 178. 





; 2William Butler, The Great Lone Land (16th ed., Lon- 
don: Burns and Oates, 1907), p. v. Ina similar vein, mis- 
Sionary John McDougall records that in 1863 when his father 
moved to Victoria, "the whole country south and west of Ed- 
monton was entirely devoid of settlement, not a solitary 
settler could you find in that region. There was not even 
a trading post south of the Saskatchewan river." He later 
estimated that "west of Carleton there cannot be less than 
700 mixed bloods and that there were 20,000 natives in the 
upper Saskatchewan."' John McDougall, George Millward Mc- 
Dougall, The Pioneer, Patriot, and Missionary (Toronto: 


Willian Briggs, 1883), pp. “105, , Load 
Sera McKellar, Presbyterian Pioneer Missionaries 
in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia 


(Toronto: Murray Printing Co., 1924), p. 137. 






































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3 

Most schemes for colonizing the North-West in the 
1870's came to nought. Settlement by voluntary immigration 
was slow, and attempts to stimulate it by means of coloni- 
zation companies were a failure. In 1886, after four years 
of existence, most colonization companies oe dissolved. ? 
The proportion of cancellations in homestead entries re- 
mained high. While the population in the Dakota Territory 
increased from 12,887 in 1870 to 133,147 in 1880, it grew 
in the North-West Territories from 1,000 to 6,974.2 Among 
the major causes of Seas ces een Slow rate of growth 
was the inaccessibility of the Canadian North-West. The 
indispensibility of railway facilities had become apparent. 

Between Calgary and Edmonton, settlement was sparse 
as late as 1881. The Edmonton Bulletin that year listed the 
following places and their population: Peace Hills Indian 
farm, 45 miles south of Edmonton, estimated population--10 
whites, 50 half-breeds; Battle River station, 65 miles south 
of Edmonton--3 whites, 300 Indians; crossing of Red Deer 

rene op. cit., p. 186. One of these companies, 
The Temperance Colonization Company, founded the town of 
Saskatoon. Only seven companies placed more than fifty set- 
tlers on the land. None was in operation after 1891. 

2canada Year Book, 1905, 2nd series, Ottawa, 1906, 


p, 11, cited by Stanley, op. cit., p. 187 andn. 30, p. 429. 
These figures do not include Indians, 


























Bis pa oP - be 
“sid 1k sea¥- ~dgrscit aig sidan Wy. : 
ar A 
ani cago cissnatoy ae Snomel 282 aa , “i 
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is 


! 5 wwhoeekb ovew eot@aguea nebghaknol oo, Je0e 
; ~~ oat 

wes eebrithe jeamond at enoliel tenape ie. 
vyoilsysT. atowlad ods at solspfugog ema slid. 


wots 22 O88 nt TAL, COL oF OV8L mt 50881 9098 


enmomé . AdTe,.6 of 000,T mores estyoskwist 2 a 
jwoss to efsy_wole ¥ alex aids. vo: anaune | 
edT ,dest-dz7208 salbsns) sna ‘de iL tdtersaoank 


,Jaeteggs smooed bed. celsiliont yawhist Ae wittd 

ex ssge , asw. jagnelijee oe bas yangisd 

efg beteti veey Janfy ofjsiis § gosaoahs edt 
ae. 


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ail 

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e ¥ 


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wv > fs ay 
2 beet 4 


Bae 


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qos Dae 36. giteseny sietinaa, ‘ooe 


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L, 
River, 100 miles south of Edmonton--no population; Fort 
Calgary--30 whites, 200 Indians. + Thus, according to the 
Bulletin, the total white population estimated at that 
time between Calgary and Edmonton, exclusive of those es 
centres, was 13; in addition, there were about 50 half- 
breeds and 300 Indians. 

Twenty years later, the editor of the Bulletin, in 
describing the isolation of Edmonton in 1881, stated that 
there was not even a house between Calgary and Edmonton ex- 
cept that of an Indian farm instructor at Big Stone Creek 7 
(later Wetaskawih) and that east of Edmonton there was not 


a house between Fort Saskatchewan and Battleford, 250 miles 


distant.° Winnipeg was the nearest railway centre* and Cal- 


1p dmonton BUseetin, vec, 1/7, 1051.. Other centres 
listed with their population included: Morleyville--60 
whites, 600 Indians; Cochrane ranch--40 whites; Fish Creck-- 
total population, 20; High River--unknown population; Fort 
Macleod--300 whites, 30 Indians. 


2Sir Cecil Denny quotes an old-timer in Edmonton, 
Dr. George Roy, as saying that in 1383 "in all the region 
between Calgary and Edmonton except about the crossing of 
the Red Deer, there was no white settlement.'"’ Denny, The 
Law Marches West, ed. and arr. by W.B, Cameron (Toronto: 
J.M, Dent and Sons Ltd., 1939), pp. 180-81. 


3Rev. H. McKellar, Presbyterian missionary who tra- 
velled the route in 1881, referred to the "long stretch of 
nearly three hundred miles without an inhabitant between 
Battleford and Edmonton." Op. cit., p. 107. 


4tn 1878 a branch (Pembina Branch) of the St. Paul, 
Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway reached its terminus at 













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+d 
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> fosnemba Hes 
Syoluy shege SP se yorsvasene eae davbat’ ct 

fan % rails «ae iba. To a8 5 sds bos Gane 
astin 02S ,bioIrslssea Dis nawsi (iyatese Set mow 3 
-fn9 bas *s vsuliss 225860 oi Sew secnani 


A etaes sed90. . i. .osd osel ip ef 
Qd--siitv dee oa Hut ont: nolzst came 
~-~zle2 x39 deri. :eestde Oh- -dones ofbihood 5 i 
s3gt. iqbtagly G09. Mmwons t= tevka est 


ee ~ ei a % ‘ : = A anenead OE 
3 ne somba” AY yan nt3-bLd. ns gotoup 
notasz sds ils at" €88I ot Jads snes 
_. Yo gakesorto ods juods JqeoKe SOI GOR 
sot . yaned ’ $ngm8 rose aa rdw on-@ x 
" }ganoreT) moxsteD, hy W vd x18 be ey 
es TB 408L Sad oF 
| netan 
«sis coffe wsnoter im istaaiydeor’ re oe . 
0 ipsa 28 snot" a3 oa: betisisa ts 
EIN! ited aa 6 3 oe ; Ss, 
«VOL 4 Bids, : 2 st" | 

Ce 


- 


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22 eon pr ax YB 


cS ce 
ny > “4 


a 

gary, where police were posted, was not even a village com- 
munity. The ranching industry of southern Alberta lay in 
the future.! oats required by the police at Fort Saskat- 
chewan were freighted in by wagon from Montana, 500 miles 
away. Cattle and horses for local use and consumption 
were driven in from Montana, British Columbia, and Wash- 
ington. Prince Albert controlled the trade of the Macken- 
zie region. 2 

Even nine years later, in 1890, the Bulletin re- 
ported "very little eit ek along the trail" over which 
the peiiee stages ran between Calgary and Boe ee 
There were houses only about every ten miles where travel- 


lers could find shelter in winter and entertainment, 4 





St. Boniface, thus connecting the Red River settlement with 
St. Vincent, Minnesota and the outside world. 


Isir Cecil Denny dates the “beginning of farming and 
stock-raising in southern Alberta" in 1876 and the first 
roundup in that country in 1879. -1884 to 1890 was the "ban- 
ner period of the cattle industry in southern Alberta." Op. 
eCliy,appre101, 230-31. 


2Edmonton Belictin, hoyw.gl.. i901. 


35.W.. Wilk dates the birth of the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Trail to about the middle of the 1870's in the period 
immediately after the arrival of the N.W.M.P. See his One 
Day's Journey (Calgary: Aircraft Printing Ltd,), 1963. 


4edmonton Bulletin, Apr. 3, 1890. Wilk writes that 
in 1880 a Mr. and Mrs. Youmans "in all the vast country af- 
ter they left Calgary ... saw no sign of habitation until 
they reached Blindman River crossing. There was not a 


nad site 
tt mh 
(aap errr & 1949, Joe eu oi nga 
ce 
nt, yet, aixodiA axathaes io % 
~jelape 310% 38.s0tlog aii a bastapes 8 


~*~ 
palin. 00¢ , aig sf0!4 Ot Rogew yw okt bet igtor: 




















my 


’ 


noltquvenoo. bas, sey tacol 0% esazod bam 
-flesW brs siti deksg3a- _sessnoM oat at. 


~peavtosM eci2 to sbaxz aris. bof forse axed ¢ 


. C feed + OORT ci 
o- ‘ . Be: ' y ; Oo a 
SSF Bees. ‘ 
7 cal 
dost J 29 YO > 74 3 $fi3 
C 3 bd bas yasehs 
“ fI0O3 GORD a. Pp 8 sRERls 


_-[svais gipdw<aiig. meq Xapve, uodaatage orl 


h 
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{Esau aoliasidsa to maki it 1 Me Pag 
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6 

Prior to the advent of the Ser ahe ve transportation 
connections with the outside world were so primitive as 
seriously to retard settlement and development of the Ed- 
Benton region. Next to the natural advantages of the park 
belt, particularly that part centred in Edmonton, perhaps 
the most frequent theme in editorials of the Edmonton Bul- 
letin during the 1880's was the need for improved trans- 
portation. In the years immediately prior to 1883, when the 
Canadian Pacific Railway reached Calgary, the main overland 
means of transportation was by ox-cart from Winnipeg. In 
1881, the editor of the Bulletin complained that carts were 
not uncommonly three months on the trail between Edmonton and 
Winnipeg. The difficulties of hauling heavy goods by carts 


1 


"almost prevent their being brought," and when they reached 


Edmonton they cost so much as to "put the price almost out 


of reach," 


shack, not a fence, not a turned furrow. Nothing to show 
that white men had passed that way except the trail of the 
Red River carts. . .. At the Blindman crossing a half- 
breed couple named Anderson had a stopping house early in 
fuaceveat om loo, Op, cit.,-p, 36. “He “goes on to ‘state 
that in 1889 there was "very little settlement along the 
trail." Ibid., p. 43. -W.F. Bredin mentions that on a trip 
from Benton to Edmonton in 1882, he met no one from Wetaski- 
win--where there was a government farm--to Strathcona--where 
there were four or five houses. "Benton to Edmonton in 
1882."" Alberta Historical Review, VI, no. 3, p. 26. 


lndmonton Bulletin, Nov. 5, 1881. 





























o = a 
» t ‘ ir ' 4 
é 


nofiasiegens 33 noted ss ic anh 


ee ee é 
‘as svliidttq oe stew bftow" soni 


-Ba 6&3 “to Saengol avab Sis inonatnees hs 
543 Yo" sessInbubs fsxutan oda of Jue 
qedrs sdtnombs “nak hetdne9 — 3ari3 es Ps “ 
(ee soci ha ‘sft Fo-elsties tho -a¥ smeng 
+t bevotaat set ‘bosn ef asw 2 O86 ods 
els nottu €68i oF Ic txq vied sibsemrl s7ae% edt al 

baslirdve abet “id . yisetso aia aren 
Pan 4 <i7- mort txusosk0 Yd @aw potsastedensy2 
' Beans ters b ‘ taldmeap 4s Lig {oud ‘BH? 20 tos bbe 2 


." : + sf P «= 
bas HowcbabS csswtred Tistd sfy 0 aston oe 


2y92d xd aboon used gitiuad 2 o soks bee ita ott 


yatesex ted? now bas “,daguoid aes : 
’ » @ 


' : ‘ - 
3y0, Jeom@is soitg ods juq" o3 es dom 
» ta oo . rs , z ti 7 * a Z ; 


' pads ¢ $2 ‘gates se wept Ssirat a3 
*" say Yo Disxt, 24y I@éoxs vad ads" bee? 
-ilad & ‘ oftaasss ‘Keahoila oad ah os 
ni vixse_esyol gorggels. & bkd’ downs by 
53932 a soon sh .Bt .@ ED go 
oat goofs prsmelt joe sftail yesy 
ais 8 M0 shit ‘ettol Saget nibsd a 
~¢ienye2 wort pao of 36efs ad. SGT 1 
 etody--sacsaiaese e7 nest 39 en aunt? 
rial nes Laois” o3 pene” 
| 08 ae Of av 


7 
The other primary means of transporting freight--by 
steamer on the North Saskatchewan River--involved by con- 
trast only twenty days, but the Saskatchewan was considered 
by some "not to be fit for navigation to any extent," 
Nevertheless, wrote the Bulletin editor, "it must hee ary 


bad indeed if it is not better than slow-going oxen on a 


muddy road 1,000 miles long.'"2 


In the course of ppendcnere attending the incorpor- 
ation of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company, Prime 
Minister Macdonald pemiained that the line of railway was 
needed to provide transportation facilities ae the ranch- 
ing country, maintain the flow of capital and imnigration 
of gentlemen from England, open up the country for agricul- 


tural settlers, fulfill the expectations of those settlers 


lin the debate on the bill to incorporate the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway Company, the Prime Minister said 
that the North Saskatchewan was a "very unsatisfactory river 
for navigation. It is only a question as to what amount of 
snow will come down from the mountains whether that river is 
navigable for three or four months. It is very shailow, and 
is, unlike the St. Lawrence or any of our large rivers in 
the east, not a satisfactory mode of transport." Canada, 
Debates of the House of Comnons, 6th Parl., 4th Sess., 53 
Vict., 1890, XXX, pp. 4419 ff. George McDougall, eminent 
Methodist missionary in Alberta, was overly optimistic in 
visualizing the Saskatchewan River as "the future highway of 
nations," John McDougall, op. cit., p. 72. It was not to 
fulfill the expectations held for it. by McDougall, Oliver 
and others as to its potential for transportation, 


2Edmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. 


exov ed paum 3k" ,s0uroa [ui ot waraie alt 




























~~ a) |. Yee i 
; heal ire cited 
: : a ed : yre gent yaa 
Lio tuiireqenbad Be eieem amie, 
phos. of 4 bal ‘ 4 Pa E + —" ey + ; aes C 
7 , > 


y ‘ 
are hb Pi 
; Aa 7 . . @ 
2 , ’ 4 
ae | 
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; * Ss 7 

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e 


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« 


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a . y P : + ees 


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SB to enki eds saa bonsai qxe biagoboslt x 
-danss afo tol esitifioei noksasseqeaaT3 ebivexg 0% 
s6kieuntomt bns.{stiges 0 » aol efi3 nipzalem 
-[ysitgs tot yiJavoo sda qu nego, bast ges oot 6 
avattsee secant i0 snokisioag xq efi3 LMA 
A — ies XT Ar 
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= twsainiM emtad of . Ynaqgmod wl s ok ee 
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et =wv52 suis tediadw edits tae yh: 






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— 3 
at etavit eubl tx0°2d yae 40 ee L 

" SDaRED vod Legenda’ i shom Vovossa tie 
ee* Surin ase : set Hse ane WOE 4 . 
she aie riot él shined. | Rhee 

ck oldeimitqo ¢38ye BBW si70d 
nt a3" ee bite 


nd 


8 
who went into the country on the basis of the first pro- 
jection of the Canadian Pacific Railway by the northern 
route and to alleviate the unsatisfactory navigation of- 
fered by the North Saskatchewan River. Two years earlier, 
in a letter to George Stephen, President of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, Macdonald had written that ReHBeeE in 
Manitoba and the north-west is very good on ehe whole; the 
whole country is happy except Prinke Albert and along the 
North Saskatchewan where the crops can’t be brought out."'2 
In the House of Comnons, the Prime Minister went on to tiie 
scribe the region which would be served by the projected 
railway as “one of the most favored localities in the Great 
North-West fee immigration, and for the investment of capi- 
tal in cattle-raising and other industries." He added: "The 
necessity of a railway in that region has ets been Binitted 


by Parliament, but that district has been singularly unfor- 


I¢anada, Debates of the House of Commons, loc. cit. 
Macdonald also wanted the railway in case of a repetition of 
the trouble of 1885, The N.W.M.P. detachment of which Cecil 
was an officer took eleven days to get to Edmonton from Cal- 
gary in 1885. Six years later, the same trip could have 
been made in eleven hours by railway. 


2sir Joseph Pope, Correspondence of Sir John Macdon- 
ald (Toronto: Oxford University Press, n.d.), p. 436, Mac- 
donald to. Hoe’ tale Oct. 1853, cited alk a G. Creighton, John 


of Canada Ltd., " 1955), Dp? esis 






















eo oie 


nee 


-dxg JaxkY’: eink vO sie ale i Ces ae pee 
azeth Tor aye. id «gavel text pian! . 


aad VioI 58 etétanthe’ eng ; dantedlte pe 


Vian 


“to nords ile is 
tase eisey owl E gayi ne wortodadtese dy20H | yd ft oe 
ns tbeipo-ed3 Xe septa .merigas® 9g 109d ot 19338 igh 3 
7 ae “Sfecobsam wl bad a rai 
taal ; 


. * ” 
3h: asa 
ei a ~ ot 


awe 


— 


: —. 
ni quxg*sda 


: »: : d ia PO ne Pi * re +é g e 
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» 7 
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g. rs i ee 
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4 pid Jasv tetelort imtst sty’ “ enorto® Yo wwe se 
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a 


uy 


treat: eff9 ni besa rf ixot *batous’ taom Biz S ona’ as 


’ 5 \ a owe % ig & is : 

-lédo Yo IJneried wi sia ot of “bas iste Et sit 9 

; : ) 7 % = 4 

sit” ‘fysbbe eh “.earis oe ni te Ade ins snited Is. 

ma fe sit i 
7 a 

siitaba Asad. Baol. :2ad n6kSor 2b at wee aa 


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“suet bec sit bast. fe 7 
> & it : m ‘ igh” a a 2 ” * 
, ——. e . 2 yf ‘ 


Bas i 


~s10D agit gdol. “sae > 23 . 5 “ ; 5 q0° 
et 


“oal6 GES 6g aon oe “atetevial 


9 
tunate in regard to securing railway accomodation."! Dur- 
ing the same debate, J. Trow, Member for South Perth, sta-~ 


1s 


ted: "If there is any portion of the North-West that we 
phe to develop by railway enterprises, it is that portion 
from Calgary to Edmonton."2 The Minister of the Interior 
commented on the quality of the country being opened up and 
the unlikelihood of settlers coming unless a railway was 
built.3 
The editors of the Edmonton Bulletin and the Macleod 
Gazette never tired of extolling the natural assets of their 
respective regions, the exploitation of which demanded early 
railway connection. In the enthusiasm engendered by the 
prospect of a railway, they drew magnificent word pictures 
of the greatness and glory that the future heid in stcra 
for their parts of the country. The Edmonton Bulletin 
proclaimed that the Edmonton district was the 
most eligible country for settlement in the Dominion. . 
Ps ane tana it all this ctstrict 15.0% -Tipst etass 
quality far ahead of anything in the Dominion outside 
of the Red River valley, and with a natural growth of 
vegetation superior to even that, while the crops can- 
not be excelled. . .. Climate is much milder than in 
any other part of the North-West, . . . Timber supply 
in this part is practically unlimited. ... . The whole 


of this region is underlaid with coal at very little 
depth below the surface . . . without doubt the most 





1¢anada, Debates of the House of Comnons, loc. cit. 


2Tdem : 3Tdem 






























é Tan = 


te ay 
-«u00 i" nokjabowos®, | hex. gots 
BEN oy 


“. ee a | 


838. axg4 stag lah sarki de ore) ak : 
any sini” seas 10M od’ we endian . 
Mate eh at, Pegkiqctee yoo! tex na 


nmorLrjsz0 ie 


¢ 
Cd 


soizesaL a83 Ae, 193 apat okt eat anes ot | Adi 
bam du BONDE. | sited: Ae thos aia to yiilaup 93, fe 3 


— , wh en 
Yawl is. geslog ani 2 walaaee. 49 o, boortkiss 


ZB 
% 
iain: z 


: —~o 
; ¢ ‘< = A a ind _ Ese 
brofag ada bea ghped Lud “a 2 gona od x0 sath 
stot ic eteeeq Iaqusan. edz _guillesxs to. bext3. ° evan, _ 7) 


+g4 Bepnensb doldw to noktastolqus ed , meaner eS 
ond +: 


i boigkhaepne . peed qusct ee eds. al . mets: 
o-* <. 


‘peedotg btow iadkbingas wa +6 qed 
yea pt pied eas gt i3 ‘aani2 “pada s bas "2 | 3 
| ‘Ts aie = < - 
‘e2atisg Danaea, vane se ee saa 
si beseitened 
. iy Ma ees, ~ ~w 
ae ast sozagn wnat : ba 2 Seorere 
Vo feT irs oe 


: Laoinpiett ioe ‘si, sinatnte ‘sql ry jo9 eldige. 
cams sania 1G er Pig ge Pc Pi + 


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nt mast sph2 tin ist eb a2 


ti qque ZodnlT ee  SE5unt 
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oitakl ysov 38 Seat d2iw. “a 


340m sf3 Idvob’ suniats ey 283 





10 


extensive coal formation in the known world. ... 
Every stream from Red Deer north has gold in quanti- 
ties that will pay from $1.00 to $20.00 per day per man. 
0 « « The "color" can be found in the groimd anywhere, 
and there is no doubt that the source from where all 
this gold came from [sic] in the first place wili be 
found some day. .. . As all the large streams rise 
in the mountains, the water in them--melted snow-- 

is unexcelled by any in the world--a huge improvement 
on the dirty pea soup of thea sluggish Red River and 
the Assiniboine. ... The lakes, unlike the alkali 
sinks of the great plains, are nearly all of fresh 
water, and all the large ones have fish in them.., . . 
In the southern part of the district is thea best stock 
raising country in the world, + 


Going on to predict the blessing that a railway 
would inevitably bring to this rich country, the editor 
wrote with enthusiasm: 


The advantage that a railroad would have which would 
connect at th2 Boundary with a branch of the Northern 
Pacific, run through a country, every foot of which is 
fertile, connect with the C.P.R. and navigation of th 
Saskatchewan at Edmonton, then with that of the Atha- 
basza, and finally terminate on the Peace River, in the 
heart of a magnificent agricultural country, and com- 
manding the navigation of a river 2,000 miles longs, 
right to the northern sea, must be apparent, 2 


(U 


Thougn a decad2 elapsed before the completion of the 
railway from Calgary to Edmonton, local ambitions respecting 
the railway did not abate. The visionary hopes of Macilesd, 
still 100 niles fron the Calgary terminus, were later drama- 
tically expressed by the editor of the Gazette, wnd was not 


ated 


3 


4 


to be outdone by his northara couaterpart. He antici; 


—__= 





Ip dmonton Bulletin, Feb. 14, 1881. 


Tdem 





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a 5% 
> & « J8iaew roti ond gi ae errs? 


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ga! sq Eb 
oraheyas banoys of3, ni beuge od pia; aie 6 
givin east gp3g0r. Say +8(3 de 





Lik 
ad ‘thie ssaig JI¢1f3 583 al "oka } J) sone » bf 
sels saworwts agTefl ofa Ein ah “8b oh 


Vie baal sm-+wed3 ni 193.814. odd entesiny at 
taetiavoiged 6.2201 stilted afd am Yas xd bef! 
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iledis od), esiiaw ,sedel aff 4 « # ,satkodta 
'og4t to [is ylisen ots ,entalig 3s9%g od? | 

. 2a Vest. oh dealt, syed Reap egtel off? [fs ft ne 
dnode gaed eld el jodutedb sdd Yo Jzaq ovedsves 
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bod. 


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11 
that 


the Calgary and Edmonton road will... ultimately 
become part of a most extensive system, uniting the 
extreme northern and southern extremities of the con- 
tinent, The point where these roads cross one another 
is going to be one of the most populous and important 
towns between Winnipeg and the coast, -It is reduced 
practically to a certainty that Macleod will be that 
point.l 


Six months later, the same editor wrote concerning prospec- 
tive railway connection, not only with Calgary but also with 
the new mining district in the Kootenay country: 


It means that from being a snall town in which all 
growth and progress are at present at a standstill, 
Macleod will at one bound become the greatest distrib- 
uting centre west of Winnipeg. .. . The change in 
Bacar e in the next two or three years will be marvel- 
ous. 


Such local aspirations to greatness found expres- 
sion also in Calgary when the editor of that town's news- 
paper warmed to the topic of a north-south railway through 
Calgary. He declared: 


The building of the Calgary and Ednonton Railway will 
make our town the most important railway centre, now 
existent, or that ever will be, in Canada west of Win- 
nipeg. This railway completed from the Athabasca coun- 
try in the north to Montana in the south, Calgary will 
be in a position, with the assistance of the necessary 
capital, to reach out east, west, north, and south many 
hundreds of miles on every side and to carry its trade 
into every settlement and hamlet in prairie, mountain, 
or woodland in all this vast territory--a country larger 
than all of Europe. 2 


IMacleod Gazette, Apr. 23, 1891. 2tbhid., Nov... 5, JSeT. 


3calgary Herald, July 22, 1890. 

































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12 
Subsequent developments were to reveal the irony 
of Macleod's claims on the future. Despite its headstart 
as the headquarters of the North-West Mounted Police and 
the centre of a prosperous ranching industry, it was in 
the early decades of the twentieth century to be dwarfed 
by both Edmonton and Calgary--destined to become the na- 


tion's two fastest growing urban centres in the 1950's and 


1960's, 










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ALBERTA BEFORE 1890 


Edmonton was to be the northern terminus. and Macleod 
the southern terminus of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway. 
These two along with Calgary were the only existing signif- 


icant centres of population to be touched by the projected 


a 


line, It was in Edmonton that local agitation for the 
building of the line centred, it being the most isolated of 
the three centres in 1890. 

A brief survey of the beginnings and early growth 
of these three centres and their surrounding districts and 
of their transportation and communication links with the 
outside world before the coming of the Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway will provide a perspective on what the railway meant 
to the people of the country. Such a survey should also 
help to explain why the people placed such high expectations 
on the railway to provide the solution of basic problems at- 
tending the development of a struggling pioneer region, 

In view of the above considerations and of the scope 


of this paper, the dominant concern of this chapter will be 


with Edmonton and northern Alberta, The origin of Edmonton 


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14 

must be sought in the vigorous and often bitter competition 
in the fur trade between the Hudson's Bay Company and the 
North-West Company. + Faced with the fearful possibility of 
being outflanked by its rivals, who were boldly exploring 
routes by river, lake and portage across Rupert's Land and 
New Caledonia to the Pacific Coast, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany determined to move into the interior as well. Competi- 
tion moved up the Saskatchewan River and in 1795 the North- 
West Company built Fort Augustus at the mouth of the Stur~ 
geon River across from the present Fort Saskatchewan, Not 
long after, the Hudson's Bay Company erected Edmonton House 
in the vicinity. 

Alexander Mackenzie's XY Company were also represent- 


ed at the Sturgeon River site, as were the free trappers. 


Ithese two companies, with headquarters respective- 
ly in London (England) and Montreal, were locked in a life- 
and-death struggle for supremacy in the fur trade during the 
period from about 1780 to 1821, when the two large rivals 
amalgamated, This competition must be seen as the continu- 
ation (after the British conquest) of the old French-English 
rivalry for the fur trade which began in the East in the 
17th century and spread beyond the Great Lakes in the mid- 
18th century after the explorations of Dulhut, de Noyon, 1a 
Noue and la Vérendrye (French) and Kelsey, Henday, and Cock- 
ing (English). .By 1757 the French "had built a chain of 
forts from Montreal to the Rockies."’ After a brief inter- 
ruption during the conquest of Canada, the fur trade was re- 
sumed, Another 22 years of unrestricted competition among 
themselves persuaded the individual traders from Canada of 
the advisability of cooperation. Hence, the formation of the 
North-West Company in 1783-4. See Stanley, op. cit., pp. 4-5. 


* 


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The result of such intense Bete tides was the rapid deple- 
tion of the furs and a move of the posts upriver, Consid- 
erable controversy has arisen over dates and sites of subse- 
quent relocations, but the available evidence suggests that 
by 1815 Fort Edmonton was established on its permanent site. 

From its establishment as a Hudson's Bay Company 
post, Fort Edmonton grew to become that Company's most im- 
portant interior post. The concentrated effort of several 
fur trading companies to gain control of the trade in the 
area indicates the significance of the post, After the mer- 
ger of 1821, the largest portion of what now make up the 
provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan--including the grassy 
plains between the Saskatchewan River and. the International 
Boundary--was organized as the Saskatchewan District with 
headquarters at Edmonton House. For a time, it was the 
principal trading centre of three Indian nations--Cree, Sto- 


ney, and Blackfoot. Fort Edmonton supplied the Athabasca 


Isce ALS. Morton, A History of the Canadian West 
(Toronto: T. Nelson & Sons Ltd., 1939), p. 463; G.H. Mac- 
Donald, Edmonton: Fort-House-Factory (Edmonton: The Douglas 
Printing Co., 1959), Bi hy E.W. Edmonds, Edmonton Past and 


ee a eee 


Present (Ednonton: The Douglas Printing Co. , IGA3 Cpe we 


- 2X¥atherine Hughes describes it: "Fort Edmonton, the 
most important post west of Norway House." Father Lacombe 
(Toronto: Wm. Briggs, 1911), p. 46. See also statistics 
cited by A.S. Morton, op. cit., p. 697. 


3Edmonton Bulletin, Feb, 18, 1882; Mar. 12, 1903. 
A pioneer Methodist missionary, John MacLean refers to Ednon- 
ton as the place where "thirteen different tribal peoples. 























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16 

trade and was the point at which trade toward the Pacific 
coast left the navigation of the North Saskatchewan River 
to be carried by pack horses across mountains eventually 
to arrive at the north bend of the Columbia River at Boat 
Encampment, - By the time that Father Lacombe arrived there 
in 1852, writes his biographer, "Fort Edmonton had already 
become the chief point of the een ae occupation on the 
plains, and in a few years . .. it was to eclipse utterly 
the glories of old Fort Chipewyan in the North and become 
the most important point west of Fort Garry."2 Owing to its 
trade and its strategic location, the fort pe strongly 
manned, fortified, and armed. As men left the service of 
the Company, a great many of them remained in the neighbour- 
hood, becoming responsible for the beginuing of settlement 
in the immediate vicinity of Fort Edmonton, 3 

In its hey-day as an important fur trading post, 
Fort Edmonton was reached and supplied by canoe travel on 


speaking eight distinct languages, were wont to assemble." 


John MacLean, McDougall of Alberta (Toronto: F.C. Stephen- 


BGup dest). DP. 2. 

lng dmonton stood at the eastern end of the 'tra- 
verse' to-Fort Assiniboine, whence the outfits passed on- 
wards to Lesser Slave Lake, to New Caledonia, and to the Co- 
lumbia.” 2Morton,.op.., cit.,) p./ 697. 


Hughes, Open Cut... Pps, 477-5. 


3Edmonton Bulletin, Feb. 18, 1882. 


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17 
the North Saskatchewan River. Later the canoe gave way to 
the York boat. A supplementary means of travel over short 
distances, that is, from post to post, was provided by 
horseback in sumner and by dog-sled in winter. 

After about 1860, in the opinion of Frank Oliver, 
editor of the Edmonton Bulletin, the importance of Edmonton 
began seriously to decline so that by the time of the trans- 
fer of Rupert's Land to Canada in 1870 it was not "what it 
had been during the period from say 1813 to 1860."! He 
states: 

When trading vessels began to come "around the Horn" to 
the West Coast, that killed the transcontinental trade 
route of the Hudson's Bay Company and the glory of Ed- 
monton departed for a time. American traders pushed up 
the Missouri by steamer to Benton and drew away the 
Blackfeet trade; and the. Plain Crees traded their robes 
at Carlton or Winnipeg.2 
Oliver adds the loss of the Oregon coast to the United 
States and the connection of Fort Garry by railway with St. 
Paul, Minnesota as other factors contributing to the decline 
of the Hudson's Bay Company's trading route and to the aban- 
donment in time of the trade across the mountains. 

loliver, Founding of Ednonton (Edmonton, 1921, re- 
corded by the Historical Society of Alberta), cited by Mac- 
Donald, op. cit., p. 51. See Edmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. 

2Tdem, For a detailed discussion of the loss of the 


Blackfoot trade to American traders, see Paul F. Sharp, 
Whoop-Up Country, the Canadian- American West, 1865-1885 


(Minneapolis: University. of Minnesoza “Press, 1955), pp. 34-7. 


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18 

The settlement of the present site of Edmonton was 
preceded by the establishment of certain half-breed settle- 
ments in northern Alberta which owed their existence pri- 
marily to the initiative of Roman Catholic and Methodist 
missionaries. As early as 1842, Father Thibeault had es- 
tablished at Lac Ste. Anne, fifty miles northwest of Fort 
Edmonton, the first permanent mission for Crees and Cree- 
Metis on the upper Saskatchewan, - Advantages of soil, fish, 
fuel, and security from the Blackfeet attracted him to the 
location, Ten years later, when Father Lacombe arrived in 
the Edmonton district, Lac Ste. Anne was his headquarters, 
In addition, the Church was interested in Lac la Biche, 150 
miles northeast of Edmonton, wiiere there was an Indian cen- 
tre but as yet no permanent mission, Sometime before 1871, 
a settlement of Métis came into existence there, as report- 
ed by Butler.” 

In 1861, Father Lacombe established a mission at St. 
Albert, about ten miles northwest of Edmonton, where soon 
twenty Métis families could be counted as settlers, A 


bridge built in 1862 under the direction of Lacombe was de- 


Ithe above discussion of Roman Catholic work is 
based on material taken from Katherine Hughes’ biography 
of Father Lacombe, previously cited. 


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ive aes ted amitsnde anukes »im sonoma Om 


om "9 2 : ‘ Se 
oe 4 + — 
-330qS1 25 , da sonedaixe ott anB9 


ae (2 ye eee le 
32 32 PO a ry boda }ideaes ednasst 


Rs ears ee 
noce starly ,nesoaomba To Seewritxom el. 
? ey etd 7 » ous ee, = cd . oe 
A cexel2ese 2s badsanese “od bilwoo 
ome Neila PRs Ma, the ee ee 
~9b 26w oitee.d Re poh eds tobrm 


ei dnow. oi orion: agg 
ee Jesfigult 4 


i; 


19 

clared one year later by Milton and Cheadle to be the only 
one in the Territory (outside the Red River settlement, of 
course), They found at St. Albert also the first horse- 
powered mill on the plains, and altogether found the settie- 
ment to be the "most flourishing community we had seen since 
leaving the RcdaRawetss "ih It was to St, Albert that Father 
Lacombe-~-in 1962ee Ba cunt the first brigade of Red River 
carts to cross the prairies with freight between the Edmon- 
ton country and Red Rivetes thus anticipating by six years 
the arrival of the first Hudson's Bay Company's caravan of 
carts and that Company's decision “ abandon the York boats 
in favor of the carts for freighting purposes, Father La- 
combe may thus be seen as one of those pointing the way for 
the independent traders who with the advent of the carts as 
the primary means of freighting were able to break the mono- 
poly of the Hudson's Bay Company as a carrier of supplies. 
By 1872, St. Albert had beet declared a separate diocese in 
which fifteen priests were laboring 

Two years after the founding of the Roman Catholic 


mission at St, Albert, the pioneer Methodist missionary, 


ince by Hughes, op. cit., p. 96. A school begun 
by Lacombe in Edmonton for the education of the children of 
Hudson's Bay Company clerks and servants was the first reg- 
ular school opened west of Manitoba, Ibid., p. 88. 


25 dem 





























ylno sift 5tf oF atin A 103 
io ,snamdistdse ta vA beat ons obked 
jgaxit ah 6efs Pred ' ae 


> ne 


1m 


«gftise 32 bavei -oritosot fe bas - -antaiq oft 10 F. Beri act 
pie eam oe hey 

esttte ssae bed sw tiloevemes asisiabwwolt joa" gh d 4 

: ? ¥ i etal tap 


.2@ 03 abw JT En stovid ball si 
sogixd sestt ads scguozd-rS081 f ei 
oh sid coswied arigteti diiw 2oltistg oda an0x9. | bes: 
|S ovis bo bas venues a 


“reget -<Pe 4o- dnisedtokins awed 


‘adabull Sask oda te lav! 


tm navetas 2° easgnoo Yad & 
nobasds o9 nokatoeb @ co oa fl aad 8 


(sskogiuq soiidgte?? oi st, ott 


Picud AvoY ods 
i ef Te aa ye% : 


tenkeg séon2 "to smo. BB 1988 os nu 
: ate: 


; ets t¢ a vy ts 


Dag 
= 7 
es 


tot wae aria * ; 
op/8e-ne oto to Jasvbs aig Atte ontw sole 
-ofem st2 taard o-elds stew priaglen? Me 
‘tpeokl qque to. teFrIs9 = Be “yangmod qed 8 
"9 GIST sessbth Si steqes” borsiseb seed bad % 
ae steer | oR .gaizedal oxew- | 


iter) neaee ada” To gnibimo? oft” 
aeeeiental tethafioht neonoty aid 


- a : i. + ; 
4 “Cen i e tas» a 


nuged Loonoa & «02 6G 5 ) 
a6, nowt Fito aly to ncioe a ot 
-ge7 Javki pet ene naviee bos 
_——- 





20 
George McDougall, moved from the vicinity of Norway House 
to the North Saskatchewan valley and made Victoria (later 
Pakan) his headquarters, having secured the removal of the 
Smoking Lake mission to that point one year previously, 
A Methodist mission had been established at White Fish Lake 
by a Mr, Steinhauer in 1856, At these two centres, English- 
speaking half-breeds, some of them from the Red River set- 
tlement, had formed colonies. Incidentally, therefore, of 
the six "embryonic colonies" mentioned by Captain Butler in 
his ah ve on conditions Ree North-West Territories in 
1871, five--that is, ali but Prince Albert--were located in 
northern Alberta. The first Protestant mission schools west 
of Portage la Prairie were operated by the Methodists at 
White Fish Lake and Victoria. The McDougalls, George and 
his son John, established a mission on the north shore of 
Pigeon Lake for the Wood Stonies and the Crees. It was in 
1871 that George McDougall began a mission at Edmonton, which 
for a long time had been listed as a "station," having been 
the headquarters of the missionaries Rundle oe Woolsey. 
Rundle in 1840 had made his home there, and both he and 


Woolsey were made the guests of the Hudson's Bay Company 


when at home. It was from here that the McDougalls planted 


et oe rt ae ee 


lthis brief sumuary of early Methodist missions in 
Alberta is based on material taken from John McDougall's 
biography of his father, George McDougall, previously cited. 


r ¢ 4 
no hhw 


- 
ue 


eo. 


| % 
’ 


gags vesrnog to staal dont ba 
vediaNciiate lea pita oni 
























“9 +r r \ 
44 %o Ipvetan odd bewwoen gaivsd ,a197 
I vranotyeng 189% amo Jirkeg. Jets 02 echoed’ 
miss oe fic ta bedelidedss, aaed bad poieekin 2 
rl r a> | sandt..2A  .8cel at one 
= ee P »t ‘. ~~ ° ~ « s a 
woe 25 ES: | (3 out. magn TO -omRe2 -sbsexd-2 vine 
P oe 7 
io .wiale reds. ,vilednebbonl- _2etnolon fame? bad (an > + 
aay ae 7 ot ‘ f wo 
/ Bats 2 
at asidvk abed cd beatin elmelos otaoyrdme™ xhe ‘st 
gal py Lee Wads2oN ont a2 enctitbnes. no Jz0qs% t 
be S “~* ~~ . . J r 
ps aa} ; 
ai -botaol asaw--aediA epaLes aud fips ae sada OVER £7 
ie 
Jase eLagities .sebealn srssec ori $exi3. sm asiedlA 
3% atetbatte! odd qd bses19qo. szew abxtext eal , 
oh ‘ 
Sas eeToOoe 5, atts opto od _ senor ok¥ tyre “—9 » 
«22, erode daqgom aig. so sokeake a ee 


sb 2sw-3t 1 O99 arta: brwe asinos2 boo: oda 2s o 
o & meged Lleguedelt > - 
nogd. .qytvad " nojzsde" s ap beta! aged ba 

aloo’, be ofhews aes ignekaspin as to oe 


(name> ws soLaee ra 


» eo 
ae a, 


» bas ont io hina. peo email it Games is - * . 
, “a 





afin 
ae 


TS at 


Yneqed, ~ 
pele ex Lagyctiel -ors: and aed ee 

4 </ 47 a 

aad ities te 


ni enol meres sexboriralt gamer ? 
@ ik ane 


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iy ~ 
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21 
missions at several points in southern Alberta, including 
Morleyville in 1873, Pincher Creek and Calgary, where a 
small church was built in 1877. 

To complete this account of early settlement in nor- 
thern Alberta outside of Edmonton, reference must be made to 
the building of the North-West Mounted Police age at 
Fort Saskatchewan, twenty miles downstream from Edmonton on 
the south side of the river. This took place in 1875, the 
police having spent the previous winter in Edmonton at the 
Hudson's Bay Company post, At that time, settlement was in 
its early phase in Edmonton, Having lost to Fort Saskat~ 
chewan the bid for the police post, Edmonton was fifteen 
years later to be selected over Fort Saskatchewan for the 
crossing of the river by the first railway in the north, 

The decade beginning in 1867 saw the foundations be- 
ing laid for the transition of Fort Edmonton from fur trad- 
ing post to centre of a growing settlement, from Fort Edmon- 
ton to Edmonton. Events of national, regional, and local 
importance followed hard one upon another to make the tran- 
sition possible, Confederation in 1867 united four British 
North American provinces into a Dominion which looked in- 
creasingly to the acquisition of the Hudson's Bay Company's 
territories in the West as its birthright--necessary both to 


the achievement of nationhood and to the fulfillment of a 














i 


prbbolont, csiadih ple a 
atoth: 9 cacti bes io eat 
ANGE at sntue 
1 bt soonelszeca visses T9 tngooDs aldd. ase 
soneisiss _gsoIncahA to shteiuo 


sioaxisd solicl bexavoM tes¥-rat0n efit to-g 


o 
 ~/ 


+2 mse tieowob eelim yYinows. , fewer S45. 


iro rio3 41 MDS. LL a A 


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% a4 


Lee Si ‘4 4s fs VBveu 4 
mit 








afd 1s. sotaonbS at xotmbw spotverg” ody sage a 
i 
ai gew stnusueljsee -,smt3. dads 3h .Je0q Yasqmod Ys: 70st . 
.-grtedeage 340% 09 Jeod. goivell ros pembS ak sasdq it ee: 
. ; he pe. 


seo tt: s oo Ae ss —— 3 hid: 
o7tt2 eaw gsosmenba .J2eq eoltioqg sis 208 ‘a 








oer 
> . 


son 10}... oayodosndepe Jiel wvVvOS betoelsa. ed saath 
een pha. oi: wwi tes deaxk? orld yd —s 
-95.. gpoht ab muc8 org wee YOSl nat gatnamniy: 


7 Of, 


bays gui: nore aqinomsa 3194, te nok2 keane i } od 
r “as les Ra 


~nenbS 370% «moet _ jnsmoflsee gniwoxg 8 to ots eh 









_Ipead- baa. Ingotges;  tenekven to acm 
0873 da. slap 9% xefton@ HogP ono brad baw! 
HeisiaG Ayo}. besigy Te8l gk Ho ) } 
-nt bosool- doidw, aotokaed, ry gant 


2 ‘youqmed ye e 'joebull, aff9 28 60 | 


‘ ‘6 
— 
2 


22 
destiny to unite the British people in the northern half of 
the continent from ocean to ocean, This inheritance was en- 
tered into three years later when the North-West was trans- 
ferred to Canada, The first brigade of Red River carts 
(other than Father Lacombe's) reached Edmonton in 1868, in- 
augurating an era of overland freight. and travel between Ed- 
monton and the railhead which was to continue until 1891, 
While the first land claims were being staked out at Edmon- 
ton in 1872, Canadian Pacific surveyors were locating lines 
for a transcontinental railway to cross the North Saskat- 
chewan River near Edmonton. The Canadian Government in 1875 
enacted the North-West Territories Act which provided for a 
separate Lieutenant-Governor for the Territories and for rep- 
resentation by electoral districts on the Council,! The en- 
forcement of the laws of the Territorial and Canadian gov- 
ernments was charged to the North-West Mounted Police, who 
that year established themselves at Fort Saskatchewan. The 
following year, Treaty Number Six extinguished the Indians' 
title to the North Saskatchewan region and prepared for 
their settlement on reserves, The Government telegraph line 
had reached Battleford in 1874 and five years later connect- 


ed Edmonton directly with the outside world. 





_— oe OS CE 


1 * s _ . cm . . 7 
Representation acquired by Edmonton District eight 
years later. 





























to BWed wrehs4en wi wa aye’ aiiorieie’ 
-~si9 e@8w = sone rrehat ekaT ‘paboo 62 “ge600 wits 


-enead eaw JasW-a [yao oe esother zajat s1est 931 


«65 revit bolf Jo shegiae taxtt off aban 
Sasr at codnombe bsroasst a Te 
- 


«bg sdowiIsd ioves s BS 4{iaiott ‘bimlteve to Bis mm 3a. = 


¢ 


[Ger Tad ssntIns5" oF erw fo keiw Sesdi ist off t 

U 
~fsomba 3&6 Jue DSeABLS enied 9% aw amtstg bret Jerk? odd 
vont! S@itne6! “stsw etoysviwe OPTED 58% nstbsisd [svar a 


“2ai¢6 ajfoll sda “déors oF yYewlter -esatsnsisselane eae t 


2¥9t nt Jnomnrev60 asibenso 9 ‘tr  nodmomba. Issn tevin | 


pra 


at “ - .. we . Aes +: 
s sat beb¥vexG dSidw toA setraI svat $E3W-113-10H ¢ 
-ae1 tort bre eeiresiizeT sag 102 sontsvod-30EN083) vin 


ffonvod sda fic etoiader Isxvodeals bas 


=V02 asFisnnd” bran [sixosivzst ats to ews oft’ ° sala 


eat’ nevistotndles® ale ts ‘aa¢foeinetts hodeilé 3 r 
onéibad “sii Bsdelugntsxs k2 “redial wer 
“Sek ‘pevsqas ie fietgeti niivedosastan’ 4 


7 ee ee) nts WE a ates 
anki dgqsxastss. snowreved sat “ evasedt a 
. a) vie 
-josanoo tedel 2 TRAY avit ‘bas a ROE ae 8 toisl 


’ oe h 
se » ont aa — 
btzow abiaaie Sas astw 4 
| ras &: 


4 
<s a 


23 

Local historians date the real beginning of set- 
tlement in Edmonton at around 1872. That year Rev. George 
McDougall built a church and home on land he had claimed at 
the top of the river bank adjoining the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's reserve on the east side. Associated with this ven- 
ture in pioneering is also Chief Factor Richard Hardisty's 
"House on the Hill," built in 1874 on the eastern end of the 
diveiation on which the Legislative Building now stands. 
These projects and the claims staked out by their owners 
and by other former Hudson's Bay Company employees on lands 
in the vicinity are credited with “prompting the new Edmon- 
ton settlement which up until cRaew caine had nade no observ- 
able appearance." 

These evenes occurred just two years after the North- 
West passed under the sovereignty of the Dominion of Canada 
and two years before the police were to arrive. Frank Oli- 
ver stated that up till that time there was no land settled 
on around Fort Edmonton due mainly to the disturbed condi- - 
tion of the country. There was no law, and no one to en- 
force it if there had been, he said, "Between whiskey. tra- 


ders and Indians a settler was likely to have a poor chance 


for reaping what he sowed," wrote Oliver. Nevertheless, 


ee re ee 


IMacDonald, op. cit .s°pen 174, 


4 
Edmonton Bulletin, Feb. 11, 1882. 






















sala 2 1 gninatsed foun ‘8 oa 


'\-e3eae 2c 


§ xssyv JadT - .S98l Feness i 


g2reed «Von 
: 


e 


5 beotaio ban od Beef ‘is ‘anol os peentid.s 


ii ive 
ra 


«90 “Yee 2 “woehbish’* ee entire ths Nand - tovit ans 3 LO | < sai 
mi at 
ot) ‘gade tte Bevebivted® “6580 2660 682 ae ovaseen 


tusethrsH byadord rowost Bel #0 ctle ef -gnicves ote F 


4-0 Hes aredtas Sd2 ‘a0 Aver at tibet ™% chi iH ota 
nyadd wen potbirsa-sv bys f et sel - -/: Aokithe mot 
‘ a Pas, td Bud Setase amkals. ais bis ientiee a 
Ps ‘ ao lyases Targwoo VAG 2 noebull eamroR safkt0 
Sia a art odt: SkPGitxq” Stiw bes Ibert ove von a 


“tdi tae her ed oaks Jada LFomw eisedo Bet 3no8 on 2g . 


ww 


t wide cide tf Mae, G ow +e. &Y sonsreege 
Ve 


Me 


tes FSIS erte¢. ows ton boys2900 “gneve, 
£Shned Ko Glebe! say Jo wrgketsvoe ‘sft-19hay 
<tko' Wii «ls¥tees 02 sadwosodtog ons sioted, | : 
bg faaee “Brial ‘or -aew x5 5s nS tes Iiia qu gs as 
usatb orf? oi ylniaa sub nosnomba ‘10% bt 


- ee HI 
















-g5.02 sha on Spb wal om) BBW exedT .\Gtaaus 
oo ye 
Pe “ ds 
-a3d Yoteindy n% ewted” -biae me gisad Rit 
sonata téoq*s ‘gra os 2 chest aow meee 
aU in Prue, 3h. ere 
2: : 


(aeolsdszevey | + 90.0 fon 16 beatae 
eh oes ae td « ae ti, " 
4 : "Ae 4, wt a2 & ’ Ke D 


Asie 


WSR i 





aft, 


24 
McDougali, Hardisty and others staked out their claims and 
asked for Dominion Government survey. 

A significant factor in precipitating the staking 
of land claims and the beginnings of settlement in Edmonton 
and vicinity seems to have been the presence there of the. 
Canadian Pacific survey party in 1871 while looking for a 
route through the mountains. There was an expectation that 
when the railway should be built it would without doubt 
traverse the North Saskatchewan country and pass through 
or near Edmonton--an Bxwuct ae ite which was to survive for 
ten years. Oliver stated much later that among those liv- 
ing in Edmonton in 1878 were a "few who like myself had fans 


dered west and decided that Edmonton was a desirable loca- 
tion to await railway development .""4 Less important stimu- 
li to activity, in the long run at oleabe, were the presence 
of gold miners from across the Rockies and whiskey traders 
from Montana, some of whom, according to Oliver, remained 


as settlers.2 





lipid, July 14, 1930. 


2tbid., Feb. 18, 1882. Among the early settlers in 
Edmonton, several ex-miners are mentioned by G.H. MacDonald, 
who deals with early settlement in some detail. He includes 
four who farmed beyond the 'Dunvegan Yards,"' two in the St. 
Albert settlement, and two who had homes on "Miners' Flat" 
(Laurier Park). There is, however, no reference to ex- 
whiskey traders settling in Edmonton, 


* 
j ‘ 


es 
bon amiste- vist? 1 bine toe 

fies _ twine. dnsisirreved 0. 

: gnkiase” ai> cotasatyggesug al s0398% ined bag e 
nosaceb’ ni trenslvsee-to agoinal god Selt- bos f 


ae 


wee: 


oe 
re a ot 
* : 


» vwatotodks 


» ais to overt? eenszesq off ased evad oJ ems ¥ 
n ek 





i 





oi goldool sf Fiw IT8l mk gos8q YOvINe ‘oss, ay 


=» 
ap? 


s$ad3 notisijsasqxe he esw otetT - '-eotstavom eft igus 
siLiob. Sued2 bw bi wow th tiiud od biwode wwii 0 
Aguosd3 S250 bis yuInwosS- omettcua ph ds ad me 
‘hie Fw kv age eRe 28 pdoidw: not detainee ne--noscorbS 1 


wet seods oom seis yosal dou bessse sevilO — 


4 


-new onc tigeve ett! ofw vet” & sTew S{si at 203.00 


«anol sldsukeem® Ss asw.aotnombhd tad3 bebiseb | 


Puss 


euite 2067 s0uMt? Baed- tu -spomqeleveb youl 
SSazearG ori, wre Jebel 38.40% gmol edd sk - 
e1sbar>’ 1 eee iw boa asiiaood edd ezotos w@ 


#4 eetomex: ; seviTO- os” gnitriooo8 ~wodw 


ir Le oat 2s Wan - - o- Fd 
7 
, = eer al ¥ 
‘ « 2 ye 


ni. oy ere 4 ‘ond. gricind, geet 
blest’ HD va benoltnsm sim exonka-x 
- psbulonl 3 _ Ubsteb. ames a = 
38 sd3 ot owt "; , shag? m . 
"sell 'atentl" no bee o 2 bas 
ax" scans on some me i ek oF 
| t ; 


= laa 
2 
i » =f 




























25 

The staking of land claims is not the same as ac- 
tual settlement. Rev. William Newton, first Church of Eng- 
land missionary in Edmonton,! reported that when he arrived 
in Edmonton in 1875, “the sparse population consisted of a 
few Hudson's Bay oe employees, pide oe mounted police, 
roaming miners, and people who spoke the Cree language, and 
were half their time freighting on the plains."2 He states 
that he "could not find such persons as we tistical, designate 
RSA aris} Beyond the mission stations even a potato-patch 
was seldom to be seen, aiid a farm adrenyis It was not till 
"years afterwards," he writes, that Raresia) settlers" arrived,4 
Nevin mentions the Canadian Poe itiin dhe ey party mallets 
their winter headquarters in 1875-6 at Edmonton. 

Another figure who played an important part in Al- 
berta's early days, Colonel Denny of the North-West Mounted 
Police, was in Edmonton in the winter of 1875-6, and he 


writes that at that time "a few half-breeds lived in cabins, 


and some Cree Indians in lodges near the fort."2 The con- 


lpy 1875, three churches were represented in Edmon- 

ton by a mission: Roman Catholic, served from Lac Ste. Anne 

in the '40's and from St. Albert after 1861; Methodist, per- 

manently established in 1871; and C. of E., begun in 1875. 
2Rev. William Newton, Twenty Years on the Saskatchew- 

an (London: Elliot Stock, 1897), p. 67. 

| 3Ibid., p. 17. 4ubid., p. 67. 


9sir Cecil E. penuy, “Op. Cre, »-p. 91. 






























cen ao bat Se wn 


“98 28 sume. idle Jon ‘et eintote | 
s - hg “ pai 
-gn3 io roxunio text? 10st ask ii ty 





) 
 F 


bovis -ef metiw Jkd2 batseqoz L nosacnbhs al : : 
pn do betelenba nottalugog saéuage eda" -, 2085. ab aod. 


sq 
F i 
Ge. 


_eniice bsinven-grigasdo ~essyolqas ‘ees qend a 1," roe 


+ 


bos ,agevgmst = “0 adv sddge. otf afqosq hein Piers 
ali >" lagtalg sit ao gnbtdgiet® oaks x 
es emmeisg fove batt ovuntenalie 


' _ 
@otac-oystou 8 neve aaoksata aokeatar ods baayeli: 48! 


c 


flis ton #8u-31~- -" wevea mxel s ba -f3898 od a 


sisupiseb vilmuzar aw 


ee. 
* povkass, “steistee iso” tad3 sestiw od = 


cggn taken yoa8q' ‘yore otticst sakbangd. of errod ath 
«ete peseembet wae 2-200 at nasa 

-l& so ann sas 204 i ne beyalq ofw x 
Lerknad JaeWat 10 aft to yond Lenole 
~ Stk ora en tes seo ply on ni 

| aarti ab: bowtt ebsarde2fett wat a” omks- 


«noo edt. S'' o208 eds. een — sail 


-n0ith R of be steed érqst axow ‘Gedoauds 
‘emrkA ee: $5.5 ue bevires port 
-tsq ,22fbodaeh ides e328 Its¢ 


ORBLE. aeh, puged ..4 39 “aban 50 


-werfggatene® avid BO aineY -§ fw 
j «V8 a, Bi, 

a fe! a 
<a «4 . sbadt? so) ara 






26 


tinuing predominance of fur trading activities is indi- 
cated by Denny's comment that he saw bateaux under con- 
struction--large flat-bottomed boats--to be used in trans- 
porting furs and pemmican to Hudson's Bay in the spring, 
These scows were of several tons ses ee travelled in 
brigades of twenty or more boats. 
Three years later, according to Oliver, the popula- 
tion of the settlement was 250, including Indians.* Some 
gold miners were now farming while a few others still work- 
ed gold from the sand bars. A few former Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany employees were settied on the land, He mentions also. 
a few like himself who had come from the east and, to com- 


4 


plete the picture, the Indians wi 


who were camped above the 


f 


brow of the river hill overlooking what is now Victoria 
Park, Indicative of the primitive stage of settlement are 


Statistics appearing in the Edmonton Bulletin which show 








that in 1878 there were in the district but one thresher, 
one reaper, one or two mowers, and about two dozen plows. 
Other evidences of activity in and around Edmonton and of 
the growing importance of the place is seen in the flat- 


boating of lumber downriver for the government buildings at 


lipid., p. 95. 


edmonton Bulletin, July 14, 1930. 


3tbid., Feb. 18, 1882. 


7 vo 





cae 
































ei paw etal 
~bint, 8d, a ~siieniane A + te sonnat 
or ae - 7 oe 
ali : es aet 
noo ‘rebay xubpuad wae. od Jars IasameD. oi 


-enaid al baa au ad og~-adaod aaseadaiaieal . 
saniuqe off2 ni Yea_e. ‘gosbell 93 nsolmneg § apes 


ait y 
at hoffevev? bas wkesqne enos Taveves Bo exew: 
; * a : . ei ; ; 
; .assod stom 20 Ya: 
-sfugqog ei2 ,ravilO a9 % pth TOD98 tesel exsey ¢ 
sm2 “.enstbnal gnthufont ,0cS eaw snonalsaee ed) ac 


[{ite exedto wat & ails Ww gntens3 wort vrow sont bk 


a _ 75° cs fe a = » 
4 
-~noD sd a'corebyl xserie?, wet A ered base ads woh, bb 
’ raged : a y Pi : + 
oels ecolitdasa ell baal eis no ) basses onan seotaee 
ito ot ,bire dese odd most emoo bad od 2samtil ants 
< 


MSD STS" are enskbal edd ot 


bros0LV won #2 tscdw gubioal evo Soe 


s 


Le 


S15 Js: aalt209 to egs33 ovtatalag oda ee 


wore apd nisets [nf gozaomba aft akg 
rodeeuts ano aa soisisib cee 
f BwohT tetob™ ows asiedn: bas (etawom 
pan ‘bas g03 cosbS bavows ‘bas ot sede 2 


a 


“tei ails af nest ai eostg’ alt 3 ta 


¢? a 


ta agnkbitud JnamyrisvOg ner sot evi te 


* Ve» 
4 . of : 
. Pd a * i y 
‘ ‘ 
fe 
6. o 


27 

the new Territorial capital at Battleford, the fixing of 
Edmonton as the terminus of the Government mail route, the 
placing of steamers on the North Saskatchewan River, the 
comp Pete of the telegraph line to Edmonton in 1879, the 
appointment of an Indian agent for the upper Saskatchewan 
and a timber agent for a still larger district--both to be 
placed in Edmonton--and the surveying of base lines to the 
sattienent. + 

Settlement in the Edmonton district? and in the 
North generally was stimulated in 1881-2 by the proposal to 
run the line of the newly incorporated Canadian Pacific 
Railway northwest from Selkirk to the North Saskatchewan 
River and through the Jasper Pass to the Pacific coast. 
Sanford Fleming's survey located the line so as to run 


through the point where Leduc now stands which would have 


lItpid,, Feb. 22, 1882. 


2"The early C.P.R. surveys through the Jasper Pass, 
for which Edmonton was the base of supplies, brought the 
place somewhat prominently before the eastern public, and in 
1880 and 1881, when it was finally decided to build the line, 
there was a large influx of Canadian settlers, who expected 
the railway to follow in a few years."" Ibid., Apr. 6, 1890. 

“3The Act of Incorporation, passed by the House of 
Commons on Feb. 1, 1881, was the achievement of the Macdon- 
ald administration which had been elected to power in 1878 
to succead the Liberal government of Alexander Mackenzie. 
The latter had displaced the Macdonald government in 1873 
after the "Pacific Scandal." 



































i Jat 

to yrbeti otf -wacntedae 38 “aiid Fis 
oh .otwds"LISm Sasmnreved of Lo aia’ 
sH2 .sovis newstotedese dtx0f oft no eTet 


63°, OXSE nt sosnoma od okt iquigetes ods a 
* ; +a 
qeweasSsaxese — af3 40t Jooge osifSal na te ne 


¥) 


tod-23atudeth’ weeded Pitas so tness toda 


al ; = 
off of aunti sesd To guryevive arid ee 
i 2 


np “soruseth sodaemba say nt Snoasl3ds® 


- ie Sal es 4 AP Ge 
54: Taboo Si3-yd S-0eel at batslamtte Baw yi Ist0nsg a: 


33 
ho 
.s 
-N 
, 
4 
7 
> 
> 
is ta 


uD ‘beeyatoqzosns qiwsa oly to salt 9 . 


nkweatajkiese caro ond of trbitse ove Sze 


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« 
tf > 


"fies ed-en' of oat! otis ) beaaool ysvtue. e af 


= ¥ ®e ta" 
* 


sven, dblyow dati ebuste wor aimed aronw sntog 


’ Sr yee Rage: eee See . 
; - Sear eee Ae ; 
. : BY 
,eestT 2zegeat ons dguox keane A062 ‘ sales 
eis sdgvosd. , Be ea lo send edz ‘ay t 


+ a) j 
ok bes 4 SEedog. ‘qistéae '9d3 shoted: Iq I 


| sar Poet Bitud ot ‘bubtosb vitent? 

‘hetosers sce slitsa naibansd 26 xultak © 

.0e8f oe eh eat *, eheey wets nt wollot 
‘ wis 7 . ra 


te: seuait odd ed Siceig ge ye ‘opnl 3¢ 
-iohoat wit to ifimavekige od ae fia ‘* 
SVS mt TSwag oF ‘beta ad, Ag 

of Seasons sobnsweta ¢ rf 


EvaE nk dnearrevug. § thee ; eae ; 
‘ Ve aa ‘ + Sore f58 e4 ae a 
; i. > % ‘ 


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28 
given Edmonton the desired railway connection with the out- 
side world. On the probability that this prospect would 
soon be realized and in order 


to gain all the advantages and reap all the profits 

of settlement along the line of the proposed railway, 
squatters, traders, speculators, and bona fide settlers 
rushed into the north and augmented the growing popula- 
tions of Prince Albert, Battleford, and Edmonton.l 


The price of land along the proposed route shot up in value, 
and the speculative fever which followed is described vivid- 
ly by Macoun: 


The excitement during the fall of 1881 amongst real es- 
tate owners was intense. Nothing to equal it had ever 
before occurred on Canadian or British soil. Thousands 
of dollars were made by operators in a few ninutes. 
Vast fortunes were secured in a day. The excitement 
spread like wild fire all over the country. Cool-head- 
ed professional and business men, clerical as well as 
lay, left their callings in other parts of the country 
for the scene of the modern Canadian El Dorado. Real 
estate agents became as numerous as the sands on the 
sea shore.2 


On April 23, 1882 the Bulletin reported that "this 





Istanley, op. cit., p. 185. 


2Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North-West (Guelph, 
Peewee ie. CLLeo yy Morton, Op. Cit.. Dp, OU, .W.U, ;Mor- 
ton writes that "for twelve hectic months Winnipeg lived in 
a frenzy of speculation. . . . Lots on Main Street were 
exchanged for higher prices than those then commanded on 
Michigan Avenue in Chicago. . .. Canada had never seen 
anything like it before, nor was it ever to see quite such 
a delirium again."" Manitoba: A History (Toronto: Univer- 
sity of Toronto Press, 1957), pp. 200-01. D.G. Creighton 
refers to "a veritable mania of speculation in land--some- 
thing new in the history of British North America-- which 
reigned at Winnipeg." Op. cit., p. 317. 


-3u0 off 


i | = 
caisjs aA 


es 
Ms i ‘Ty * - 
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etds" tad3. beaxoqes pitet ive os seat 


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; 


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| i . nd a # 


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{3 
boadtog oft to sait ‘Bas gnols tion {sise 20 




















obitzi anod bas .2 4 Os! siuoege axoba09 . oe te 

obit ap dh i 

+ = i ga b4aitn> ‘ ng bine ‘daxeir odd i Oo " it bette. 
fros wa Db fia .b t03 elsssi . ,JIpdtA be - Lt ‘ | s : x 
Ss ‘uf ‘— * ct al eee 


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[ios det inf IO Fas i bsssd fe be1tu590 oxo! a 
- A “a 
it wat & ni etoteteqo ¥d ebsa stew — 


‘sb s oi beaoes SQW 7 
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S 


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ses : 


29 
boom has struck Edmonton with full force."4 Hudson's Bay 
Company lots which in the fall of 1881 boda at twenty-five 
dollars were selling for 300 dollars. After selling 490 
lots in the fall, the Company closed the sale. The Bulletin 


claimed that these sales were made almost altogether to 


1Z 


"wealthy Eastern speculators.' Such was the attention fo- 


cused upon Edmonton as a morn eerie railway town that even 
two months before the "boom," the Ane. wrote that "Edmon- 
ton is before the “able Ser) ae that it has Sacred teehee 
will turn the stream of imnigration aside," . Even the aban- 
donment of the northern route by the Canadban Pacific Rail- 
way could not shake the confidence that the railwey would 
come through Edmonton shortly and that if the Canadian Pa- 
cific Company were not inclined to provide sufficient rail- 
ways other companies were willing to do so. 
Looking back upon this incident in Edmonton's his- 

tory twenty-one years later, the editor wrote: 

To such a pitch had public attention been drawa to Ed- 

monton that in 1882, the year of the great boom, a sale 

of Edmonton lots took place in Winnipeg which lasted 

one day and lots went at fabulous prices, but the next 


day the boom burst and Ednonton was discredited for 
years as a consequence, 


ee eee 





lgdmonton Bulletin, Apr. 23, 1882. 2Idem 
3Ibid., Mar, 12, 1903. 


4tbid., Mar. 12, 1903. Two historians link the 
breaking of the boom with the attempt to promote the Edmon- 





fe 


gtzelivd sil ,9sise sda beeols es ae offs dis 


gnidton basiste ead Ji acd won ‘bas sbtdog at 9 























728 .« ‘aoebull Sm ade tite aie a 
td ; 

svit-ytoasw4 35 bios sao 36 nme path >. 

00S sotiles. retPRA ptdatios OO0E rot 2 2) rf 

oz f3eL253 o> aud B. Sham weow -talas 3 : 


9 - a 
nolicetts off enw tout ~" eregalucsege az 


tant ‘aio wre — 
JIBS taWw Uo ¥ipw kt Bas 2 


Ne 
© 


i 
ry A . O« 


‘ 
-gsnds sit move _— fet satgiont to nsexté. as oa 
~[ tas’ si2ics® sstbensd eds yd sdyor miedizea a 


b Lew soulies od tad3 sonsbitaeo ad aainda 3 : on: 
- és 7. ia ~—- 7 
7. / 


—8® nethee: 6d od BE torts bats isrode nt 


fiat - Het obi tue pb tog og boukioak 300 ox 


wate a eb ov gaat bw om’ a 

: : ae 
rey 2 'adza0n3 a Siatphont ahd beat oat 
sor x03ibe od3 1938 


=bi od whidiile nosed, adtnstas, abide 
eine & . mood teeny atte res¢ 

batesl dol’ gegiankW ot toast | 

- spas othe Sard ee, $6 : 

163 besthexherh eae posuernbs 

$i%4 | a £4 Epo) - 





KY ‘ ~ 

7 a x ° 

pabts , 
rs. 


30 
The prospect of railway connection for Edmonton and 
the return of national prosperity resulted in a wave of im- 
migration which, according to Oliver, doubled the popula- 
tion of the village and its environs between the years 1878 
and -1832,+ The increased settlement and greater food pro- 


duction were reflected in the following statistical compar- 


ison:2 
1878 1882 
Grist mills . 0 ae 
Threshers 1 4. 
Reapers 1 8 
Mowers eiLcOr? 20 
Saw mills 0 ee 


ton townsite. W.L., Morton writes that "an attempt to pro- 
mote the far distant site of.Edmonton failed, the boom be- 
gan to subside. . ..'' Op. cit., pp. 200-01. R.G, MacBeth 
states that "Edmonton... was mainly responsible for the 
breaking of the boom as some men, coming to themselves, re- 
alized how foolish they had been to buy lots at an enor- 
mous figure in a place, at that date, 210 miles from even a 
prospective railway station. The Making of the Canadian 
West (Toronto: William Briggs, 1905), p. 106. 


Iconcerning the general return of prosperity, D.G, 
Creighton writes: "In this year of rising values and exu- 
berant economic recovery, imnigration was certainly flood- 
ing into the west as it had never come before."' Op. cit., 
p. 310. Further on, he says: "The boom was obviously at 
its height. Immigrants had been pouring into the west all 
summer.'' Ibid., p. 317. The next year, 1882, the Gover- 
nor-General wrote to the Colonial Secretary: "The number of 
people going to the west from Ontario alone will probably 
be twenty thousand this year.'' Argyll Papers, Letterbook 3, 
Lorne to Kimberley, 23 March,-1882, cited by Creighton, op. 
<8 es ae 


2Edmonton Bulletin, Feb. 18, 1882, 


+ 
i 



























bas goinewoa 100 : 
aad 4 
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nk bestdess eat aog me 


: 
i 


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ov 


‘ 43 y 2'T iy: v J ef ; osaw 4 sd ¢ i oY ivnas eat bre ae rt . y of i- e. 

" pore 
4 : = : ¥ * Pe! 

+2 bas Snawefaaee bozsosont..om #8 ; 


-o9%7q bool ts759%2 DHS , 
| wis 
: { 


; i sa es =) 
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9 im 
SV el 
a ‘ 
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" ‘4 
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4 = 4 
Ud s. Fo t 
ef 
¢ 0 
“ey 


rT. 
-o%@ G2 J3quejis Ss Jars aerixw nosso dW +99. as 
- | sodnombad to stte gnatatb tad 
igeSoeM .9,8 .f0-O008 ..4qq¢ 4229 GO ae Ade ab salle o 
wit. 203 eidtenog2st Vinism CBW « » eye nb s 
-37 age Es cha oF giimes , fem, gmos = sat a 
-7oOns NS 3h atod. vud o3 oe od bad, fons et. ’ zB 
& nove mort ealig OLS stab jada oe sate 8 od om 
epibags) gg3 go gellees ; »M0Ed nad wr ta 
-y ORE = ACOR raat aa ee 
|... Velzeqeond, 20 ntiot fenton p odd. B om 
“449 bas BaUL AY gnieix. to. Ena yen tate she 
-heal Viahereae anw. escape at v apercsepe a 
to .qQ 04“. sicisd smpa-ss a8 
& epskinel aay, mood sdf” sang "oF 
tesw 97 .cgnd, grdzuod: woad I B — 
-t9vo0 .sl3 (SSL. _teey 9 sdT Bas ie. 
20 sae agi’ iyusds1gae wer sof og ee 
, eiaeere [lbw ancis. a | 24 





. 


” 


Ef 


‘> os ha 


tuodvesjal ' age “(ft ba 
ah noaig ts <9 yd beat 


31 

Such was the impact of this imnigration on the ap- 
pearance of Edmonton that whereas an unidentified early 
historian could report the town of Edmonton in 1880 as con- 
sisting of "only five white families and a number of half- 
breeds,"! eha missionary John McDougall agard write late in 
1881 6ftic sale of hundreds of lots and the construction 
of a number of buildings. East of the Methodist mission 
property 


a regular village has been built up in which are four 
large general stores, a butcher shop, steam furniture 
factory, barber shop, several offices, and a number of 
private dwellings, while a few hundred yards still fur- 
ther east, there is a large mill, where gristing, saw- . 
ing, planing and moulding are done.2 


louoted in Denny, op. cit., p. 180. Denny writes 
that in the spring of 1881 "not much had been done in the 
way of building... at that time. A few lots had been 
cleared and laid out and Donald Ross had built a smail ho- 
tel. John A. McDougall, who had arrived in 1876, was in 
business as a trader. The Hon. Frank Oliver came up in 
the same year but did not remain . . . he returned in the 
year 1880. . .. The first Methodist church had been built 
by George McDougall in 1871 and a large block of land was 
owned by the church." McDougall, op. cit., p. 151. Mac- 
Donald records that by 1881, Edmonton had become a town and 
settlement of importance, grouped up lllth Street and about 
a mile further down the river to the east of 10ist Street, 
G.H. MacDonald, op. cit., p. 174. 


2MacLean, op. Cle, .40.¢l/1.c¢ There, ace no,official 
statistics for the village of Edmonton itself. The Census 
of Canada, 1880-81, reported a population for the Edmonton 
Sub-District of 3,126/cf. Qu'Appelle--5,241; Battleford-- 
4,830; Bow River--3,275; Prince Albert--3,236], of whom 
2,326 were Indian. Of the remaining 800, 480 were French 




























~qe sd 0 norzBagtiait’ ates de seam 
cizss bhi? #aebion be esewerte 3 oft 1c 
=foo 4 ORSE nt ‘netnoabs te wot “eas : 
~tisd "io as has ashi ims?’ ot tthe ‘ovikt 4 
gi: sésl otitw blues ri ngincioM arlol wnotetn 


bas etol to ebeabatd ‘to ofse 


‘ 
_ t & «By to See a3 
fi I ii ‘Jered Shu 


m tetbodIeM sft Yo taad -egnibihod Yo 


tyot sts ‘dobtw nk qu girs ased aad sant zat Us 
siuginzut wsste ,gorle fojud & , estore - 83 9318 
to’ roti s* 668 boktto lsi9vaa ,qode zodxsd , at 
-x0t Lite, abrsy boskavd wet & al triw .egatifewb o3s a 
«wee i gpivetra storey Tlie egret 8 et oradd 288: 9 


Si delle Sts goitbiuom bns gat -_ ‘is nk 


ms 


i ‘ a 


' «= =e ‘ Sn wie 


*eadtnw. Yonst ~“206L q ,.dto es vans wo 
a3 it. anab need bad rove Is8ei Fo- 
aad bad eteot wet A pt ey 38 e- ‘fl 
“te [fsme 5. iliud bad. eee -bisnod bos ee 
agt ea. -Ovel-n: baviuxze. bad offw- ae squats 
mi Gu SmBo: agvitO treet enon sat .! 
and mt bentu3 St ea. . » Abs@et ton 
; —— pesd had aixwds sé ibordteM sextt 
» booed 30. #sold egiad~ s bos ([%8l ak nae ok 
ar fel og es tia- .g2 Aieguetto | suelo 4 


hoki 


brs. shios. 8 awgosd. bed: aos noch _ 188 auth id & 
suede Bos. 350532: ‘gist Gi., baquesy. 83 LOqm. ; 
.199332 eRe; to JeRe edz 03 ev {3 nwo 
ar | | = sANI odd 
tagaiito.da! Bet oxodT at: =. » a “ 
avened edt. ..2isea2 nore Jo sgsilty 
somncgea siz 102 a ee ‘Ss b: 350987 
--byoislise4 Fe ao, ash ‘i }« 
\ nerfs Yo  BES.e- ah ae aie 


an ee 
donsxT sow OB “O08 _— 
ttn 












epee 


22 

An old-timer much later recalled that by 1883 there were 
between thirty-five and forty houses in Edmonton. + 

Notwithstanding such evidence of growth, the period 
of expectation--as Frank Oliver called it--2drew to a 
close. Symbolizing and contributing substantially to the 
eee ding period of stagnation was the decision to divert 
the Canadian Pacific Railway southward through Regina, Cal- 
gary, and the Kicking Horse Pass. Ina larger view, the 
adoption of the southera route in 1881 was one of the most 
significant events in the history of the Territories. It 
meant that settlement in the North Saskatchewan country was. 


sidetracked. Not the water routes but the railway line 


"became the artery of immigration."3 The Edmonton district 
in origin, 230 English, and 90 of various other origins. 
The Sub-District of Edmonton North had a population of 
1,159--of whom 1,000 were Indians. Census of Canada, 13880- 


81, Vol. IL (Ottawa: Maclean, Roger & Go., 1882). 





lpr, George Roy, quoted in Denny, op. cit., pp. 180-1. 


20liver conveniently divided the early history of 
Edmonton into three periods: 1) from the establishment of 
the Methodist mission to the boom resulting from the com- 
mencement of the C,P,R,--1874 [ sic to 1881--marked by a 
State of expectation; 2) fron the collapse of the boom to 
the completion of the C, & E. Railway--1881 to i892--char- 
acterized by a state of disappointment and stagnation; 
3) from the completion of the C, & E, Railway to the end of 
the 19th century--1892 to 1900--a period of steadily in- 
creasing growth of both town and district but of uncertain- 
ty as to the future prospects of the town. Edmonton Bulle- 
tits vec. Ji, LOT. 


3stanley, pore: CA eetabe be 98 


—h. 



































ay ae 

omen oe eset i aed bette oes 7 

t soanenba, ab asevad ys702 ney! 

bolteg ad2 .djwerzg Ye gonsbiye owe 
B On woubS--st balise savilo dna, a 


_sd3 a3 yiletinssedve gaizgudiztnoo bas: antslig 


a hibi 


ae a 
-ls).,.sateeh dauord bars wijvoe .yawl iad olttoad 728, an | 


Jiautb o1, sokeboab .9f3 enw solisggese to bok 
“id ,woky tegzal s nl .3esd sazon gaivola ody as 
420m osd3 to eno esw {861.01 s3yoz riatives tes aera 
an 

rT sohyosixztsT edd to. yxoteld od al adjaove “an 
aw YTIHUOS hostate das? d3104 oat R senate 
soil yawl tes.sn? .avd.saiver 18380 ods 30K | ,bedo 


f= oe 
a ie. 


toixsath nounemh3. eat ©". cotssxglhant aii 






ay i ae a 


| . a le 
cigito tefito evoltzsy tc OC bbs ,dakigad OES oe 5 
to neiszsalugog s bend disok nolnomby * ons obs3 es iN x 


-V88! ',sbensd io asenad .enedbal a19W | j a taal s0-~ 
-(S68L ,,03 3 sagen’ ae wie cee: 


§-08f .qq did «go «queda at aie a 


Pa 
— ~ 


Io Groddid yi=zss ef bebivib vive 
to FAsm ieildstes ais moxt rebons " 
~ nO vr ‘not? gatsivesy mod meet 
& yd besram-~F@8l 09 [>be { O16I™: 
o3 bale ans to saqeifos sAz wort (¢! 
-rsdo~-S$08l o3 £88l--yswitak .3 8 > 
proizangs3e bas. insmsniogg jag Mi 
to bns od of qewlin® 2 2 2 ae 
~at yl ibssse: Io boivag --O0K 
-nisireormu' to Jad sobwrskb 4 
~oftys gor nsr be . senos edd Ye 2: 
Ae te AG a ae 


33 
was "left in the backwater of neglect as the current of 
ar moved southward." Among other reactions to 
this decision were the a ates effect on aye price of 
lands in Winnipeg and the general discontent among Cana- 
dians who had gone into the northern region in anticipation 
of the coming of the railway .2 G.H. MacDonald writes that 
the "crowd of immigrants" who arrived in Ednonton in the 
eee of 1881, having ee when they left their homes 
the previous season that the railway would proceed to cross 
the river near GE eta coeuaC a dead end, The change in 
the route "brought consternation and meen eee them, as 
well as tol disappointment and feelings of distrust to 
the residents of the district which lasted for many years 
after." 
Thus, rather than reaping the benefits of an early 
railway connection with the outside world, the village of 
Edmonton and its surrounding district were to struggle for 


another decade under the handicap of dependence upon the 





ltdem 


ne Wright says that the economic depression of 
the Prince Albert district--which was coincident with that 
of the Edmonton district--was general throughout Canada but 
that it was "aggravated by the abandonment of the proposed 
northern reilway route and the consequent collapse of the 
local land boom." Saskatchewan, The History of a Province 
(Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1953), p. 79. 


3MacDonald, op. cit., ae eke: 
































» 


io deewys edd ag, 2antgon tga 
yiceeh ; 
o} andizases sete -gacea,, *" Jiake a 


— | 
~) 
7 


A. 


ic sotuq sf} s0 toslis et Ys oto 
-s082 gnome iAnetncoekb. fateasg -off3 baw "} nial 


nolgsgioijas at noltge7 nredixon odd vant. 0g 


rae 
ro 


teds esata, blanodssM’ 48,9 © wal Es - -od3 
_gft-ol notacrb3’ ak baviars. odw "esamrghnet 


‘ « ae roc ; 
asworl. sisi’. Jtel .ved3 nariw —me anived ,188. 


iw 


pee 


bivow yew! Let. eft Jad3. monn ‘au! 


7 * - . a yoy” 
EWaw Ve DSSsoss 


Gada. sift >. ens: ob 8 stones sane Ab 


e = 4° 


os modded qidekratbre- nokisnsadenied seigi . 
pl - at wile 7 
s 


- 


of: 32 yxsekd re egntioe’ | brs snoctasorann a ‘ oa 


etesy ynsa rot bo¥2e! dokdw Jolutelb Pe to 


© 
2 - - d ” ~ we 3) @ 

oaar » _"" . fo. 3 - - . at %, ~~ = 

~* : on 7 ; > mar 


W1ee.n8 to apijpened. edz gnigss:. eorticd 
to epeliiy sfi2 ,bfucw sblesuo evi 
101 elgaguids. a2 stew delgrelb.g ae 2 


_ad2 ogy. sonsbnoge to qaotbnnd ott 


’ i 


cru. eer . om 
~- res ee 
to. pare Loygab oe Dm eft: 
jada asiw eee eee ‘ ; te 
jud sbeaed a vapor 7 ic aed bs 
baeogotg oft , os ie PhaRp | 
itd .20 “saqehhos: 3 peasoa ott: bps 


. — a i ai Sane 
geatyon 2 oe gage = 
: Poh ELE. ae 


a. « x baad bars ila jak : . 


; ] 
Hep - bev 
, af 3 q 


ol 


34 

relatively inefficient ox-carts for their freighting needs. 
Already for over a decade, these ox-carts had been follow- 
ing old Indian trails across the prairies from Fort Garry 
to Edmonton, replacing the York boat and the waterways as 
the primary means of transportation. By 1878 Edmonton was 
reached from the East by four trails, each of which offered 
sufficient difficulty to call for somewhat lengthy discus- 
sion in the pages of the Edmonton Bulletia as well as pleas 
to the Territorial Government for improvements: 

One of the greatest drawbacks to emigration to this 

part of the North-West is the difficulty of getting 

here caused by the length and badness of the road. 

Although there are four different trails by which to 

reach Edmonton from the east, during the latter part of 

the distance they are all so bad it is questionable 

which is the worst. 

Loaded carts were three months on the trail from 

Winnipeg to Edmonton, hauling about 800 pounds 15 miles a 
day.“ A journey in two months was considered fast. 


Long freight hauls inevitably meant high prices of 


goods in Edmonton, The rate for freight was 10¢ a pound, 


lg dmonton Bulletin, Jan. 21,1882. The routes fol- 
lowed by these four trails as acetates hed in detail by Frank 
Oliver are generally confirmed by the Fearce Papers in man- 
uscript form at the University of Alberta 





2although this information is based originally on 
an intervifew with Frank Oliver almost fifty years after the 
events referred to, it is in line with what other sources 
have to say, including Sharp, op. cit., p. 189. ‘See B.A, 
Ockley, "A History of Early Edmonton" (unpublished M.A. the- 
sis, University of Alberta, 1932). 




























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35 
This charge brought the price of flour in Edmonton to $15-- 
even as high as $25--for a hundred pounds. A 200-pound 
barrel of salt, initially priced at $1, cost $20 to $30 by 
the time it reached Edmonton, 

After the arrival of the North-West Mounted Police 
and the opening of trading posts in the Whoop-Up country, 
freight also reached Edmonton by ox-cart from Fort Benton 
via the I.G, Baker Company's outpost at Fort Macleod. Sit- 
uated at the head of navigation on the Missouri River, Fort 
Benton emerged from recession in 1875 to establish a vast 
commercial and financial empire in the northern plains, ex- 
panding its trade across the International Boundary into 
the Whoop-Up country of southern Alberta. In the fall of 
1882, the I.G, Baker Company train of seven teams~~each 
hauling three wagons--delivered flour to Edmonton, returned 
with a cargo of imported English goods for Macleod and load- 
ed up with coal at Coal Banks near modern Lethbridge for the 


return trip to Fort Benton, 2 





— a ae oe ee 





Both MacLean, op. cit. and Newton, op. cit., con- 
firm these high prices. 


2sharp, op. cit., p. 185. Sharp also refers to I. 
G. Baker bulltrains in 1880 transporting 40,000 pounds of 
pemmican to Fort Macleod and Battleford to supply the Indi- 
ans. Idem. In the freight traffic from Fort Macleod via 
Fort Calgary to Edmonton in the 1870's is placed the ori- 
gin of the Calgary and Edmonton Trail which "became an eco- 
nomic way to bring goods" amounting to "a considerable sav- 





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36 

Until 1876, the river was crossed at Edmonton by 
ford, boat, or raft. In that year the first ferry was put 
into operation by John Walters, ix years later, a wire 
rope ferry was installed near the fort capable of handling 
at one time six loaded carts and animals, Later, another 
ferry was operating at the site of the future Low Level 
bridge. 

Transport by waterways, though reduced by the ad- 
vent of the ox-cart to a secondary role in supplying Edmon- 
ton's freighting needs, underwent a revival in the 1870's 
with the use of steamers on the North Saskatchewan. Nine 
years after putting the "International" on the Red River to 
serve Fort Garry from De eaiged perhemeeric Hudson's Bay 
Company placed its first steamer on the North Saskatchewan. 
In July of 1875, the "Northcote" completed its first trip to 
Edmonton, landing at a point tndee the present High Level 
bridge, Five years later, the steamboats of the Hudson's 


Bay Company were opened to other traders, and the Company 


ing for the people in the north." Wilk, op. cit., p. 36. 
Denny states: "In the absence in-those days [1875] of a 
road to Edmonton, we had to depend altogether on our guide." 
Op. cit., p. 90; In the Pearce Papers, however, there is a- 
reference to an old trail from Edmonton to Morley wnere Olid 
Bow Fort stood which followed approximately the route of 

the future railway from Calgary to Edmonton. See Pearce 


Papers, pp. 3-10. 




























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37 

found itself in the public transportation business. That 
year, most of the Company's freight came to Edmonton by 
steamer, according to the Edmonton Bulletin. } In 1881, the 
Hudson's Bay Company abandoned the public freighting busi- 
ness to private traders and the Winnipeg and Western Trans- 
portation Company stepped into the breach. Six steamers 
arrived in Edmonton from Grand Rapids in 1883--the year the 
railhead reached Calgary--and each succeeding year for the 
next five or six years from one to five steamers arrived in 
the village on the’upper Saskatchewan, bringing passengers 
and freight from Winnipeg. 

Passenger rates from Lower Fort Garry to Victoria, 
Fort Saskatchewan, and Edmonton in 1880 were $70 for a cab- 
in and $35 for deck up-river and $65 and $32 respectively 
down-river. Freight rates were 6%¢ per pound up-stream 
and 5¢ per pound down-stream., This rate represented a sub- 
stantial saving over the 10¢ per pound rate for overland 
freighting fe5 Winnipeg or Fort Benton. The trip from 
Grand Rapids to Edmonton up-stream took about fifteen days. 
This is to be compared with the sixty to ninety days re- 
quired for overland freightage, 

Although high expectations were entertained in Ed- 


monton as to the part steamboats might play in opening up 


—_—— — —~ SS 


le dmonton Bulletin, Nov. 1, 1901. 


—_—— 



























yedT .2ecatevd siopenssenanid 


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38 

the country, both as an effective aibatieute till the rail- 
way came and as offering competition in the future to the 
railroad on eastern-bound freight especially, river naviga- 
tion was finally dealt its deathblow by the railway. 

Looking back from the vantage point of 1901, Frank 
Oliver described the period from 1881 to 1892 as one of 
disappointment--over the failure to acquire railway connec- 
tion--and stagnation, to which that failure contributed. 
Expressive of this mood were the words written by W.L. 
Woods to Richard Hardisty in Calgary in 1884: "Money is 


very scarce here. I never saw Edmonton so flat as it has 


1 


been this winter; I am sick tired of Edmonton." The spir- 


it of the people was recaptured by Oliver many years later 
when he wrote of those days: 


The collapse of the boom and the diversion of the raii- 
way in large measure broke the hopeful spirit that had 
hitherto prevailed in the town and surrounding country. 
- «-» By this time my store had pretty well died down 
so I gave it up altogether. ... There followed a 
period of slow and lean years . .. for the whole Ed- 
monton district. ... One year followed another with 
ever recurring sameness and corresponding dishearten- 
ment of the pioneers who had banked on the railway.2 


Figures appearing in the Edmonton Bulletin in 1890, never- 


theless, indicate that there was a slow but steady growth 


lnetter from W.L. Woods to Richard Hardisty, May 
Peneseue. cLced by GH, MacDonald, op. cit., p..5. 


Edmonton Bulletin, July 14, 1930. 
































-ltgz aii tbs osusiset 


de 


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cagivaen Tavit . “iis tsenee “Higied bpued-nT9I2so f 
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cyob. beth, “Lew ysaezq i asode es | Bey: fa 
prbsqoL ior. PIONT . wo bag. 3 se, ae Is 

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oa 

of the Edmonton district: 5,131 ecres cultivated; 3,649 
cattle; 953 horses; 1,483 pigs; 707 sheep; a population 
of over 3,000 (over 500 in Edmonton); and a tract of set- 
tlement twenty-five miles square, 1 

The pushing of the Canadian Pacific Railway across 
the aa in 1882-3 sealed the fate of the overland 
freight route from Winnipeg as well as of water transport 
on the North Saskatchewan River. It also brought to an end 
the great days of the Whoop-Up Trail from Benton to Mac- 
leod, the last Mecaeaaee cht oients leaving Benton for the 


latter point in July of 1883.2 With the arrival of the 


libid., Apr. 5, 1890. The population figure seems 
to be far out of line with Canada Census statistics for 
1891. These show a population for the Sub-District of Ed- 
monton of 6,875 (the division into the Sub-Districts of Ed- 
monton and Edmonton North no longer appears: presumably, 
therefore, both are included in the Ednonton Sub-District 
in the 1891 census). Possible explanations of the differ- 
ence are: Firstly, the Bulletin may be referring to a mich 
smaller area (25 by 25 miles?); the Canada Census to be in- 
clusive must be including all Alberta outside the Calgary- 
Red Deer and Macleod Sub-Districts when it refers to Ednon- 
ton. Secondly, the Bulletin may not be including Indians 
in its figures; the Canada Census does count Indians. Sub- 
tracting the Indian population from the latter brings the 
two figures much closer together. For a revealing compari- 
son, one may note that Canada Census figures show an in- 
crease in the total population of Edmonton Sub-District 
from 4,285 in 1881 to 6,875 in 1891, whereas Bow River Sub- 
District had a population of only 3,275 in 1881 but Calgary 
and Red Deer Sub-Districts together with Macleod Sub-Dis- 
trict (presumably the equivalent of the Bow River Sub-Dis- 
trict) had 18,402 in 1891. 


2Sharp, op. cit., p. 227, 



































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fi vok3 siugog & igeatie: NOS peata cob if 


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-eld-du@ boslasM d3lw ted3e; 
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taney 


40 
railway in Calgary in 1883, the trail fron Calgary to Edmon- 
ton came into its own as an important carrier of freight. 
At that time, began its peak period before this century as 
nine-tenths of the freight, mail and travellers came in by 
trail from Calgary, 196 miles distant. The haul by wagon 
over this trail required anywhere from eight to fourteen 
days to complete, and the rate paid for freight was one 
cent to three cents a pound. The cost of goods due to 
transportation charges was dropping. 

Prior to 1883, the Calgary and Edmonton Trail had 
been from its beginnings in the '70's a branch of the great 
commercial empire of Fort Benton. After 1891, it fell into 
the background of the Calgary and Ednonton Railway which 
that year reached the south bank of the North Saskatchewan 
River. In this century, with the advent and popular use of 
the automobile, it has again become a great artery of traf- 
fic. The arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Cal- 
gary in 1883 was quickly followed by the inauguration of 
two stage lines between that city and Edmonton in the sun- 
mer of 1883, The Royal Mail Passenger Express arrived and 
departed every twenty days while the Calgary and Edmonton 
Stage made weekly runs. The trip normally took five days 


to complete although a "smart team'' could cover it in four 































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41 

days if the roads were good, + The one-way stage fare was 
quoted at from $15 to 25,7 

Before 1890, all rivers and creeks of importance 
had been bridged except the Red Deer River where a ferry 
operated when the water was high enough to permit it. 
Timetables were at the mercy of weather and road conditions. 
John McDougail, the missionary, wno accompanied the Alberta 
Field Force north to Edmonton in 1855 was responsible for 
hiring and directing men in repairing the roads "which were 
in a terrible condition Belted the Peace Hills aaa Ednon- 
ton"? | 

Although water comminications with Winnipeg ee 
ued via the North Saskatchewan River and Lake Winnipeg, the 
overland route from Calgary was preferred to the circuitous 
Hekare and uncertainty of the former, the result of low wa- 
ter and bad connections. 

The railway's completion to Calgary in 1883 also 
produced improvements in Edmonton's mail and telegraph ser- 


vice.* In 1884, the Government contract provided for a 


1Edmonton Bulletin, Apr. 15; 1890. 
2Wilk, loc. cit. 
3MeLean, op. cit., p. 144. 


4ror its first mail service, Edmonton was indebted 
to the Hudson's Bay Company who brought the mail packet 


eter si oe 
saw erst s8s3e jn gn SUT" Leg 


_etichS bab #2048 sons? ed2 coowied ested eh Bo 
= ; + - 


aft eettinniW als aa brs tavil nowordosasten 2 dsroMs 


ee 

































= | _ &e 


sonstzoqmk To etgeto bas atovit bis un 
witst B Sz of 1evit tea bal” edt Jqeons b 

tt *ioude of dquend tet esw Teldpw Pere 
tt hfe bsot ns ~Sijsew Yo yotem*ets 25 
[nsqmasos: ofw ,yraendleetm ati2 thi 
enw @88L at nos noma oo as tor 
oj dsidw' sbeoy ste gaitteges nt nom sptoeieibhe ici 


—™ 


hf eA #4442 
4 i] 
al . 

a 

en 


‘ 


i] 


ijnco’ssqinat a i enossobne nmos toa ‘gued2 al 


o7F>. etd oF beaxekerg ‘ew nuh 


- * - 


“snl do thes: Git [roms ules to ¢ qints: / 


asla~£ “i engi oF. natsoteiog-’ 


se fiqutgst eo ‘bre “them a taosttonb en 


y 8 7e “. tay) — eae ick 
“to8 ‘babi vdxq Sampaee Seg 
‘ =a ~ as r ~ * 
ioe S/S aes <i oy Soe 
« 4 im : em. ~ 


0281 et _yqh ,gbgetiua 


- - ’ 
+ - = > + : « ~ 7 & » 
ye Ae ss S 
> 7 > gO (Pa! a 
. . j + 


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s re oft - sage, 4 b ~ 


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aieaeale eocnondat 


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cals ie : .% 


42 

mail service between Edmonton and tlhe railway at Calgary on 
a fortnightly basis. Beginning in 1887, the mail was 
brought in weekly to Edmonton. In 1886, a second tele- 
graph line--in addition to the Government line via Battle- 
ford and Hay Lake--was built along the Calgary and Edmonton 
Trail. Frequent conplaints both as to mail and telegraph 
service were voiced in the editorial pages of the Edmonton 
Bulletin over the years.” 

These were the years, 1883 to 1890, when there was 


a great deal of agitation for a railway from Calgary which 


ee ee re 


from Winnipeg twice each winter by dog team, There was for 
some time no reguiar mail delivery in summer, the letters 
being carried by the kindness of travelling friends. A reg- 
ular mail service was established between Edmonton and Win- 
nipeg in 1877, the delivery requiring three weeks each way. 
Dog teams carried the mails in the winter and horses the 
rest of the year. The Government contract was let to Mr. J. 
McKay at the rate of $10,000 per year. As the C.P.R. ex- 
tended westward from Winnipeg in 1880, the distributing 
point for the mail service to Edmonton moved successively 
to Portage la Prairie in 1880, Brandon in 1881, Oak Point 
and then Qu'Appelle Station in 1882. See Debates of the 
House of Commons, 54-55 Vic., 1891, pp. 3255-6. 

RAL Government telegraph line reached Battleford in 
1874, was extended two years later to Hay Lakes, from where 
Edmonton was served for a few years, and finally reached 
Edmonton on Jan, 18, 1880 i As” a result, on Dec. Sees 1880, 


Debates of the House of Comnons, loc. cit. 


24 Bulletin editorial of 188] asked for a semi- 
monthly mail 1 from “Winnipeg and corresponding one to Mac- 
leod. It was complained that a letter ta Macleod--300 
miles away--travelled 95C miles through Battleford, 


a fas é 
ao yteglad de ‘pulps ben 
_ @8¥ fisa oi, SBA sel instant 

~pilind byooge 5 , 0681. al 1 noraqab’, 08, 


-9f3368 sky onli Jnemeteyod. ed3 03 pies 

































¥ al fe 


notnomb3 bas yxsels2 ad? gnois jiklud any" 534 


a” 


dqexgols3 bss Igm.g3_ 8B dod atoisiqnos 3 supe 


~~ 


sojsombS ed to eegsq. Islrostba ods at bootov 


S atsoy edd 184 


esw ossd3 asdw ,0€8I 93 €8el _emasy od? ozew gaedT 
ih, 


w 


sobdw yusal ago mort xawliax B at nahierhem; ie rhe 





+m god yd tsiritw dose solw ae 


20% a8¢ oseiT 
ats3tel ef? ,19emve ot yszovileb Lisp zaluges..o4 
-2a1 a  ebnetst ‘gatiiovexs ¥o gesabola » ‘ori3 wt 
werkt ) bas so3r 


~~ 


caba asswied bedali dasae esw. 


me. a9 "toss Biesw Sours ‘enivtupe’s yrsvifeb eds é a ok 


243 esezod bas setabw edz a sh tah a Speen > Sen 3 

, = Te r Hale 25 

.L .aM of taf -ebw Yyogttrros preg or “ox * - ¢ 
arate te 


“xo .f.1,9 od 3A .380y 28q | 
‘wikjudlitele eda ,O88! it gontent a goes 
visvieesooue bevom notaombS 02 soi¥ = ) 
$rtoY uO ,f88f nt ‘noboasa (OBE 
ait io zoisded e902 .S86i st ae 
ie dweest idq (ies oor! 
~ broielz3sg bsdong omit dgqatgel 
eiefw wort _zox%ed yYsH os setal 8 4 
badoss1 yYilsoli- bas .2xBey ee: 
O88! .0 .,58@ no ,3idast & eA 
bore Liduq exw ntsei fue. nose bE 


Ae 


ats ok <enogao) ag 32 LU 


-Imee s 102 betes £OBL to Int 

(=98M 63 eno Rapp ond 8 

O0E--besloBM ez ; a 
baehel ere 

re ee 


thee : pe peor 1 


Fj an eee 


al - 
ee 
9 
pe ‘ a. ae 


pte 4 a ora se 


elfeqq pre 


— 


43 

would speed the development of northern Alberta, The farm- 
ers of the district prospered on the satisfaction of the lo- 
cal market provided by the demands of the police and the 
treaty Indians. In addition, some supplies were flat-boat- 
ed to Battleford, 250 niles away. By 1890, however, it 
was apparent that any further substantial increase in popu- 
lation would depend on access to an outside market for lo- 
cal produce. The Bulletin editor wrote that "the distance 
to the railway at present is certainly too Ap or. to permit 
of the profitable export of wheat or other grains or vege- 
tables."1 In his view, it was an injustice and an injury 
to the sania in the area that a district of such size 
and unlimited promise as Edmonton could boast should still 
be left in isolation without railway connection. 

Southward, the stage coach traversed two hundred 
miles of almost entirely unsettled, but fertile, land be- 
fore arriving in Calgary on the Canadian Pacific mainline. 


The creation, essentially, of that railway, Calgary was 





Cypress, and Benton before getting to Macleod. A letter to 
Winnipeg and a reply required on the average about ten. 
weeks while a letter to Macleod and a reply took three to 
four months at that time, complained the Builetin. The 
quality of telegraph service was often criticized, the line 
constructed between Calgary and Edmonton coming dowa on se- 
veral occasions and leaving Ednonton with inadequate tele- 
graph service, 


lEdmonton Bulletin, Mar. 22, 1890. 






A DL 
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i ’ 
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44 

seeing itself in the 1880's as an important railway centre, 
anticipating the unlimited benefit that would follow the 
construction of a railway from Edmonton to Calgary and on 
to connect with the great transcontinental- lines south of 
the International Boundary. The rich north would become 
tributary to Calgary and access would be provided to the 
eastern markets of the United States. John A. Macdonald 
argued that a railway from Edmonton through Calgary to Mac- 
leod would provide transportation facilities for the south- 
ern ranching industry. 

In its origin, Macleod was a Government site, an 
early headquarters of the North-West Mounted Police. 1! By 


the summer of 1875, a small village had sprung up outside 


— es ee 


l¢ertain developments in southern Alberta--~-the re- 
duction of the Blackfoot through the whiskey trade from 
"one of the most powerful plains tribes to a poverty-strick- 
en rabble," the losses suffered by the Hudson's Bay Company 
in its trade on the plains, the massecre at Cypress Hills 
in 1873 which climaxed a decade of lawlessness in the Whoop- 
Up country--along with the growing Canadian resentment to- 
wards the American free traders hastened the formation of 
the North-West Mounted Police,who arrived in the region in 
the late fall of 1874 and proceeded with the construction 
of Fort Macleod at a strategic site on an island in the 
Oldman River. Other strategic police posts were quickly 
located at Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, Wood Mountain, 
and Calgary. The whiskey trade, including that reported 
by missionary John McDougall at Morleyville and other 
whiskey posts on the Bow River, was destroyed in a rela- 
tively short time. See Sharp, op. cit., pp. 32-51, 91, 103. 










: i v1) f 


a4) 


4 
. 
= 

3 

: 

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1 Mt 
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ao ‘ban ysag! isd ‘oo romana pier S i 



























, = ee *. ~ nie 
%o djuoe sentl testedtswabucs's ts0%3 on 
bmoaed biuew 83 x00 fod Sat Nelda 
_" 4 : ‘ 7 ty iL-ow 

jad 03 bebivorq od bibew ‘eesDeR bas 


‘Ptenebosit 2A Baek .eoasae ‘bextav oft to 


5 f sn 
«5a os yisgiso dgwore rit "nod siombe mos? ‘gael be a 
‘ : _ ~ + 7+ s l= e : 
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: hg A «" i é 7 o A 2 five "Si. a 
~~ : ( scent entde 15% 
ae ae ra) 4 
‘op {ette Jaote svod & @Bw bésloaM ,fitgizo azt al 
| at 
ay oe ‘ rape ifs 
‘et 4 ssottot butnueM scoWciiasou otis “Yb” ‘eteos. 


; te ecgthed 2 _ Pe mm 
bredvo “G! srusrqe bei sgst liv Tame s ter 
Bel PPS BLE ale a" eee ee a r pen: saul 

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toxd ebai2 yokeldw ent dg suoTht 30029 s 

-Aotuse-yiseyad 8 9 eedraz ate! en 16 

ps “vad “2 noabu 2 


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_qootlt at 2, gi -bRacee pot 
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ot nok ‘g57 arts wt bawit<s ru = 
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45 

the fort at Macleod. Very quickly, che village--like Fort 
Walsh, Fort Whoop-Up, Fort Calgary and the whole of south- 
ern Alberta--fell into the economic orbit of Fort Benton's 
free trading firms. The Bakers, Powers, and Conrads built 
stores at these centres and supplied them by bulltrains, 
muletrains, and express wagons over the Whoop-Up Trail from 
Benton, Montana, From these outposts, Fort Benton's "Mer- 


chant Princes of the Plains" fulfilled huge and lucrative 


government contracts for the carrying of mails into the 


Northwest, } supplying food and equipment for the North-West 


2 


Mounted Police,” and providing beef and supplies for reser- 


vation Indians north of the Boundary. In addition, these 

firms provided the banking facilities, credit arrangements, 
nd large amounts of cash needed by the Canadian Government 
for the administration of the West. A vital link between 


Benton and the Canadian villages was provided by.the Benton, 


luntil the C.P.R. reached Calgary, mail from Mac- 
leod and other Canadian points went east via Benton bearing 
U.S. postage purchased at an informal U.S. post office in 
Fort Macleod. See Sharp, op. cit. 


2In 1875, I.G. Baker sent $122,771 of supplies to 
the N.W.M.P., nearly one-third of Government exoenditures 
on the police force that year. Weil over one-half of the 
money appropriated in Ottawa to police the N.W.T. ended in 
the bank accounts of Benton merchants. Ibid., p. 272. 


3Treaty No. Seven extinguished Indian rights to the 
land between the Red Deer River and the Boundary and Fort 
Qu'Appelle and the Rocky Mountains. 





























Mg ie p 
: uae 
7) me ee 

ko 


txt siil- ~s@ald iv ott e qi Ut re 
-(iéoe to ‘oleiu sd bine oneal 
a'nodned treZ to 4ihdte sees el 
$ittd @hstacd bas petowod. , etoisd oft. we ott gait 

. antaxsl lid xd mond. botiqqua bags gexdman.98 


goat i 
Oz: 


foe 


ert <¢4- goon sii usvo enogaw easzqxe f 
_teM"a‘notasd: 3203 ,2320q3ve .eeed3 mers 
-“gytaqgtool bos -sgud beiliiive “eateld oF 20:28 ala 

ef odgal. albam-lo- entyxseo ois x02 e20013n00-9n0 
saaWe dixokuedy. 16% Jnsmgtpps bos: bool Bla gt 
byeess 292 ‘aetiqgue: bs —e gotbivorg bas oa g 

.13 2 jmotsebbe mI. ©. qusbewed edt. te isten ane Load 


etieeegnhsis Jibera ,2etsiftost gotiasd adja bebt 


& f 


theirs? ofa tbansd. oft. xd bebeon dasd te 8 
cinched init fadtv-A .deeW edz £0 


sorrel _ a bsbiveug 2av esesliiv s ti 
— oe OS pian 5 
Pos AXES teed stat gael Geek, We eo 
eon aot a ikea ennai bedoses , Peleg it That 
gniuked notusd alv Jase Josw atateg t se so “aah: 


nt aatito taoq .2.U iamrotsdl ne 38 hemes arin 

«32 aay oat 
o2 est lqqua to VT, S81) s082e bond se at: 
ee ugihhsents.zsamngeved-ip bag a8 10 
oe. Toe yeresape severe Lael + rei) 
nt bebist 7 al eee ooh feqy 63 


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_ 


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Jx0% bow ee a bos 
a. ale: s} 
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a4 


46 
Macleod and Calgary Stage Company, an 1.G. Baker subsidiary, 
making three trips monthly between Benton and Calgary.+ 


Fort Macleod in the 1870's is described by Sharp as 


12 


"an important economic and political centre“ and yet "but 


an atom of settlement in an empty grassland wilderness,""> 


a "wide, muddy lane with a row of dirty, half-finished 


wooden shanties flanking each side."* So unfortunate was 
the site selected by the police that it never developed in- 
to a permanent settlement, destruction threatening the vil- 


lage with each spring flood. "Signs of age appeared on the 


T 


town's face prematurely," says Sharp, and residents debated 


for ten years the advisabiltiy of moving to a new site, 
postponing the shift after each recession of the flood. 
"Much of it," writes Col. Denny, "had slipped into the Old 


Man! Ss River and the Comnissioner ad recommended that the 


fort be moved and rebuilt in a more secure sites tional!’ 


Finally, in 1884, the Government marked out a new site and 


Isharp, mir cates i, LO. 
2tbid., p. 8. 3Ibid., p. 7. 


4Tpid. , p. 202, quoted from Alexsuder Stavely, From 
Home to Home: Autuma Wanderings in the Nor cael in the 


ob thie eerie alas! ia: ee eee eer ee 
ee ee ee 


Years 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884 (London, 1885), p. 214. 








Sharp, Op. Cit., Pp. 203% 


5 


Denny, Op. cit,, p. 156. 
























,wrsibtaedse resist 1D ime ot 
| an 
i yregind ban: nosaea aeewaed: vite adios i 
28 qiuade yd bediroeeb et 2 'OVBE oft3-at"t 
gud" tex bns. "Gs3neo- feokttiog ‘bas shane 
Cn. genagrsht ie: beslezsa2g Yreme as ot Insmal | 
.. bofeteii-Mad -yittb jo wots ddtw enat 
sey. ossquizeitnn oe. ON obbe dose gatidnali outa ; is 
-ak bagels “an xsvon-3t ats solifaq ad3 -¢d beset 2 
wilv eft goinstapads moitsouzseeb namelsaee dim ss t 
gc batssage-ags 20 amg" .*eboolt galrge dose datw 
ee bos -qusde ‘2yee “pheeesineg ian 


poale.wor & 02 gaivom to ytaitdsatebs’ ods . ‘ 


af ai 







_,,.. a bqgeli~sAs \ig-coksasost dope metis: Stide eds 7 
J Bi 


. r ° * . ’ ’ . 2 ' 
_ bid, oid -DSol hogy phe bud ,wansd . foe 


gels, -3 nha Se 5 aed woadtselouge: id 


, 


ried -0l3 poner: StWEse eT EM. s ok Lf 


has eaie wos 6 ave basvan deen 


.08I aq 
Sug vbiate ee <) oae 
. ne 
most ,eevads eahenuccebih row bees 
~ ef et Jeswd3so sdd Ok B: of 


SS AES ty G88, rob 


a ‘7... e* 


47 
a new fort was erected on bench land on the south bank of 
the river. A number of buildings arose to the east and "a 


new town blossomed at Macleod," 

To the north 110 niiee t the forks of the Bow and 
Elbow rivers, the police built a fort in 1875 and later 
named the site Calgary. When the police arrived, recalls 
Col. Denny, “except for roving bands of Indians, all this 
vast hunters for a thousand miles to the east at Winnipeg 
and two hundred miles to Edmonton in the north, at that time 
was utterly uninhabited."2 Father Doucet, sent from St, 
Albert to study the PI cRESSE speech and to establish a 
mission at Fort Macleod, had a tent at the mouth of the El- 
bow. He was, says Marianne Molyneaux, "the first white man 


ns A week or so 


to occupy the site where Calgary now stagas 
later, a bull train arrived from the south, rieaty also re- 
ports some half-breeds from Edmonton coming down-in Red 

River carts to build cabins on both sides of the Elbow Riv- 


er with the result that "before winter a little settlement 


had sprung up .'"4 These men engaged in freighting for the 


libid., p. 202. 2ipid., p. 83. 


3Marianne Molyneaux, "Early Days in Alberta," Al- 
berta Historical Review, vol.-8, no. 2 (1960), p. 7.- 


4Denny , it Sou De OD. 


















to adned tiie ods ‘ne Bab dokead 
' bem Dene ‘ots of Gaede agpib tnd 40% 
eal Few A RR idimsiaedaaail id 
bop wot 64% 16 ‘etd sfla Se ‘esSim ort areda a fh 
“Gril bre @V8L nk -az0% e alin sotlog oat ae 


el Duos povieive fog oft nodW yyeaghades: 


“vhs Pie“, vite thrill abrise gntvoz ‘x0% Iqsoxs"t<y 


a 


atiintW to taes odd ‘ot esl ka brsauords s tot > 
outs teds ta .Has0h ad? ot? nesses’ wt esfia beabautt 9 


‘2 mow? Ingva~ ~ sou0d radis¥ Sm; boskdsriakew ened: es B 


‘g fe¥itss se oF ‘bas fossye sodtsloata’ ont vbuse 03 


A i 


7 ade +6" the, om sft 28 tn93-s bsd eentaalt 10% | atlas 
/ “ii 














si ste text? Sie” ixdsenytoM onan Pratl esi 8 


re 
ate 


eo 
r 


02 sh-disew A’ ~" ebiigde won-yrsgi so “otorfw-eate’ of 
-st cet ythsd'* Sivbe Sd2 opt? bevivae 
no" “pee AE OB SAthoo sotnotbheT oor? \ 


-vist ebais tid: 30 =i. debte-8460' no onl 


aie 


tnsrmeitice sizali a ssjokw s1oted” 3 


od3 " a afigiex? at ——— —4 


* m~,. 
4 re 
=f , <¢e weak Peas a re ws * 
“gt - guar we Aa the eT EG eee 
Ae «* a: ries : 
a ar! on +4 : 


se Sart K 4 sag Uasa™ 
<aee me | s KOBRE) () 8 ote <8 8 +4 
i. ; : — 


- 


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oa ¢ oi ; aoe ae | 
‘4 +; 4 - Fe 5 ey i a a 
one t See ed 5 a 2 


48 

police between Calgary and Fort Macleod. I.G. Baker of 
Benton buiit his general store on the flat, the Hudson's 
Bay Company store was located on the east side of the Elbow, 
a billiard and dance establishment, several log houses and 
George McDougall's small church west of the police fort-- 
this was Calgary in its infancy. The following spring, 
Denny relates, 15,000 buffalo robes went south by bulltrain 
through the firm of I.G, Baker--besides the Hudson's Bay 
Company's cargo which went north, Calgary, too, was large- 
ly absorbed within ean s commercial empire. 

In its earliest years, Calgary appears to have 
stood still. Col. Denny, for example, states that in the 
fall of 1881 when he left Calgary on a trip to Fort Walsh, 
the only persons left behind were the manager of the I.G. 
Baker store and the Hudson's Bay Conpany's trader and his 
man, Though this seems exaggerated, other accounts are in 


line with the statement.* Of the estimated population of 


SS ee ee ree ee ee ee 


libid., p. 156. 


2M, Molyneaux (loc. cit.) writes that before the ar- 
rival of the railway in 1883, Calgary consisted of a "dozen 
log houses" among which the principal one was a trading 
post. W.F, Bredin later recalled that in 1882 "a single 
shack stood away up the valley.'' He mentions also the Ba- 
ker store, the Mounted Police barracks, and the Hudson's 
Bay Company's trading post. “Benton to Edmonton in 1382," 
Alberta Historical Review, vol. 6, no. 3 (1958). A con- 
temporary account states: "Calgary is quite in its infancy. 
There has been a Hudson's Bay Co. fort here for sone years, 




























2 'nozbuli a3 jen edi go #2038, . 
»wodl’s adz 3 20 bts 3389 ods pa  basanal ay 9703 
bas eeevod gol [szevea _etpopertnlLaagap POCRy, : 


& 


3 


~«3302 sollog,: 3 to Jasw. domudo {fame a iiiag 
__ «paizage gniwollot efT  .xoceiat ast ok visg 
shaxsilud yd d3uoa Insw’ asdor olsiiud 000,21 es: 
| yea 2 ‘noabul efi soblesd-~reded 0.1 to mat 
-sgxsl eaw ,co2 <eregls2 taz00 3n9¥ ones ogtno.4 3" 
stig | a Latoisnme9 m3 'gotned nbda.tw Boduns 
vad oF 2xs9gqs YIsgisd easy tasitizes eti.al 9 


ou i are : ad ' > 4 : 7 = 
ofa ok tad? estate ,alquaxs +92, .yaned .l0od, ft4e 4b c 
_e is ay ; PS - 4 


a 


<9 a” 


ae 
daleW 220% 03 qtz2 6 no ytaglsd 2el ef aye 5 a 
LO 49% ls cds od2 939 baited Atel ; 


~ 
+ 
a 


2,1 eni2 
eid, bow ~xebsx3, 3! ‘yasqrod yaad 2 ane nts on 
oi S38 eRerPPes, & isgi3o _bavaraggene, 2 
20 mols aes: vgeq: botamtjes sii 20 ee 


Lm - * 


-38° 943 sated seus astixw (222 
asscb" @ to botelenoo many er 
gotbsi2 s 2BW efio sqtanéxq + : 
olgnte s“ S88i nt Jad3 bel isos: 

-s8 ef3 cals snoliaem sf * yort 
a'noebul ed3 bas esoe1IEd ¢ ve 

“ S88! nt motnoaby o3 ony 
+ -—2690. A . (Beef) € ON & 
Yommini esi ak + et. 
,s7ssY seve tor 


oft sii 


: A ae \ i 
Ame ia ware": 
. py “5 we. k —— ‘4 ; 7 


7 


49 
3,275 for the Bow River Sub-District in the Canada Census 
of 1880-81, all but 400 were listed as Indians, 1! 

The Canadian Pacific Railway, which broke Benton's 
grip on southern Alberta, also ushered Calgary out of its 
torpor into a period of boom, An eye-witness reported: "On 
the approach of the railway ... a sudden spurt has eeren 
place, as is shown by a great influx of visitors within the 
last ten to fourteen days. Fifty to sixty tents and framed 
houses have already sprung up.'"7 Calgary, by the end 97f 
1883, had become "quite a henving town.''3 

eyed OTSA with this new growth is Calgary was the 
beginning of the "banner period’ in the cattle industry of 
southern vannerdios HET made meey aes by the coming of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. Sheep and cattle ranching in 
southern Alberta was an extension of the Montana industry. 
Shortly after 1875, Americans and ex-North-West Mounted po- 
licemen began herding cattle from Montana into the vicinity 


of Macleod and later Calgary. In 1881-2, the Cochrane 


and also police barracks, but no other inhabited place." W. 
Henry Barnaby, Life and Labour in the Far, Far West (London: 


Cassell & Co. Ltd., 1884), p. 270. 








Census of Canada, loc. cit. 
2Molyneaux, ioc. cit. 
3Denny , ie Came g he. £0) % 


4Denny places this "banner period" in the years 
1884-90. Op. cit., pp. 230-1, : 
























27 * 


avensd tease oils at ‘Sibel 
 snetbat ‘ss wade 
s odinee prey dole awl faa ttos <a 
40 eisgiad boxedeu oats ent 


gil to 3 
a0" sbesteqs scomsiwai * ah “wood 30, bor 


ono no bap ne 


qsiad esd Jig cobbue - .- 


ee. 


eis ntitiw etotielv to ‘<rtat” js0%8 rm qf 
bos ase qixie ‘od airt ea neared & 
Sc bane sia vd ,aeglsd 7 qu aioe” ube: wad 

CM cod gatvixds’ 8 satuph eer 
Atworg wea elds. dsiw" inca 2 


> 


PY nt "holssq ‘eniad" odd Xo! ga 


sdi3 eaw yrsgiso ni 


‘to qesauaas 6{3389 
ae Pee ne ee 
ens is 3 gaimos oda yd ee oa deepest: 
“ 
a 'é . oF 


“2 gatdons sf3989 bas qindle ™ 42 Litost 
pe 


ae ae steel 
Sait nso od 0 nibkens3x9 es hes ve “9 ae 


Sea ib al Wraay a 


-ag bornuolt pe “ds10%-n9 bass nsolismé 


4 nee a . ‘ 
jie ed3 ode easiitier tore ‘et 180 
. ah gatb wee 

‘aah a ede a 


' ry - | a > : 7 
onnsiined sf. ,S=£88E al OS ie ur’ av! 
. sae 4). = ¥ i : * he 2 al A 


«YWSLH 





w’ wie bos idsdnk 930 = ; 
fate “2888 t's 13 


r 


i 


> - 
- 


50 
ranch brought in 12,000 head from Oregon and Montana. Gov- 
ernment grazing leases, first granted in 1881, frequently 
reached the size of 150 sections. However, large-scale en- 
terprises were being delayed because of the limited market, 
In 1882, J. Lauder undertook the first seine to Winnipeg-- 
with 400 head. Not till the railway reached Medicine Hat 
in 1853 were eastern markets made available to Alberta ran- 
Chere. The next year large cattle outfits fron Montana 
began stocking Canadian ranges with cattle from south of 
the boundary. After 1885, wnen the Canadian Government im- 
posed a tariff against American cattle, ranchers began im- | 
porting better quality cattle from Canada and Great Britain,2 
Fenced ranches replaced the open range, and in 1885 the 
greatest iad last general round-up was held, according to 
Col. Denny, with 60,000 head gathered from Calgary south. 
By 1887, the Government estimated, reports Denny , that 
there were 147,000 cattle, 11,000 Hehiis do and 24,000 sheep 
south of the Bow River. 


By this time, a new town had been in existence at 


Macleod for three years, Edmonton was "slowly forging 


ahead," and Calgary was showing "symptoms of becoming a 


ee a es 


Isharp, op. cit., p. 238. 2tpid., p. 240. 


“penny, loc. cit. 


“yoo ,5089 rol bas 
. » 


yliaoupet? 88, a boaneg 2 i 7. 29828 


jie 


(OAS i ee Bs et oe: 


iin DOF teh t [ ied ad sousoed ee ot: ot 3 


etusdIA o3 sldaliave iva niin aresene ¢ 


4tyG teetD bas sheond mort 9it3s5 siisup.3 
we t. 


sta ¢83k at bos Sg0eT ‘ego ‘odd banal aha Paes are . 


bts) 
ne 


: a 


gosta 008, as rib oer 000,15 at 























i. 


ry ed 
I ‘3 o> Wn 
ois, 
yea ny ae bial 4 
Rains > Matar 
=) — 


¢ wv 


. 
> wey 
at 
, 





we 


= i 3 oN =) al 


a-oR7s at soyouol peed 20 = 


- ° , w Pe 

gnoM wort etitave efszap agzal TSSy IxON 9! 
. ” Pepe St 
djuoe moxit sit3so atiw 29 QTB%, notbansd 3 


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ee eek 


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¢ Me 


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salancanbaciabe “int mad bid ave 
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large town. "Ranches were now to be found here and there 


between Edmonton and Calgary," 


writes Denny, "and in great- 
er number from there to Mepdead and on to shee Daub gery, He 
For this burgeoning industry, Canada's Prime Minister Sante 
ed an Edmonton-Calgary-Macleod railway. 

Furthermore, the influx of small farmers into Al- 
berta had begun in 1884 when 2,000 settlers took homesteads 
in the District, according to figures cited by Denny. 
Conflicts had already acisen between the large leaseholders 


and squatters, and in 1883 the Government had found it ne- 


cessary to reduce the number of large leases and cancel 





lipid, p. 202. In 1884, Calgary along with Regi- 
na~-which one year earlier had replaced Battleford as capi- 
tal of the N.W.T., had been the first centres in the N.W.T. 
to be incorporated as towns. [Since 1887, Alberta had been 
represented in Ottawa by one of the four Members of Parlia- 
ment elected in the N.W.T.] Ednonton, in 1883, and Calgary, 
in 1884, had qualified for representation by one Member 
each in the N.W.T. Council under the provisions of the 
N.W.T. Act, 1875. In 1884, the fight for responsible gov- 
ernment in the N.W.T. had begun, leading to the N.W.T. Act, 
1888, which provided a measure of responsible government by 
stipulating that the Lt. Gov. of the N.W.T. must choose 
four members from the newly-appointed 22-member Legislative 
Assembly to sit on the Advisory Council, which together 
with the Lt. Gov. formed the Executive. The Advisory Coun- 
cil, led by F. Haultain, resigned in 1889 over a disagree- 
ment between it and Lt. Gov. Royal as to control of moneys 
granted by the Federal Government. In 1891, a regular Cab- 
inet was formed of four members fron the Legislative Assem- 
bly, one serving as Premier; one year later the money grant 
was turned over to the control of the Legislative Assembly. 
This information is based on Stanley, op. cit., Denny, op. 
cit,, and MacBeth, op. cit. 


———— — 


2Denny, op. cit., p. 202. 3Ibid., p. 230. 


Bite 













RG pears 
exed3 brs sxed Bawa vot or 
-tsetg ni bas" .yamed. nadie * 


PUY 


sand y, = 








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= arf 
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. P a i.) 
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ea 









pei Prins 
-LA otal axsmest [leee lo xultak shes edsau' 


iy . — a 


me 3 . yaw! fox beatonti-n 


Bh. via. 
ebaeteomon A003 etsisjes 000 ,.£ Asti 686i a sged. b: de 


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2 
- 


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wired yd bette 2stugli of SOrrTeeOR oittalg, 


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= A al a % 
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= 


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-iqso 2g byols ns booal ges bad tsollts9 3g9Y 9n0 joke 
TW. ods ye seeainied jaervi? ef3 oad bad. poten 5 } 
nag? bat) stzediA ,£88l sonke) -Bfwod ped on taquoont : 
-etixs! Yo exsdosM 1woi sd3 te eno vd. ‘gt ba 10: 29 
yisgled bee ,€88f nf ~aosaorba. L-7.W.i es 

i9dmoM sno yd noljsinsesmges neh Be id 


#3 30. 209latvgtg ed? xsbav,Ilonm 92.. De on da 
~vo8 ‘el dtancqast pe 6 dgti ods saan af aN i. ¢ 1D. ; . 


IoA .T Wy Mog pases. *, esuged bas t aT od v— 


-fooest o 


5 ” Pa. 





“d jnemnievog sidkeneqas1 30 s1vessm & bkyosq do 
secods Jeum .T,.W.M ad3 to .vod sd an an. 
svissletset todman-S$$ bheseloqga-¥ ord 219 


zetzego3 daldw .1 ¥oauod ysoaty re sg m0 3. 
~nuod yxoesvbA pat. .svisuo OS oa t ȴo 
gree Tp sevo @88I nt. rege pi BIT: 
zyoenca to loitaop, oF as on pat ro: 
-de3 1slugex s ,I0Bi at 42 6 ov 
-meeeA evissleige!d edd mort | odmoa 
3nexg Yenom eff tessl I189Y 10 } 
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7 par 


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Pus a) 
O88 .q as 4 


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a, 
a 


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dere ee" 
al 


52 
those on unoccupied lands. + Nevertheless, as Sharp 
e wT * * ° * 
points out, “ranching lingered in the region as the major 


industry many years after farmers displaced it in the cen- 
tral plains ,!'* 

The Berets of the building of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway were far-reaching-~in southern Alberta af well as 
in Canada as a whole. Chicago, St. Paul, and Benton had 
been virtually eliminated from cHeotanadian trade; Winnipeg 
became the new sub-metropolis, the focus of western expan- 
sion north of the boundary; and "regionai leadership... 
in Sunny Southern Alberta... aévad to Calgary."° 
Railways had "destroyed the commercial empires built 
around Maa sbhed River traffie and reduced Fort Benton and 
its outpost at Fort Macleod to merchandising centres serv- 
ing limited agricultural communities."4 
What might another railway, nono thesouth road 


intersecting the mainline at Calgary, do for Edmonton and 


Macleod? 





— 





Isharp, op. cit., p. 240. 2tbid., pp. 245-6. 


3rpid., p. 314. 4Tdem 


ae 


quad $6 ,22 






















soften sit ee nolgst oa ot t 
-2e6 of9 nt 3! becatecie esecont 399 


Fs ; it 

P a 
oe ‘ 

a Py — 


ae 


| ie ae ihe _* is 
otttosd verbensl $5 a8 gnibs tud ods ao” $2 ee: T 






a} > 


(Pen ee speedié nusrie® wi-egabi 
bast hetdmed Sas ~ Ded ee eal 


ssqtociw ,sbsx ne tbat aA noes 


-stoxe ‘nxstesw lo ausot edt, ante qotsen 


* 


. . « Skdaxebest ie saakgex™ “bas som 2 0m 
oe yess ls of boven . eee sweat set3u0 — 2 
$i LgG~ eatiqas- Isto1ssm0s pg dew | - 
bus’ notés8- 316% beoqubss bak obtts23 sows 


Brae 





=Psga 25uddoo: gaisthnsdore o3 be 


= 


aS Sd digs 28 gota teueees' | f 


y S 
a 
a ae 


= 


- baer tagoersidz08 9 (a 7 tet soa 


a oie ; a) hel 
bns hadiromhs: 02 we vosgl fe 


. “ - . = P ee!) 
= ~* 2 n> 9S ° 


0-282 sag (ESE | 
a 


II 


EARLY RAILWAY VENTURES 


Anticipation of railway connection and of the bene- 
fits which would inevitably follow never really died in Ed- 
monton. Local agitation suffered only a temporary setback 
with the diversion of the Canadian Pacific Railway to the 
southern route and, in reality, was stimulated by the fact 
that the nearest railway point was now only 190 miles dis- 
tant rather than 1,000 niles. The obvious necessity of a 
railway as the only effective means of ending isolation, 
Securing access to larger markets for iocal surpluses, and 
speeding economic development was felt increasingly as time 
went on. Numerous ventures, furthermore, wnich gave early 
promise that was never realized and which raised high ex- 
pectations only to dash them to the ground kept fond hopes 
alive. 

Projects for railways terminating at or touching 
Edmonton go back almost two decades before the building of 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway. A retrospective look in 


1890 revealed that there had been prospects as far back as 


53 






















¥ -~ 
4 Pal 
sy a Ses * 
‘ 2 
. , ae 4 ee he 
QaaGTUAV YAWITAT YIas 
a ~ > a 
ate Sef © _ Ms aes 


are 


-ened eda to bas noliovenineo avitex 20 sobs} qt ne 
-h ak bstb vils 697: . xeven wollet Udasivenk t " 
tornd3s2 ytatcq@s? § Wao neinbom binahan 

sfi3 o2 yawlisd okttoed osibaasd athe, We : 


ji~ 


jJoai oft ¥d betelumiva ssw, Yikises ane <br 


‘ 
mh Ro 


-atb selim OC! ylinc.wom,eaw anteg ysuliax sone 
& lo ybteesosq, augtvdo: eit. -201 Fi 00095 a8 
.gokigboe! gnthne to gsm ovkineiie avons 


baa ,zg2ulquue Lasol 02 exoxtyam 2 Rabi 


5 = Ps = oa ies 
@th bf as i gotesesont sist enw alav oe 
~* ae a 
Tay, eae 
ea a saad 


-%S ian td hg rs2 Holdw brs. be EL. . roy A ecu 


a “ 


a 189 ava riqheve promadw® « a ph 


= 


25 
e249 


7 a i it ge 
geod pan sqoa bavora odj 03 | = eb 3 Ie 
ak 


ee i! re xa 
gntdoueg, 10 18 seasoned 2 eee : 
to gatbitud oa gz0ied ‘eobs 


ot d#ool svi Lgoaqeosges . “7 wel 


54 
1873 at the time of the first Canadian Pacific Railway sur- 
vey, but this project fell with the Macdonald Goveraoment 
that year. In 1876, during the succeeding Mackenzie Adnin- 
istration, the prospect seemed near realization in the eyes 
of the Ednonton Bulletin when the Dominion telegraph line 
was completed to Hay Lakes, By 1880, the outlook seemed 
"as good as it could be" but "once more it failed to nater- 


t 


ialize," and "from that time on Edmonton was the ... ob- 


jective point of numberless paper railways chartered and 


unchartered,''1 


the pending application to Parliament for charters by two 
Peace River railway conpanies., One projected a line to 
connect the Milk and Peace rivers, The other, the Saskat- 
chewan and Peace River Railway Company, contemplated build- 
ing from Edmonton to Dunvegan with a branch to Lake Atha- 
basca.” 

It has already been pointed out that Ednonton was 
very near the originally projected line of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway surveyed by Santffard Fleming in the early 


'80's, While the route along the North Saskatchewan val- 





lgdmonton Bulletin, May 10, 1890. 


2tbid., Feb. 14, -1881. 























: 7 “1 


»! 
, ‘ 


r 
qa 
ai rh > 
Ww, ~te 


-t1e yew! tet oF test catia 9 

snannvevOo bfanobaalt ofa e a. 7 

EsnodosM gntbsaoods oda iia | 

asvo sda at nolissiiset teen Bbomeee at Z f thes 

antl dqstgefos folniaed sit nsw otjeliys goin fodne rb ’ 
tatigae toolsue ‘sy O88L Ye -godad Yen ©: J er 
ported oF Saou sono" aud od bred * ap: bn 
ee wot” 


he st. rs 
ie Be 
ban betsdzedo “eyswllsz x14q80° “tuorsbai 36 the 


. 


¥ 


-nkab sf 9g 7. 
re 


-yatEr o35 


aft Sf 


i » s e 


fal 


#o Peer nt 3 Isao mtjol ive oft” at ioated bw pa rs” 


o2 soometieated , petansitag 
“ * OP optt’s bodsetord en0*' kekesqtos — 


-~tsden2 off _redto aAT: “ahaa eons bab cm 1 
-bitud bois qas3m0o eel eurtaw eve . 


~sd sh Siat od doneid & “iw mt ° | 


eae yd ars3 Tad a 


ee oe Ps ae > ey Pn 
‘ oye - ae 
“SEW notaord3 Jorts 700 ‘bedatog WS: ais | 
are ths 


npibenso sas sium iol 


- 


a. 


yisss ads at nek: cared 
~lsv navcartognaaind doze . 


55 
ley through the Yellowhead Pass offered distinct advantages, 
such as far greater fertility of land and an easier pass 
through the mountains, it also suffered from certain lia- 
bilities which ultimately were to swing the decision in fa- 
vor of the southern route, 

Firstly, during the years that the main line was 
being built from Lake Superior, settlement had begun to 
spread westward into the prairies from the valley of the 
Red River. The northern route would have by-passed this 
settled area. 

Secondly, the southern route was more direct and 
would be 100 miles shorter, As J.F. Wright puts it, "There 
was the added inducement of less costly and more ota con- 
struction across the southern open plain,"+ 

Thirdly, the route across the ent was more 
likely to prevent a rival road being constructed south of 
it later; in particular, it would exclude American railways 
from exploiting the Canadian territory. The southern route 
would, furthermore, place the Canadian Pacific Railway in a 
much better position to wage a "struggle with American ri- 


vals for the traffic south of the border.!'* 


lyright, op. cit., p. 63, 


2creighton, Op.crtt., ‘Pp. 318, 


€ 


eg aS some boxed ec 


«si ot a ord’ goiwe o2 sI9W ds “ nt 
30 ae 


























j r ‘4 _ = >> 

a F a 1 ney af ee 7 
; 3 base 

et 


eed 


M4 7 





i * 
eer ‘Le 


ReRq mina: 2s brs best to W 


vie < 


nit otad109 not boroidue cata a2 2 


hee 


“See ont! nism oft Sade amo oda salu oe 
* of surged bad paeneksden .rokseque oon 
efi to yobs sv off mor? calstesg pid. oaak 


. 


- a ei 
a 


* “sp trlt Kelien q-¥ od oved bivew. 930% exedaon, of 
a > ial Se gt re 


ee i oe ,s0sn 6 
‘hes Joexkb otae ew 93u0% exadsngs ens <Ubnocet” 
‘ =o “i Li 


stedI" ,3f aiug sagt o he be 2A 29 Fiede nin 


pt) ae ae ~~ed tame ee % the amt 
i gina wena RI9AIGe # al me ele a 


s1cm sew eotxterg $3 nee 33 


er : 
ee ti. 


Se suo, Shonuateano gated bsox 
ar ors Se 


BRERA intial bul oxo ‘biwow a 


e307 itl Seemaste 6 nates 
. +, at Oe 2 See oe 


. 


s at voint tas bittos’ wth. £188 95 
-tz canpserh ssi akacumaetia 4 


a. ae _ *? at 


+f ra Sar iebs 


OO Wen 


St 75 


- 


56 
In the fourth place, the findings of Professor Ma- 
coun's investigation in 1879 went against the reports of 
Palliser, Dawson, and Hind= and showed that only a very 
small section of the prairies was hopelessly arid, On the 
contrary, Macoun reported that the southern prairies would 
ide a fine wheat-growing ion, 1 ne i- 
provide a fine wheat-growing region, The myth of "Palli 
ser's Triangle" was challenged, W.L. Morton attributes to 
Macoun's survey along with the engineers' surveys of the 
Manitoba highlands the prime reason for the changed route, 2 
Very interesting is the statement of Col. Denny, a 
contemporary of the event under discussion, who writes that 
among the various explanations put forth, 
no doubt pressure exerted by weaithy cattle companies 
in the south was responsible for the shift. The Edmnon- 
ton district had few settlers at the time and their 
representations counted for little against those of 
these powerful interests.3 


Very likely, two of these factors--the greater pos- 


sibility of combating American competition and the optimis- 





IMacoun reported that "rainfall, though limited, oc- 
curred mainly in the growing season of June and July." See 
comments by Wright, op. cit., pp. 62-3. 


2"Tn 1879 as a result of W.A. Macoun's survey of 
the southern plains and of engineers' surveys of the Mani- 
toba highlands, it was determined to carry the line west- 
ward across the plains to a southern pass in the Rockies," 
Op, oh ee Po 159. 


rommeronse 


3Denny , OLE a De) 09s 






















-sM togasiowd 40 2 fe ig f 
' > > gettin ae: ieee bal 
lo es 10gsT ald teqtsge, se bed e\s at ats erfe= k. 


yrev & ane; sails . beworle ‘bas aba ey a 
rs’ ling - 


efit nm bits yleesisqed esw Resale ith es 2 D 
yoont 


stuow 2ettisiq avenues onl sans | beste oqo W 


~EiIpt" to da ya oft 1 ,wokgot, grlwara-tasde 0 


gam 


nos sol. .W -biggnel inde ew oe oe 


nat ie 


[ 


oJ sodudis32" f 


to. aysviue 'exsogt aoe odi3 Fs wl. re. = 
1 be 


ens 2! 
° vis Lew’ 
> etyox f gr: B75 gid +~ot aa es ois 1G nd A 
st od 
ined 109 to Impmedeas, odd et sntpesseanl Tel es 
a eee x 
suo a53i: 4 w@ onw benaasaly, 2 xgbau"3hOve" ae 40 mee 
~ x 
ao ; 


‘lia x02 suq eniobanagiqns auolisy. & | 
ae ae 


9 winfsse yd bei t9xs.. ot 
Yas yi tot eid dbencquey’s 
or) - 0 35, 21913398 


2 cg echt; etoaae?. onBe? to ows ,visdtl ¥ 
f acme AT ae | 
; Ril oe ta Bdmo — 
-2kuksgo 24, pme nokl ite oc cpr n > 
reg a c Sr } 7 - 
Kb) re, 
“30 ‘Wisk dquo inna ‘pessoa ; me 
02 yt ps 0h piworg of) OS 


0 ede rs sal 
~igav.ed3 20, ay 

-Jeow sm at gerade 
" aoitool sdt ot 2e8q 


@&. 


® 
@ 


57 
tic findings of Professor Macoun--did most to compel the 
far-reaching decision to abandon the Saskatchewan valley in 
favor of the southern prairies, a decision described by 
Creighton as a "daring innovation,"! 

; Hope diatantcat railway cond ddeton for Ednonton, 
however, was not altogether dashed by the switch in route 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The Bulletin reported 
shortly after the announcement of the diversion of the 
route that 

it has been decided to build a branch line from some 

point on the main line near Qu'Appelle to some point 


on the Saskatchewan River--probably Edmonton-~-simul- 
taneously with the building of the main line by Cal- 


Bary 
Failing this event, the Bulletin editor wrote confidently: 
Even if the C.P.R. do not feel inclined to suppiy this 
country with sufficient railways other companies are 
willing and able to do so.3 
Later that year, an advertisement was placed in the 
Bulletin giving notice of intention to apply at the next 
session of Parliament for a charter to build a railway from 
near Edmonton via Calgary and Macleod to Cypress Hills. In 


the following year, 1883, the paper speculated on the pos- 


sibility of a railway from Calgary to Edmonton by the be- 


l¢reighton, op. cit., p. 318. 


2 dmonton Bulletin, Jan. 28, 1882. 3Idem 

















af oe 


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eit Loaqneo 02 sao | 


at yotlav option cite?” ae’ 


yd bedixoesb naliteo® s — 


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am 


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“ted yds enti mbes ada to gatbliud aris d3tw st 


~* “ 


L ae ears 


— 2 4 ae oe 







ryiscshliaos $2070 0860 fazol tof onthe 


=“. 
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. 


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ae s . 














sus tokakamds inceantiakawer 3°" oo Hie aw ayy: 
, ie os \ ¢ prpsag 
: ited Paar iol 1 Ms < ~ < : : = * hy ha 
mods. “é 


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~ft > SSO 3 ; ire + a i ' 


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58 
ginning of the next season, 
An Act incorporating the Alberta and Athabasca 
Railway Company was passed by the Canadian Parliament in 
its 1885 session, authorizing a group of capitalists, Amer- 
ican and Canadian, to construct a railway 
from some point on the Bow River, or the Canadian Paci- 
fic Railway, at or between Calgary and Crowfoot Creek, 
northerly to a point on the Athabasca river, crossing 
the North Saskatchewan near to the town plot of Edmon- 
ton, 1 
The Company was granted authority not only to construct and 
work a line of railway but also 
to own and operate telegraph and telephone lines along 
the line of the said railway, and to construct, charter 
and navigate vessels, and to build docks, wharves, 
warehouses and grain elevators upon the Red Deer, North 
Saskatchewan and Athabasca rivers, and upon other riv- 
ers and streams tributary thereto,2 
The Company was authorized to issue $1,500,000 in 
capital stock and to sell bonds totailing not more than 
$20,000 per mile, to be secured by first mortgage upon the 
undertaking, tolls, and property of the Company, real and 
personal, 


In aid of construction the Government made the usu- 


al grant of 6,400 acres of land fer each mile of the Com- 


et ee 


Istatutes of Canada, 48 Vic., Cap. 85, assented to 
20th July, 1885. 


2Iden 


ao 

























sail _ srsedidle 

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ford bas yRegiso_ noswisd 10 28 Bw. ig 


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59 

pany's railway. Construction was to begin within two years 
(by 1887) and to be completed within six years (by 1891).1 

During: the debates of 1890 on the bill to incorpor- 
ate the Calgary and Ednonton Railway Company, the Prime 
Minister in offering background ea referred to the 
failure of the Alberta and Athabasca venture as an example 
of how "singularly unfortunate" the district between Cal- 
gary 6 Edmonton had been in Beet ins railway accomoda- 
tion, The Alberta and Athabasca Railway Company, he said, 
"failed altogether." peRvent on, "It was, I am afraid, a 
cae deal of pee ictivg Paphitis ee and was not formed so. 
much for the sake of constructing a railway as for the pro-~ 
spective profits that might be made out of it,"2 

Two years later, prominent English entealdaee were 
brought into association with the Alberta and Athabasca 
project and undertook to try to raise the required capital 
for construction, Parliament passed an amending Act chang- 
ing the Company's name to The North-Western Railway Company 


of Canada with headquarters in Montreal.2 Named in the Act 





lipid., 48-49 Vic., Cap. 88, assented to 20th July, 
1885, 


2canada, Debates of the House of Comnons, 6th Parl., 


—— — ee te ee 


4th Sess., 53 Vic., 1890, Vol. xxx, 4419f. 


3statutes of Canada, 52 Vic., Cap. 65, assented to 
16th April, 1889. 































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ota off 792. Lae vowllay & gattou43 eRO9, 2a. ox 
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2oA oda ae bamal . phan a axest sUpbBor : 


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60 
as directors were Mackworth Bulkley Praed, John Maurice 
Lloyd, John Dale, and James Lloyd, all of London, England; 
Charles T. Drummond of Winnipeg, William White of Sher- 
brooke, and C.C, Colby, M.P. (Colby had also been a direc- 
tor of the Steet Company) . 

The new Company was authorized to build boss, bouss 
to the Peace River at or near Dunvegan, to Lethbridge or to 
the International Boundary from ef southern terminus, and 
to a point fifty miles eastward from their main line at or 
near Red Deer. Construction was to be completed 100 miles 
north from the Canadian Pacific Railway by December 1, 
18990, to Edmonton by December 1, 1891, and to Lethbridge or 
to the International Boundary by December 1, 1892, Author- 
ized stock was raised to $2,500,000 and bonds issued were 
not to exceed $25,000 per mile,} 

In order to induce the Company to build within 
three years, the statutory land grant was increased to 
10,000 acres per mile instead of the customary 6,400 acres. 
The grant was to be for approximately 330 miles of line be- 


tween Edmonton and Lethbridge.” The Sessional Papers of 





ee wn wee ee 


2ibid., Cap. 4, assented to 2nd May, 1889. For a 
review of the legislation concerning this Company, see Ses~ 
sional Papers, No. 9, 1893. 























soles ntfol per goat a 
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o2 fo Spbiidditel OF nagovend ‘x90 10 3° st 3. sof of 


Pe 


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y= ' : The Oy?) as ae 


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eslina 001 sf qmio® 3d od Baw opsuaailall” vec 


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Ps) ¥pew oe et ate 


61 
1891 show 3,310,000 acres granted to the Company. 

In the 1890 debates in Parliament, the Prime Mini- 
ster spoke of this renewed attempt to put through the rail- 
way: 

Two years ago, negotiations took place with some Eng- 
lish capitalists, including two leading members of two 
banking establishments in London, Both of those houses 
are exceedingly respectable, and the individual members 
of the two houses, who became promoters of the under- 
taking, are gentlemen of very good standing, and they 
made every "bona fide" exertion to raise sufficient cap- 
ital to build that railway. ... The syndicate did 
all they could to obtain sufficient capital for the pur- 
pose of completing the work, but they failed and ack- 
nowledged that they had to give up the task.1 
A terse statement in the Annual Report of the Department of 
Railways and Canals for 1893 provides a fitting epitaph for 
yet another still-born railway: "Nothing appears to have 
been done in connection with this railway." 

It was this railway venture which was considered 
the predecessor of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Com- 
pany. Similarities in the lines projected are obvious. 

The failure of the North-Western Railway Company to attract 
the necessary financial support in spite of the large land 


grant was cited by E.B. Osler (see below) in his defence of 


the financing of the Calgary and Ednonton Railway in Parl- 


Icanada, Debates of the House of Commons, loc. cit. 


— ee eee ee 


Sessional Papers, ibid. 
















Y 


+ Yasquod ed3 of. be 

-ink¥ ent*d-sto~ noes tesa a d " 
-[tar #43 daquotds” I¢¢ “od ee 
4 tei a | 


~snd shoe’ atiw gonté stood eaoltpisagen 0B! 
“wt to ersdmem gatbael cw3 gotbuloni 232 
gouKed sesord To dtoa -ygbdhrrod ak asoeedalts BS 189. ; 
xsdmca: [aubtvibal si3 bre ,oldedosgest te kb. coon ce 
-rohau eft lot awedemong emaced ofw ,292 73 @ 
vot? bos ,gotbasve boog Yrev lo mousliing 4 
trsholi tue gats1 03 aro itr “obit ‘anod” ¢ 
> otnothnva eAT « « - -QeWEEaT 3ed3 biiud ¢ 
-1we oft zt Is Figso. tnekotttue sissdo oF blyos & st 
ies brs bolist yed? Jud .#axew sds gnttelqmoo 
| Lyte &%' ott qu- ovis o3 bad -yod3 ati 


So JIfsrtaaeed saz to te Isunns- ods al Saenodas 


> 2H, covllea ends ¢ 
_hevebtesee die étdw sxosmey coe 
J ewe, yav.lad edateebd ‘Sis mani 


_@ugiver wnt meet: éonid , 


62 
iament. 

An even more ambitious railway scheme from which 
the Saskatchewan valley and, in particular, the Edmonton 
district could be expected to benefit provides yet another 
example of a grand plan which for many years made great 
pretensions but eventually went for nought as far as its 
original purpose is concerned, The Northwest Central Rail- 
way Company was chartered in 13884 for the purpose of con- 
structing a line from Brandon through Battleford and Edmon- 
ton to the Rockies. A fifty mile belt of land was set 
aside along the projected line, and "on the strength of the 
prospective construction of this aaa settlers went into 


the country along the proposed route, complained the edi- 


tor of the Edmonton Bulle etin. 1} Numerous extensions of the 


charter were asked for and received from Parliament. After 
fifteen years, only fifty miles had been built from Brand- 
on, In 1899, the Canadian Pacific Railway bought up the 
Company for twenty cents on thendodsiar’ This Company drew 


down the ire of the editor of the Bulletin for, among other 


ee mn ee ee 


things, discouraging railway construction ia the region so 


long as-it held the charter. It was held up as an example 


se 


of railway speculation at its worst. 


In the spring of 1890, a dozen railway schemes, ac- 


es ee ee ee er ee 


lgdnonton Bulletin, Sune’ 12> °1899" 


ee eee es ee me 








‘J th > [hp SS 
dotcw, mo32 evadoa. yewlias et 
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pegs 





- qu ;tdguod:: soo 802A 18 tb nh oft 2k 

| ee | snail Mi eee 
wits “qaigncid abst mexmibobned? m0 nom, “AOR 
. ods bake 


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eureéeer 


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63 
gets. Of these, only two apparently gave any promise of 
amounting to anything. One of the two was the Northwest 
Central Railway Company which had just started construction 
from Brandon the previous fall, but it, too, was to disap- 
point any wno entertained hopes of its serving the North 
Saskatchewan country, as has been pointed out. 
The other prospect was for a line from Calgary to 
Edmonton, for wnich a charter had been in existence under 
one name or another for six years. The Bulletin reported 
that the holders of the charter under the name of the Al- 
berta and Northwestern Company had transferred their rights 
to the contracting firm of Ross, Mann and Holt, then en- 
gaced in the construction of the Regina, Qu'Appelle and 
Long Lake Railway. After so many disappointments, it was 
to be expected that some degree of skepticism should appear: 
Latterly all faith in railway prospects of whatever 
kind has been lost with the natural result of general 
discouragement and consequent slackening of material 
progress, 1 

This doubt, nevertheless, was coupled with the confidence 


that something would soon be built, though the editor of 





libid., May 17, 1890. The sane note of cynicism 
appeared in the editorial pages of the Calgary Herald at 
the time: "Charter after charter has been granted to com- 
panies to build over the route indicated. The Chinook 


Belt railway; the Alberta and Athabasca (now the Northwest-~- 


1B3 shod3 game cot notaceba bales 


GiIDwI3IAaRoo bes 1838 3a ae dose ensqune 


79a oT fS rane watokaqede 20 esxgeb eis 


Sab oneitlehtt odd we 


' _ 7 - ‘ 
‘ vy " 

























to seknoig Yar eves ‘usomee on 
egwts1o adz Baw’ oni ofa 20-000 ae 


*. 


~ 


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a] 
«~~ wis 


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seh ¢ 


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— 


onete bee at seed bad sossadt9 e dokdw x0 am —— 


a ES 


1710q5% Ueling oft BIBS xte 102 redsons 10 90 


26 artsy) oif3 sebaw 193 x8tlo orf 20 wien 


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- 
: coat es 


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ott feqq up sniged oni hee mot2¢ 


r ti .ssneadntoggnet vn o8 ay a wilee 
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ae ee 


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eo 


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ts “hte Re a: ot ever 
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JoomkH sd? 






















7 % cheonete : 


64 
the Bulletin wondered about the possible effect of repeated 
disappointments on the ability of the people to take advan- 
tage of a ai aad now. 

As it turned out, the revived expectation that this 
latest prospect would naterialize soon in a railway from 
Calgary to Ednonton was not misplaced, but the termination 
of the line on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan 
River four miles south of the site of Edmonton was a blow 
to the hopes of Ednonton, and the district north of the 
river had to wait dnother decade before the first train 
would cross the river into Ednonton in 1902, Thus, the 
period of repeated disappointments ending in 1891-2 with 
the construction of the railway to Strachcona was to be 
succeeded by a decade of somewhat bitter feeling against 
the railway company and continuous agitation and promo- 

ion to complete the extension across the river into Ed- 
monton., The agitation ended in 1902 with the arrival of 
the first train but the bitterness lingered on. 

This reference to the continuation of frustration 


after 1891 is to anticipate much, and such was not the 


ern); the Red Deer; the Calgary, Alberta and Montana: and 
mow the Calgary and Ednonton are asking for a charter, It 
is a railway and not meaningless charters the country 
MenCe oT O.NOW. 275 1889. 






























> 


| me 
be3seqet 10 ne ee 
iv pte D a 
-opvbe ofgd+o3 itqo0q arts to weet s d3 ne 
: ‘2% * ‘3 gh aint , 
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ath? tad3 nos +29 aaah hoviewt ‘ots (au0 = *t shader 
‘ EAE art mor 
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coor ae tori 
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neworls¥s2 Jen? datch-ed3 Fo to aaad daues af3 no ont rk 


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a 


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| 13 ‘pile Tie ae 


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tom. 


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ae: 23 +) Se eae ae pies a A *¥ 
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“ae eee arene ears £ 
- a mh a Le eek * a pty a 1 Pe a a 
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2 wba "Fie pat on oy fos 
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boa pacetneM bas aaxedta) pals: 
Sk .sedvérlo-s, yas ante eee | 
asewes. | 






65 
prevailing feeling of Ednontonians in the spring of 1890, 


a feeling which was expressed in the editorial pages of 


en ee ee ee ee es ee es ee ee 


For the third time prospects seem to be near realiza- 
tion. ... A company .. . has been formed, a chart- 
er . o » granted, surveyors are... locating the 
road, the route has been examined throughout by the 
railway company .. . and also by... the constritc- 
tion company who give the strongest assurances that 
within eighteen months representatives of the effete 
civilization of the east will have the privilege of 
viewing the glories of the upper Saskatchewan valley 
from the windows of a palace car. . .. Whatever pros- 
pects we have had before they were never so bright as 
now. 


That the coming of the railway from Calgary was expected to 
signal a fantastic boom to Edmonton and district is also 
clear: 


The change that the bfobnt of the railway will work 
in this district can scarcely be appreciated at the 
present time, With settlers coming in to occupy and 
develop our lands, with capital coning in to work our 
coal mines and forests, our petroleum fields and gold 
deposits no longer living apart, but brought in close 
touch with the great world, there cannot be otherwise 
than a flourishing country and thriving city that will 
be the pride of the inhabitants and a credit to the 
great country of which they form a part,2 


roast 


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aieiis od3 Io ssviisareastqes, etiaom neeady i 
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vollav newedotsses® teqqu efit to eeltzolg od. tv 
adgisd o2 Teter omSW betes oxoled — eved mt, 29g 


* 


~ 


.. Meow Like yawils eis 26 3 
oft ts betatosuqqs od Ylastase | 
‘bas '¢quese oF nt gaimos, exelisea. | 
suo sxeow 03 oF goiiroo Lana ae 
‘piog bas 2ebIeki musloxzseq 100, “+s 
seci> mh tdquosd aud .2zaqs 
cebwiesdie e4 sonnss siod3 ihizcw 4 
iliw deda yao gatviads bos, o28 409. 
edd of jibeta *. bas axanesie 







ro eas a aA 
whine - 7 ie 
i 
% “00 or ot 
ee ew 
iy ig ve 7 a ae 
7 a 


LET 
INCORPORATION 
In the early spring of 1890, the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Railway Company was incorporated and granted authority 
to | 


lay out, construct and operate a railway of the gauge 
of four feet eight and one-half inches from a point on 
the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, with- 
in the town of Calgary, to a point at or near Edmonton, 
with power to extend southerly to the International 
Boundary between Canada and the United States, and nor- 
therly to the Peace River.1 


Significantly, the Act provided the legal basis for 
the close relationship Gatch from the beginning existed be- 
tween the Calgary and Edmonton Company and the Canadian Pa- 
cific Railway ,7a relationship some times misunderstood and 


confused, many times deplored, and to which blame was at- 


Istatutes of Canada, 53 Vic., Cap. 84, assented to 
24th Apr., 18! 1890, Entitled “An Act to Incorporate the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway Company. In the quotation lies 
at least a partiai explanation of the name of the railway, 
Edmonton and Calgary were the chief termini of the line, 
these two were the largest centres in Alberta, the section 
between those two points would be the most important part 
of the whole iine, and the completion of it first was provi- 
ded for in the Act. Macleod was not even mentioned in the 
Act though it was understood the line would pass through 
that point, 


2See Chapter Nine of the Act, 


66 


































a Sy 
\.. 
a 
: see ‘ 4s So 
> > t 
¥ 4 4 4 hie real” 
-tonba bis yaagiso ots. over te gatage xix 
. i] “ - ‘> os foci 


aixonivs bsina 73 bas "beaaxogtooah nies i 
a * = 4 - ” 


‘ 7 


ois ned yewlisz a a1s19q0 brie 32 | 
‘i s mori esdont tisd-sne bas iat 3 
-isiw . wa 20 “yawlie® otitesd asibsnsd edt re . 
gost ibs sé5n 10°35 IJateg s 02 ~visgiss” 6° mek A vy at 
atianiejal sda of yiaedswoe basdx® 03» awO ae we 
93522 peste et? bas sbansd aeowied : & para | 
{ sevia_gosad snd os 


we . ‘ = * ties 


7 
S Ril 
ov] <~ 
- i? 


no + O¢ 


. 
' 


+ 


-100 oy ‘ 


sot alesd taget od’ pablvorq aA of xtannoktt 
3 ee 


’ 


-9d betetxs gf tontged -— cox? road qe a 
a . aos a 43h. ae! by ay 
-si natbans. 92 baa oso nosacnba bes © 
Ne aa sii 


- 


bas beosexebauade pent enoe aud 0. 


“3s esw ‘sont dokcie 0? ‘bap. ,basole | omit 
SH t) USeR ex: 


es: - 
od betneces , O83 aia. a a boned = =e 


-{83 sc3 ojexoqzopal o3 
-aeli solksegoup. odd el .¥ES9MOs 
pry pe gti to saan. off3 oe 
-gemki sd3 To totus | rire 
nolzoee eit ,asyodtA ee 199) Zé 
jiaq Jos3rogal 220m sas. my 
-lyo1q eaew esti 32 208 nots: ol qme: 
ef3 si heantay 79 e ton ekw 
ittiiia ass 





67 

tached for inadequacies in the railway service subsequently 
offered by the Company, 

Since the projected railway was expected to serve 
the purposes of the Dominion in opening up and developing a 
region not reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway, it qua- 
lified as a "colonization railway" and as such was given the 
usual grant on 6,400 acres of Doninion land for each mile of 
the Company's railway from Calgary to a point on the North 
Saskatchewan River at or near Edmonton--a distance of about 
190 miles--and from Calgary south to the International 
Boundary--a distance of about 150 miles,1l 

In addition to the subsidy in land, a further in- 
ducement in the form of a cash grant was made--a subsidy 
not offered to those earlier ventures projected to Ednon- 
ton. In return for carrying government men, supplies, ma- 
terials, and mails for twenty years, the Company was to re- 
ceive an annual grant of $80 ,000--a total value in excess 
of $1,600,000 when interest is included, 2 


Two months later, a contract for transport service 


Se ee ee ee ee er et es oe 


ee ee | 


sidies in Land to certain Railway Companies. JIbid., Cap. 


4, assented to 16th May, 1890. 


“Entitled An Act respecting a certain agreement 
therein contained with the Caigary and Zdnonton Railway 


Company. ibid., Cap. 5, assented to 16th May, 1890. 













vlsneupoedue “oat vise ‘yewltaa ) 


eee ey ee Sh 


‘evxee o2 kedsceiel enw eutler — 


aniqofeveb bas qu gninaqo al notntsot da * to 2! 2 
ey ar 2 
up 3 .yewlisdé oF? ost oatbsnsd ms vie bs ~ 
mevig asw douse es bas "awlies ‘ akin 20 Loo" § 


- 
- i 


tm floss x02 baal gobaimall “o es1DB  008,8 Oo: rt 13 
*) oo 
ye 


dito oft no aciteq 8 of qsgisd aor? yeot ier = 


eeoons ot sufeg aden ‘a--000,0 


~9u@ 20 sattgeas 



















to eib a--s0tannel “raba Par) 6 sovbS a ae 


osoltanteiol. sf2 63 dswoe qiagis? mor? srmet 


- 


l asia oe ‘tu0dn to Seesiees - 


ne aps wd = 


t tedstut s ,bast al widen” ‘si of hae obs al 


= 
AL! 
~~ te % 


eiedes s--sbam asw 3n7g dass b to pine ofa ot at 
PR 


‘ > Pies fore sod ‘-_ i 
abt a3 besostoaq eouwsasy rektate » J Lote 19 


aaah i 


“ealloque em ‘Gnsmnz9vog” 
ate ©), et ey a pial se 
“91% ob ‘enw easqons: a¢t3 ere aay ee 


. am 


. S eb 02-9 seas 


ate 2 


saivioa ‘soqane'sa "303 Jos73009 8 
eae oe ie > gees 


Local «big .epts 


68 

was made with the government calling for conpletion of the 
first 100 miles by November 1, 1891 and of the whole road 
by November 1,.1893. On December 26, 1890 the Company ent- 
ered into a contract for the work of construction under 
subsidy, agreeing to complete the line one of Calgary as 
stated above and to construct fifty miles south by November 
1, 1892, and to the Old Man River by November 1, 1893, The 
deadline for reaching the International Boundary was to be 
fixed by the Governor-in-Council, + 

The Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company was anala- 
gous in several ways to the Company's elder sister, the Re-. 
gina, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway Company, wnich was 
under construction at the time of the incorporation of the 
Calgary and Ednonton Railway. In purpose of construction, 
relationship with both the Dominion Government and the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, promotion, financing, and prob- 
lems later encountered, similarities between the two com- 
panies and between their roads abound to such a degree that 
in the parliamentary debates concerning them, for example, 
they were often lumped together and what was said of one 
was generally held to be true of the other, [It must also 


be stated, however, that certain significant differences 


developed. 


lsessional Papers, No. 10, 1891. 


ad 


= * 












ey to cotiptgese a8 2 | ino seen 


yl z 


sox oLloriw gil. te Bae . reat a ode psa 

poe 

Whi oy4 43 E88 
zangmod odj OGL | § zedeso0G 10 ~ ie ae : 
9. azcw od 02 ee B of 


D aiid i 


Ine 
sobnu noljouisenco 2% 


ae yaegiad to. «ton agit od egotqnoa ds; 


.. 
ea 
"- 





te 
= 


o 























~~ - ¥ 
a NS 


i 


sodnevou yd dju0e eolin yitt aovxganco 03_bi ot 
- j i= ag 

oat. £28L ,! odasvan yd sevtA., sos BIO oe rx BR ¢ 
E ‘i ad 


2 omtit 


bool Isnolssazesns odd gatdosos x 
i Lionug?-mk=rontaved 9f eb 


~ % ‘ 
> . 
a 


qqod yswilsd aosaonhs bas cosalad oft 


soveale2 eble- e'ynaqmeD © edt oO eyew is ¢ ie 


+ Te. eee 


ynSgqred yawl isa cawodozeea® bas 2 = gaol 
soqzoont s3 to saks ad3 3s nota : ied sa ) 


, 
— 


. 
> fF La iF . W YGS 


«oA, 23 
: 4 


EaW dotsiw ‘ 
gid 20-7051 8; 


nok touts 2002 hoe, PRCGILG ol swqaen 3 7 “ gb a 


ord -bge:,3 I pegyse vO. anointed oda. 6 


=~ 8954: FR: gaponegty uo kt0OsG: aX px a 402 | ¢ ol 
_ fe _ mee _ i 

ame, oy? od, geoyted, sotstan ize <b etnu 
+e a _ 
t da f 2a 


sad3 ee7geb a, doug: od, baueds bee ak 2 


sb 


siqmaxs, 103 . pods t aaoaki an tt et arte (a. 
oe 
eno to bisa 25R tap Sas. 9133) 303 ba 
oats taum al 19890. “sn idee d. 


_ganneiolith Jeno ing ee 3389") 


69 

Named as provisional directors of the Company by 
the act of incorporation were James Ross, Edmund B. Osler, 
Herbert C, Hammond, William Mackenzie, Nicol Kingsmill, 
Herbert S. Holt, and Donald D. Mann. 

Osler and Hammond were members of the investment 
firm of Osler and Hammond (later Osler, Hammond and Nanton) 
of Toronto, who acted as agents for the investment of large 
sums of money entrusted to them by clients. For example, 
in 1833 Augustus Nanton was sent by the firm of Osler and 
Hammond to open a branch office in Winnipeg in order to se- 
cure new fields for tthe eS of sums sent by clients 


in Scotland. In the years following, Nanton "succeeded 


in building up for the North of Scotland Canadian Mortgage 


oo! 


Company the largest and best mortgage business in Manitoba," 


About 1890, the firm of Osler, Hammond and Nariton 
were appointed the agents for sie Calgary and Edmonton Land 
elaneinet ta whom the land grant of the Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway Company had been assigned--and for the Qu'Appelle, 
Long Lake and Saskatchewan Land Company for the sale of 
their lands, as well as for the Calgary and Edmonton Town- 
site Company which had lots for sale in the leading towns 


along the railway from Edmonton to Macleod. During these 
. ® 


—_— 





ee ee 


IR.G. Macbet 
: 
ain 


Sir Augustus Nanton (Toronto: The 
MacMillan Company, . 


‘ 
al 2 
CN BRS Ee ae 


























yd yYasqued ot .t0 stodoenke f80 
tole .& bmamba , 2808 acast ors 
Jiliwegntd fookt stsnodos util 






-nonM _f bianod & sad Soe 

rs 25; iad iS 

tremtesval otf % ‘etedmax ame! bnomapit' sf rs! ei . 

- OF a 

; ieee 

(roars bem bacunetl 9fad estat’ ‘ieee b in tsfe ssn 
aod mt 
satel 20 snemtesvyal odd: zal etnegs #6 betoa one <¢ aah 
* ; 


a 
.¢ 


siqnexe 10% .atasilo xd med? o3 bedaurans yssro ar i 
tel20. io wilt als yd daee- ese nosast ausaugua € BB: 
ot | geqzantl at eoitto dorma1d s gage a2 broom 


* ott ot, bane 
“ea 0. toa TU o~ 


etasifs tnoe eowe 20. desmeevnt of3- 70% chit? va @ 


bebesooua'’ eqdael egaitwollo® exasy-otl3 al baal 2: 
sor1oM akébared baalsoos to daxow aiid sot “~ pike 
iv .dgsinst ak espakeud ogagsiem geod boa 3 | 
aotgsh bac, baquieH .xsfed Ro mth oi 02st 
bead acdnosh3 Sas xagiad sd3 s0% 23 
nossienbh’ ‘bas  pgisd ota ie Jassg SA Ys: 1 
,SiiuggA'sS edgy xo% bas-rbongiens 2 

to alae el? 1oe se mealiaacilen 

-:moT gsozpembs bans, Ss snaciuane a 
awos gnidsael oie ak ole. 
seat gnitwG boston om 


| 


siT sosmexot') Seen 


70 
years, other land companies were appointing Osler, Hammond 
and Nanton as agents for the sale of their lands. In ad- 
dition, 
a considerable amount of land was owned by parties in 


eastern Canada, United States and Great Britain, and 
_many of these appointed Osler, Hammond and Nanton their 


agents for the sale of their lands, on a commission ba- 
sis, and a large amount of land was disposad of.1l 


Ross, Mann, Holt and Mackenzie were all railway 
contractors and had been engaged in the construction of 
the Qu'Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway. Before 
that, they had taken contracts in the building of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway. It was in such enterprises as the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway that the foundations were be- 
ing laid for the formation of the famed partnership of 
William Mackenzie and Donald Maan of the Canadian Northern 
Railway Company. It was, indeed, ironic that when the Cai- 
gary and Edmonton Railway Company refused some years later 
to extend their line into Edmonton, it should be Mackenzie 
and Mann who would complete the extension and in so doing 
find it impossible to come to an agreement with the Calgary 
and Edmonton Company for the operation of the short spur. 


Another interesting provision of the incorporating 





Mipta?ys p. 35. 




















boomin! ~reted nn 


peo oe 
Sp al ebosl sett 20° dae ne 


‘ py} 


’ a yagi 
ae ah - iy esate «a 
7 « Ar * Re > 
oi aatoxag “ benwo saw bret to. aia 
Nine ,fissixd Jaci Sas gets22 besinU .ab 
tied? aosnsl sos boomed pxeleO betnlogqs 22 


moos 8 so ,ebaal steda 20 else oda x 
> Soeogeth eaw baat 2o snwoms Sgzsl 


fran Ife avew ofzoalot baie tloH sia 
| ee 

oq «noktouttenes edd at begagse need bsd bua 
IGLSE cowilad sswedotsies@ bas oolel gaol cob yA ug de 


ot 


inaD adt to 3 gaibi tud ecg ek esomzoace aoisd bac est o 


= pf ~ 


Siw «tl. 


a 


sit 26 goett qiedas doué ak esw am Jeol out >. aft 1 

-od giew sqoLsabaye2 eds aan esl ie er | rs 
%e qid fated IBY bons outa to notseaso} ois 

preds10% asibs B80 oda 20 1 bisnod baa.» , 


x 


~~ 


«fe iff nade ses olnort sbesbak om me a 


sstsi 2% ack 9208 boeuten, nga) awl 
aixce eioaM od bine: $e comnts me 












Copal — 
giteb oa oi bas o okeno3xs on jeLqmoo » E Iuow 
oi = : ; ere - x a t 
qiselso ens datw 2aementas an.02 4 = ay | 


=" 
?. igo Os O- 


¢ 


toge trode of ze manne a Ne 
a | af? Se potewora a 


: -. @. ce Lid 
é ew > 6 


| \ : perene 
iat ~ si 
ene: 


M a 





4 
‘ 








ene 






AL 


ah 
Act was that which empowered the Company to 


own, construct, charter and navigate steamboats and 
other vessels upon the Red Deer, North Saskatchewan and 
Athabasca river, and upon other rivers and streams tri- 
butary thereto, and construct, own, lease and use docks, 
warehouses, grain elevators and other works for facili- 
tating transportation upon the said rivers or streams, 
or any of them,1] 


In the debate in the House of Commons concerning 
the contract with the Calgary and Ednonton Company, the 
Prime Minister spoke of the need for this "great line” and 
declared that 

it is of great importance that the flow of capital and 
the immigration of gentlemen from England, who have ta- 
ken a fancy to that country and are now spending large - 
sums of money in ranches, raising cattle and horses, 
should not be checked, as it will be pretty soon if 
means of transport are not furnished for the cattle; 
and I am therefore extremely anxious that this road 
should be built as soon as possible.2 

Many were the objections raised ia Parliament to 
the terms offered by the Government to the Calgary and Ed- 
monton Railway Company, The population of the area was too 
small; therefore, the railway was premature. Railways were 
already far ahead of settlement, and rather than scatter 


settlement still further, an attempt should be made to con- 


centrate settlers within narrower limits, Areas further 


ee ee ee ee ee ee ee 


, 


Istatutes of Canada, 53 Vic., Cap. 84, assented to 
24th April, 1890. 


2pebates of the House of Commons, loc. cit. 
































=, 
7 iz 
of. Sie: 
, : we = hae ee 
a a © ner ay 
bas etsodmneta pandas aly so © 
bas newodotsaas® dvawatresd:t of 108 
-Ix3 ensoxie bas eteviz “zerlto qw ba LY rk 
ews sp to 


6 Ble 


_@ineb eeu bea sansh ~awo 43 Ss oe 

-iftos3? xot atzcw teddo0 Sas craanvel ba | 

,enesita so sTeviy bins eds noqu aol: ay jee q 38 

b ne a 

‘ : je 

a4 - ¥ oe ot 7 = ; 

NIS9Nn0o encod te seuoll ots ot. £ 
. ra, eae 3 pei ea Oe sila bers 


oid eYasqeay posncebs bea seg! a0 as da.lw oBtt 


- 
_ 
a =< 





bos “satl ssex3” eda sod boon oes to when aa 
_ var S, , * ", Aa Pe hee 

‘ be st- 5° ow 
brs Iattqso ta wold odd ‘snes pptieattes 23se1g 7 
.#% evai-oaw ,basign’ mot? gometinsg to nofis ‘t3 
ge an Ebasqe won 918 bzs YIIHNOD tad of . — 
« eoe'tred bn “si3da0- grteret , eadonss nk een 20 ‘a 
tt nove yaserqg od Illw 31 Bs “chodvedo i Jon 
‘gfy¥ao Ssdj3-40F bsdetniwi Jom sie Ie = 
beor 2idd ted? evolxas yvlementxe eteteted 


Fi CS shits ~<Sypidbesog @& node all bast 3 i b, 


ale 


seins 


7 


, Y 
. Pro 
aaa w 
in 
¥ 


at death eT #2 bother enolsoet de we ne 
“ba bbe: quagtsO’ ods 23: deem bezetio em 


003 eee ha38 ad3> to: noi ssduqog od? oy ca 
(re —_ et Sa ; 

| grow eyawl bad eewsbroxg’ anit Y “ B teOd « 
i 

Feat 


ojosgese nears bas = es 


EAeT inne soit w 


lie 

. = (8% a¢ + s apt Fr 7 
ge ey 

» ogy 


aa bospeaas 28> qa? 4 4 
: 3 ae art im pes - 


72 

east in Manitoba were still unsettled on account of lack of 
railway service, and these areas should be looked after be-~ 
fore lines were projected "into the wilderness." Earlier 
projects in the Northwest teh been taken up by Mtn eae 
who had no capital--this venture might be another instance 
of the same. Inducements being offered to the Company were 
too great, particularly, as some argued mistakenly, since 
the road would run through prairie country, and the cost of 
construction would be relatively low. More land would be 
"locked up'' and held at high prices, thus benefitting spec- 
docs j ne settlers, The ranching interests referred to 
by the Prime Minister needed no railway since 150 to 200 
miles was not too great a distance to drive cattle to mar- 
ket. A railway running northwestward through Battleford 
would be more practical and would offer a more direct 
route, River transportation was still adequate for the re- 
gion in question, Finally, the project would merely serve 
as a means by which the Canadian Pacific Railway would ac- 
quire another line, a valuable tract of land, and a hand- 
some subsidy, 

Perhaps the critics did not see this railway as the 
Prime Minister did--a small but important piece taking its 


place in his national policies for Canada. Fundamental to 


4 7 ti ‘ 
., pe 
en a 
to Asal to Jtnv0s08. so bela 
) ea 


-~s¢ setts bedool od: biveda cnet or 











dents 





















4 aay ry ' ce a. a 
rotipad " easazsbliy add Peed re met | 
mi 6 % ho \ J 
or a “ee 
exotsiuosgqe yd qu. mealsd need bad, 3; ae 
. , ia) 


tent 1odtons. od sigta aqusney seerots ey r 


etau yneqmod odt oF bexaiag ghed edn 
somte ,yinsdasal bougin- eae 26 shi 
Jo seco offs bas... yxIawoo: slaztsiq dgvossis muss bi 
J hinow baal gtoM .wol, vLeviasiex-ed all st 
_* aad 

ge gatsaii saad euls ,aoottg dgid 1a bled bas." 
wisdiart 

ot bazialte2, giasxestot gabdoansseHh:. vexoisaae, 2 ? , 
O05. 07: 0G, aauka..yewilag on bebsen 2: 1M st tad 


-xgm.93. el3tea,eulub of eomagelh.s 390738 ¢ 23 3. = a: 
per 
mbes ~— Ly ae tk 


-~ 


ra" 


., Prgtalgagd, dguosas biswaeowdiom 3 

n_, 72entb .erem.s, 29720 bison fo 
oot, @as -302; _sgeupobe {lke eew 6 
ay yee. YW eapm biaew, aestorq: be 
cos blyqu, yowd tad nik song 


al sf ‘pie om 
ban & pas. sdnel, to. donxd. eldsulev 


i G1358 Vier J 


- x 


=. ' a 


te oe et 2 ee eu 
Le 


odd ge, YowLigs ad. 998 


apa. (gahges esata 3 
o2 fstonsbau 


o ae [ae = w, 
a! 

4 A pay 1% 71m 
_— Pa va 


e 

Macdonald's long-term national projects after the acquisi- 
tion of Rupert's Land had always been the settlement of the 
West as well as the building of eastern industry. The ma- 
jor and indispensable policy in the achievement of this aim 
was the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. By 
1880, the "developnent of the North-West Territories had 
become Macdonald’ s main concern,"4 By contrast with the 
haphazard and unplanned nature Ns much of American expansion 
toward the Pacific, Canada had been "fortunately in a po- 
sition to organize and prepare in ated for almost the 


t m2 


entire process of settlemen The aboriginal title to 


the land had been ASS Seth di and the natives settled on 
reserves, the enforcement of law and order had been pro- 
vided for, a system of free homestead farms adopted, a uni- 
form survey system pushed forward, political institutions 
established, telegraph lines extended, imnigration propa- 
ganda broadcast to attract settlers--but imnigrants still 
must have transportation for themselves, their effects, and 
their future produce. To carry settlers westward to the 
valleys of the Saskatchewan and to bring back their produce, 


the Canadian Pacific Railway had been projected as early as 


1871 and built by the end of 1885, But the diversion of 


Icreighton, op. cit., p. 291. 2Tbid., p. 292. 


a a 

























-~felupos sd3 “‘qo2%s — ha > oe sm 


es 5 






x 


we 
Lite: 


ott Yo tdemefssse ads ased ¢ 





the a 
-sm sft eis aitSad ” nxe22si9 Io. yi TL 
re. ath aan 
va .yewit eM ottics® ‘natbineD beteits ane : 
5st eolzovizxeT swoon ods 6: 
aokshsg:s nestremh to doum Qo sidan seater 


ti a wir: 
oe 
mis 2td3 to t1sts veldo# ont: inhi sides 
Razer Jes 
ad3 diiw jes tino “ Te -frt99H09 sian et 
nt yistsded pion” nosed bed stoned’ {oi Fi 


-Oq 3 
' 
-y = = a 


sis Yeoxits 10% sasinvbs at eiaqesq “bas theagh 0 0: 
(6a olgtd Tentgttods edt *** _snometsiee Yo'e 


Go it 


so beltiee seviwdn oft bas bortdtingnttens é mr 


~934 aged bad sb30 bos, wal Fa — ; 
‘3 } 2 — 7 
: 5, i 
<t rus es dadqobs eat ssonomed wo — es 
Soatdthesat Esotaxtod “{Banwxdt “a } maseye " 


-sqotq nidtastgtrink", bébristxs 2 
“rhea Emmaieghes ad gotsesinaneallt oe 
bas“ yeas ats. panei : 

sits és td sata he 4 | 
.20ub05G ‘seta ' tobd, apead om 
ze Wes 28 begostouqg eal 


“te notexsvib- ‘ef ens — 


«SOS 


74 
the railway to the southern route had left the North Sask- 


atchewan country in the "backwaters," It implied the con- 


struction either of branch lines or--very unlikely at the 
time--of a second transcontinental railway if settlement 
was to fill up the rich North Saskatchewan region, | 

It is in this context that Paterna iaaetaael con- 
struction of the Calgary and Edmonton railway must be 
viewed, Not surprising, therefore, was the Prime Minister's 
rejection of the arguments advanced against the act of in- 
corporation, The "Old Chieftain" piloted the bill through 
the House without Pear difficulty < On the 24th of April, 


1890 Lord Stanley gave royal assent to the bill. 





lThere is painful irony in the fact that when Edmon- 
ton actually was connected with the branch from Calgary, it 
was barely three years before the second transcontinental 
arrived, and, further, the connection might have been de- 
layed still longer had it not been for the approach of that 
second transcontinental, the Canadian Northern Railway. 


2Several themes intrude at this point: What was the 
relative importance of Government initiative and local agi- 
tation or between Government initiative and the actual need 
in the pioneer region in the securing of the railway? Was 
local agitation of any importance at all? The whole theme 
of the role of Government plans and policies and their im- 
plementation in the development of the Canadian West and a 
comparison at this point with the American experience sug- 
gests itself, 

























_) 
i 
E odiy Salen 


4 


~ | edd 
-des? davow of3 Jil bed 934 o1 ated 


-noo sia boligqmnt 31 a swaoad” odd 
: —_ — “ if 

oP | ae 
adit Je viodtltiny arene aantl s dom ad 2o 
i p meat 29 : 


ingmet3see II wwlias fasontinootan72 | sa 

: ,nolgot npwedotpdese da x0" molt ote, 7 
-no2 bes a0 riszogx0oat | tans 3x9909 aid? ol a 
‘ od teum Ys» wikst god gomba bea yysgiso | | 
e'ysjetnIM emixzT vedl3 enw .stgtsted3 antag 30 a 


Po 4 nm 


ta6 


- 


Way: 7 
“ft to top. ocf3 Janisgs baonavbs Aen to ie 
dauotda ILkd pels besoltgq "aisiieidd BIO! pat ome 


,Attgh te daas otf nO { £ xatuo bib, dove ste 


itd oF. o2 799828 le xT 8VS8. } 6, oad sali 
oi nz 


Prey ot 


-qotbhd astw iads ‘Yost off at estan qT. 
si , vue orted mosh dons73d., odd, Spit sola te n109 BBN Bu: 
testo soicn oD20873 ‘bnoose odd if 


2b shail evad sadgtm. me 4 
jedi %o dosoxqqs 92 t0% nesd Jon 


eau ig gama zor papheneo, s ot 


add ssw JadW sighs eidy 38.5 } Ret 4 
“ign Iscol bas oviDRLSIE tnemn ie 
bees Isyjos, 993,bae, ae stat 3 219MNI9\ 
sw pracuge ons jooe BHT ot 
amas giocdse sis gmt 
~at shalt rs sgiattos’ * en] aS : 
s bas jeoW asthansd pe 5 eee eveb 
~gue eonslsegne eegliemA ¢ rive tat 


> ‘6 SP Oe. ate one ak ss 
4e: : ua | 
2 eect nana 
: -. 


IV 


FINANCING 


One aspect of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway 
story fraught with controversy was the manner in which it 
was financed, It was charged that the men behind the rail- 
way company had used certain Government subsidies, not for 
the purposes natiedded by the Government but, rather, for 
their own benefit and to the injury of settlers, bondhold- 
ers, and the development of the North-West in general. The 
chief spokesman for the Company, E.B. Osler, claimed that 
in the matter of financing the Calgary and Ednonton Railway 
Company should be held up as a model for other railways in 
the Dominion. A comparison, however, of Osler's public ut- 
terances with the evidence available provides considerable 
justification for the criticisms levelled by western Mem- 
bers of Parliament and by the editor of the Edmonton Bulie- 
tin. 

‘The legal basis for the financing of the Company 


. 
was laid down in the act of incorporation,~ supplemented 


lsee Sections "5" and "8", 


75 


aed 
nos romba baa waated oda 20 to: oe ; *) 


A rr *) 
















-* ‘ 
7 +o 
EWLia/ 


al Yornam oda eaw ceroversaod dakw 9¢ 


+) Maile 
35 BOAnW 


«-ftaxr s2 baitied tr9m od st bogzado” eew wiise's 


r - 


soi tom ,26t5 tadue smomnxawe® abir399° 


r 
; ae oe 


r0% pare dud tnemnzeveo edz yd 


-blortinod ~exehitea“to ytotat od3 “OF ‘bats +4 


re 


aiT ,Lleteseg- n¥ ‘teqW-d3zo0“%_ els to i 
Yao bomtéto ,vefeO 4.3 Sal oda ae 
yswiis®” oeth otha Sas. Cae sd3 3 
nt egawitsy “aoddo"303 tebon é cm qu 


4 To ee ae ne 
-2y obiduy 2 isteo Yo tevewod |, noskisqm 


eldnxisbhlesoo zobivorq ont bis : 3 

“(aM ‘nxeds ow’ ed badiswst a7 si ee be 

~oilps soageshs a elt io sina 
cae Paes ie a bits 


rf yhaqwod ods te gikoas ae, 7 









a 
¥ 


botnemelqque: Ayah i: 


at gs 


aft ( 


mn D oi i 
a _ : 
sill 
ae it 


76 
by relevant sections of succeeding acts affecting the Cal- 
gary and Ednonton Railway Company. 

The act of incorporation authorized capitalization 
of the Company at $1,000,000, such stock to be called up as 
necessary with no call exceeding ten per cent on the shares 
subscribed, 

The same act empowered the Company to 

issue bonds, debentures, or other securities, to the 
extent of twenty-five thousand dollars per mile of the 
railway and branches, and such bonds, debentures or 
other securities may be issued only in proportion to 
the length of railway constructed or under contract to 
be constructed, 
It was especially in connection with bonding that contro- 
versy later arose, both in the Bulletin and in Parliament, 
Accusations were made that the railway was overbonded, that 
there was deception regarding the security for the bonds, 
and that the proceeds of the bond sales were misused, 

Additional and very important financial resources 
were made available from the public assets, as has already 
been pointed out. Land in the amount of 6,400 acres for 
each mile of railway constructed was granted to the Con- 
pany. For the line from Edmonton to Macleod, the grant to- 


talled 1,888,448 acres. Concerning the importance of this 


land grant in the total financing of the railway, Chester 


ed 


Isee Section es 














(oe 


>I 


me - PA | 


- 
i 7 
ioe 


~Ind. of3 anksoanie 2ies gabbana: 


noltjpsiistiass , onions: 9. 


” ise 
ee qu befiso st od. ange Move 000,000, ae 8 
ere, arid. 10 Jago 19%. £89 anthassxs 189 . 7 


a: o3 YnEqmod ofa bsxewoqas 398 bes 


s. 
os a 
se} 


, } 
7 bait Ree 
‘eid ot ,2ektiavase sedjo to: genaoedah a J -pt 
sft to ellm seq exslicb basewods sylingie 


pi ta 
carson 


' iss ~ 


<9 geunticedeb’ “abnod dove bne ,eedonszd : 
1 nettsogowg ot yoo bemeek od yee esliizaosas 
a iseetnee * <sbau 10 SsJousmsenos cenl ses to SI BM 
Fe ‘ ’ nts ‘ter 

* — ae 


-oitnoo Jad2 gn tbnod Ajiw goktossinos al othe tos 


: eet » ; pee 


Sneesif ras ab ba atte oiling ofl? ak “died « 


esNetAis 45> 
















Bb robaadisve 25W vewltex oda jad3 ebse 


- @ fr; 3 
a wae," af eek § £ 


shnod ed 10% abwmose oft enthosadeals 


ad, eh ote | stat es 
taf. 9 etiam ee ae “© ee hk 
a¢ 


4 4 ty =* = is Pa a wR, ae 
4 


beewe! cima etew ied baod ej eo 


a hae Hho? 3D Se ee “we has ‘ 


gaotuoRsy tekonamt?, ; aasasegnt yx 


et) 
= : 


Pau 


7 
ae 
- 

= 

v 

~ 

oe 


Pe SS ba ¥ a“ o Ba bs wk aa” > - | e 
x02 estcs ata Yo Jnucms @ ‘ab 
" + _* ¢-5 - a } pane St -— _ ee 


mod. 083 08 baisarg ~ beta. 


: re 
-c2 Jnsizg 93 Soaleeh ws: ma 


‘ PAs Fe: Dap 


eH te ass2s0qnt ot? 


| Isdeodd- jagemhae, 


* 


77 

Martin writes: "There can be no doubt, moreover, that fi- 
nancial npn Great Britain was attracted very large- 
ly by the prospects of the land grant,"1 

A cash subsidy of $80,000 was Es be paid annually 
for twenty years to begin upon completion of the section of 
railway between Calgary and Edmonton. In the words of the 
act granting the subsidy, the exoress purpose of the grant 
was "to enable the . . . Company to construct ... their 
rai wat o © o L£rom . . . Calgary to a point on the North 
Saskatchewan River near Edmonton."2 Of such importance did 
both the Government and the Bein pity consider this aid that . 
the Prime Minister declared in the House of Comnons: "With- 
out it, I think there would be no chance of the road being 
built."2 The same inducement offered to the Qu'Appelle 
pea 1hay had meant, according to the Prime Minister, that 
“private investors, hitherto reluctant, at once took up the 
Bendre ct to build the railway."* This cash grant--pledged 


to Company bondholders as partial payment of the interest 


on their bonds--was missing from arrangements with the ear- 


IMorton and Martin, op. cit., p. 322. 





16th May, 1390. 
Debates of the House of Comnons, loc. cit. 


“Idem 


-_ i 
* JA 







| ae 
-t2 aed3 19vos10t@. dub atic: 
Sab pe NE Bey Oe 


aman utev beJony33s - te. rE 
ss. ed a aoe 


I" snexg — 
yviisusas biag od a 2sw 000 088 | to 






az*s 














» = 


to nobiose of3 to “notie£qaoo noqu atged of ° ve , 
by ies hie ‘ 


ed3 Yo brew wits ol .903. 00053 bas vangiat tS 


> cal Sl rT aaeen ae 


: eee 
Inaty od to OnqeHny: 22e1gxs ads evberdua: afd ik tn 


P < haee Naika 

thedd ..4 « Jouxsenoo or * ymaqmod- a olw iodine mr 
bine ifn Pa beeen 
it-20¥. ott 5Q “tnkog 8 o> qamglad-. “ge ppp , ve 


— pa vou pike " on [ 
bib san aime nt doue ms ros nonba sat + 3S: 
* ees oa 


. sda bis aida sebtenos: aged coda bas Ineantsye 
res ee cc SS. S 1 bch 














asin" : enor <9 40 Manel ae ot icneteal - a: 
S wu ae J 
gnked -psox o¢3 29 e2asd9 on ad -binow eseda 


ol feggs'49 edt-.0t. ba1siio Josmeoubnt - Us 


tsi. redeinkis ents ed3- 03 ‘galiseeen a 
ay ll Sighs 
eff2 qu 200) s9a0, 3a lueubates sisd 
‘phi: . , SA ahs 
begbelq--Jqgseesg ages. sidT~ Aus ‘4 


Jesrotni pid 3 2g amowyeq Thtzag e9 


oe 


; hated +e, 
“ise sold ae ~iubmageesse box sie - eae sw" 


a4 « o Sq + vols i 2 ve in 
i ates a ra? cou 2 ws ak: 28 : 


og boanazes 4 pe al > ebsnso 


by _ 
~~ 2 - 


4 


~~ ba Ba Ion a 4 4 


78 
lier companies and seems to have been just what was needed 
by way of extra inducement to English financiers to take up 
the project. + 

In any sale of bonds by the Company, one important 
provision of the act last cited would go far to attract 
prospective purchasers of Company bonds, It provided that 

in order to facilitate such financial arrangements as 
will enable the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company to 
commence and carry on the construction of the said 
railway without delay, that Company may agree with the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company for the lease and op- 
eration of the -said railway in whele or in part by the 
latter Company .. . and such terms may include the 
right of the latter Company to purchase the said rail- 
way .. . and the stock, bonds and securities of the 
former Company. 

In view of the above provisions, which made pos- 
sible a choice among several close relationships between 
the two companies, and considering the role that the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway must necessarily have occupied 
in the plans of the Canadian Pacific Railway--in effect 
serving as a feeder of its main line--, legislation was 


passed in the following year authorizing the latter to is- 


sue consolidated debenture stock additional to that which 


AS TS OD OT OS 


lWhat effect, if any, the return of prosperous 
times in Canada in 1888-9, after five years of depression, 
had on the willingness of investors to put their money into 
the railways cannot be known. 


statutes of Canada, loc. cit. 








bebsbha ésw Istiw ‘sent mod € 































44 are 
qu sisi o2 eisionant? debigad hele vaca 
i cae i; vty 3 at a ae is 
st cel Pi ~ eat 4 yi a 


ste 
tB3 mth 2 ona’ nB als oda. d ad Yo [se yous 7 
eX > x fl ey oe 

jJosi325 O23 2A2 08 biuow beaks jes! ee ah 
54 @ 5 cen rt ~~ Bes 

tad3 bebrvong 31 .ebnod erage to e798 
og ainemegnsTIs lekcanale dowe ‘Susttioal a. 
3 ¢enmaqmod eh £%a8 notnombh’ bas yrsgisd eds 
git to noljoustemoo ez mo ee bas 9: 


OIDBE 


ol? diiw sete yen ynagao) edt y auodsiv x 

-go bas sensi edd stot yasquod ‘yaw ‘tes oFhtosl x 

ods ‘yd drag alvse slow ak yewhhex biae- eddAo.n > 
ars SDL (Font Ys emye2 doue BRS « . oe 3381 


-ftsx 6rse-sds seadoie 03 ynsgmed aiteak. eft to wats 
oft to agisiizuose bna ebsod aoose a DnB « Pane 

" ete . _ = 
PR | 
re 


~2 og. shee Hotdw etal evods ‘odds, 20! rely : 


- 


* 





ne Sted éqidaqoktalss seolo Issevee ans 
PRD 9d¢ tad3s’slat sd3 goizebrendo bas, 


bbIgis00" over “y{tsbetisoed Jann 


2 


<tolastee te-ynutitas sittsst pia 
> ee qobsbrheed  senkienten — 
~pi 6% Nbsts? site samen: “eats vot 
2 doPrie rads os anid ts Phe 


: ee ee ae ~ woe: 
eveteqeosg to wiuiss 


rotnanagel 30 anasy vik Be 
otek Fa the —_ _ aaaer 


* 


i 


A 
sical fet 
DL= P 
£ 


— 


ya. 
4 


uy Mere eae a: 







5 2 ta ‘= 
#4 * uy a: he tha 
7 + A 7 
~ 
y" .* , a 


oe 
, 


— gg 


79 
it had already been empowered to issue, This new issue 


was for the purpose of 


satisfying or acquiring obligations which the Company 
has entered into in respect of the acquisition, con- 
struction, completion, or equipment of the Calgary and 
Ednonton Railway, .. . provided that the amount of 
stock to be issued in respect of that railway shall at 
no time exceed twenty thousand dollars per mile thereof.+ 

Presumably it was for the latter of these purposes, 
that is for the equipment of the Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way, that the proceeds of the issue of Canadian Pacific 
Railway stock were utilized pursuant to an agreement by 
which the latter Company leased and operated the line, 

The association of the Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way, chartered to build into a sparsely settled country, 
with the famous and reputable Canadian Pacific Railway 
would, of course, add considerably to the saleability of 
any Calgary and Edmonton Company bonds offered on the mark- 

. 2 
et. In the case of the Qu'Appelle Company,” promoted and 
financed by the same interests as the Calgary and Edmonton 
Company, there is evidence that not only was the promised 
Canadian Pacific backing pumped for everything it was worth 


in the sale of bonds, but that too much was promised on be- 


ltbid., 54-55 Vic., Cap. 71, assented to 10th July, 
1891. 

2For purposes of brevity, the Qu'Appelle, Long Lake 
and Saskatchewan Railway Company will henceforth be referred 
to as the Qu'Appelle Company in this thesis. 





































| 


; + Nagy ' 

eueal wan. aidt sonal, ae 3: rowOX sc) 
; “a iil Cy 

e 0 ep 9 ye a 


yasqmod aft sdotriw enptisgtide gots a a 
“1199 nottietupos “add to toeqeert -_ = ga 


baa, x1agi02 ed3 iq asemglups 70 «moltelqman col3ou" 
- qn yes 


to Jovoms erit tad. babi verq 3 * ° s¥ ft, 26.08 ~ 


ae 


ts 


ie ye . 


[lsde yawlisx tadd to s29qaer af boueeko d 0; 
t aooned slim 1sq ersfieb basened? yInews ft 
ale 


° fat 


eseoq: iq seeds 26 x9a3al sig “sot esw 324 


f A aa a! a 
-~IisA sotnombg bas yrsalsd ori to dnoaqiups : 
* 44 


nittoad, nstbeas® to sveak odd ‘to Bbesoorq, 

‘ 
; yy otk sill 
ag Bor nS ~s == a » ; = er LA 
wd Snemsa1gs as 03 jnavarug "hos itiiu,edow be oe 


x 
aod ‘ ~ 


; ws ag 4 ics  ferew 
enit ada 6 ejs1tego bas beesel way te 


bk 58 Sart i Dns ‘yisglsd “odd ‘Ro, sotsabogads | 


“ wstnuoo Bolsaae “yleexsge 8 otnt bikud. 03.1 97 
Yawliat olitosd mtbsasd meetin: 


te W iifidsotse 4 ois” oJ bemweiners oh 


“S. ‘ Be i 
xian sit mo bsrstio spas % 4 


pe asancxq S enagnots vice ov , easo. 


Al. oad 


= iy 


times baa quspled bd ap ase os : 


ts oe rf bf ~ i sO 8 * yk: sh ae i? pie ee 
betas odd .2aw ylno Jon, ta af 
De 


5 ae 


using: sm 3t “gakddiqneve' 0% be 


yaa 
-od no ‘beekeorg. eaw eae 


ee Se ee Free “: 
ulvl d0L of bsdisees IN qe 
ory er 71, oe ys oes sel Sb *~ «3 


sits! gaol pros ~ 
bosroteried & 





— 


80 
half of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, There can 
hardly be any question that the Canadian Pacific nane in 
association with the Calgary and Edmonton venture played 
a significant role in the sale of the latter's bonds on 
the English market, 

Authorization for an additional bond issue by the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company was granted by the 
Dominion Parliament in 1898 at the rate of $18,000 per mile 
for construction and operation of a line from the southern 
terminus at Macleod to the railway then in course of con- 
struction from Lethbridge to Nelson, known as the Crow's 
Nest Line, The railway extension, property acquired, and 
bonds or debentures issued on the security of the railway 
or property were to be free from the current lien on the 
existing bonded debt of the Company.! 

In 1903, Parliament again empowered the Company to 
issue bonds to the amount of £1,121,700, which was to be- 
come a first charge upon the Calgary and Ednonton Railway 
line between the northern terminus near Edmonton and the 
southern terminus near Macleod. These bonds were to be 
used to redeem existing bonds or other obligations of the 


Company, The same act authorized the issue of bonds, de- 


Iotatutes of Canada, 61 Vic., Cap. 37, assented to 


——- = 


13th June, 1898. 








3 seca -yeng0d qavithe ' aye ne 2 
ow 





-~. 









+ 
ASA et? 
Mw. 
14 


stars oiinoet “matbaand oh 
yiegl 





® y 
z el et 
OT. pam e4 







P 
bovelq gms dav “noanoab’ bie | 
. @ - oy J 
erat as: en an 
Ro el 2 agsar ots Ao sise ond. s ae eiox" JABS 
a Ls 5 ie » arf ae P a, 
. + = +e eet 


veal baed fsnots bbs 18 ‘a sols astx0 
ate Wa age 
















edd ¢ besnitta sew "¢asqnoo “youl bas se 
lim soq 000, Lg to sist of 38 ones: ob = 

Sag : 

7 en or a 
oth nerds soil s 20 noisa1eqo. ban — sien 
pe 

oe 

va as 


) eexvED = par suitor od os ‘beats 
‘woud od. 2B aw sons nator ot spate mae 


-(109 4° @ 
ee 


peaiupon wragorq nokensaxs ¢ 


"' 


et 
woke, ods 32. whsiee8 odd Rs 


% > ase! aa = ae 7 is, sy 

: sik i?) Ane se ts hat 

- oT, cat? af ae . 5 
a a . +. ae ‘ ee ‘ 

ot aia eri: be xowons a8 
nt; eee on a 


-ad @i 2am, ‘iste «OT pEEE 

ag < yer pie hue See 

ide ga cane ‘bas. rexagls 
aan jr = ag ® ba 


for ny wer 

- off. pas so og 3a90 : 
io ai. ania sic sped 
odd. te saplingitde — ° 
Se ta wi 














: ~~" ee xh < rt a Sen 
Zayr* : oe = peor i oe 
o3 bs sy he t r \ oe) 

“ Moor rz 

=f . is ; 


ere i 



















81 
benture stock or other securities at the rate of $20,000 
per mile of branches extending eastward from Wetaskwin 100 
miles, eastward from Lacombe 100 miles, and northward from 
Strathcona to Edmonton, not more than three miles, 
Bitter debate later raged in the House of Comnons 
over the financing of the Calgary and Sdnonton Railway and 


of its sister road, the Qu'Appelle Railway. Irreconcilable 


_— 





mee ee 





net oe 


tTbads:, 3 Edw. VII, Cap. 89, assented to 25th June, 
1903, Acts of Parliament respecting the Calgary and Ednon- 
ten Railway Company subsequent to the C.P.R, "takeover" in 
1903 were as follows: 1905--The Company was authorized to 
issue bonds to an amount not exceeding $1,000,000 in aid of 
construction of the branch line from Strathcona to Edmonton 
including the bridge over the North Saskatchewan River and 
the approaches to the bridge. These "bridge bonds" were to 
be a “first preferential claim" upon the bridge and its ap- 
proaches and were to be in lieu of the issue of securities 
authorized for the branch line from Strathcona to Edmonton 
in the 1903 act. Permission was given to include in the 
mortgage deed a provision that all tolls and revenues from 
the use of the bridge and the branch line be specially 
pledged as security for the bonds and interest thereon, In 
addition, in 1908 the Doninion Government granted to the 
C.P.R. (lessees of the C. & E. Railway) a subsidy towards 
the construction of the bridge amounting to fifteen per 
cent of the amount spent on the bridge, not to exceed 
$100,000, In return for the subsidy, the Company were to 
transport government men, mail, supplies, and materials 
over the branch line and the brsicdoes (For the relevant 
legislation, see Statutes eS Canada, 4-5 Edw. VII, Cap. 66, 
assented to 16th May, 1905; 7- =8 “Edviy VII, Cap. 63, assented 
to 20th July, 1908; and 2 Ge Oo. VyiCap. 48, 1912. Inthe 
latter statute the maximum government aid for construction 
of the bridge was raised to $126,000.) 1910--$20,000 per 
mile for the approximately 200-mile extension of the Lacombe 
branch to a junction with the C.P.R, Moose Jaw branch at 
Outlook, (Ibid., 9-10 Edw. VII, Cap. 76, ass. to 1/th Mar,, 


en ee ee 


1910.) 1914--up to $25,000 per mile for the branch line 






































000, 08% to -efe7 oft 38 , et 
00. iiaasil ao. brpwsese § 





5a 


¥ 
t a 


mort buawd tam bas: eolin. OOL « 
Ps on ‘ 
f esiim-oopd? andi 200-30 ype ba es J BG09 
as o ri P 
ancmmnod to sexo odt-.nt begas. sedal wath 3 a3 
.- 


a 
—ae. + 


bas .yawilad motaonk? _ bas ysasiso. ala 204 aie = ay 
gidnitoncos11h avon al el loqqA'uD ods sbaor 3 


4932) eo 
* = eS ee 
; a4 wis 
digs: mae > 
4 a: 


—_? 








arul, da@S of botnoses® ,C8 _e Irv vw | sa ae 
-neaba bas ysegisd edz gntsagqeaz josesiizal to e3/ EU 
nt x8 voodsa” q¢.9.9 sd3° od Jroupsedus, ie pe | 
a2 trontus esw yisqmed’ edT+-cOer rewolled os 
20 bis. ak 000,000,[¢ gatbesoxs Joa Savors H8 02 
_ fos aormbS- oF. snasr (32322, got sail donexad arid 20.1 
baer ‘ soytd: aswerios lene djx0K alt geve sabiad.« 
oj .saew: "abaéd egbird" s2eadT :,eghtxd. paaioe os BO 
-qa-aii bos egbixd els coq “ntelo Lette 4.282 
sacktbarosa’to oveel-ef3 to .wett nt.ed 03 ‘oxew | hago 
nogeéebd of srootta132.me32- pail ,dongiad: 1310} bess 
ef? ot sbulonk of aevig eaw cobesbaxod. Ries op . 
sti pavhevet baw: aliod- Lie Jane oe 
Jiatooge od ont! donsd of? bas § piad od 20 > 88 
mi , 097 eid tjesretat bas ebnod. eis 3 80@ sa ot 
of3 of botasag Jnemmrevoo nonnbeod ad BORE s I A 
cirsawok Yeredue aw (yewlted ot .9 289 gf phn won | 
“7; 2am qieret ab} oF galanuome oghks wd ¢ ae ae a GC aah 
- - Peeexn: 07 Fal: sok cone 
os xen eetid 2d tbLedve ect 702 auger AE 
cigizedes bap wae line, a = snamateve 
5 Sopvedesed2 29%). i pen sad dons 
Oe A. Tk awd 2rP ~« 
botaszest 462 Geo giv. swbd- =5 | 
eds ni .SI@E Ba padagg ond Vw 
» aks Bi =3 Nalept * 
"og Gano se. GM ee) 00, PIR. a3. t 3 
gdmosa.Jd 8 20 notlansixs | a2 a an . 2 
ts dons1d wal ere fe , 
. 70 dant oF .5em, Vs LIV. 
antl a at ask La6 si 


= : , 
age =e 
7 P: 4 ‘oe 





82 

positions were taken by the antagonists, primarily E.B. Os- 
ler, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Toronto 
West, and various members from the West, mainly Messrs. 
Davis, Scott, and Oliver. Osler, well known as a success- 
ful financier of wide ranging interests, naturally bore the 
brunt of the charges made by the Western members concerning 
the financial operations of the companies with which he was 
associated, 

Statements similar in content to the following were 
made on several occasions by Osler: 


The financing of these two roads, they should hold... . 
up as an example, and as an absolute contrast to any 
other road that has been built in the North-West as a 
branch or a small concern. ... These two roads were 
built for honest cash put into them. . .. absolutely 
straightforward and honorable,1! 


In the opposite vein were these characteristic re- 
marks of Mr, Scott: 


There have been many remarkable railway transactions 
perpetrated in this country, but I will venture to make 
the statement, and I make it advisedly, that in the 
whole history of railway legislation and railway trans- 
actions in the Dominion of Canada, there cannot be 
found a transaction so atrocious and so inexcusable as 
those two transactions in connection with the Prince 
Albert and Regina and Calgary and Edmonton Railways.2 


extending westerly from a point on the Macleod extension and 
for accompanying projections, (Ibid., 4-5 Geo. V, Cap. 74, 
assented to 27th May, 1914.) 


InDebates of the House of Commons, 9th Parl., 3rd 


me ee er ee ee 


Sess., 3 Edw. VII, 1903, p. 10499, 
2Ibid., 4th Sess., 4 Edw. VII, p. 2367. 




































1 


-20 .&.4 Winsatsg ¢2: 
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pon pichamn' easw cake aire 


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Te ad + CR 


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metith “o£ «a * rs s 


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<— Soe ies 
re in < on es +3'h Cant 4S as 
gly ‘wolfo3 odds oe 393909 ot —— ednomads 32 
af. ~ ~ Sar ~ a: a es 
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& as J29W-no10oK ss suk siiug meat est 32 YS. 
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os 4 


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° 






siem o3 stvtsev [fiw I' sud Barter | at 98383704. 
oid mb Seto” xEboatubs: 3% Soisit’*T “brs * asin 
= cron bas soksaletgel 5 t 20 qrozeld as 
3 ‘otedd Abs): 3 10 


amod sit “ee 
28 fein res oe rc euoloor Js en ONT BAe 


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oe EB fiah nosnoahs bas giso be 
ahaa 727 See G FS» a ee : ree 
bas edible boafoslM od ‘pO. te a 
OT .qad ,¥ .090 G8 jak aD) ands 





*s SDo 
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NDE > me oh uc 
«V0E: » FT 


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rs a 


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oon) 

= € U » 
ian . 


83 

As a result, stated Scott, 

these two railway transactions have done more to damage 

the credit of Canada on the money markets of the old 

country than any other railway transaction that can be 

mentioned, 1 

Acrimonious debate revolved about the charge that 
the government land subsidy end the proceeds from the saie 
of bonds had been used not only ty of railway construc- 
tion but also substantially to enhance private fortunes at 
the expense of the Canadian taxpayer, end especially those 
settlers dependent upon the Calgary and Hdmonton Railway. 
Public subsidies had been used, it was claimed, not to keep 
permanent indebtedness down, as they were intended to be 
used, but rather as security for increasing the bonded in- 
debtedness far beyond the actual cost of construction. The 
heavy interest charges resulting had to be borne by the 
traffic on the railway, thus keeping freight rates up. 
Osler, either by direct accusation or by implication, was 
cast in the role of the culprit in the whole deal. 
The crux of the argument against Osler and his as- 

sociates in the Calgary and Edmonton Railway project was 


laid down in certain figures frequently quoted in Parlia- 


libid., p. 2763. 


4 - 
‘ . : “aya! 
ware WP 
s y 


s32m8bh of arom enob evad nok anemrdx 
blo sf to ¢tsdsam ‘youotn 91f3 yotorme - 
ed neo Jad gelsosens13 yewilat 2 Ne 






















-” th Ped 


> é Oi 


tsgJ3 sgusdo sedlz a beviovs: stsdeb— 


is eer 
ig ’ 
-olne a3 mati abseoorg eds. bas eoteidue 2 nam? 









-ouijanoo yawlisx +0 bts al «ino Jon ee tee 
+ ehe@ad 
3s esnsr02 sidiekte acne of vileiaa te due onta 


seords uletosqes, bas toysquad optbsasd hers 
12 <« &) e~ 

yswiled sojne nbs ‘bas Yeagen? ods nog aa ie 
gae1 of Jon yeas aa tk ,beeu-neod. bad 2etbied J eo, 


es its | 
sd 0 bebastak exsw ved 28 sto saechendehat 


i = rie 


-al botnet eis satesozont a wtsunee 


‘4 
* 


—- 


~~ ee , 


oaiT ye Pee OE to jas Iauson. od3, hea ta 7 


odd vd sirsod a a bad, 





i > ” 
yr % 
- 


' wi. ges sighed ae outs . 


84 


ment by their critics: 


Calgary and Edmonton 
paid up stock...... $1,000,000 


Calgary and Edmonton 
bonds sold...... 5,474,513 


en 





Total BUORERPOONGS . 6c donee lancer sete $6,474,513 


Annual cash subsidy: 
20 years at $80,000 
Total cash subsidy...... 1,600,000 


Value of land grant: 
1,880,000 ac. at $3....... 5,664,000 





Total gov't. Ald. 24 keen eer ee $7,264,000 


Total financial resources avail- 
able for construction of Calgary 
and Edmonton Railway......$13,738,513 


Total cost of railway (based on 
figures in Report of Dep't. of 
Railways and Canals....... $3,743,562 








LE nO aE EEE eae Mirage, Oo PR Ye Rian pe $9,994,951 


This amount, according to Scott, represented the "total 
swag on this road,"2 
A similar accounting was given of the financing of 


the Qu'Appelle Railway, showing a figure of $6,308,940 in 


financial resources available in excess of actual cost, 


libid., 3rd Sess., 3 Edw. VII, 1903, 


25 dem 




























- 5 «a = r : Pes rh ‘ 
i ao 2 
eo “. me rai, eet 
a -” A: ‘ ae aA > ct 7 


ae IIL. ot ) } 
000, 000,19 aes nts irae a 


7 tel a~ 


moj cont 


en ne er<, ATA, au. seen sabloa 4 





i’ 
ies ‘ale > jit : 
. « 9 ——« - bd ~ | 
Ele nh 198 v's as’ easiarae nike ane Oa 
. y - +n — ~ a a 


000,000,L soon shad: oa 


:3aety bast mi vo 
‘000 , odd, Re eee Lys ~98 000, coer 
a Se eee ee me . , — or a a j have ws 





- 


020 a : ox, x renee teeta eeeseeane BEB 2 vo E83 3 









-[isvs esozvoest istonant? 

yis3is) to motsouzdeaon ose on 

ere BEF £13 2... Oost igh nos noma "Baa Ea 
ait 

Syste cy eas ‘buesd) vowites to zoo f of. 
| to .3'gqad to, tx0ged), at eos, git 
RE COR CH . is. eTahed raed pepo an ee 





— “A | Loe aes 
ip = Wee eae cc. Ae ee 
120 AR, 12e . cag eecese ste nts semeimnaans "| 
VER Te oO ie: ha = 


Istos" ods botasaexqox (330: 


\ ~~ Ta a Se ° x * <? ye 2 > m4 


ie Fn 
See! 2 Bae oe ee 


39 gntonsat?, od 30 aevig 
<5 a» ds,’ .% ee Fs: 


nk Od@, 806 28 to omg 


. 3205 {auso6 ie ses 


85 
Combining the figures for the two companies, there was left 
a "little rake-off amounting to sixteen and a half million 
ieee in the words of Scott,1l 

fon the basis of this, or similar, reckoning, Osler's 
antagonists, who were indignant over the apparent discrep- 
ancy between the cost of the railways and the resources 
available as well as over the bad condition of the lines 
and inadequacies in the service, asked certain blunt ques- 
tions and made particular accusations, Similar questions 
and accusations were put forth in the editorial pages of 
the Edmonton Bulletin and several other newspapers in the 
West, 

To the charge that he and his associates had been 
guilty of profiteering in their railway enterprises, Osler 
strenuously objected. He frequently took pains to make the 
point that several earlier companies or individuals had 
considered the government request to take up the contract 
and to arrange financing for either of the two roads but had 
in every case either turned down the offer or failed to 
find the necessary financial backing and had been forced to 
give it up. 


In the case of the line from Calgary to Edmonton, 


lipid,, 4th Sess., 4 Edw. VII, p. 2768. 
























iL S43 


. su a 
Fist 2nw ines oataagucn ov. 9 


ae 
notilie Wed s bas nogaxte 0: aa . 


te < 


Sas 
‘v iter 


o ab — 


a ~*~ tt 
- - £33008 : 


Lo 





a ~~ oo, “6 ni ix i 
a‘teled , aninedsst velimie to we ae eke 
‘ s . & pe 3 : 
-qotoelb tnetsqqs ons z8v0 Snaagtbat ¢ 
“4 Coat ‘a 7 = 
Sted car 


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Pras 


seal od to _ sola tbaos bad edt 19v0 ea f 


2 e 


ea 
eau Sauld nbat3s9 bodes <2okvise el ‘a 


estoi2 -_ § 23Ip IE I ‘ kmk@ > ,anok2seuo9B teats | a & 


to segsq Istrotths orig ok trot tog ezow & a ie 


git ak aztsqsqewosr tad30 iaxeves bas bate a 703.056 


Meck ‘ zo a ‘ 
an, Eng ry o_o. : - ‘> ae ° ee 4g: 7 
oa 5 


eats aS ‘ + - we 4 > é * ee yer a ey ae a 


aS, 4 Sgt a 
goed ‘BE ef assatoquas abt bois Pe, 


ae ~ + ad 
s9f2O .eoebigyesns ‘ulis: soda, gs 


¢ 


gai “aSam o2 gnisa " 4oo3 ‘clear 
sad et £1 Sutit vibat “40 aslasqnos 


"So8zshos “etl dv ‘daa eoiper 3 


“ee batict Yo ‘telte Pe 
62 baptot ftasd me i a Js iba 


“7 4 ™y ose a? Aa : ae: 


.fognombas of y 


ae 
7 


J 


hes 


86 


"The charter for that railway," Osler stated, "was hawked 


bout from one end of the continent to the pitas It was 
submitted in England, trying to raise money to build the 
road, and the effort was unsuccessful." After this fail- 
ure, the government, "who were exe oadin ete anxious that the 
line to Edmonton phaia be constructed, as a preventive to 
further trouble with the Indians," asked James Ross, con- 
tractor for the Qu'Appelle Rel wate to take up the contract 
and approached Mr. Osler to use his influence to arrange 
financial backing in England. According to Osler, 

the government were so anxious that the railway should 

be constructed that they passed the original order in 

council for the subsidy, subject to the sanction of 

Parliament before such sanction was obtained, and it 

was upon this order that the financial arrangements in 

England were commenced, 3 

Osler insisted all along that neither he nor any of 

the "promoters" made any money on the Calgary and Edmonton 
Retiway protect or on the Qu'Appelle venture, Every dollar 
of what was raised by way of the government subsidy in cash, 
sale of the government land subsidy, and sale of bonds was 
spent on the road, "These two roads were built for honest 


cash put into them," he maintained. 4 There had been no 


— 


libid., 3rd Sess., 3 Edw. VII, 1903. 
2Idem 3Idem 
4tbid., p. 10499. 


_ 7 ? 
ws 





























se 
9 


besten aa" botaae aisb 


ba | Rachel 
2nw 41 ,tedi0 ads o2 Ynon am > ant. 
ee > 2 ie Yi 7 ae 


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’ 
* - 


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ef3 3Jed3 evolxns clantbesons sdaiaioll a 


» @ se oe 


in 7 es 7 
oad svt as B eS .bogours3en09 of, ian jos 
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o~ wa: ~ ‘ : . 3% 


JosT3nos eddy qu eAsza oF Youll al teqga' Bs a: 3c jt 20: 
J ’ % * =~ ey . 2) 
gostis oF sonsulltal aid seu oF xsted . 


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oe yawitsx of? Isd3 evolxas of stew sasmmsyog Sn 
Ysbed Inntgtu edd boeaedq yotd Fad3 beton x1JaM0o §: 

to goijonsa si3 ot soatdue ,ybledue end 4 Ont 
an bi fis" bectaido esw nottonse dove ‘erofed ¥ 
nt eto megnB Its latonantd eda tans teb70 § akdd . 


ee 





ice * Sp! . . ro hae ao som Lt] a be y st iia 
y AL : al Pie 
To “ers “torr od x9rlt ton jefs gnols {ts = a: wnt ag ; 
~~, a @- ¢ 


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rsIlob Gove * Lewin! oo0gh" 9 ae ae 0 3 


ris 


.desp ot ySletue entreeven eae r ve 


ty 


2aw Ebfiod 20 ‘athe ‘bis vbbadua >of’ rad 


tal 3 
i 2sn0n ‘to¥" 3ftud ‘sz dit’ abeor owt ¢ oat" 


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7 Ven 
4 4 ¥, nh 


{208 ate ae 


e 


87 
Hrake-off," He himself was poorer, he said, for his associ- 
Beton Pith: the two roads, He had had to take almost 
$200,000 in Calgary and Edmonton bonds at par, bonds which 
were worth under $140,000 in 1897, His firm, Osler, Ham- 
mond and Nanton of Winnipeg, had received less than half of 
the normal business commission for its efforts as agents, + 
and that mainly in land.? He stated that only the contrac- 
tor, James Ross, had made a profit out of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway. 

Osler held that he had taken on responsibility for 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, as well as for the Qu'Ap- 
pelle Railway, merely in the ordinary course of business, 
that he had done so at the request of the government--after 
others had failed--who asked him to use his influence with 
financial people in England to interest them in backing 
the road. He had had no interest, direct or indirect, in 
the charter originally, he said.> He had not been one of 
the original incorporators nor had he promoted the road, 


He had allowed his name to stand in the act of incorpora- 


‘lipid., p. 10498. 
2tbid,, 4th Sess., 4 Edw. VII, 1904, 


3"T had no connection directly or indirectly with 
promoting-the company or obtaining the charter," Idem. 







‘ 4 We ~~." f er 42 we 


te _— =e 
-lsowes eid sot ee od oe age ems 
fe thn c v 


sa) .* 
es er, 
+ =< 











seoula oxa7 3. bad | bad 


doidw ebnod ,18q . Hf absiod anes e: anata 


“me Hi ‘ wad 20 mri 2 iM «TOSI at 000, aan %. cee se aus 
Pe : “oJ - a a bas : - - : 
to tiad ass aael, bauaeoas wer aetna ice bE 


4 . F Pe aay i: a te is 
c te mi oe ae 
, steonn af at xotis ae x03 aoteatonos vg it 


f~ 
bi * . % -* 


: 




















-sgzJaeo edi yao sad petase ‘aH S bast ae 


i VIAgLAY ed3 No 3u0 Jtoxgq +. ‘obas ‘uk 2 


P| = ve 
- a. = 
a Py { ve i ~ - , - >, oh 


an 1 yikLidienoqes2 ‘go onde bad od jads bod t yeted 


a ae 
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-gh'nP..eds tot 26 tilow #6 puthall 2 cosnoabl & i. 


4 


re 
¥ /s 
4 


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- a 
4 e » a 
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negts-.Iasp is vos ,on3.. To J2eupe7 | eds 2h Of 4 
plibtinie ne. 7 ¥ Ae Ea aie 
ae he ia 
_giteiw sopoultat eid oan rd (ate bavies. ori isi . 
alte io Bie wm Ae ety oat) we Te 
gcizcad at mod jgosazal ot se rt. 
se tw “its Somer . 
gh... 299% og 23 19, Aagrth, .23eneaal. on 
' a a TA had 


a iti 


.. 


1o, 290.599 999,309, bed faite tee et dB t 


a > “es 


" Hei 
bag, 2. beagmand, 8 BY eae ot : 
. ny (hae - 
“ sagoggont,2 7 ate ee nee oat ; 
Ne” y 


y 


“4,0, Oe Ae or ae : 


oS ees “erat 


‘iil <i path io & 
abl " 1sdaedo 


88 
tion "at the request of the incorporators--practically at 


the request of the Government of the day "4 

The unedifying hassle as to raves Osler was or 
was not an incorporator or promoter of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway continued because, it appears, neither 
party to the quarrel was willing to clarify his position 
in the light of what the other party was saying, Clearly, 
Osler's name appears in the act of incorporation as a men- 
ber of the Board of Directors, Whether his role in arrang- 
ing financial backing for the railway and his other activi- 
ties in behalf of the Company qualify him aR "promoter" 
of the railway is a matter of definiticn, actaioaliy. it 
would seem that he was nore "agent" than promoter, It is 
true that Osler was not Screae Cre bert ks the project for an 
Edmonton-Calgary railway originaily; his association with it 
dated back to about the time of the incorporation of the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company in the spring of 1890. 

In addition to general protestations of the honesty 
of his and of his associates’ dealings on behalf of the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company and its sister company 
in Saskatchewan, Osler undertook to give an account of" the 
disposal of the financial resources available to the Com- 


pany. On numerous occasions in the House of Commons, he 


lidem 






























33 vllsolsoauq>-axe8 


1 gab arts 


P< 


ITD 
x0 asw tole setsail o3 es "is ety * cut ess 
‘ ® Mg. . a 


- cw 


nei Yisgiso ‘eft Yo xeJomoxg TO. 


S 
"" — 
v 


saditen 6: 1ssqqs +. .saunoed headin hei’ BA 
i ie 2. aM zs 

bszeog ald Atsate ‘od gntitiw ‘aay I : arma 3 

: a ae eee 


dw ko Sigel 
7, 0 
Ege 


pe 


stag 


“ltselD .gnityse esw “a1aq r9Ai20 orld ts 
-m9m & 4s noksexoqzoont to joa od? at vsaeaee 4 
osxts ot slot etd tediedW  piddennedl 20 buaod od 
-tvisos tedao aid bas Vawl 2am eds 203 anbiaed me re 

“sst90moxq" & cae mati viilaup ae re 5. tis 


| ee) ¥ geet cy 
$i ,yffsoltndosT .acttintish to ap3i80 s at yswiisz 


at 3I .xeJomozg mda "anega" stow eaw ee a ods ms 


as tot tostor¢ off daiw badakoonial Jon ¢ it 0106 | 


tk iw not tyatsoees etd ivitaatgize Lenn ‘Waa: apts 
base re 
ods Yo noltstoqxoont ‘od to omts edt tuods of slasc 


eels 
as < F 
-O8Or Yo ‘paktgs ond nt yasqnod. coer ab 
a. © 

yieenod sits Yo eonbjniantod insaleg 


‘of? Ro tisded a0 tgntinsd ig | sto me 7 
yonqmop s9i3gte at} bke vemngned 


" 


yi seal a 
Rc) 
: r +f By 
-me) atid. o3 oldalk 1S. — 6x 
bates, 


ea pre *®.' 





odd 2o Smwooos fs ovis of : 





# ovens to a me o 
a. oP ia 


re 







> wel i" 


* 


89 
repeated that approximately $5,500,000 was raised in cash 


by the sale of "the land and the bonds," By the "land," 


Osler meant that part of the land grant remaining seeer the 
government retained one-third as security for the Company's 
fulfillment of its contract with the government and, appar- 
ently, after certain other relatively small assignments of 
land had been made, All of this money, Osler flatly 
states, was put into the cost of the road: "The whole of the 
money which I have mentioned as having ccna sed = put 
into these two roads," According to official figures re- 
ported to the Reevancnt the Calgary and Edmonton Railway 
cost about $3,750,000 to construct, There remains a bal- 
ance of about $1,759,000 which, according to Osler, was de- 
posited with trustees as a guarantee for the payment of six 
years of interest on the bonds at six per cent per annum, 3 
As Osler put it, "I explained that the land was sold with 


the bonds to a syndicate, which is a very common way of do- 


Itbid,, 3rd Sess., 3rd Sess., 3 Edw. VII, 1903. 
~2rpid., p. 10454, 


3cost of six years of interest on $5,474,513 at 
six per cént per annum compounded annually would amount 
to $2,292,248. The figure of $1,970,820 quoted in Parl- 
iament by Osler's opponents covers simple interest charg- 
eS. 
































i¥ 
i Ait 


wat cf ©! ret w Glatt) oar 
dano a beater enw 208) 002, 22 


2 Tee, ig 


» " bass” oid ea T ebnod ort ban t vant 
, ae ned ‘a 


si3 stedta 4 gnluiemes Ina 73 baal ody Bed 


e "naga ) edt 203 vatavese a8 bit-ene 4 

f em: a, 

-taqgs .ban Ine — eta Aste Josan03 22. 
; F i "Vs ia Bis 7 

70 adn magless {is ma Ulovizafex z9d3o 0 


elaslt xsfe0 . Yanom akds to fA aleate 
7; ae or a)? whys > 


alt to al orte eft" ‘bsox ols to T2200 orig ovat rg ts 
“tay 


Juq esw beetazx osed paives an benotinem pay te arial 
: j + eye Ble 
* 7 ~~ Si ; 
-91 2etugli Istoltito o2 _giatb10o04 -abBox ows seed 
J * = a 7 - ee i ‘ sig ad 
vavliss sotnomb og bas yu 5 rh ort (Tapers vag, 62 | 19 
j ‘ me “ — >, yi toe: : 
«fed s satamet oxedy | Jouxdeq09 oJ 000,02 suod 
oes ANTS gt 
“ob 28w et9f20 03 gatbxo0os ,doikehe 000 “eet ett 3 
=~ -. 7! My - 4 gle eh, 
xle 36 Inom eq edd pr soaanzaug & 8&8 Bo 
=a oe ' Se St = . “f i an a “ay 
\ . mets tag Jme2 x9q xte 3a obaed oe 
z a - pyr oat Pe “ tm. ™ ~* 


asiw- plate 2.BW pant orld Ag b 


eet a ae 

a 

ob to Yew sommes (yrey 8 ur dotdw ,etaotbaye ; 
t aide ', * rT * oh ~ ¢ 7 5! sum er Whe 

lek. * SRT A ii! para ry, . ie et 


bestiasz yenom elodw ri ee 


: ‘ 


ee ¢ 4 td ae e _ ine “ 


£00L rv satel jc0eba ibs ei 


wits 
te ieee 


“Sa CPezotey Bes a Sak? | 
rubs - tty TUOGMOD "1 
merece chr £830 proas 
~ abit saaroe tar. el Seni e | a 


x>. 





3 


Be cad 
- ss . 


90 
was expended on the construction of the road and in payment 
Of the interest.""! Herein lies one of the sources of mis- 


understanding,. it appears, between Osler and his opponents, 


They understand by "cost of the road," the actual cost of 


construction; he means by the same phrase, the cost of con- 


struction plus the cost of six years of interest on the 


bonds, Osler's critics, including the Edmonton Bulletin, 
are unjustified in persistently failing to include inter- 
est charges as part of the cost of the road, 

Osler's ai anaeat this point is, nevertheless, 
vulnerable inasmuch as the official figures filed with the. 
government show a bonded indebtedness on the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company of $5,474,513.2 Clearly, then, the figure 
of about $5,500,000 represents the anount of proceeds ac- 
cruing to the Company from the sale of bonds only, not from 
the sale of bonds and land grant, as Osler held, 3 In the 
minds of his critics, the question arose: What, then, be- 


came of the land grant? On this matter, the indignation of 


Istatutes of Canada, ibid., p. 14588, Underlining 
mine, 


2Sessional Papers, 1903. 

3the assumption here is that all of the bonds were 
sold at par, This is always the clear implication, and 
there is no evidence for believing that they were not, 
Osler himsetf admits buying Calgary and Edmonton bonds at 
par, 


ae 
Inzemysa at baa baox oa Io a 

Jat és ; ae er aes 
-eta to 2997%N08 ofa to 90 ve 




































Fo tae 7 ane 
- 8Insn0ggo — brs ‘eI20 noswied 278 ‘BS 
4 hy 525 a 2 » a 


te tacos Insutos ots ",ba03 els. to Jeo ‘toe 
* 1% Me A: = dé _ 
~f05 %0 teoo ef3 ozandg t amsa orl3 vd angoa | 1 :n0t- 


a. " a uth tee 
sii no Jasteint 22.8 e1s0y xte to j200 sd -eulq ¢ 
ite es ressq, 


unk: efind potnor nb 3 ors theta 2oktins | e'sole 


’ . oles 
_— te ee ee + —_— 





‘ . > 
“192 ni sbutont o3 gat {tet eiamsvetexeq ae 


~bsox orf? 20 3809 Pet “to dang ¢ 


= 


a =e Es 
,eeelond is 1S Vern at sntoq elds 3a aotzieeq fe 


"att sig el 
sis diiw bolt somugtt Latotite oxi 2s doumemnt § (ds 


sans 


wo ae ane Sis ae bs be 
on Yis ofan Ys be} a Se 5 bier -Bapeen 
, Cees 7 96 
e1ugtt a3 «neds po Da Sete, ATs, 22 to 
’ “f" - ‘ ye y 
~o8 ubse s90tq. to Snuous od ssnsnexgex 000, 
he: 
morta jon cele, abnod tc ona ott most | 
7 ok & at ar JS 
edd al € Sted skthb oa ang be 


2 » $ ; ee ef Oy eg gaged? sith 
“od 19 als sedw 198018 nolteaup | 


> y 2 | 
PO Ca Pe pic Ds Se” 


to sofsang bak wes _totsam ‘okdig he a 
2% pe Tote TF he At vie net Sw 7 


Ce rais cs 
fx 


guint isebritf « 88281 "6g iene of 
P tyigl ath cane, fee eee rs | 


oe Weir 


RIE abiucckegtla 
. bee ,nobaest ge 
| en pain es 
38 sbrod: 


ps 
Members of Parliament from the North-West rose to a high 
pitch, They estimated the value of the grant of 1,880,000 
acres at enFtticks from $3,500,000 to $5,500,000. Osler 
pointed out that not all of the land erant was available 
to the Company--over 400,000 acres had been kept back by 
the government as security for the Company's fulfillment 
of its transportation contract with the government, Fur- 
thermore, Osler insisted, the land should not be evaluated 
in terms of its later accrued value, but rather for its 
actual selling Weike at the time of the grant, 

At any rate, Osler himself stated that the land 
had been sold at the nominal price of one dollar per acre 
to the "syndicate," Morton, Rose and Company, who had 
agreed £5 issue Bonge for the Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way. "Most of the land grant," he said, "was sold to 
resiize $1,436,000 required eb UBS ihee-és¢ on the bonds 
for 6 years."1 Osler later made the statement: "Five mil- 
lion, five peniréd thousand dollars were raised ik cash 


by the sale of the land and of the bonds."2 If both of 


the statements were correct, it follows that the net pro- 


er ee ee 





IDebates of the House of Commons, Sth Parl., 61-62 
Mace, 0No, p. 726. 


2tbid., 9th Parl., 3rd Sess,, 3 Edw. VII, 1903, 
Po 10498, * 













' 2 Vv 


’ 
, = 


“Yaid-s od 201“ 3e0WeR 2 picarend 
a x q ) 7 amy 
000,088. F te seg 5 40 * gasli hits bs: 
* sols» -,000, o0z : ee ot porn $a 3 ; 


“eldsitava t6w sa82g baal eff to 1a tals dad ; 


sry tt. 


.. 


© vd"sloed sto ‘need bad soids “0003008 er: 


Pray 


tnomlit?fct = “yaagmod’ eda x02 Ctuiode as 8 Scout 
wi rs. : 

-sut jee teveg anz dis be 39873200 mobs x04 geo 
oh 

bsijauisvs od'jon biuoite: biel eft Besetans an 





oA 


23?--ro8 19dves Sud sulsy beutaos ‘sabat 













shi: 
as oat a Me tal - 
Ya ‘ ,Jastg of? “lo-emis ‘ott ey mma anki Io: 


. i baal 
oe eit” ‘9A Poke basse: Bivemtet sale0 oon 

S ‘: ad ™ Pa ; 

e198 t9q i1sllob eno to eolzg: Leak od 38 f 


aS 


= 













' eee {eis bas ato fs a — Sat 


pe fut 
-1 eS s103 dba" bos yrsgisd od not 


a4 





Pt We f 
Pr, 


4% bfoa ‘co biee sot et ” 





‘Monod ods £0 30% axstnt ‘aude 





<1 awed? snomadifsa et ooo amas 

- Sepa ak: ‘Beate’ ; a ns wot 
2o-i9ed 21» Sujet 4b i 
s00q 28n éad tad Senge’ 
mares. ate Sones 


ca-re a8 a8. «gnome. 
bs we od ‘it 







92 
ceeds from the sale of bonds totalled only about $4,000,000, 
and the $1,436,000 netted from the sale of the land would 
then bring the total proceeds to approximately $5,500,000. 
This reconciliation of Osler's statements, however, is un- 
acceptable since the evidence is against the sale of bonds 
at less than par. A reading of the available record 
leaves the writer with the strong impression that Osler 
was less than frank in his explanations of the disposal of 
the land grant, It is difficult to avoid sharing the Bul- 
letin's suspicion that the bulk of the grant was, in effect, 
transferred "gratis" to a land company formed for the pur- 
pose of shridteth) ene srant. 

There is yet to be considered the annual govern- 
ment grant of $80,000 in cash. Legislation governing the 
cash subsidy contained a clause permitting the Company to 
"assign the same by way of security for any bonds or sec- 
fark tos which may be issued by the Company."+ According- 
ly, the $80,000 a year, as Osler stated, did not go to the 
promoters but was assigned to the bondholders, Indeed, 
after the funds originally deposited for interest payments 


had been exhausted, all that was available for payment of 





Istatutes of Canada, 53 Vic., Cap. 5, assented to 
16th May,.1890., 


000; “606, 4¢ ayods: ino’! 


=e 


ed 


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bss 


aie 


% 


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i. Pics 
4 eb 


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pel irdiey 


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PIP ¢ 


brose: sfdaitsvs edz to srsbeer. 4 tt 


uae 


fo 
my 


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o Ineogath ant Ro enolssasigqxs aid ak. i ad. 


“ig 


fxd’ oid Ymbtedde Epova 03 1fwol8@kb eb 3I , bet, oe 
oeTté at (e bew Iie rg sft to alud edt apa 


wl 


af 
> 


"Sat in FF Retina ie ae  hainaaaia 


-mrsvog Teunns ods barebtenos od of a0 
sii} gntoiovék notsaieiget wien ab 
o3 erage 49 ef? gots inteq: seualo B be: ata ste] 
“doe 10 dbaod: ns: 30h whsuoge dou ; won 
wplidpactelid Ae Sissi ods vd baueat edie . 

atl” 02 ag tor ‘Bib ihoonisale0.mm yaa ne s : 
bot lah ama 
a2agaryeq Jegigipr ww. 2 st 

to InomYEG 10% tatian _ aw Te 


’ ‘ o pone 
: isa lag . ‘aa ; 


T° + s, > 


od bethetes io iD vor’ 


ee ae at a Fe Pel 
sw cig may 


r eal it om 


93 

interest was this government subsidy which, incidentally, 
averaged out to about two per cent annually on the total 
investment in bonds,1 

Nothing has been said about the disposal of the 
capital stock of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Com- 
pany. In the reckoning of Osler's critics, the amount of 
the capital stock, $1,000,000, was included among the finan- 
cial resources available to the Company. This assumption 
by the Bulletin and certain Members of Parliament seemed 
justified inasmuch as annual reports of the Department of 
Railways and Canals showed that the $1,000,000 in capital 
stock authorized by legislation was also subscribed and 
paid up. What did "paid up" mean in this context? 

When questioned on the same point with regard to 
the Qu'Appelle Company, Osler stated that the capital 
stock was not paid in cash. "Capital stock in those days 
and today is seldom put in cash."3 Concerning the stock of 
the Calgary and Edmonton Company, he also stated that it 


was not all paid in cash originally.* On a later occasion, 


| 


Sess., 3 Edw. VII, 1903, p. 10502. 
2Sessional Papers, loc. cit. 
3Debates of the House of Commons, loc. cit. 


_ 4rpid., 9th Parl., 4th Sess., 4 Edw. VII, 1904, 
pp. 2853-4. 

















tilazeedjonh Hoste, ss a 
fsto3 sif2 mo vitae. 208 3 vo 


7S 
‘ 
ana & T . ? 


<a iene 
adatr® wey 


od? 30 Lseogeth arlt anode. bias si90d_ 88 ; | gated 


, 


“mov; eR ithe -noaqaaby bas, cael sta al ah 2 wn 
to Jayvons, aft .,aotztya 2 'xol20 20 astaptors of oy 


-ant? od3 ggemg babufonl esv_ 000 ,000 .£¢ se s32qp: 
ipis® 4.9) WIGS & eid? - KaBgmMOD sid, 97a daltons § 5s 
a doametized. 20, =e atsix99, -bas alvel 


jxsqet adit io, ep zogez Ieupss: a5 dounesa, be 


siigso mt Q00,000,1%.ed9 Jad bewwarky sao bon ov 
. oe 


ons (bedsasadye. eels 5W solzehexae xd bas | his & 
pare aids, ot assem "qu. biaq" bib ae 


od rege | dau. Ajntog, aTRe onda, no eae BE 


ha oe > 

Bea, 

_psyheso gi dads porate xefsd «aes i iis 

“ sha 

awe pega gt aaote Asa tqey), wa. eg 

io appa, psa, megan i aah an 
24, beasda, cea .ed,  wepamod at ees 


,aobeaovo xe3el = nO ana ae, 2 BA 








iy 7 NE ne 
bs iret a | easiek 2 oan. 


Soethe FOR 





"ea! Sy Se aoe ieee 





are et 4 


94 


he declared, "The stock of the Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 


way Company, if I recollect rightly, was issued to the 
contractors as part of the consideration for carrying out 
the contract," Such expenditure, however, must surely 
form a part ts the cost of construction ($3,750,000 by of- 
ficial figures), and payment by assignment of capital 
stock should mean that much less call on other available 
funds, The statement, therefore, was not at all a satis- 


factory answer to the critics and served to reinforce 


bh 


their suspicion of a "rake-off" by promoters," 


Although his memory is strangely eae and his 
statement productive of other unanswered questions, 2 
Osler's explanation is plausible. If the contractors, 
Ross, Mann, McKenzie, and Holt, held the stock, it may 
weli be that there was no actual cash involved. Two of 
these men, it is well known, later perfected a system of 
building and owning thousands of miles of railway without 


investing any of their own money , simply issuing all the 


ree re ce et ee ee ee ee ee 


‘ipid., p. 2854. 


2Was all of the stock issued to the contractors? 
Did they receive it "gratis"--or practically such? Did 
all the contractors participate in tne issue, and if so, 
was it equal participation? On Aug. 5, 1901, the Edmon- 
ton Bulletin wrote: "Another important piece of news is 
that the Calgary and-Edmonton road is cwned by James Ross." 












-fiai riotnombS bab’ 
git da Bauker esw vlodghr “se vel ioc ; 

Pa a a Jon 
Juo gat y2189 208 nolserebrenos off % 


(levve steum erevewoll ery 
‘ 4 A aN pn: .» 
-to ¥d 600/02! 63) qobvousdened roiseee « 3 Ro! oe 
a iit 
5S y y a 7 a 
4lasfizva redto fo ifs> etel dovm tadd 6 pom BI 































@ 
e 


tastqso to tnemngtees yd snomyag - 


aa | dy 
, 


-givse 5 [Te 3s Joh saw ,stotesen3 | Aer: 


s10tatet Si Biovail ‘bas -evivixns otf" 02 * 


4 ot 


* srstcihorg Yd io-sslee™ a Yoh 
wet Baw sugsv Uogasz3e ‘ae (iomem ‘ett 
© erféitesup *borswensny tadso™t0 ovt s5ut 


| i 
OFS Sieh eae bs 1 \eldtevsiq ef noksem slg 


Ad aa 
aii a > oe 


- “ee 9) (tebae? add bien fon bas" | pei r% 
Pe eee ee ee sa nee 

ee owt ? _ps¢iovat' wieao’ fide “one ; jaef3 

« res AS sey 


‘> magedé + Badoatveg ‘siiat: veo 1 


ne ‘\. 


wy 





A © aes di 


" 





suorttw Yeullet te eolitt toe 
“isto Yr gnith ea’ "“‘etonibe coho 


~ 2s ome Gel oie ae “i ss 


ee Nr ee ag 
Sex03Se73MA09 , o3 Socials 
bad Sdous Ulaok se 
>< re 
-goss ag x P y § 


a ae on a 


95 

capital stock to themselves, In 1898 Osler stated, when 
asked the question whether the stock of the Calgary and Ed- 
monton Railway Company was issued as "water," that if it 
sia it would be worth the same at that time, thereby evad- 
ing the question, ! The Canadian Pacific Railway in 1903, 
however, agreed to pay $500,000 for the capital stock-- 
presumably to the above-named contractors or to Ross alone. 
Again, the Bulletin's suspicions, not unreasonable, with re- 
spect to the capital stock were not allayed by Osler's de- 
fence of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company. 

"OQver-bonding" of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway - 
drew far the ire of penbere of Parliament and of the west- 
ern press, especially the Ednonton Bulletin, After making 
a comparison of Canadian with American railway experience, 
James Hedges concluded that the Canadian Pacific Railway 
had kept its bonded indebtedness very low by contrast with 
the "enormous bonded indebtedness which had characterized 


most railways on the continent,"2 Hedges’ opinion of the 


smaller colonization railways in Canada, such as the Cal- 


gary and Edmonton Railway, however, was much less favor- 


1pebates of the House of Comnons, loc. cit. 


2 Tames B. Hedges, The Federal Railway Land Subsidy 
Policy of Canada (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 


— —_—-- 


1934), p. 34. 







seh botaia sale agen a 
sian 
~b3 boa cragiad of) to Fan. 


Th Ui aed2 " sosew" en fileshgantes 
" ee 
_ aes 


-bsvs ydered? ,smi3 seh 38 ope oft 1 dd 30% ”" 








: , 6 wha 
CORl anh oul et ofitops apentae oh ale k 










) Pe 


- load Isztgso ods, 103, 000, 0088. ¥84..03 %8 
% = ; 7 bil a > 
.snols geod oF yo etoyoatIngS ambien ot yf 


by ‘— e 


dtiw sl dano2ss xfs Jon .SAOLA AAU, B, 


ob ea'xeleO yd beyalis Jon szew doors Taaiqao af acl ihas: 
“wgqmoo yawlish aplaombs ben, sgiad, oda 2 0.9} 
vswitsl, co2nemb’ bos yaeglsd 9d3 29 | heii fae gi 
; Peck 
— an, ant 2 how : ~~ , 
tpow oft 20 bas, Inemp tf: 184 29. _aaringh 49.8 ep 


4 eer 


goldag 2933h 2 Ean eb LOO ert x ‘i Liptooqee.. 
 DoggtIogKS XS wi haz peop awh iabw 38 y 3080, 2 M08 8 
: pace: ‘7 . : 

wuliof aittost, pstbans a3 aa bebi ye) are 


y cba ye 
day. 2 8p: 3902. xd. wol Yxev, pee habaod ies | 


bostasa cages ‘tet cd sntete te | 
. 9ff9, do, 294 £9698, eosbpH, $n es 
~iB., sF, Bh, A2ue_.Sbama.: #8 - if ay 


-tovst sect fioxnn 2aw near | 


a 


®s 
























' 
& wy 


} po. 
oct Y 





96 

able, The editor of the Edmonton Bulletin was less dis- 
criminating in his judgments and threw the net over the 
Canadian Pacific Railway as well as over the smaller roads 
as, for example, when he wrote of "the robbery that has 
been perpetrated in connection with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway and the Calgary and Edmonton and almost all other 
western railways by over-bonding,"1 

What the editor meant by obeK terminology as "the 
swindle that has been worked on the public" was that 
whereas the railway cost about $3,700,000, it was bonded 
at $5,500,000, that is $1,800,000 more than the actual 
cost of construction to the Company--and this in spite of 
the fact that it was endowed with generous government 
subsidies for the very purpose of relieving the Company 


2 


of incurring a heavy burden of debt. It was claimed 


that railways such as the Calgary and Edmonton were being 


bonded "for the largest amounts that could be raised for 


them irrespective of their actual cost,’ 


was being paid on the "last cent that the roads could be 


' and that interest 


bonded for,'"3 


3Ibid., Jan. 17, 1897. 


” 


-8fb “geal awitgeaeae sia ee ir 


ands xevo Sean sdy wordt & 












ebsor rl fame sd3 revo ef tied dag i ae: a 
esd tad2 yieddot efx" to tional “2 ; 
oltiost nsibsnsd “eds ef bw" ‘aitaseiiiee 4 
sedto ifs ttomfs bas totnomba bae=% as BD e 


34 £", satbacd-reve bi 


ie ao 
Z 
- 







ua 


a 4 
© 

















2 


i we 


‘od3" es ygolortatss doive:: ed Inaem 1035 





tedt’ asw “oitdug eft no basin adil ed edi: 


>. - 


bebnod dbw'st 000, 007,22 swods Jaco yewils: odd es 


ee i 


Isut5s sd asf s10m 000, 008 .1¢ at gods C 00, a 


ot 


to ‘stige- at etd? bes-+ynsqmod si? of n 04 92 


eos. 
ey * iO 
A) 8 ait ' : 7 hare a." 
‘Snsmitteveg evoreneg “Hatw bouepa eee Es: jad3 


ynedmdod ofS gniveliss to ozoqznq Uev bans ods x4 


lik. bemtslo eswest" S sdob 26 aebyud 4 

giihdd stew nerncibl ‘bs “ciated ‘by as 
> g0% Beebe od Bilis tut ‘een . sie . 
deorsfat satis - beset, Saos Ievsoa % red: 


» aad 
ear 


od bivog sbaey ots _— pz Ree 1 we 


ok ° - 





#> Te =< ofl — 7 AW 
ee 4 ya es o ot ee 
a Neer ane 
4 z wie us? lie 


97 
Several injurious effects of this "over-bonding" 


were cited by the Bulletin. It resulted fas users of the 
road having, in effect, to pay interest on almost $2,000,000 
of bonds which were net matched by any real value in the 
road, The reasoning behind this complaint was that exces- 
sive and unnecessary bonding had loaded the railway down 
with too heavy a burden of interest payments, Most of 

the annual interest payment would have to come out of pro- 
fits on current operations. The necessary result was that 
freight rates had to be kept high, taal of the traffic 
returns having to provide sufficient profits to pay inter- 
est on only $3,700,000 of bonds (minus the amount of bonds 
on which interest payments were covered by the $80,000 an- 
nual subsidy), it had to provide enough to meet payments 

on $5,500,000 worth (minus the same amount) . + Thus, wrote 
the editor, "The great difficulty we have, or shall have 

in dealing ae the question of rates on our railroad sys- 


tem is the fact that the railroads of the country have 


een tied on oned 


1580 ,000 annually would pay interest at six per 
cent on $1,333,333 of bonds, Thus, according to Oliver, 
the Calgary and Ednonton traffic was being expected to 
bear the interest burden on $4,167,000 rather than on only 
$1,667,000. This would mean the difference between expect- 
ing to take about $250,000 out of profits annually for in- 
terest payments rather than about $100,000. 






\ 


“gaikbaod- xove" ald, ia ¢ 


7 
au 








ast3 is nian nek hostile ae f t 


000 600.5% szomfs no “Jestesak vag yt 
"ae es ‘i fa alle 
of) ot sulay Ieae 65>) ‘wd bedotan on. aw do: clu 
: i ie I 
“899%6 3602 enw tgtst qi AQ, gl 2 baked me Mg : ‘ 
) | iaaee Ps 
pegh yswikss sy bokaad bart amibgod yxsagesemay E 














4 a it 
20 ta0oM 23 HSOXAG JeetstaL Ko rob: tvaed 10 : 


> JUG #609 Of evad bluqw Jnsaypg de07: SIrxt | nt dau 


seul? gow tives visesecen sAT senoldezegd go f 


littaxs. ait to. bsetenl ,dsgid 3ged aod of —— 


299 ,Yo5-09 edtiorg : Jostioliigve eblvozg. O23 gntvas dz 


. _ | ae 
ebnsod A% JGLEGB ort. avaked: abitod: = ‘O00, A a i re 
~m& Q00,088 ed? vd bexevos Siow BitepYysq Jzoneda. — 


etisapresg Josm og. siiiandiaia sblveibe: ee 


jen 


sjeru...aud? .* -(eayions omse edd, — 


oved [late +o awed ow wLuohittb 38973 9 re 


a2.% 
; Pn 


















~ 


e\e, booxlper, besa 1% Bate 20, eeeaasie 
QVPR..: x Ae | GS ona 20. sport anaene : 


ee ae he « pF See = 1 =e i p sky 

x8¢ whe Iz teomstak wa i Bier y. Se 

cmprts9 od, satSigeem . emt: sebgod 20 SE 

02, betosqxs- sated BSW otites? 4 103008 mb 

Yao. 6 sagt ysi3er.0 , 8 9 asbt, 

-339qxs NnS8» Sak 2 oes — ate we: 
“al sol yligunns po ogigs | 


98 
been permitted to be overloaded with indebtedness," 

The high freight rates resulting, at fester part, 
from the necessity of earning enough to pay the high in- 
terest charges tended to discourage settlers from coming 
in, make it unprofitable for farmers to market their sur- 
plus, and generally "hinder, if not prevent, the develop- 


ment of the country," claimed the Bulietin. 

The fact ae bondholders had paid in roughly 
$2,000,000 more than the cost of the road, and that earn- 
ings on the road were not enough some the high amounts 
of interest on their bonds after the six-year period of 
guaranteed payments had passed, depressed the value of 
the bonds, argued the Bulletin. In point of fact, by 
1901 $500,000 of unpaid interest had accumulated against 
the Company. Osler admitted that the bondholders were the 
real sufferers, 

It was further charged by the Bulletin that the 
drop in the value of the bonds, due to “over-bonding," 
had injured the value generally of peat railway Spt 
ities on the London market and would make it more diffi- 


cult to gain financial support for future much-needed rail- 


way facilities in the North-West. 





edmonton Bulletin, Jan, 14, 1901. 























’ 


**, eeeonbaadabnt dakw 
.ttaq nl teaser 46 Said luase 


-ak Hgtd sft yaq o9 dguons gnt : 
gaimos cot? ais! 33ee sgstwosetS ot 
“we ted? te:l18m of etemrst ‘Yo? s. 
-gol svab et .Insvetq Jon 2h [tab 


.ntzellua sd3 Dénbete’ Sines m se 
at my 
efdguex.s nut bisq bad. exsblodbacd dad3 -308% 


a 
a 


— 
ie 


-n189 Jed bons ,bsor ed? Yo 3205 od tig 


Si qvoms date sd2- ¥eq o dguons ton -szew: bao ¢ 
to bobueg iss ynute od3 1933s" ‘sbaod ated? ae 


to’ eulsv Prey beeeexrqeb hota bsd etn 190 
vd Jost Xo Sakoq: al attel oLtyleflt b 


\ 


Jectegs beislimuoos bad Jestesat 


sf3 sisw e1sbf0dbnod oda dads be mB 


es «A = a7 


ae 7 ae el La sg 
eds tad? ntIgit aijsiiud ons yd see Z 
"gatbaod-revo" od. oub- ‘<abaod st hed ae u 


Done a” 


- 1982 YawLiex nathenst to yt 
5a war meV tm 
~2S2Eb gstom at ostam biuow & 28 tostzam 

" 3 i 4 


, 
seal 







-[tay bebssnedoun exuia Yo2 : 
3 


f 
ww” * can ate | Ot Bet 


| 


‘. é — 


pes a 


99 


These unfortunate effects of "over-bonding," as 


the Bulletin contended, turned the attention of Western 
spokesmen to corrective possibilities, An instinctive 
Canadian reaction, somewhat in contrast to the American 
pioneer tradition, was to look to government construc- 
tion. This had long been a live issue in Canadian rail- 
way experience, but at that time (around 1900), accord- 
ing to the Bulletin editor, it was not acceptable to many 
people and, therefore, had to be ruled out, 

Even without government ownership of the railways, 
however, it would be possible to control freight rates, 
This was one of the undying issues occupying much space in 
the pages of the Edmonton Bulletin in the 1890's, When 
such control was echieved in connection with the Crows- 
nest Line, it was hailed as a victory by many in the West. 

The limitation of bonding powers to actual cost of 
construction--minus government bonuses--was advocated, Le 
was argued that bonding power should not be based upon 
earning power, projected or actual, as had been the prac- 
tice, but upon cost. 

Each of these solutions would have required gov- 
ernment action, which indicates a recognition of the close 


relationship between the government and the developing re- 









| bs oa, fer es 


\- 

















4" sotbaod _ saith alk 
as “  gmkbao ~xavo" dnetie' eiaene: 
"9 n a iia et * 
<a Bo mol betas of m1 tu bs 
cas 2) el 2 ene 
ovisontseal mh “ gals titdieacq 
yy ee 
saoiiemA od ws Jastta02 ak 38 
> os > by en lla 
wets 


~9v134aned sreoma78veg o3 wool on, re aoe 

























‘ : - ‘ ne? ns - we sai De a4 ote o " ; 
-fis2x nostbansd alk aquaet ovit s nesd gaol a Bad ek ) 
} ‘ 4 cz ia ae i ae J a . cy . 
ae eee 
-bt00S8 (00% bowers) omt3 jtad3 3e dud ,sonels 
at. : .o & el. = ot 
ae , Se a ae 
msm od gildasgqesos Jon saw * seiihe TA 292508 Or 
ret 4 al? «GL! ete eT Se es + 
= - ? . ‘ = t, 
~3u0 bolas ad a2 ‘bad orotexadd she 
wet 3. 4 > an  sewee™ . ** 
avew lis ods to qidexamve. JasamTeVoR Juanda be ma 
cag: & : ae Gey OSS 
.2stsx -2dgte2 loz3a09 93 ofdteaog ed sti roe 
; ‘ 5 ee oy Gite * » 
eet eee FOSS eee sich aie aed 
ok essen coum gab equ uD90 29! eat iiybau od 
‘pet CS Bee yp om he 
coil .2e [008 ‘eit nt pivot ius noIp00b3 & 
Ses $<, 047 Fea ae ™ yh ae al * : vn” by 


~eword ota daiw sotsssones ‘gat bevel 
iy es is 


.jaeW. edz ok yosa xd yrodoty S25 bs 


«+ 8; “92 ; 7a “Gf >" Bees “7 0L : iy ‘ 
lo 2e05 eran! ot beach eer 


+I “betsaotie esie~-aenuinod 190 
a ce gst Pe > % a, sf = te a8 | 


of Fe. TS reer ce Be a ee eae na 
-967q adis cosd barf. 28° _Isutos 20'b 
ot ee a sere Bre. aaah pans 
a 2 eB nar, 2. ae 
se ae ede Ss ee aggre es rt hi Kae 
~yoR” baxups2 ‘oveEti eirsai eo 
mee a fo Y a} sSnal re ate , Kain 
steiaaiy eri te nolsiagooa ee a 
bic: ‘fers cae pa 0 oa at ae 
31 ‘gaiqolavab ett bas 2 ramst 


ah See ee te va ae 


auf 


4 
i . 


wy 


“a aoe at 


100 
gions in Canada. 
With respect to the Bulletin's charge that the Cal- 


gary and Edmonton Railway was "over-bonded," and that it 


was due primarily to this that certain harmful effects fol- 
lowed, one must recognize the tendency to take too restrict- 
ed a view, to see issues almost wholly from the point of 
view of local or regional development, failing to realize 
that the prosperity of the railways was essential to the 
economic health of Canada and the West. Too much was ex- 
pected of the railways; too much blame was loaded upon 
them, Other factors--economic, political, geographical, 
even psychological--over which railways had ne control were 
responsible for some of the disappointments complained of 
in the Edmonton Bulletin. 

Attention must be paid also to the prevailing at- 
titude in Canada and especially in the West ties rail- 
ways, particularly toward the Canadian Pacific Raiiway or 
anything associated with it, That attitude was, of course, 
ambivalent, Railways were needed and wanted, but the price 
paid in terms of subsidies and powers given to the railway 
was Beten resented, ilways were wanted as "servants," 


not as "masters." Even in its early years, the Canadian Pa- 


cific Railway had been held up by the whole opposition 
































to 
~ted ) ila sade egisids 
ios 7 eo Hsu 
at aad3 ‘bas " bebnod~x9v0" a 
-fo% adostis ‘oatnixsdd stsa399 sad ies 
’ ~ fo ts ma! 
-jolr3ase1 902 oles of onsbae? od ss imgoos peprosp la: 
e-"%. ° ie at ee 
to talog ¢ ons aor? “eLLortw deonts ee oe. 
- : A thes a. 5 a. Pn 
esifiestr of ontt ist tnsoqetoveb fanokget ‘ise 


ont ag - 


bay {3 
etd o3 [gi3s9e89 2aw evewl ie ofa ‘Ro ee xq 9f | 
| | ite atm siibe a 
xe esw down oot “320! ods bas abamsd ° ddl i imi 


mis. & “ve ea peU Sine ote 
Ogu bab sol aw omsid: foun oot jeysuliex Sais LO | 
ae - * . Pe ~ al Ln - 


acne ial 3028 Iota hog .steonoos--erodaah 4 


P ¥e 


e719W loxsn00. on bad eyswites dont Jovo~=fs sie 


te.% 4 Gees ee . a 
rahe boats iqmoa saooantoggsets oda “ho ad ae a 


& £8 Tees Sey 2 it eer ee ee Ae oe Be ; ¥ or 
«fli ZS: 
neh ra e+ - - ee wers! 
iperea. dae. tthe . : Rin tives TEMS mages | 
‘ be um golsassak 
35 gobi tevase ods ot ‘cola, blag od Jeum goks: aad 
a > - A! et ow hwy oP 
: te — en ts ots a ae _ 
= , my 7 7 Pe 


«Iist ‘bxswod aes oils at: ws bos 


aye +5 ? -s a + me, F4 ‘ ‘-. _ ai 
ma 


pevie bis ies 
x0 oul tas oFhboo’ asibansd pluses 


eat 


Se 
~sem02 To ,28w ‘obuo tits waar a 
aera Was art ae ee pe FP 

~woor “en 


eotsq ads Jasd bssaaw bas baboon ¢ sr 


- 4a ’ 
n— ge ri per’ 


yowl ist sit of nave ezewogq & nee 
at wast on oo wa Bastar ont hes sd ins ie 
' saneviee" 2m row eyewl L. 
“s “rs Sa “3 ah oe 7 oe ; Rote se 
Fae rorT e™ DI cong Bea : 
~<3 neibemad sis 4eF ixse 23 


+ 
Ts 
4 
‘ 


Lasieeea it 







i 
vib 2 


a . 


ao, ee ws Tae 4 


101 
press as "a frightful monster which would devour Canada's 
eg dana enslave its people," The Edmonton Bulletin 
is to be included on this point in the "opposition press," 
and its attitude to the Canadian Beard 6 c Railway rubbed 
off later, it may be assumed, on the Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway--from the beginning supposed by all to be in close 
relationship with the "octopus," as critics were accustomed 
to naming the Peaaaieere iste. 
Any conclusion concerning the charge of "over-bond- 


t 


ing" must depend, too, on the criteria by which the judg- 


[ae is made, The bonded indebtedness of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company, for example, amounted to about $18,500 

per mile of railway. This figure is not out of line with 
that shown by other companies of the time, The Bulletin's 
argument was, of course, that all the railroads had been 
"over-bonded,." It must be kept in mind that the act of in- 
Peo rateon eee the issue of bonds by the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company up to $25,000 per mile of railway construct- 
ed, The Company's bonded indebtedness was $6,500 below the 
maximun amount legally permitted. 


On the other hand, it is difficult to disagree 


with the conclusion of critics such as the Bulletin that 





toreighton, op. cit., p. 344, 


. 















‘SA 
2 'sbsnnd svoveb biuow. ae 


ae 
abielivg ci Lat wR: , 
F 293g nokskeoggo" ‘ado “ be ads, wy) » os 


bedduz ys sulish oitsent aatbsas? ofa 92  obu ti3a 


oe ee M 


° 7 wea - . " at 
potjnombs bas ussgtad dt. 9, bogs of: od ¥ fx, ‘33. 


s sae is tyes 
seolo mi sd o2 fig ye beeoqque sotontaed 0 ee 
bemiozseauso& siow goisize 2s “seuangen ots. 


men eaten ‘eat 
: f saa ren “ a 
-bnod-isvo" to ogzado 22 | grtmsono> potautonos 


pre err . 


wd 


~shut of? doidw xd aliestzo, edt a0. 1008, Soop sa 
baa _yrsgisd sd2. te seankssdehat bebaod . wat sm ak 
) a- - “ie oie 























_ 


od 


sre 


we . — eae _ A fen z “ 
dojw soll }o 3yo Jon et szugt? atdT Bah: 
ie ee ole Z irs 


e nivel Lud aft . 2k ods ie eoknsqmeo lio 


epee i hal 
need hed sheowliag. ods iia asl: 92% 2 30 am 
mt tat Oe Td a 4 


-at Xo Jos 93. ae bata mk aged. od 32. ae 
1s te a af: hans % = 


Rese oper 
bas visgiad orld vd ebnod 3 avec} pei = aR rm 
‘1st a wy YA ‘ as 
~Jouss2q02 awe 8%, o. olkm, x99,,000 ese Se @ . 
He A se 


ai? woled 002,22 sow sranhesdabnp bet naoda 
vee 4 ae as ar ns 


* = vy Fe 
° * » 
Stas i * quatt ~ sn > “ * on itect 


sree 03,4 aaa 2 


ARG oe ; ~ at war yA bay ata 
*) is? ‘“, “7 


— > ¢v geet LG 
a= at ~~ wie ” 7 — 4 a 
= _ 


ae ~ 


‘ii ’ 





102 
had the land grant been used as intended--in aid of con- 
struction and operation of the railway--instead of being 
handed over to a land company for exploitation for profit 
which never helped to build or maintain the railway, the 
bonded indebtedness could have been kept down considerably, 
perhaps by $1,000,000. Whatever cash might have been made 
available for construction costs or for interest payments 
from "paid up" capital stock Ld Pe ee. allowed proportion- 
Petr ther reductions in the amount of indebtedness re- 
quired, If the land grant was sold for about $1,400,000, 
as Osler says it was, and these proceeds used in construc- 
tion of the railway, then it should have been possible to 
limit bonding to about $3,000,000 and still have provided 
the required guarantee of six years of interest payments. 
At this point, J.B. Hedges strikes hard at colonization 
railways such as the Caigary and Edmonton Railway. 

E.B, Osier's position was vulnerable in that for 
several years he was at the same time a Conservative Mem- 
ber of Parliament during a Conservative administration and 
in close association with more than one company which had 
been the recipient of government grants, thus occupying 
roles in which public duty and private interest might well 


be in conflict. One can't help speculating, however, to 


. Tn, 


vids 5 Fertod £80) ob tqoxut need aved tad 


obpm aasd aved- sgt _— ‘YaversdW” D0 vert 00; phe 


0 7 . v 


















oa 


Rie ere 

-n60 “to bts aia beew a9s 
Je Cage 

" gnted Yo baodent~~youlitis va a 


+Hlovg so? notisstolqxs so arenes saieet 
aA ad 5 
oe 


eff . wewl Fsx sit ntstniam +0 ‘pL ob sated 
por Toe 


ay ~ yey) ei rs) 


" - 
7 aa “ary 
Ff ‘ 


+> 


atnsmysq jusistnt xb so 3809 rset co 


po ES | 
¥ 
-an the 
a 
3 on rn 


-nottxoqetq beyolis ane ‘biuow Hoosa Tag Egao " 'g i. oan 


A 


vad ioe) 
+ seenpbstdsbnt to Invome Sift oe enoksoubs xorla su 7 


.000, 008,18 tuods aot bloe saw snatg bask site 3" 
, aa - 
i ri ? 
-_optjeno> ot bee ebssoorqg sesd? bas .eaw Jt axyee 2 
, hte ae? ot ee 
ae 


a tl J 
a) 


ot ofdkeeog need svsd bluode 3t ed Xow ist odd 


ry ° 
ji 


P) + rere 


bsb rvorg overt {I¥3e bas 000, 000 ce su0ds of Bron 


aan 
iemyag tesrstot 2o B1SSY xte to eosnezaug b 9° 


a 


aciiszinolos 2s brad eeals3e aogboH | at pans 
yswilsd metnomba bas wzagtsd off a Be 


so 383 sehen BSW - ee a 











gniyaus50 — ee 


‘lew tdigtm 3eq1eaink esaving 


is a 
vd 





8 .Isvswor _ambas aLus 


F art = 
a 
he 


103 
what extent the vigorous attack on Osler and his com- 
panies' dealings was motivated by political nati een ines 
an attempt to discredit his party. 

The Edmonton Bulletin's highly critical and hostile 
attitude toward the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company 
was due to a large extent to the controversy which raged 
about the Company's financial affairs, more particularly 


its disposal of government aid and the effects resulting 


therefrom, 


-wghdumabiad an yd t 


of 


. 
















“eh ‘ "ein a; doe eli 


“mod aks bes toeQ no 2 ; Ba 
eh! vidom 2 r 


tisod bas titxs ciel antzetind 1 


vite quad yewlish nos nomba brs winglad 9 

begs oid. Waser ae asi oF, Jasaxe '§ 
he | 3 

erstuolI 149g 950m 987 tsiip {stoaaat? a’ 


sntiluess etostits edd bas bia pectlisese 
, ra! 5 we Se: a5 eee 


: § “ Py . 7 . ° 4 ‘34 
é . % 
¢ ba ' te = a et we 
a i » ~ @ 
: & 6 t F Pi - ‘ ‘ = iL. 
ae 
: ; 4 
— 
he 4 
6 aa oa aie aed 
f ie wee +. i 4 ok 
o ae 
E 6 A chat 


rag 
me) 
oe 
Oe y 
' 

; “ j las & 

af 7 ‘ pe. 7 

- Sil See's I< J < ; : fy gee et ™ 
‘ = 


1%. Sei spo, Gane if r ot x, wiagtbe hh 4 eer) 
nage gi OI: vy Hi 


ae aie go ° Sei. * =. $4) 


i a 








dis 
- 
el i 
* = 
j -1% <a 
. - 7 - * 
= 
‘ ‘ - 
= 7 “a 
sw + . 
? 5 are 


V 


CONSTRUCTION 


No phase of the early history of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway stands in such a favorable light as its 
construction. Chester Martin éémmeh 00: "It was built with 
almost phenomenal regularity and dadbaceh within the space 
of sixteen months from the date of the land grant," 

Reckoning from June 21, 1890, the date ahen the 
contract was made with the government and construction 
deadlines were agreed to, the Calgary and Edmonton Company 
were to be allowed sixteen months to reach the Red Deer 
River and forty-one months to arrive at the North Saskat- 
chewan River in the north and at the Old Man River in the 
south. The Company actually took only six months to get 
to the Red Deer River, thirteen months to the North Sask- 
atchewan, and twenty-nine months to the Old Man River. 

Particularly impressive is this construction achieve- 
ment when placed in contrast with that of most other western 


colonization railways, Martin again remarks: "The speedy 





IMorton and Martin, op. cit., p. 323. 


104 





















“bos yrauisd ef3-2e 16a 
4 , 
metry 


-—7t an tight eldavovs? p.dove nt abasse Ye 
ditw tfied eaw oI" :23n9mm0o alsxraM xos@ed 


e2saa ‘sdé3-mlnisiw dosaqaeb bas qitestages I: nt r 
ft sopye baai-sd3 10: e3ab ert mori edtaom f 

att -sedw eteb eda , 008.18 saul moti ga - 
mijodvxzzenos bas Jnemarsvog ofS djiw | 
YABEAGO — bas yisgisd edz .o3 besigs st 
toe bai‘ ode*doksx of ediaom noerxS ‘ | 
-tedes2 da10oM ofd 3a ovizzs o3 adnon 
ots at peulA wtistt bLO- ods 38 bas d3x0 


* 
& 


393 02 -SS3noti ‘eee eno oo ciaaoe ree 


eieS2X%det0% eAt oF° erktacen esata «m mi 


7 
| So0RR eM b£O Sd3 09> ad3mom § 
-svsinss “nekieut? etoo eins et : ¥ 22 
mris2new wdse Jeom atin: . 


_ ybosge cil Stall 


105 
and methodical construction of the Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway thus stands in conspicuous contrast to the slug- 
gishness or sheer desuetude of other lines,"1 

One other such line was the bent enin and North- 
western Railway which was chartered by the Manitoba Gov- 
ernment in 1879 under the name of the Westbourne and North- 
western Railway. In 1882, it was given a Dominion charter 
with authority to construct a line 430 miles in length 
from Portage la Prairie to Prince Albert. The eee 
construction was prescribed by statute--fifty miles a 
year--but altogether seventeen acts needed to be passed 
between the years 1886 and 1928, reducing the rate to 
twenty miles annually or extending time for construction 
or suspending operations altogether. Eventually, 225 
miles were completed, 

The Manitoba and Southeastern Railway, chartered 
in 1889 to build from Winnipeg to Lake of the Woods, took 
ten years to complete its line. The Lake Manitoba Railway 
and Canal Company was incorporated in 1889 also and was 
chartered to build 125 miles from Portage la Prairie to- 
Lake Winnipegosis. The Company was purchased by William 


Mackenzie and Donald Mann in 1895, reorganized, and final- 





SE I Si 


lipid., p. 289. 


n2704 bans ems vods 2oW. eda. to sean odd vobou aS rh 
iF t 
~si3acdo noinimed sa asyig aM, ok (S882, al sa 


.., @oisoussZn09 or gatbaogna, 20 


“gute edt 03 a BLO 
fe sonnet sadizo de 
-ft10% bas ados tant ons saw. ontt ‘tows 


s 


-you adosianM sd vi bexeyzado eaw ete 


pa 


djensi at ant Ofs onil a douranqoavaa. 4 
jo stat sot .duedlA eogitd 09, atsiart aoe 
s aeolian wtii--stuse3a yd bedixpee7q, Baws 
boaman.ed- ot bsbeso 2@398 nesinevee emai 


~ 


o3 siea oft gotoubat. 89a! bie. a88L e: 


(i leuseev’, _esgdaenotn, at 


f 


| 


; : oe y 5 a _ 
Ye are we Bag < iGere Sem ' to - sak cicanl 


bax pagel eat hod sahaahiininnsy 


AVos , _¢peoaw ‘sale ao qual o3 Rec qioalW_o ot 


youlligg; adoghaes oiled eal oats wt aaah 
Saw iss, Dow [s eons ok, berex qIO9. okt 


a ¥ 





oF abxtaxt al >ga2104 
aghtste Lo beeado sug 


beat? bitte (bseaaartoss 





er 


. « 
a » e 
+” ; \ ‘ fo 
























ey 
ee 2 
” 


106 

ly went into operation in 1897. The ambitious Great 
Northwest Central Railway was chartered to build a line 
from Brandon to Battleford but completed only fifty miles,+ 

Much of the credit for the despatch with which 
the railway was completed belongs to the contracting firm 
of Messrs. Ross, Holt, Mann, and Mackenzie, The notable 
partnership of Mackenzie and Mann had been formed in 1886 
and had held contracts for the Canadian Pacific short line 
through Maine, and for the Qu'Appelle railway, as well as 
for the Calgary and Edmonton line sae many minor railways. 
Not many years later, in 1895, Mackenzie and Mann decided 
to buy up some charters of projected railways in the West 
then going begging and to go ahead and build on their own 
account, The speed of construction for which they gained 
a reputation was foreshadowed in the case of the Calgary 
and Edmonton railway. Ross, Holt, Mann, and Mackenzie had 
in 1889 just completed in a similarly expeditious manner 
the Qu'Appelle railway which earlier had run into finan- 
cial trouble after twenty-five miles had been built north 


of Regina.2 





lFor the best discussions of the colonization rail- 
ways, see the cited works of Hedges and Morton and Martin. 
| 20.D, Skelton, The Railway Builders, A Chronicle of 


Overland Highways (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook and Co., 1916), 
Pp. 283f. ‘ 




















entI s bitud 03 ‘waking 


[ esltin Reese: visto beislqabs dud 


ae 


" dotdw date dodsqeeb oda ‘yok ‘uaiiha 


4 


mxit ‘gniscexe8 oo off of agaoled scat 


- 


rdasen % ort ec ee bas ee is4 arbi a oe 


snail d*orle Slt fost nstbsos) Sd3~ 10% ‘Wianthid | 


a 


ea Ifow &s wewiltss ‘SIisiqaA "0 ado x03 “bat af ak 


evewllss 2 sonia ynss ‘Bas eakt fosnanbs bra eats bora | 0 
sities ‘5 adst bas sisnsi58M , cesr ‘nt soda pias bats ¢ 


ga2eW edt at eyswlisas besosforq ¢0 ) azetasds” si 


be re 


» 


avd stoda we bitud bas beets og oF bas” a jtaget s 


| 
— 


cisgls 30 odd ‘¥é seco Sif at caida 


* bed etsns tosh bas” nnn Too eo 


beatsia vods Rakdw to¥ ‘nokjouwekos to be: 


sonnba “sioE théges: “¢izal tate - nk b 3 
nent? osait nor bed ‘okra ‘tai 


‘anbe ‘sti Jemlnsaes esl vi 

Fes rae SR WHER? porn ce ¥ 
j ~~ ° ay at “J i. 7 
inte, en 

his nobapakeaios Ey; ig oben: soalb 3 

5 eolnot 


,otli8N bas nos 70M. ae toa 20 @ 
20 slotaowd? A .2m8 . ‘A gs 


: afefl ..oD bas 


107 
Among the contractors, ieee tiie was in charge of 
financing, Holt was general superintendent of construction, 
Mann of the grading work and Mackenzie of the timber sup- 
pine? The business of the firm was transacted in the name 


of Ross who was then most prominent among the contractors, 


According to the Edmonton Bulletin, "What the arrangement 


{was| between this firm and the frailway company! no one 


outside of the principals knows, but the general impression 
Pe tat! the construction firm are making a good thing 
out of the contract,""4 Later in Parliament, Osler contend- 
ed that the only Bis wno made money on the project were 
the contractors, 

It was after the failure of earlier charters to 
amount to anything that the government, anxious for the 
building of the Calgary-Edmonton line, asked Mr, Ross to 
take up the contract. This is the testimony of Prime Mini-e 
ster Macdonald, Osler, and Nicol Kingsmill, solicitor of 
the Calgary and Ednonton Bates Company, After looking 
into the project, Ross decided to buiid the road for the 
price of $10,000 a mile, the same figure previously ttrn- 


ed down by other contractors, Having received assurance 


ee 





lEdmonton Bulletin, July 18, 1891. 


*Iden 


























to exytada at head sat oon 


te 
Pete to snebmesnbsoque [S38 eg 
ata) : 


-aie sedmis edz to olsnadoaM baa atx lxow 3 


ema a3 al bs or teaesthaced enw. watt oft des 


* ‘ F i 


.2209 B13N09 of gnome tanaimoxg sage 


tnsmegnaris oft Jacty" iioling mime ods 


7 


: ano Of ee el tex], arid bas art elds 
sc 
soteesxqml Laz9m9g orks gue. . ewoud sipaseokni ala 


a goiaisa 918 ont noLd 3u%3 BMS of 5s onl 


anids boos 
¢ yi 
-basinos xel r20 .snomabt x01 ni 19381 **, jonx3n00 9 of ko 


ay me = 
etew io: 2Loxq ots no ysoom ebam ociw asn0 Uno : 


To a 

7a 

: e 
_ i 


Eaa | at ¥ wv iwi 
os ez932ado teiiise to aul ba od 19338 J 


ads x02 auvoln am simganzeyes, odd jad, 


Od 


te 


e-inis aol 3S 20 giidestange ak 1 ona ae 
a é He 
to ‘voazotioe TL tmagata Tooth bi as, milion 


To 


: ~ i oe d 
a a 


ofl x02 Seo ond blind 03, se ay - 


‘gaidool | s932A | _ nego), weir at rt 


> . Fig ys is 


-n193 ‘plavatverg, onupit SEB. 


soneiwees beviaces Seana 


108 

of the government subsidies, Ross accompanied Osler to 
England to arrange for the necessary financial support. 

What amount the contractors received in cash pay- 
ments for fulfilling the contract is not clear. According 
to Osler, Ross received at least a portion of the land 
grant plus certain stock in the Calgary and Edmonton Com- 
pany.} Figures quoted in the House of Commons from re- 
ports of the Department of the Interior show that 41,130 
acres of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway land grant had 
been patented to Rose and 505 to assignees of Ross.- 
How much stock was issued to Ross is not clear--the Bul- 
jetin reported on one occasion that the railway was owned 
by Ross. Together with Osler, Ross had had to underwrite 
£50,000 to £100,000 of Calgary and Edmonton Railway bonds. 
Although the bonds had dropped at one point to as low as 
twenty-five cents on the dollar, according to Osters3 
and although the stock was claimed to be practically 
worthless, ‘in 1903 the Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
paid fifty per cent on the entire stock, and over the years 


following purchased the bonds at one hundred per cent, | 


Debates of the House of Comnons, ibid., pp. 2853-4. 
2tbid., 3rd Sess,, 3 Edw. VII, 1903. 


3Ibid., p. 10488. 




























= a 
j A te 


E a ; Oe. bj ‘ca 
o3 “Aat80  botasgeosa 
5: btiee 
: ie} 
sau Oath Sn Sate bi 
sibroosd asots son ‘3 tosi3a09 od. wrk TE EF. - 


- ae dass nt aahanee ‘Hosbanaeen 


- }. 
: p ia fs , 
basI sis i9 payee: 8 ; deol Fe ‘Bovis at a ; 


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o 45 
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‘y or ty Be 


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ox fork encamod to sexo ‘odd ot betoup eatuglt 


¥e ee “i 
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7 insve bael eiwiien nodneakie baa esiated wh 


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. 1889 394 aes tina ‘i je 4 abne 


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7. oe s 


Le ey ? 


109 

Throughout the building seasons of 1890 and 1891, 
detailed progress reports of activity on the Calgary and 
Ednonton Railway appear in the Edmonton Bulletin, Well 
before royal assent had been given to the act authoriz- 
ing the subsidies, the survey of trial lines was in rapid 
progress under Alexander Stewart, C.E., chief of the Cal- 
gary and Ednonton Railway survey, who had already examined 
the route throughout. 1! 

The biographer of Father Lacombe, incidentally, 
quotes William Van Horne as crediting Lacombe! s knowledge 
of the country with reducing sha stantdéany the work left 
to the engineers, Van Horne wrote: 

I remember well his description . . . of the country 
between Calgary and Edmonton when the railway there 
was contemplated, This description left no explora- 
tory work for the engineers to do--they knew just 
where the line should be laid,? 


Within two months, by July 8th, grading was begun 


by an outfit from Winnipeg? consisting of 150 men and 60 


lg dmonton Bulletin, May 3, 10, 1890. 


2netter from Sir William Van Horne to K. Hughes, 
Mar. 9, 1910, cited by K. Hughes, op. cit., p. 349 n. 


3This was George H, Strevel's outfit consisting of 
3 colonist cars; about 120 men; 11 cars of stock (horses 
and mules); 8 cars of implements (including scrapers, plows, 
carts, etc.); 4 cars of oats for James Ross; a quantity of 
mixed freight, principally grub; and a camp outfit. W.H. 
Kenaston was on hand with 300 loaves of bread when the 


a 


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bs yregind ode iss) whines e Mer 4 
Ta. sia 









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eye a rT $ — 
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rts * 
Siqs1 mt eaw eomt! Lars ‘6 youve 2d9 89 tind 
oe . y 


tery 
-feD sda to: tolde ,.4a, D- ~Jtaws3I2 xebe xe I. a 
$n 
ad AY ome 


besimsxs ybsorls bed odw-jyevine ‘cant lad 


f. wong or 
, ores 
(fstasblont ,sdmosst’ are $0: sodgexgotd. 


t oh iia - ; a ~ 


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¥ 











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- 


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wis 









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pi gat bi . 

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tes yowlis1 edz nedw nojcomba bas x 
ee on 336L noliqiiseeb elit ~ ~besal I OD 
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H.W .2TZae0 BS . 

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7 


Pek 


110 

teams. Plows and graders were being used rather than grad- 
ing machines, A week later it was reported that 300 men 
and 150 teams were at work. Later an official stated that 
there would be 1,000 men at work inside a few weeks, 
Teams were being hired at $2.50 a day plus board for both 
man and team or $4,00 a day without board. One company 
alone was reported to have offered to put on 100 teams, 
Many Italians were being employed as laborers, | 

July 21st was a "gala day for Calgary" on the oc- 
casion of the nate cenit for the Calgary EAneEenonten 
Railway at its junction with the Canadian Pacific Railway 
in East Calgary. Mayor Lafferty proclaimed a Babli 
holiday from 12 o'clock noon and requested all businesses 
to close, Elaborate preparations culminated in a proces- 


sion of 150 carriages accompanied by police, fire brigade, 





train arrived in Calgary and the whole crowd breakfasted 
and dined at the "Grand Central." After unloading at the 
stockyards, they left that afternoon, crossed the Elbow 
bridge and Langevin bridge, and moved to Nose Creek, five 
miles above its mouth, where grading commenced the next 
day. Strevel had secured a contract for 100 miles of the 
railway, according to the report in the Calgary Herald, 
Lys th, LodU . Strevel must have been sub-contracting from 
the firm of Ross and his associates. 


ik eae Bulietin. May 73,10, July 19,. 26, "Aug, 2 


> 


1890. 


2p, Turner Bone, C.E,, When the Steel Went Through 


———— ee ee 


(Toronto: The Macmillan Co, of Caaada, 1947), p. 159, 













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111 

brass band, and bagpipes; a “grand open air dinner" 
served to 1500 people from a 100-foot counters; a ape Re 
es lasting ete the evening; and sod-turning by the Mini- 
ster of the Interior who used a gilded spade. A well- 
known Calgary restaurauteur had roasted a 1,475-pound 
three-year old Shorthorn which was suspended from a der- 
rick for 24 hours over a spit located in an excavation 
for a Hudson's Bay Company building, 1 

Included in eg cam neiine were the Minister 
of the Interior, Fone Edgar Dewdney; Mayor Lafferty of 
Calgary; James Ross, the contractor; Nicol Kingsmill, 
Calgary and Edmonton Company solicitor, who had handled 
negotiations with the government; John Niblock, division- 
al superintendent of the Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany at Montreal; D.W, Davis, Member of Parliament; Dr. 
Brett, M.L.A. for Red Deer; Thomas Tweed, ie ah for Medi- 
cine Hat; Rev. Leo Gaetz, pioneer settler of Red Deer; and 
Major James Walker, a pioneer of the land. 

Gaetz, the Red Deer country's greatest booster and 
owner of considerable property through which the Calgary 


and Ednonton Railway subsequently ran, 


made an eloquent oration in which he presented a glow- 


Isee Edmonton Bulletin, Aug. 2, 1890; Calgary Herald, 
July 17 ;e15. 19, See 1890, 


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be 7 =A oe 5 


| 


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; be. 
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cibeanais 


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“tbeM.303 A Pelt sbaaw! aso 1° ii yanged 


bas. (i208 bas do sptanes sneidin af ns 5a ye 


ataiM edd stew gublam-dovega oft a ponetan : a 


. ~*~ 



















112 


ing picture of the prosperity which was bound to fol- 
low the completicn of the connecting link to the north. 
In this, he but voiced the mind of the assembled crowd; 
for ail had visions of untold wealth to come through 
the building of the railway.! 


P, Turner Bone, whose party surveyed the line from 
Calgary to Red Deer, the more difficult portion of the 
route, found the speech of James Ross worth referring to 
in an amusing vein in his book of reminiscenses: 
Public speaking was not his strong point. He lacks 


a good carrying voice; and the only words I could 
catch were: "Land Grant," 


Long efter the great day, the Calgary Herald was 
advertising souvenirs of the celebrations, "instantane- 
ous views of the whole proceedings in one, Roasting the 
Ox, The Procession, Turning the First Sod, etc. All for 
One Dollar,"'3 

ins did the town observe the day of sod-turning 
on the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, an event described 
by the Herald as "a milestone in the forward march of Cal- 

r : 


gary." 


By the first of August, it was reported that "dirt 


was flying at a great vate on the Calgary and Ednonton 


i rt ee en a eet at ee 


Bone,’ op. oh A ER «gpa 8 2Tdem 
3calgary Herald, Sept. 24, 1890. 


4ibid., July 19, 1890. 

























~Iot 62 base’ enw dosha Siro oqeozt offs 
-djz0m atlz-ot, Anzl gntssqanoa & ts 20. gat ok: 


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faguetis gmoo oF da leow biosau 3 o enol = 


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sort enti ed? beyeviwe rEg shot a sen! 
‘ead to nolt70q divoltthb exon ont Biter 

i 


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ts 


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on steasent"™ | -anotwstdeles sind to extaow 
oft gutseson- 290 at egotbessorg ite 


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Pee 


s 


113 


ml 


grade ~ with a thousand men expected to be at work shortly. 


A ety made up of Ross and Mann and the engineer for the 
Canadian Pacific Railway were in the south selecting a 
crossing over the Old Man River. 

The route of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway at 
times adhered to, at times diverged from, the old wagon 
road north, For nearly all of the thirty miles north of 
Calgary it closely followed the trail, then bent to the 
west and at "Scarlett's coulee" was about five miles 
west of the peat The Red pees crossing was located on 
the property of the above-mentioned Leo Gaetz about three 
miles below the established ford, ferry, and village.? 
North from Red Deer River to the Battle River, the line 
followed the trail closely.3 

In the first week of September, it was reported 
that the railway was "booming right along."4 A twenty- 
car outfit from the Guts parva road arpivea in Calgary 


and crossed the Bow River by means of a temporary pile 


bridge.? During late August, the permanent bridge over 





1gdmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. 


2tbid., Aug. 9, 1890. The same edition reported 
that the Gaetz family "are said to have given the railway 
company a half interest in a block of 1,200 acres as an in- 
ducement to select the crossing at the point mentioned," 


3Ibid., Sept. 13, 1890. 4Ibid., Sept. 6, 1890, 
Bone, op, cit., p. 161. 








































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114 

the Bow River, a truss bridge of two 150-foot spans, had 
been commenced, Rails had begun to arrive and tracklayers 
were being hired in Calgary at $1.75 a day and spikers at 
$2.00 per day, Laborers and graders were getting $1.50 a 
day, Board was $4.00 a week. At that rate, net pay for 
spikers would be about $32.00 a month; for graders about 
$20.00 monthly. Teamsters were getting $25.00 a month 
plus board, By the third week in September, forty miles 
of the road were ready for track and tracklaying was pro- 
ceeding at the rate of two miles a day. October 5th saw 
rails laid to twenty miles north of Calgary, All the out- 
fits from the Qu'Appelle Railway were at work on the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway and men and teams were being hir- 
ed as "fast as they could be procured,"'! 

The beginning of October found the surveyors in 
Edmonton, camped on the south side and running lines down 
Mill Creek and across the river to a point below the Hud- 
son's Bay Company fort.2 Such activity in and near Edmon- 
ton was bringing closer to reality the long frustrated 


hopes of that settlement for railway service and served 





1890. 


. 


2The fort stood just below the point where the 
present Legislature now stands, 

















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ae 


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2 Be 

to ease the underlying fear of the town's being bypassed 
in the location of the northern terminus, It called forth 
the following response from the Edmonton Bulletin: 

The arrival of the railway surveyors, who notwith- 

_standing all alleged engineering difficulties have 

run their lines into the very centre of the town, 

has added to the general feeling of confidence, which 

will be complete when the question of the terminus 

has been. finally settled as it no doubt will be in a 

week or two at most,! | 

By the first of December, track had been laid 

down to the south bank of the Red Deer River ten months 
in advance of the deadline and grading had been completed 
many miles beyond that point, The last train of the sea- 
son reached Red Deer from the south on December 4th with 
a load of timber for the Red Deer bridge, arriving at 8:00 
P.M., six hours after leaving Calgary. On board were tie 
men and teams heading into the woods to take out ties 
along the line throughout the coming winter, some passeng- 
ers, and employees of the construction company. For such 


a heavy train, the six hours required for the trip was 


considered a short time,.2 


2Red Deer was the fifth station on the rail line, 
Every nime miles there was a siding, and at every second 
siding, that is every eighteen miles, there was a station 
and a water tank, Ibid., Dec. 14, 1890. 


bevel quo assd bad: goibsexg bas sabibssd etl bets 


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116 

The inevitable effects of the building of the 
railway in terms of publicity, immigration, and entries 
for land, which were felt at least as early as the summer 
of 1890, fired the enthusiasm of boosters of the northern 
region such as Frank Oliver, who was moved to write: 

The press all over the country has given us favorable 
notice which cannot fail of having a good effect and 
the pile of letters of enquiry .. . is continually in- 
creasing. . . . Taken altogether it would appear that 
the most sanguine expectations that were entertained 
regarding this district ten years ago when the C.P.R, 
mainline was chartered to pass this way are now in a 
fair way to be more than realized,1] 

The impact of railway construction on the local 
economy was felt in still another important, though 
temporary, way. During the time of construction, the need 
for men and teams, provisions for both men and teams, and 
for certain construction materials locally available pro- 
vided work for incoming settlers, market for agricultural 
surpluses, a stimulus to the timber industry, and general- 
ly encouraged immigration, Many of the men brought in 
from the East to labour on the road were expected to be- 
come permanent settlers after completion of the work on the 
railway. 


Contracts for the putting up of hay were let, 


Thomas Stewart and R.F. Shaw had a contract for putting up 





ltbid., Oct. 4, 1890. 


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ale 


sep 


a 


ay 


wef atow kt ae 
3 qu’ gatiiva 9h Som 


pee : 9 
we ie 
sD"! A Ae oO 


. fae 
rags yl 


LT 

300 tons near Barnett's stopping place north of the Blind 
Man's River, and "very much more [was | contracted for by 
the railway Condens at the same point,"! By comparison 
with the Qu'Appelle line, contractors Lp aea that both 
hay and water were abundant along the Calgary and Edmonton 
line, Large quantities of oats were required, A substan- 
tial part afeche abundant crop of 1890 in the Edmonton dis- 


trict was purchased by the railway company which served "to 


loosen up cash considerably during the dullest time of win- 


12 


oats at the end of the track,3 


ter, Forty cents a bushel was being paid for Manitoba 


The contracting company were supplying beef from 
their own cattle range in the Porcupine Hills. In the late 
summer of 1890, 200 steers had been driven up to the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton line. The contractors reported, however, 
that they would need to buy beef in the spring. Pat 
Burns of packing plant fame got his start by contracting 


to supply beef for the Calgary and Edmonton Railway dur- 


ing its construction,4 Large quantities of butter, at fif- 


-ltbid., Aug. 2, 1890. 2tbid,, June 28, 1891, 
3Ibids,-Oct, 11, 1890. 


4nenny remarks: "Among later accessions to the cat- 
tle business about this time was P, Burns, wno began as a 
contractor with the railway then being built . .. from Cal- 
gary to Edmonton." Op. cit., p. 273. From this start, he 
byilt up Canada's largest packing and live stock business, 





; f von i 
: P _ y 
WIS: «| Ai 


x WW ies 
‘ i le ¢ ~ e439 






























bail et to d3xos sonl¢ @ 
yd tot bedosxinpe [esw} sign a 


aoatzaqnoa vi zm Dic oate. onme 
a 

diod 2sn3 bet10g9% lta are ater pooh of 

- a = 

nojnowba bas ' Ta gl BO aris gaola seabauds x9 


-agjedua A ,betkupet essw)etso. to eolsi3a 
-etb nosnoeba edd. nt oeat 29 gots ae 
of: bs 198 1 dokde ‘we Sqmo9 we wits ond baci boestoso oq es 

“vest 

~ahw-2%o0 gmk agol ind ad3 galawb “idwtsbianoo fone 1 


sdosinat x02 bie q gnted 2hW Ledaud 8 aires alk 


. joan, od3 to't 


db 
= 4 


moi teed gatylqque. slow xoaqniee gation: tn 


nipQ..add of qu psytsh aged bed pate 
; Ms Eabit 
os) 
,seyewod ,betroge7 ato 087,009 | ef =< 


etal ori gt welt LH: ofitquotet odd. wil agnex’ al 


gaiypne: woe, CF. J3ae: etd 204, oam 
i Naw tea pyaaey: bas | vie tae 


pags 
~ i AES 


“312, 28 47934346 - te — ~~ A 
peer 88 som jebard e - = 


“28 ef 63 SAOLAAAMSS 
B ws caged arg” Pi ae 


118 

teen cents a pound, and potatoes, at sixty cents a hund- 
red pounds, were required, 

Reference has been made to the large numbers of 
men and teams employed and the tremendous quantity of ties 
needed, The very method of building in ae exclusively 
on the Calgary and Edmonton line--plow and scraper--re- 
quired a maximum of horses, The loss of horses along the 
line due to fever, furthermore, was so high as to be 
"nearly ruining" some contractors who had lost every horse. 
In the Baris of constructing the railway, a number of 
supervisors were employed: a chief engineer, a bridge engin- 
eer, a resident engineer overseeing actual work on the iine 
in fifteen-mile sections, a bridge contractor, a foreman, 
a superintendent of wells and. tanks, a trainmaster and 
superintendent of tracklaying, and a manager of surfacing 
and tracklaying.? 

The Edmonton Bulletin provided an interesting de- 
scription of life on a tracklaying crew in 1891.4 The 
train consisted of two boarding cars--"huge three-story 


~ 


buildings on wheels''--in which the tracklaying gangs ate 


and slept, plus a section of flat cars laden with rails, 





Jgdmonton Bulletin, Apr. 25, 1891. 
2Ibid,, July 11, 1891. 
3Idem | 4tbid., July 25, 1891, 


agiz to ysts 




















~baud & aIn99 atta 36 ,f 
ee a ho | 
- f- 


‘ et -. uae ) 
80 exedmua egtal ‘pels od ae 195 ; 
pBUp evobnems 4 od3 iat qua as 5: 


Oe er, 
4 ] 


Mara 
loviewioxs sev al _gnibl lud to podem % my aT 
: : Ai 
-si--zeqe1oe bas wolg--sati sotnonb’ be 
oid anole ese sod to gaol sdiT ,seetond toe 


* bole 


od oj a8 fight of 85w . , SOMEgET IES +79 


teol bard ‘ort. ax03 9839000 ‘naa 


<n wrayvs 


wits od gabiowssemos to pera coe 


! — 
A dad ff ra t Ys 


at 
-gigns sgitid & , reentgns toidos & ybeyolqns oxsw @ 108. ty" 
.. 5 
ent! eft no AtOw {sut08 gitssexave yoontgio 3 iene 
nab 4 


aptieTot & ,T0398TINGS ogbisd 8 anolioae § ste a 
+ 


onte73 s ,2ans2 bas ellow 20 3 yobasin 
| ‘ha: ta 


hos waves 


anitoatiwe 1Q' TSZSMse , 5 bas csnttibesa 30 
; r) 5 Saab ea 


. 


ont * 1e8l ok wet se 4s st - 2 
insist: oguil"=-2189, 


S38 23583 gatysrioesa sits 


jae 
ties, fish plates, bolts and nuts. This "train" was shov- 
ed by an engine as near the end of the finished track as 
possible, } 


Four separate gangs of men then went to work to 
"catch up to or keep ahead of each other," a tie gang, a 
fati gang, a bolt gang, and a spiker ae totalling sixty 
to seventy-five men in all. Six teams on the "tie gang" 
loaded up, hauled and distributed ties along the " dump," 
two teams unloading on each side and two teams bavlae Se 
ties in place, The etseerateté loaded a flat car with 
rails which was then pulled by horses by means of long 
ropes, Two parties on each side then seized the ratte 
and dropped them in place on top of the ties. The rails 
were adjusted for width by a faa using an iron measure, and 
the car loaded with rails was then pulled by the horses 
over the loose rails, Ten pairs of spikers worked closely 
behind, driving two pairs of spikes into each tie, Five 
pairs of men applied bolts and nuts to the rails which 
were then lined and adjusted to make ready for the final 
ballasting, 

‘After a lay-off of four months over the winter of 
1890-1, the first train of the season arrived in Red Deer 


from Calgary on April 24, 1891, carrying track, materials, 


ltdem 



























‘ 


-youe 28w “aden” ehar 


ee does pedatatt- atts ‘ae ba 
o ane gt poe ote aes 


7 é 
mT. 4 Ml 


yvixie actilsetos ae tedtaa s bas ae 
"one sia" ef3 ho e@ass KIC” Ife ‘nt 

u qieub™” orf3 gots tors bsiudtaseth bas ‘bat 
ontysf embed ows Bas obie dass no" gakbac 

djtw 1s 5 ‘sal? & ‘bsbsot are ysl dos" sat + he 

oat to enssm yd eset tod ¥c- beliug cma 

aftsx of3° besitos net obie Mose no 


athex oft! sears ott to iil bd soaiq at th 


bas -jetvesen fork rs gnieu nin & ed tbe 2 


" - fai’ ae our 7 
evil ~ot3 ‘fosé? otmt esxtqe? £ 


doin wtbi eds od @un" bie ated batt i 
ry _ i an 4 


yisdo io t bewttow: ‘exastge ‘to itag 0 


estxond sat yd bel Ibq ned3- usw’ pantie 
Ag 


e 
“a. 4" 


faatt sd5~x0% “~beox slau 89 BB 5 ae adie 


tn t + : 
‘ Se Oy <a fh! ©. Oe en ‘wit cae 
’ ~ 


m 
A C? me 
to ‘abi asta etfs ae “tty s thot 2 






teat boa at ‘Beviss8 ‘0s fa 


“stabi oe al ara 
" 


‘ ya x ) ' 
id 4 a - ’ 
| a ae 
er Ff, Sy 
a * * 


ue a 
. ~ - 


120 
supplies, 100 men of the tracklaying crew and the bridge 
crew. From the first of May to the fifteenth of July, 
325 teams and about 650 men built the remaining 100 miles 
of the line from Red Deer to the end of the line at the 
south bank of the North Saskatchewan River opposite Ed- 
penton. 

The afternoon of Saturday, July 15th at 5:00 wit- 
messed the end of tracklaying. The last spike was driven 
by Mr. D. Ross, one of the pioneers of Edmonten.2 In 
contrast with the excitement of sod-turning in Caigary al- 
most exactly one year earlier, there was neither ceremony 
nor celebration in Edmonton. It is intriguing to wonder 
whether the reserve of those early Edmontonians, so dif- 
ferent from the enthusiastic festive spirit of Calgarians, 
foreshadowed the moods which later came to be associated 
with the two cities. Or had the long, weary years of wait- 
ing, anticipation, and repeated disillusionment exhausted 
the capacity of Ednontonians to become caught up in a gen- 
eral spirit of celebration? Had the railway crossed the 
river into Edmonton, perhaps the day would have seen more 
excitement. Past experience had apparently taught ee to 


wait until promise became reality, a lesson which future 





lipid., Apr. 25, 1891. 2tpid., Aug. 1, 1891, 


o 


































sQgbitd ods bas wat % iyatsiows 


ae 
Vist to 3 asedtt? ort 02 | mM To : 


a - 


ick iin 00! gnbatnetrt ett? sthud nat be | 


ef? tp entl edt io nae edz of x00 be 951 1 mot? 


we 


Te Se = 
-bi stheoqqo stevia newadoradan? dag eit to 


m aoe 


wee 7 


a 
sf 
7 


\ 
4 — 
wat ‘ati 


5 erly 
| | te 
-tlw 00:2 28 d3@k ylut ,yab1u282 to “en od 
nevinh esw sakge seal oat -gokysidoa1? on o. 
sl *,motnomba 20 axeenoke ez to ono rh 
te 4 v2 aa gis) mat grin =bos to Inemetioxe, eft 


ynomess9 tedites asw stord2 <teiiass ae} ano, 


~ 


sabnow 03 gaiugizsnt pk al searconbS cs Je20 


“ib of alata ial izes aout to ovaee: 
ssantaagind io stage evisest oltes 


stosoees ati o2 omBo xejel dokdwe 


x0 fone 


ve 
~ rvs 


bese nici 3 tae mot aistt teth paaaoger b 


| 


a9 8 ad qu sddguas smoned o3 ¢ 16. 


-tiaw 20 ankey yisew gaol orld bed 


rae 


aris bonewie. yawilas odd bs Smo absaad af: 

a) i me 

stom 1398 ovad bivow vab-dt q 19q 
in 


-~ 


o2 -mesl2 2 vismaueags - pn *: 


we par ae 


sia donee noses! a 4% 
' .* 6 eee 


Le 
experience would reinforce, 

The first through train over the completed line of 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway arrived at the northern 
terminus at Strathcona on Monday night, July 24, 1891 at 
11:00, It had taken four hours to negotiate the forty- 
five mile section of the line from Peace Hills (Wetaskiwin) 
to Edmonton since the track was unballasted and had set- 
tled considerably in places where it passed through swampy 
ground, The train was loaded chiefly with lumber and other 
material for the eration buildings and included four cars 
of merchandise, Of about the thirty-six passengers who 
boarded the train at Calgary, twenty-four got off at Pop- 
lar Grove and twelve at Strathcona, + 

The second train required eleven hours for the en- 
tire trip. Three cars of coal and several of brick and 
lumber for railway use made up the train along with three 
cars of merchandise and two cabooses for twenty passengers. 
Mr. Holt, one of the contractors, occupied the one L Tone 
tion company's private car.2 

The impression of despatch and efficiency which the 
foregoing account of the construction or ths railway gives 


reflects the Edmonton Bulletin's favorable outlook upon the 


—— 


lipbid., Aug. 1, 1891. 2Tdem 











43o eat! Sesetquon, ods revo al 

















afi r- a he ws wae 
‘ * em- . a \ 
IN ee yh - 
. a ; ae e+" 
+ 4 st be z pes &« ae e -§ ; é 


Pe 4 ae 


a ens a We 


nrey © en 


niet: “on ed3 Pe: bevizis yewlls® s inetd 


“| 5 : 4 


je 108 Af pot .3dgio ‘ebsolt a0 8 odds: 


© a 


qizo% od? ofs absogon o2 aso 


? nea oe 

wh eg 

os : | ene 

( Guinn a rH scnet mort ont a3 oe 

toe 8 i seth? 
-toe bed bas base aliases | asw sioaxa or 2 te 
Rae yaw } 
ee Pac . eee: ea 
awe dgvord bosaat +} osodv seoalg a ua Pe 


* - 


a oF } 
x9eci2 o bes sichiek dst or eitetdo bebsol ssw atexd sfT 













) be ae el ct ed ie te 
2189 wot babulont bas " egatbited aotzade Be of 
' | chi Seen ae 
odw etegas nner x tanesalas edt ibd 30. -selbaad: 
' Air oh s = * ae wv nies 
-qot ts tio “208 ssc fades <casglad 38 a 5 atm 
: Pe 3 g 2 P “ 7 - bs Pie — : 
t scoodaasg2. 4s ev . 
+ Fe 5 y ; ” je ah Cl eta tes 
“tis odd 102 axwod revels betkupes > 
ne ; - swe 
bins ‘ar te tnscee bas Ios 30 1 


Ps wt Sey: tA 
esul3 dgke ‘gnols ntex3 ods. qu 9 


exogroneng 2 crewed ars esecodes one 
| Rvins oe a 


4 ‘\] «@ 


red (a a 
ig stavize 


of 189 


: 2. OG pet " 
a3 doldw yonsioliis bas Me me “m0. 


-ou1daNo> oda bakguose et0: B12 i edt 


L i 


asvis yewiles eds 0 ae 
| (ss -< 


- 


122 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway during those early days of 
construction before the frustration again of unfulfilled 
hopes and the bitterness of controversy prevailed, 

With the events just described, there came to a 
close the period in the history of Ednonton and northera Al- 
berta marked by disappointment and stagnation, and there 
began a period of steadily increasing growth for both the 
town and its district as well as for the region between 
Calgary and Edmonton, For Edmonton, however, it was also 
a time of uncertainty over the future prospects of the 
town, This uncertainty was due to the important decision-- 
insofar as it affected the growth of the Edmonton district-- 
to terminate the iine of railway at the top of the south 
bank of the North Saskatchewan River and to locate the 
station at that point, There the rival town of Strath- 


cona began immediately to be built up. 
















bel fitivins se atags noOtJ 


=b® 


ieltevedt yexavors: 


4 oe 
& 02 emso esters .badbxoaeb Jeut e000 
i.% ay i a 
-lA nzeddzom bas nosjnorba te wove ods. a 


4 


esed? bas ..noljengs3e baa Jnowd 


seswiad nobgex ofs x0ol 28. iiow as 301 
sais. eaw ot aiid ,motnombs 10% ee 
; . ? west 4 

4 * «4 Se 


ols Jo atoegeorq stuiut sft t98eVvE. Ye 5. 19s pent 


770 
re) 


| ; i 
-spobatoek tnasroqgul sft 03 exb eaw watestoony oh ats iT 
| | Shaeee 


-~sajite nee notnomba sdi 29 d3woxg ei bo: ot y a2 2B 
- dvees. ald to qos odd, 3a awlisx te cont of 93 

ms i. ou 

eft stsool'o3 bas revi nawedoss: 2 djxoK sa: 
St ro, i) ™ 


7 
2 
a 


VI 


CONTROVERSY 


As already suggested, the completion of the Calgary 
and Edmonton Railway to its northern terminus, while repre- 
senting the achievement of a major and long-awaited goal, 
introduced several new problems which revolved about the 
question of the exact location of the terminus. Develop- 
ments in connection with the "terminus question" affected 
all three of the established roma on the clea and Ed- 
monton line and its southern extension, especially Edmon- 
ton and Macleod, 

It was the power held by the railwey company in the 
exercise of its right to choose the exact location of its 
route and terminals--within limits set by the charter-- 
which eeosins why such problems could arise, This power, 
coupled with the understandable desire of the company to 
reap the maximum profit through acquiring the largest pos- 
sible stake in any particular terminal site, placed estab- 
lished settlements, anxious for railway connection, in a 
vulnerable position over against the railway company. [In 


123 





















< 5 ee Se a ce AL 

yrsgisd siz to sonia ads .beseeg 

~siqst siliry-, auntmre3. ntedsz0a, est 02 

ie Bog bed tpwargnnl bag totam & to. 


‘| | efi. Juods bevioyet dota, ematdoxg won 


-qolsve@~ .evatmres oria to mottssol & 





bajoatis “nolsseup eunteses” afta, muons 
~b2 bag engi) eft 10 enwo2. ~—s 
_rgrombi yilstpeges cnokeaeane. oe 
ee, eee ei <b, thee are 
ems. mi. wisqa0o yswikea aa? tine sa: 
= Mae: to nohspagh 2omne, sil ga 
oe, sraedzarfa, om xd nani 


 soWOg, atdT. .sakig ,bLuoo blues 
2 ynsqmos ed Ro outesb | ot 





~ BOG agegrel edz .gat 
-dsee. beoala, othe 


2 ah enn pee 
| et 





124 
the very nature of the situation, the bargaining power of 
the company was greater than that of the citizens, and in 
an era when the social conscience of the corporation was 
undeveloped and when governments feared to restrict pri- 
vate initiative, public good often took second place to 
private gain, 

The basic issue in this complex of related prob- 
lems was whether the railway company would so locate its 
route as to pass into (or through) the existing settlements. 
Where the decabTt shied settlement was separated from the ap- 
proaching line by a river--in this case the North Saskat- | 
chewan and Old Man--, there arose the very considerable 
problem of getting the line extended or "completed" across 
the river into the settlement. Such eonneia hon nacesatn 
tated the erection of a bridge--in those days an expensive 
undertaking in a pioneer region, This brought up the ques- 
tion of who would pay for the bridge: the company? the gov- 
ernment? or the town? If financed jointly, what share of 
the eset should each bear? 

In the case of the town being either by-passed -or 
Stranded across a river from the bat teay the old settle- 


ment would be faced with a rival townsite "boomed" by the 


railway company for its own profit, To prevent such an 

























to rwoq getategzed wea 





ue. afte , 4 | 
i ao, 
‘gt Bae ,erost320, ats 20 iat pre neds Y: 
° rs Dos <= ~ tis i 
SEW not2stoqxo0 ond to sepotosats Enkoes 
“ . a oe ma , 
~}q Jolstes2 oF abi romamov0 & 
‘ ~ ae 
93 goal tq bnoose #oot ‘got%o boos ¢ ri 
| : .) a plete ‘ak 


-dotg batates to — ald nt ou 


° “44 


ett sjssol oe ‘biuow eaqmos owl bert edd 3 





F ~~ w2 & a aaa ts : 
| | 50, bozeng- 8 testis pl: 
i vs et aes ue Bie: Ain ah 


iia - ‘wet 
: aia gatseins odd (yuorta 20) iP J : 
ae _ ne ee 
i ~qs ofi3 ‘ort bedethane™ 2av sasaottsee bade tds S of 
‘i Tr é 
iH “i ot a 
Hl -texes2 ddax0H od3 9259 ety nb-SaovEs B oat uth 
i) ile * Seer) ne: oe te Ee ay get , 
4 ae btamos sv arg eras exons oo ait BIO 
NH aa . ‘ > 
if seors ' 2siqmoo" ro babnedxe eakl ats aes dl 
UI | , - 
| . al Pear Sade AE : . . 
) ae — aokzefqn0a doue ; -Insasia3e — m nat wi - 
ii . 4 a) 2 r 4 ol ay ae 
' evlenteqe ms “evab seas pier de ¢ i aiteh ya 
Mil 5 ' ’ " z ‘ais ; 
Wy a dEY gaame | » > 4 fu aA pr Pe i 
Nl -230p sda qu riguoxd eta ' t 15900, aaa 
i nah rb : es | 
i ~vog oxfy Syneq@as ads eghiad od 
ty j 
i 7 eal one Sariw eUisntot ° 
i | sg ar a -4 ~¢ By “4 
i) | . ri we t ite: 
iN 
| 







vat «shoe bio ott “@ ? 
HH Se a Ee Sar eee ti 
Wt | sits ed "bye 3 Larne 
~ . a te oe Bags 


na dove ansve tq of ; 
wr eT ra 


‘nas . , 
ee er me 


Ps 





7 


125 
eventuality, the citizens had to be ready to "make a deal" 
with the company whose bargaining power lect fod that of the 
people, the more so the smaller or less united the settle- 
ment, This "deal" might involve either the surrender to 
the company me a eehataritel proportion of the property of 
the town in return for bringing the railway into the town 
or a removal of the existing investment into the company 
townsite, mainly at the expense cf the property-owners. 
Some such deal failing to materiaiize, the town, if it 
were to secure the REE Ad (an, would be forced to look to 
another company for satisfaction, | 

Involved in the solution of each of these Wee. 
related problems were the interests of both the company 
and the settlement, and drawn into the whole controversy 
was the government--upon whom the company depended for 
subsidies and for authority to extend their lines, and to 
whom the people looked for protection of their established 
interests, 

This resume of problems reflects the experience of 
both Edmonton and Macleod, the two established centres ex- 
pected to benefit most from the building of the Calgary and 
Edmonton line, In both cases, the working out of the event- 

’ 


ual solution to these problems was accompanied by much dis- 


appointment, agitation, bitterness, community action, ap- 


ay a on = ©) 


— » 











raha 


mn 7 
‘bie - 
— S 

dey 


“seb a aise" 93. onen oi ot 
sit to ted bo2xav sewed. aatate; gisd 


©) 7. 


-elsje2 ons besitmy “ee Res rol ig z om 
(93 tsbsortue efit xodste oviovnk ad Tat p 
- vin ge ft eo ot : _ 


io Y1teqozq ody to notIzoqoxg Tettaszedue & | Bh 


—“s o,f se 


pwos edt ojat yewilse sd gatgalsd 30 6 
vasqnos of3 gaat jnsutjeevat (gatsekxe pi 10. Levon 


apa by: | ei 
We - = nad-ySi0a0h of} to oaneqx® oe 28 ve olan 


rai co ie s 
all 


rig ee ier 














3% 2E (nwod ods -ostialtesem of gatt 


‘ 4 


ik wai 
My ot dool of beoxe? sd biuow .082 280009, odds 


—* ae 


_ .agitosteltes to ee 


- * ad 
* > , ip at othin r r : 
Puss 
., : 


sea gee) 20 done..2o soLjGfoe ods ot 


pk 7 ken 


egMoD od}. hich to he phebonye wiz . % ie 


y2 TsvotINeS sci of? otnt swath bas § 


e a 


+0? bsbaeqeb yusqmoo ovis cor 4 


<4 } 
s) 










o3 baa *\ echt siods* bnodxe a4 ix fue : 
vid; te = ate if i } 
befall dases sieds to- potioe303g, _bexeol @. 


J ; a : 
rd se In Wes r : : ; ae 
ee we ; Tt Bivg - ee er - ay ah a2 a -_ 2 Ls 
; a a a te 


a 
es i 










-. a ae af ésseraet & 
-x9 @bt3n$9° badettdeses’ ¢ 
bes Gagisd edd 36 pnts 
~ineve  9it) de aulo” ‘eta 
-2itt Youm e's 


“qe enotses 


7 
-_ 


\ ae 











126 
peals to government, and, in the case of Edmonton, use of 
force before the railway finally crossed the river, 

The extent to which the development of the estab- 
lished town and district suffered cannot be measured. With 
regard to both Edmonton and Macleod, the editor of the Ed- 
monton Bulletin wrote: 

There is no doubt that it is this uncertainty as to the 
ultimate crossing that has most greatly hindered the 
prosperity of both places, as both were in danger of be- 
ing sidetracked whenever it should please the railway 
company to move on. 
Later, in referring to the "universal custom!' of railways 
of taking advantage of settlers by such means, he stated 
that "nothing has been done in the Northwest which has had 
a greater effect in retarding its development than that 


course of action.'"2 


A. Terminal Points and the Fear of Being Sidetracked 
1. Edmonton 
Fears of the possibility of Edmonton being side- 
tracked by any future railway were expressed as early as 
the spring of 1882 when the Bulletin editor wrote that 
other places had an equal -chance with Edmonton of being 
chosen as the terminus of a railway. He referred to the 


tug of war that would inevitably occur when the railroad 





I¥dmonton Bulletin, July 29, 1897. 
2Ibid., June 19, 1889. 



























to san aoiaoacht Jo | 
. stevls ort. beaters. 
-dsdes sd3 to tnomgolsveb s 


d3iW _— Ban *S. Cer borotiun 39 


Ses < ’ 4 ’ 
“ba sfis to soa the eo .bobt anit bas ¢ 


efi ot 88 \@nkad ised etdt at 32 jedd om e s 
‘od2 bevebatd yWaserg Jaom ead tad3 .; gf isco 38: 


i‘, -od 30 isgnsb ol.stew djod es ,aenaiq. sed. 25 
tH yawitss ez opaaln bluode 35 ts 
ee rey are 


2yaw! tex to “moteuo Ippuovime" oda seine 

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127 
crossing should be located, } After eight more years of 
patting. when the prospect of a railway seemed near, the ed- 
itor stated that 
the most important point of general interest regard- 
_ing the railway is the location of the terminus on the 
Saskatchewan river, .. . In short, where the terminus 
is made, the future metropolis of what is really the 
Northwest will be.2 
The editorial goes on to offer reasons why Ednonton should 
be the site of the terminus. It was the trade centre of 
the Northwest,? the business centre of the agricultural 
settlement of the district as well as of outlying settle- 
ments, and the point to which the charter directed the road 
to be built. 
During 1891, several letters appeared in the pages 
of the Edmonton Bulletin, putting forth the superior 
claims of Fort Saskatchewan to be the northern terminus of 
the railway. These were quoted in the Calgary Herald. In 
answer, the editor of the Bulletin argued that Edmonton 


was as nearly as possible the central point of settlement, 


cultivation, and population in the area,4 





libid., Apr. 23, 1882. 2tbid., May 17, 1890. 


3The description really applies to Winnipeg, not to 
Edmonton, 


4Ibid., May 17, 1890. Evidence that Fort Saskat- 
chewan's claim was not altogether idle can be found in the 
































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128 

The Calgary and Edmonton Company had been author- 
ized to build their line "from a point . . . within the 
town of Calgary, to a et at or near Edmonton."! The 
phrase "at or near'’ was deliberately left undefined, as 
pee ea an the otse of Commons later showed, so as not to 
place too many restrictions upon the Company. This little 
phrase found its way into most of the railway charters of 
the time, undoubtedly at the insistence of the railway com- 
panies concerned, It may, however, be regarded also as a 


loophole which the companies, including the Calgary and 


Edmonton Company, did not often fail to make the most of. 





account by Col Steele of the N.W.M.P. as to why their bar- 
racks were located at Fort Saskatchewan. The Commissioner 
had given orders that they be built on the south bank of 
the river between Fort Edmonton and Sturgeon Creek, 25 
miles east. A deputation of the people came from the set- 
tlement at Edmonton to Inspector Jarvis, he relates, "with 
blood in their eyes to . . . demand that the barracks be 
built at Ednonton. . .. I have no doubt," he adds, "that 
if the settlers had let him alone he would have built-the 
new post on the opposite side of the river. As it was he 
chose a position 20 miles east, where he thought there 
would be a good railway crossing." Steele also states that 
although the Canadian Pacific survey at the time passed 40 
miles south of Edmonton and crossed the Saskatchewan many 
miles west of the fort, "thus giving the impression that 
the main line would not touch Edmonton, Inspector Jarvis 
had quite a different opinion, . .. He knew that Edmonton 
had a name already, and had large quantities of coal beneath 
the fort, . . .but he knew that the crossing at the new site 
was easier, and believed that a good town would spring up 
there in the future, as well as at Edmonton." S.B, Steele, 
Forty Years in Canada (Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild & 
Stewart Limited, 1915), pp. 88-89. 


IStatutes of Canada, 53 Vie., Cap. 84. 






























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129 

Besides the interests of the established centre 
and district, the Bulletin recognized that there was the 
Company's side of the question to be considered, which 
meant the serving of two objects: to secure the best cros- 
sing at the least possible expense, and "to secure as 
large and profitable an interest as Be agin in the site” 
where the terminus should be located.+ | 

With regard to the first object of the Company, 
the editor thought that Edmonton was at no disadvantage 
by comparison with other points in engineering difficul- 
ties while on the second object, he called for "united 
action in dealing with the railway company," aaaine that 
"what the demands of the railway company ETI be we can- 
bot tell, but there should be a means and a willingness 
to meet all reasonable requirements."2 The several ad- 
vantages in Edmonton's favor were Ree sufficiently appar- 
ent to compel the Company to make it their terminus. 
What was needed was a “spirited and energetic" policy, a 
liberal policy which aoa1a attract {naperaeton and in- 
vestment. This was the way to increase the value of the 
land rather ie to put prices on it phat would deter out- 


side investment, 





1Edmonton Bulletin, May 17, 1890. 2Tdem 


pa 
























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130 
Even after the completion of the line of railway 

to the top of the south bank of the river opposite Edmon- 
ton, the fear persisted that Edmonton might yet be by- 
passed in any future extension of the line across the 
North Saskatchewan River, Skepticism was such that over 
four years later, the Bulletin editor wrote: 

The C, and E. and C.P.R, companies which are so care- 

less about railway extensions in this quarter, may 

awaken any day to the possibility of speculation in 

a new townsite on the Saskatchewan, and run a branch 

to some other point and boom a town there.l 

It was because nothing else would ensure that the 

railway would cross the river at Edmonton when it should 
come that the matter of bridge construction at that point 
took on such urgency. In 1897, when construction of the 
bridge was anticipated, the Bulletin stated that such a 
bridge would mean, among other things, that the question 
of the ultimate railway crossing would be settled and 
that both Edmonton and Strathcona would gain a "permanent 
standing otherwise lacking with the threat of ene railway 
company to cross at some other point continually held be- 


fore them,''2 


— 


libid., Dec. 26, 1895. 


2tbid,, July 29, 1897. 































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2. Macleod 

Although Macleod did not even have the protection 
of an "at or near” clause since the act of incorporation 
ee teachacizel ihe Company to extend their line south 
to the International Boundary without mentioning Macleod, 
the understanding was general that the railway would run 
through Macleod. Im fact, over eighteen months before the 
completion of the railway to the Old Man River, the Mac- 
leod Gazette was waxing enthusiastic over prospects of the 
Calgary and Edmonton Ret eras trains "running to Macleod 
during the present year."1 The eaten wrote that "the 


bridge across the Old Man's River at this point ehh no 
doubt be an established fact before the snow flies,"2 

That it was exoected that the line would run ehrnuen Mac- 
leod is evident from the statement that "it is reduced 
practically to a certainty that Macleod i 1 be that point" 
where the Canadian Pacific line through the Crow's Nest 
Pass would cross the Calgary and Edmonton line.3 In order, 
therefore, to be in a better position ie protect their in- 
terests, the Gazette advocated incorporation for the town 


of Macleod, 








IMacleod Gazette, Jan, 15,..1897. 2Idem 


3Ibid., Apr. 23, 1891, 4tbid., May 30, 1891, 


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132 

In 1891, the Calgary and Ednonton Railway in its 
southern extension was seen in the panoramic view of the 
of a great railway system centred in the town of Macleod, 
Envisaged in the near future was a Canadian Pacific line 
through the Crow's Nest Pass into the newly discovered 
Kootenay mining country of British Columbia, intersected 
at Macleod by the Calgary and Edmonton line, extending on 
to the International Boundary and linking up with the Great 
Northern system in the United States, thus "uniting the ex- 
treme northern and southern extremities of je continent." 
Macleod was foreseen as the divisional point for both that 
Canadian Pacific Railway and the Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way, and as the distributing point for the whole of southern 
Alberta and the Kootenay mining country--in fact, as the 
greatest distributing centre west of Winnipeg. No wonder 
that the Gazette proclaimed that "the whole of the Macleod 
district is on the verge of a Per yireat dawn .""2 

The sequel to this early promise was Ray oe es 
Though the Calgary and Edmonton line reached the north bank 


of the Old Man River opposite Macleod on November 3, 1892, 


lipid., Apr. 23, 1891. 


25 dem 

























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133 
it halted there and was not to cross the river for six 
more years; when it finally did cross, the old townsite 
was by-passed by two miles. Much of the resulting frus- 
tration experienced by Macleod residents attached to the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company who remained adamant 
in their refusal, first, to cross the river and, later, to 
build through the old townsite. 

For a number of years, See. Macleod too was 
to experience the same fear of being sidetracked as Edmon- 
ton did if and when the railway should cross.the river, As 
a result, “owing to the uncertainty of its connection with 


the railway," said Frank Oliver in the House of Commons, "it 


is at a standstill so far as: building is concerned." Mecine 
failed to gain satisfaction from the Calgary and Edeaton 
Company, the newly incorporated town sent its first delega- 
tion to Ottawa in late 1893 to lobby for a clause to re- 
quire the Alberta Railway and Coal Company to build through 
Macleod on its way westward. 


When Osler, supported by the lobbying of Ross, Mac- 


INot until another three years went by, that is in 
1901, did the C.P.R. Crow's Nest Line go through, 


2Debates of the House of Comnons, 8th Parl., 2nd 


——aa ee = 


Sess., 60.Vic., 1897, p. 2337f. 


3Macleod Gazette, DOC Oy) LAT 





















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134 

kenzie, and Mann, asked Pariiament in 1897 for an extension 
to the charter to build south to the International Boundary 
and north to the Peace River, Frank Oliver eagerly took up 
the cudgels in defense of the interests of his constituents 
both in Macleod and Edmonton. By this time accustomed to 
the role of critic of the Calgary and Edmonton Company as 
of railway companies generally, Oliver insisted upon in- 
eluding an amendment which would compel the Company to 
build into the incorporated town of Macleod and to the Sask- 
atchewan River on the Mill Flat within one year,+ In the 
course of the debate, the Liberal Minister of Railways, Mr. 
Blair, stated that he "considered that the towns of Edmon- 
ton and Macleod were aicitied to consideration that they 
had not received."2 J.F, Lister, Member for West Lambton, 
declared that “the Company had broken faith with Parliament 
in not making their connections with these towns, as was the 
original understanding."3 

In the face of ian opposition, Osler changed his 
motion to ask simply for power to extend to a junction 
with the Crow's Nest Pass line. The inclusion of a clause 


stipulating that the extension be made under the approval 


Debates of the House of Commons, ibid., pp. 2338f., 
2610£., 2920f. 


*Idew | 3tdem 














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. we: at. ‘sale gs mAb aia 
hie? - aoitonu b ia bing ot 49 
of. & > i rand J 


" agdahD’ + Re ‘agkedkoat off at se 
aa ee Pelee he 


tvdagth ads: neti. Shad 
£2) <eet ee = ctl 
MORES at: A al Js . 
ay 2 | ee 









i 


” 


135 
of the Governor-in-Council, guaranteeing the interests of 
the town of Macleod was followed by a debate as to whether 
this was sufficient guarantee, In Committee of the whole 
House, Oliver's persistence, coupled with the changed at- 
titude of the House toward railways compared with that of 
earlier years, led to the following amendment: "Such route 
and plan shall provide for the establishment and mainten- 
ance of a station for receiving and delivering freight and 
passengers within the present corporate limits of the 
Cown of Macleod."= Although this bill passed the House, it 
was withdrawn in the Senate at the request of the Calgary 
and Edmonton Company who opposed the amendment, 

The Company was more successful @ year later as an 
act was passed authorizing the Calgary and Edmonton Company 
to build an extension of its line to connect with the Crow's 
Nest Railway then under construction with the stipulation 
only that the location of the line be subject to the approv- 

lipid., p. 2920. By this time, not only had the at- 
titude of the House become less favorable toward railways, 
but the policy of the government had changed. rank Oliver 
in a speech in Calgary credited the change to the change in 
government in 1896 when the Liberals took over the admini- 
stration after. 18 years of Conservative rule. Rate regula~ 
‘tion on the Crow's Nest Pass line, a clause in its charter 
specifying that existing interests be protected, and a re- 
quirement that the C,P.R, twice daily back into Lethbridge 


were offered as examples of the new policy. See Edmonton 
Bulletin, Oct. 8, 1900. 






































to atesteint afd gakes 


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136 

al of the Governor-in-Council. + 

When the railway crossed the river in 1898, the 
residents of Macleod, though for six years they had stood 
firm against the Company's new townsite across the river, 
now yielded to the Company's offer--the probability that 
Macleod would become the Canadian Pacific Railway division- 
al point provided the station be buiit on the new townsite 
two and a half miles east of the old townsite. The ironic 
though not surprising sequel to this whole Macleod affair 
was that the roundhouses, for the sake of which Macleod 
residents had been willing to see the station built two 
and a half miles away, ended up being built in Cranbrook, 
British Columbia, In a speech in Calgary a few years la- 
ter, Oliver insisted that the residents of Macleod could 
have had their privileges protected if they had stood by 
their rights. 

Macleod thus became another of the numerous es- 
tablished settlements which were victimized by one or 
another of the colonization railways subsidized by the Fed- 


eral government in order to serve the Dominion's purposes. 


Istatutes of Canada, 61 Vic., Cap. 57, assented to 
13 June, 1898. 


“Edmonton Bulletin, Oct. 8, 1900. 





























. 


* - - 
° 
a 


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137 
3. Other Examples 

That this tendency to make the interests of es- 
tablished settlements take second place to the wishes of 
the company was not peculiar to the Calgary and Edmonton 
Company was indicated by both the Bulletin and the Gazette. 
An interesting item from the St. Paul (Minnesota) Journal, 
for example, appeared in the Macleod paper during the time 
when Macleod stared at a railway tezminus across the river. 
It was reported that the Soo line which was building across 
North Dakota was Boris existing towns. Four towns were 
listed which had been sidetracked by from one-half to two 
miles. The comment of the St. Paul Journal read: 

Apparently the line is being built with an engineer's 
eye to distance and grades and with no special view 
to traffic or the convenience of established centers 
of population, ... <A railroad should serve the 
country it passes through and should be willing to go 
out of its way if need be to reach the points where 
the people have created conveniences for business. 

It was not necessary, however, to reach below the 
border to find examples of such a comnon practice. The 
Qu'Appelle Railway, financed and built by the same inter- 
ests as the Calgary and Edmonton, had more than once used 
its superior power to force existing settlements to "come 


1 


across" in one way or another. The original Qu'Appelle 





Ist, Paul Journal, n.d., cited by Macleod Gazette, 
Feb. 2, 1893. 


ee, J gm ee 


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‘+> seg to edestesut: ods sism oo bd 
































* 
ie 


ig 


ho esdeiw- odd of os ‘bacose edad ® ma. sis 


nejnowbd bas ysagisd ed} oF satlveog sen rw Yo 


= ate 
otiessd sis bes atieitud sft. dted ed. beas, bates 
emer enemas: at 2} be 





laarwvok .(sjoesamtM)-Lust ww ed aot mezk gf 


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a 


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pao 


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ifn 4 ¢ oe 
7 aa 


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~ISViIZ: Sita € 


a 


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ms - 


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orn + | r : ¥; 





| ee 
eee * t. dane l. Lue wae T-f edx 20. TaMMOD -ef Fy : 
22 See 
e'yssntgne as ddiw 2flud gnted et enti. rota yh 
raty faiosee on diiw bos sebazg bas. vonasab 6 


_ BSat9s0 ‘bated ail davale 20 sansinevnce- es 
*- git sytee bivede beotlist A -. + 3° a ae fe 
oj getlliw s¢.bivedebre dguond Prdlpreny yy 6 
_siedu etsteq wid 6st -03-ed ssanen nnd: shaoe 
Leconigud doteseonehmevads beiseso ‘vad. 9. 
sey Steet * ins 5 ae 
ods voted damwe0 meant — : osm 
eck a. Sot sO See 
edt soleanay nomreo & douse to eel 
ee ee ale a 
-19int ompe oft yd 3iked bas bes 
Ry ie +p aon See ae ee 


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wool! at epnscoljige gotielze @ 


stingahtivg Leakghso ot —_ 
ki ats ore. te tet eS fs 52 a 


siseae0 Senki 


138 
line on its way to Long Lake had run to a point in the val- 
ley called Craven, Its successor company, however, changed 
the route much further west and branched off from the old 
route in the Qu'Appelle Valley, four miles short of Craven, 
establishing Lumsden at the jumping-off point. The Company 
refused to operate the short four-mile spur to Craven, and 
"the settlers who had gone to that place about six or seven 
years previously expecting that the railway then built 
would be operated naturally feel disappointed, not to say 
indignant.'"! 

In the debate on Osler'’s bill asking for extension. 
of the Calgary and Edmonton charter, the Member of Parlia- 
ment for Saskatchewan spoke up: 

I know something about these people because they have 
a railroad built to the town in which I live, namely 
the Regina, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway. 

There is an old saying that the burnt child dreads the 
fire, and we know, from the way in which they have 
acted in the past, that we have nothing to expect from 
them unless they are forced and tied down to do what 
is right in the interest of the settlers.2 


He went on to explain how the Company had passed by the 


town of Saskatoon and "built a townsite of their own, prac- 





IMacleod Gazette, Feb. 2, 1893,. quoting Ednonton 
Bulletin, n.d. 


*Debates of the House of Commons, ibid., p. 2924. 


Weiner ae Sey 
7 vor 









- 


-~Lev. off3 , 5h 2-2akoa. B Slane 
begnadg , tayowod ati all Josey 

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a a ie 4 ‘= 


titud sedt yewlier of3- tsd3 gobioeqxa yt 


yeeros tou ,beiaboqqsetb {sei yisxusan betezeqo: 
Pied x= n> * See ~ ny 74 ° a We te : we iF 


ohepadne, wa gables, Litd.etzeled mo .928d9b edt, said 
- ple do adgul.ads. set redo. agama bas xX 
om a int willie =a vay elo ge nsweds 


xf ‘amen gies I pelle nk wos orld ot 31. 


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9g abeei bitdo sauud 3 tad3 serve b ; eTent 
sxe ols, date oben e054 einen £2 


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Jas Py ob ot «poh beds bas booze? ets yom) seeks 
eennaerit: edo to jasxsint ofd ah 


uw = 


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- 


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ox” See «e~ +e ut Pt 


139 
tically ruining Saskatoon."! Duck Lake was sidetracked 
by a mile or two and the Agcile were forced to move to 
the Company's townsite. Property owners in Prince Al- 
bert, a large town in existence for eighteen years, were 
forced to agree to give the Company one-half of their prop- 
erty before the Company would come in and locate a station 
there. 
4, Conclusions 

A reading of the Edmonton Bulletin and Macleod Ga~- 

zette in the 1890's reveals that a good deal of unneces- 


sary anxiety and ill-will resulted from the inclusion of 


! 1 


the vague "at or near" clause in the Calgary and Edmonton 


Railway deceslinl ata “The Bulletin’ s conviction that the 
Company took advantage of such vagueness of phraseology 
at the expense of established interests is well-grounded, 
Where there were such well-established centres of size- 
able population such as Edmonton (over 500) and Macleod 
(400 to 500), it was the government's duty to ensure that 
the railway company had no power under acts of Parliament 
of by-passing these centres, That the people's repre- 


sentatives began to see the matter in this light is indi- 





lThe original settlement was in Nutana on the east 
side of the South Saskatchewan River; the Qu'Appelle Com- 
pany located its station on the west side. 


i: Aaa 


m= 
iat. -} me 
oe pit 






i 
a 
J 4 


batlsay2 eble agw sled out 


‘ "' 














. Pt, @Y pis 
“Ey ‘ ae e 


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a 


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_stew ,e7eoy neetdigie 10% soupiphxs nt § ‘ 


oq 1ted3 to Ilar-eno yoragmol ed3 sevig < 


saksets & ob pps gt-enop hivow cmap 


—— a 


-seosnes bo igeb beog.s Isd3 eiseves e088 ates 


}0 wozephool ed3 wert .botiveot. EftweDit- bos G 


~~ 
1 


-mpinorbs bee ytsgisd odd ab-seyais “anes eee 
: ‘ 2 -a . 4 

we -e . 
--:e0@3 teacls- ot kzobvecs F pisolivd eH? =  motisieigel 
Oo Se ae 
me 7 al ve aan , 
20 rot preter ry 


- ypokotestag te sReneugey vie 20 ' 















J 


i 
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stalagh 


-exiz {bo 2973089" pedeti dagen 


besiss baw (OGR.seeny posnosbs eee 


jad sse2ene oF ub ‘s"aneanrevog cain cot 
ay a geet Ors oa Gah, 9 OSs Magee — ory : ues L 
: ‘4 
Sientleh-ial 30 e398 vobau hyve, 3 00} an. % 
CUT A! ep a 2 ' ie aes, ani or 
~s2q0% ce} ‘siqooa ad wee oT yr3n 99 :} 
; “ace ORT aA aid SS 
ae “ a erdy ie sasaee | 





r ‘ sei 7 & : mi ”» “henge ie on i 


same odd mee wpe 
-noD silagg 7 


r 


140 
cated by the fact that in 1899 the Edmonton and Saskat- 
chewan Railway Company's bill was passed with certain 
amendments put forth by Oliver including a change of word- 


ing from "at or near" Fort Saskatchewan to "as near a point 


nl 


~ 


as may be Grdoetoab 16! 
In summary, the possibility of eventual sidetrack- 
ing by the railway was in the minds of Edmonton residents 
from before incorporation of the Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway Company until the construction of the bridge and 
the laying of track into the town in 1900 and 1902 respec- 
tively. In the wae of Macleod, the same possibility which 
had caused concern to the people for about seven years was 
turned into a reality in 1898, It was a point made repeat- 
edly by the Bulletin that such fears and eventuality would 
have been avoided had the government exercised its responsi- 
bility and required the Calgary and Ednonton Company to 
build its line into existing settlements. 
B. Bridging of the River and "Completion" of the Railway 
This section PES GA GONE g a Sab inct ion between the 
location of Capaitdet points on the one hand and the bridg- 
ing of the river and "completion" of the railway on the 


other hand. The former concerns the determination of the 





lg dmonton Bulletin, June 12, 1899. 

























Aas 
ies we 
aealiinie 


ne de Ae at 


_ “demese Brie pesnene re 
- sited tes Wiwebadesg ese ite emg of 
~brow Yo gases gitibulont sevilO ot te ‘ 
tatoq 8B tpen on” od hewerlotatese S10F * 
~$ 4 Qa | sie a 
-Heprtobte Initheve 2 wihitdteecq sis 4“ 





einebtest nojnomba 2 abétm edt nt sew wuteatal 
“notnomba bas Yeeglad ott Io opssacnetnitailill 
bas esSiad eft 3e nolsouztemos end thou eanqnod. & 
sox SOCL base O0Cf nt<nwod eds esat sobid! to % 


doksiw qonLndbeace: -amse Si?” bool saM to 9885 edz nt. 
aoe % 


oe 


esw ertssy mevese tyods rot slqosg od ot» y 
-tsoqe1 ‘sham satog s rade aI) ‘8281 it sarap 
bfuow' vi Mevtdsve boa exeet tie 3ads° 
~lenoqesx aft beeFourerd vee ht 5 
-oo° ersqntoS phonérb? bas cate | 
ea sap egise -ateatint sae _gatsadee 09 


> (Thi at oleh 5 a a 
yeni tal ag? 29 mages: bas revia 
; >a ad cman *: aw Be ‘be 


ef? poswied notsontseth & 8o 


cgbhad was bas band sno oft ‘no etn 
a4 wesnty Sd 
ods ao eet bes od? te “nolsol« 
~ &, eas 












9s to votsantare2sh 


mh eres es 
Sto} ~ 2cs ts a fey Oe 
: anu , g ‘o ne wr» 
“a Ss ¥' iy 


141 
point at which the railway will touch the river--whether 
at the point of existing settlement, up-stream from that 
point, or down-stream, This having been determined, the 
latter concerns the getting of the railway across the riv- 
er into the town. Not until this question was resolved in 
favor of the town could the fears associated with the form- 
er be altogether set at rest. The discussion which follows 
deals only with the bridging of the North Saskatchewan and 
the completion of the railway into the towa of Edmonton. 
1. Early Expectation and Disappointment 

For Edmonton, then, the overriding problem was not 
so much the possibility of being sidetracked by the Calgary 
and Edmonton Railway as the unpleasant fact that the rail- 
way had stopped short of its expected destination and had 
terminated on the opposite bank of the river. How to get 
the railway to cross the river at all was the difficulty. 
Macleod was faced with the same task, but in Edmonton's 
case it was intensified by the fact that the railway did 
not even descend the steep bank of the valley onto the 
flat but stopped at the top of the south bank. In Mac- 
leod, the railway went down onto the flat. 

The phrase "at or near" Edmonton did not obligate 
the Company to abe their ae across the river. The 


general understanding, nevertheless, was that the Company 


My + Leena: 6 


‘ 


soidaciw-~tevia oda. tiguos Mie 3 




























= ae 
jsd3 mort MBeTIE- GH 5 snengtszee § 
en3 , bentars3ab ond RES 
- ‘eee ee Se ote 
-viz od3 e20108 eS ets 20 aniave8 oa i 
ees 
ri ee eau _notzaeaup oda Paarl of Se ies 
“ } : ; o's, ie =. 
mo} off dijw betatooses ane? “ biuoo £ 
ewol Loi t dairy nod 20028 tb oat 89% aa gE . 
b ap nswodstgAase , isa ‘eda 20, antabiad ot saben 


* , - s 


,nojnemba to. gos ads osnt yawilss eda Ro. nokia 


_ 
tebe a ~~ grt so- ane 


129m: bsek oqase id bos nokIssoeqxd Saree 


- 


Son ehw ms tio satbs SaAVO ed3 sods nos noahd 10% a Bs, 
Swett 5: “% - + he 
yiagigo oid yd pevlosssobte gated, - @uidie i3 do 


cS sole & a 


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. . ¥ °° “3 : 


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- o sa ¥ Sige 3 Bs. a Ms 
- wa Lugs a2ib veilt. enw iis am 5 oui od | 


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> Oa + ™ é eer ‘e 


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aft pon, 5 yoliay sa3 Yo ansé goede « 


* te 
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oat . sovit ada segs epi 


oe 





142 
were expected to and, indeed, would do so. In the late 
spring of 1890, the Edmonton Bulletin wrote that since 
nine~tenths coun. 8 trade coming to "this point" was for 
regions lying north of the river, it would be Bt propor- 
tionately greater advantage to the country at large to 
have the terminus located on the north side of the river.! 
A delegation to Ottawa from the Board of Trade some months 
earlier asked that the government assist the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company by granting in aid of construction of a 
combined railway re traffic bridge an amount equal to 
the cost of a traffic bridge. The government's answer, 
according to the Bulletin, expressed both confidence that 
engineers would find a suitable site for a bridge at or 
near the ferry crossing and hope that the bridge would be 
constructed early. The editor noted in the late summer of 
1891 shortly after the completion of the railway to the 
south side of the river that a traffic bridge was expected 
"shortly .''2 
| ay were the hopes and expectations of 1890-91, 


But Edmonton was not to get its bridge until 1900--after 


ten years of waiting, agitation, unrealized promises, and 





OF ee ee 


lipid., June 14, 1890, 


2Thid., Sept. 3, 1891. 


e@ 






























1 gs 


— cave 
4 re a3 


o$af onfs*al” Soe ob ib Erte ak Be 5 
le ¥ 


eoite stefF Ss02' nf sate ie sabi - 088. 
; py ~ ie 
x01 ea — obs Pi sitkene os pss 4 


it 


-joqorq to ad Siuew $3 “tevis Af ¥o 


aot ” “ a a on ne roy 
ot -ggusl te Gisanod sft oF sgeeanee 15989 tg Ye: 
epee Ris 

ae ~3 * * ae 7 ‘ 

I sxeviet oft Yo ‘sbie’ ds6n “ads no bedaool 4 nkarsed od: 4 







ba Ee 
a | 


7 





bed ¢ 


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i= 


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ei Tere ‘c= N 


5 0 ToMoutdends to bis at gatiaszg xd eae: fem 


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od Isups Inuonis ‘18 eabizd, p}iiex3 bag ule thm 


‘“ 


_eTowens 2 ‘3 ouptevog sat .pabad ortiss? ade 8 


et - ae 
ssit2 sonsbiines d3ed_ bseeetqx. niseliva a3. ¢ 


10 JB naiined 5 } ter. site oldgsiue , batt biuow 2 
od biuow sgbiad od3 tad3 eqor, bas gatsasto 


‘ - . gain me “deat 
to 29% mee 8 sai oa mt bsJon s09ibs_ edt: ’ (fxg bet 
4, a 4 wah abe a ae > pe 


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ada 02 ene ts arts to, nokisigqmoo oda 393. ~ 3 ie 


+27 Tt a 


— saw ogbtid_ gitigss 5 an pes te te 0 8 bt 


= 7‘ has we 
.£8-00BL to _enolssi0eqxg bas m Sig | s18 . 


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bag. , ssetmorq, benbasate s0i3: mi :: 


a | 


- ay ie 













» : 
CY Se 









pa ‘ 
ie *& 
Cy. 


‘ 





. 
Fa 8 = < 
. 


143 
increasing disappointment both with the government and 
with the railway company. Yet another two years went by 
before the town got its first train. 

A hint of things to come appeared in an article in 
the -Caigary Herald in the fall of 1890 when the railway 
was pushing north toward the Red Deer River: 

We all know that there is a serious difficulty in con- 
nection with the probable non-entrance of the railway 
into the old town of Edmonton. .. . The Macleod Ga- 
zette is growing uneasy over the suspicion that the 
Calgary and Edmonton people do not intend to take the 
road into Macleod. 

Confidence seemed, eee to be in order when the 
Edmonton Bulletin was able to report at the same time that 
Calgary and Edmonton Company surveyors had spent several 
days prospecting for a railway crossing of the North Sask- 
atchewan River, ranging up and down river over a distance 
of about ten miles. Despite the optimism of the Minister 
of Public Works, there was no bridge for the railway to 
cross when it reached the top of the south bank in the sum- 
mer of 1891, 

Understandably, therefore, it came as a blow when 


in an interview later that fall, James Ross of the Calgary 


and Edmonton Company impressed it upon a committee of Ed- 





— 


IMacleod Gazette, Sept. 25, 1890, quoting the Cal- 
gary Herald, n.d. 


2Edmonton Bulletin, Sept. 27, 1890. 

























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144 

monton citizens that although the railway was chartered to 
build to Peace River, it would not cross the Saskatchewan 
River either at that time or in the immediate future--not 
until the extension northward should be decided upon. The 
Bulletin commented: ''Mr. Ross gave it to be understood that 
the engineering Riiet seals and the interests of the railway 
company were the only matters to be considered in this con- 
nection, and that the vested interests of the town would 
not be recognized, apart from other considerations."+ 

Even apart from the need for a railway pie as a 
prerequisite to the hoped for raiiway connection, the long- 
felt lack of a traffic bridge was made more painfully ap- 
parent in 1891 as the "railway age" began for the Edmonton 
district, Under the otita order of ETERS when traffic 
moved in much smaller quantities and at a far more leisure- 
ly pace, the delay and expense of ferry crossing was not 
felt so keenly. The raiiway increased the volume of busi- 
mess and hours began to count more than days formerly had, 
lars used to be. The difficult circumstances of annual 
freeze-up and break-up were bringing out more vividly the 


necessity of a bridge with as many as eighty to a hundred 


~ 





libid., Oct, 11, 1890. 


. a oe a . 

o3 betsttads esw yowltes ‘orts 
navvetih? sies® odd ain ink mae 4 Loa of 
JGr-- or It sdaEbsmnt at 20 sa ine 
eiT .nmoqu bsbiosb ed -biworle RNP 






























) ,% 





jad2 béogdersbew sd 63 21 evsg eeod aM” 
ytwliax sft to etestetnt ef? bus corn 
-goo cidd at berebtenco sd 03 exedaain vino ef 
binow mwod st to eseersInt Sedenv oda’ darts se 
“" anoktstebiaenes sitter nor? siege sonpegiag 
Ss 2s sgbizd yewl iss s +03 bsest* ‘ond ‘moxt bse oa - 
-gnol ad9 ;sorscennoo yewiiss s0t beget. ody, vet ie ee 
~qa Viiwinteg s¥en aban 2Bw ‘gabiad Dated + et a 
notucnhbY ais rot waged “ogs wuliez” ods ee 198 
*. piteur pede enone: to sebs0 bio oat ; mai oa 
-gsuaisi stom +e s- Js bras wos 3naup Hi louie 
ton ety Mabewwnd Yrws2 to sensgxs ‘bam 
“Past to othil ov “wild: ‘osasoront: oatiea of oe 
bad yFegere? 2qb side oxom 3au0> 09 By 





~[e “e heretol sp Siew ea8o RS 
ipunet Te sdondSamento Ih — 
ods: efbaviv oom ieee 
hag 
herbaud 8 09 wate a 
7 Ay 
/ a 


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at t= 







Pee 


145 
passengers in two weeks having to sleep on "shake downs or 
in the cars" while "waiting for hours in ae cold on the 
river bank Ene a eae to risk their lives in a small boat 
amongst the floating ice or to take a ride in the cage sus- 
pended from the ferry cable--a most risky looking and in- 
convenient mode of conveyance," 

A year later, a Wasasee to the Minister of the In- 
terior cited the increase of settlement and trade among oth- 
er reasons pointing up ‘the need for an imnediate beginning 
of construction of a bridge. The traditional means of 
crossing the river--from the station by teams down into the 
flat, by ferry (small boats or the ford if the ferry was 
not operating) across the river, by teams again up the bank 
and into town--proved especially impractical when freight 
was on the scale of tons and carloads rather than hundreds 
of pounds,.2 Each year the experience of fail freeze-up or 
spring break-up occasioned a renewal in the agitation for 
a bridge, The Bulletin reported the harm done to Edmonton 
business as incoming prospectors and settlers without fail 
commented on the lack of railway connection and the awk- 


wardness and delay resulting. 





libid., Nov. 14, 1891. 2Tbid., Nov. 14, 1892. 


3Ibid., Nov. 23, 1892, 






















i sa tat. 
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"9 


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gpome gbs2z bas. jnemeljise jo seseronl ad .bs 
igihsmm: ps, 102. beeq,ed} qu ‘gntiateq. en 
ae anaes isagittbex ef. +ogbiad.s to. onl Quize an | 


— 
° 


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pag 
eo, ¥x 492 9A2 34.b303 ads 20 ‘ejeod, {isme) jaxs2 yd. 
at. a a3 - @e *y ri a 
ale Sit 
ined o2-qu ,alegg eased id. seyit, ed} seotos tga s 


jdgiex?_gede isgidosigat Kilehoages 4 


abesbaud asd3 alga abgolzso bop: 903, % 
10 qu-ssos72 tisk b sp eonatzeqxe, of3 


Toy 


42 id oF anak i 7 Iswenay ab af 
op St om usd alt 
ist ayodahs. e1sij3ige aes 210 


Pat ll of bag PoP 


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— r _ a iy 
- ; Ja ) gee —. ‘ . 
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pF Ta ie 
A bel ae) ae ui “a: 


146 
2, The Bridge at Last 

Edmonton citizens began to sense the impossibility 
of inducing the Calgary and Edmonton Company to extend 
their line across the river. They adopted, therefore, the 
more limited and, apparently, more realizable objective of 
getting the line extended to the bottom of the south bank 
in order to facilitate the handling of the grain trade. 
The agreement with the government required the Company to 
build "to a point on the North Saskatchewan River," which 


to the Bulletin meant "to the bank of the Saskatchewan 


wi 


River, that is, the ee £ of the water. Since the Com- 
pany Bigaten Oy had no intention even of doing this on 
their own, the citizens of Edmonton began to cast about 
for alternative courses of action, A natural preliminary 
step was the incorporation of the town, taken with a view 
to securing improved railway service, With this goal in 
mind, several possibilities were considered. 

An offer was made to the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company , lessees and operators of the Calgary and Edmonton 
line. Approaches made to William Van Horne, President of 


the Company, brought replies, reported the Bulletin, indi- 


cating that he felt there was little chance that a railway 








ltbid., July 18, 1891. 


—_ oP = 
en es 


Oa 
‘gest 2 


iri <a) 





ms ; : 3 ; 
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ysiltdrecoqmi eff obnge os paged at sattt 
bresxs oF yonquod dotnombS brs \ 


¥ 


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hed 


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rm. 




















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ait gs 
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i@ © Sxsdae ed? To sabe wks (at sonal 


So . “a 


Li 


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» “es 


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gienimtietg isrutsh if, 6235s * to 208 
s s q * ¢ 2 : : aa «+ a ee ee 
witty s Atiw netec® owed eff To mors: ogy 


.- . ante eid2 aaiF nt: wouter , 


7 os ier ; ty sbesabi enon av aban 20q Ise" 
“a wie Zoe 
wi ihe ott ised nsibecnd od3 os sii diam: tu 
nodaosbs bat. exeghnd i 29 7 9: s19C o. bagi : ~e 
te 


t 
Se smb lees onsol ast met 12 


-ebn ~ iat Tus ods bessoqed la iq: 


aed ‘aa! pS 


=) 
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aT rs 5 aha Atte “ ae 

‘fae5* vt,’ <n 


-\ a ae Te Ri a 


147 
could be brought down to the bridge site by a practicable 
grade of reasonable cost of construction. + 

As an alternative, it was hoped te work out an 
agreement with the Calgary and Edmonton Company by which 
they would build the line and operate it for a stated 
amount--something iess than the actual cost of construc- 
tion, As its part in the agreement, the town would offer 
an absolute amount in aid. 

Both the railway companies declared in answer to 
these initiatives that thee to their present relations with 
each other--in which the Canadian Pacific Company operated. 
the Calgary and Edmonton line under lease--neither would 
undertake to build the extension as it might prejudice 
their positions in negotiating any final arrangement with 


each other,° The Canadian Pacific Company, however, re- 


lIn 1897 the Bulletin reported Van Horne as announc- 
ing that an extension of the railway from the terminus at 
Strathcona to Athabasca Landing could not cross the river at 
Edmonton due to the depth of the gorge. The Bulletin point- 
ed out, however, in the summer of 1895 that Mr. Bruce, C.E., 
surveyed for a bridge and found that the bridge level could 
be reached with a grade of one per cent by construction of 
3% miles of track. In fact, on that basis, said the Bulle- 
tin, the government had agreed to build a railway and traf- 
fic bridge with the town paying ee Srethe cost. **Thid., 
Aug.._9.,189.7;.June 6, 1895. 


2Ibid., June 13, 1895. 


3The transfer of the C, & EF, Railway to the C.P.R., 
was anticipated at the time. Ibid., July 15, 1895. 


P ed ; a 


sige 
































D | 


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ad SF 
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. ® *.. 


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pis 


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aS% 299 wad venga. ‘sr htosd maton a iso 

iy - a 
, : ue 
mrs' 4? 2 os3 ava Nar ss ‘ ma mes 
~oovonms 25 orion as: Semanal 9 uf oa Xt 28 it wd 


3e° So ieres oat mort owtier hz sary — Ls 
26 isviz oft 2eor> Jon Bigeo git’ & ah ins 
-Serkog” tiie bbud seaTs - eg eds to et 13 © ob 
~oteD ,9oe7d .1M Spas’ Poor ghtsd 8 WwOF 
bTtiod Bakiot “sobs Aenea 1d °s tot 
io moltsutsenoo yd 2a 294 eno 309 
-glieg ody bine* 2 Pend sam % 
-tstd bes yewiiez & bine oF b 
bbeEe *; “sde0 aie tos af 


% 








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CBE os et oe 
ay ae 7 4 ke 


148 

portedly agreed that if the line were built, they would re- 
ceive and deliver freight at the end of the spur at no ex- 
tra cost. The. Bulletin quoted the Caigary and Edmonton Com- 
pany spokesman as promising to do the same if they were op- 
erating the line after 1896. | 

In the face of these negative responses, the town 
considered building an electric railway from the railway 
terminus down to the edge of the river at a cost estimated 
by the Canadian General Electric Company at $59,000 plus 
$7,000 of annual expenditure for operation and interest 
payments. Though considered tc have the advantage over 
the steam railway of economy and greater ability to negoti- 
ate steep grades, there would be the disadvantage of 
ec a at the connection, Indicating the serious- 
ness of its intention, the town secured the incorporation 
of a street railway company in 1894.3 The whole problem 
was thus left in the lap of the town. TE it should come 
to this that the town would have to build the line, govern- 
ment subsidy was counted on in the form of a land grant of 
24,000 acres which at one dollar per acre would be worth 


$24,000. This venture did not, however, materialize. 


lipid., Oct. 10, 1895. 2Ibid., Oct, 16, 1892, 


3Ibid., May 26, 1896, 

























a= 
i} 


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~~ 4 => 


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_ 
a 


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-% gd) ay > 


sve 4 


yewiitsz ods wach onethas otusoele ns anthied + 
a. ; é ot 
auiq 000,022 3s yuegao0 otsso0la teremaD maitbsas0 9 


. sip 


betsmites t209 & 3B sovix si ‘to sabe aci3 3 areata 3 
ps i - 


esteini bes nolsatego 10t ou tbmoges tauans 20 


: A a) 
~~ ‘ r ca : +. i * : 7 


tevo egstesvbs of evan o3 borshlenos- iguodT $, 1S) | 


ane - . ~s# ‘ Fe Tyee wi $s 
are, 25 BOs see ad sl 
-ft0gem o3 yilhds resastg bas motions to babe ; mss 2 
oe Me ee me ci 
io 936 sna vbse tb eds od biuow exsd3 Reece 9938 
- ‘TAs . ~” 9) Yer" 
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© wets 4 ee ae ee. ws 
notjsrgqzesnl 9 3 beru3ee, nwod od’ pe 
Ne, 1 BF et her Be Sines oe 
manila sl oriw ot * ore nt XOSqmOS | 
SiGe SS ee RR ee She, aes 


smep biuode st a. "8 ed to qsl.s 


; it SSS i = eit ansea nae 
“mi9VOx ,oatl ed biasid oe oved biluow wos ofs 
SELES PetSus’ bakin mg 
to tmexg basi o 20 andl ‘edd ab om no bein ne aw 

ost ie ‘ate “Vs Mia eis ca BF Pa} “iy ee 
fs 


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= Fs ea in ee: 
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149 

Two other alternatives reported by the Bulletin 
concerned the more ambitious original project of bringing 
the railway right into the town of Edmonton and, of course, 
presupposed the construction of a bridge. .A subsidized 
private company might be induced to build both a bridge 
and a steam railway line. The company could count on a 
government grant of $3,200 per mile, an additional govern- 
ment grant of $75,000 for the traffic bridge, and a con- 
tribution from the town in the amount of $25,000.) 

A few days after this suggested scheme appeared in 
the Bulletin, the paper took note of an announcement in 
the Canada Gazette of a pending application for a charter 
under the name of the Edmonton District Railway Company, 
who were asking for authority to build railway lines from 
Edmonton in three directions: south to the Calgary and Ed- 
monton line, northwest to the Athabasca River, and east to 
Fort Saskatchewan.2 Left up in the air was the question of 
any future arrangements with either the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Company or the Canadian Pacific Company for operating 
the road from Strathcona to Edmonten. The Company planned 
to carry men and supplies to the Klondike gold fields by 


putting steamers on the Athabasca and Mackenzie rivers to 





ae ee ee 


lIbid., Oct. 10, 1895. 2tbid., Nov. 4, 1895. 























y _ ce 
-ghtedl oe aa tin 


anignizd io 9002 Kanigivo « y wots 
_sathos te bres nodnoutb® to nwo ‘oft 0 


uF | 
besitbiedue A vogebad & to nelsousd no of ae 


\ apbiad s died blind o3- booubat Pe oF 
¢, “~ od F 


p mo -2muos bisoo ver ee ook yaw 932. f 


Lenses Ieootsisbe ne yoltmdieq 008.68 Bo ang oman 


sebixd oitiss7 od'3- 10% 000 ty Dee 


a 
GOO =. DTS $0 


“i B ~ * ©) 
7 Peal ms 


 900,.28¢ Lo- Janome siis ot mwod- oid moni ¢ — ir 


ni bowssaqgs smedagz betaseague eb 19338 “orab wel: 


sooxpedo te %0) netseetiaqqe. aithowen 3. “to =r 
. -yxmagrad.vaviish sotsteld nos nanbl edd rat anon od’ | 
mysh: endl, yowlten biaed- os aisodzue x , 
-+ be: bar: cragtec. pel mate AHR veactiaext 
--@3 eke bes world soasdad3A eff 03 


-lo-geiseeup ais ‘eaw i IES. odevat: qu ated - 


2 ipctte 





~ inal bss: 28 Heb ory: b} mots 
cobssveqnstel aetna ebhios’ ts 

b conety MTEQUED seid i 

qd ebfett blog silthndtioually: 0 


' ea. a 


150 

link up with the projected railhead on the Athabasca River 
at Fort Assiniboine. + 

Finally, the town might build the whole project 
itself at a cost of $125,000 with government aid to the 
tune of $75,000--the finished road to be handed over for 
use to one of the two railway companies who neva operate 
it without extra charge for the mileage added. A debate 
over the relative merits and demerits of construction and 
ownership by a private company or by the town appeared in 
the Edmonton Bulletin between January and May, 1896. 

Edmonton's best hope of getting the bridge, how- 
ever, was government construction. In 1897, citizens sent 
another memorial in the wearying series of representations 
to Ottawa, asking that in view of the fact that settlers 
had come into the district in 1890 expecting that the rail- 
way would cross the river, and in view of the fact also that 
the government had promised large assistance to the construc- 
tion of a railway and traffic bridge "during the present 


" the government refuse to extend the charter of 


season, 


the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company unless they agree 


to build their line into Edmonton. 2 


By this time, the government had agreed that it 


—— 





libid., Sept, 30, 1897, 2Ibid., Jan, 28, 1897, 






+ 

















‘or 
* i, FR ys 


saictiball ae oda Siind adgie ween E ae 


od3 08 bis insoniaveg dake 00,2518: 3 
19Vv0 bebaed obi haos badetakt: saa--t 908 


~ 
Cc > 
Nd oh 


rsqgo bivow ow aaheaquos yawllez ree odd > onic 
an fe 


idob' A ,bebbe egsslio ods z0% _oganito 13x90 


i er 


yrjenos to e3ixemeb bas Fcodeene! evtsalor 


_— ae. 
« Sith os a 


pod eds yd x0 osqmoo ecavesg 8 xe 


SOREL tee © bas raunel noowiad sieliul 


Wh yak 





-wod ,sgbixd sm aubdend to ego teed occa 
ae 


+f) 


eS 
an 


3198 anentge> s8e8! at snoksous32n03' 3as ants 










phat 





- ‘ —- ~ eo 
eagkaaan m8" 1qa% Xe sobsoe gatyrsew ort ni is 19 

‘ be, - ul ei / ea 
ue ~ i. 


exsizt¢oa 2sd3 toa% oils 0 woly of tads 3 . ote 
i. 3 
a ames | Saad 


we te ae 
b 


Laas seit 0k gabsoetes: 0@8i at 298 a dase 
veh oe Roebs.) 


Pe oe he an eo" 





and ‘ante: =) sda) woe st wed ‘ nck: peors bf ; 
yaa pts = 
~pirtse noo ott oy voonte bean ‘egisl bs — je 


i oe 
«Sesto oe personae — 52 Re “yawh be 


151 


1 


would build the combined railway and traffic bridge™ with 


the town paying a part of the cost--namely $25,000, The 
town promptly sent bonds in that amount to Ottawa. Frank 


Oliver, Member of Parliament for Alberta, received assur- 


ances, he said, of a government guarantee "that the bridge 
. e« e will be started at once and nanated this season." 
In the light of this new development, the Edmonton Dis- | 
trict Railway Company sahatined that they contemplated 
building their railway across the river as soon as the 


bridge was completed, Edmonton residents anticipated a 


promising future. 


The year, however, ran its course; 1898 also came 


and went, and still there was no bridge. "But of course 


lxatherine Hughes credits Father Lacombe with elicit- 
ing a government commitment two years earlier (1895) to 
build the bridge. She writes: "Various demands sent by Hd- 
montonians to Ottawa for relief were disregarded, for Edmon- 
ton's pioneers . . . were more versed in Indian-trading and 
horse-trading than in diplomacy” (Cf. Denny's remarks 
above, p. 120). "Now in 1895 the Town Fathers conceived the 
idea that their one hope lay in tnis irresistible old mis- 
sionary-diplomat, who had a few years before secured a grant 
from the government for a bridge at Calgary." Father La- 
combe, accompanied by the mayor of Edmonton, "endeavoured 
not only to get the bridge, but also to have the Calgary and 
Edmonton line continued across the river." She reports La- 
combe interviewing Prime Minister Bowell; Foster; Daly; Oui- 
met; Tupper; Van Horne; and Whyte; and approaching leading 
stockholdérs in Toronto and Winnipeg. She concludes by 
writing that the government readily granted the bridge. Op. 
cit., pp. 1355-6. 


2Edmonton Bulletin, May 31, June 10, Sept, 30, 1897. 














¥ Ans = ay | 


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152 
the bridge will be completed during the next summer sea- 
son," the Minister of Public Works assured the civic lea- 
TEEGA? a letter printed in the Bulletin in February of 
1899.+ A contract between the government and the Domin- 
ion -Bridge Company was signed in the spring, promising 
completion by December 1, 1899. The Edmonton District 
Railway Company's charter was extended to the fall of 1900. 
An unexpected delay in the fall of 1899 stretched construc~ 
tion over the winter and the long-awaited bridge did not 
become a reality till April of 1900, eleven years after the 
first memorial had been sent to Ottawa and nine years after 
the railway had reached Strath¢ona.~ 
3. A Railway over the Bridge 

The bridge built, attention could new be focused on 
the next and inevitable step, the construction of a railway 
over the bridge. The old charter of the Edmonton District 
Railway Company, apparently organized in the first place at 
the pte cation of the town of Edmonton, had been purchased 
by A.G. Blair, George McAvity, and William Pugsley, the lat- 
ter a stockholder in the Qu'Appelle Company. Their fond 


hopes for a rail and water link-up with the Klondike having 


evaporated, they disposed of their charter with its accom- 





‘tbid., Feb. 20, 1899. 2tbid., Apr. 6, 1900, 








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153 
panying franchise and responsibilities to the well-known 
partnership of William Mackenzie and Donald Mann, It will 
be recalled that a decade earlier these men had shared 
with Ross and Holt the contract for the building of the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway. From the comparitive obscur- 
ee those early days, Mackenzie and Mann had arisen to 
national fame, having parlayed a few unpromising railway 
franchises in Manitoba into a system which was to reach 
transcontinental proportions, 

Viewing Edmonton as the gateway to the Pacific for 
their Canadian Northern line, ashe as Calgary had been re- 
garded and favored by the rival Canadian Pacific Company, 
Mackenzie and Mamn secured an agreement with the town by 
which they would begin construction of the railway spur to 
Strathcona under the pretentious name of the Edmonton, Yu- 
kon and Pacific Railway. Construction was to begin by May 
1, 1901 and to be completed by October 1 of eee year, 
They agreed also to operate the line continuously, accord- 
ing to the Edmonton Bulletin. } 

In late April of 1901, Mackenzie and Mann secured 
government permission to cross the bridge with their rail- 


way. Late June saw the arrival of Malcolm McCrimmin's 





Itpid., Oct. 26, 1901. 


vn 






















a] 


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154 
road-building outfit from Calgary. Operations began in 
July, two months late. By November 22, three weeks past 
the deadline for completion of the road, one mile remained 
to be built and the Bulletin headlined a severe censure of 
the Canadian Northern Company with the words: "A Breach of 
Faith." The road was completed the Betietactser ine but 
in Fane the editor of the Bulletin complained that although 
rails had been laid from Strathcona to Edmonton, the connec- 
tion had not yet been made and wondered whether agreements 
with Mackenzie and’ Mann meant anything. 
4. Making the Connection 

Even with the railway spur built into the town, it 
appeared that Edmonton was in for yet one more of its 
frustrating delays on the way to securing direct railway 
service. Associated with the problem of making the connec- 
tion between the Edmonton, Yukon and Pacific short line and 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway was the question of who 
would War ale the four-mile spur once the iink was made. 

Apparently, the promise of Mackenzie and Mann to 
operate the line had been lightly made, Realistically, 
as the Bulletin editor pointed out, the Canadian Northern 


could hardly be expected to provide a locomotive and operat- 





libid., Nov. 22, 1901. 









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155 
ing staff for a line only four miles long. The Calgary 
and Edmonton Company could not operate the spur since they 
owned no rolling stock, That left the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, operators of the Calgary and Edmonton line. 

If the Canadian Pacific Company were to operate 
the spur--as they had reportedly promised to do back in 
1895--an arrangement would have to be made between them and 
the firm of Mackenzie and Mann. There was apparently con- 
siderable difficulty experienced in working out an arrange- 
ment satisfactory to babs parties. Concerning the Canadian 
Pacific Company, the Bulletin conceded that "they are under 
no obligation to operate it, and may refuse oe do so,'"7 
especially if it were true that Mackenzie and Mann eet 
dickering for the purchase of the Calgary and Edmonton line, 
as the editor suggested, 

Only the Canadian Pacific Company, however, could 
operate the line to the advantage both of the company and 
the town, Whatever the failure of Mackenzie and Mann to 
live up to their promises, under the circumstances, the ed- 
itor of the Bulletin declared, "if the C.P.R. have refused 
to operate, they do net appear is any too favorable a 


light," considering that the service would be a conveni- 


libid,, June 6, 1902. 2T dem 3Tdem 










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yous some iuge ef% e2emego Som bisa 9 
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is 


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7 
bas mgs coewted ebam ad o3 evad -bluow aon 4 
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-egner7s ms guo gotadrow mt beonsizeqxe YiluolIitb, 8. 
calbarad od getaseonod. ,satixeq d3od o3 oe 


~sbeu ors. vodd" taeda bebeoooo obisiiud sd: ee 
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bas woaqnos.edd to diedvegstasvbs eft ote 
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156 
ence to the public, bring traffic and profit to the Com- 
pany, and bring in settlers to the "nearly a million acres 


of land" belonging to the Canadian Pacific Company "in the 


very region that would be chiefly affected." As the editor 


put it, "For the C.P.R, to refuse to operate the extension 


merely because it belongs to Mackenzie and Mann, if that is 


the fact, is a clear case of cutting off the nose to spite 


wi 


Such was the mistrust with which Edmonton citizens 


the face. 


by this time regarded the Canadian Pacific Railway and the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company, that a rumour had 
gotten out in the fall of 1901 during construction of the 
spur line that the Calgary and Edmonton Company had taken 
out an injunction to prevent Mackenzie and Mann from mak- 
ing a junction with their line. Mr. N.E. Brooks, Inspec- 
tor of the Calgary and Edmonton line, had found it neces- 
sary publically to deny the rumour. 

This latest impasse was only one more factor con- 
tributing to the bitterness which Edmonton residents felt 
toward the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, From the time 
of the abandonment of the northern route in 1881 until the 
Company's rebirth of interest in Ednonton in 1903--appar- 


ently in the face of competition from rival transcontin- 


Seema” 


lidem 


~mod orf or shone bas saute i 


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a 


ane 
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er. Fz , 
MoTSenslsa 
” 


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A , Ee. 
320 gntiauo | to ease 3selo sak 3 Jos 


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ae 

















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BSH FRO. 


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— 


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-oagenl , edoord aM aM vent sted’ totes 


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, 4 =A pete ; 
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157 
entals, relations had grown steadily worse. Besides the 
decision to divert the route southward, other factors 
strained the relationship. For instance, the government 
had reserved to the Company all unclaimed odd-numbered sec- 
tions in two vast blocks of land to the southeast, east, 
and northeast of Edmonton--known as the First ane Second 
Northern Reserves--as part of the land subsidy for build- 
ing the transcontinental line. The resulting "land-lock" 
was held responsible, by critics of the GonpRny inoleaene 
the Bulletin, for holding back the settlement of the area, 1 
Edmonton settlers also blamed the Company for not encourag- 
ing the extension of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway into 
Edmonton. Associated with this grievance, was the Canadian 
Pacific's interest in building up the rival town of Strath- 


cona on the south bank, their unwillingness to come to an 





lwith the relinquishment of the eastern half of the 
First Northern Reserve to the Federal Government in 1890, 
the C.P.R, abandoned its proposed branch lines through the 
Northern Reserve. Though development of some of these 
lands was later made possible through branches built east- 
ward from the C, & E, line, the C,P.R, concentrated its at- 
tention on developing the lands along its main line and 
gave little thought to the northern lands during the 1890's. 
When ultimately these lands were served by rival lines of 
railway, the C.P.R. was robbed of incentive for early de- 
velopment and gave up the policy it followed in the south of 
land sales on conditions of settlement in favor of sales at 
high prices without settlement conditions. As a result, "the 
zeal which the Company displayed in the work of settling the 
South was largely absent in the North," 









































4 ov ie 
7 . 
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offt zsbiesé - oerey Cibasdia 
eo ao é ‘sie ee 
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? a3 LS ae - wi rs aes 


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. ss =" yaren 
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-bitud wot ybiedue Saal “es t9 310g ee--novisat nIsistor 
4 ™% : es a4 eae ; 


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4k RES oct 5 ae EE aes ro id vies 

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1s oe . : 5 ” BEG, 2 be: ih aac | col gate 
-sasvoons ton tot a oid bemsid sates exsi2398 or 


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odmk yawiltss nosnoaba t bas + zagtnd etd to nokens $x: ods a 
, “to a sed ee ‘a J ae 


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a ee ee Ae Ee tt ring iat” oe re iia «: 
we of emon of eesnmEo Bi Liwaw ‘xheds ~ansd hosicstel odd 
este ee ot eo Lee Py ee . ant Ae — a mr 





aft to-2isd.azesene: om. “tip: ssosudaneaiiale omg 13. thas 
ans at tnamtiroveD EstebsT ef? 03 ovzeeat mzs 
aie AigyonGrnnanhl, dsensd beeogotg 83 in 
© 9eahs 30 omoe to Jnameoleveb 4 senate 
-ieeo Athud eoicessd diwonds eldlezoq-obam sees 
“wie 2ii bets tioeac0> AF. 3 off? 4 onkl--, ee 
, ae onl «than gsi gnols abaal-wisg nto : 
# "GOS oid gabuub abnel- nvotia tat Fo Leela f sod 
29 eau ttewa i beviee 6 Re 
~sp fil gas wot eritassal —— aie RST. 
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158 

agreement with the Canadian Northern for the operation of 
the spur, and the favors bestowed upon Calgary, as a result 
of which Edmonton was drawn toward competing lines. For 
these reasons, Edmontonians were bitterly hostile toward 
the Canadian Pacific Railway. + 

That the latest delay represented a "very substan- 
tial grievance" to Edmonton and district is no surprise. 
Seemingly unending waiting, agitation, and promises unkept 
had been their lot for eleven long years, Now the town 
had put $25,000 into the bridge to get the railway connec- 
tion and had gone to the trouble and expense of securing a 
railway charter, under the legal successor of which the ex- 
tension had been built. Settlement north of the river was 
being retarded as long as the connection was not made: the 
cost of hauling produce from Edmonton to the railway sta- 
tion had meant a loss of $10,000 to farmers on the north 
side in one season, according to Bulletin calculations. 

lwhen the C,P.R, later became interested in effect- 
ing an entrance into Edmonton, the Company was faced with 
the need to conciliate the townspeople, disarm criticism, 
and refute the charge of a jealous motive on the part of the 
Company in their past and present actions. In response to 
the attempts of a C.P.R. official to win the regard of the 
people at a public meeting called at the request of the of- 
ficial himself, the Bulletin stated that the C.P.R., who 
"once had Edmonton at their mercy," had in the past "per- 
sistently shelved Edmonton's grievances when it could help 
Edmonton."’ But now with the prospect of rival railways be- 


fore them, they had suddenly become "very solicitous" for 
Edmonton's welfare. Ibid., Mar. 28,-1903. 































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sie 

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3: =, fia 

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~mebotitis wtseif Ssiqdsqeawod: eds s 


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jo aft to Deoupet off oe belies. 
oie , 4.9.9 ef3 Jace besese at: oil mt 
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-od ayswilss Levit 3o soaqeotqg emt saat 
ae% "“evorttolioe yisv" emo 2 ng irs | 


159 
The building of elevators was being held up, it was said, 
by uncertainty as to the operation of the spur. + Both 
the Canadian Northern as well as the Canadian Pacific had 
at various times given assurance that the line would be 
operated. The three conditions laid down by Van Horne of 
the EES Pacific Railway for his Company's operation 
of the spur had been fulfilled, it was argued: a prac- 
ticable grade, the promise that the road would be kept in 
operating eration: and a renewed lease by the Canadian 
Pacific on the Calgary and Edmonton line. 

Mann was reported as saying in a Winnipeg inter= 
view that no one was willing to operate the road.2 It 
had been offered to the Calgary and Edmonton Company free 
of charge on the condition chat they or the Canadian Pa- 
cific Company would operate it, but, said Mann, they would 
not unless they were paid to do so, What it boiled down 
to, then, was that the Calgary and Edmonton Company couldn't 
operate the line--having no rolling stock--, the Canadian 
Pacific Railway didn't have to operate it, and the Canadian 
Northern didn't want to, 


. Finally, in August of 1902, a letter from Macken- 





lipid., June 23, 1902. 2T dem 
3ipid., July 11, 1902, 






I ie aS (es oF be i oe 
biee aow 2 ith bio. | 


e. : t - oe ps0 






































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SF ee Sex ees 
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Sad + , sg Ob = 
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neltaxsqe 70 @ *eaagnod ail 30k euliel ot 


- ee ie } 


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er 


ai Iqodt od biuow bsox oft tata pabieoriy withs oun 


- 

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‘, fi Lae 

: = aid hes on4 

S oatt ‘nosnoaba bas eaagiad ora 70 é 

ue § ~ Sta as sy " Pad 

~reini 3 wens s at goky Be 8B betx0qa3 eaw “ast , 
“— - “i, i ie - a th o-, cae " 4 Zia 


“Sit © bso sid etexeqo! of gabitey ew eno on 





a as +. eae #) “peed sh. ; 
sox? ¥esqm 9 “eotenae bas wisgt ad eri. od beretto’ mes 
s¢ #ietee Soar | Ape o* ~ 9 
<s9 asitbans> od? x0 ‘ets dads nok3tbaoo sd? 0 8 Bi: 
WF Les. a “he ree ee maa 
biuow yods -acaM bies wud 3h bantu bivow: x 
iy ay : 1217) eee wee 


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WR ee 

' ab Lion NOs aeqmod seaaonba. ie angle: oT jad. 
dah gee gt Agee B ore? ee eee nee 


netbeans) ed «"7Haase ‘gnkiloi on gakwadena 
HF) Te eh. tries,” eR Stan cote Sy eee col Gk 
neibans) edi bas 3t 928 19q0 93 ovad 3? ear 
ae Se Be co lee oj 
eo 
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~ machanit pan 192301 & _soer to Jsaugu. 


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wil? hs oe? 


160 

zie to Edmonton representatives revealed that an agreement 
had been arrived at with the Calgary and Edmonton Company 
under which the latter would operate the track.! Six 
weeks later, however, when still no connection had been 
made, the Calgary and Edmonton solicitor, in a letter to 
Oliver, stated that it "is not the Calgary and Edmonton 
Company's fault that a suit iegn eto arrangement has not 


1 


been arrived at some months ago," and he protested his 


Company's readiness at any time to facilitate any reason- 


able arrangements." 


A report had appeared in the Bulle- 
tin announcing that the proposal by the Edmonton, Yukon 
and Pacific Company for the Calgary and Edmonton Company 

to operate the line had been. declined. Mr. A. Nanton of 
the latter Company stated that they had tried since April 
to reach an agreement.> The whole affair supports the 
suspicion that the Bulletin editor's information was cor- 
rect when he suggested that complicated negotiations by 

the rival companies for the purchase of the Calgary and Ed- 
monton line were going on behind the scenes. 


It became clear, at any rate, that if the spur was 


to be operated, the Canadian Northern Company would have to 








libid,, Aug. 29, 1902. 2tbid., Oct. 31, 1902, 


3Ibid., Oct. 17, 1902. 






Md - eo a 
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fon esd InomegareTtis yxosostedsat 8 tad3 $tiss? a'y a 
eld bejestouq ed bas ",ogs edimom smoe $s. 23 e = | 
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43 at botseqqs bad s1oOGst A Se 300m 4 aa a | 
‘goaromby edz yd Iseoqotg ers. sect —— ons . 





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161 
do it themselves. It now remained to make the physical 
connection between the two lines. But before this was to 
be accomplished, Strathcona was to witness a reciprocal 
display of force in what appears in retrospect as a farci- 
cal comedy. 

Any connection of railway tracks had to be author- 
ized by the Railway Committee of the Privy Council. The 
Bulletin reported that such authorization had been made as 
early as the previous April 24th. Canadian Pacific of- 
ficials, apparently, did not agree. On October 3rd, ac- 
cordingly, the Canadian Pacific Company forbade Manager 
Pace of the Canadian Northern to remove material from the 
Calgary and Edmonton station to the point of connection, 
Telegrams back and forth apparently yielded no sign of 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company permission for the effect- 
ing of the junction. On October 6th, after Manager Pace 
and his men had already ignored a policeman armed with a 
warrant for his arrest, the Canadian Northern attempt to 
make the connection was foiled by the Canadian Pacific 
crew running an idle engine onto the point of 7 aye 
while the men of the Canadian Northern looked helplessly on. 

That afternoon, word from Strathcona that the Cana- 
dian Pacific were forcibly resisting any connection brought 


loads of Edmonton citizens upon the scene, Since there was 













fsso1gkSst a ‘sasndiw oo ari 
~tovsi & 2s so9qeo728 ar areéqqe pari 


e boll Sa 1¢ " 


a 
» 


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oft .Lionved evar’ old. to ‘pod3immod ‘eta a me: 7 
“as obsm meod bal notsasir6davs doup jad3 bad xogex £ 

"sto afttos4 ostbenisd jaaas ‘tiagA auolverq: odd 8: 

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SogbuaM sbedzod wringind prtiosT natbeasd’ of. 
6 7,4 - oy; me 
est: 


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- sd <* 
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- 


- 


"34 Heke on ‘hebfely yidadzeqqs dox0t b 










— 
—— 














- 438342 GA 108 nokedtiensg yasqnod voutdan 5 fem 
e281 keednnh tadts’ Wer. 7ode309: 00° fois mG 

a hi 

2” aye ’ 
od dqnatds Fnedts0l ‘natbacsd ods ayaa ne : 
A MAS whl Sxl chen a 

oh selfs Saito" inkog ade aie 3 
0 aasiqiat’ besioo! . aredsxell a 


sie 
Ss dtiw bone namoot log s bevongt yadtls bad s 
<, jot 3 
© sp yead Ratbaaky * ita yd bolto sais ref 1K 
ee 
“88D odo 36d" snood3 5332 mor? 6 


siguosd aoliasancs yam gekd 
asw oted3 sont? . | 


162 
no sign of activity and Pace and his men had departed, 
the crowd after some time thinned out. Around 5:00, 
with apparently none of the Canadian Northern men around 
except for a relaxed Mr. Pace strolling about, the Cana- 
dian Pacific engine shunted north to make way for the 
scheduled train from the south, due in any minute. This 
brief interlude and a sharp whistle from Pace brought the 
Canadian Northern gang out of the nearby bushes, and before 
the engine could make it back, the rails had been lifted; 
within an hour, the connection had been completed and the 
inspection made. A rumour in Edmonton later that the Cana- 
dian Pacific men had torn up the tracks turned out to be 
false. 

This incident on the tracks of Strathcona called 
forth bitter denunciations of the Calgary and Edmonton and 
the Canadian Pacific Railway companies by the editor of 
the Bulletin, who claimed that it merely revealed the at- 
titude of the two companies to the Edmonton spur, Al- 
though the line would be "of the greatest advantage to the 
people whose travel and Se give the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton the largest part of its business," and though they 


ought to have built it themselves, yet when it was offered 


* 





—_—-—- 


libid., Oct. 10, 1902, 























at: 


Atri SM 
-bodzeqeb- bad ase std bb of a 
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al ‘ 
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relies 


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163 
to them rent-free they refused to operate it. "That lit- 
tle episode of the guard train lets us know ee where the 
C. and E, stand on the question of the operation of the ex- 
tension to Edmonton," railed the Bulletin, "and just what 
we may expect from cheat Two weeks eed hex the Cana- 
dian Northern, having bat in an engine anda pea sBe com- 
plained that traffic intended for Edmonton was not being 
handed over to them and asked that this be done either in 
Edmonton or Strathcona, whichever convenienced the Calgary 
and Edmonton iine, the Bulletin castigated the latter for 
this "attempt to hold up another company and block the ex- 
Peqnion of railway facilities for the benefit of the pub- 
lic in this part of the country," 
5. The Train Crosses We RAY 

"C.N.R. Train Crossed the Bridge at 3:45 To-Day," 
Headi ined the Edmonton Bulletin on Monday, October 10, 
1902. So long had the townspeople worked for the railway 
"which visibly and actually connected the historic town 
uh the north bank of the Saskatchewan with the busy, mod- 
ern world,'"? that when the great day came it seemed anti- 


° e W! 5 
climactic. Never was there an event so long expected and 





lidem Zibid., Oct. 31, 1902. 


3tbhid., Oct. 10, 1902, 





a 


“<3%7 sea?” - 3f sdesege aitaconeserti: 
sf} oteriw sant “witha ty hal wk 
~xe #Ht to~ ‘Got exsgo ‘edd Ro solve niey 


























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— yr iy 
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¢ 


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Z 33 tetis! ad3 bsrsgtsieso atjel iva eft On a ee . 


; vm se + Salen 
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~duig SHT Yo Jfisgad sft 202 estaifios? orariayth io nok 
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A RTI TE ae ‘youd ioe | sess 22) sa a ,e 


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164 
so long and earnestly worked for, and so impatiently await- 
ed, which took place with less ostentation than the arrival 
of the first train in Edmonton," the Bulletin wrote.! 

It was a day of eee ier Edmonton, and appropri- 
ately the following Wednesday was declared a civic holiday. 
Proudly, the Bulletin harked back to a day "when President 
Van Horne is.said to have stood on the enbeaite bank of the 
river and to have declared with all the authority of the 
man who had the country in his pocket that a railway would 
never run into Edmonton."” 

With little cater hs one can picture the honored en- 
gine--number "twenty-six"--puffing forward, behind it a 
coach, box aia! and two flat cars bearing the citizenry 
of Edmonton who were taking advantage of the excursion 
to Strathcona junction. Proudly they rode through Mill 
Creek valley, drinking in the rustic scenery as it came in- 
eS and receded from view. Even more exhilarating was the 
sight from the roof of the box car. Puffs of smoke sig- 
nalled to curious viewers lining the top of the north bank 
the approach of the locomotive as it wound its way down to 
the flat, crossed the bridge and pulled into the Edmonton, 


Yukon and Pacific station below the old Hudson's Bay fort. 


libid., Oct. 24, 1902. 2tbid., Dec. 5, 1902. 


"¢- 

























‘ 
ai 


-Jd Swe vl anstanaat oe ban. 203, igh 


Ae) 


iss visas e3 orl? sok36IN9I80 eeel ¢ 


et Be 
ae 


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.yshifod olvie s beasbasb. ssw vabsanbew “2 
tmabtess> asriw'-yab « 02 dosd be lzed sisaliud ot 
erig to Ansd etleogqo sd? oo booze syed oF blae. 8 it. 

eid to yiztodjiua sz ils ditw bersiosb vad oF | Di tow. 
biwvow. yeawkieas #-3sds Joadooq- ail At adage. orf bed orks i. : 
ae 

Py , .. i jt Sn * sospoeba- -otat au wt 7m 
1@ bewcapd sd quujotg 65 apo .I303%8 el2sil d3iW bos 
s 3 bnided ,brswto02 gnbtiug--"SPe— amend" on! 
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asd datos edd $0,.q0% ods aaiatl a er aoe 3 
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.cosmembd edt edak- baliug bas gbix 


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165 
Brought together dramatically in cne view were the old and 
the new. 

Adding to the air of celebration was the band of 
the fire brigade. That afternoon, for a twenty-five cent 
fare, a good proportion of the townspeople made the round 
trip, their first train ride across the North Saskatchewan 
River. For some it must have been their first train ride 
ever. 

The Canadian Northern Railway announced themselves 
ready to commence regular service on the Edmonton, Yukon 
and Pacific line as soon as the Canadian Pacific Railway 
were ready to cooperate, 

In the pages of the Edmonton Bulletin, a new item 
began to appear regularly--the first time card of the Ed- 


monton, Yukon and Pacific Railway: + 


EDMONTON, YUKON, & PACIFIC 





Time Card, No. 1 


Going South- dyoobom, ere. Str. 
3 trains daily 7:45 8:00 
13515 13:30 
16:45 17:00 

----North-~ iv. Str. arr. Edm. 
9:00 924.5 
14:15 14:30 
1b Aas fe" L750 

x-Irain no. 1’ conn. w. so. b. C.P.R. 


? 
5 AM Ys bam Rk 
rt en ee renee eee eee 


libid., June 1, 1903. 

















1 re a sae, © 
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“8g ado Yo bths ethikyeserts oda-ytzatoget 


‘ yewilat obhtoat: a iat ane 


166 

Under the Edmonton, Yukon and Pacific charter, 
surveys were made west seventy miles to the Pembina Riv- 
er and north about ninety miles to the Athabasca River. 

Two years later, the parent company, the Canadian Northern, 
reached Edmonton with their transcontinental line, thus 
shortening the distance from the town to Winnipeg by 200 
miles, and the town looked to the day when the completed 
line would offer more direct and shorter connections with 
the Pacific Coast. 

The Canadian Pacific Company, who seemed belated- 
ly to get interested in Edmonton lest the field be pre- 
empted by others, had located a line from Battleford to 
Edmonton as part of their northern railway. They were also 
seeking power to build an extension from Bd@montom to the 
Calgary and Edmonton line under the charter of the latter 
Company which they had purchased. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific had also applied for a char- 
ter to extend their eastern network across the continent by 
way of the Saskatchewan valley within five years. 

The Canadian Northern Railway, furthermore, had 
just closed an agreement with the town of Edmonton whereby 
in consideration of a sixty-eight acre tract of land for 
= tary shops, and station, the Company agreed to maintain 


the principal yards and shops on its main line west in Ed- 


a 

iodrae ofe0$ boa noi, » - 
~via wabdmit ods. o} esllm never 3 
.tevia aozndedaA, ot o3 esila ¥ ! 
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cats stew yod? You isx mioddron xied3 20 rae 
aii 03 Sino erent nox? sobensdxs oB blivd's 


rs 


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167 
monton, It was expected that a similar arrangement would 
be made with the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it was 
hoped to do the same with the Grand Trunk Pacific when- 
ever that Company's scheme was far enough advanced. It 
was clear that after a long, dark night a new day had 
dawned for Edmonton as a railway centre, the Batiatin 
emphasized. 
C. Rival Townsite "Booming" 

Sabo lizine and Lhgaece wad Re the threat to Edmonton 
and to Macleod of being side-tracked by the railway or 
stranded across the river from it was the presence across 
the valley of a new and rival townsite "boomed," so it was 
claimed, by the Calgary and Edmonton ee Connnae The 
Company's professed reasons for establishing new townsites 
were the impracticability of the established site for fut- 
ure operations of the railway (Macleod) and engineering 
difficulties and expense involved in crossing the deep and 
wide valley (Edmonton). Much more convincing to the Com- 
pany's detractors were the less worthy motives of desiring 
to make a large profit by securing the largest possible 
stake in the property of what was hoped would become the 


" . e «= oe ° 
new centre of trade and business or the intention to force 


libid., Mar. 12, 1903. 

























; | r apie 


a 


bivew tagmoggsyzs, ae #3. be 
- BBY 3. ‘ban, ial 2 etitis faa 
~netw olitosi sent bayptd oft ay 
71 + psonevbs dguone w= saw ssa & 
bad Ysb-won s.dfigip aga. s gaol &. od 
gplisiivd afd ,e7ne yswitss s 28 5 ons 3 


ee 4) gen 


| "satmood” ajte pwot 
codmomba od Yastda ont ‘gab Liawaos ba ‘gatsttodme® * 


yawiles aa ed ‘bodloa1- ~oble gated to" scatoat 


ara 





mt 7) ow 
i | me Me 7" ABs 
280198 201 2079 ‘ota enw 31 moxt soyis odd 220708 bab 
. . ” ‘= wn" | eas: 
gow Ji oe ponnda eaianwod levis bos’ won & to yet. 
: ae 
dT .vmsqmo0 yawl tal nodsouba ‘bas wsglsd_ a 
» ; . 
Tt Zt es ie | As 490! 
astienwos wen geidetidsses 08 encase’ " boeese 





"y+ gy * 13” ia tea? sank 
-tut x02 edte sdatt dates odd Yo pHisdst “ aqme 


es = th 
abel sae brs - (bootoay) outa ods ast ~ . 


eit eee Z 


feta ‘aah ori “prite eo ok ‘beviownt, ee aN va 


4 ? d “te ¥ ee as * 
-m6). sdi © sastifmes ox08, ‘dou 


a*, : ts an if 


ontuhes. to ena qda20¥ ‘eal 2p 


sl dergg Jeegzel sf. nee Me 3 


od3 oncead bivew bogod sew 74 
: aa a 


saxet pny oka 
: es act Ese: : 
i 
jee sy 
a =e . a 


168 
the property-owners in the established site to cut the 
Company in for a large share in the property before con- 
senting to build their line into the old site, 
1. Calgary 

Calgary was the first of the three established 
centres to face the possibility of a new town site as a 
result of the building of the Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way. The act of incorporation Wediatitiiared that the 
Company was to build its railway "from a point on the line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, within the town 
of Calgary."4 The alert Mayor Lafferty, nevertheless, 
wrote to the Calgary Herald two weeks before sod-turning, 
urging the need for united action by Calgary property- 
owners and for organization to reap the advantages of the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway. He called for a meeting to 
form a Board of Trade and recommended that industries be 
bonused,” The wisdom of the mayor's advice became appar- 
ent just three days after Calgary's “gala day'' when the 


Herald called attention to reported offers by land-owners 


Istatutes of Canada, 53 Vic., Cap. 84, assented to 
24th Apr., 1890. 


2 Calgary Herald, July 11, 1890. The editorial 
made reference also to "expenditures during construction 
[which] will enrich us and benefit us very much." 


ie 


-* 4490 03 ole sae aes 


+? oe 


















-soo ereted exsgom ‘ofa ak | 
.stte bio “it 2s oie entl + 


? rae «. 


a. ee a . “s 
hedetidates sex? eff9 Xo sextt oft esw 388. 0 be 


i 


te owod wens 20 withdreadg ods saad 3 83% 
~lteh ae ba bas agin ‘od3 to ‘gnibiiud ada “to 


¥ 


14 35d) botalugite bad sobsexoqroomt 30 30B oft 


, 
we eg 


mou" voulbes ett bitud o3 eaw cme 
' ‘ . 
awot oft nidsiw , xis qm0d ened bai oftiont astbsasd a3 


‘ . a a o «= 
enti eds no Jnteg & 


" ezaisdzeven astial 10ysM ax9ls onT ‘iy it89 | ° 


=-- cre + ee . i 
pik pad -boe ereted gsissw ows biszeH rishi oy cag 


gisd yd notsos bodinw 102 been : : 


f . oe 
Jans + 3. 


to la pana ett 9a97 “otsasdangro Se ba 


of gn Joan & sol belies oH -yewllet an Tes 18 


-YI ISsg02q VI&B 









f.» 
‘el dd 


Ne ‘ 


a 


“ot esizaeubat sacs. hetero, bas bunt 08 


“Taga sasned sotvbe 8 ad sae 20 


oe e 
Fat’ Se . * ad Yoke 
+ le, 
> 


" gteroo the oft ms 
aot? ada ab anal 


169 
east of the Elbow River to the Canadian Pacific Railway 
and to the Calgary and Edmonton Company to establish the 
station there, thus booming a new townsite. The Herald 
vigorously defended vested interests. 

Within a few days it was known that the Calgary 
and Edmonton Company had complied with the letter of the 
charter by locating their junction with the Canadian Paci- 
fic line barely within the town limits, nearly two miles 
from where most of the money had been invested in town 
property and business.2 A report circulated that the two 
railway companies and certain land-owners in the vicinity 
of the proposed junction were "about to unite to boom a 
rival Calgary" in spite of the fact that 

it would involve a direct violation of the tacit 
agreement entered into with the inhabitants of Cal- 
gary when the CPR placed the townsite on the market; 
that it was on the strength of this being THE town- 
site that all our municipal expenditure had been made, 
and taxation incurred; that thousands of people have 
made their homes here, that outside and home capital 
has been invested in Calgary milling companies, elec- 
tric light works, water works, blocks of buildings and 
various other public and private improvements and that 


capital has come in for investments in town lots and 
other forms,3 





lIbid., July 24, 1890. 


2"The Calgary and Edmonton comply with the terms of 
their charter by entering the bounds of the corporation of 
Calgary, and no more, The junction will probably be 200 
feet within the boundary, ..." Ibid., July 30, 1890. 


3Idem 


Sa 
acral shane matbacnd ott at 
wk + Ge =51 


ey i ear 


ada fin Kast se binge cid orn be 


bisuol oft _ 03 Feed al - . : 



































» 
« Dice 


| 5: 2 
"1 gonaseaat be boteev b 


a ed 


" quagiad of eda reo 28w = arab wor: 


-tont mad banad odd dgtw noksonust, xteda ae 
eslim owd _we ante nwO3 oda mbdatw Mom on 34 


an 


i 
od 20 sa3s0f hans sfadw bali qnos bari 
“ ige ry 
“a : 


‘a 


awos of b oval many bad a oet4, to 3 tock 
a ""* ¥ Mie > ane x: 
¢ 
wa f a | t +88 
owd orf tends orniabinini toqez A onkeud bas, x2 


Wintotv sit at. exenwo-basl bree icc? bas aia yan 
cebe i “a. + ha a 


eo We. wy ot 44 = 


B mood of od haw o3 suods" asaee sotzgnut & 


a <<, xt Semen 
aes ‘Jost “ects Yo oatge ak "ex. par B.. 
$ton2 sit? be aoiaatole seein 8 ovis val bie rae 
yo wLaY oo esmestdatink’ ode Welw dit t SST sR 
‘Sestem ‘ols ap sdbemwos edd beosl fiw 4 — 
anja RAY ortbad elie to dagderte Rete ¥i isd3 
atin nsod bad sv Ibaeque Poe ge ae 4 ; ee te 


gprs I dsm Seis: 
Istiqss smod bos sbietvo yor verted 
“opie: 2ebemqmpa | Pgh oagenthn} 
bas eguthitud to easald ,saxow 193 


“ghed3 wr KS 


tet baa edrenavotgial stavizg’ bt dig: 3 aoc wok 
bia 2tol nwod = atnanveevnal x08 1 9m. &. a ‘B 
a a¢ct a8 2a “we ~/ Joly Meee 2 a yy 4 
on) ‘con ise 
Z a B® 
“ Zs Pa 7.4 ? “ a. ee A ; a e . yh : 
et 


Lo” aacebo aS: 9 bw eames cata as - 
to moitsr0g300 od? ae breve t 
OU at 


,0R81 .0e cot oh ee 


ee. A MRS ate ee tt 
aoe 





170 
An aroused public meeting discussed the affair and possible 
courses of action. Such "an outrage of the grossest and 
most detestable charaeter the Herald stated, must be 
"nipped in the bud" or Ene neop le of Calgary "may wake up 
Ee find that they have all this time been ace: stool 
pigeons for the wide awake gentlemen who expect to reap 
where they have not sown."2 The Herald took frequent pot- 


shots at the "land speculators beyond the Elbow" and the 
"designs and SEuSish schemes of a handful of tani eerione 
aust of the Elbow,"!2 

The first Sova in Calgary had been established on 
both sides of the Elbow River where it joins the Bow. As 
the Canadian Pacific Railway line neared that point, the 
first shanty town was built east of the Elbow and property 
was changing hands at high figures for it was thought that 
at this point the future north and south road must cross 
the Canadian Pacific Railway. The latter, however, estab- 
lished their station and townsite some two miles west of 
that point, and almost the whole town moved over to the 
new site. Now, seven years later, the Calgary and Edmon- 


ton Railway Company located its junction and yards east of 


the Elbow, ignoring, it was charged, the interests of in- 


1Tdem 2thid., Sept. 10, 1890, 




















- 


eidteeog bus saaktp afl b 


| | en) 








bas Jesezomg sii? 30, a arial ni tad By a ang 
: vice a 
gd Jeum ,.be save biexel sda 19395 ol ds 
‘| am, —! 2 pe 
qu silsw yam” ¥ aagise to “— nite zo “bud « oat 
feos soo aeed oat eds its ‘wad & 
= pease 538 
qsex o2 ‘2 odw rece snee odews obiw x02 Sa 


i a7 er 


-jog tasupeti 4003 biaxsH edT in caaiohyhe jon evad yed? ore! wv 


‘wodiS edt bnoysd exossiuosge b sire! a. 8: 


on ae bs 
ans Ors 


~n ees 
Si Niclas 
eragwo-basi to luitbasd s io asaorioe dettise bas ¢ a 
7 $0 odtd oad 3 
ne ath . 
mo badeilidsies need bad cisgied ry 103 sexi? od | re 
Mie wnt | 2 vase 4 
2A .wod ai | aatol at orerdw zevist wodld od 0 eebl 2 
of ,ako g tars mentee? onkl agen aritoet TE subi 
Met 2) iy a a ity pape 
wixegorq bas weal. od3 $0 3289 sLiud enw ; ) an 


oS, > nl ey 
e 

















jad3 tdgueds 2ew 43 sot essai? dgid 3a. 


seats eum bor d3yoe bie d3tom ewsut 


= 


> sea A¢ 
“cues .sevewod _redtel oT vypwlEad of3 
aa oe 
¥o 2e3W esl ie owl 9inor os hemos bas a 
um). a. me ed 
afls. oo 19v0 boven wos slodw sf2 jeomls bas 

ce . ii | ne 


Ja’ 


e ator tt ema 

“not bas yisgisd efs ,tedal mevee <WC 
sr 

io seme aba, bas noksoaut a3 betasol 

< 

oa ?o teszeiat ‘ods bast 







." . , a a ; 
a \ Bie — > 
«Ds wh} 


Sn, 


0001 01.3908 « 


171 
vestors in the Canadian Pacific townsite which amounted to 
millions of dollars, Calgarians were now faced with the 
prospect that the Canadian Pacific Railway might locate 
their roundhouses and shops, which were about to be re- 
moved from Gleichen and Canmore to Calgary, at the junction 
site. In an effort to prevent this from happening, the town 
offered to the Canadian Pacific Company a public park west 
of the town with exemption from taxation for twenty years 
on all improvements on the condition that the divisional 
points and repair shops would be moved to the old site.} 
This attempt, as the Herald saw it, of two railway compan- 
ies in league with private speculators to violate the 
spirit while obeying the letter of their charter and 
agreement was "only headed off after a great deal of ex- 
citement and i ES of values had occurred," 
2. Macleod 

Before the conclusion of this affair, which men- 
aced established interests in Calgary, citizens of both 
Edmonton and Macleod had seen indications of similar 
threatening situations--without the guarantee which Cal- 
gary possessed that the Company must locate their line 


"within" the town, not merely "at or near" the town. 


Iipid., Sept. 10, 1890.  2Zbid., Dec. 26, 1895, 


paved Aaah 
. oe ay 


ay, datw boon want ke a 3 ar : 
sapool stig cowl Ee niRioel 4 | sin 
: ey t. 

“97 od od iuods stew Mokdw .eqode 5b 






o2 bagavans » toy 














- racks 
goltoms~ sdt 38 erage oa stomas) bas nsifoks 
ick ad aa 


mwod ot .goinoage BA port, aide _3agvesq o3, 









tequ 4x5q oti dug 5 yeqaig9 otitoss netbeans. 
e1Bsy Waswa 10% noissxs3 mort nok qe ai om 
fsnotaiyih sii tad nos tbaos ori mo esnameve 
' ota blo ofa o bevom pd biuow eqods pds bas | , 
- mBGMOD sushi ows to. IF. wee biszell oH ad oa eb 
a 93: als oby ot e103 BL Woes etexulsg ae soa es 
ae 19d tHEfo hess to tettel. ons “gatyedg af 
ar HE 13.8 ‘weds, 20 bebsed ing" 
ae a 13H099. bad pouley, t° ootgautout 
net. 4 TS ae _ asi oe oie" 


’ 


~ 140 Asie <22ee, eld? to. anteutoece « 


wi @ ® » i 


diaed io ensgts to yrgsi sof pt 23 


o« 


tal tate 70 engt? 
Psi 


wie ere Eee TG pee 


sten- doidy sat mst6y ada OnE. 
a 


PRON A Sa Ce ee PL lat 







® 


antl aieris gisool, J2aum “eamo) of 
ant meee. eae + aha 
P " tom ; 

wes off “teen <9 38” @ | 


{3 ' 


ez, atigt 


“em = a “AS ae 7s ee 


172 

During the late summer of 1890, the Macleod Ga- 
zette began to grow suspicious that the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Company did not intend to bring their road into Mac- 
‘Pore The usual claim for government protection was made 
but with special vigor by Macleod residents since Macleod 
had been established as a government site and included a 
large amount of government property which would be render- 
ed valueless should the town be ignored in favor of a ri- 
val townsite.! 

As with Calgary, any future move would not be a 
first experience for Macleod. The security of government 
backing induced residents in 1884 to remove to the new 
site on the south bank of the river "only to find now when 
their investment might reasonably Bae ea to become of 
value that they are to receive no protection and will prob- 
ably have to remove again."' It seemed unfair that what 
they had "waited for and acne for for years should be 
the eset ruining them when it did riniidal S There were 
no engineering difficulties in coming into ershotids the 
town, furthermore, was on the direct route to the south, 


t 


"The government . .. will surely step in," reasoned the 





IMacleod Gazette, Sept. 25, 1890. 


2Tbhid., Sept. 25, 1890. 
















ve. 
r Se 


-52 bonions old eit he | 
-noaba vm qingis? orld tacks. mays 


bf 


-osM. otal benax aaa ogiad | od f w nk a8 1 t 


eb tostorg Insmrisveg tot ‘atato 


m 2BW rot 


M ssate etasbteez. es yd sogiv fh 


boal Lid 
~s %, iy 


font bay othe. 4nsayr19v08 B 28 amr 


dolte yz1eqetq tnomg1sveg 20 3 


ee 


babu 
si 
-sebaot od bluow, } s 


al ‘beneay sd mwod, Ps biwode 


+ 7 " « e >‘ 
-iItT & 10 TOV... 


| fle: tenwos I 


jon bivow. ovom-smwIyt Yas poe daly a “ 


“3s sd 
528 


iramirtsveg-20 Yilaw0se sHt - ,bosfosM 102 sont t9¢ ates 
x o3 #661 at 2ideblest hee sibs, » gat 
“t ia it 
03 Gan revit aa to Ansd djvos 9a fx 


“eget SoS oF evems 













asdw' won bati 


to omoosd o3 bedoseque od {denoenst adgia apa 
-detq bilw Dre: nogtoe3 erg Of ovisoer: - ore odd 3 
Jade. aad spo beasese- a ".alegs araett a J 


¥ ed biuedeausey sot 302, boiiook bas x02, 


- 


s79y~ e7tadt..- Sry UD. pbb 33 sais gat. ity . 
; Pay Reoce be ey 

avis ghosd onion gabaoo at est el 
_dawee: ais oS puuct sont, Bs ao a 


a r 


Shae. rk 9° 
6 ee 


oF. 
‘ 
4 


' 7 hs 


adx benpesen ~ nh eS niente nae 


> 4 
el 
. a ic 


24 t- sed i 00 a athe 


- 


173 

Gazette editor, "and require the Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway ; es pyler. idee the interests of one of the old- 
est established and one of the principal towns in the 
Northwest "4 

By ene summer of 1891, a year before the Calgary 
and Edmonton line reached Macleod, a new town site had 
been established three miles away on the north bank of the 
Old Man River, and the Calgary and Edmonton Company were 
endeavouring, at no great cost to themselves, to induce 
residents to move across the river to the new site. The 
Macleod Gazette reported an arrangement between the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Company and Messrs. Browning and Monty 
for the purchase of the latter's property in return for a 
half share in preceeds from sales of lots. By this time, 
sufficient heat had been generated that the editor of the 
Gazette referred to a suggestion that "the committee 
[about to negotiate with the Calgary Laver nuhiontoni Company] 
had bodily sold themselves to the devil--or rather we 
should say, to the C. & E, Co., alithough really the terms 
seem synonymous in the minds of some citizens of this 


3 


town."- Considerable hostility was being directed also 


idem 2tbid., Oct. 9, 1891. 


3Ibid., Aug. 11, 1891. 


% 


at pos on, ate” ‘sat 


«bio ef? to ane 16 evasrd: ° 





















- "sie Rk bawey tagheatind pare 


a 
—* 
it. vee Seg , ea ~~ ‘ ints 
; 


yueei nd sie oreted: taist 8 >£0Or 3d i 
bad a2 ntO3 “wn & -bosfosM berfos: 

oda to died Aigo sd¥ no ~sws asf tar ists E snett 
sisy ynso nod -nesmombs bas” yrsgisd sds ‘bra ai save ‘ 


de ee 
¢¢ 


edithok’ 03 sevbesmeds os too ‘3Isdxg on sg aa y 
~ my 
a 


js 


2§23 ef? -neewted Some gis TI8- as betzoqer s EELS 38D a 2: 
“yao! bas gatawerd ,ereesM Bns era Gabe 


& -tot Brus. i a e'xes3t" 6nd 0 eas aod 


ester yao ‘esol to eofse mott Pesos 
oft Yo sostibs ef¢-sa bejarsneg feed bad 3 
<° spy piensa ener: sada ‘nobsecugues 
[mee noshdet 3° ‘boi Siig Is0-oda athe 8: 
ie shanties eat ot 29¥ vi dis 


anus? “als Yeieest dworlete % orm" 


7 ml 


od - «the wen-ads od sever of ee2dtos “aveu 6a 


a ‘eanie Be ensefeis -amce to 


rn ye 
wd. at 
cute bevels iit anno gif. sa sa ve 


as oe ww” Me ou oe ret “. bad +. 


£08 .@ .300 , 


174 
against the Federal Government who had "inveigled citizens 
into Macleod under false pretenses," 
Macleod citizens were in ont a hard struggle with 
James Ross of the Calgary and Edmonton Company who insist- 
ed that Macleod simply "did not suit (the! purpose [of] 


future railroad building in the district" and that the 
Company "would establish a townsite at thet terminus 
across the river, where the station, roundhouse and other 
permanent works would be built." Throughout 1891 and 
1892, Macleod officials called pub Tite meetings and sent 
representatives and deputations to Ottawa with futile re- 
quests for government aid. Bitter references were nae to 
earlier "promises" by Ross and Nanton of the railway ent- 
ering Mucheod: ay meetings were held with Ross, Mackenzie 
and Mann. The Gazette argued that the whole object of 
building the Calgary and Edmonton line--colonization and 
the effecting of a junction with American lines--was be- 
ing frustrated. Macleod citizens listened to glowing de- 
scriptions of the future role of the new townsite in the 
plans of both the Canadian Pacific and the Calgary and Ed- 


monton companies, and they offered conditions on which 


they would move, They accused the Calgary and Edmonton 





lidem 2tbid., Oct. 1, 1891. 


























enoeliao neni nih — 


- 4 “_ } _ Hamme a : 


datw. si gyguiis busrk .. 302 nk stow 2 


us 


-Jetent ow ynsqaod nosnomby bus rng ft 
« T20}. sacqzug: Todi] stve-Jon bib" clonte-be 
‘ea tad? bue "sabatath eis ak gotbitud bso: 
ausiinxas steits “sa ettenmvo? Breese: vr 
‘“edjo eA sevedbaue’ qsolsaze orf eteciw ennai 


bas (61 tuodguordT - Sv st tod od bluow stiow 3 


2 bas egaisesm. ‘biden. beliso alstoliito wile i _e 


Aa 
~o%' oi bse? dtiw ewads0 02 :enoitssugeb bas Leere HC 


o3 valle eR, esone iets se33t8-: big Jasmarseve 
~ tne wuakiton odds to mosnel bas aeok xd “eselkm 
sinsotaaM ..eac! djiw biof st9w egnticen ban, oh 
to aostae slodw. ons 3adt beugis. 2329s89 f 7 

bas coiasetaoioay-satl nosmombZ bas a be 
wed eawe~eonkl osobsemA dtiw, aoksamut 3 O.8 142s 


ae 
-sb -gniwélg od banstatl enssi3io sent ‘ 
ey . ss 

s nic i9 © 


i" 
a2) a mer 


“ba bas easgisd aed ban, — ibsn 2 d3 


3 ses : 

aati no evens ioneo & 3asii< aban at a 
5 - e ' - Le iy 
sooneshe be ong oa yore 


ott ob etiecsbos wea eft: to sfon # 


ps = 


175 
Company of showing no interest in the old town, of offer- 
ing no inducements for moving, of breaking promises and of 
using such unworthy tactics as conniving to remove the 


1 and reserving lots for 


post office from the old town 
eastern investors to give a false impression that land was 
moving in the new site, and of encouraging outsiders to 
believe that residents of Macleod wanted to move. 

By the summer of 1892, however, it was clear that 
residents of old Macleod were determined to remain with the 
old townsite. Interest was being focused on the advantage-- 
in terms of cash remaining in Macleod--of continuing to 
rely on the overland freighting traffic from Lethbridge, 
thirty-two miles away. As signs increased that growth in 
the new townsite would be slow and that the townsmen were 
remaining united and firm it seemed that the old town was 
holding its own in the "Battle of Macleod."2 The decision 
of the Citizens' fom eos too Light) this ear company 


to the end''3 was being vindicated, it seemed, The consen- 


sus of the people was that the Calgary and Edmonton Com- 





lipid., Aug. 25, 1892. A Mr. Campbell, who was 
also the agent for the Calgary and Edmonten Railway Com- 
pany in the new townsite, had corresponded with the gov- 
ernment concerning the removal of the post office to the 
new townsite. A public meeting acted to prevent such a 
removal, 


2tbid., Aug. 18, 1892. 3Idem 


Loonie : 
“ Las8te) Yo «sO sie atts at 2 " | er 
to bos esetmorg gaidaosd Qo vantvon 30%" 8 sohbeal 


4 
ee 


Pe ie 






















my 
aa 
» 


* 
4 
ae “s 4 


eid evomex o2 sntvianos 28 eotioss 





= by pir oss 
40% eatol gaivroest brs | bio add 2 Re 


. ats Bexti;, 
saw baal sada noleasxaint Pree) & ovig of) pe c | ee 


- 
a> 
—— 


og sisbtetue ‘gaigswoone 2o bas atte. ¢ 
i? <. Ase 
"vom of Bsdniw boasfosM to) ‘s3aobleos tad3 

s he o ae ; 

tad aselo eaw, 32 <tavewod 4 S08L to some oft ee ; 





aft dgiw atame: of benktartessb stew bosfost bis 40 
--sxe2cevba edt m0 beawoolt gnied aaw séex03nt. at : 
o3  §oivalsaeo, to--beelssk ak. grinionos dese 3 
ssabiiddsey cork ‘ottisza gntsdghbz | | 
ak dowong jada boesoxaat zngte aA ew 
siew iemenwot ‘od? sed bas wole od t 


2sw awod bie .sds aait.bemese 32 hm to 


= 


Pa 


ee 


noteiosb edt *",bosfoeM 2o\sf29ed" add) 
yasgmos wont be "ahits avg?” of oa33tmnod 
-neeneo off Jbeasse 32 Sosottab ad 
-mo soteemba bas yragisd sft sat dew of 


‘ 
ong 5 UGLY Maser sch Sigs: ¢ xs aeGge “CS heeds: ' 
ae ee 





176 
pany must eventually come across, The newspaper report of 
a citizens' meeting where the final decision was taken to 
boycott the new town was headlined: + 
Unanimous at Last--Citizens Decide to Stand or Fall Together 
The legacy of the stubborn clash between Macleod 
and the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company could not but 
be bitter feeling. Suggestive was a letter which appeared 
in the Gazette in the summer of 1892: 
Dear Mr. Editor. 
- © e L would suggest "Monte Carlo" as an appropriate 
name for it; it will not only perpetuate the name of 
the original worthy owner, but it is also suggestive 
of the spirit of speculation and greed which creates 
it, bringing profit chiefly to the bankers, and loss 
or ruin to others; as truly as "Monte Carlo" is a dis- 
grace to Europe, so is this Macleod townsite business 
to Canada. To complete the similarity in both cases 
the scandal is countenanced and backed by the Govern- 
ment, 


Remember Edmonton, 


Yours, 
Jericho. 


The Citizens' Committee expressed the feeling aiso 
in a letter to the Gazette: 
8 years ago induced by the Federal Government to re- 
move from the old town of Fort Macleod, we are new 
threatened with ruin and extermination by a body of 


men composed of James Ross, also Hammond, Nanton and 
others calling themselves the Calgary and Edmonton 


Itbid., Aug. 18, 1892. 2thid., July 28, 1892. 




















Yo J10qst ogaqewon oat y 


c-8 
@ 6 


02 sscls2 one ‘wotetoab Tank odd 2 


2 


a . A bantibeod, os 


ite a 
Seiad 


+2 7 wae As, 


ssd3egoT [Ist 10 bast2 03 sbioed ensst 
bestoalt nsaav awed desis mxodduae of 30.08 


sud 3on bives vasqaod cowl ball ‘aos n0aba bas 


t 3 a ad 


bea1s9qgs dolde xossal & e5y: eviseoggoa. oF Is 


Pe as > +£08F Io yommne’ ed im saa at 


ae +” cen "pxogba- saM 16 a 
;cio' sy 0 

jow{qs 18 8B ols ‘sinoM” teeggue biuow- ti 
, gman sd? stautsqusq ylao Jom [fiw JP zat rot 
_eviresggue’ oafzcet 33 aud .19snwo YWilztow fata a 
29726912 dokeiee bestg bns nortsiussqe to gaia ia 
eaol brs _exeaned of3 o3 yYltelids ; 3 Hox gaiga | 
eth g et “olted esnoM” as yluxd es lershse bl 
sitenwod bosfosM etd3 et o8 vaqow of gee 
.d at yixaliate sds stelqmoo oT .sbansJ 


~nzeved eooreg yd° bexload bas bsSnasssaues = ‘et Le ae 


,nosnomba a dbeeaanl 













ry 


7 us a as ase a We 3 : 
dak | _ewoY : ae 
+m 5 53 ‘,ordatxel. - nt dela foe Tee ee ie . 
fr - . ue 7 


cela guties? sia beaesiqxs. oraimend am 


' : 
e * 4 . ed 


. 


7 
ut SOS 


-st 63 inscurtaved Is2ebel 
wou sis sw ,bosiosM 320% 23 
Yo: vod s yd ‘goltsaieresxe f 

bam ecinsi: .baommeH oals- .2 of 

_ sexes bas vengis® ee ovis 


- > < wr aly Let Gee oo hal 


S061 .8¢ ett, = 


177 


Railway Co. . . . We decided... to fight this 
railway company to the end, 1 


Bluntly, the editor of the Gazette wrote almost a year la- 
ter: 

We know that the one and only reason for establishing 

-a townsite across the river was with the view of mak- 

ing a few thousand dollars for James Ross and his pals, 

and it was a matter of no concern to them that if they 

succeeded, it would ruin us.2 

For the Edmonton Bulletin, of course, the whole 

"Macleod affair" reinforced its opinion as to the unreli- 
ability both ptedhwa Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company 
and the Federal Government to his any care for the needs 
of the people, 

3. Edmonton 

The third of the well-established trade centres on 

the line of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway to experience 
the competition of a rival company town for the business 
and trade of an area was Edmonton. Grudging respect for 
the men behind the Calgary and Edmonton Company was indi- 
cated by this statement in the Edmonton Bulletin in the 
fall preceding the arrival of the railway: 

The influence of the C, & E, Company will undoubtedly 

be used in favor of their own town site, and their in- 


fluence--wealthy and astute business men as they are-- 
may count for a great deai, There is no doubt that 


lIbid., Aug. 18, 1892. 2tbid,, May 19, 1893, 





























A) 


' giv? sdgkt ot . 6 . be 
= awe re ; ee fd ~~ ~ ‘ ‘ 


% 


,<4 eee ie 
~af use¢' 8 Teomls stouweageeep* 
< _ : +. tt < 7 - - 
ste Z rake Y 7 Le 


cablatidases rok sotssx- ¢ino bas end eds seth errata ey 
-lam to weiv eda d3iw eaw tevi2 eds*esors stianwot 


. : yy 
aise eid bua ee0d eomel-rol ersi lob “basesods w =) 8 gf 
yet? it Janz ods of misonmes on to Is3JIsm B | ements 
3 Sveu: niu: bIivow DIY Ee | 


‘ teloftw odd (eetwes to", ntpal ivi mostnomba wis 30 
“ 
-iisrny eft 03-28 nolmiqo att beor1cintss "xistts be sr 


__ 


unaqaod yewl ted oeenlammae bas yasgisd) ed3 “Roiddtod | 


OF ’ ae 


ra 
rphsen el¢-rot ans yab sued ot snomnssvod Loxsbot a sal 


we f. 
Tike 7 if 6 
a ae * ‘vg 7 J “ ek eer sige 


t+ oe 
SP. £4 — 


1 2 
= % 
= 
: : = 
eL_omirie 


a 
erie - 


no settnes sbast boderidsias-fhew edd Yo: banda oat 


sonesisqxs oF Yswilsi no3nemba bas seagiad acts: Yo ot 
“EN 
‘Reonbeud” end 203 eo: ynsqmoo faviz & 30% . 


“Sof. 2 osqe: asx . gnikebirxd: . ne nom’. ver neem 3 


Sapna ae 


; : bei emia am 
aw ie. 4 boy 19 a 
yfbertgebad Iie igsqmod- sFd92 | omer a 
- prt ~~ ved bed 1;a8ia awot mwo tk ne 
--s36 \yoms 25 Hem po a J yi 
teda Idywob >» on, BE, qxedt i # 


1 
a 4 


C068 Qt yal . baa? ay Bi, ‘ 


>» _ _ 


- ap =e 


178 
their interest lies in bringing as much of the business 
of the district as possible to their town site to in- 
crease the value of their lots, and as little that they 
will use every means to this end, no matter how disas- 
trous such a result might be to the people whose busi- 
ness and investments are in this town. 

From the beginning, it was recognized that Edmon- 
ton was in a stronger position than Macleod in that the 
residents owned the land upon which the town and its sur- 
roundings sat, They were in a better position, therefore, 
to make a deal with the company, but as the Bulletin put 
it: "It is unpleasant to practically have the pistol put 
to one's head and know that if you do not give up a large 
proportion of your property the whole may be rendered 


Beetuiace tts 


Beatie spring of 1891, the Calgary and Edmonton 
Company had made a deal with certain landowners on the 
south side of the river, and a town was surveyed that sum- 
mer. The agreement was signed by James Ross for the Com- 
pany and was registered in the registry office in Edmonton. 
By it, said Oliver, who had read the agreement, several 


owners holding upwards of a thousand acres 


covenanted to give Ross an undivided half interest in 
each of their properties, he in consideration therefor 


Izdmonton Bulletin, Sept. 27, 1890. 


2tbid., Sept. 27, 1890. 






























eesnteand ot Yo doum as gas 

-ni of odie mor ats py dt: 
yods wens efacil és- bres sot tad? 3 . 
~azelb word teizen om <bas eldy, 7 
-lteud seodw elqgeq sri o3- 94 Sedgim foes 2 -_ 
twos elds ak o7m atm € 


pe 


owten 


: , 4 _ ap ats * po 
cmb “aes besingooes asw at sgatantged § co : _ ¥ 
aie ‘ 


sit 3863 nt bostoalt nacis ‘notaiaog x9; gn072 as 7 Pat 3S 


net | 


- i“ ey an’? 


-1e 32 bas wos ed3 dati prog bast. ads banwo 2 


* a 


: -_ i 


a 


s0t93 wn ,nok teoq , sotted a ak exew Bi .38B 23 


2m 2 


we n izellud & odd es aud _«asqmoo old daw Lash 


Pha onal : eT 





ome = 


— 


juq Losetq old oved 1 visatsonsg o3 snsesolqnur ek eS 
ape 


. 
. 


a Soo 


fs qu ovkg Jon ob VOX th anda work ba: baie & ‘ano | 


=} 


> 


9 obs od yam oS ork odd 399079 1U0% — 10 3x00 


' % ~ + = ' * C 5 
‘ yay! Ray 
7 ‘Se : 4 + 


iA ~s 


4 





_ ~ 


1" os 


nospombS bas’ ean ts reat to anlage SE. 
» ax sawobnal Leeann 08 dake qoute obao bi ‘ 


| 
siz ad 


ey. Cp te ee - be 
=e sed3 beyeviwe BBW. so & bas qoute wis 30 0b " 

ee BFK: 
-moD. ot ‘a eeod comet x‘ bongte paca: Ts 


+ - 


.nosnorbs nt soto cisetges eds nt beret 
7 ~ er ‘oe 


Wf @ ae 


Isx9vos , aed. «: onta baer bad oat: 3 vi. 
¢ ~Gs » | =e ne * 
ce 
estos banaveds. t8wq ). 3! 
eC Bs bs. 7 es re; i ~ 
at ssinsaid: tbed pabavabaw Bi. A evig o 
satsvede ‘oodsesethohao ak ad FI9qGo1 * 
~—*y : ae . _ 


i. 4 i deer : 


* > - 
ey ‘ . 
- vam 
L 5 


179 
procuring the establishment by the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton railway company of a freight and passenger station 
on or within forty chains of said land, the station to 
be completed by July 1, 1892. 
The Company, in addition, were to be given right-of-way 
through any of the properties plus 13% acres of station 
grounds, The costs of survey were to be split and any 
lands not divided were to be sold by a joint agent and the 
proceeds divided equally. 

Accepting the fact of the establishment of the new 
townsite, the Bulletin editor stated that the real fear of 
Edmonton, and the only point at which there could be any 
clash of interests, was that the Company might attempt to 
use its private influence to secure undue advantage in the 
location of the public offices or the construction of pub- 
lic works of any kind that would better serve the public 
interests by being located on the north side.3 Threats 
were made, evidently, that such influence would be brought 
to bear on the government; representations were, therefore, 
made on behalf of the town as to the government's inten- 
tions. The Bulletin reported assurances given by Ottawa 
that the necessary government buildings would be built in 


Edmonton on a site already chosen, and that they would be 


ltpid., July 18, 1891. 2Tdem 3Idem 



























+ ay | f “s t 
vain pis | Seo ae 
-soubS baa aS “ort mane ae cen 


ooliafe .1ggnesesq brie sdgtost B a9 x cP 2 
os moitas2 on ieee a ee 2 ot 


gee 


yaw bors dglt mueny pd of arow. ol 


- 


.moigsse-2e eoms #£I. aul¢ cient . 4a8 
+ilqae sd o3 stow yevaus to ‘edeoo ¢ ocke «8! 


pada 14 1. 
(oS ots 


, | _. &, a 
ed bes.Jaegs Jatol siyd bloe od.ot s29W bal ee 
i ; 4 é ie - 
os 8 : S ulisupe | bobivib | es 59007! 
i. i, 
wen 9g 2p sigmdall dadas od3- to. Jon aris gol3g 2 


*>) vest Ipea sda tads bess2e saglbs Aliel ius . g odd 


, 
kl ead 


509 ans dokdw 3s -3atog «no oda bas is miaod 


sifigka eanqn 10) ttt ‘sad3 “paw ,2389 erat 20 dé ‘ 


os 2IqumesIs 
a 





2 
oC of 


fa 
of} ak sgsdnsvbe eubau,etu0R8 O39 sansuliat ei8v tq 8 
. re aN 

~-duq oO ne enoo os 70 zeotttp olitdeg oft to £ 
i te te 


[dug odd svses sated. bivow sada bake yas to. vate 


i 


iy 


tis 


a of 
sissuit ©.sbte dition edt co bisanee “pated | rears 





ae as ten: Sepa Bima rig <gat pt 
siiguoxrd od bivow sonsul 2a dove tadt .vi = in 
Ea afape iota eae tas a » 2 
,stoleteds .sisw enokapsnatezge3, sa gnrse 
ney Beli 
-ngini 2 ‘insmrisvog silt oes met a 
- oe ae el 
aad 30 J navig coonaznEas — gst 
es 


ni stdwd ed blue seis 
ed binow yods esd bas 2 


t 


quests ay: , 4 i 





em 


180 

erected that very year, 1892. Wrote the Bulletin editor, 
"In view of these assurances, no attention was paid to the 
BErGrtUs of Osler, Hammond and Nanton, agents of the C. & E, 
Company, or of Mr. Anderson | government lands and timber 
agent | to secure the removal of the public offices to the 
south side."1 

That these early fears were justified seemed to be 
borne out on June 20, 1892 when the usually prosaic fine- 
print front page of the Bulletin took on modern appearance 


with bold large-type headlines: 


ROBBERS 





ATTEMPT TO STEAL 
THE LAND OFFICE 


BUT DON'T GET 
AWAY WITH IT 


THE SOUTHSIDE TOWNSITE 
OWNERS AND THE DOMINION LAND 
AGENT PUT UP THE JOB 


BUT THE CITIZENS PRODUCE 
CONVINCING ARGUMENTS WHY IT 
SHOULD NOT GO THROUGH 





ltbid., June 20, 1892. 2T dem 








203 tbs wins inten 
ou3 s bieg saw narventi 


= 4 , fc: J8et, ae ; 
- erg —- 

23-2 .9 edd Yo etnegs rose & mer 
om 


ssdmt3 bas ebasl sv pane et 

















ef3 of egottio otidug elt to" er ods! 


‘ Sa a et 
oo a . i= © .o Ms Me > il 4 7 


ed o3 bsmpeg beltiszept stew e1s92 hans ses ort ae Ps 
-enii olseorg Yileyew ede -nertw SeBL -08 oat ad 3 , " : 
eoueiseqes axsbem-aq #00? -atselinu edt to mien —< . 

4 ap ~- --- .peomtibsed> aan 


RASABOR * ret ack ie | 








a 
~~ 
: . “TAST2 OT THSTTA, 
~« ot ana rok 
. + 
oy -~ 
we - bd * 
* > . bo : = 
oe > - 
3 a Sg - 
e- 
- il - 
' 
+ s as 7 
“ Sus Pa 9 -— 
- =. 
Nip a 
i ae 
+S 
mebt”. 
oa St 4 
.- ? ag 
= J 


181 


ARE ABBOTT AND THOMPSON 
A PARTY TO THE STEAL? 


THE AGENT SHOULD GO 
NOT THE OFFICE, } 
Edmonton residents, their suspicions already 
aroused, suddenly found themselves jolted out of the se- 
curity of government promises and thrown into a position, 
they felt, where protection of their interests and future 
left no course open but the clear ASAE A RORY GE whee 
willingness, if necessary, to resort to violence should 
the government abandon them. The government, they were 

quite ready to believe, were not past doing this. 

Edmonton had been its usual quiet self on Satur- 
day, June 18, 1892, But from 3:00 in the afternoon until 
late midnight it was a most alive and excited place. The 
“"boomers'' of the south side townsite, alleged the Bulletin, 
with Chena vance of the Dominion Government were attempt- 
ing to remove the land and timber offices "for the purpose 
of assisting in booming the property of peler: Hammond and 
Nanton there situated."* The response of the ore was 
a pidden and L nathinigus outburst of public feeling." 


In, its review of the background to this latest in- 


Li dem : 2Tdem 






















ssils wnotoiqeue torts! 5 eaaebinoy 3 nonba oe 


ve 
| | ae i ox she oy k 
13 to JHo eres} aevisened? bavot ae iD bs ; 


‘ 
‘a7 


- 3A 4 
+ 
s * — 


a cial eraorrels ae eseinoxg 3 asm 


: activ: e od 


‘~* 


bos sangsosnt ator to nolsoosoxq. oxo 


‘” > ‘, wr his 
slots - im stanxzenomab ssefo sd3 gud vate. ae me 


& Iworte siitnbele oF 1108s o3 cseesoon at 


UR. ale ° a 


svsw yotis ,JHSMUTTEVOg efit 


“Te they 
sto nobnsds Insmartov0g ) of 


- 


ae oe Seca 
pends pre eng 7 SI9W “Vavelied os psex 
pen | 70 298 tekup Tavav a32 aaod bad 1 osteo oy 
trim a cconse3%s ie nh 0x wot at ses E | 
“ie : t 
git only beatkoxs bas evils sem, B <a 


~~ ’ 
@ 0 - 


aigeltvd oils begells eatemeos sble dav08 * . 
; rt ee _ " eats aoe See oes he 


— 
Pee) 
— 


-Iqnesis e193 swomrnevod, nokteed ads % Ls whe 
peoqiug gna 202” esottio xedaita, am tat at 3 over 


* de GQY So a cy heb 
| sat 


bas brounsH -tsled 26 reqosd ait gatmood 
Seth ate Lt a eae ae iv i Soe — 


aBw yanesisio sts io aati edt pate: 
+ "| ae S acresthese 


re + a. Nees — 


age mee: nats 


= a aude 


182 
cident in the quarrel between the town and the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway, the Bulletin declared that the contrac- 
tors had taken part of their pay for the eeeraeti an of 


the railway in the town sites "that might be established 


at its several stations."" Having refused all inducements 


to bring the line across the river, they had established 


a speculative townsite hoping to "use the name and pres- 


tige of Edmonton that the pioneers here had built up in 
years of toil and disappointment to boom their paper town 


and to ruin Edmonton if possible." One of the property 


owners with which the Calgary and Edmonton Company ar- 


ranged for a half interest in their land was the timber 


1 


and land agent, Thomas Anderson "or his son," and on his 


claim the station had been eaten and the bulk of the 
improvements made, Thus it came about that the govern- 
ment land agent in Edmonton became an enthusiastic back- 
er of the new town site along with the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Company and its associates.+ 

Having in mind the assurances reportedly given by 
the government to the people of Edmonton so recently, one 

tT dem, Col. Denny, a contemporary of the event, as- 
Signs responsibility for the attempted removal of the land 
office ta the "new town's citizens'’ who were determined to 


attempt its forcible removal to the south side." Op. cit., 
p. 276. ; a 













b feo ods baa mod swe 
aB Iss Poe y mar. cow bs 
-a8r3n09 ot ‘sede bexsizeb fg If git 


4 hd - 


6 aokooszeace ods s08 ¥S8q atedd 40 3 
ae - bane | nt @* et: Pre 
bodetidades ed trigtna ecapelll seite seabed 13 mu y 


. 


a Ads 
esnomsoubal Iis beeutes gatvalt " venoldede 


is S patiaull 


sean ibs bad yo tevia ets 220Tos 


y 


hah 
-2c1q bns oman as san" o3 gatqor! osceunes ovis 
+ qathy S 


3° 






















a c oi he j 


ear nr 


rk w siitud bad wed exsenotq ors 3ad3 nos nenba 2 


‘ a ee oe’ tae 1. > 


awod reqaq 1ted3 moe om snoesaoggeetb bas Psd =a cae 


A 


of 
- 


yusqorq edz to and " efdbenog it nosnonbs ntuz a 


¥ 
prey. > 
. se 


eid go bes Naty ald x0" noexsbnA esmort ome be 
- - nad = Py ‘a 1 1, os Ive 


it eat , saaclpre» 
<8 wea 10d si santos bre yisgisd ods dtokdw dtiw. ets 1t9nwe 
' > * ° - g <4 * i Cae 
- ed + ety aie + 
redial ia ads eBW bast sent at jeareiat iad » ot pe: fo 
° - =< ay . 
ied 


afis to stud eft bas perscol’ weed. bed es | is a fr 
« : "3 7 _ - © ; ee a 
-TISvog ort ganda Jsuods ems 4 eudT bee 8 | 
” 4 as , ot oS oe ‘ary a y en 
~tosd of9 senteodaas 118 ounoed not nombS ak 3 at 
2 : ae ret Per a ee 
‘<soaba pan cunglad ont sak goals | este ber? wee ace 
“0 ee ae _ 2 4 7 « = “kis nae 7 
| ) “E gezatagees et & Bqe 
Soi fy oe” Tee eee eee 
yd nevig YWibestseges 2oonsiuees oda a ie 
- ad She ~~ ~ ry 28h _ . ow te mans Fat Ce 


ano baie oe sotnorba to nla 


-28 ee BS common. 
bosf sda to Lsvomet beige 
oo hertafes eb: efeet oF 3 
evade »a0 Ks ".obte dauos ott 

. 


183 

can easily understand the astonishment, indignation, and 
forceful reaction of Edmonton citizens to the sight of 
"the books loaded on the drays." Within minutes, an alarm 
hhd been sent all over the ae an angry crowd had gath- 
ered around the office, and nuts were being taken off the 
wagon axles and horse unhitched. The land agent, mean- 
while, had secured the assistance of two policemen who, 
under the circumstances, were not able to do anything, the 
wagon being incapacitated. Telegrams were sent to all the 
members of the cabinet as well as to Members of Parliament 
from the Northwest, to the Prime Minister and to Sir Donaid 
A. Smith of the Canadian Pacific Railway. That evening, a 
mass meeting of citizens took place on the street in front 
of the land office. Another team of horses was unhitched 
from the wagons and driven across the river to the south 
side, where they were tied up. Resolutions of the meeting 
were telegraphed to Ottawa. A citizens' guard, though re- 
placed by a police guard that night, continued protecting 
the property throughout the weekend. Citizens that night 
burned Anderson in effigy. 

Superintendant Griesbach arrived from Fort Saskat- 


chewan with twenty policemen on Monday morning. By this 


lidem 


ake 


bax ,;nort ongtbmt ‘ | 





























io. srigta . tit’ oF enonisis 


ee ee 
= oo 7 _— lake 
evig “ 


jo an 
Beis? ' = 
er ey) ce 


wmie mm ,cotuntea ntds2W - "ayn ott 


- a 


-d3ag bsd bwoxu yxgas a8 ,fwed ed? revo ite 


¢ | 
yh aa 
edz tio nsist gated stew siva bra. ,20l2%o oft bavors. 

‘ y ig)! 3 5 
| nes. wer: nek: 

-nhoen ,doess baal at -bodoatdau.bexéd bas-eatxe oc 

tes , 
eee 
, odw gamsotiog ows to sonadetees ods botose bal ,olt 


i ae 


: a = 
oid ,gatdsi yas ob o2 ofdn Jan _Ii39W seccnanenarabe bees er 


Iis o} tnge+s19W euprtgeisl . .ba3s3 Losqaont sated ame 


tiust io. exgdmaM-o3 28: Iisw' 26 jantdso edj “sy = 


ow 


a Oi (i ee 
4 


— 


Lane 222: -a3 bas astaini amit{ a3. 02 atenizsal' ia 
& ~gniesve tedT ~yswl led aliisos® fatbsosd ‘oz te aa 


teoxt mt teetse afd no Sone too? —— to gn 
% | 7 - il : i, : (a ee os he he wat = ef ‘sa 
badder idaw eat esered io. ma sortonh aad to bral. “ 
r + * da “> ‘e- a ‘ 
‘ ay <a. - . ae 
ddues pairs ‘oy pi sock 220708 sevitb bas-snogew ® 
Pas @ Saud eae SS a hey eee eae vd aH 
gaite ont. os a. enotaufoned . a. belt sew is soars 4 
ns os ts 7 ake eee 3 ae ae - 
“a7 ~ spiel. ane janeatiio A =8w8330 oF < pies 
4, ‘ 


* oo Ha Boren: bases 
oe ne beuntanon Jaieie “asd bisug 9 
ete sie er ar 


8 


bl ye os ro 





tighs sate iene sbasisew odd 2 by 
ee mw a in tae ce ae | Pe: is 7 <4 re 
tis te yf > ie ae ae ¥ i 03: 
*, Sit ds dere, ae art oe 


- tases ame eae be as Ra on . 
ial. 8° como 0 2 aes 
“eke cae 


: 
Y - 


7 o 
/ 
a /@ 7 _ 


oy ee 


: a Pe | 
_ ¥ - = oF mY 


184 

“time, the mayor and Justice of the Peace of Edmonton had 
called out the home guard formed in the 1885 rebellion. ~ 
By 1:00 in the afternoon, nearly every able-bodied man in 
the town--most of them armed--was at the land office. Not 
until 4:00 was peace restored. 

Unknown to Edmontonians, a visiting inspector of 
land agencies had given notice to Mr. Anderson that he was 
authorized to "remove his office 3 a box car which had 
been leased won the railway company, pending the comp le- 


tion of an office then under construction, but the purpose 


Te 


of which was, till then, unknown. This, at least, was 


the version of the Edmonton Bulletin, The government ex- 


lnughes sees in the whole incident another example 
of the tactlessness of early Edmontonians. As well, she 
sees the humorous side. "Notably in 1893, they had defied 
a departmental order to move the Government iand office 
across the river and after an exciting comic-opera insur- 
rection with a Home-Guard, guns and Mounted Police in evi- 
dence, they brought the Ottawa Government to terms. All of 
which was soothing to local pride, but disastrous in terms 
of Government grants." Op. cit., p. 356. 

2Newton, the Anglican missionary who resided in Ed- 
monton at the time, refers to this event as an example of 
the weakness of the authority of the Dominion Government 
and its inability to enforce its own orders, "When, in 
1891, he writes, "it attempted to remove its land office 
across the Saskatchewan to the railway terminus, an armed 
crowd of men and boys successfully resisted the order, 
and that jn the open daylight." Op. cit., p. 86. 


3Edmonton Bulletin, June 20, 1892. 


































’ 
' ‘a eu 


had nod nomb3 to. re end 20 8 
I  wotitedes eee ane ak b 


nt nam betbod-elds: —tews xeon . 


- ca 
* . a, = 


SoH ,aoftio basi eft 3s apernentn aay to tz0m- i 


- 4 vs 
* © 


Sb .betod 29% ‘conog et 00 
‘$e xodosqant’ guttiedv s | ,@astaodaonba oo ial " 
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185 
planation of the action after the ugly incident was that 
the removal was temporary and merely "to suit the conveni- 
ence of new settlers" coming to the ins side and who had 
been complaining of te distance and cost of getting to 
the land office. Anderson was declared innocent of any ul- 
terior motive, and assurances were given that the govern- 
ment's permanent land office would be located in Edmonton, + 
Despite such assurances, however, the Bulletin 

must have voiced the feelings of Edmontonians in insisting 
that the affair was "a Side scheme put up by the local 
agent, the inspect se agencies and the minister of the in- 
terior at the instigation of those very slick gentlemen, 
Osler, Hammond and Nanton," Favoring this interpretation 
of the events was the sat no due nctice had been 
given to people on the north side of the intended removal, 
If the temporary removal was for the convenience of incom- 
ing settlers, asked the Bulletin editor, why wy: not the of- 
fice removed to Peace Hills, where there was a large influx 
of new settlers? He asserted flatly: 

It was attempted in order to boom Osler, Hammond & Nan- 

ton's towm site. To enhance the value of town lots by 


creating the impression that the government was about 
to repeat the Regina experiment and pour out hundreds 


—— 


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186 


of thousands on public buildings to boom the property 
of a few men.} 


This interpretation of the affair was concurred in by oth- 
er western newspapers, among them the Calgary Tribune, 
Calgary Herald, Battleford Herald, Winnipeg Commercial, 
Pocky others.” In connection with this event, New- 
ton refers critically to "land speculators who go unpun- 
ished for their ete 3 

Whatever the Poetace explanation of the reai in- 
tentions, the response of the Bulletin and the citizens of 
Edmonton and the sympathy they eeica for their cause from 
other centres is an indication of the attitude toward the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company and its backers, pro- 
moters, and agents. 

An interesting side effect of the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Company's "booming" of a townsite rival to Edmonton was 
the spirit of Paipett elon that arose between the two towns, 


exemplified in the events related above.“ 





lIdem 


2"As it now stands the people of Canada, including 
those of Macleod and Edmonton are being taxed to give finan- 
cial aid to a railway company that is in its own interests 
ruining the pioneers of those two places," Ibid., July 14, 
1892, quoting Lethbridge News. - 


3Newton, Te yng 6 


4Denny writes that the rivalry between the "ancient 
centre of the fur trade" and "the new town site {which for 








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187 
The South Edmonton Plaindealer apparently made 

certain claims for the town on the south bank, namely that 
it was the "first city in Alberta," and thar it was the 
"permanent Rerninie'' of the oeigere and Edmonton Railway. 
In response, the Burietin replied with an editorial headed 
"Take Off Your Hat; Here Comes South Edmonton.""? In satir- 
eat tone, the Bulletin suggested the name aeratnus' for 
South Edmonton and offered Gare as eibahee Seve: and 
picnic grounds foeits southern rival. Envisioning a fut- 
ure day, he went on: 

And when the children of the editor of what will then 

be the city daily ask, "Pa, what is this place?" you 

can reply, "My child, this once was Edmonton but it 

died . . , for want one end of a railway."'2 

That the experience with the Calgary ae Edmonton 

Railway had put Edmonton on its guard is evident from the 
objection taken later to the vagueness of the terms of the 
charter of the Edmonton District Railway Company which 
proposed that the station and grounds be located within the 
a number of years; promised to outgrow "the former, on sev- 


eral occasions threatened to pass the bounds of law." Op. 
cit., p. 276. 


lgdnonton Bulletin, May 31, 1897. 


2In 1902, the editor referred to relations between 
Edmonton and Strathcona with the words "ne love lost." 
Further, ‘on no point was the feeling of hostility more pro- 
nounced than in the matter of a railway bridge." Ibid., 
Oct. 24, 1902. ; 


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~vigse ‘at te soanombt 408” esm02 trot 3 is rs : 
70% “sunkassT" oman’ ef9 bodeokpue "qaakitad aay 
bas stytesg pissy, Pr) goinombs bexedto bos wid 
“juz & grtpobetvat” , ees eroitsuea” $32 a9 ebimiolg. oem 26 
2 ye eee “0 si et 
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. 


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188 

town of Edmonton somewhere. This was not precise enough, 
went the criticism, The station could be placed so as to 
menace the existing business interests as had been at- 
tempted by the Calgary and Edmonton Company in Calgary. 
So little confidence did the Bulletin place in that Com- 
pany that the editor warned: 

The C, ae and C,P,R, companies which are so care- 

less about railway extensions in this quarter may 

awaken any day to the possibility of speculation in 

a new town site on the Saskatchewan, and run a branch 

to some other point and boom a town there, 

To this question of the clash between the inter- 
ests of settlers and those of the railway company, the 
Hon. Mr. Boulton referred when he said in the Senate: 
"All through that western country the obiect of the rail- 
ey companies is to get all the advantages to be derived 
from the town sites. ... It has been a very burning 
question out there.,..., in other localities where the same 
thing has occurred,.""2 


That the government recognized the errors of the 


past in not protecting existing interests is implied in 


lIibid., Dec. 26, 1895, 


Ee 


2nd Sess.’, 8th Parl., 1897, p. 468. Statement by Mr. 
Boulton, June 4, 1897. 




















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189 
a statement made by a government spokesman in an interview 


in Battleford in 1892: 


No railway or other corporation would be allowed to in- 
jure old towns for the purpose of establishing new 
ones, and that where charters are applied for to pass 
"at or near" a town the words "or near'’ shall be 
stricken out. Bona fide companies should be able to 
* state in their applications for charters the exact 
points they intend to touch, and particularly so in 
respect of their terminals. 1 


lgdmonton Bulletin, July 11, 1892, quoting the 


Battleford Herald. 


. 4 _ Fy 


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VII 
EARLY OPERATIONS 

Reference has been made to the first through train 
to desde in Edmonton over the completed line of the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway. The first time table of the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway showed a mixed train running 
between the two centres twice weekly, leaving Calgary 
every Monday and Thursday and departing from Edmonton 
every Wednesday and Friday. The time of departure in each 
case was 7:00 A.M. and the time of arrival 7:00 P.M. The 
time required for the 19l-mile trip was twelve hours. 

Train service from the beginning through 1892 
proved to be excellent, according to the Edmonton Bulle- 
tin. With the completion of the southern extension to the 
Old Man River in November of 1892, however, an added burd- 
en was put upon the single train that had been serving the 
Ednonton-Calgary run. Where formerly it ran 800 miles 
weekly--that is, two round trips between Calgary and Edmon- 
ton--now it was required to cover 1200 miles a week--that 
is, two round trips between Edmonton and Macleod. By 1893, 
in addition, the through traffic and way freight over the 


line between Ednonton and Calgary had increased. Frequent 


190 








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sutases atsti baxin s beworte poles no 
yragiso gnkvens Yineow. solwt ‘estins2 ar 
tan” 2 i %. ~Tget peer * 7 v. 
nosnombs ait gntasaged bas yebexudT bas wal ee 
ot Hey dele 8 eae ; : : nat opm . a 
doas oi st37 78q yob to oma ont ab h bam ysbesabeW ym v 
i 2 Wk, aes Ae 


car ah 00: . Levies oe oats ods bas M A oo: sia | 
ie mes Re i 


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191 

delays also occurred due to snow storms on the newly open- 
ed Calgary-Macleod extension, With the increased mileage, 
there was no time to make up for the delays. By the sum- 
mer of 1893, the Calgary and Edmonton trains were arriving 
in South Ednonton later in the evening by an hour and a 
half and leaving earlier in the morning by three-quarters 
of an hour in order to make connections with the new Cana- 
dian Pacific main line schedule, 

One train was being made to do the work of two, the 
Edmonton Bulletin contended, and the effect upon the ser- 
vice offered was unfortunate. Where previously one could 
complete a business trip in three days by catching the 
Monday train from Calgary and returning by the Wednesday 
train from Edmonton, for example, five days were required 
under the new time table. The longer mileage, increased 
traffic, frequent delays, and slow rate of travel resulted 


in irregular and undependable service.” The Macleod Ga- 


ee 


Itbid., Apr. 9, 1894, When in the winter of 1893-4, 
the attempt at making close connections with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway at Calgary was abandoned and the Calgary 
and Edmonton train allowed to run on its own time, railway 
Service proved satisfactory again. 





2Tbid., Sept. 7, 1893. The article spoke of "two 
Sickly trains a week that jolt along at a ghastly funeral 
trot,''’ The common question in Edmonton every Monday and 
Thursday, declared the Bulletin, was "How late is the 
train?" The rule of the C, and E. or-"Catch me Easy line," 
apparently, was to pull into Edmonton anywhere from two to 
four hours late. Se2 also ibid., June 19, 1893, 


ova cle 78 
> ve t=) Pat a "a 
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192 
zette, too, was complaining that fall of trains "generally" 
coming in anywhere from three to six or seven hours iate 
and "never by any chance . . . on time." The Gazette laid 
much of the blame on the Canadian Pacific main line trains 
coning in late and forcing the Calgary and Edmonton trains 
to wait.2 
The Edmonton Bulletin expressed fears that failure 

to improve service on the Calgary and Edmonton would seri- 
ously retard progress and noted that 

passengers from the east complain that the most weary- 

ing part of their journey is that from Calgary to Ed- 

monton, with its slow time, tedious delays, inconveni- 

ent meal hours and late arrivals, especially if delay- 

ed. 
Two years later, the Bulletin claimed that although the 


Edmonton country had received in the years from 1892 to 


1894 a larger immigration than “any other section of Can- 





IMacleod Gazette, Sept. 29, 1893. 


2 Passenger coaches attached to slow-moving freight 
trains were being used to help provide needed passenger 
service. Edmonton Bulletin, Apr. 9, 1894. It was not un- 
known that first-class passengers were compelled to ride 
in baggage cars or to stand on the platform. Once two car 
loads of passengers were held for hours behind time so 
that a cattle car might make a connection. The service 
provided in 1891 for 200 miles of line was being made to 
serve 300 miles four year later when the country between 
Calgary and Edmonton was being settled up and the two cen- 
Race had greatly increased in population. Ibid., Apr. 25, 

a ’ 


Sietd.; June 19, 1893. 







































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¢ 4 = 7 
f 


“a FY 


She ae 


ada," 


it was not getting its share of men, of money, and 

of enterprise needed to buy alternate railway sections 

and to start industries. The reason given was that rail- 

way service from Calgary had been "of such a nature as to 

deter any man who was not compelled to come north from 

coming." Seven years later, a similar complaint was heard: 
It is safe to say that hundreds have passed through 
Calgary this season bound both east and west, a very 
large proportion of whom have been deterred from vis- 
iting North Alberta simply by the reports they have 
heard of the character of the train service. 

Within three short years the service on the Calgary 
and Edmonton line had become a by-word and began to at- 
tract the attention of would-be poets who found in the ex- 
perience of a ride on the Calgary and Edmonton train a 
fertile theme upon which to exercise their budding talent: 

Over the C. and E> 
(by a regular passenger) 

Ho! let her go--she's off at last, we arn't so late to- 
night. 

An hour and forty all you say? By God! That's out of 
sight. 

And here she goes, and there she rolls, a playing 

pitch and toss, 


While Luggin by the track rides on, and keeps up with 
his horse, 


Pe ee a a rR 


lipid., Apr. 25, 1895. 2tbid., Aug. 18, 1902, 


3tbid., Sept. 11, 1893. 



























ba, Yanon To yma-to. @3E Se 
anolioss ow F les ee 
<ftex Jedd aow novig acenot ‘edt? 


od en sivten' Ss fous Qo” naot bed eagle» 
Hy Sa mee a0 


mort davon sos 03: bell squbs Jon .ebw " 


‘bined oot inisiqnos sal Pmte & ~zasal viens 
* decd bseesq oven ebsibnint tad3 oar 
Yrev 6 ,7asw brea tase djod bayod ga02e892 sae 
-zty most bewreseb nosd sved mondw to noki10go3q 
> gved a zaroqes bd3/ yd yiqate pisedIA. 
“4 -Solvaae gisx3 eds 30 resoasado to bzs 
: ¥ ae 
exagtas at pe eslviee edz pisex sz0de, eoutts*s | oa s 
was _ ; | 
| al hate aaged ‘bas “‘biow- yd b& omboad bad. sail ¢ tb of 






te r ey 





“x8 os at ood od 23904 od-bi vow 30 noksne33s. ye ai; 
: a #45 Ret iphg &* . 
& ates nodnoobs bos gssgtsd eda s0 bls 5 20 wt : 


“s ee ear) She . 
vaneless - gntbud ato salozexe 03 ‘dob noqu semen 


Cg ban .2 odd ze = a 


= 
7 


ata ty : | 


(copnoeesg salugex. 3 > sus walls 
7 chee 


-Q2 — on 2 ee ow tanks a8 226, --038 * teil .0 
7] s ‘gieds ai fue ee Ce 


agian . « *y an o i er 
to duo @ ‘asd ae xe tess se 27 4 be son 
aa ie =B4 + 


igte :> <= stay Ar ee 
dntsie 5 aller oie iB ,8003 30 tr 
,2e02 bas’ dadhe, «99 OS" ow at yi | ae bs at hath 


a ee eer eatin 6 


onto 


S081 , wh saat * 


_ je 

“09 i 4-* ok ‘ ‘ mae + 
; , “i se 
7 nh oe 


heer q oo 
hae 4 : + ce 
By } 


* 







oe ‘ 





7 
=r 
, es 
is 


194 


The C, & E., you never heard I reckon, who they are 
The "nicest, nearest lot," I'll bet that ever run a car. 
The C. & E., why bless your heart, the "catch me easy 

- line 
That never broke its record yet, by coming in on time. 


You mind how once we ran a race with Farmer Jones' 
gteer, 
And the blessed boiler nearly burst, for the thing ran 
. like a deer. 
How Dan who drove the engine jammed the valve right 
open wide, 
But couldn't choke the creature off, which kept close 
; by our side. 


The C, & E., that line we love, with love that does not 
: wear, 
Whose rates are low, whose motto, "by monopoly we swear. 
No don't complain, if things are not, just suited to 
your mind, 
They'1l answer, "you be hanged," or "Then, get out and 
’ shove behind." 


1! 


Naturally the effects of irregular service were 
felt on the mail delivery. The Calgary and Edmonton Com- 
pany had been subsidized at the rate of $80,000 annually 
for twenty years from completion of construction to carry 
government mails, men, supplies and materiais. By the 
fall of 1893, the Bulletin was comparing the Calgary and 
Edmonton mail service unfavorably with that provided by 
stage coach before 1891, both as to punctuality and as to 
cost to the government, The Macleod Gazette found good 
féddda nese complaint on this score; since there was no 
mail clerk on the Calgary-Macleod line a letter mailed from 


Macleod to New Oxley had to pass through the latter point 


" 


.te06 & agers —— -- 
trigiz oviev add becmst ontans oid evoxb. od ne 
biw ego ¥ ? * a 
prs aqo4 doteke io g1u389%9 ofa aslo 3 ‘nb ° en 
.abie suo Ya ny ri <tss vite 


: < 
s 32a wW 


saowe aw ylegonam yd" ,o330m seontw" seo S18 pose 


" netded svoda — " Fiye a4 








91s vod ‘onte noes I based: 
sa9 6 sui tove edt tod I1'E “x 
ane of do38o" ods bass 1wo93YX 2 
oath: se ae 
.snid no al gatnce a <F8R bx0987 aio: 


‘panot somreT dg won B SB sw 9000 ¥ 
,19s73 . Ss 
nei gnidd edz x0. seul wixson reltad beseal 





















ton es0b ted evel .diiw ,avol..sw enti jadt: cel a. ) edT 
pane 


a 


TT oop 


ot bajive seul ,Jom sts egntda as icin 6 a 'agb 0 


-baimr fuoy-..7 «' 
bes tuo tog qed?” x Io ” began ss od vor" <TOMORE, it vod: 


stew sotvisa isluget1l 20 o7000he adi chiens ;. 
C ye 
0D aesaombS basi yregis2 eat . abet iol Item oda 4 


vilsunos. 000,088: 30 eta add 38 bestbledue ‘need va | 
Ae 
vases of nottoumtenos. To nolzet gmat moxt on ‘ me 


a 


be 


- eda. x : .etaiuetem bas estiqain: nom pe 


bas wits aD ens: - gnbarsqaos. esw absot ind rr 
bok Ae > 
yd babivoxq sedt- d3.tw setdszoveiinu ae? i te a ime 


at > 


o2 -¢a bps. iilestoong- of te dsod “£2 es 
ha ~e Bx eee 

+ boog<Pratet e33o289 heaton ett Tux 
on esw.ereds sonte out om 0 


7 b. 
-? 


or” « 
, 






Port Astiem taaded a entl | 


195 


and on to Calgary where it was sorted, then sent out on the 
next south-bound train. The result was that it took fifteen 
days before a writer could get a reply. The Gazette estimat- 
ed that a letter mailed Tuesday at Midnapore for High River 
went south on Wednesday, passed through the latter point to 
Macleod where it lay till Saturday; thence it went north 
through High River again to Calgary, from where it went back 
south and was delivered the following Wednesday at High Riv- 
er. To reach its destination thirty miles away, the letter 
was carried 230 miles, and instead of requiring one day it 
took seven or eight days for delivery. The justice of the 
editorial call for a mail clerk and mail car on the southern 
route is clear to the modern reader. 

The Calgary and Edmonton telegraph line, too, came 
in for a good deal of criticism from the press. Beginning 
in 1894, complaints began to appear in the papers and con- 
tinued sporadically throughout the period under considera- 
tion in this $6 8D . The Bulletin of January 29, 1884 dis- 
paragingly compared the Calgary and Edmonton line with the 
Dominion telegraph line which came into Edmonton from the 
east via Fort Pitt. This line, installed in 1879} had prac- 
tically never been down since being put aa The reason 
for the superior service of the line, according to the Bul- 
letin, was the use of twice as many posts and of heavier 


gauge wire. In those days when the Calgary and Edmonton 


08 enw 32. 
= 5 * fae ti a 
%o003 sh oad si aut emis’ 
. nee ee 
~ysmnkane sap od? - “yao s a 5 Dax asin a 
alert : 
revis dott ‘0% paces’ sk Gait ‘patton 
























ott mo avo tmes mod? ¢ 


ness? 





=y 


93 tukoq 293IBi ola ‘dguorila bosesq jeebeonbo 


mab - 


«i 
32 sansis ; yebins52 rfs = ak ¥ 


= 


4 
fosd jaow Jf sreaw mov’ vineie) o3 alags me - 


oy are ae 
eb sake entwollo® ed3 bereviteb esw f 


1m ystidd? noktsalieeb ait foun 


~-yth daih 38 


rol onz yews eolt 


‘bo basdankt baa “ estlim OES = 


; . - a + 
rab 310 gniatups: 


; .yroviteb tor i al jdgie x0 ‘neve to 


sia To 90) ise wt ait 
ait 


stadiuoe aj mo IBD Item bas 3 sal Thelin 5 tot ties Th 
> ane ee ‘. ompad 


ince Te ) 
_sebsat “Wrebom. jd3 0s sgefd edit 


emis ,0o3 “salt dqsag gies nod nombE bos cassis oft 

SP Lee + rae 

gninniged - e29%q acid mori ire botdtas to tab og x x 
sateen 


a 


z arnngea ‘ada ok ‘yeeqqs of aeged 22 is 
-sysbienbo ssbiw bélseq sd silodguowdd vi 
etib S881 eX rrauasl do ptielied oat) 
ontl nosnonba bas inact wit 

po nent® ean} ouas joka ee 
i “pafksaent ' oaks al 
nonhes edt iq 304 -gnibed.1 of i. yet ) 

tae 


5 edd gnibro238 anand iy 


t 


a, 
= 
= Ene 
hia? Wis 


7 ens a2 iw 
sis aor} 


~>a3q bed Retest ft 


iui 


196 

line went down, it remained down until the train crew 
came along on its regular run and fixed it. By 1897 it 
was being reported that the line was worn out due to poor 
construction initially and because of hasty repairs. 
Another cause for criticism was that messages were held in 
Calgary while the Calgary and Edmonton line was down rath- 
er than forwarding them from Qu'Appelle via the Dominion 
telegraph line, + 

A continual cause for complaint which the Calgary 
and Edmonton Railway shared with all other railways were 
the freight rates, Of course, since the Canadian Pacific 
Railway were responsible for the rate charges inasmuch as 
they operated the line, this criticism was not justly di- 
rected at the Calgary and Edmonton Company--aithough press 
and Parliament (members from the West, that is) argued 
that the over-bonding of the companies compeiled high 
freight rates in order that the Calgary and Edmonton share 
of the profit might be sufficient to cover the six per cent 
interest payment on the bonds. The Bulletin called the 
rates prohibitive. The rate on potatoes was 72% cents a 


hundred from Edmonton to Lethbridge, The charge on grain 


was 30 cents per hundred pounds for fifty miles. 





ee ee ee 


Iibid., Jan. 29, 1894. Ibid., Sept. 11, 14, 1893. 


7 





















+ 


\ “ao ptexs ody thins pape 
a Tear xa at Boxt? bas ond 
‘1009 eo} sub juo atow enw eat ond jada 


,arisqet Gend 2 to sausosd bas tangs tok 
- “Bas 


a2 . +? > 7 
at blod stew esgesesm jada eaw selobsixo ies 


ae 


-d35% owob esw 2 tf notmomb3 bas yrsgis) “a 


solnined ods siv akties v0 woit medt 1 gata 


5 a = il 


7 eyswi tex tonto [ls dtiw borsde vases nod 


S190 


S2%564 nbibsdsD ef3 eonte ,.se1U05 +0 29382 | sdgt 


n> 


es io uireset Sagrado stat “eds “303 aI dtanoqest pe” s wi 


«15 etyeut - jon ‘ei meters iio aidg coat odd bese 


* 


i 


—_ mine -- ‘= yin geod RnR. boa we giac d 


‘bowers (ei Jedd ,28sW da wort exsdnem) 31 20 
ey | a 


jae . ' 


dots bat lsqmoo setnsqmoo onl to. gatbe 9 ce vO 
; _ ’ md 


P * = 
a ei 


sued "“18q xte ods 58909 ‘os jaakotiue {79 te 


ony “pslise sizolivd edt : abopd, sig 


cage 


‘s g3ns0 Jy enw ‘e903830q ‘gio bie oe a 


Lf 


nlaag fio * grado ‘aif .sibiudds | 4! Ss 
ai S aokte ah 102 8 | . 


oe ae Eg 





wiih fiejacebs bas : erst wet aeda ‘xebz0 


LF he 


cots ar* ter” aqae®, 


a 


17 

It was charged that because of excessive freight 
rates, trains were coming back to Ednonton with two or 
three cars empty each time, and that these cars could and 
would be filled if reasonable rates prevailed, Merchants, 
for example, could then afford to buy liocal farm products 
such as grain, hay, and potatoes and ship them whenever 
there was a demand for thems 

Contributing also to the lack of freight on the 
Calgary and Edmonton line, according to the BOT ee rie was 
the poor service. . It took six weeks for cars leaving Ed- 
monton to reach the market in the Kootenay mining country 
compared with the three weeks required to reach the same 
destination from Portage la Prairie, The Edmonton dis- 
trict, consequently, was not able to compete, said the Bul- 
letin, with such points as Spokane or centres in Manitoba. 
The Canadian Pacific Railway were "too stingy" to put on 
an extra train when required to “eap up with the traffic," 
Extra cars accumulated in Calgary till there were enough 
for a special train. The Bulletin eftad an instance when 
"a whole train of freight and passengers had been delayed 


in order that the train might be used to distribute fence 


libid., Sept. 11, 1893. 2tbid., Mar. 16, 1897. 


3Ibid,, Apr. 25, 1895. “Tbid., Mar. 16, 1897, 



























sdgter? ovteesons 39 Sok; 
x , 
10 ovr date wesectbt 2 


~ a - Ket 2S 


bos binea e189 sears jad ae s% 


‘sh 
oe fe “ bo ee 


casoasiorslt batterers. este a{dsnoesst 2 


- - we 


ssoub019 cat Inoot oe Pr bxod3s nods biaos 
| ie 


tevenars cot giste boa 22038304 bos ahi: 2 | 
ot aad x npmeb & aw 


m7 . - *) 


sid no » adghor’ Bo A dant odd ot oats sataudisaqe 


‘Ar 


2 ait f 3 09 P1098 EI posse 3 
28 od2 oi Lud us od o3 gf 90k pc ai weg) 


e169 302 estosy xia oos af , poner 


. 
? 


-ba aivaat 


= a aut ae a 
‘Hace goiate ‘yanssoo} ag? ak soszen ‘eft dose oe acts Y 
oe ian 
egas od3 dogset o3 boxtupes pteate: aqds ol ‘dake a 20% 
av St. eon eke *o Seale ms - eorer o> ie ae: 
~aah ned orubB eat etstevt Bi wansnge aoa 2 
: al 


> — 


-Lud ada bias .23eqmoo o4 olds jon eew os. 
*~ om» &oeg is 


hd er tae ate 


wes tas at eszjnso 10 oosslog? _- einioq =. | 


(70 sq oo ch hese an youl bed f 
, . a ee * iki 


e 


om iene se A330 Ww goat 03 ‘bevtuped msde 
vee paar ik 4 


= 
<~?¢ 
- 


dguene grow. esent {tis (aagi8o! 2 


st 8K, ¢ 


part sqnesent ne eaip > gazeliys ios 


beyatsd | sand bad -svogpagang, be 24 igh 


gonad squdbsoeth os een 20 in a 
3° ‘A Ta ! « 
; gts . 


od Sain 
$081 at mE t «pe 


198 
rails.""1 Trains were delayed aiso while crews repaired 
telesraph lines, The Edmonton-Macleod run required two 
trains but was being served by only one train, argued the 
Bulletin, "barring a few specials which are sent out fron 
time to time,""2 Such poor service was due to an "ill- 
judged cr ekan keep down running expenses,""? . 
All through these early years, the ae tage Paci- 
fic Railway Company continued to insist that the Calgary 
and Edmonton line was being operated as "'a losing part of 
a great and paying system," but the Bulletin claimed that 
the Calgary and Edmonton Line was showing a handsome earn- 
ing in the annual reports submitted to the Department of 
Railways and Canals. Agreeing with a point frequently 
made by the Bulletin was a "settler" who contended in a 
letter . 
that the C. & E. was one of the cheapest built roads 
in America, Further that at the present moment, no 
other short line, belonging to, or leased by, the 
C.P.R. is working with so little expense, and whose 
net profits are so large.4 

That the already tarnished image of the Canadian Pacific 


Railway in the eyes of northern Aibertans was further mar- 


red by that Company's operation of the Calgary and Edmonton 


lipid., Mar. 16, 1897. 2Tbid., June 19, 1893. 


3Idem , 4tbid., Sept. 14, 1893. 


. Piet i 
bevel er) d 
: seb od 































hanlogen awors | oteiv « ts 
tant. 





& 


ret 


cwd bontupst us bos 
ont baugis-< sakes? -9no ino « cs 
yr a | 


sor ue 2098 276 | tole eiatooqe wet i gobs iPro: 


siti, 7 een eaee 
ine" os Of. ob enw sotviee 1004 owe SW om oF 


¢ 


amie 
ty" Cu soensqxe gukanus -syob qed “08 8 3 “a 
-tos4%-nsibanso od aTROX, yizae seed3- co a ; 


[sO edd jars. detent 03 beuntines eneaeer 


We 





fab? 4 


Br.’ me 


» 


" gs- b93ax9q0 gaisd enw entl 6 romb Fs 
4 = 
ya eda sud “,modeye- anived ‘betes 19978 


oi 

250 pene nosaombS bas -4 
jah 
sreqed -s13, 08 bestiadye ed iqer- Eas ads A 


ro g1sq goteot s 
tsd3 bomksio gizs [ 
-nsao. ecoubasd 8 gotwods 


te. 3nem 


indy a 
, leq # diiw gatsexah ,ateas) bas 8 
-ultneupet? 3a oq , - ovis 
ae - sare ) 


> ddan 


p ot bebusdae® ony “xalsaea" 8 one: 


= . 
= et 7 ad * - ae 
oT , = 7, 


ae ps + cab om 
abso: ILiwd, Jeeqsede. orld « 0. on cares | cake 
on. ,ansrom tasaetq ef} 38 sads paride 4 a 
... oft ,vd Beesal to. 403 guiaanied wi 
” gsodw bos ,seneqne enbaed te ane 


mites Ta ne Sy sks aan - 38. 

. : are 
otitesl eaztbanad. ada Lo agent > ber 

-18% redaxut: enw: cantredta aad 37 


notacehs bas regi he. ald: 29 S 


Ne, 


es 
“eee! ,ef saul iat 


£28r (al .3q02 « BES ae 


a4 
a a a 


199 
line is indicated by the Bulletin's comment: 
It is no carping criticisn to say that the reputation 
for enterprise which the company deservedly enjoys 
throughout the greater part of the country is not 
supported by their administration of the Calgary and 
Ednonton branch, and has not been since it was first 
taken over. It has been a paying road from the start, 
and never paid so well as now or had as good prospects 
-of paying well. + 
The issue of freight rates was basic in the North- 
west for it was at this point that settlers and merchants 
were most affected, and on the "excessive" rates was laid 
much of the blame for the retardation of settlement and de- 
velopment in the Northwest. Though in retrospect it can 
be seen that other factors independent of the railways were 
mainly responsible, these less visible, more distant caus- 
es were ignored and the railway was made the scape-goat, 
The issue is too large, complicated, and has too many im- 
plications to be dealt with here in any detail. The Cai- 
gary and Ednonton Company, furthermore, was only indirect- 
ly involved in the quarrel, It was, nevertheless, in the 
rates charged over the Calgary and Edmonton line that nor- 
thern Albertans personally confronted the freignt rates 
issue, and here all the charges and counter-charges can 


be seen close at hand. Freight rates were held partly 


responsible for slow development in the Edmonton district, 





Itpid., Mar. 16, 1897. 





























Liv i. anes. 

nekakaene’ ~~ prre yse oF & 

axyotna- yfhevaezsb YNIBGrOD € 

jon ef yttouos edz to 3739 9 
bas yisgisd eft to molis1e 

gexit? esw 2t eonte oped Jon ead bas ep 


_2as22 odd got? bsot golyeg # goed end 
atosqeorq bhoog as _— to won as Ilow St 


” sn | 
j 4 
= — . iu 


a ae 
of fate 


” 


-daxo% ods ot.obasd tav poses jel to ented 
etastio1s@ brs exsizisa sad3 antoq eld3 gs: eow 3 


bisl .eey 29342-"evieagoxs” 9d no BA. ehesootis 


~osb bos goaaelsie8 0 nobssb3s29%. ona +02 easid-od q 


Ren tL « 
eal ae 


ogo 3b aosqaotse? ot siguodT _ .arowdt10% oa ot aan 
aD — 


-augo tnatelb .stom- .sidtaiv easel opeds. jake dkenoqe fe 


e 
a 
-, 
i} 


130 penal tas aris 2° Jnebnegsbal ax03982 x9d30 


of3. sham saw youl bax eid bos basen» 
eee te a % 
+wk_ ques ees ead bas ,bstaetiqnaes iegtas sc b syeat 


em 


~IsD) sdT Lbsdeb yos at oxed. dike tisob oA 3 £30. 
~3a0%Fbqi gino: eaw .sromed asf ‘eeasqiea® Ass ap ‘bis 
od3 at ,aesladiteven, anw : at forimup 02 of 
-x0n, 7802 oahd: setaoabs. bas, eagle ee age 
e927 amglest oft. meaner" a | 

»y aba puguado-soaauoe, has 8 
Par glarsq.bled etsy 2qi8 
gaaizageb sol oni 


wart 5) eee eke 


Me 1 


-SROR~ 299898 > 





ones ~ i 4 ei 


200 
for discouraging agricultural growth, and for hurting the 
competitive position of the district in the Kootenay mark- 
et. 

Various solutions to the problem of high freight 
rates were offered by the Bulletin. It was argued that 
lower freight rates should be made the condition of sub- 
sidies to railways, or that rates should be limited to 
six per cent of the cost of the railway minus subsidies. 
Control of freight rates on the Crow's Nest Line ae seen 
as a great victory for the settler over the railway mono- 
poly and as an outcome of persistent agitation such as 
that directed against rates on the Calgary and Edmonton 
line. No aspect of railway operation comes in for such 
frequent discussion in the Bulletin over such a long peri- 
od as does that of freight rates. 

The volume of criticism of the service offered on 
the Calgary and Edmonton line which never remained silent 
for long reached a crescendo in the year 1902--one year 
before the purchase of the line by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company--when Banura-breabine)6loods played havoc 
with the badly deteriorating roadbed, ties, rails, and with 
the telegraph line. Washouts were occurring all along the 


line. Western members were up in arms in the House of Com- 


: ie “Ss 






























wee: oA, 
tu spe: Ras Tee ee’ hes + | as - 
odd sat Ry = bre Cady. © sto3 lu: 3a. 
: P 2 =. et 2 alk ies 
~dxag (snes0t oft at jolxtelb | ait og 9 
ia wee S arhesy * 7a 
Appshe den age 


& 


tg: ga —" 
wa" 

sdgter: detd to ae he ante al sootsuton.« Raine 

» -.>e ra = 
Pek 


$83 baugta a5w ar -obzeLius ys offs wt 


-due 20 aols3bn09 ods hats od bivorle nade 3¢ tn | tow 
a o - ny : +9 : 


a * 





age it 
ete 


o3 book ui sd bore —, —_— 0 sewer ode ms" 


= wl & 7, tee 


thi pont cokes ois io 3209 ‘oil to ae q 


vastbitedue ¢ 
- > ih - 


nese caw ont ‘soot 2 worse ons m0 ‘esas sdghor? tol C 


"om Te Rete “@Ad x9v0 woldsee nfs 30% ‘great 


i . vy <4 wt @ «* ¥ mS oe 
28. oue otissiges ansseletsq 20 manned DB 8 a8) xX 
=¥e grisy oe! “+s ue «4 j x “serge ant . ay Ot a 
ro 3s700 ba bas yingiad otis 110 eete7 juatege's 
Des tio ‘“)- ~ Cm “ene Pr > eg or: 


Suse 108 ar’ eamoo “oktex9g0 coultes to 


a osu 


-iteg mitt & dit I9VvO pide tue a nk & “ uoeth In 
7 “ =4 oe rf é 
«25787 sinh 0b 6 
oer we a 248 nS ena i co wea We Ne 4 : 4 bese ; 
no ber shi eolvaes iid to retolaii® 9 om sfov y off _ 
- bie 5 tee eee Ba ae we 5 et: ‘ 


e 
+ 


eiibtie bonksass 19Vven dod sort ‘ 
Ste. ,! ‘ete Sete, er F- hh we eR 


Ts8Y sno=~ S00! TROY of hod cbnaonets s be 





ee Ve. > sg gt athe ~s = a Lm 
okttost nsibsasd ots e ‘ont gesdor ee 
ge 3S in FS Ps - ee ee * 1 oa 
coven beysigq pipers antnord-b20 we Ul 

& RES ; oe. Praga 


date bone after sete bodbaot at Bx at 
ab 
o> guste “S10 adi sefiobat bs ) 4a = ve 


nod 30 aaceh ate ok manu 


“hg ade be | 


201 
mons debates over the failure of the Calgary and Edmonton 
line and its sister line, the Qu'Appelle line running 
from Regina to Prince Albert, to serve the needs of the 
people. 

The Calgary and Edmonton Company were apparently 
eae or unable to get money from bondholders to pay 
the cost of repairs to the road. The Canadian Pacific 
Railway refused under the nature of their arrangement with 
the owning company to accept responsibility for the upkeep 
of the road, The complaints in the Bulletin and the Gazette 
in 1902 and 1903 call to mind the session of Parliament four 
or five years previously when the Qu'Appelle line was under 
heavy and bitter attack for permitting their railway to de- 
ete teats into such a condition that railway service was 
impossible for wade? 

The Bulletin complained in 1902 that there had been 
no mail service on the Calgary and Edmonton for some ten 
days due to a break in the road resulting fron a wash-out. 
Even though there had been an engine both north and south 
of the break, the Canadian Pacific Raiiway had refused to 


hire teams to transfer the mail and passengers, charged 





Isee Debates of the House of Comnons, 3rd Sess., 


—— eee 


8th Parl., 61 Vic., 1898, p. 4250; 4th Sens. 9th Parl., 
4 Edw, VII, 1904, Po 2761, 2282 < 



































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202 

the Bulletin editor, On one occasion, passengers had been 
compelled to leave the train and walk into Strathcona 
from the point where a break had occurred three miles south 
of the station. The mail, however, was reportedly left 
there and finally delivered almost two days later. Anoth- 
er taeekr had gotten to Innisfail and had been forced to 
turn back to Calgary.* The Bulletin, as well as Members 
of Parliament, were calling upon the government to dock 
the Calgary and Sanbaiier Company a proportion of its annual 
subsidy in case of such delays. A report out of Calgary 
stated that "there are heavy washouts es here and 
Olds, on ehe:@s & E, north and also on the C, & E, south, "2 

The poor condition of the line resulted in ena 
accidents in the period from 1897 to 1903. In August of 
1897, a “sun-kink" in one of the rails threw an engine and 
most of cis cars into the teu near Carstairs. Concluding 
its account of the incident with a touch of humor, the Ga- 
zette noted that although they had jumped clear, ‘the en- 


gineer and fireman had freight cars chasing them all over 


the prairie." Late that fall, about five miles from Mac- 





— ee Se ee 2 


2tbid., July 7, 1902. 


3Macleod Gazette, Aug, 13, 1897. 






















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203 
leod sone cars had stuck while crossing a bridze and broken 
loose from the rest of the train. While the engine, which 
went on to Macleod, was returning for the rest, the strand- 
ed cars were cracked into from behind by another freight 
train, Though again the engineer junped clear, the fire- 
man was killed, About the same time of that year, the 
bridge across the Old Man River gave way and three cars 
plunged into the river beneath, | 
Another somewhat humorous incident occurred when a 

train, half way down the hill at West Macleod, struck snow 
and ice, and the front trucks of the engine were thrown off 
the tracks, The engine ran along to the Y-track with the 
driving wheels following the main line. The Gazette de- 
scribed what ensued: 

Relations between the front trucks and the drivers 

were thus somewhat strained, and as no means have 

yet been devised of running part of an engine on one 

track, wnile the other end goes chasing across the 

prairie on another something had to drop. The engine 

parted company with the tender, and went into the ditch 

crossways of the Y. .. . Engineer Hamil stuck to the 

engine, the fireman taking a header through his window 

into a snow bank. The curious thing about the accident 

was that the tender and the rest of the train went on 

past the engine into the station, and no one knew that 


anything had happened, the trainmen who saw the engine 
not thinking it was their own.2 


Itbid., Nov. 26, 1897. 


2Tbid., Dec. 10, 1897. 


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204 

At White Mud Creek, ten miles south of Edmonton, 

a north-bound train had been wrecked and eight cars were 
smashed and broken and had carried the bridge away as they 
fell. Rails for two hundred yards were torn up and ties 
broken. Miraculously, there were no eralteias, Though 
See was unknown, it was guessed that spreading rails 
might be ae Several accidents had occurred at 
a point one and a half miles south of Lacombe, where there 
was a steep grade with a turn at the bottom so sharp that 
the train had to slow down very considerably or else it 
would almost surely leave the track. At one time, six 
cars had been hurled into the ditch and their contents 
wrecked, The Bulletin concluded: "The CPR will soon 
waken Pathe fact that a few shag eee Spent on the C, & E, 
roadbed will be a profitable investment." 

It was claimed that the Calgary ard Edmonton Com- 
pany, which was responsible for the a eeaiaine of the 
roadbed, had never properly ballasted the road and had 
never adequately repaired the damages which occurred, The 
lack of natural drainage, furthermore, had permitted the 


water to accumulate and to undermine the ties and what lit- 





1 dmonton Bulletin, June 1, 1899. 


2tbid., July 20, 1903. 


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205 

tle ballast there may have been. Eyewitnesses described 
a place near Leduc where there was no ballast at all, where 
pools of water sat on either side of the roadbed undermin- 
ing the bed, wnere the ties were hanging to the rails by 
means of the spikes, and where stems of poplar trees had 
been driven down to prevent the ties from swinging round. 
Rails were bent and curved beyond any hope of straighten- 
ing them out again. One work train on 190 miles of road 
was trying unsuccessfully to keep the road in running con- 
dition. The peti eo teen noted: "That is not an unfair sam- 
ple of the condition of the ane a4 in Sete nlaeceata 

The Bulletin reported on July 18, 1962 eis 
train wnich had left Calgary at 10:00 A.M., Tuesday did 
not reach Olds--sixty miles distant--till 10:00 P.M. and 
arrived in Ednonton at 7:00 Wednesday. Passengers were un- 
able to tell what the cause was other than overloading and 
faulty arrangements. Another train required twenty-one 
hours to reach Calgary. 

Owing to the volume of business out of Edmonton, a 
request was made for the establishment of a telegraph of- 
fice, a ticket office and a bulletin board in the town. 


Trains were sometimes leaving early or considerably behind 


een ee ee ee = + 


lipid., June 9, 1902, quoting Calgary Herald, n.d. 


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206 


schedule without Edmontonians being made aware of the fact 


in advance. = 


The resulting frustrations of travel on the Calgary 
and Edmonton line inspired one more piece of unsophisticated 
rhyme which appeared in the Bulletin: 2 


You may talk of broncho-busting and the pleasure that 
you get, 
When your broncho starts to buck you to the stars. 
You may joy in shooting rapids (thrilling game but 
rather wet, 
Especially when you stick upon the bars.) 
You may revel, too, in every sport that's strenuous and 
rough, 
Fron football to canoeing in the sea, 
But there's something which when once you've tried, 
you'll think it quite enough; 
That's a railway journey down the C. & E. 


For you're jolted and you're battered and you're ping- 
ponged to and fro, 
And you're not sure when you're running off the track, 
And the engine evidently doesn't know which way to go, 
If it ought to push on forward or crawl back, 
And you feel the whole concern is nearly falling into 
bits, 
And you climb on top and, Heavens! what d'you see? 
Why, the rails behind are shaking just as if they'd got 
; the fits! 
And no wonder for they're on the C.& E, 


Oh it's fun to watch the engine bravely swimming up a 
creek, 

Or laboriously plugging through a slough, 

And it's comforting to hear the pale conductor madly 
shriek, 

That he doesn't know what the devil he's to do! 

And at last when you've concluded that the fare's a bit 


too rich, 
And a walk outside would suit you to aT, 


——_———— —— 


ltbid., July 18, 1902. 2tbid., June 27, 1902, 
































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207 


You suddenly discover that you've landed in a ditch-- 
Oh, that's the time you bless the C, & E. 


--W.H.S. in Old's Oracles, 


An echo of the poet's complaint is found in the 
prose account by a touring Nova Scotia minister who wrote 
from Edmonton: 


To begin, the railroad from Calgary to Edmonton is al- 
most as bad as the old corduroy. . .. You cannot read 
the train paper nor can you write home letters when you 
ride to Edmonton, You need your hands free to "hold 
on'' when the cars careen around curves and rush-over 
the straight stretches to the villages and towns built 
by the pioneers. ... The cars are always crowded on 
the out-bound trip, and the train is always a long one 
and it is never on time and the fare of travel is four 
cents per mile. ... Strathcona is reached before sun- 
set (nine o'clock) and Edmonton is still north of us 
and reached by the most tortuous bit of rail in exist- 
ence. 


That the Calgary and Edmonton Company, not the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, was held responsible for the 
condition of the road is indicated by this Bulletin editor- 
ial: 


The Company seemed to think that they are under no ob- 
ligation in the matter. ... The fact that the line 
is not operated by its owners makes no difference to 
the public. That does not shift the responsibility. 
The C, & E, Company received the bonuses and should 
be held responsible for the service. If that company 
cannot operate its own road, it should sell out to a 
company that can. 


lRev, P.M. Macdonald, Letters from the Canadian 


West, Pamphlet (Truro: Chronicle P Publ. Co., 1903), pp. 18-19 





2Edmonton Bulletin, June 30, 1962. 










































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208 
It was not to be long before the Calgary and Edmonton fol- 
lowed that suggestion and an end was made of the unfortun- 
ate arrangement which inevitably resulted in less than ade- 
quate service to the country. 

In connection with the operation of the Calgary and 
Edmonton line, one is naturally curious to know whether, in 
fact, the traffic over the line resulted in a profit ora 
loss to the owners and lessees of the railway. A study of 
the official annual reports submitted by the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company to the Department iS Railways and Canals 
reveals that from its first full year of operation in 1892, 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway grew at a steadily in- 
creasing rate by all measurements. The relatively low to- 
tal of 3,996 passengers in 1892 had increased 2% times by 
1895, doubled again by 1899, tripled yet again by 1902; by 
1903 the total number of passengers carried was 92,612-- 
twenty-three Banas that of 13892. 

Comparable rates of growth can be shown for freight 
and for gross and net earnings. Freight measured in ton- 
nage grew from 7,155 in 1892 to 169,869 in 1903, an fre 


crease of twenty-four times. Gross earnings stepped up 


laccounting for most of the freight carried were 
manufactured goods, livestock, grain, and lumber, 

























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re 
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va 7008 vd. nbsas Jey hel qkz3 422080. aad nises £ , 


Pi an ik 
Se at . 


teigkes? 10% swore . ‘od BQ : nag aa coset 


-not ot, basuagen, 3igtexT. egatoy 
~mk - £0CL nt 208, @01 od re mee 


qu beqgaze eprinzse, oped" 






’ ” 
m £ 4 


+" Pe 
‘e198% —— ‘$4 6 


oe _yedquk os n ha. a . 
yw) _—. ae 


209 
from the $49,737 for 1892 to $698,255 for 1903, a fourteen- 
fold increase, Profits which stood at $16,949 for the year 
1892 had risen to $277,651 for the year 1903--an increase 
of nearly seventeen times. Somewhat in excess, then, of a 
quarter of a million dollars was the profit shown on opera- 
tions in the year 1903, 

When one considers that about $250,000 was needed 
annually in addition to the $80,000 government subsidy in 
order to pay the interest on roughly $5,500,000 of pos: 
and wnen one realizes that the annual profit- from opera- 
tions was split between the lessees and the owners accord- 
ing to an agreement between the two companies, it can eas- 
ily be seen why the holders of Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way bonds were receiving little by way of interest pay- 
ments. From 1892 to 1897, full interest payments were 
made out of the original amount deposited with the bankers 
in England. After 1897, however, when the deposit had 
been exhausted, interest payments had to come out of the 
annual subsidy plus the Calgary and Edmonton Company's 
share of the earnings. 

In 1899, net earnings totalled $86,127. Just how 
much of this amount would go to the Calgary and Edmonton 


Company is not clear. Interest paid to bondholders in 


=. - ‘Diz 
¢ aa 


~neod26? s° £08! eaceae A 
«soy aiff ‘303 eae, are 3a. Boote dotdw 

taihtouan fb+ -COeL 78 of3 tot 108,01 
s to ,noia ,e2eaoxe of tartwomoz toms 


ed 





















“SYeqo io nwofte stiorg ods eaw east iob’ ie weit 


: . 
~ 
> oe. « 
s _ ~— yo 
ne DY a4 ‘ Seay i. 
* ‘ 7 ‘ t= e« 
Ps 
: — 
F ‘ 
t ; 


ia) 


boisosr abw 000, 02e82 wa dart exebianosd 


> 


vbtedwe Insirrevog 000, 682 sAtt 02 nots 6 — efte 


— 


— 


7 
~<a 


_ebied to 000 002, t% vrigeds 10 ‘ gostaanlt sdt ¥ oF a ; 
Steqo mort STtozq Tsimns ory wedF caster tw | 
-brooos erenwo eds bas asseesl sfi2 ‘wostaed Sttge bs 
seed es YE (e8thsqnos awa" st iiesiava Wise ae 
| ten Aetnonb? bos y3egis9 10 etebrod 
-YBg sebtsiak to Yew w elsif suena ars 
«pty edksarghe desrsinot fist wear ‘of Se 


szednsd os diiw besteoqeb J n0mR rn 


cis 
iat shaageb od" ache ssovawolt (f et si 
ay _ : a ac ate 
7 mt ad “a 
‘St 20 Sag. satio ox ‘sites sant Meisiat ,bs2 
a » » > -— 4 Sout - a 
s "ena octet ia gfbd 5: Be uit i. 


age 
ee 
me 


pe 


aes 4 


: r . 
an Ld el iif . 
35h, We ~~ 


wot seul oe ake bettsre8 


> ® 


P er - 


Bees. acres a ¥ 


toe ae Yas, »}' x beret 
és etebR vr ad oe 


210 
1899, at any rate, would be between 1% and 3 per cent 
instead of 6 per cent. In 1903, when profits topped a 
quarter of a million dollars, the interest payments would 
be much higher. If it was to this fact, that is the fail- 
ure of the line to earn enough to meet full interest pay- 
ments, that the Calgary and Edmonton Company owners and 
Mr. Osler were referring when they claimed that the Com- 
pany was losing money, then the claim is understandable, 
Those representing the interests of the people, convinced 
that the Company was drastically over-bonded, held that 
the Company was showing a good profit. 

By 1902, traffic and profits had risen to the point 
where by contrast with earlier unwillingness to undertake 
the expense involved in extensive repairs of a lasting 
nature, directors of the Company reported to bondholders 
at the annual meeting: 

Although the expenditures for putting the roadbed in 
proper shape will be very heavy, the directors consid- 
er that owing to the large number of settlers going in 
along the line and the large increase in general busi- 
ness, the company will be in a fair position to meat 


these exoenditures. 


The Sessional Reports show that the Calgary and Edmonton 





1g dmonton Bulletin, Oct. 27, 1902, quoting the 


ee ee ae ae ae 


Financial News, London, report of the anintta 1 meeting of 
bondholders eH the C Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company. 




















ot 4 
asa - es, 
d > : i | an : a . : se, 


Joes 19q € bas gl os 


; * 


s boqie? aitiorg ‘oey. {08 of 
biucw esinemysq tesitsjat ‘ont exallobon 


afi ie 


vi 


* 






meee 


~{ist od2 at ted toa eld? 3 saw 3t iI +8 


_- = * “~ 


-yaq teezetet Iiu 190m oo dguoge xibe aici 


\ 
. 
”. 


» 


nN 


bra exsiwo Ysqgmod nodaonbS bos yssgisd ¢ 


. 


-m@ed ats dads beadate = nothe ations 


eldsbontetsboy el miaie ed3 aerls. ,yenom gateol 


- 


ei 


anmi VEIOD aiqoaq edt to eteexetal sds gatiness ¢ 


bf of ‘hobaod-Femn Fie esw wasqmod ¢ 


J fala’ 


<thiles boog s ‘antwoda 2aw Yo 


S; 


Se w 


png © 
° 


snk oF ods o3 sels bad aatioxq bos oiDts72 | S00l Y 


- 


ws ssasbgy o2 seongetitivay sellise djtw aesxam09, 
rs ; — 
jest 8 to exlages avienasxe aot bevto : 2 ae 
_ <. e Soee 
eigbic bog o a3 bedxoqsa ‘yoagned ec io 21039 oeTlb ¢! 
rd "a! Tt ae 
z Ae a ilies 


: eee u Isuops § 
F Bi 


© 


*, 
ee “hy 


4 







. Ps oe .- . . =e ‘ ‘ s .- 


cy“ 
’ 


«4 












svi badbaos acts snbatiin z02 gem: base 
btihe> e1ojcatlb sf3 yveed pated a 
mit goiog eselijoe to ssdave ogret . 
-tind-tsvenég Gf sesezonk egrsl eda 

sem a3 MI: sist & - ‘ed, ff. 


“> 
Fg =e — 


‘ 


* - ¥ 


a: 3 Shy 
to gnizesm Vannes 
qasqmod ceulisd s 


@as cant ae 


Zi1 
Company, by this time under Canadian Pacific ownership, 
did in fact spend $420,603 on the line in 1903, and of this 
amount about one-half was spent on line and building main- 
tenance, 

A comparison of the operations and earnings of the 
Calgary and Edmonton with three other railways of compar- 
able length over the period from 1892 to 1903 provides an 
indication of the relative profitability of the line.! 

The rate of increase in both traffic and earnings 
was steady though not spectacular for the Calgary and Ed- 
monton Railway until 1898 when there was a sharp climb in 
all significant statistics for the year's operations. 

By comparison with the Qu'Appelle Railway, the re- 
sults of operations on the Calgary and Edmonton line were 
impressive, Although beginning operations later, and 
therefore handling less traffic and grossing less in its 
first full year of business, the latter line quickly out- 
stripped its sister road in every significant criterion of 


success. By 1902, for example, the total net earnings of 


the Calgary and Edmonton line for eleven years exceeded 


Igee Sumnary Statements, Annual Reports of Depart- 
ment of Railways and Canals, Sessional Papers, 1893-1904. 
All statistics in the following discussion are based on 
these reports. 






















.qidetenwo obttsst 
tds ¥S bos ,£0F ob teat cats 03,088 


ae 


-~nism antbt bud ban: ‘echt no snede | 

a. ' hee A “J ©. satis pen Pa Se 

bie: = 
of} to egatnaise bas anpiséxeqo ods to oaks sqmoo A 
‘ing ' = } 

6th gees i, o> ae 
-isqa moo’ to ayowl ts Sedan: sexs is hw ions f 
; = ue fi ~ fee — ie 
us asbiverq E0RI o3 sear” rs | bolzsq odd x9vo ff 
.sokl odd ‘to ‘\oiitdss Horg evissles eng moka 
oy fi 2 30 ‘<ere- 3 sesh © 

eEolorss bos sits ax d3od nk sassiont to star oat 


ee | 2. a “ 
at 


wy 


-~b3 bos yreglso sis xo% rel u9s209q2 Jon dguod3 
- ? G2 q 
af dmkio quade 8 esw 9193 nethe seer Tisau wv 
~ _ ; ay 2aa 
jieieriens a 'xs9y sid “303 goljatzare tonolt. Be 


oo - 
et er 
che A y 


~g2 odd yewils elleqqA tu) aris datw noalzsqmo> 


rods jet Sia x a 

‘sxsw onkt nognombS bas yragiad: “od ‘a0 ano dstsqgo 20 % 
2. ae ord te ae 
bas , tedal eaclsaxseo gatnntged davosth eee 











pot nt gest ‘gukesoig” bas oittex2 ‘asl gr thn oxo 


“ co 3 wr fe Ps 

3u0 btoiup anki egal edt - aneaiind tes in C 

| th ® ah, sincat 

ert Pas ae “saaodtbenie. ‘weve ‘al fenton | 
ae i + etahe® 

to egalatae ‘Ise Tasos eas ‘allgnaxe ot 


| bSbeaske e7B97 nsvets "séh'an eatt s dnie on 


+ Key mace Yi ee ee . i 


-i12qg27 to arxoger ——. 
.a0C[-CO8l ,2xsgsT Le a! 

no beaed eta gnisnines bwol 

~} ro 

aS as I a ae) ar oe 


or 


FX 


Ze 
$1,100,000. Total net earnings for the Qu'appelle line 
over the same period were about $100,000. 

Even though it was not until 1898 that the gross 
earnings of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway for the year 
reached that of either the Manitoba and Northwestern or 
the Northern Pacific and Manitoba, yet its net earnings 
were always incomparably higher than that of the latter 
line and were almost always considerably greater than that 
of the former line. 

In proportion of earnings (gross) to working expen- 
ses, the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway never topped 
101.2 The corresponding figures for the Qu'Appelle line 
and the Manitoba and Northwestern line were 133 aad 137 re- 
spectively. The proportion for the oie and Edmonton 
line, by contrast, was never lower than 150 for any single 
year and in 1898 reached 222, "The earnings per train mile 
of the C, and E. railway for the year ending June 30th (1900! 
were larger than those of any other Canadian road with an 
equal mileage,'' reported the Bulletin.” A study of the re- 
ports dabmiehbed to the government reveals that the ace 
and Edmonton coe was consistently one ay the more profit- 
able operations among the railways of Canada, 


lGross earnings divided by working expenses x 100. 


2Edmonton Bulletin, Apr. 19, 1901. 



























eeotg offs Is3 Bees tides Jon ssw Pa 

tgey of’ 29% YewltsA -notnomb’ bas yragiod. 
to ovspzowts4e bos. sdotiasM ods saitste D0 2 

seciatss -Jenfeatl-sey ,sdotinal bos-obtioad 


, =f ‘ 
zejaal offs Ro ted sar rodg ied vieomuaalae By a 4 2 ae : 


jad? epdt.1s3sat3 (idszebiande pp ee a, DM 
et. 3+) 2 ieee per’ ‘soma08 
> {=x Eo 


-~negte yoliaiscw-o3- (220 al eantatss: to niotttoqoxq veal tit } 
boggot seven yawliad sdodias-bas- pitkost axodisz0l 2° ,.as 
| thot te | 


oe 


gabl alleqgA'w) edt ret gotugi2 gatbaoqeez109 & e 

-or Ff bow-fEL stew oath mtedaswds tol -bas wit 
,* 

potnombS-bos yragied eds 102 nots zogetq ed as: 

el gnie yas wet O25 osls ee seven Lead ae ere 

elim alawt req agaiates edT™ - £88 -bedossz se 


4 Bm 


c adie 
(OOCL) -ds0: envi gutbaa red ‘eda ‘so? ashes 3m 3D 3 
Ege Pita 


ps fatw beox authind®. sed20 Yas, 3o eeodd 
- -9t als. 30 5 “bude. a $ jogos tu a bes 1¢ t bef 


i (* a ow 
1 basse 


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cae 
+3¥ze1q sxom os to esto vomited ae a on 


. : - +, 
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Si shale Sy wae 
001 x goenaque aabtrew 


VIIL 
RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY 

It has already been made clear that a close rela- 
tionship existed between the Calgary and Edmonton Railway 
and the Canadian Pacific Railway, net only in the minds of 
the people but also in fact. The Calgary and Ednonton line 
naturally occupied an important place in the overall plans 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, both as a feeder 
of its main line and as the means by which much of its Yaat 
grants of land in the north would be opened up and develop- 
ed, It would serve also as a means by which competition 
- from a rival line could be limited in the area concerned, 
The man most responsible, moreover, for arranging the fi- 
mancing of the Calgary and Edmonton line, E.B. Osler, was 
himself a member of the board of directors of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company of long standing, + 

Indicative of the close relationship existing were 


the authorization by the government of an agreement be- 


Oe a ee a ee ee ee 


Isee Canadian Pacific Railway Annual Report for the 


Year 1885 (Montreal: Gazette Printing Company). 


Fa Ea 























VANLITAR OTUIDAT MATGAWAD SHT HITW-STHEE 
Avs 


_-siet ee0fo s tsd3-saels shem nosed ehsouls 28 
yawhtah gojnombS bos. yraglsd sl3 noswied betel 


van 


‘30- ebote sfd of ¢ino: Jon . wawi ted okttosd mitt ‘a 
spki aotnoah3 ‘bos yiagiad ofl tos? nt o2ls sudo 
5 &4aalq Liszevo-eda- al ooal¢:. soadseqnt 1 sien 

aebesi 8.28 dod. ~ysagmod. yswl ist othiced oaibsos9 21 3 
Ja8¥ 223i 20 dope doldw. Yd assem old 88 bos enkd. nis ie 


-goleveb baw qu bensqo sd bilucw som “eda ak bast. 26 
ry nakt tdeqroo datdw yd,ecsem s ea-oels svi5e) 
~benseogen 2418 oft nt betinti sd: bis0o oat Ie 
-# of athuieiitin ‘to? toventom: olden: 


i? 
~_— ~ 


enw a a. S.enkt sos ncaa — 


saan sill to.ea09022b 40 banod ® ins i 
S a a = 
ae Tj gotosse. gaol” teu 


S19W grivel ixs > ainenolsetex s20io ae 
- Bie soar Nits 
ory suetesege £18 to ened 


> 


— 


=F } x} 







% is FF + oF > ae 7 
efd 103 Jzogs2 lewoeA yewtige of 
> ; Jt : : > 2D eniapl: q " 

» | ; v is . 


214 


between the two companies, the two agreements actually signed 
by which the Canadian Pacific leased and operated the line 

of the Calgary and Ednonton Company, and the frequent dis- 
cussions and negotiations leading toward purchase of the lat- 
ter by the former. 

The Calgary and Edmonton Railway, though one of the 
last of the colonization railways, made its appearance on 
the scene during the era when the Canadian Pacific Railway's 
control of the western field was still without serious chal- 
lenge. Although the "moncpoly clause" was cancelled in 1888, 
it was not till after the turn of the century that a serious 
challenger appeared to dispute the field with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. 

The legal basis for the arrangement with the Canadi- 
an Pacific Railway was provided in the act of incorpora- 
tion of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company: 

Tne company may enter into an agreement with the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway Company for conveying or leasing 
to such company the railway of the Company hereby in- 
corporated, in whole or in part, or any rights or power 
acquired under this Act, .. . or for an amalgamation 


with such company.l 


A subsequient act spelled out in greater detail the nature 





Istatutes of Canada, 53 Vic., Cap. 84, assented to 
24th Apr., 1890. 



























bargte yllaudos gsaameorgs ows sft “faeks 
a, - ce. ¥) 
A 
oni t efi fissreqo. ‘bas ae 





-atb “Inqups?2 ‘was “bein pene f : ie; 


: ae a sha We 


4 ik 


9% 





~tal @f2 to ditiente bomvos- ‘game enors. 
2 - é o é 5 P : _— LIP — 


- + 7 _ 


7 Big. ee : ‘ = 


. . e ye 
id . ; - ia « 


re 
sda 6 ono’ dyuods | cok nosnenbt ak coo 
sedi sbam widenidiét olssiston 
e'yswiist oftiog? apt ths hae nsita BI ons yaa 
sword iw [itie eaw brat miedeow a | ‘tot 


8881 ot belleonao sew Neeualo xfogonon", od3 tguodth’ ve 


volzes B dad iwa99 oda to sexs ed rests Sk Earsee 9 


-~ 


tien 29 ant: dstw fred ads osugetb as: Soxsaqge 29g a 
asst ; 


ae F eats 
e 7 +f e es + a 4 ~ es > 
mb +) “ «Oe  ~ e - yo oon r » i 
tae; < - ite et < ee 
~pbsrisd- ads dviw ‘sneneuderen ‘edd 20k ete —_ SdT - ae 
ae) ee oom, => he = 
£3 


— i 


-ssequoont ae: 395 ond eal bebiverg: ‘esw ¥8 witad ig 
ss 


— - 
m a” a 


«- 
~—=” ? 


a" cove ba ao n0nbS bas ossianee 


-anBo ods ‘fis iw tnsangage os ogni r9399 wea v BOE of 
‘entaaal +o gaiysvdoo t0% ynsqnod ss ths oat ti 
-mi ysis 2d ynagme) ed to yswi lst ed? 5 2s dos : 

sewog yo esdgiayie fo .378q ak to efodw at ae ‘ 
noliamagians mB TOL IW a «\s 39h b gpmuticons Day vd Sup: 
7 = . n a eae vasa wh 

‘eet, OOF a eden t 

stolen eid tigisb- r9i8S7g at aud bs . | 


d os of =f 
eP] . - . ata 


“ 


o3 besneees .o8 oo ov ee — nai 


S08 * = ** rh “ . nie 
ie 
= ‘ - 4 ‘ bys. -« ay * 


ee be 


of the agreement authorized: 


In order to facilitate such financial arrangements as 
will enable the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company 

to commence and carry on the construction of the said 
railway without delay, the Company may agree with the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company for the lease and op- 
eration of said railway in whole or in part by the lat- 
ter Company for such period and on such terms as are 
agreed upon by the respective boards of directors of 
>both Companies, and such terms may include the right of 
the latter Company to purchase the said railway in 
whole or in part, and the stock, bonds and securities 
of the former Company.1l 


During the following session of Parliament, the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Act was amended to authorize that 
Company to issue consolidated debenture stock 

for the purpose of satisfying or acquiring obligations 
which the Company has entered into in respect of the 
acquisition, construction, completion, or equipment of 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, . . . provided that 
the amount of stock to be issued in respect of that 
railway shall at no time exceed twenty thousand dol- 
lars per mile thereof.2 

The inclusion of such provisions as these "suggests 
the possibility that from the beginning the Calgary and Ed- 
monton had been intended as a branch line" of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. To the editor of the Bulletin, the rail- 
way was "merely an extension of the C.P.R. system," and 


that what really compelled its construction was the “pres- 


sure of prospective competition, without which compe- 








lIbid., Cap. 5, assented to 16th May, 1890. 


2Tbid., 54-55 Vic., Cap. 71, assented to 10th July, 
1891. 


SHedges, Seo eler. is vs. 


— 































be cinomygnaxae Istoasntt dow 8 
Yasqmod yew! faf, notnembd bas gba abn” 
ilee si? io ndlJoutienod edd ao on mmoo oF 
ofS diiw sstgs ym yisqnod od3 Erp or y yawliss 
-go bns sesel sd3 102 ii dey yates 7 
-sal edd yd tzsg ni x0 slo yewl key ‘bise molisis — 

‘" 478 es eorsed dowe oo bas Ha Sa dove - on ee 
to etogoetth to ebtaod eviszoeqast edd} noqu b oo ae 
to Aiigit siz oulont yas aszes dave bab selnsgmo d | 
at yswiits: bise ed3 eesdotd o3 3 1833 * 3 
settitucs2 bos ebnod ,aoose ate “bas " zeq fb? = 
I, yasqwod xesro2 | 


oa ,JnamatizsI to mresse gatwol lo? ads » 
any *ethdoitaus" od “bebasai’ enw Joh ‘geek et ave 
tii: °° Beye" " gausaedeb betsbtlosnos. oumal oe 


’ eae. 
anol tynphtde spies 10 gatytelise to eeoqiug ed 
‘e@3 to ssbqeary at odnl bexeias eail rome pert cee 
to, Inemgiups x0 nolisigmoo nolsouxjen09 al upss 
‘Sadi babtyorg bl , * vawl bat notnombS bas ribgl. 2 = 
daily 2g 3999897. nt beyess sd of A9g0te to Seappast ae 
“SIob. bristuods Wise besox9 ae! on js cath he seg 


—- 7 


‘ease 


a 
. 


e742 


cappgan" seeds a8 anoteivens, ove. to eer — 
eer | 
-ba bos. yasatsy on gntnniged ons oort ted2 Pap i 2209 eas 
y — a eee rs 


nsibeas® od3 40 Neat doaaxd, Bee > bi 


si ist. od2, Bisoling eds 20, ara. ae veintoe 


Soa “ meseye, .4.2.9 ed3 20 fenesie, 


= 


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rele 


~as1q" sf3 saw noksoursenoo a3} 
-sqmoo dokdw Suodatw | 


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— Se x gies 
: a: aol = ms 


216 
tition there is no probability that ete scheme would have 
taken shape for years yet."" It was built, he emphasized, 
"to protect the interests of the C.P.R,"4 
At its annual meeting on May 198 1890, the Canadian 

Pacific Railway shareholders unanimously passed a resolu- 
tion authorizing the Company's board of directors to make 
an agreement 

with the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company, which 

will give this Company the right to hold and operate 

that Company's road from Edmonton to Macleod; and also 

the option within six years, or thereabouts, to pur- 

chase the properties and capital stock of that Company.2 
The President of the Canadian Pacific Railway in his annual 
report had already pointed out that this railway, like the 
Qu'Appelle line, was of "essential importance" to the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway in che fact that it Wousd "make easily 
accessible large areas of your lands now too the away from 
railways to be available." The lease was to be without 
cost to the Canadian Pacific wno would work the road for 


six years--to July 1, 1896--under a guarantee by the owners 


against loss to the lessee,4 The agreement included the 








lgdmonton Bulletin, Aug. 2, 1890. 


2canadian Pacific Railway Annual Report for the 


Year 1889 and Report rt of P Proceedings at the Ninth Annual 
Meeting of Shareholders, May 14, 1890. 





3tdem 4tpid., Year 1894, Apr. 3, 1895. 



























5 


eved “bier” aerial ‘oft 3atl9 
cbothendges ad Sates sew 27 * 
ne x & q. a iin 

oetbsnad’ os , 0881 - ar ~alt 2b ‘gatjesa oi 
-vlossr s boezsagq ‘vfavontasou nisblodotade x 


oie 


odeit- ot -czobtneztb Fo brsod 2 'ynsqmdd sh 


. doithe .yrdqmod, yawl bed nojaomba Bas voagiad wii 
etateqe bas Slod o9 tdgit sd yosqmod elds 9 ovig L 
site bot :bosfosM ot nésnomBS mor? bso s "rise 


-tuq 03 ,btuedseteds 10 ,e1s9X xie oldjitw ‘n0k3qo° qd? . 


nD E 


S | eniiginod isd to isese. Ths Hao bas: eeldzsqorq eds ease a 


°- 
ars Ae he: 


oes 


Isunes eid al vawi fad oftinet aaibsasD sud to dosbh eext 


ais stth  yswhkist elds tad? ‘gute besitog bss 


-_— 


as sity* 03°” “sons3xoqat fsitnsees" to ebw seit 
vi tess’ stad” iver Ji -4ae3 -jon¥ eit - i" on st 
mow “Yswe <a. ed won ebisl sex to nee pthes 
* Suet iw 6d ot 88" ‘sisal oft “Etat swe od 68 


j 4 


36% Bot orf “Sxow" biee: ‘or s73t5a@ 
exaiwo Sea “ed eee s° *yabnt--308L I etut 


+ 


nf¥ BeGvlSnt t9Steetge efT* ce sella 2. oa igs 


‘ >. ¥ 


(c+ gO" 2 ae a eh. Ft 


ef3 20% J700sf poll yawiled cll fost 
ve Tsunnh anit ods ‘aes nthsspord to 3x69 
== =" é ~ pis ysl "43 we 
qm < ND : 
wie. ibis 
2C8l .£ .3gA sestaeer- | 


“@ a. 


a 


217 
option to purchase "on satisfaction of the outstanding 
bonds of the C, & E. Company and a 10 per cent premium 


thereon," 


This proved to be the first of three consecu- 
tive agreements by wnich the Canadian Pacific Company 
first leased, then purchased, the line. 

Even before construction of the railway was com- 
pleted, 

the favorable opportunity had occurred whereby through 
the even exchange of Canadian Pacific four per cent 
consolidated Debenture Stock for the six per cent bonds 
of the Calgary and Edmonton Company, the railway of 
that Company might become the property of the Canadian 
Pacific Company free of interest charge for something 
more than ten years. 

The latter Company would, in addition, acquire the 
benefit of the annual subsidy of $80,000 for the rest of 
the stipulated period of twenty years, plus a portion of 
the Calgary and Edmonton land grant. Negotiations con- 
tinued for some time, but when it was ascertained that the 
bonds of the Calgary and Edmonton Company had become so 
spread about that it was impossible to obtain the needed 
unanimous consent of the holders, the matter was allowed 
to drop. 


. The second agreement between the two companies for 





lipid., Year 1890, May 13, 1891. 2Tdem 


3tbid., Year 1891, May 11, 1892. 


__ gatbuasasvo oe. 2p woizoe’ 

4 myimerg, 3n99 19g OL a poe 

~yseence saa Qe ‘jerk? ods..0d.« obi 

/ _ Masqeod oftiosd gsibens) | edz dota. ee 
Yous ; _ sent ada sentinel 

youwllaz sd, 29 gotsouzsem05_ ans 



























= 
— 


? 
| 
' 
st) 
et] 
& 
—* 


- - 
« 7. 
- 


a : r 3 o cf 2< ¥ a Ps 


‘otds yderedw bou1u990 bed. yaloudtoqggo ol dees 
jnao 199 twot olttos{ ssibsaas). t0 pe ddeai 7 
abaod tag9-199 418,303 x02 40032, sxvineded betst r 
io yewl ts orfd “ yasqmoD sosnaomba. bas: qekalaees {3 i 
nsibsa®d ed3-lo- yisgorq, sda. emoged Idgim a a ‘ 
gotivemoa toi sgtado taotesnt to sett eee vn afhbet P 
Siew (isa iad ah See ae ee A, g7sex. 23. pada) —s 
Des 


og sxiypos. ,moijsibbs rk biuow YeSqOD sea 8. 
es 
io tee1 odd. yoR. 000,082 to ybisdue launns. edt wea 


- a 
~~ 


made 


to nokizoq s aulq- ,RB9X. yiaewd - 20 bolzeq | 
;n09 .nojssizogeM . .3nB73 bast ales 
ad .Jad3 bealsdze2s9 Baw, Ps nest ao song. 
28 encosd bad. ynsqnod 93 aombS. bos 
beboas. otis ntsjdo ot elgtezoqmt caw 3 
hewolls sav 1833em edz <aroblod, 93,2 


? + ahs 4 ee *ea- 4 \ a ar : 


‘x08 _eobaiqnes owt eit comwsed 
: . ~ ne : 


ogre , oe ie te 


3 “ae vey 


Pe ae Nab. 


eae we > 


218 

the lease of the Calgary and Edmonton railway became ef- 
fective when the first agreement expired on July 1, 1896. 
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company had decided not to 
exercise their option to purchase the line. In the draft 
agreement submitted to their shareholders on April 1, 1896, 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company was named as "agent" 
of the Calgary and Edmonton Company in the Spaka rion of 
the railway for a further term of five years. This draft 
also provided for the "division and apportionment of tolls, 
rates, and charges in ragbest of such traffic" as should 
be interchanged between the railways of the tne companies. + 

The Canadian Pacific Railway would again operate 
the road without charge for general management or for in- 
terest on the value of the rolling stock used. By this 
agreement net earnings and government subsidies were to be 
applied to the payment of interest on Calgary and Edmonton 
bonds. Substantially the same agreement was drafted with 
respect to hae Qu'Appelle Company. Both agreements were 
to run till July 1, 1901. 


When this second lease expired in 1901, it was not 


rr ye ce es ee ee ee ee ee ee 


lipid., Year 1895, Apr. 1, 1896. The C.P.R. was 
Operating the line for "account of the owners, receiving in 
return the benefit of all the traffic in either direction 
between points" on the C. & E, line and those reached by 
the C.P.R, main line. Ibid., Year ending June 30, 1903. 




























D] 


Les desosd ent tax" wodebb 

OURS <1 vist: 20 venianhoated drome 7 a: 

<6) 308 beblveS' tal RRP. 
tie sds al: “Tone ans SeadohA ot nolbsgo' + 


acer Fret a6 sfobt teehee 1547s sesttai 


<* 


.wedek™ os Demat asw wiseqmod yowltad otttiet-f 4 ath mee 


-- + 


to “ebs aiiegd 3od3 sl yosqueaD noshcab’ Bas east me] 8 


330% eFdTi 4, &# a9 evil Io *exss tedsxuis: rot '§ 


— = 


fot 2a tnemnoltsoqgs bie noteivib’ odd) = babi 


es C P 4 
a tat 7% 


a - 
Stewig:en “sttien2 dove te sesqnes at eogizads ‘bos | 


* 2gbgegnos- ows eds be leysuliss efi assessed aii 19: ee re 
. — 7 ad 
a 


spetsto fises bikow Mewl led otitoi? nsibsas) sit : 
~#E x6F + Sngewgerion: I 819093 sl ‘eg7ad3 suorts tw bi 8 


Bh 48 “botd Uoote gatliey oer enti ort’ He 


(k> 


ad 69 “stan Ja tedus Shshnfeves bas egntizes' 3 te 


Go 


NOMS bint yisg0sd ao sestednt "26% 


he BER ial zi a fenSorgs one 28d ai i: 


spsgmeecaniaiagereaih hee tageeo attngahhop oF “338 
ii ee? 
gete aaceae. ) Se co Sige ~ + Boer: wd | 
3 Gat iboia” 338 dua “bnooee etd: 


“ak 


A 7 ® 


‘ 
° ’ s 


*, 


. a 
+, i. > oe Sith? - “IEE . bs A SE ai 1 ote ind SH 
oew ,4.9,2 off SORE of ss Peak 3 

sk gittiheder esetee- oft as pry ° 
notjos tbh tedake wk obiats 4 
2% Periosds Stott hag om 99 


Wr ae! ‘i sae 
L0@L Cl sail @ ee haan, 


, ~ Gee ee = 


+ 


_- 






219 
renewed by the Canadian Pacific Rat 1way: They continued 
to operate the road, however, on a month-to-month basis, 
notifying the Calgary and Edmonton Company that they would 
not operate it on the same terms in the future as they had 
in the past. If they were to continue to operate the road, 
they would require a long term agreement and, in addition, 
bondholders must scale down the interest rate on their 
bonds, The Calgary and Edmonton Company was now faced 
with a critical decision. 

A meeting of bondholders of the Company was called 
in London, England to arrange for either the sale of the 
property or the future working of the line. E.B. Osler 
was disqualified from attending since he was also on the 
Executive Comnittee of the Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany, but this did not prevent him from reporting the view 
of the latter Company by letter with recommendations for 
action by the Calgary and Ednonton Company. Failing agree- 
ment with the Canadian Pacific Company the owners would 
have to spend $1,050,000 if they elected to operate the 
line. Of this amount, $450,000 would be needed imnediate- 
ly. This was the year--1902--when the road had suffered 
Serious damage by floods during the sumner., To replace 


washed out bridges and culverts and to put the road-bed 




























bevntind> yodT -yswl bafi-s < 
‘etesd d20a-o3-d3n0m s no 79 
‘bhai yods tsrit “ynaqinod posit tien * 
bail yori” es ope oft oi estes omak odd 90% 


sov-erlt edsxego 69 eunk3moe, of exew qad3; % 


v 


e* oe 
-nolzibbs of ,bss Inemessge mies gnol a 2 Avni a : 


q 
Lad 


shards no etsi seszesal ‘oda awdb olpoe- seve @: eae 
boos? ‘won esw cia nosncmbS bos angled ad nate 100 
Spd .abtetoa Isotzixo 8 Agh 

befies esw ynsqmed eds to saibDeubiogd 36 pension A es 


‘sd9 io lst s edd tedthe x02 9gi87%8 o2 baslgnd yt 
' ‘<efeO .4,.8 °° jomEL endd.20 galltow "sus so ae 


eid oe ozls saw od sonte sabheisaA mort bolt. 


eno Yaw! fat olhtosd athens? odd 20 viaa3aniD 


woiv ets grtixcgss mort mtd saisve7q Jon! bus 5 as iad ww 
7 idats 
* pat enoidabrpinmnasy, diiw ‘se339f yd yasqm 23 sate = 


-octtgs gril tet. _yosqrod hodadaba bos % 
bivew etenwo sdd _youqmod otifoad « 3 
ed? sdarego of batoels ‘oat’ rss a geese 
~s2étbsrot babssn sd bigow acinar 
banreiive sa beor oni _~ 


_svalgen- ‘ot. ene a 
C7 39 = te “5 * ae 


bad-bsox ott awq 


i a ° er - 
“2 . 
7 * eae oy: i 

af5 £97, —o o<* 


7 


— 


Ped sf 


i220 

in proper condition would take $150,000. Car shops and 
rolling stock would cost $900,000 at the lowest; of this 
amount, $600,000 could be raised by means of a "car trust." 
Two or three branch lines stretching into the oases north- 
east of Calgary would have to be built or the business of 
that region--hitherto supplying considerable traffic for 
the Company--would be drained off by a rival railway. 

The shrewd Osler, in his memo, took pains to warn 
the bondholders that "we cannot afford for the moment to 
lose sight of the race fiat in any bargain we are likely 
to make with them they will take care of themselves," re- 
ferring, of course, to the Canadian Pacific Raiasiey The 
Calgary and Edmonton line, he pointed out, was of great 
advantage to the Canadian Pacific Company for the throwing 
out of feeders to develop the 7,000,000 acres of their 
lands northwast of their main line. If no agreement should 
be reached, the Canadian Pacific must build their own line 
and, thus, lose valuable time before it would be gotten in- 


to operating condition. On the other hand 


if they come to an agreement with us, they get a road 
which, fron some points of view, might be in a better 





lgdmonton Bulletin, Oct. 27, 1902, quoting Finan- 


cial News, London, report of the gual meeting of bond- 
holders of ths Ca Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company. 


2Idem 






















bam agora 3 ~) £090. O18 9 4s2 blo 9 


aie a > « 


eit t. :deiewt ‘ods aa, 098 .8¢ i? veal 
Foes 
% Seuss a8” s Ae angen” 2" Section nd. fun 


ash tt val 
Died 


era seis sf oink enidosexz2 aot! 1 


to seomtenud edz x0 sthed-ed eee S 
| ween: 
ato old arebienes. gniytaque sasahtect cs 


- 


“ov~ee oFdh 
. . - a 


~* * ’ é 


3 { yeol tes in avi | & +e Rig. bentiab“o¢ biocy-¥e £ < 


— 
a 


ntew 02 @ntsg Acoli ens abl ok 570820 bwoxds HES 
Y. ¢: = ‘ u: 


oF Arecétt ont ot pro8ts Seach: ou" ‘ants axsbifodba od. 8 


a 
’ 7 whe: i a ‘ yo has 
» Ay 


giedtil sts sw nis ree sd SPB: ot sada sos} od 20 ages, ae ol 


«sz 5" esvlaered3 to s182 9183, [ilw ost nods dts : ae : 
* . Pad ‘ 
eft. .yswileda oftio 1st aoibans net) 23, 927009 


, 210 bosatog od enkl sosaombé. | bas ie 


+ be | >» ° 
jestg 10 &8wW t= I sig 


a3 eds 03 ‘waged ob boat pstbsasd fact >and 


iwowiis 
tied to egtss 000. GOR ‘ ada golaveb #. -etebe 12. 


e* e rom 4 
- > 


“ sot oe i ; 
i bogs 


ak 


.¢ BS 


bivorie ess iy o8 21. woot atem ated. 203 2 a 


nwo starts bi tud Jeum atBiost steer al 


-nl gastog. od bi Luc at sqoted. nats» 
wee: -szedto ots ia a 0 ts i 


ad 


Q 
foee 
ir + 





=) ee one y tes 2 : 


ae a * eae 
beot 6 393. youis .ew dz tw scene a2. 2gRe 
393938 8 Hl od. sig in wusiv Id: smoke mot. 

' ioe. S e . 


? 
~ peo ‘aisha? 200k st i200, ae 
-bued 30 goissem aii eS +7 roqst 

~ .¢yrequou qed 2 ko: . 


221 
condition than it is but which, at any rate, is a very 
useful and workable road, and they will not forget in 
any negotiations that they have got in their hands at 
present, a property which it is not advisable for them 
to throw away; therefore we are not entirely at their 
mercy . 


Besides all this, Osler set forth that 
there is such a thing as the Canadian Northern Railway 
and we also know that Mr. James Hill is not very far 
off the other side of the United States boundary, and 
that he has always had a desire to spread the ramifica- 
tions of his roads into Canadian territory; therefore 
we are not absolutely hung up in the power of the Cana- 
dian Pacific authorities or that of any other company 
for that matter. ? 

The bondholders accepted the proposition of Osler 
that a committee be named to represent the holders of the 
debentures of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company, 
protect their interests, endeavour to make arrangements 
for the future operation of the railway, and advise the 
debenture holders as to the best course they should adopt. 
Among the committee of four named, with power to add to 
their number, was James Ross. 

The outcome of the discussions was an agreement 
with the Canadian Pacific Railway under which the latter 


would lease the line for a period of ninety-nine years, 


guaranteeing in lieu of rental four per cent per year on 


1Idem 7Iden 
































ae rss a. 

to aie. Pe ae ts | 
yrev S - re qe ts ,dot eat a .. ia 
at. gagz02 tom iitw yediobas a i 
#5 ebned riref3 not Jog evaed ott: 3 
ged? 203 oldsaivbs.toa- et 35:6 
sisi? 35 ——- ton Sis ow ¢ ex08: 


_- 
. ad 


pS os* a a+ a! » 


es ee soins siiaeill 32 soled « 


ste a *~ti 2 ae 


lind: wera 10 at tinnin: ed3. 3a sebdasesill vs ae 
=a yisv jon el [IH eemel .aM Jad3 wond _e Mies 


Sex? 7usabauod goist2 betta edt 20 sbla reljo.5 re t° 
aitimet sd3 bsstqe 03 sttesb s bad eyswis ead od ted3_ 


erotsieds ;yro3tuzs83 ppibsasd.-d3nt ebsot etd to, enols + 
adi Yo sewoq edt ni qu gaud yestulosds toa neal o 


“$59 s ; 
-Ygaqmuao 19d20. (as to tsads zo. yas wa, ob inet be 
.19338m 328 ae 


et oe ae 2 ee oe 
sefe0 to nolsteoqoxq od bedqsoos “exebfodbnod edt 
<iggr " gaat. =3 : ae 
eds io azeblod od snseo7qor o3 bemaa. od sod3tmmoo 8 | 
Pa ‘Se #5 74 


09a aula nossonba bas Reaiec) odd to = 


ad = By ee 


Ran} 


stnomegns Ts ‘odam o3 swovsebns eseorsaah ater 
Soe Pio was he > one or A i. ens 


eds satvbs bos cowl be ods 40 nolieege oad 


. —. 
Pet Ses 1) = Oe - Wh rey 


.Iqobs biwode yous seo seed oils of 28 e198 


ott -* ears . pete 9 As * eames! = a, © - 


~— 4 


a 


' 


~ 


og bbe oF s9wog dokw bona 108 to 


nT peace seers es aps ces ¥ cme 
mal eomsl 
es oe a | ee ee wk? 2% iat pa 
3nemeo7gs mm 28Bw enotesuoe tb 
>t eed const tate itt) 
pare ons dots. ssbaw ae 
bts | ee ee 


_BIRSY “antnaqonka to 
' tT. = es a aah. . 6 ‘ 
mo Ta9y Teg 399 19g <uot. 
Hy EOP ee ard te healt om y ee“ 


a tin Se 
meby* 
it’ 37 ea Se 


i ed 


eH Hs 
the bonds. As the directors of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way explained to their shareholders, they had made this 
agreement in order "to prevent the possibility of the rail- 
way passing into parted aly hands."! To ensure complete 
control of the property and Perit ace of the Calgary and 
Ednonton Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company al- 
so contracted tc purchase all the capital stock of the Com- 
pany for $500,000 (face value of $1,000,000). 

To complete the acquisition of the Calgary and Ed- 
monton Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway purchased be- 
tween the years 1905 and 1912 ali the first mortgage bonds 
of the former Company, a total of $5,900,000. In i905, 
the Canadian Pacific created and sold £1,406,575 of four 
per cent Consolidated Debenture Stock and applied the pro- 
ceeds to the construction of branch lines and to the acqui- 
sition of the mortgage bonds of the Calgary and Ednonton 
and other conpanies, That year they acquired $1,040,000 
in Calgary and Edmonton bonds. A year later, another 
$960,000 worth was bought. A further $1,000,000 worth was 
acquired in 1909, bringing the total up to $3,000,000. 
$700,000 more were added in 1910, and finally in 1912 


$2,200,000 of the bonds were purchased to complete the 
aa 


ee ee ee Se ee ee — ee ae 


Year eading June 30, 1903. 


ay > 








Ff : po © a ~ ) 
ret aiitos4 oetban? ada ry Pr pet039: aa 
elds sbam bad yoda exeblordex x die 2 7 od Tipe 


ee 


inn , 


-Iigz ed3 20 ilidieeog odd. tage od eli z= 


gin at (000, 000.48 20 sutay: sont) 00,08) soh me . 
ee 
-bi — yrsgiso edz * mori betypas odd sseigmoa:e 91 ae 
. iF as i , 
-od bseadorwq X oul Le ,arhoet oxtbsaso ola <enagn0D 1 3 


. 
«a © er 2 
iupo& 
. -¢ 





























si fe 
ejelqnoo szugae oT im aba elbaeiiav © osnt galas : 


bas yxsgis® of’, to soatonsi? bse 309079, ne 
EW Soca. 


-Ia yosqwoD, vswiled oitond npibansd ods <asq a mace 


ee mS ss = = 
ood ofa. 20. soo3e fasta ada Die ogarioxq) ont 109 
‘a re Seat 


ety 


bs 


sbaod s sangiitom jeali ods IIe Srer bas 20et e19y ol? 
-208f nl 000,000.22 20 La309. 8 «xaeqn0d xoxo ¥E. 
wo? t fo 292, 308 1k bios bas bs3se79 olttosd 13 tbaoe 1B 


i 
aa 


-O%G eds, Martane bas no3 e1usnodad, beaabLoam0d bese oe 
* Scag ig ieee Recher 
ad3 oo bps anal fonsxd to HokIou1IeN09 Engen 


—notronb’. bas yaagis? of3 Yo ebaod py mo 


000, 00, fe bertupos, yeod3 780%. sed, -2oto, qe 
| abet ae Tee 


=< 





_ 3983.08 ,retal w8y A .ebuod ¢ 3 
Dice, Pe a a 1 Sey Sh ee 


eay #37 194. 000. P0048 edqmt, A 93 set 

-000,000,£2 oF qu Is3o03 ae 
Aye 

_ ee, ps xilenit, bas s00el nt ig 


ae, seafgee. ot enteen ig: 


223 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company's takeover of the Calgary 
and Edmonton Railway Company. 

By 1912, then, the Canadian Pacific owned the en- 
tire $1,000,000 in Ordinary Stock and all the $5,900,000 
in First Mortgage Bonds. The Calgary and Edmonton Rail- 
way Company continued its corporate existence and its line 
continued to be operated by the Canadian Pacific on a 
ninety-nine year lease.! In its annual reports the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company listed the Calgary and Edmonton 
Company as a "leased line." The rental figure shown for 
1912 was $218,357. | 

As to the relationship between the two companies, 
that of owner and lessee, whatever advantage there may 
have been in it for either company, the Edmonton Bulletin 
and other critics were convinced that it was an unfortunate 
one from the point of view of the people who depended upon 
the Calgary and Edmonton line for connection with the out- 
Side world. A situation where neither company would ac- 
cept responsibility for ensuring that the road be kept in 
good condition created havoc. 

The undesirability of the arrangement was consider- 


ably aggravated by the short-term nature of the agreements 


Ithe Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company remained 
"entirely separate and distinct" from the C.P.R., though the 
latter owned majority stock after 1912, Hedges, op. cit., Pp. 94. 


























. aS 
ay 


aoe 
ia oft cae! =svoasia ey adil. nine 

a Lary 
f i: titel “it Pel Met 


5 oat 


“nm 9do beswe otitosd oatbsns2 ns 
-000,002,2¢ ons fs bas’ soos? cuantb=0 at 
+ftefl nosnomba brs visgiad odT -ahnod EST 

omti ett bos sonetelxe sdpxeqzoo ett beunk3a0 


s no obitos? nalbansd ont we bessteqo 528 oS 43 


1 oy2 Be Re + iM 
astbens) eft ejroget [sunne e3t al- + sassl 1B8y | 


+. .? “gqotqeibs bas yasaisd oft betel! wieee eats ot 
soi nwode eavglt Issaet sift “enki bsesel" ail . : 
esa ae UNE Ae RES Dis teinik 
, aoknegqmos ows: si neswisd gidenolastes odd 03 2 ss 


at 


van: e197. a Rcsaabines teysisdw ,.sezesl bon reawo | 
nisstinvd oz 109 doabe old 4 WBQmoo “toddts sot pera 
etamudxstey as esw 3f 3sd3-beonlvmoo sisw si 
goqu’ bsbnsqeb ode eiqosq edi 26 wolv ‘Yo akg a he 


Be a 


-~tIvo ori2 ‘ttiw ‘edhe se 3167 -eakl ‘mosconba t ane gis 


Ase 
don 


/, serene Beas 
‘oa ‘bi vew “ynsyibos’ red¢ien esc’ fot: epi UE) 


ge et Seek aS ee gnineds x02 yiltdlendg 
. 


om ‘us ee 
ag et i : be 


Ps 









7 ‘ ys a 
AS a se Ti daca ee taee ; 2935 a 
Poe Che 
[ida 
M 


fi » 


yi ae 








cy 
-x9b Lenten agw soomagnss38 a3 to 

eh? 
m4 ae ae a 


} 
ti. 
>. * - 


ssnemaerge orf 40 oudtan 


ae 
‘ * 


borthnss qAqmod mal is “ miki a3 
sit rigueds Senet fia 1 “most "son 


“4 SiS « “92 1093 


224 
of 1890 and 1896, It was this aspect of the relationship, 
as pointed out earlier, which ostensibly provided the 
grounds on which the Canadian Pacific Company refused to 
give any satisfaction to Edmonton's attempts to get a guar- 
antee that the short spur into the town from Strathcona 
would be operated in the most efficient manner, A Member 
of Parliament commented in the debates of 1890 that it 
"was a curious arrangement,"1 
; It would likely fete been fortunate had the Canadian 
Pacific negotiations ca the purchase of the Calgary and 
Edmonton line in 1891-2 been successful. Justification for 
this conclusion is afforded by the fact that there was a 
marked improvement in the condition of the line after the 
purchase of 1903. A western Member of Parliament spoke 
disparagingly of the condition the Calgary and Edmonton 
line was in “until a year ago when the Canadian Pacific 
Railway See ohaned it and commenced to make betterments,"'2 
Now they would operate the road properly in their own ae 
terests, but he bemoaned the fate of the Qu'Appelle line, 


which the Canadian Pacific Railway chose not to purchase, 


Inebates of the House of Commons, 4th Sess., 6th 


—— ee 


Petes woe es L690} ps 4437: 








2thid., 4th Sess., 9th Parl., 4th Edw. VII, 1904, 
p. 2798. 


1 Ff whe 


eps 
.qidenoltai es ord 190 apeges wets ae 
























ot, eee 
ez bobivera a tot «tolls 


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ot beaules yasge ohttoet ‘eathiaaa’ odd ¢ die ya 
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snosrizas32 sort owot od¥ odat xwae sroda oft ay 
vodteM A’ . Sahai SASeSNRo Jedm ofS ab-baves ogo ad. 


6 


t aed O88L Bo" 2m sade ‘af3 ot bsdnemmos 
| " 
vent ah te GR 9 ete =e JnonegasT3B: Bvobaba 8 


nsthansd sde-Bed ney vsd tear biuow a any 


bas yreghed: of to. sasdorwq sd2, 292 atotistiesen oi 


ss) qpesesttivevt  loteessoue’ oasd £-I CBI mi-sati sosaom 
7% - 

g 26w loved “Sedo 250% odd yd babrotie elhimete 

- 543 yag%s shift afd Se notatbaos edz ak tnsmsvorgal*. 


siete toomstitat as - yednidM orgteee A. >, C0@L Ae 


, a R 





toto mb brs veg iad orl3 nots thao” edt to 


iA 


‘Strisset net ‘based ont nerlw vgs 189U'8 si > 


. 2inemresjaed sie os beonennod, bas, ak. bs: 
Tove he es a 6 aie de 
~arf sr ‘shod’ eu eiasqo3g, bsor “oda! aannage 81 


i> pal 


eoekd jsileqgh’s uD) ode: ie saat aenretie 
Castes Ca dot weieard Rec > 76 


wae any 


on 


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-e¢ j= 4 
“34 
ad 
ri @ 


A ee % 7S 
a? 


poet any. Se le 99 koe re Ca) o» 
ay fe eR ee ae? - = 


ba : i sed a4 
7 


IX 


LAND GRANT 


The Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company, like 


the other “colonization railways," received a federal land 


subsidy seb £n0 acres for each teu of railway construct- 
ed--1,8380,000 eee for its 295-mile road between Edmonton 
and Macleod, 

In the decade between 1884 and 1894, eleven colon- 
ization railways were granted 13,555,968 acres of Dominion 
lands in aid of construction of western railways consider- 
ed important to the national purposes cf Canada,? ‘Almost 
one-seventh of this total went to the Calgary and Edmonton 


Company, which was one of the last railways so subsidized.2 


Ithe C.P.R. received 18,531,104 acres in subsidy. 
Altogether, then, 31,762,954 acres of land was given by 
the government in aid of western railway construction, 


2The grant to the C.P.R, in 1880 provided the pre- 
cedent for the subsequent grants to the smaller companies. 
The Canadian Pacific Railway was obviously of national im- 
portance to the Dominion, Its construction was necessary 
to the fulfiliment of a promise made to British Columbia 
in 1873 as well as for the guarantee of national unity in 
the face pf inevitable American expansion northwestwards 
into the last frontier. The development of the West pre- 
supposed railway connection with the East. In these re- 
spects, colonization roads differed greatly from the C.P.R. 


225 






















’ n= \ * = ied aA is: 


ob! ,yosgnod yaultef motnomby bas sanblbser 


) 


baal Isisbs? s bevieoss “.eyawliss noltssinolao" 39 © aI 
-Jourjenos Yswitss Zo sila done, 102, e708 00),.90 te ro. 7 


nol nonbR asswied bsox ofim-2eS eat ‘sa, zexo8 20,0044 Ie 


, oe ee 
7 . 
s..% 
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. : oi a - ; a3.) Ao. Pg a 


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notntmed 29 se%9s 08 ,cce ef boinszg.9z9¥ mai 


= 7%% . 


sh see 
rsbienos eyawiisz azes2qw. to. goliouxjen0s 39.9 a 


e 


eee ae 
JeomiA ~.sbaae 8D Yo 2920gtyq Tbogtsem odd as, oneal 





44 * hy 
rojnoabs bas \tagiad od3 03 spew. Igto3 atria. dinovs 
a. a 


B-# 


r 
* bostbtedye. oe ayeult at teal eda zo 950 asw sdotd 
>. ca . = Ss » ® a ae ’ 


! 


eiates ‘at kovos DOL 102, ai bacatee apa 
yd nevig 2esv Snail “7 B9IDB Riba bh hy pan 
ets avasestes yewh tes nisigew Yo! 5 z inet 1T9Vi 
~eIg ois babivond ose! mt 2.4.9 2s 13 3 oct 
- asdnaqaoo tellsqe.sdd of seenns # due edi » 
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226 


As the amount of arable lands available for such reserves 
decreased, there was a mad scramble among the companies 
to have reserves assigned to them, particularly the choic- 
er blocks of land. This rivalry among the companies was 
accompanied by bitter accusations of breach of faith 
hurled by the companies at the government, Confusion 
and disorganization resulted as when, for example, a re- 
serve was assigned in southeastern Alberta which had al- 
ready been set aside for another company some years pre- 
viously, More than one company might be permitted to sat- 
isfy a portion of its grant from the same reserve. 

Railway companies were not always eager to make 
their gé1éétions as expeditiously as possible where re- 
serves had been set aside for then, Passage of time 
would increase the value of the land, especially after 
railway service was established or improved, There was 
nothing in the law, apparently, to compel the companies 
to select and ask for patents immediately upon earning 
the lands through construction, It was left thus to the 
government to see to it that selection and patenting pro- 
ceeded as rapidly as possible, 

Land granted but not patented was, furthermore, 
exempt from taxation, It was accordingly in the interest 


of the company to delay patenting until the moment sale 



























“se bite : al 


i 
f 
an de 
y 


esviseat dove x62- oles fieve“@ val: ? 

istanqinos of gore cia atdiviton baie 
-alod> offi gitktostiaeg , ogrta” ween’ ‘aa oa 
ext) dotnagtod edd gaoms. ‘urtevia slat sm 
4-9 et 9 spatente gnolIB2v098 ‘eae ik of 


* nolewiaor + .2AeMhSeOy oils $e eotne 5 site” web 





-sf's ,STquexs tot ‘taodw yo séstpar eee Bs; 
Bed ttvhe abaedeA nisvéasdtioe bE boaghées ’ 
-sit atfasy’ stos ee agito3° edjons to% bites 398 19s i % 
ine of boddihheree’ Sd aHigim ynsgmoo S$m0- msds S1oM “Ss 

ii .? Syn 9% oraa sd? mor? Juste ‘e3¥ to —— 
*' alee es" ee 33° Beew 6 900 s*9W -astnagmds ease 
ae ye tits Ebsqte an “anoks5e 
rats Yb -dpéeet- * meds 10% abies + mat 
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‘te ww ee orga ete" Ts ns P Pan a ’ Pp 

+ “tee ‘ $o5% 7 oe oats Pat 3 os : ne" sav ’ 3 . 

4 eke gee pee a a 3 


= : 


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224 


had been secured, A considerable saving would in that 
way accrue to the company at the expense of the settlers, 
wno had to bear the full load of taxation for local ser- 
vices./ Large land reserves were, consequently, "locked 
up" by railway companies and made, in effect, dteea tari 
to settlers. The Edmonton Bulletin emphasized that the 
development of a whole district was being held back by 


the existence of these reserves in the area, The "land- 


tt 


lock" was one of the burning issues of the day, one of 


the West's grievances against railway companies, 
Perhaps the worst effect of the operation of the 


"fairly fit for settlement" clause was that reserves often 


were set aside at great distances from the line of railway 
of the company receiving the subsidy.” Several of the 
colonization roads had assigned to them large reserves in 


provinces other than where their major railway construc~ 


rene St Se ee eer ng 2 ee 


lpy 1896, two years after the last land subsidy 
was granted to a railway, only 1,825,423 acres had been 
patented out of the almost 32,000,000 acres granted. By 
1906, 22,478,013 acres had been patented. 

2The C.P.R. grant for a railway extending from On- 
taric to the Pacific Coast had to be satisfied out of the 
lands between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains since the 
Dominion Government had for disposal the public lands only 
of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, out of which it 
had to find the 25,000,000 acres "fairly fit for settle- 
ment,'' This necessitated setting-aside two large reserves 
in the north between the 52nd and 55th parallels of lati- 
tude, far renoved from the main line belt. 


Pah 
“jos ott bivew gakuen. 33 
ae , 


,etelaise' ‘ony ‘to seneqxe. wits Bry pea: 
-ide tavol 26% abisskst 26 bsol “Ewe 3 





























‘ 
AT 


betsol™ .ylinsiupsenos al ‘gavises2 beaks 
olds¥trs svaeo .¥6sTi9 ft .sbtm bas “aokasqums 4 yw. 
of? jadt Sexlesdqne gktel ing por ahs atl 


‘Jawd singd bfed gnied daw j>ivtelb slodw etm 0: ‘in 


ry 
ls 7; 
‘i 


-beai" off .n9%s sf7 Gt: ‘eavisess seers to sonetatxe od 


t6-en0 {/ysb sdt 26 anneal gotasud edi 20 900. ew "9 
.esinsénoo yswilist Sentsgs noonsvelia, é "Je 0 - se 

BMH4 .26°noltaredo 3c3 to 3502Te-sa10W ori eqndzel 
n2jité' eevisess tats gew agusls "s pone t¥ea- 708 93 st ) 
yout tas. To Pritt $03 mox?- sednatats $sot8 18 “eb: Bie as 
_ 93 Bo Insevee * sxbtedue oils gaivise ya 
of eavaseds | og nal oF: boagtass. bad ebe 
~senses ea bare siedi sted nad 3 


_ PAF : » “ - - ~ “ 3» ne 


“#.. 


” edun boat sent” acd 19528 reeset 
ot. bad’ cotom $e, #88,1 vino. -yswit 
xa tbatadty eetSs avd 000,56 tuonla od 
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“Ho — siahenenie “yew ist B 22 3 we : 
~atd i@396 bebtetdne of o? bad Sines q 
oils eohbé a ae ods *bs b= 894. ‘geqtonl 
yino ebnal yet = Ineo te 178 
Bs a —, oe | st p22 ! 
| agt¥its take : 
eavyebst- regal ot 
-i3el te erste 









228 


tion occurred, Thereby the basic premise behind the policy 
of railway land grants--that the railway conpany would de- 
velop and settle the lands contiguous to its line in the 
interest of greater traffic--was sacrificed. 

A fortunate characteristic of the Canadian land 
npr. policy was its flexibility and adaptability to 
peculiar circumstances.” In the lands of southern Alber- 
ta, for example, where lack of rainfall called for irriga- 
tion or wnere ranching interests prevailed, the usual 
grant of alternate sections gave way to grant of land " 


bloc." Railway company sections were exchanged for gov- 


ernment lands, arrangements being made, of course, with 


ranchers and with irrigation interests, The Calgary and 


er es ee es ee 


lIThe C.P.R., for example, had little interest in 
pushing the development of its vast northern lands, far 
removed from its line of railway. Its interest was, ra- 
ther, to wait and reap the benefit of the added value these 
lands would have whenever railway service was provided in 
the future. Shortly after the turn of the century, both 
the Canadian Northern and the Grand Trunk Pacific companies 
found themselves building lines of railway through lands 
owned by their rival, the C.P.R. The result was doubly 
ironic: The Canadian Northern was building a railway, the 
effect of which would be to increase the value of C.P.R. 
lands; the C.P.R. would not be anxious to sell lands cheap- 
ly and to encourage rapid development when its rival would 
stand to reap the benefit through increased traffic. 


2The rigidity of the system south of the border, 
designed for the fertile lands immediately west of the 
Mississippi River, prevented its adjustment to the condi- 
tions and demands of the drier areas farther west. 










am 


“ 
i” al 


yoitag od babded elmer : 
ae 
-ob Lace wugroo eestaee: sats 3 aa mere 
a 2 ® : 
ae ot entl adt - fuougtanos & ‘ote aten 


' P behest 1282 Ree Se, 





of an 


Jy be : 
A , va 





ial ; 
































» 


es 
bret nsibsnad oni 2o sbtelzasonssito 92 


fT) J 10: 


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Cs 


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‘ " at » get : geek: 
Isveu oft ,belbavexg eJesuedat gnidons7 sone 


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~vog tot b egnsioxe eiew enotsses ait eet kal [ Bs. 
daiw ,setyoo te ,sbaa gnied 03 iso ROBIIB, 


bra.-yanglad. sat se2aomagat noliegiztt fate 


vé 7 st 4 
\ 


‘ Las : ee aie Ss ie 
ii suave Si erp et per) - ipl demote’ ee eA,S 
_. 2: 382..ebesl -ageddxom teav ett 2p tnsrqolst 


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seett, sulay bebbs-0@3. te JiRened eft baman sw 0 
pi -bsbivetq eaw soiviae-yewl tay: ‘tave | ‘oved Bl Iucw 2 
‘djod , yweteso- sit lespzes. ott se3%8-% 
sotnage od oP ins’..aawae boese- od t 
brat dguessia.xewiies Jo ‘mons 3 

| ee es eew'tivess et? «. : 
ihe . Yeviiss.s gniblisd 4 BN 


_. ,f, 2.3. te eulev. ons -s m= Sy ae Te a 
-quetie, 2bans ll ees os aport pate od a bine aa ie: 
blycw gavis: #94 prt 3m : mr ob iis 


Jes 4 2thiess- beawvont 4 3 323 


. tes re  \fi ; ne a 
<3 valiant of ied ee 2X _ 
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zdbnoo. wd 3 : weds ose ial tbs an 


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ANE = 


i ed © 982 
oe 


229 


Edmonton Company was involved in such adaptations of the 
system. 

The colonization railway companies, such as the 
Calgary and Edmonton, came to be regarded by the Federal 
Government as their "accredited agents for the development 
of regions not reached by the Canadian Pacific." Any de- 
cision as to whether the extension of the land subsidy po- 
licy to these companies was justified must consider mainly 
the immediate and ultimate Al eomel tion of the land subsidies-- 
especially their role in the building of the age and in 


the development of the country. 





Iiedges, op. cit., p. 84. "In part," he writes, 
"enthusiasm for general extension of the free grant to 
secondary railways was an expression of a growing lack of 
confidence in the colonization companies." These land colo- 
nization companies, which the government hoped would play 
a key role in the settlement of the West, were the "pro- 
ducts of the brief period of optimism, expansion, and specu- 
lation in the West, which followed immediately upon the 
approval of the contract with the Canadian Pacific Syndi- 
cate in Feb., 1881." Ibid., p. 78. Twenty-six such com- 
panies received about 1,400,000 acres for 85¢ an acre. Al- 
together these companies put only 1,243 settlers on their 
lands. By 1882, it was clear that colonization land com- 
panies were a failure in their appointed task. The Edmonton 
Bulletin in 1886-7 was referring critically to the Edmonton 
and Saskatchewan Land Company whose affairs were then being 
wound up by the government. It charged the company with 
tieing up land in reserves while waiting for land values 
to rise as the result of efforts of nearby settlers and, 
consequently, hindering the railway from coming through Ed- 
monton. The failure of these land colonization companies 
helped prepare the way for the advent of the subsidized 
colonization railways whose right to purchase 3,840 acres 
of land from the government at $1.00 per acre was converted 
into a grant in the manner of the C.P.R. grant. 


Tie eel 


eit. to _sanhaaaqaha fovea ‘ak trish : i 
=e a pl “ $x; 
3" 















































+ 


sn z 4 grt tas os 
“ed es dove .2ebosqnos ya ind 4 is mint Seodlia 


=: rat ie ¢ ag , 


fexobst oda w bebasges aa os sms. ,f0: be 1s 
} i 
Sneagols vob eas x02 ‘etnegs Sostacaned™ vi 3 28 9a 
I t a 2% si tESA 3 co 
-sb sk " oFhbeat ‘asbbessd orls yd Bedosex Jon ent 


<A pier art & 


-cq ybliadue heat od to nolens3xe ai3 sedtedw od Pry 


: 3 en) waa 
¢ . © ; en 
vinism sebieno> Jeum | bekttaant aaw eelnaqmos sees 03 
\ 4 - 2 ¢ #44 Sl hae 7 3 
seibteduve basal oid to nots beogetb etentsiu bas s3eik 


ocala te sont See ee 
ot bas yewiisx ods to anibiiud ods at alox aied3 wt 


/ » (ee S- a, hud oi on 
cx3muop ad: 0 saoagolen Vv: eee 


t “a = 


sackaw of “tang ai" 548 oq ,-tig «ge ,eegbel® —_ 

ov Jnetg est? od3 to “‘nolensixe lsisasg 202 mas. ta 

Pei zge! gniworg 8 30 noleeezqxe os eaw eyswlh | 

“atte Beal egedT “.esiosgmos nottssineles sd3 Wha 

we biuew beqod tremmevog sdt,doidw. ~sokaagno> 
piri wld eraw ,.J2esW ei? to Jtnsmelsies edo 

- yp age Agata gmimisqes to boizeq Rebads we 

si2 noqu ylorstbemmt bewolloi doltdw= .JeeW s ye 

~éhov2 sitioad nmtbens) eda daiw: soqumges rs 3 “te lave 


-noo faue xie-yiaewE .8f.<g' 44d set ate 
~IA 2 @ ed: (96 5. »e8.. 70 e978 000, as g bevisast es 


tied3 ao etelszee E881 yao: uq pinsqmod sé cet r 


-too beag nolzegioeloo Jada. teelp* Ay: 32 86. mo r 
acisombZ ait .tesa bsonioggs sited: at = 2 6 st ww 
~ pogroahe. ods 28 gi lsotgdma.gadiretes if 


gnied meio etew arlatis seodv gener eaay ss 
oe ede seqmos- eda - begrado 31 wd 
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besibte dye ev pond 
esteem ODS .€ seasior 


bgsnewnep tay exam aug’ 
| poo. 5 


rt =a 
Learn =. 


230 


While many features of the American system of rail- 
way land subsidies were carried over bodily into the Cana- 
dian system, a study by J.B. Hedges! reveals distinctive 
features in the Canadian policy, some of which are illus- 
trated in the case of the Calgary and Edmonton land grant. 
Colonization railways in Canada, for example, were not 
obliged to accept any lands that were not "fairly fit for 
settlement." Although the significance CERtHIG clause was 
not rer ent ly realized by the politicians at the time, 
promoters insisted on ee inclusion, probably as a result 
of their experience in the United States where all alter- 
mate sections in a belt along both sides of the line of 
railway had to be accepted by the company with the resuit 
that much undesirable land was acquired. 

Inclusion of the "fairly fit for settlement" clause 
may have induced some eye to build lines they osher- 
wise would not have built. The difficulty, however, of 
agreeing on a practicable definition of the phrase is ob-~ 
vious. Government and railway Ponte a often differed as 
to whether certain lands were "fairly fit for settlement," 
This difference, in several papa dragged out the ay < 


of selecting and locating land grants over many years be- 


lpederal Railway Land Subsidy Policy, cited above, 








































aa — ‘ss 
- 7 = ns 


eee 
~Liat 30 woseye “mpatiem, onto 3 igh _ 
- Cade tn ¥ j if 
~BEBOD adds otak “ited tevo intend it: pelt st >t 
< ; tan? ie . : 
eviton tinkh elnover ‘segbol 4.0 yw ¥ ime ® ae Ke 
3 parting ; 


ar « 


Ie 2: 


~eullt ots irhe Road onoe “ettog aaibensd > aiid at 89 
5s . —— = a bi = — .* ‘cial 
:S. * 
amet be wet soanonb bas visgisd aris ae sas ond £ acti 
Z - i » oo a e = 2 2 ae . 
jon stew ate nx S 102 cepa ok eyeuller 082 rast ii 


— ed ; a a, 


to2 313 Use: Jon eitsw —_ ebast as re td 24 soul 
alll ee de i @ a 

syalo gird? 2 d riguords IA *, , 
+ seuato etd to , 90mm tng art : 

= s.* . > os ; B25 ipoe J ae 
sid ts ens totatiog + ods xd bostiaey wine 7 saad 


+ tt Aol 


tiveet & 8S idedorg woteulont ett 10 ciexhail ers 


rosie 





ng = - ~ 2 er 2 gol : 
~yoois fis oxothy erer basta ot at — eid 
ee ae — _ ae ted 7 ; 4 ye 
to enkl ef3.to-eebte dod quota ahod 8 ab anole B 
; aie ; ¥ : é * Piet _—* ee oe & - 
. 7 
gives of3 dst r yasqmOD: ol we bedqeoos ed of bat su 
P Sasun 4 oe ne eae Pca SA i 
t oa y= 
} -botkupoe, esw bank: coma 
~ iP ag at 43 mad aes os 5 a SAE: 
sevelo “Yaeuel33ee tot 312 erate?" a to note 2. - 
. oat) 
-4sjo"' geet apoiee: biiud o3 seliagqmoo amos 595 ae : j 
Pa ea a ~ = ~ Smee ie oe eA © + sabe Fa an a be >= Pbe fa * 
K jpemee _aieival tb off “.alivd oved 
ome we. ot a cag vicketle alee f 


| 


“do: at wanniele oid 20 notatalieb eldsstiosz a 
‘, Oat) tty ah ari eS 4 


ee beretiib et se colgeqnos: qawt lex bers ae 
ad 


+ (NOX F 


ty Og ott) age ad) +2 ee ee YESS, owget & 


s ee ers 
" sagmedsage sot 383 yiskel” ex rernees* 9 
: is *: “A t aeel 2 Sai aT \ ees 
aaao07q sia suo beppeth epee it persion 9 


Ci 5 SY AS 


~“~sd-nroe 4 vhe soem 4 4k Buteeoo 

( Soares wn had ae ee . aaa 
ri > 

Laotian Boo 


ie i 


yond the finish of construction.! It also involved vari- 
ous companies and the government in prolonged and bitter 
wrangle and in resort to the law courts, Both the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton and the Qu'Appelle companies disputed 
the quality of their land grant with the government. It 
was, in fact, in connection with the latter Company's grant 
that the promoters, Osler and his associates, filed a suit 
against the government. The process of selection of lands 
in Canada was made much more complicated than it had been 
in the United States, where assignment of alternate sec- 
tions was automatic as these were "earned" by construction. 
Both company and government in Caaaae Bea earinas made to 
determine the extent of lands "fairly fit for settlement" 
in a given reserve, and their Res often differed eae 
ly. 

Since alternate sections in a belt along the line 
of railway proved inadequate to provide 6400 acres of land 
"fairly fit for settlement" for each mile cof railway, it 
wee mecessary to set Gatien Terce reserves elsewhere from 


wnich the company might select the balance of its grant. 


The last acreage was not set aside for the C.P.R. 
until 1903, 22 years after the contract had been signed, 
Lands granted to colonization railway companies before 
1896 were in many cases not “earned" through construction 
till many years later, Such-lands were being "granted" 


through Orders-in-Council as late as 1907. 








































rE a — 
Ad ; eee: * 


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~xav bavioval ‘eae a eae is seine . 

| ope ake ab ea: M3 wh “~ Pn 
193314 bas begnotoxg nt Se MAITSVOQ hi yr 
g ‘gs - a 
~Is9 off2 d3od nee al oft 02 at 


4 es 
beset, oainsymon ol leqgh ‘up ads hens 
ia ial ome oe athe 
-' f _Jnsurrsvos, odd daw aass3 acta qeaees 


3 mist | e *yinign0 seseai ails. take nok3 9eano9 ma 


of: 
tivg 8. belt? ,soralogses. eld ban 19f20 1830 


° 
ai aA * aed 
: + ¢ 


. 
ebast to nolivefes Yo, assooxq oft .  Inomerrswog. ¢ 
ait siaeeee 
nosd bad 22 net bs3tsoligqmoo. e10m douse sham esw: ee 
stet) shan 
7982 sdqnzesis 20. Insuagizses..s1r9dw 289832 boa 


>sn059 
rt. a 


2 
as 


ghipeers.t 
mods DyUIIaNgo vd "benise” stew easda 28 oltemoue & sw esol? 
ae Ee er 
oJ sbem eyeviue bad sbsas) at. jnomnievog. bag Ta 


ae - 


“sosmeittea 102 333 aistai" ebasl io Ino3xe- ed? s 


od 
‘er 
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fart 


dy 


: ene one 

-sbiw- betg2iib. gasto corgi —_ oe <oviens 
“pas : 
= os. 7 ; = 1 : 


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sail asf3 - gROks tied & at atin senersia 


as y 
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bast 20 ea xo, GORS ebtverq ot odsupabaat | ew 
% ee 3 
2h. wewlies-2o sofia, done 10%, "200m a : 
ia: hae 0 Hahn en ce, 
_ meget ‘syedvagle agyioess -sgied ables 398 03 — 


. 483g att ite scenes eds toalas bat inka > 


a » Carga 


fe tp 


as ave aoe >" 


Sani oth 202 shige 202 2ey agao78 
vbengte msed af Stare d3 3933s 9% 
etoted ok ove ae st 

Ba aac fs ied io. as guage 2 


wy Ayan 


—l 


- Po) Ba lk 


Ya Ps 


An Act of Parliament of May 16, 1890 authorizing 
the granting of subsidies in land to certain railway com- 
panies included a grant 


to the Calgary and Ednonton Railway Company of Dominion 
Lands to an extent not exceeding six thousand four hun- 
dred acres for each mile of the Company's railway fron 
‘Calgary to a point at or near Edmonton on the North 
Saskatchewan River, a distance of about one hundred and 
ninety miles; and also a grant of six thousand four 
hundred acres for each mile of the Company's railway 
from Calgary to a point on the International boundary 
between Canada and the United States, a distance of 
about one hundred and fifty miles, 


Of the 1,888,448 acres earned by late 1892, the 
Calgary and Ednonton Company had selected 1,757,826 acres 
by 1897. This latter anount had ead canaecd or "grant- 
ed" to them by the government. Still ae to she peenany 
bit not yet selected by them were 130,622 acres. As the 
Minister of the Interior stated, however, these 1,757,826 
acres selected had not been patented "except in sone small 
individual parcels, as the company ave not asked for pat- 


we 


ents. In spite of this fact, the Company were still 


"enabled to exercise the right of ownership to their own 


! 


advantage," in words spoken by Frank Oliver in Parlianent. 


They were able to issue land grant bonds mortgaged on their 





Istatutes of Canada, 53 Vic., Cap. 4, 1890, assent- 
ed to 16th May, 1890. 


2Debates of the House of Comnons, 1897, p. 2326. 






























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233 


land and also to lease their lands. 

Aside from any desire by the Company to escape 
liability to taxation, there was disagreement as to whether 
a large portion of the grant which the government were 
about to patent to the Company fulfilled the terms of the 
contract, The Minister of the Interior stated: 


It was claimed by the company that an enormous por- 
tion of the land, . . which had been, as I understood, 
and as the officers of the department understood, ac- 
cepted by the company, had not been finally accepted 
and could only be accepted on terms which I was not, 
at the time, and am not now prepared to definitely ac- 
cede to. It was claimed that this land was of an arid 
character, that it had not sufficient moisture to make 
it fit for settlement, and that is the question which 
more than anything else, retards the solution of the 
difficulty.l 


The Minister, Hon. C. Sifton, went on to point out 
that there were a considerable number of water courses and 
springs in the territory which if evenly distributed would 
render the land "fairly valuable.'"' It had been the depart- 
ment's policy tse some years to reewere these water courses 


for public use, and over that question a difficulty had 


arisen between the Company and the government, 


lipid,, 1900, p. 621. 


2This difficulty was not the first clash between 
the Federal Government and the men backing the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company. In connection with the land grant of the 
Qu'Appelle Railway Company-~-handled also by Osler and his 
associates--Sifton declared that “disputes arise all along 
the line." Idem. The respected historian J.B. Hedges con- 








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234 


The land grant of the Calgary and Ednonton Company 
was to be located within a belt of twenty-two miles on each 
side of its line of railway, which gta see tea ton attempt to 
confine the grant to the region tributary to the line of 
railway in accordance with the theory underlying thse land 
<a policy. Since, however, the forty-four mile wide 
belt of the Company would pass through the forty-eight mile 
belt of the Canadian Pacific Rad Tuan main line and through 
the block eet toa for that Company north of the fifty- 
second parallel, it meant that the Calgary and Edmonton 
belt was only about forty miles from north ke south, that 
is from about Innisfail to about Crossfield. If all odd- 
numbered sections were unoccupied, this area would yield 
about 563,200 acres, less oe one-third of the Sonat 
grant. It became necessary, consequently, to reserve other 
lands to supply the deficiency in the tract along the rail- 


way. The additional lands were, nevertheless, "reasonably 


cludes that "the men of the Qu'Appelle Company, more than 
those in other Companies, entertained an exalted conception 
of lands 'fit for settlement,’ and to a greater degree, prob- 
ably than other companies, were determined to drive a hard 
bargain with the Government." Op. cit., p. 101. The Com- 
pany resorted to threats and-to litigation before the Sask- 
atchewan Valley Land Company purchased from them the lands 
they had all along rejected and "transformed 340,000 

acres . .«.. condemned as worthless . . . into a thriving 
and prosperous area." Op. cit., pp. 101, 104. The experi- 
ence of Osler and his associates regarding the Qu'’Appelle 
grant was undoubtedly useful to the Calgary & Edmonton Co, 










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235 
close'' to the line of railway, "in marked contrast with the 


remote reservations of other companies," 


One virtue, in 
fact, of the Calgary and Edmonton Ra ltwat ure, colonization 
railway was that its acreage was selected "almost exclu- 
sively from the province which it was apa 83 to serve," 
This basic principle of railway land grants was more seek 
honored in the breach than in the observance.” 
A feature of the Calgary and Edmonton grant which 
illustrates the flexibility of the Canadian railway land 
grant system was the transformation of a considerable part 
of the subsidy fron a grant in alternate seeviéns Feta 
grant in alternate townships. So much of the area reserved 
for the Company grant was semi-arid, having been leased dy 
the government to ranchers ae grazing lands, These Neecine 
leases were terminated by the government in an accomodation 


between the ranchers and the railway company by which the 


railway lands were sold to the ranchers at prices ranging 


et ee ee ee ee 


see Martin, op. cit., p. 288 and Hedges, op. cit., 
pp. 105-6. 


Morton and Martin, op. cit.,.p. 323. 


. 30£ all the railways in the West subsidized by gov- 
ernment lands, only three--Alberta Railway and Coal Company, 
Qu'Appelle line, and the C. & E. road--had the bulk of 
their lands located so as to give justice to the philosophy 
of the land grant system, Six railways with no mileage in 
Aiberta received lands in that province, seven in Saskatchewan, 


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236 


from $1.00 to $1.50 per acre. Ranches such as the Bar U 
and Cochrane were able to solve one of the rancher's peren- 
nial problems and gained permanency of tenure for a very 
stable and profitable industry.! 
In the Calgary and Edmonton Company's disposition 
of its land grant, Hedges finds "an example of railway 
land policies at their worst,'4 oALthOUEH the Company pos- 
sessed lands in “one of the fhipece portions of the West" 
and had an Nadnirable opportunity to perform an eho ete 
work of band settlement,'' there is no evidence that the 
Company undertook an edie campaign to encourage the oc- 
cupation of its lands.3 Instead, it transferred its land 


subsidy--except for the "security lands" 


--to a subsidiary 
company, the Calgary and Ednonton Land Company, which 


seemed to Hedges to have been "collusively organized," 








Ivorton and Martin, op. cit., pp. 323-4. Besides 
the C. & E. Co., the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Co. 
provided a stimulus towards successful ranching in southern 
Alberta by securing its land grant in solid blocks in semi- 
arid areas, To this feature of the C. & E. and A.R.I. grants, 
Martin refers as "another aspect of the much maligned land 
grant railway or land company which deserves a better repu- 
Ceetou. 7 odes De ae. 


‘2Hedges, op. cit., pp. 122-3. 3tbid., p. 123. 





4The 407,402 acres retained by the government as se- 
curity for the performance of the traisport contract became 
the property of the C,P.R. in 1993 when it purchased control 
of the C, & E. Railway Company. This area was then adninist- 
ered by the C.P.R.'s Land Department. 


PHedges, loc. cit. 































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237 

The Calgary and Edmonton Land Company, in turn, engaged the 
firm of Osler, Hammond and Nanton as agents for the dispos- 
ai of the land grant. 

"A few of the colonization railways," notes Martin, 
"measured up to their opportunities in developing, if not 
in directly colonizing, the territories which they were 
supposed to open up."2 Many colonization railways, however, 
"took the first short cut that presented itself and used 


their land grants without compunction to bolster up their 


waning solvency .""3 


Several companies "seem to have regarded the land 
grant from the outset as an end in itself, and turned it 


over to exploitation with motives and methods neither bet- 


ithe C.P.R. resorted to this method although the 
great bulk of its grant was handled through its own land 
department, an unquestionably superior policy in that it 
properly kept the land grant subordinated to the interests 
of increased railway traffic, thus serving the good both of 
the settler and the railway company rather than the land 
company. 


2Morton and Martin, op.*cit., p. 321. “A conspicu- 
ous example was the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Co., 
which "probably more than any other pursued with reference 
to its lands a policy which fairly accorded with the the- 
ory that a railway receiving a land grant would be actively 
interested in the settlement and development of its lands." 
Hedges, op. cit., “p. 121. 


3Morton and Martin, loc. cit. Two Manitoba compan- 
ies used their land grants as security for the issue of land 
warrants endorsed by the Federal Government which entitled 
holders to locate lands anywhere within the entire reserve 
set aside for the companies. 








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: Dice” 


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238 


ter nor worse than those of the average frontier land con- 
pany. / For them, the technique of the colonization railway 


became the most promising contrivance yet devised for 
getting lands cheap and in large quantities from the 
government. This desperate rivalry for land grants, 
beginning with premature incorporation and a mad scram- 
-ble for eligible land reserves, and passing through all 
the conventional stages of broken contracts and rival 
interests undermining each other's concessions from the 
government, filled a whole decade with turmoil and con- 
troversy. 


Hedges points out that in order that there should 
be wise administration of a land grant the railway company 
must be a "legitimate comnon carrier; the carrying of 
goods and people must be its chief concern."2 He explains: 

Too often these small companies subordinated their 
functions as railways to their landed interests, with 
the result that the lands were disposed of in the easi- 
est way possible, and quite without regard to the man- 
ner in which the railway or the public would be affect- 
ed,4 

The Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company was cer- 
tainly one of the several colonization railway companies 
which were in reality "land companies as well as railway 
companies, and... . stockholders appear to have attached 
almost as much importance to the one as to the other in 


their effort to maintain their solvency .""? The sales poli- 


cies of the land companies to which they had turned over 





lidem 2Ibid., a AT A 
3Hedges, op. cit., p. 122. 4Tdem 


5Morton and Martin, op. cit., p. 322. 


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f a 


7 


Ea 





U 


240 
their grants "had as little perhaps to do with the parent 


railways as with their rivals in the field of transporta- 
tion." 
The agents of the Calgary and Edmonton Land Com- 

pany, Osler, Hammond, and Nanton, were one of the best 
known business houses in Canada. They had helped to launch 
several of the colonization railways and appeared as agents 
for the sale of the lands which these railways had earned. 
In 1902, the land department of the firm offered for sale 
lands owned by several higher: py including the Calgary and 
Edmonton Company. Not one of the companies which the firm rep- 
resented conducted an active campaign for the early sale and 
colonization of their lands. They trusted that the purchas- 
er would come to them and seldom actively sought the buyer. 
"This passive policy had the distinct advantage of enabling 
the company to reap the benefit of enhanced prices resulting 
from the sale and settlement of adjacent lands." 

In the case of the Calgary and Edmonton land grant, 
the appearance of exploitation is reinforced by the “anoma- 
lous" relationship of Osler, Hammond and Nanton to the land 
company. They were connected with the railway company 


which received the land grant; they were also associated 


libid., p. 305. 2Tbid., p. 153. 


SROSAR SS ee ee 


~a i inetd Yo ia a i 


oy 






















oH, = 


* 
<< 


dads segd- si3 to eno ime 193081 pa haber al ma 


jomal o2 bseglied bail yedT .ebensd ni sande 
Yee Im 
gInegh en bexss aqqn. beg eyawl tex nojtasinoten, « Cee 


- + 


viet bad yswi 1st, ‘aeorta ddr. ‘shes: ort to ofa 
set! 103 ‘berate, wi? edd to ee 08) 


& 


bose sige ylase sil -rot eatogey svijos 2s nasoategae saa 


-25 ndosug. ads sad? bedeux3 vedi -ebasl sted2 30/40! BS 

.seyud ods thy guoe VAgutsay enews: bas mois of ‘sooo 
eniiinns 20 2; 9gsi nBvbs sontsatb oda, bad yollogq 7 9 aa . 
tiigest esoltiq, beonsiigs to itiensd, ods qeet03 ¥ | sqmoo 
| ha 2bnst j1s98 [bs to auomalaaee a8 aes 
i 744 a 


(TOBIS bost potnomby bos apap ads. to 928. 
uh 

~sa0ns" od x: beorstatex et mains 

* bast ola o3 noinsy, Pas: boomysH tala 


1 








[fT 
gf 


at ead woul tex ed diiw bsdoe 


besa tases oels sisw yes anal 


. Ne en ea) ’ 
ret ie a ee ae . -* < 


tt1>.& bikax® oe 


241 


with the land company organized to exploit the railway's 


land subsidy; finally, they acted as agents in the sale of 


the 


land conpany's holdings. 


In 1904, the firm advertised for sale 600,000 acres 


of the Calgary and Edmonton land subsidy. 


sc 


They administered these lands in a thoroughly conserva- 
tive manner. They were in no haste to sell, and their 
policy was that of the land conpany interested chiefly 
in the financial return, rather than that of a railway 
company, desirous of the traffic resulting from rapid 
sale and settlement of the land. Not only did they 
hold the land at a higher price than Canadian Pacific 
lands of the sane quality, but they sold them on terms 
distinctly less liberal than those governing the sale 
of Canadian Pacific land to settlers. 


Whether the railway land grant system in Canada is 


vindicated in the case of the Calgary and Edmonton Company 


depends upon the answers to two questions. Did the land 


grant contribute to the construction of the railway? And 
to what use was the land ultimately put--did it serve in 
the interests of settlement and development? An earlier 
discussion conpels a qualified "yes" e eaeeata the first 


question. It is more difficult, however, to find an an- 


swer to the second question. On the basis of evidence, 





lipid., p. 321. 


2"There can be no doubt, . . . that financial sup- 
port in Great Britain was attracted very largely by the 
prospects-of the land grant." Ibid., p. 322. 


cs Lona tt 



















ill 


2 ae as efit stocqns od 10. 
to olse- sds. ab 20386 ne. bates § ots x 


* . 
~~ , . r.. a 


esxos 020, oon oise 20} spate wb ot 
-, vbiedue bast gos nombS ba 


7 . —— 


-pyisasido (idgquoseds p ot ebapl sass bexgvets 
sted bon .ffse o% stead om mk stew yedT “280 


viladpo fe ipstetal, yasqros baal si 20 jadd 28w 
vewlley Ss 20 defi madd itefist , nus Pet rete? 
bens mel gaistiwess oliisz3 odd. to euotiesb «a8 
ys bib ylao Jou baal ef to Inemeftise 
5Hitos? asibenad oad .softg, sodgid s. ts.bosi odds 

94 so mata bloe yodd sud ,.ywiteugp ecke odd eu 2b 


ebst edt guiateyog. seod2 asd3 Iatedil. seol wens i 
rm arsitise oF bas! obttosT as tb: | 









. sad ot rede re 10873 bes! vswiter oft soaaedi — 


rh is 





"te 


ynggmod ‘gos nets bas zagis0 odd to 9255 pas 


ia 


ty x 



















oy EGE wr oa, = “a “ny 
bind eds bid -2nolseeup ows ‘03 exewens eft 
ee +3 ae vy 7 . . - rs = e he « 


Tyswi [ist eds 3c robsoussenes wis os 


bak {t 
Tat. Si>k. 
nk svise 31 ‘bab--t0q “dosanisl bast atta’ ‘saw 


4 


Ps 


ret 


i 
~ 


irs a "Snongot evel bas "aoensitted 


ail? od 14H esi Wear" pet tttaup s 
<4 oes ae J anh. <*> 


-ap ab brit 03 sevewed Jivani tom 


i 


Jatiz s 


sta 


* Sete Te a . ee - Aa —- 
sonsbive 26 eiaed oil ‘20 cnoides 
} vse ¥ 
a 45> oe t ms ae 7 * ee Pas ceigtis =n — ; 
| . SE age 


o- # 


~que Letimmet? tna. , ree a eit; 


ond, Ya “— sane ee . 1, simi 
ne Sanh 
“nad AT, <figiiireiaeeat 
7 = eh nts guess ms 
Ps A. eee ns : , 


242 
though, an attempt must be made. 

The most northerly of the Calgary and Edmonton 
lands was located about twenty miles south of Red Deer. 
This block included about fifty townships (576,000 ac- 
res in odd-numbered sections), and extended roughly from 
township 28 to township 34 in range 25 west of the 4th 
meridian to range 5 west of the 5th meridian. South of 
Calgary, the Company owned apparently ali the odd-numbered 
sections unclaimed in a belt about twenty miles wide on 
each side of the line i: railway, extending southward from 
the southern edge of the Canadian Pacific Railway mainline 
belt to the International Boundary . + 

Of the 1,888,448 acres granted to the Company, 
407,402 acres were held as "security lands" by the govern- 
ment. The balance of 1,481,046 acres 2 Becereernd g ee for 
patenting when once selected and patent was requested. 
Figures submitted in the House of Commons in 1904 revealed 
that at that time the total area patented to the Company 
was 1,139,699.59 acres. The amounts patented to various 
2 


parties were: 


Calgary and Edmonton Land Company.....792,979.69 acres 
Assignees of the C, & E. Land Company. 12,510.17 " 


1g dmonton Bulletin, May 30, 1891. 


SE 


Parl., 4 Edw. VII, 1904,- p. 2779. 


























a a 


; 74 ¥ is . 5 bit ee 
" . , 5 = 
‘nat gonS bas yragisd ade “oom xen 3 
: Rha a ed = 


crest bal. 30. dtyom pollm news 39 
~of 000 2%) eqghiemoy wu ouseet 


2, as 





a7: 


mort eietguon bobasaes bas . (eno 998 bet 


- 


re ait to ‘saw es egies nk ae qidacwos: sie 


+ < are 


to tfisuo2 .ne thissa ae orld to Sesw 2 95 


IE 


ST 3 om er 


betedmur-bbo sdf3 {1s visnemnage benwo easginod ens as pal | 


tO sb) be wolbin eoeaed susie ifed B ‘al sont 10. ae 
rey | 


: ah 


00° > bus sedan gnibnsixs awl bet ‘90 ont ods isa 
: Jt Be sce 
ee yal bast ‘piitost mstbaosd eds to agbhe nvedtyo 
be aaee bi : eye roe 
Sane * Acabauol ténatasazesal | . 


<eawqn0) “tt ré besasrg 29798 gah. 888, t of 3 


f 
i * 


eh =. 1 | - a 
-1Isvog “oa rd ebnat “ekwuose as bied « 9% ot oe oe 


102 eldal tave avew agxo8 and, 168, { to sonata 2 ons if 


et 
at aS, — 


= = ae 


Jbodesuipar nae ano3eq bas bejoslee 


ak saa AS 


'. e ‘ 
a Bobrick 


: 78 &>, 
siilenimeiets poet cud 2mommod Yo nical ‘ona at bs 391 Ue 












- gM « - ase 
; ina ens of sieaten (8978 {a303 oft 
saline" * & weet me ae 
aueliey o3 } besanseg es momB oat 2etos 07. ed 
¥. Fa v : #- # vg FDS . ma] fe c : 
7 - ay, 2 


oe ba. ee. cet... yamqmod 


eS big BL enguee ban eae 
2 geist ah all aks 


A a ~ 
ye 2398 Dg sine 19H 


243 


I SUR leis as sin eieis «vo eee ove 41,490.91 acres 
Assignees of James ROSS... .ccccccevess 505010s0n" 


Osler, Hammond and Nanton............ 25,140.79 '" 


Calgary and Ednonton Railway Company.215.856.74 " 
Noninees of the Railway Company...... 51,576.19 " 


Teg no Gna wact ae 
To whom the remaining 341,000 acres--not yet patented-- 
were eventually assigned is not indicated in the available 
evidence. 

The Calgary and Edmonton Land Company Limited was 
incorporated by the Territorial Government with head office 
in London, England. The business of the Company was to be 
carried on in Winnipeg. Charles D. Rose was President of 
the Company as well as one of the four directors. The oth- 
er three directors were Ernest Chaplin, London; George 
Grinnell Milne, Toronto; and E.B. Osler, Toronto. 

Records of land sales by the Calgary and Edmonton 
Land Company Limited show that between 1893 and 1930 the 
Company sold 1,576,929 acres for $9,460,156, which averages 
out almost exactly to $6.00 per acre. The grant included 
much grazing land which was sold at from $1.00 to $1.50 per 
acre, The average of $6.00 per acre was not conspicuously 
high; in fact, it was considerably tite than the average 


of $9.46 obtained for land sales by all the colonization 


ltbid., pp. 2791-2. 





































estos re. of ta Peree’ hae +>) 3 Mi 
OE 208 - Sipe et 


— 


4) 


" et. Gar. as everest es Oo “b 


- HL $8,888, 259) qrmqnod: yatitited ose 
r e. ate, fz FERED oh: cecliat a 308 


estos @ ee. 8 ia. eer, ert 
aie + gett vig pale =A 
--bs2a93 Bg Ed Jon--ee128 000, rae gatak 
~ -* « ‘ <=% * . 
re = 
{tevs siz ad bessotbot jon al bonstaee e msve 9% 
ra +* S ov . 3 ats 
x ps em 
¢ a a ‘eo gu eta abt. + wate —s ie 
wy bot katt yosqmo) bos nos noah’ bas yasgisd edt oe 
er, ee aa } ~s? . ve SP MD ve re ra = we os a 
soitic bsed ftw $nemnzeved letiadhxre? ad xd bess oq3 00m 
Za <2 sas = "ltrs he a a 7) inet : ae 2 4 
sd o3 enw ynngined eri3 20 seonteud siT basi gad nobaol at 
- a asl we 3 5 “ a, Aas > al iar ws wg 
io tnebs asTd ¢ ceo a2 eolxadd .gegianlw nt no bet: tas: 
‘ j=. . ae & » i a, -* “Fm, : rat 23 . 


-ivo efT 48 szesoo1tb zu0t od3 to ono BS Ifew es rns 


4 ¢ Ey aes he 


S an oi ¥ 7 a 

egtos) ~nob rev nb tqedo deionx8 srysw exososiit 
ve Ps r —; ae a oF ss “ = G oe 
tr ie. . 


' 09 40307 zsfe0 A, is bas iesnox07. “ 


eer “ a * 3 


nab a. : 7 3. i= 


sosnombS bas yrsglsd od ial ‘athe ‘bast 20 ebac 


5t1t ‘ Pore * 2 ae oy ye? ea) ea eens ah ~ meee 


ods ores pit eesl asowied 38a3 wode cae 


Em or Ges =. 2FF ‘es. i Seed, #, 4+." 


: 


eogaisvs doidw ,d2f 004, ee ‘10% asios ese are. at 
- pis epee, eee ‘ as att re PSR ES — Saal c 
betel: oni Jna7tg oriT -O798 19q 00.9% « = IIo8xs 


. 7 = . 
- * £5 pe + . e St® q ~ Sivege > 5. Oia. = 


a 02. {¢ oF 00. te nox 3 meth ae 
elawousdgemos Jon. eet e108 iy. ; 00.28 ‘Yo 9ge7 3 

Te! ee pp 

Ogata vB od3 nal? oie ides ae paw 2 


e 
3 cs 


—y 
> bo 


- we: s 


ee ie | pak arty € Fire e 


| gotsesiaoloe o3 ifs ads : 
| ay He 


Ps 
i 









244 


companies, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Hudson's 
Bay Company combined. 

The best years for Calgary and Edmonton land sales 
were from 1901 to 1906, when almost 1,000,000 acres were 
sold, or over 60 per cent of its total grant. During the 
two-year period from 1902 to 1903, over 35 per cent of the 
grant was sold. One-fifth of the grant--almost a third of 
a million acres--was sold in one year, 1902. 

The average price paid per acre in the period fron 
1901 to 1906 for eyimegy and Edmonton lands was $3.86 per 
acre. The gross average price by contrast in the relative- 
ly inflationary period from 1914 to 1918 was $17.34. 

"Neither acreage nor price," however, "throws much 
light ror the net results for Be anene settlement," notes 
pheerer Martin.} Figures are for gross sales only; ener 
lations and revestments do not show up. Average prices, too, 
are deceptive. The relatively meagre proceeds for the 19th 
century are not really comparable to those of the 20th cen- 
tury. Much of the rise in prices is simply a reflection of 
inflation. After these "boom" periods, cancellations. and 
revestments would be ponparative ls high. Subsequent dis- 


posals of land to third and fourth parties, ranging from 


_——— — 








IMorton and Maztin,.OD. Cite.» DP. »309. 


* be 
ai te = 


2 aoebiint wi on i a r 






























3 ba . a a y yy, ‘ 
ss "640m i oe 
ves on “ a 9% 
te eee. ae 
‘eslea heel soinoab’ bas eingiad. “308 {SSX J ie a 
io! v4 Tee m4 


Sxew cniok 000,000;1 eoals modo 200! ot 10er 
sas 


949 gorxvtl jomig tis tt to sno 19q° 
4. : — - & ~~ 
eit to 3nso 15¢q 2e seve €0er a3 eoer ay 


i oheie Sb 


to Bridie siomta--3057g, ad3 Yo “dg23-900 “bros 2 


_ 


mM Se 


ea be f a iasy anid ak ‘bloe esw--29598 4 ~~ ae 
— : txA as pete | 
mow? bolzsq ad3 nt-91D8 Lae, blag solxq ogsteve edt 


’ + (ae 
t6q 33°.23 saw » ebnal osduonbll bas cenntad 108 oer o3 i 


“, . aye BU eg Se A 
-syitstsa sd3 ot sesisneo xd ‘s9tzq sgpzov S8Ox8 — = 
i fi io 3 
ee wie iew Beto afer “moxt belseq ‘rano238!3 

Oe ; —- 2? te 
dsiin zgo789" “sfoviwed W sohsq 100 9369798 sed ton! 
sis ge tes : fies 2 re St 


2636n ",Jaemel 33s $6 crams sot ealuass ten ofa 4 oC 


ta > a “al “Se - ¢ habe 
-[s5n8o j ‘ytad eatin song 308 9x8 eotugit — * -mis 
on ee ee ee 35 peat GOy as S 


Oey . 290 Pq oyBTSvA au wode a = ernontesvs 


il si} 20% ‘eheeoang orate eutsahes a 
: . agit aaa GR ans 
-nae HI6S oft Xo ‘eeod st 7” si dsxaqmos eines don iz 
rey ee ee eee Pers — a 
Yo “n@isosliax Wiaqnie: at esolxq al sat Yo douM 


Sate 
Thal 
ee 

Yi ‘ 


| — Daal. 
bak endisel Tons 2bobseq “nood" os  TeSTA 
ar sig" ager 
:squn0 » § 6 bly | 
ade aN baa ret 
‘wos? antgint _pelszsq ‘anc he oe ERNE : 
~~, ee ar area at a 
Pony, 


*s 


eck. 
“al ‘Fneupoedit ~ dghd "yiovise 


245 

land companies to private speculators and actual settlers, 
are "vitally important" aspects in the question of the re- 
She for permanent settlement but are not possible to de- 
‘termine. The judgment of those who have studied the ques- 
tion most closely is that in their work of promoting set- 
tlement, the Calgary and Edmonton Company--like most of 
the colonization railways--did not justify the grants of 
land made to them. The oft-repeated charge by the Edmon- 
ton Bulletin that the Calgary and Edmonton Company's poli- 
cies were holding back settlement and development appears 
less biased in the light of the more recent conclusions of. 
such competent historians as J.B. Hedges and Chester Martin, 

Owing to the manner in which railway companies ac- 
quired possession of their lands, a local grievance of con- 
siderable intensity arose in the Northwest. By law, land- 
owners were obligated to pay local taxes on their lands to 
cover part of the cost of such improvements and services as 
roads and schools. As long as lands had not been patented 
to the owner, however, such land was not liable to taxation. 
Railway companies, therefore, such as the Calgary and Ed- 
monton Railway Company, who had lands granted to them and 
had earned and selected the lands--who were in ae exer- 
cising the privileges of ownership--were not paying local 


improvement taxes. In the eyes of the settler, this was a 


el) Oa 
eee 
Wart 7 ber 


2 


9%. 909 to asttibeiea’ odd “ni esooqes tue 3% 
























d erols9e2:fawsas nae 


on 


~ob..02 sidbaeog ion 938 sud senate 
ae an 


-eoup edt beibuta svad ork esos Io 3 


Brien gh 
2 
ait 


porns 1 Te ; 
-392 gtiicaexqg 20. d10w thedd-at. paws. ek  seot . ae 
to J20m oil -~ganqae) -nos mend bow vungiad of ef 243 a fo 
he RP bv 


‘to stnostg edt Giident Jon: bkb--eyewl tex | inicten 
Di a z 
aonb sds «ad eatsda- ‘betpeqst-320 oT. odd os 


an 
~Iilog @-: wenane oD mol nombS »boa yrsgisd ads. pods 


axseags snsmgolaveb bne tnemel 33se toad sotbiod 


_2© enolevlonos Inset stom eds to scdgtt exis at bees dw 


i 


-oidveM tejeodD) bos segbeH .&.U es’ engiyosetd qa 


oe 
~ 98 bad mBq uIOD yevitex dotdw: ot remasm sd 03 anti eg 


-gom le. bons: vols. iscol s ,ebosl ‘theds. ona o 


~bomly el QE sy teowds20l; eda--ot oops Wis oI 
| aa Rovck 


ot ebosl. asked ap eexes. ‘soot wed oa bees 1 s 19: 


ike? 


eae mapkwion: seme e2esmgvorqmt: dpue:4o, nse os 3 o 238q 


wia@? dat: 


a 


- betures ee: moat yon bead ebnsd se: gaol ak: 


hie sete 
avitExa, ar oi dint. Sm. asw MOS: dows eteyswod .% 
Rw oF 5 ae. 

~ hE brn wiaple®. oit-es dove... Lonod? 4 ; nBqEO 








ae vs ae 8 A Wee 
brow’ morkt wt psinssg bel ant @ me 0 ; 


eek : 

ee as ’ 
am LA >, 
fib - 


~<Taxe’ spagtie ni- sz9w Ohare 


fsvet’ yriyee sow om 


Py aT ras >> 


- 246 
gross injustice and the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Com- 
pany and other companies were the targets of much criticism 
both in the press and in Parliament on this account. At- 
‘tempts were made by western members of Parliament to see 
that such lands as had been earned should be imnediately 
Baratred and subjected to their fair share of taxation. 

By 1899 the Calgary and Ednonton Company, for exam- 
ple, had earned, selected and had passed to them by govern- 
ment Order-in-Council 1,757,826 acres (including the 
407,402 acres of security lands), yet none of these lands 
except some small individual parcels had been patented to 
the Company since they had not asked for patents. 

A concrete example of the effects of these unin- 
tended tax exemptions can be seen in the presentation by 
Oliver during the erat of Commons debate on the subject 
in 1900. He stated that in the district of the Calgary 
and Edmonton land grant along the line of railway between 
the Canadian Pacific main line and their first northern re- 
serve, there were then about ten school districts in opera- 
tion. Each of these districts contained about twenty-five 
sections of land, of which about eleven belonged to the 
Calgary and Edmonton Company. No taxes were being paid on 
these lands by the Company although the school districts 


had notified the Company each year of the tax due and of 



























metoisits dow to. gtegxad ods = 

-3A- . nwe208 aids ou: smote le et 
ase oJ dnomeliisd to sisdmsa ects mie 
pigtbemnt od bluoda bentke good bef ese < 


itaxe3 20, stad, tsi ried. 92 povogtiad nee 
i ol 


“mex I02 ,Kasqmoy netnotkh’ bas. wisgiso ors 208E" = 
-onaven. v8 medd of besesq bad bos betselse ,bootas’} ad 3! 
ath satbulont) 29198 oss, NON, I _Itqau0d+al*3 sna 


ehosi seed to sn0q a0%.5 (aboot aerate eo. 29708 | 


92 bsinetag nved bad aleorsq. Isubivibat Haws, saves 


> 
.etnstaq xct bedes tom bad. yor sonte ynae nO ‘ 

Ae, PR irl eee ee 

-ntnu seeds to etoeits.sd3. to elqmaxe ederon09 A 
yd goljsiase 924. qd mi 898 od SBI anphaqnege ny. 


Jos{dus sti mo sisdeb -enommoo. to sevoll secant si 


us 
me 


ngews od yowltaz ie entl ods 
-9%_qredjten 32313, aked2 Qos oni nts 
“R404 pl stghyzeth. facdos ng3- me 
evil-yinswi tuods bentasnos asobsa oo att G 


: 


- “kh 
iw IC : 


ofi4..q2 ,bagnoled sevele. sae a 


no bigg erted. STW. F9RBD is y ba 5 
; -: st 
adobivetb ioorise brat wise 


> 


247 


the sitting of the court of revision. The standard answer 
received from the Company by the secretary of the school 
district concerned was that the lands were not liable to 
taxation and should not be on the assessment roll. 

It was calculated that the total amount of exemp- 
tion enjoyed by the Company in the ten school districts 
amounted to $1,320. In a district where all the sections 
were occupied, a settler would pay $6.00 annually in school 
tax; wnere only ten or twelve sections were occupied, the 
cost went up to $12.00 annually for settlers. But if the 
Company's lands ware taxed, it would cost each settler only 
$3.75 a year to operate a school. ! 

Besides the tax for schools, there was a local im- 
provements tax of $2.50 per quarter section. The tax exemp- 
tion.of the Calgary and Edmonton Company in this case 
amounted, the Bulletin reckoned, to $160.00 per township or 
$1600 in the ten statutory labour districts under discus- 
sion. Thus, the Company was escaping $2,920 in taxation 
and adding that amount to the burden borne by the settlers 
in the area.” 

Western members pointed out the effect of this situ- 


ation in keeping taxation rates high and in discouraging 


me a | en ee es ee —- ee 


lgdmonton Bulletin, Mar. 2, 1900. 2Idem 



















teens -bsebosse aft? er oer NOS. 
Leodse sift io was ST998 bas’ ee < pte es 
-63. afdeti toa o1sy..abost era eae te 
.fiot JInsme2zeees onf3 NG sd Jos 42 fe 
29 Javoms Isto ody tad3 besafuatna a 
b foodoa. ae3 ‘edd. ‘at -ynsqaod ‘od wer 
inieniced od? fis “ groitw golzaib. a iy ye popes 


~ qinex, 


ie 


t3 


ssolu2 


a . 


[oodoe st yvilswoos 00.08 ysaq Blucw tels3sa 5 R: 


‘ 
ot 
ie | 


a - 


of ,betquope sisw anhtabes' “ovine Yo tie? wine . 


pat ie 


‘of 7 ua ese [3300 ‘Sot vifsunns 00. sre re) agi <f 
tine 4 ’ > ‘oar tdi 


igdee toss 3 3R02 bivow 32 ‘Bakke exsw ebnsl eye ven 
-| 7 eet. sat 


ts : é *_* 


Tce aetee 


“ft -toorlse 8 ) saereqa os IBSY | 1 £8 


eo +4 -¥ ? nea = 


-mi Isool s esw oxsd? " Btootoe po es edd esblast 


= ta ae 5 - tee i : is 
-g@axe xed sdT “n6h9958 i Jette 18 “Oz: $2 30, xsd oT 
9 











a 
mus 7 


neni wie ds nt osqnod og noe Bos asgled off . 20 


pa ag 
7 


= 

au 7 « a 
vee § 
¥ 


to gidenwo2 15q 00. ‘Oare oJ * panodoey tt J jet va oe ‘ Hs 


: a ¢ - one ae a =* at ¢ uz w > a ] : : . 
-euoetb sebou “ssbisaeab Swodat qrosutste | ie - 
=< y + 4 ont : .. = ; = a “ &. ti . - 


rotzexs? ai Ofe “es entgqsses eew Vo. 


erefdiee ‘ott . enxod ndbrind ober: 


~+ 
_ + Lame os ce 2 Ts ts 
— : | = 
E & ae 
ee , 
: = 
S oS \ pie po ; aa ize L 


-u3te eif3 ¥o 29988%o~snd sue Sein: 
ea # font tig 


~ ‘. : pe 
; Ay ee Hee 
abst * 
i= - oy 


248 


prospective imnigrants. In speaking of the role which 
railway companies could play in the development of northern 
Alberta, th2 Dominion imnigration Agent at Ednonton report- 
ed in 1898 that 
-wnen their lands pass into individual control, and be- 
come taxable, we may kope to overcome many difficulties 
which are at the present moment retarding both indust- 
rial and social progress, not the least of which is the 
Bee of these untaxable and unoccupied railway 
lands.1 
The editor of the Bulletin argued that though the railway 
grants were not exempt from taxation by law, yet they were 
in practice since the government did not give the deed of 
transfer (patent) until the purchase® had selected his land. 
He called this arrangement a "collusion or secret under- 
standing between the Bec oeat and the company ,'"2 and con- 
cluded: "This is simply a swindle upon the Gee affect- 
ed, pera stad by the governnent which was supposed to make 
the interests of those settlers its first care."3 
Aggravating the situation was the es of the 
railway conpanies of using an agreement of sale by which 


lands were not passed to the purchaser until the final pay- 


ment was conpleted. In statutory labour and school dis- 


ee ee ee 


sessional Papers, No. 13, Report of the Agent of 
Dominion Lands at Edmonton for the Year 1898, Jan, at i 1899, 


Edmonton Bulletin, duly 27%, 1896. 3Tdem 


et ee er ee pon amines Geeripen aN mney 
























aa —_ rae 

abi 

tina stot al ade 2? 
nzensron 0 suanquliotlt ot “a wig 


"Lite: st neigorb’ 4s saaght wish igual 


ove 5 . i 
ih hel hat 
- ~! 


. 3 7 Aw~ 
“ 7. = a ‘ 


= 


+t -- 


-od bas ‘Lowities faubielbek = ae Beaq asia 
poijivoit? ib (Em Snes o3, sqgo yam sy 
-sarhnt dod byato7 tremor Jusestg offi : 


efis gi Apicw ~ jesel sd3 ton ,eee1g07q Tatoos, br os fi r 
5 steussony bas oldexssau event sotetxoe 


wal 


é w: 
- 


OM ek nara i 
wewlligs $d2 figueds ted4 bepgza nisali, i, 98 30 3 203 $58 . ot 


x 


> 

a. 
sisw yuds tsy ,wal yd golzsxs} oxi sqmexe Jon sxsw 8 oe 73 
te beeb $4 ds avg tor “bib ans enreyog.4 ods. somte sols sig ! od 


VW, 
» rr: ie 


eid. beso: aioe bag Sisesdoxg an Adjm, (99209). 2 refer 


eae 
fi 297098 IP goteutloo" 8 Igemperaizs eas 


-noo has ~~", wiegres, onid | bog Jns@ateveg off3,, nosided. 3 B41. 
7 . ' - - 35° ¥ Fe on / 


a de ae 20. 908. seq slbniva 6 & <igute at 8 ate 
ane M. ne enw. Soke _jnsinzevoa ap ee 1px 
- » S189 perk? set sein, ome Be 


Psa os -& 


_ saa 30; 99£3% osx std, aay coltauste eds 
ae aa 


_.tlodd, xd ple, 39, 3gemearae ne any 30s 


" -"8q, Ignt}. s eit | 4 ij ay boesdomg Es Sail ieee 5; 


-elb lcodoe bos - tredal (Tosh 


- 


ae 


249 
tricts, some settlers were paying taxes and sone--those 
still making payments for their land--were not. 

What appeared 2specially unjust was that these lands 
were listed by the Company and appeared on their maps as 
their lands with the result that they ee entitled to 
Sati land grant bonds on these lands as well as to lease 
the lands. When it happened, as Mr. Sifton pointed out, 
that the high costs borne by comparatively few settlers had 
even forced the ciosing of schools, the situation was par- 
ticularly galling to the settlers.2 

In 1900 the government promised its support to any. 
municipality or school board or local improvement district 
ready to make the taxation of railway lands a test issue 
before my courts. A court in Regina later handed down a 
decision conceraing the taxation of Hudson's Bay Company 
lands in local improvement districts. The result was an 
out-of-court settlement whereby the hha an paid taxes for 
local improvements. The Canadian Pacific Railway had also 
begun paying such taxes. Mr. Osler even claimed in Parlia- 


ment that the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company were 





Iipid., July 6, 1900. 


: 2Besides, the Hudson's Bay Company were paying taxes 
on their lands. 


ee ee eee 






ones 


* 


-o¢ beftisas: aneih yods Jers aivees orl dite 






te te 


eegeal of an {low es -ehasl -sgazlt..0- ebnod.3 


















1 oe 


,Juq besetoq m0d32g .3M eg boneqqad 22 sah 


° 


bad a velji og wot “Lov lI Biaq@oR vd satod eseoo dz weet 
-ieg esw noltavite offs -eloofise to phbeats eda envi 

*.atsisiee edt iat xt: 

“ns ot tyeqqoe ea boalmorg Insmnievog edt O6CL ot 


jsivaeth irsmevorgml Lac al Bee basod-1éatioa so eit 
om 


suaer.taed « ebnal -yawliga Zo ~nolsexad on} ade 


_ 
8 pO &eprad ta tat anikgef mt stu00 A. e .RSU09 9f 


es. 


1.) de ee 
syooqnol yet. 2 ‘aoebull; to solvexss a m0! 
“12 25" Peau ait -eva}atelb ans 


a 


20h aed bheq yreqnod.. odd . ydexssiy ait ni “94, 
Qele psd ygul isd otiise4 neo 2 a2ns err 


al 


-si,9s.@h aegisla asve soled, ates pend ioe 


oot Som -Enequad, Yewl Ist netqonba bas . 


~ 


j “ - mw 
ca) ba . . 
te pa: 7 . Mog m, J . ING eS 


ra oA% 


esyes aniyeg grew 


. oF. oe ee 


250: 


willing to pay taxes; it was the governnent's fault that 
they were not. 

A highly significant development arising out of the 
land grant to the Calgary and Edmonton Railway Company was 
the legal action taken by the Calgary and Edmonton Land 
Company against the government reservation of mines and 
mineral rights from the patents issued to the Company. 

Crown rights to gold and siiver had been claimed 
from the beginning and successfully vindicated. The po- 
licy, however, with vespect to baser metals had been less 
clear, Land regulations issued on September 17, 1889, 
therefore, specifically reserved mines and minerals in 
Crown patents issued for railway lands as well as other 
categories. Those railway subsidies authorized and earned 
prior to the adoption of the new rule were, of course, free 
from the reservation of these rights. But the grant to the 
Calgary and Edmonton Railway was made subsequent to the new 
regulations, and when the Company claimed all mines and min- 
erals with the exception of gold and silver, the government 
pointed out that this was contrary to the regulations. The 
shrewd officials of the Company, especially E.B. Osler, 
thought differently and initiated a legal action. 

The Caigary and Edmonton Company, of course, had a 


special interest in mines and mineral rights since much of 































¥ = ; a 
sects 272ust 2 'Saemn 

a 4 -: ny Js : 

Sth. Tee a sds 


3 


sit to’ dvo gnbeite: jmetgetoveb : 
baw yosqgmoD wuitel nodromba bos 


és 


= Bas- abaim to. mpktevreter sinsanlinabaiih 


4 fi 
xe WUE GRD adz of beseel. asasseq of. ial $dgix 


¢ : - 
baataéo «sot bat aavile baa } Blog: 03 satigts & gf 


~og oT «beseoibniy. ei Fvbeessoue: bos cortspd. ont 


sal 
+. 


pad bad elecem teed: 03 sosqeet tis bw 


ee. care si eames cee no. saonasey enotsaluger Bent 


¥ ee 98 pe oat 


ni’ al srenti ban. net bavrores" Cinsth sow y 


z - bi + = bete s te 
: ie 7 
Teiso at iiew ed  ebasl epenIns: or pouesh ejnelq “Mf 
¥ ~ be = 
Sioercas* bie bend sid solbtedua soswtbes a e 5 
i q ” a ™ 7 : . 
esa ,getbos to -st6w stim wor-eds 20° no LC 


< 


edt o3 IOS1g of 3ud. -eadgts evoke Se nOLIBV 
- P Tie: oe at pees “es | Aipste Ss 


wen od o3 vasupeadue ebm: 2aw youl til 1 NOI 700 ca 
x ” q * —e i .° ee ae ame The ie ‘ 
2 ‘aw —- oe 
~ skin ‘nai eonia Ifs bombato (asqmoo iS nse bow , enol 
. a s « ; - a - ae, 
io a ot ip eo 
snecainsantely oft seule, bas biog 26 9 xe Sas 
ay at br. 


se rae 


a ony’ 03. caraHeo * ss pit 3 
e te. bah 9 De go ed Yo . Lats 


¢ $F; ~@, ,> aes: ‘ee tas Ve ras oe 
= - han . 


fax Bi 


its land grant lay in the foothills of the Rockies where 
there was an abundance of coal of the best quality. Cal- 
gary and Ednonton lands were known also to contain oil and 
natural gas. 

This resort to the courts by the same interests who 
had earlier launched action against the government with re- 
gard to the land grant of the Qu'Appelle Company prompted 
an outburst from the Edmonton Bulletin, at the time per- 
turbed at the Calgary and Edmonton Railway also for its 
failure to operate the spur into Edmonton. 

The old friends of the Calgary and Edmonton railway 
are again in evidence. In fact they are in court, 

« « - For a road which they allege to have cost 
$12,600 a mile they have received in money or money's 
worth $37,365 a mile--and still they are not satis- 
fied. The man who having got the earth wanted it 
fenced, must have been a close relative of the C. & E, 
proprietors. Their present effort compares most fa- 
vorably with that of the man who having stolen a mill 
came back for the dam! 

The case went against the Company in the Alberta 


court, The Supreme Court of Canada, which divided evenly, 


upheld the decision.” Leave to appeal was granted to the 





lIipid., June 27, 1902. 


2Tn an article headed "The C. and E, Thrown Down,” 
the Bulletin reported that "Justice Bourbridge holds that 
in effect the act authorizing the grant of lands to the 
suppliants gives them no better position than if they had 
purchased the lands for money instead of earming them by 
the construction of a railway.'' Ibid., Nov. 17, 1902. 


¥ 3 a Pee ea i“ ee =e 


stedw esktook ody 2o.-eAt 1303 | fad 


ry “¢ 4 ¢ : ” fo Yt 7 


-[g9 .ytifieup teed ori to Iso 2 







































7 © 


bas Lio atsaane o3 cals owond : 


as a2? SYA “seo 4 *. A 
on ejasistal anne ved? xg 22109 odd ot azozen i 
- - ,* 7 7 - e bale ah re 
-9t dilw tJnoan avog out coatens notios | 
ja as - ue is ¢ +* ¥f- is) ee ge ae : pee 4 4 
bstqao7Tg yas qe m09 alleges ap amt zo sastg bast ‘od: oF 1 
ee gee YF sate ge — =e 
“189 smi3 s*i2 ts abialiug ros a0abl ods mort: 
ati ro? ozle esl Lal nosnoubl bas Yaaglads ods ast boda 
Sy Fy. © to a a 2 F ree : “es a iS 
-a03n0abi wae mga oda sasx0go° an 
es : af" 2 c 


«< 
- 
Fs 


Caw notnosb’ bas eineted ‘ort 7" abnets?. the i 
sawed at $xa Ysdi$ tost of ..senebive nt atsge~ <a 
teaoo svad o3 egelila yeds doidw.bsoz & tof hay oe“ 
= ‘ea xsrfom=nk¥ beviessa dvad vodt ‘olin: Tonneau 
i3ne ton svp yed2 [tse bas~-ellim s cof, vee 
. Sf Sexntw A9ea0 edd Jog gatvad-odw nam eau 
3 @ .D aft to svitalst sacle « med sved jeum ,b 
Se2em-esysdmod I19024S tnseeTtqg ziedT:. Pag 
[fin 5s aslote gatvard baal al dp ¢ te Jats date . at 


ht? pa 


‘ seers vi ot 
e3téei kh Gdo< nk “gnnsqmdOvads semtape Snow | aT 
UndteMiab ret foie ceBaiisd-30-sinu09 onoxque at ad 


. owe arsed. ; 
add" és Bod nahrate aav Lesa og evacd.*,notetse’ od 


: to ee : oe — 
7 “ Bas tyr “Zs ! +? ° ¥.: - ‘ ae ‘ast Pe 


* feck Paton s a site’ .2 > a swath att 135 
das tbl off sgbiedsu0d sada be 
ert “oi abret® Sy sinwny er 8 od et 
bad yoda ti apes Solna 33 on ms 
yd meds golores Zo bsetent 
coer (Sr vor, he. 


a ‘ — 


7 


-@ 


252 
Company, and the case went to the Judicial Comnittee of the 
Privy Council, which reversed the decision of the Supreme 
Court on August 5, 1904. 

The Court drew a clear distinction between "lands 
granted as a subsidy, that is by way of a bounty" and 
"Crown lands reserved for sale, or homesteads."! The form- 
ots lands when granted to the Company cease to be Dominion 
Lands, and wére therefore not. subject to the regulations re- 
lating to settlement, use and ao ee of Dominion iands 
but to the statutory railway land grant to the Calgary and 
Ednonton Railway Company and to the subsequent Orders- 
in-Council as the governing documents in the case. 

This decision was of far-reaching importance and 
naturally other companies quickly took advantage of it. 
Supplementary patents including mines and minerals other 
than gold and silver had to be issued not only to the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Company but also for the contemporary 
land grants to rae Canadian Northera and to the Souris 
Branch and the Pipestone Extension of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. Martin writes: 

Throughout the whole range of the Dominion railway land 
grant system, therefore, both surface and nineral rights 


(other than gold and silver) have come to be recognized 
in an area almost as large as England--more than 


——— 1 





IMorton and Martin. op. cit., pp. 288-90, 


off }0,9 sartioneg men 9 




















ht eine ge ab wr 
peeled orks to rokeloeb ertt xevek 
aAr 
pee te BORE 52 
On fi thes I ae i See kn sae oe. 


Le 
' 


- 


ebast™ assvped qotdanisakh xaslo 5 


nt ee; Sayed 4 s to yew xd ab yada <thte a 
; pee 


-migae ott. fn 72D BeIa850 10 elon x0T piled ep 
oneat's ee": 
maining ed os eenep weequo) effi. of -botastg t fw a ae 
: | i. TT as | : 
~ox .enojsaluges. ad 03 ar jon svotexod? > oxbw-bae 


i? DS be ey 6 . 


4 1 


apl aoinimed 2o noldequaae, bns sap . eansralijee ot ga é rss 


eb 
ss : 
a 4 @ = > 
a se . ~ 
Fy 


eh cae 

6, Yeegleg sls o3 ine baal - yawl tex ere +3 ue 
wae toaupe2dua orf o3 bus yosqiso0- wawibedl ne 
[ 4 4 


ek ere onlz..nl- BJ ag@musob aninssvog as om rey: - 


bes sonattoqmt ggidoasi~xzai lo Bow y Boketosb t sat ah 


> : 


3k to ogesnevbs cos Ualatup sea en Py ow wits [ax = 
" vifas ae a mh 


sef3o alsxenim bas eonka ssbhobents adnese 1 mt 















Speke ae ascites 
-Isd eda ot y¥imo Jon  beveal aa os bad sovite f yf 


=> a - 


‘ais 
qisiegmeincs sf3 192 oels gud. wnaqnod - oa” 


“as 
elyuo2 eft: ot bem aasd3x0 natbaasd of 0d 8 


oitiosd mtbsnrd ine 0 noteasaull 


bast yawiies seknimod ed? to ogc slo 
stdatz [svenia bos spataue dood , od3 .ms: 
basiagosss ad o2 srco eved~ Teeutitec af ee 9 i 
ned sraahiigier on 28 posers fen 
“y a | | ; 
| ‘A ma x 


- 


, 02-888 ae vate 
r oe 


253 
31,750,000 acres--in the attempt to build the railways 


of a frontier community by means of the land through 

which they had to pass.1 
If the administration of the land grants gives the impres- 
sion that the interest of the railways "frequently took 
precedence over those of the Government," comments Hedges, 
"that impression is likely to be strengthened by an exam- 
ination of the policy with reference to mines and minerals." 

The Edmonton Bulletin repeatedly censured the Cal- 

gary and Edmonton Railway Company for its land policies-- 
for handing the land over for exploitation by a land com- 
pany, for the absence of a pdttey WHIG would encourage 


settlement and development, and for its position on the 


questions of taxation and mineral rights. 


ligem 


2Hedges, Ope crt... pp, 115-16. 


exoutes ods -bihud oo sqeeas Oe EE 











iguozis baal — to . = pv am 
i es oe iss: dS 
~eatgal als sevig a2aBzg bast oda a) : vaonatans 


ave 


Joos ysasupe7?" aynwites edt to Janet jnk ods Jae 
; in 
— & IemMoS "  Inecuryevoy) an Fae ones 2 es 29 














a 4 Se Jet AF 
is xd sadiaemesie ed o2 elostt al nok an 190 : 
L re 
eontm’ 63° sonoiste® at © ok 
poh 53 Se 
: aa 


Al 
4 


-Mex 9 

" efarénim bas 
Sted odd berwert £99 ebesseqer ‘gtrol ina nod aomb: 3 - 
See Bast 23h tot qabq@od- qowl tas: a “ 


. ~s7e" a 
-egelsitiog bus 


% 


olssstolqre ‘to% a9vo bral eds “4 


: J — ++ in 
-mos Basi oe YO a 


sioone blwow dotitw yotfog s 26 sooseds ed3™ 


- 


ot ‘no nonanog ast 16 bow :seismgotoveb pes id 
<a weddats tezenth baw y mokaseed % 


, : ‘ 4 ah 2 ~ a Bénte Abus hed 
\ 
het eek ee Peers & 
th -eee +TG «- arth 
sas aie -90. 8 

‘ J a 

r > eee. ee 
. & * > : 4° i 

a * - 


X 


ALBERTA AFTER 1890 


It is necessary, since the Calgary and Edmonton was 
a "colonization" railway, to inquire into the impact of the 
railway upon the region tributary to it. "Without ques- 
t 


tion,'' writes Hedges, "the creation of a new society in the 


three prairie provinces was the outstanding feature of Can- 
adian developnent in the years between 1896 and 1914,"1 
That the Calgary and Edmonton railway played an indispens- 
able role in the creation of the "new society" in Alberta 
is the thesis underlying this chapter. 

The first effect of the railway, experienced even 
before the beginning of construction, was psychological in 
nature. The optimism and confidence in the future which 
the prospect of railway construction engendered was indica- 
ted by the Edmonton Bulletin in the spring of 1890: ''We 
are about to enter on a new era, in the beginning of which 


events will move with dizzying rapidity and lightning 


changes will take place."2 





lHedges, Building the Canadian West (New York: The 


MacMillan Co. of Canada; 1939), p. 126. 


254 








: sy Papa ie ae 


















@ P af “ths + vA F 
Fee eee “wat en su 
t si ote ee “ee 
“> 7 * oe ee re sc 
8 st tan Re i A 
. ocBr. sveiue arazatA 
ae Se 


Shy. motnomhy bas pe edt ‘eonta, _yusee: on 


= > 


ed3 io Joagme ada. onnt pzlupal 92. youl es | Me 


_ -aeup * peda" | ah 3 eszudisa colger od3.t 


oda at, 33. kooa.wen @ 20, nokinex: ada" .29gbsH 293; 


a tc. 32 ateel onchan ste3u0. ed aBw. sent enna 


BR 


iv Stel bas aeer poayged s3hey, edi at Joeeqotevab 
: ns 
~eguauibel ns bevel wiley no3nonb bos, Na 3 


“UF =! ; 

sdasdiA at Mesnhead a art ~~ notssex9 03 a I: 
P : ie mY G. teu Oates a 
i "-zeagad atts gntelsebai Be asd: : ia 
>. 4 ’ 

’ . = a y » - a 

nave beor er awl tex ods to atte te 4 Res y 

* ) = os a = 


ob inotgotods! —_ ail nolzouzzenea 20 § 


Abel 
fokde ou. ods nk aonebi}a02 baa wate qo 2 ot 


ey ~ mh 
-acibni e bazsbne ra enkéouuin se ide ; 
Bue a 902. ae os se | 
ow". :Q@8L: to aatzge. edd pi o 2. ud oy Inomba 


~- aT - 


| dob 2e ‘golontged of) ok 233 wom @ 2 ia 
_antosdgtl. be yaibiges 


255 


The impact of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway on 
immigration and settlement was dramatic, according to evi- 
dence available including that supplied by the Ednonton 
Bulletin, Referring to railways in general, Morton writes: 


- It must now be evident that there was an intimate rela- 
tion between railway construction and immigration. It 
is much nore than that the railways opened up new ter- 
ritory providing the transportation necessary. Their 
construction and organization in any area offered work 
and good wages to the new settler, and thus the ready 
money with which to establish himself on his farm. The 
certainty that work of this kind was procurable must 
have done much to swell the volume of immigration, es- 
pecially of the labouring classes. Thus in more senses 
than one railway construction Seis imnigration want hand 
in hand. 


Even in 1890, when construction of the Calgary and 
Edmonton began, the imnigration to northern Alberta was 
many times larger than before, and this in spite of the 
fact that it was down generally in the Northwest. 

Land is being taken up in all directions with the town 
of Edmonton as a centre, .. . The press all over the 
country has given us favorable notice which cannot fail 
of having a good effect and the pile of letters of en- 


quiry addressed to every resident whose name is known 
outside the district is continually increasing.2 


The following summer season saw land "being taken 
up rapidly in all directioas around Red Deer, 20 niles dis- 


tant,"’ reported the Bulletin.? A land office was opened in 


[Morton and Paste nl ieop iets) ipasdd3. 


Edmonton Bulletin, Oct. 4, 1890. 3Ibid., June 6, 1891. 
































no “wi isk: ress ti wie 
~ive 62° g@nlbtoces: 1saSaMnaD \s | 
; gamers odd yd betiaque sad 
‘asghiwisosioM ,thuanag ak ayentbar OF sls A; 


-siot- etentict ag 2sw’ syed) -dadt taeblvs-sd wor: 
tI .cottatgiomt bas aolsoustdenco yewl iss 186 rts nok: 
- 93 wor qu. 5éosqo' eyewlter ets Jada’ asda stor ds i sm at 

tteiT .yuseseoen sotiastegensi9 ond gatbivorq % mz03Is 
Trok agereg o soks‘yns st moPsisinegto bas nbbj5uz3eNn699 
ybses oft ands buns gseltsee won ef3 oF Seg8w bose 


sit* no ony no 3Yeamdd Hetkdstee o3 doldw diiw-y: 


Jun _skdpaus07 tq esw bata etds to w10w ted3 yates 
-he -nolsaésgicss! Yo smplov-ers ifewe o3 doum snobs 
esenox stow at evil .eevsesls gniswodsi edd to — 


basi snow “not tatgle@l bak nottoursienos yswiisy ano’ 


=" "i cea is 
ei. 240-4 -&@ * se Te. te mt sito ~ % 
bas (is 3fsd add to polvsuxaenoo , norte oat ‘at ‘nev ae 
+ - = De *. ar, ts z a Fe ate evasBed: 
eS 
anw sixsdlA mxedgxon o3 notisxgicat ods ns 
PE rs oe fay Pus = a 4 is _ eres * aa 
silt to osiqe ‘at ends: bas .er0ted sadz nogual nts 
is cats = eautamcer 4 i Soo eae ty 
Ses owl x08 orf ak Gis nwob esw at 
2% i, - —4 . be A 55a) - off cir ¥4 i a ay 
awos es dtviw ana IIs at. qu nodes gnisc | | 
efig ssvo [fs exserg ofl . . . _Saoteo-e es nd 


[ts? tormas doidw solzom efdszovs? ew rove ead on 

-ne- ‘or ws33s ol. te sit aft-bns toe??: 
sword et oman ssedw tasblee1 yrevs e bases 
ie Rien. Keine vi eend Pres eta 


‘o” 


scien a 





nels gotad” basl wee moeses Bs ira ve 3 nIwe [93 oe 

-elb selina Of 1490 boll bnvots | noi3zo 23 if i 
ni- benage esw okie = a Eo ehiuh ‘s 
; 1. eb “e235 en 7 Ata 


i - one 4 
oa -— - ~~ 


—— 2 ein saipcan =) 


= it > eal — 
CBr . ak ak as | 


a ae - 
P ._+ a 
' PF fF aa t 
~ > ~ 
= ql g 
si? 


7 







me 


* a9 


Red Deer in May that year to serve the region from Bowden 
to Millet. In the months before the arrival. of the rail- 
way, there was an accession of 800 to 1,000 in the popula- 
tion of Ednonton, according to the Bulletin. t Beginning 
that year, a considerable number of colonies were estab- 
lished in northern Alberta, many of them in Pate eaeon 
district. French colonies were established immediately 
north of St. Albert around the present Morinville in 1891- 
2 and east of Leduc in 1893. Fourteen German settlements 
were established between 1891 and 1894 in the country tri- 
butary to the Calgary and serpin railway. Between 1892 
and 1896, six Scandinavian colonies were placed in the re- 
gion. Icelandic and Ukrainian settlements, in addition, 
were started. Besides these European settlers, there were 
many English-speaking settlers who came in as individuals 
and who cannot be traced. 

| In the late spring of 1892, Robert Kerr, general 


passenger agent for the Canadian Pacific Railway western 


lipid., June 27, 1891. 
2Morton and MOLCL, ODs, Gite, Hs, Pe. 


30n June 30, 1892 the Dominion Government agent in 
charge of imnigration along the C. & E. line took up his 
duties with his headquarters at Edmonton. Report of the 
Dominion Governnent Travelling Intelligence Agent, Calgary 
one ee nonton, Jan. 7, 1893. See Sessional Papers, No. 13, 


Pan “exis os 060.1 ‘on 008 ge 30 enw 


<1 Set 


“ST 8! 
‘ . e a ae , _—* 


gnianige® ntjoliua ois oa gnibxesos: ~ .sodn 
-dases 9196 ‘aetdoloo Re. " sedmue eldazebienc 


r2BI nt ‘el Livatzol 


ejne@elt3ee meio nes ryol * £085 -* ‘oubad 


Cb8t aamtoll 




































ry Fey 
‘6 ac 
rg ae a? ¥ Bigot [oe ee 


oh oe 


> + *.9° 260e6 ‘ 


ojnonbs ol3 s wads fo pitsm ,attedl A: a of32 on § it 
ee . - 9 ' 
sgt bemmt botehidasee sisw  eetnoloo isceak 


| oo esaei 


> ane 





peat: *e 


1, 


M jnpasxq- odd ‘avers gxodlA. 322 0a sda 
Se 2 ee 


* pees bas ‘teen anasiiadh ‘beddebtdas a 
*. youl bes cosooeb® bas Lows ot oa y es = 
of a sonia st9W “salaoles ‘anvintbase Bib Slee | 

i 


nolstbbs ak _eioonela2e8 “ pstakszal con otbasls of 


a3 ~etdau0e od mt 


‘ 


ot 


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si6w sT9ns od ~s 


"guai33es ‘nseqorual ‘eesti gins sie than 3 


a *~ - 3a 
efsubivibal as ot sma2 “odw. exaliaee goings ifged yas 
ts Vt of oe * > ea eas x ee oe eel : Sai 
Ate i, © lbeoax 2d. ¢ 
insamnf 


. nia covkgy Re as: 
Taxeneg i108 s10dofl .Se81 to lane edz al 
<2 sg ? oz ba ak oe aN 
maseew “peut had “ofthat astbhaans. ad, ont. 3 : an 
a Oe Spe a _ a 
ays a. hee na are fa Ye hs: ay — 

i oe . Cae “ =? . q nose 

eee nat at zat Bai 034 

ie 2 


“= 


nt inegs tnocnteVvod noknimod af a si ms 


eid qu dood entl .2 8 oil’ 
ad3 Zo gagaed penne 3 


Y382 fa) .2nead 219s at Lis: “Ff 


A 20 e7egad 8479 eee eat 


=. » . 


= 


257 

aigtaton expressed his "surprise at the rapid progress 
of settlement along the C. & E. line."1 The country around 
Wetaskiwin, for example, was "well settled" for about eight 
miles south, west and north and about twenty miles east. 
There were settlers as far as OM Festive MSs east of 
Wetaskiwin that early. The Bulletin announced that "a 
big rush is expected next spring." Earlier that year, 
there was a report that the Edmonton land office had done 
more business in the past year and a half than any other 
office in the Northwest, "probably than all others together."3 
The Crown Timber agent in Edmonton stated in his annual re- 
port in the fall of 1892: "The large number of delegates who 
have visited this District during the season, and who with- 
out one exception have reported highly in its favour, will 
cause a large influx of settlers next year,""4 He reported 
795 homestead entries compared with 495 for the previous 
year, 

The Edmonton Bulletin described the movement of 


settlers into the region in 1892: 


While it must be adnitted that imnigration has not kept 
pace with expectations as far as the greater part of the 





lEdmonton Bulletin, May 19, 1892. 


2tbid., Nov. 17, 1892. 3Ibid., June 27, 1892. 


4Report of Ednonton Crown Timber Agency, Nov. 14 


1892, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1893. 





> 


a 


zea1goxd biqus ot’ 3s Pe y qx 
> Se eS dacs ry 
tsi veda 


bie vishups. SAT | In ont 487 Pats “gaol 


. ea w 3 sat 














adgis: Jooda yo? “pol jibe Tew" ‘enw "2 


2 | oe 


~ = ae. 
,izas safle yinswd Suds. , bane” daros baa’ $e 


- 


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> ae no operat, 4 a4 


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ies 
























AS 
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tsoy 223 fea sn -gntzqe Jxon- besoeq 


aR ae ; te heh | f 


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[eu st 


edjo ye assy We ad 8 bos IBSY 388g odds ni -ees 
Si 1% ae . * oA oe ervey: 
ierijggos etsi3zo Ife aati - ; Udadoxg” , teow 704 tition | 
ae Se ~* ny a ab GE leer 
~sx isunms eid ot besage sostnombs ny anege rodnki <i 
Loree pet Ole 2 = weak ; é -9 
orhw a039 galeb to zedmus weeps eit" 7S@8s io tied ed3 a 
ie tor Whe te mile + Sey 4 Fo eee RAS? tt. 


vise ofw bos ,noesse of3 aati solxseid aids 


~ > ad 5 ee ee $ tut. Gare ae wn dete A Win Se eu 
ifiw ,xwovsi esi ol yldgid basi0ges aves noksgeone, 
‘ “iv, & ~~)’ 
baaxegs: sH *".ts9y Jxon exaliies 20 xultak * 
im sco ow e tus’ BD : vi raat 
tverq acid 203 ee day. bysageas eatxino“b 
q a | GoSsR. dees 
SR tity oS Pe ee i" 8% eae . = Se 4. Rt niet 
te cep tines off sestsaeet. at oli va npr popes: of’ 
255, “Rear “ ot Spee ot et a i oS — ae 
5 4.) /iniethp ee eget oa 
b.- Jon esd iene gods beta on aa 


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pees 
ae a 


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> 
— 


Te: 
ey bon er ae 


258 


Territories are concerned, this cannot be said regard- 
ing that part of Northern Alberta, which lies along the 
C. & E. railway for at least 150 miles of its length. 
The increase of population in that stretch of country 
in the past year has been most marked... . Until '83 
the stretch of country between Edmonton and Calgary was 
as vacant of settlement as the sea. . .. Even in '91 
- . . the traveller between Calgary and Edmonton saw 
.only the stage stations and stopping places for 
Breleoteren ees en In Aupust of 1891, it [the railway] 
was conpleted to Ednonton and at once the effect of 
immigration began to be strongly felt. . .. It was 
not until the spring of 1892 that the rush of people 
actually began, so that what is now seen is practical- 
ly the growth of one season.! 

Around the village of Olds, a colony of Nebraskans 
and a number of Germans from Waterloo, Ontario had settled 
during the year. A small part of the land was under cultiva- 
tion and all the settlers were keeping cattle and making 
butter, of which a large quantity had been shipped to Cal- 
gary during the sunmer.2 

The report of the Immigration Agent at Red Deer in- 
dicated that land immediately about that point was "so well 
settled that intending homesteaders naturally passed on to 
new ground," with Innisfail and Wetaskiwin securing the bulk 


of the imnigrants.> A choice section of country in the 


Battle River region northeast of Ponoka had "attracted a 


1: dmonton Bulletin, Jan. 16, 1893. 


2Tdem 





3Report of Dominion Imnigration Agency at Calgary, 
Jan. 24, 1893, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1893. 


- brags ybiga-od. 3onnao: 






2 wh og a re 
330K 


af2 gnols aor dotdw! ,gizedIA nger Ro 3x8 


€8'.risat ss «@ _belisa. 320m | i , 


enw yregisd bas sojnomba asswisd spooning 
EQ! nk gave. -+, .898 sft 88 aiden x) 


5 at sok ant galsw298 alwidestowW ‘ban Lestete 


Tien oz 




















fijgnel atk to. astia OCL yes 10 > BW a 
yiinyo2 to dosex132 ,38d3 sk mot aie ee rm Ee eas ; 798 


ma nogmomba bas yssgled neswied teileyss?, AG 
_. 2 ae eso8lq sqlag baa. enolssie egate § 
fyswi tax edi] 3t,1@8l to JeuguA mI «+ be 
be tostis-ed3 sone jg bes notngrhl ot be al 
eaw 21 «. « + «fist Ugnorse ed of naged 1 xa) Ns 
.eiqeeq io faut eit gad2 S06 to gaizge att r 3 uw 0. 
-leobjosvq et nese won el Jadw jads Of <Hm [su398 
ees { -qoases 2n0. zo d3wosg~8 

~abio to ogalliv eda eet ‘« See 


enadestdav to ynolod & =e 


boftiee bed oftasm0- paokveseK sox anemred te den 1B 


—— 


rising sebou esw boal-sda to trsq Lema A _ aT88X. old 3 sub 


gnivem bas elites goiqead etsy exefivee odd Lis ao ( 


da anen bad. ripest -egist a. doldw 20 v8 

- some — eae me 
-ak »e0@ bef 313 tnogA nolsargianl eft-t0 saager * = 
ws esw intog ads. Juods eissathanst ‘bas 
yissuisr exebseesaicd gotbasiad 


;  <? 4 


“La 3 bsqqt 


e2 oo bezesq 


<es , = ee 


oe ae si “ytqwea to qoliae8 eoiorde J 


ae 


& besos7338" bad! atcae to 3 j 


a 
> Sale Baie * ci 


ern Se Sa 2 ¥ 


omer 
a7 Po igh «> > 
7 
, « 
“A y a 
2) , 


259 


very large number of settlers during the season, probably 
more than any other point south of Ednonton.""4 

The Bulletin wrote in the spring of 1893 that "we 
have nearly a train a day of immigrants and effects coming 
in,"? An emergency had arisen in the provision of accomo- 
dations for incoming immigrants. A tourist mince at the 
time, "During the last lustrum (15 days], thousands of im- 
migrants have come to pitch their tents in the Edmonton 
district.""? 

"Settlers are fast crowding in" was the Bulletin's 
report cones the Red Deer ate in 1894, a region 
which had had comparatively few settlers up to 1892.4 
Farmers were coming in from the United States in great num- 
bers to take up land. 

The travelling agent, R.L. Alexander, reported the 
following numbers of settlers coming in during 1893 with 
fhete origins: 

Pee DOManOn UL CaTiada.. tc ccc cece er saccceesus SOM 


a " British ESLAS ele eectaees dike Ieditdin. So Welelacdie < 220 


eS United I er oc a a cle keine as 6 OO OLU 


_lgdmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. 2thid., Apr. 0 nl893. 

3count ‘de Bouthillier-Chavigny, Our Land of Promise, 

A Run Through the Canadian North-West (Montreal: The Gazette 
Printing Company, 1893), p. 106. 


4Edmonton Bulletin, Jan. 29, 1894. 














ho a, 
eehitelia'' 002 8e8 adh gat: wh .esalsze 


a 
+= if 






IM aosincubx $0 eechee’ tec £ 1s 
a 04.2 Mice re: 


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- vi Fah ik 
enkaine sisetie bas esnaxgtamt to vb s ntssa wal noe 


savF ape Rocuee ee 


~enhoon Se potetvosg ods nt ‘on bark omit mae 


Sn 


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sia 38 sto rw “Suks wos A .einezgiamt | sot enol 





















4 ib aa 


& 


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ept Yo ebasavods [ews er} awxteut eoek exis. rtrd" ,oms 

; fiber 
osnomba sedi al etass steds dosty 03 smoo avd 2 rer 


Em. 


= ry 


e'ntsellwyi sft eaw “al gatbwors Jest oe, a 


nolast p .f08I nt yxadnuon r3898d bel ond Se ee 


* C@8r of qu exel3tse wat vioviTexaqmos: bad b 
ag we 


at PE) 93832 basin eit mox2 nt gnimos: sxew & 
bast ob lat 03 3 
silt b — Hoget tobnsxelA ie a shoud gatlfevexs edt 


nes 


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a _— vi ‘ 
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’ = « - sre = @ 
' a ; ' 


DBO... ds. ceavacueeveseesesBbanBD 20: GOkare 
oss «a lam iuidt ees maine ee ere 
ORE. sirens san cen vr 


al * <ew <a”)% ei mg - . 4 < bg ‘ ef 
‘te ag 


0081- Of .agh er: 2a 20 uf taal. 


.oaitmoxd ie beet 2u0 «yagivedO~z920. a ‘ 
SEPY TS od. heen te petbs 


4.° 


+ 
~ 


260 


DEM e SS UOreAeriL, OF GULODE. eccvecccencecerssvcsee SLL 


es oe ba tem Ope ep ene eke © 8 


ee 


Sa cece 3 IABS 
Two hundred carloads came headed for various places along 


the Calgary and Edmonton railway as follows: 


Edmonton 66 
Wetaskiwin 54 
Olds 28 
Lacombe 15 
Innisfail 13 
Leduc ; 10 
Red Deer 9 
Others a 
Total 200 


Of these 200 cars, 78 came from Canada and 122 from the 
United Seen 

The Immigration Agent for Edmonton reported in 1895 
that most of the land for 35 miles around was entered for. 
Three years later, it was reported ehet the nearest home- 
steads available were 14 to 18 miles distant, and Canadian 
Pacific Railway lands for sale were at least 8 miles from 
town. For 40 or 50 miles south of Edmonton on the Calgary 
and Edmonton line, homesteads were available only if one 


migration Agent, Jan. 11, 1894, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 
1894, 





lReport of the Dominion Government Travelling Im- 













: a ,), 


my 





I 
8 ne Sona * 

> it , ins 

. ; , at ain ve nae in 
yy - sf 7 . 7 — Be > ve tee / pet: 7 
CME. .scseneaneeseessensneeneseeenenats tie gna 

par: 

goola eons! evolIey x03 bebsed omg Rear 

“ix ue 

‘ ay aos sewollo? Be yswilss eee asa, 
3 

+2 sa 
le © « a ca ae Ja, j 
- ie en : er ; ateW 
. ae . sO scneues 
ef 35: y Bod ; 
- yo hi Sony atlas +e a 
e 
> o74"24 M . + *.2 
C. 
' +) = <> 3 
00s ~~ oe 


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, aaa 03? Soi bas sbgns2 moxt smp2, et <8389 008. 


\ 


eeel as beszoqez fos nomba roi josh. sotsexghmml =e 1a 
= > fh eye 


» * 
.=Q3 ae ad saw bnvois gotta cé x03 bast» 10 320m 
“9 od Zegusen ods 38 tid badzoges saw It es 
omae 
pstbeaso baw ,3 snsdeb, eoltm 61 03. - cows sida dav 
: | . ae 4 % 
mort eolig a3 segsl. 2s gis olsa x02 aba : owl Lad 


art oe 
. Mad 


qisaia® edi ap notaoubs 0 dqy08 eatin 0 
sno Tt gine eldalisva sisw abes . 


~ml gatileves? 3p 
tL Of. .2x9g8T 


= wei 
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nr” = Jira oa r¢ 


261 


went 5 to 10 miles from the railway. By 1902, alli home- 
steads and Canadian Pacific lands for 20 miles around Ed- 
monton were taken, though not all were occupied or cultiva- 
ted.2 

C.W. Sutter, the Dominion Immigration Agent in Ed- 
monton, reported that for the six months ending June 30, 
1900, 6,284 immigrants had settled in Alberta. Of these, 
2,184 settled north, east and west of Edmonton, the rest 
at various points between Calgary and Strathcona, mostly at 
Didsbury, Olds, Ponoka, Lacombe, Wetaskiwin, Millet, and 
Leduc.2 Five hundred cars of settlers' effects were un- 
loaded between Calgary and Edmonton. Between July and 
October of 1903, 1,056 homestead entries were made at the 
Edmonton office. 

In the decade between the pushing of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway across the prairies and the arrival of the 
Calgary and Edmonton at the North Saskatchewan River (1883- 
1891), hardly a settler established himself in the country 
between Calgary and Edmonton. In the decade following, the 
number of people who moved into the region, despite adverse 

lgdmonton Bulletin, Feb. 28, 1898. 


2Ibid., Mar. 18, 1903. 


3Estimated immigration along the C. & E. line, which 
in 1893 stood at 3,143, fell to 1,381 in 1896 but topped 
6,000 for the first half of 1900, when a "boom" was underway. 


~ 





















- * x + Past 
—s a am f + 


<2 nl *sna9A noltexghamt notihmed es oat A 
be soul gaibas sijmom xie ‘edd 10% ‘340d bassogs x aa 

‘ sitad ba. adiodfA ft belated bad etnsxgiomt } 
dex adi .fodmomba Yo teow bas jess .d3x09 bel3: 

te ylseom .snootts132 bas angtsd noswied agatog 


wy, 


tot tit M ‘ ntwhtestew .sdmooat slonod ey: ud bt 


a" 
pate 


an stéw 2tositits -'ereltise Jo B1BS boxbaud vit <p 


add js shan ersw Esltine baszestod “320, f coe gs 


“An tbeaso’ $43 20 anldeuq oft neswisd SbASsb™ f 
ed3 3o [eviaze sd3 bas ‘asixisxq ods eeorps ° 7 wits ot 


| oH £3 
~88I) ‘saviet Baas otiogade ne” daz0l off ts si 5 
‘erimiog ed). nk Tisaatt apa Sasisies 
iff. , : ,gndwgtio2 pbsvad | e af 


aexevie he: abasic “ofl odnt's 


ro a + PP) See ; ae eti oY a * 
ek ES aR ~ BBL... BS © :40% ak 
’ = ‘a. a ee Al a s < &, > he a Se Bis - 
Pi on ; a r. a" Wa 


dotsiw ,entl .3 3 .d° aie anole t 
| beqqos jud 308f-nt Bet of 
.YSwisbay Baw “soot” 8 note .<f 


at 
ee op a 48 


— 262 


economic conditions generally for the earlier '90's, took 
a sharp turn upwards. 

The Canada Census reveals that average annual immi- 
gration into the District of Alberta--which increased from 
20 around 1850 to 85 in the late '70's and to 352 in the 
'80's--rose precipitously to 2,136 in the decade of the 
1890's. This represented an increase in average annual im- 
migration of 507 per cent over that of the preceding de- 
cade, ! 

Much of this increment in the population settled in 
ethnic groups, as indicated by a Bulletin survey of areas 
of settlement between Edmonton and Ponoka in the spring of 
1903.2 A large proportion of the settlement south, south- 
east, and south-west of Strathcona was English-Canadian. 
English-speaking Canadians also populated a "very fully de- 

1a sharp increase is noted, incidentally, in the be- 
ginning of the '80's compared with the ‘70's (322%) due to 
the survey and construction of the C,P,.R. The rise was, 
however, markedly steeper in the decade after the C. & E. 
was built. Compare immigration into the other three dis- 
tricts of the N.W.T. at the time. During the period, 1880- 
90, Assiniboia East drew 4,776 immigrants, 1,258 more than 
Alberta did. In the next 5 years, however, Alberta drew 
5,764, Assiniboia East 3,281. The total for Alberta was 
almost identical with that for other 3 districts combined. 
During the period, 1895-1900, Alberta's immigration total- 
led 15,599; the other 3 districts, 18,450 (Assiniboia East, 
11,824). See Canada Census, 1901, Vol. I. 


2Edmonton Bulletin, Mar, 18, 1903. 


gloo2 ,2 02! 19ifsR9 ; 


’ 












-lomt isunns 93629V8 sats alsevez 


moxi bsessxoat dolrw--sd2edfA Io sorssele | f2 cant mo 


eda at Stl of bas e "or! etal oda at 28 ot ett bn . 
a 


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5 ih ee 


. . §ne 


-mi [sumsm ogatSVvS nt sesoronlr os b93 19893987 e. dT a 
hese. PSs. 
-sb gaibeoe1g ols to jad, revo 3199 ~e, Oe. io sottszgt 
, Tg | 
nolssai ugqog edt ot insmetont ates 20 douM oi 


’ 
a 


o 
* 


‘ 


to yeviIue pirel ipa B a botsotbat 25  equoxe: of n 


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Shee « : 


Jisoe .divea snomeljsee. adi to noldzeqozg ogre A 


¢ =~ 
























i 






to goiuge 


~febis 278 esw ‘Bn00dI 8198. to seowed 


e askbsnso 


lui yrev" s bedalugog oels ensibsnso 


“ 


«9@ edt at , Yi snehton ,betson ay RP a 
og sub (Rese) 2 'OV* saz ‘diiw bersqao02 & ‘08' 
.esw setx eff 8.9.9 of to noksouxyened 
32 .D ond zetia obageb ed32 al a 

-aib eo2ts yeiso sii ofat a) 2 
-0881 ,bakzveq of3 gatiwd .emks ans 
pedd swom GeS.1 ,2scexphemk OTT. es 
woxb sisedié revgwod . , 8 IBSE 
eaw strodlA 0% fasos sdr .18 « 
-bonidmas etoixtelb € serio roi. 
-~lgto3 noltstgiont e'stusdiA {00 e@l- 
.2e62 siodiatess) G28,.81 azokuse: 
i = Ah ane 38 es te 


coer OL oe 
! a" wea aa r 
. eee ie 


263 


veloped district" on the south side of the river north-east 
of Strathcona, further north-east in the area of Fort Sask- 
atchewan and Bruderheim, and the district still further 
mart around Beaver Hills and Victoria, as well as east of 
Leduc. West of Leduc was an almost entirely English-speak- 
ing settlement from the United States. 

There were German settlements to the south-west of 
Strathcona, to the north-east near Josephsburg and Bruder- 
heim, and east of Leduc where there was a considerable Ger- 
man group. 

French-Canadians were settled south of Strathcona, 
the largest Galician settlement in the North-West was be- 
yond Victoria on both sides of the river, and a consider- 
able Scandinavian ip eee settled east of Lande. 
There was another settlement to the south-east in the Bea- 
ver Lake and Vermilion districts extending to around Veg- 
reville. 

Another quite dramatic effect of the railway upon 
the country it was built to serve was the sudden appearance 
and steady growth of towns along the line of the railway. 
Hedges has aptly put it: 

| Aorat lway built through unsettled country exercises a 


profound influence not only on rural development but 


lnedges, Sra ett... p.- "Oa. 









ne pone 
Jese-s10n tovbs sae ‘aa baw | ata ” | 
oo Nth a 


é& 
an “a pb, 7 


~Aeed J70% 20 B9I8 orf at ayae-isse 
ar ya 
ba: Se thas 


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~* 4 ‘ea a] . 


sariziuz Ifksa sotzeab aft bas 


to Jess 286 thew #6 sbxos01V bas otter’ weed" baw sis 
a I agp - 
ee) - 1%. ie ey 
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aie a cae ae 
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‘ 


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cal 
a se - 
% « 


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~sd 28W zesti-d2107 oxi nt saomals3ee 4 patohisd 9 . 
ssebienoo s bos ,tevit on + seble dod _ 

subst to tes9 ‘bels3se eaw nobteluqgog naive 2 . 
“sot ons a3 § teas-MIuo0e oa = daomel37e6 efter eR 


Ay on bi i 
-39V bavors oF gatbaesxe o3atasnbs aade mee [ 
~ tr haw Sad: grease aN 
3 dite selina rey x Shy ty 
Ay Sr gee aaa ae belie . 


37. 


poqu: p Net tax of 20 avsits obtaan7 | 
4 ated s) og oor on 


sone162998 ngbbue ota enw at 
.“switex sift To a edt. ca 


ey s “ “ 'e ; ¥: fl “Ret 5% ‘e4” 


& eoeiotsxs Yt 
Sud uaaniaaee 


264 


also on the growth of towns; it becomes, in fact, the 
chief promoter of town sites. 


This fact is seen clearly in the case of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway, too. The Edmonton Bulletin reported in 
the winter of 1894: "Towns are springing up at almost every 
railway station. . a all surveyed and laid out in uniform 
squares and streets before any houses are to be built," 

Reference has been made to the power of a railway 
to make or break a town and to the people's consciousness 
of that power which the railway company held over them and 
their future. In light of this fact, the approach of the 
railway became the strongest possible stimulus toward a 
recognition by the citizens of the need for united action 
to protect and advance their interests. In the case both 
of Edmonton and Macleod, the approach of the Calgary and 
Edmonton Railway accelerated steps toward civic organiza- 
tion and incorporation. 

The Be oy and Edmonton Railway's power to make 
an entirely new town is best seen in the example of Strath- 
cona, which appeared out of nowhere to rival the old estab- 
lished settlement across the river at Edmonton. So much 
was Strathcona viewed as a product of the Company's betray- 


al of the interests of Edmonton that it was identified with 


lEdmonton Bulletin, Jan. 29, 1894. 










943 , Jon? ak isentogt 2 


oe 


bas canals os ie pane ada cs aiaals 
at botroqa: mtzattet agsombs et L003 ~ male ) 
yisvs 32omis 3a qu gnignizqe ou emwoT” -Ae8r. ee ON 
ele i | | ty Seat 


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aaottoy nt jue bis! ba beyevive [Is mee mob 8: 
. 7 7 i name zo 
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; vet ) 


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4 7 a 

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a i 


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‘ ; As 
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aotsos bsiiay 108 been sf3 to enestiio ods. ed nota cn 1997 
1 os a ots - 

dtod sears ad ni ,e2ast9sat ried3 ‘sonavba bas 3 sioxq. 


a ; iis nae oi 
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. 265 
the Company and its backers and with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway and bore a share of the odium attached to these 
two corporations in the eyes of the Edmonton Bulletin and 
the citizens of Edmonton. 

In 1891, the site of Strathcona was surveyed and a 
station erected. Such was Strathcona's growth that whereas 
before the railway came in 1891 there were only three or 
four log houses inhabited within the later corporate limits 
of the town, by the summer of 1892 fifteen houses and bus- 
iness places were established, including a Canadian Pacific 
Railway hotel, a post office, a school, and a roller pro- 
cess flour mill--the first north of Calgary. Eighty town 
lots had already been sold, the population of the surround- 
ing district had doubled and was expected to double again 
by the following summer, The Winnipeg press wrote glowing- 
ly of the prospects of the new "Edmonton" and its inevit- 
able growth to a position of primacy in ehe north. Esp- 
ecially after the opening in 1894 of the Indian reserve which 
bordered Strathcona on the south, and once the financial 


depression of 1895 had passed, the village began to grow 


Istrathcona, The Railway Town, a Board of Trade 


pamphlet (Strathcona: The Plaindealer Company, 1903). 


2k dmonton Bulletin, Nov. 28, 1892. Col. Denny 
wrote in 1915: "Had not the Klondyke gold rush occurred, 
Strathcona might have been the principal city." Op. cit., 
Soern 


leat 1P 4 
























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266 


rapidly as a class of thrifty farmers moved in. looking to 
the Kootenay mining country as a promising market. Contin- 
uing growth warranted incorporation as a Ebr th 1899, and 
population was estimated at 2,500 by 1903. School enroll- 
ment which stood at 20 in 1892 had reportedly climbed to 
500 ‘a 1903.! Strathcona was described as the "transship- 
ping point of the outward and inward oe freight of 

the northern portions of the district." 

In the winter of 1892-3, the Edmonton Bulletin 
dealt with the "rise and rapid growth of a number of smart 
little towns at little stations along the line" of the Cal- 
gary and Edmonton Railway for at least 150 miles of its 
length.” In 1891, wrote the editor, "the traveller between 
Calgary and Edmonton saw Baty the nie stations and yg ae 
ping places for freighters," but in the spring of 1892 "the 
rush of people... began" and centres of population ap- 
peared at the old stopping places and elsewhere on the line. 

Names with a rich historical interest, replacing 
the old names bearing references to nature, were applied to 
these mushrooming villages. It is related that on the com- 


pletion.of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, William van 


Istrathcona, A Railway Town, ibid. 
2Edmonton Bulletin, June—-14,-1897;-Mar. 17, 1903. 


3tbid., Jan. 16, 1893. 4T dem 



























or gatdcol | “a Pron jemrsi 47 
a nee 


. 


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=) 


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267 


Horne sent a request to Father Lacombe 

for appropriate names for the new villages springing 

up along the line. Wetaskiwin, Ponoka, Otaskawan were 

among the names he gave, while others like Lacombe, 

Leduc and Hobbema were chosen by Sir William, who as a 

connoisseur in men and art at one stroke placed on the 

map of the west the names of two pioneers and an artist 

_.whose works he admired, 1 

Coming from the south, one saw the "first signs of 
new settlements" at Olds, a site on the old trail known as 
Lone Pine. The town was "as yet chiefly in the imagination," 
reported the Bulletin, consisting of a station, immigration 
shed, store, hotel, and a schoolhouse under construction.” 
Almost exactly one year later, however, the government's 
Travelling Immigration Agent recorded that Olds, along with 
Lacombe, had "sprung into prominence, and bid fair to rival 
the other towns."3 Where one year before, there had been 
but four buildings, he wrote, there was now a village of 
about 100 in population. 
Innisfail, just north of Constant's stopping place 

on the old trail, was "claimed by its residents to be the 


4 


brightest, smartest, and most growing town along the line."" 


| lnughes, oprhcit .¢grptosa%. 
2Edmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. 


3Report of the Dominion Government Travelling Immi- 


——- Se —  ——- -S— 


gration Agent, Jan. 11, 1894, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1894. 





4zdmonton Bulletin, Jan. 16, 1893. 
























ST g> Oe ie “+ admoaad 
garectuge moo 5 oh wen ie a eoman & 199 
w newaslest0 _sAonot,  atwides3sW ® re gnc 
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Jaiz7a os bas ezasnotg ows 3o esmsn ofi3 teow : 2c 
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Pa | 


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oC 


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i 





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sy 
ods — o2 etasbieox e335. xd bontafa" ssw .f 


fiw ig : “Pg fy? it Pin oe em ee ag ae 
_ t onkl ads gaots mwot: gaiwory Jeom bas (sas 
Fi are ." +a 4 
Sig > of ~ 
+ 4 4 Sang . 
a Tat ene gk 


| gotiieves? SHZRAAD LD 
nae ii .°K --gasemt Dagote: 


268 


The first houses were erected there in the spring of 1891, 
and by the close of the following year there were, accord- 
att to the Bulletin, between 300 and 500 residents there. 
The town included five or six stores, two hotels, a public 
school, and two churches (Presbyterian and Episcopal). A 
brick yard was added in 1893, and the town eer 
marked progress during the year."1 

The town of Red Deer, Pyere the railway had only 
arrived late in the fall of 1891, was begun in the spring of 
1892. There had been an old town’ three miles further up 
the Red Deer River, where the old trail crossed the river, 
consisting of two stores, one of which belonged to Leo 
Gaetz--the real pioneer of the place--, a mounted police 
station, and three or four houses. The "establishment of 


the railway crossing and station on the next flat below, 


lReport of the Dominion Government Travelling Immi- 
gration Agent, ibid. 


2Edmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. Rev. Leo Gaetz, ap- 
pearing before the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture 
and Colonization in the House of Commons, declared on Feb. 
26, 1890 that "the area of settlement around Red Deer 
would be over a length of seven or eight miles along the 
Edmonton trail, by three or four miles east and west of 
the trail, but it is a scattered settlement . ... I sup- 
pose there are about a hundred occupying homesteads. ... 
They would average . . . from 150 to 200 in that settlement." 
Leo Gaetz, Report of Six Years' Experience of a Farmer in the 


—_— Fee OO 


Red Deer District (Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, 1892), pp. 25-6. 

































wet 3 ah A 
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sas oh 


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~ 


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269 

entirely killed the town at the old crossing and caused 
the removal of whatever business had been established there 
to the new town." During 1892, the town fad been added 
to very greatly, according to the Bulletin, and had "a 
number of business establishments that in the matter of 
penee carried and buildings eee would be a credit to 
a place three times the size."2 Red Deer was also the 
dining station of the Cana aand Edmonton Railway, an im- 
portant ai ateibuting point, and the site of a small mill. 
So much progress did Red Deer quickly make that James 
Woodsworth, Superintendant of Northwest missions of the 
Methodist Church, who visited there in 1892 and in 1894, 
exclaimed after his second visit: "What a change in Red 
Deer! From a few small log Sees RAE grown a pL aeaye 
flourishing town.'? According to the Bulletin, there were 
about 300 people living in the town by 1897.4 

North of Red Deer, the first station was Lacombe, 
situated one mile east of Barnett's stopping place on the 
old Calgary trail. All the Bulletin could report in La- 


combe in the winter of 1892-3 was a post office and a small 


~1tdem 2Tdem 


3James Woodsworth, Thirty Years in the Canadian 
North-West (Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, 1917), 
Des. 





45 dmonton Bulletin, loc. cit. 


es on 
beeusa bom gauedas bio ota. 


ae ee 
dys, 

gteds b ale tidsses nged bad eponteud 3 aera 
bybés need Sse qwos ad ,S08l gate oe 


a" Bed bos ,atieilse ods 6? gnitrxo928 site 



















Sab 


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2 : ' oa ‘os 
a) 


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to 39320, eds ot sed eraemdelidases ceonteud 30,36 Bets 
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- 


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4 


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i ; oan 

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e 














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‘nathansd ent ot iad bined a Aad 





270 


store, but one year later the Government Agent referred to 


it as "now a place of considerable importance." 


The town 
site had been’surveyed and put on the market only in May, 
1893, and where one year before there had been just one 
small store in a log shack, now there were eleven places 
of business. The estimated population in 1897 was about 
200.2 

Twenty miles still further north was Ponoka sta- 
tion on the Battle River. The country through which the 
Battle River flowed--from Ponoka to Battleford, a distance 
of over 200 miles--was "probably the finest area of agri- 
cultural land that the Northwest contains."3 Growth in 
Ponoka was slower than that of Innisfail, Red Deer, Wetask- 
iwin, Olds or Lacombe, and there was only a handful of 
people there by 1899. In the next five years, however, it 
grew into a thriving energetic town. | 

Wetaskiwin, on the east side of the Peace Hills, did 
not exist at the beginning of Ruount. 1892, but by the win- 
ter it owned three or four general stores and the largest 

Report of the Dominion Government Travelling Immi- 
gration Agent, ibid. 

2Edmonton Betreein, tt. cll. 3Idem 


4Ponoka, 1904-1954, 50th Anniversary, a pamphlet. 


















a oly x i” 


ont besistss: ‘heal Jaonmze aye ty shal jc 
feel 


mies ott! eaandz0qnt iment 03) Yo a 
.yeM nt yino Jodrsa edz m0 Jug il Kos “id 


oe ode 6c 


~~ ¥ 


oo Cad ne 
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+ i = is a 

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xe 421 Pie 
(ar e a 
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-seontend, 

ei ‘a i 

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}e=. 8 
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Se 
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r 


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to ivtbosd s ylae gaw s19d3 bos arta eB10 4 

$f ,sayewod (as 189% svt? 3x80 oda at “veear xe sual 
® vos okjegrens: satis v4 


xt ort 
- 
i 


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Mees ete te 


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; sei dauak S .\7seveve: 


271 


hotel between Calgary and Edmonton, Its population was 
nearly as large as that of Innisfail. "This place has 
made a most rapid growth," commented the Bulletin.! A 
year later, the Immigration Agent reported: "Wetaskiwin, 
having received by far the largest immigration of any 
town along the C. and E, Railway, except Edmonton, has 
grown rapidly ."* Its population had reached about 200, and 
the "country around it was filling up rapidly." By 1903, 
it had become the largest town between Calgary and Edmon- 
ton and was the chief point of departure from the railway 
line for immigration for the country along the Battle River 
both north and south for 100 miles.4 

Leduc was described in 1903 as the "centre of a 
large and growing settlement" and an important shipping 
point and distributing centre for a large area. 

Edmonton had "Sone ahead rapidly," and with new 
fire protection, extensive sidewalks just built, and its 
electric light, was "fast coming to the point as the lead- 


_ing town in Alberta," according to the Bulletin. Its 


le dmonton Bubletin, loc. cit. 


2Report of the Dominion Government Travelling Immi- 
gration Agent, ibid. 


3Idem 4Idem 


SE dmonton Bulletin, Mar. 17, 1903. 





















wt vi : i 


env ‘not sntogeq et a b 
én aoa! q shar” prance: 
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(piiwisigns ow : bestogex 3 ogh a 

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pecs 


pe HiaNPe Wee bie 
“peat we Cec ytbiges ‘qu gakith eaw 32 bavios Agecr® 


a 


bas . O08 inoda Bardaax Bad notsaluqog ast 


if 


moms bre aegtao isowied mos suagiel ait r 


< 


Wewl bs ‘ond aor? outta thgeb % sntog tetdo. bas enw ete 


Sues yaaa er | 
tevin aljaed sad givot s erdiirue ont so¥ Lepiervon > fe atl ee LA 
a 
wi s oo - 
OR: se 


a ee ; “* dorin 00 20%” “Rau0s bas 


Yo isha 0 A os Eber nt bedts9e6b ssi Gua caer 
ace op a 


ghtugrie ‘Jns3 ak “peas ib 5 pont sae ‘saiwosg’ brs 
é SSL: \ sa B Rang, besa emis 


ite Sa Oy ca : ; 
Y ee A Ve le i i ay 5 , : oe “a OE VF od 
nee * Be bi. nee ee 3s ie ; 
VS Asan ae “abel Dee; 
be » a ; —r. ; eas 


pe me Pane “i 


ey Pa Tae! b a : 


272 
population, a little over 500 in 1890, stood at 1200 to 
1500 in 1897, and had climbed to over 2,500 by 1901 and to 
5,445 in 1903. A total assessment of $675,000 in 1891 erew 
to $1,500,000 by 1901.1 

Calgary shared with Regina the Bulletin's nomina- 
are the leading city in the Territories. 

Truly, "the advent of the railway north of Calgary 
had transformed the silent peetertc into scenes of activity.'2 
Reflecting ehaieraath of the towns was the fact that the 
Bulletin felt justified in saying in the fall of 1901 that 
there was "no part of the Northwest which was growing as 
rapidly or where already the local business centres were 
more important or closer together." The Calgary and Ed- 
monton Railway served 15 Hee perce between those So 
centres.4 

The impact of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway was 

libid., June 14, 1897; Aug. 12, 1901; Apr. 23, 1903. 
Denny credits the Klondyke gold rush with starting Edmonton's 


"boom." It "set Edmonton on its feet," and was "the making 
of modern Edmonton." Op. cit., pp. 277-8, 





2Woodsworth, Peyeg a aE «me 
_ 3Edmonton Bulletin, Sept. 20, 1901. 


4The post offices served were at Airdrie, Carstairs, 
Didsbury,, Olds, Bowden, Innisfail, Penhold, Red Deer, Black- 
falds, Lacombe, Ponoka, Wetaskiwin, Millet, Leduc, and El- 
lerslie. Of these, Olds, Innisfail, Red Deer, Lacombe, 
Ponoka, Wetaskiwin, and Leduc were important business cen- 
tres doing a large trade, Idem 


by en Stas ppt 








03 oot 46 booze 0R8r ab ¢ 
< bas 10€K wf tgS save 08 boda 
wSis ree at 000, e58¢ 20 soemessaes Isgtos 


tars de: t ny x 





ve he 


ot. A 00k mt. 2h 

uae ir tyie a 
_ .g0et xe 900 02 £8 
“satan 2 ‘atoll ing 3 olin ante berede vost, % a be 


.vokzea kaget oda nt yo eter 





















en to dszon Val tay of to. esrb ota" 


ti, 


<@ivitos to gencce osnt obzkaig tnalte — bamsotane 
ed said tos2 sf? asw eros. orf ie daworg alt 


19843. Fess 0 iis oils nt gate at belitieut | fe 


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pisw-2etdmey eeont Leud Laval odd Saeyls, ered, 70, | 
* APA ag 


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ae ite 4 


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‘ es. 
(> 8 
2 


i yrs 
. Ais ft ee ( 


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anw ese moan ane cmatd ar Em Me ree 


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‘ antaeaed gatyuste diiw fleur bl iA 9 
git ten sgitigs tes ".Ise% ‘ot sodati 393 


he 8-KK5 +99. the 2" a0 
say : 181 9 atl at one 
. leet a8 Prigsee d 


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a r a ns ee 


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ORY 6:08 Wik 
i ure viet 
a 7 


273 


felt not only in terms of an increased immigration and set- 
tlement and of the mushrooming of new towns along the line 
but also in terms of a stimulus to the economy of the re- 
$i ok tributary to the line. An editorial.in the Edmonton 
Bulletin during the summer that construction began at Cal- 
gary spoke glowingly of the changed conditions to be 
brought about by the advent of the railway. 

The editor foresaw increased prosperity due to the 
circulation of money during construction, a rise in land 
values, the end of the freighting industry, an increase in 
farm production, greater wealth for farmers who would have 
access to the world market and benefit from higher prices, 
and an expansion in non-agricultural industries including 
coal, timber, gold, flour milling, and petroleum. Although 
the anticipation of a boom in the working of gold and pet- 
roleum deposits was visionary, the benefits hoped for in 
other sectors of the economy were realized. 

The initial economic effects of the Calgary and Ed- 
monton Railway were the direct result of the construction 
of the railway. The building of the line offered work 
and wages to the new settler, thus providing him with the 
ready money which would help to establish him on his farm. 
Besides the foreign market now being opened up, the settler 


found a temporary market’ for his produce in the construc- 






























* i - = > me " v st 


to | 


ia f 
“joe bne | notdexgimat onda 8 Shi 7 
ie ; ye: 


enti sdJ gnola. ecwdd won to “gnte road aii edt to | 

ema ait. 5 

Le 4, Ret ’ ‘ 

“3% add 30 ymonNoS $a ‘of aulumise & toe — 3a) is 
m 

Ft 


ye 
nor nos onba wits nk Isiszozibs aA .onkl ods es! 1 a. 


cham + : . 7 — ‘ 
-[23 35 negsd notsoursenos jad3 x squnue add amie » 2 ntze 


ed ot enotsthaes bagnaado ad to cigaely'@a bys: 
aA +63 


os wera tey sft Yo thavbs oft’ "yd so0da 3 fob: iguso ad 





4 
¥ v ¢ * , La | 
3 63 sub yiiyedeortq baesstsal wsa9703 z03 tbe oat” 


» joe Os 


- 
_ 


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ae, 


me 


ire 
ee ee : 34, yw 7 y 
nit sebstoni of * exreth brik f pabsiigtss2 oft to bas ‘ada 2st 


- 
6 mi 


- 7 
o 


svad biiiow odw eromusi tot diizew 1Ssdb97g <nokiouborq th rel 
as. 
; * ety a 


,sesitq asagii mord. 2i26med bru seul ‘bixow eft of 225598 — 
he = RK ii 

gntbulonl -aoltsevbnt rsxesSuottas-s0a fa soeinges a - 

dawodsik .aveloutsq bie gabliia ers blog” 96nd * i . 


“Jeq bas biog io sniiiow sm nt mood 8 te sotseqtsl tag s 8 


Oe ery) iaek > iv oy : ae 
al 10% Beqed ss lished odd’ .tsgobéty cin “diene mole 
: ; nine y ; 

£ * ’ 


4. » = w 2 se 1 aes 
— 2 ft * ns % § hay , 
bextissx aysw yroness: of, to oe eget 

t 2 Beales | 

-RF, bre eaegis? ada ae. etoadis ateqaons 2 sale aye iat 


a 


pal) Pit ‘ 
& = 


noitdoustsanios els” te $iwees 3 
anew ‘tiupedreLSatt—Sa9 3 ‘fo snl 
ats dakw abd gakbivesq eurft <ssiae beasts 
oe a uf 


sant Z Pn 


ee a4 na mth. Le car sebeaa ed Biber 


ye i Ay 
yah eae shed 


nol supe, ai, ,9 saath 


sauIJeNeD ots m8 


oo, 
walled bo. 
* 


274 


tion going on along the line.! 

The building of the railway opened up choice lands 
for new settlers. The report concerning the ene ae 
of the Northwest Territories for the year 1890 stated that 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway would “open up a vast re- 
gion of country, which, for extent of fine arable land and 
wonderful natural resources, is equal, if not superior, to 
_any district of the Territories."* Homestead entries which 
stood at 495 for the ees 1891 eth tc t00/95s8in1 1892. 
Particularly valuable pate opened up by the railway was the 
Edmonton district, the Battle River country, and the country 
around Red Deer. The southern extension of the line from 
Calgary to Macleod traversed the "whole of the rich, grass- 
covered plateaus and valleys of the ranching districts of 
the south-west,"" 

The boon to agriculture can hardly be exaggerated. 
The Lieutenant-Governor of the Territories in his official 


lor a more thorough discussion of this point, the 
reader is referred to Chapter V, pp. 116-18. 
2Report Concerning the Administration of the North- 


——SS  ————— eS -  ——-—O "+ 





Papers, No. 17, 1891. 


3Report Concerning the Administration of the North- 


oS OO -- 





Papers, No. 13, 1892. Refrigerated cars on the railway 
proved a great boon to the ranching industry. Macleod 
Gazette, Dec. 29, 1892. . 
























aoaeae age 


>, om Sie 7 


: can erat 


abnal siitonll gu bansgo gutter os tos at i | 
— ae pic om 
| WF "Sn oe 
a + 
ms hile 
Net 


3ad3 bedede OBI usey af sot eotsostrset sa9W 


bea 


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(tae 


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=? , 


ye oe 


-* = 
howe 


of ,xobisqya Jon 32 .—— ‘ai _pen1v0eet Lexuiem [ai OW 


- a rea 


ies 


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c= sie 
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fe aa 


* 


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hae 4) 


aha 
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S bes iS > ue mee 

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; 2 ‘ah py — 
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/ iM 


; — 


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&*.geowd ‘ 
hoISTSBRQBsS - 9 bused Bo osus.oolage o3 nood 9% 


Istoliio ak sk agisoaizaet ods to ‘erzevod snes x 


y mae > 


7 ~ = 


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i Sie ‘94 « v zaaqed 03 be @° | 

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-dasoh sit 30 gokse | sake C 


Teno MOL2 = BBE eS 


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[anatgese o Seal es 
(awils1 sf3 90. 


boslsgit .v 


275 


report to the government in Ottawa commended the Canadian 
Pacific Railway "for their efforts to connect with the 
markets of the world those portions of our country which 
ae await the toil and labour of the immigrant to become 
erring fields of wheat.' nt Woodsworth wrote that whereas 
before the advent of the’ railway, "there was but little 
inducement to grow wheat eeronaively now that shipping 
facilities have been provided, the people of Edmonton are 
looking to both East and West for markets."2 He reported 
that in the fall of 1891 ten carloads of wheat had gone 
from Edmonton to Toronto; three carloads of oats had been 
shipped out as well and 165 head of cattle had gone out to 
British Columbia. The Dominion Avent at Calgary reported 
for the year 1897 that "there is a ready market for every- 
thing the farmer can produce at very good prices."3 Grain 
buyers were coming in from Manitoba, and elevators were 
being built along the Calgary and Edmonton line. The Immi- 
gration Agent at Edmonton stated in his 1898 report that the 
more prosperous condition of the agricultural industry 


"results largely from greatly reduced freight rates, which 


—_—_———- Ss —-  ——- 


cine Seni “Uaekenman® Ghunsauacscs commmatomeore > 


2Woodsworth, Op.eCLt., pp. 160-61. 


3Report of the Agent at Calgary, Dec. 31, 1897, 
Sessional Papers, | No. 13, 18 1898. 































iar Pe ; 5 


ppibans® of >ehoamma ‘ita at = “~ ead a 
4 at on ay wr ’ 


; : haafienigs 
- oa ‘dg scegsed oi 033083 stad water: 
De ee | aaa ! 7 
eles tetse v “$nu0o wo io enott109 s20ds brow et toe = 


: et ie . 
el “= 


amoved 62. samt ate, atta to suodst bas eye oo ae 
re oi oi ea 
att ¥, 
esotedw 2sto stor ; dixowaboow iw peer 16 eblel? » anti. 
é a ae Pik; Fey de 


“$00: anita "eda -yawiist ‘es to Inevbs or 10 


. ° Uae 
* 


gqine Jada won oviensars saadu worg o3 3 a oF 
’ - a mee a 


4 " ae 


ts cojscmid Zo af gosq adi -bsbive ed need sved aslst 


. : oem 
ae ¢ 

botvtodgst sh ” ,atootsam tot jas bas tesa daod o2 
¥ * ~% . ; me VE. 

esog bat aaetiw to ebscl iso n93 LOBE to in vas ak 

. " ' é d 3 ‘ f Laae 
asad bad etse an ebsol 289 ests sosmoxoT 03 nosnoabe | 
P a's | hee area 


“ ey a 4 | ian. 7 a wae. 
ot tuo ‘aneg badd eftis> to bast 2af bos ilew en ae ats 


i 
- 


¢ . 


boerogs ’ Sanaa) 38 390A is: olatmod oat .sidmukod a 
ay -- : p A Pe ile <q oo 
-Yrev3s rot toex1em bast g at exada" saat Year TBSY ¢ oa 
a. So yee F: yah Pa EY 2ite ' + 

gtend © agetxe owe | av as alibi nao tearxrst ad2 | eS 
r ‘ > we rie |) “a of tei el 

Siow exedeus slo bri ‘odes bel venie ot ——. 278" 

: ae of eset Pie 

-timmalt sit sont setaomba bain engi) © ods 00k id. git 


ult wreTs.) ov 
Clas — e , ‘Ay 
er oe et 


i ae “is if i Led ; 
“id. Jed? Ivoges gest ald ws en dt H00 , Sasga not: 
+4 a “et ea . 


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7a ka Oe u ne > —_—" 7 7 
— : oath radait 7 


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| one Decccii: a cy’ 
-dii0t! oti 29 SOt SI ee 2 a ae | 








276 


during the past two years have opened up the southern Brit- 
ish Columbia market to the products of northern Alberta." 
Besides fertile lands, other natural resources of 
the country such as timber and coal were brought into touch 
with the commercial market. Woodsworth reported ten car- 
loads of coal being shipped to Calgary during the first 
year of the railway's operation.2 The rush of immigration 
into the region created a demand also for timber for new 
buildings and hay for feed. The Edmonton Crown Timber Of- 
fice declared that pene taed of a million board feet of 
"lumber of all kinds is now in such demand that the stocks 
on hand at the mills will not meet it."3 Just under 
1,000,000 board feet of lumber were sold that year in Ed- 
monton, The output of timber in 1892 was over double that 
of previous years yet it was not nearly sufficient to sup- 
ply the demand. To October 3lst of that year, sales reach- 


ed 2,400,000 feet.4 


The advent of the railway also meant lower costs 


lReport of the Agent of Dominion Lands at Edmonton, 


eee eee ee eee ee 


Jan. 2, 1899, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1899. 
2Woodsworth, SOC eel te 


3Report of the Crown Timber Agent at Edmonton, Oct. 
31, 1891, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1892. 





“Tbid,, Oct. 31,.1892, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1893. 


— 
























» 


= my 
ies Paks, 7 

4 ideas i ; 
-tix8 - a 
tx miad3uoe ods qu benoge . seh ram coeen 


im stuodiA miadtx0n to estouborg ofa oo oe a 
we fs ) 
to eso1woest Isuu2eR. ta30 .ebast attine's 


doves o2st jadguord ersw Isod bas redmr3 2s prec 


ae tb 


-t52 ao3- basucqst fy x0weboow aaa atoxgamos : Ae 
, iy hy Bor 


texii off pied: yisgisd ot bsqgide gated Ison 2 


ak aS 


noissyetomk to dest od £ moliszsqo 8 ‘Nout tax eda 
ov tee by 
won vot tedmis 10i.cefs boameb s beqsese. notgs 
m ne 


~3Q t9dmiT sword nosnonba sat .bse2 ‘x02 wet bas as 


%o Jost bused nolli a to ebxtdd-ows sect beratoes . 


vb: 


aifoode: ert stars beageb dqwe al. wor at abnta ifs 20 re 
- 


tsbav seul C" si goom Jon [idw-alite od3 yy i 
Log ers a } 
: “be al saey Jsd3 bloz sisw xedow!l ito +oa3 aanes 000 ,00 


+ 6 
hee 4: 

os he 

Pio, f° 


ted ef dvob s9v0 aew Seef nt xedmt2 2o. sugqiue § .nosnom 
Hh ree 
ead a 
., 


-qyz ot daololiiva yioasesa jon §sw 3t sex. bom 2u0. 


“us 


-dosst esise 169% 2ed3, Io salt x9d0300.0T ' 


, 02 HOTS 


‘ 
«| ins 


.2290 ,agjaombd 35 ae adn 
y- ir 
lok , “ F Th aaa (> 
y 7 


reBE .£1 .0" arose 


277 


for goods formerly freighted in by paver or overland from 
Calgary. The Macleod Gazette in 1892 contained an adver- 
tisement of the Hudson's Bay Company offering a car of 
flour and of salt at "lower prices than have ever ruled 

in Macleod."! The advertisement noted the completion of 
the railway connection as the reason for the unusual offer. 

Large amounts of capital were brought in, both in 
the construction of the railway and by new settlers coming 
in to establish themselves on farms or to open up new bus- 
inesses. Indicative of this influx of capital are the an- 
nual reports of Dominion Government agents stationed at im- 
portant points along the Calgary and Edmonton line. 

In the three months from October to December, 1892, 
immigrants brought in $32,750 worth of effects. Animals 
brought in included 86 horses, 260 cattle, 132 sheep, and 
14 pigs. It was reported that many of those from the 
United States were returning Canadians with some means. 

Two hundred carloads of DrEEata ware brought in during 1893. 
The value of carloads coming in during 1895 was $235,525. 


Included were 838 horses, 503 cattle, 144 pigs, and 169 





IMacleod Gazette, Sept. 22, 1892. 


2Report of the Dominion Government Travelling In- 


telligence Agent, Calgary and Edmonton Railway, Aa fC ec 
1893, Sessional Papers, No. 13, 1893. 






























'y i ve a »z a : 
' lee Wes <1 
. i 4” 


mori baslssve. to 
pen we f8 tantaaes 98s 


¥ TSS 5 satiate ‘reqnod Aocor O08 


a 
‘bobirx seve avec = eastag sowot"™ 33: 


« ‘ Hs , : 
“ ? vo 8e Pee : 


to dottelqmoe ads serie Banas taiovba <— 


’ * 0 


‘ . ea ie ; 
Ai rizod at sfguosd stsW Ipstqeo to esavomt 


ar 


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ts Sk f ¥ ~~ ” + 
"2 Wan qu face OF TO ens si eovisemad3 peer: OF i 


7 co be i 
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Ph 


, al 


“mt 3s bast Made e2negs ieee 'n notabmod 20 2370999 | Saad 
* ¢ 37 ne a “ 
a batt nosaons bat ving! Pa) ods “gaol a i 
SOBs 1s6nos® o3 100900 mort | siiheesit ootds oda al 


. 
et - 


cakna , aaa to 3-108 pet te ‘nit “stguond tome | im 


‘ 
hi 
| 


bas sei set areas gas (es8ted ae bebutont at Adige [op 
5 eg 


: rar ; 


Per wos seed to Yani Soils ‘pevsogex asw | tT Seah 


° «<i { ~< (AOE age ay 
_ansem pee ‘date sustbadsd guiezmzet 3s 
ay as ¥ wb, tee 
E@EL witha ‘a Stgwoxd st3W ego Yo 2 


eke 2622 caw Ceal Bigs at 
*’ ye ; 


’ +" ' * ioe 


ear — 


get pk il evel 
.\ -ah Yee 


278 

sheep. 

The social impact of the railway is hardly measur- 
able. Indicative, however, was the reduction in the time 
Brerctved for the trip from Macleod to Calgary, as a result 
of the completion of the railway, from nearly two days to a 
sere four hours. Whereas formerly a traveller rode four 
hours by stage from Macleod to Lethbridge, eight hours by 
the Alberta Railway and Coal ompae train from Lethbridge 
to Dunmore, waited there for twelve hours for the mainliner 
from the east, and then rode in the dead of night to Cal- 
gary, now he left Macleod at 8:00 A.M. and arrived by the 
Calgary and Edmonton train in Calgary before dinner. + 

The Church, too, was net slow in establishing a mini- 
stry in the new centres along the railway. The Presbyterian 
minister, A.T. Grant, for example, who reached Edmonton in 
1887 wrote later: "We had followed the construction work of 
the Calgary and pan itor Railway and were the iguers church 
at all points along the road from Calgary to South Edmon- 
ton.""2 

Evidences of change such as have been only suggest- 
ed lend Sipport to the statement that the pioneér railway, 


in this case the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, "had an im- 


IMacleod Gazette, Sept. 15, 1892. 


2McKellar, op. cit., p. lll. 
























. cs : 

“ie. 2 Gay ea ee i Jase ate | 

-yueSom ibuad et vaulter a do 3: >Bqm =e piooe Q 
A oe poe 


emts sft ad no?soubsn ods aow <Tevawe tba 
pas be 9 wee _ 


ait: 
dives 6 5 ,yregisd oa osteo ‘mot? gixa Pe mh 6 
& of ayeb ows Ui vasa: no? a wil bws aft to cottol goo on ack 


py 
“quoi sbgz telisverds qizamz03 esoxedW -erwod 3 
es ae 


ud ezued Ingis sabkaddsat og aes acy wort bag ° : 
ie OF i ‘ Fi 


sghisdd3el moxt ake waqmod [sod ae owl tell A 
Ors ue hia § 
soentintenm ods tok etuod sylewi x02 oxods bestow STO 


riz rer 


BD o3 Jdgia to bseb oad at sbot neds bas .2889 oata 3032 
ee RaGe 


od yd bovivis bas MA 00: $ te bostosM ‘el od Bae 
i 7 2 ) 


: -tennib srigtie yxegta0 ni ake1d posnonba bas \ gis se) 
‘ r¢ MG a hil : 
-intm & gm: letidsses nt wole ea BBW } <003 donudd oT 


7 hey 
Ais 


mtissydeer4 oT sxswt ks. eda gnols eoziase wen ‘eds at 
- i“ - * ae Ps oi =! 1) ’ 
. Le 


ni Sovaye ea Qs 9fis S87 ortw .otquaxe ame 30870 e A = a on 
to row moisoursenoo ods bowollot bad ow reget 930 | 


ma ee % 










ioiurio seemokq' odd. stow bas al nosnons bas sgi so : “ 
; ae Hs ae 
-nomba d3yoe o7 -ysagted _" baox eri3 on: L aaatog tf 
' rs cab i ae he ai A: 
F / ; ie - “, Sis r 2: 
4 , : i Py Ay 5 Ms ~ J ; pe ¥s 
f ~ 1) re - pee fh ; 


— % - > g ea 
Jasggue yn ased svad 2s a sccsttus Recerca voli et 
»/ 8 7 AN soa wet se 
,ywulisx yeenciq sds tas oF 720 eee 
a vyiait hay : et 4s wm 
i cP] ~~ vu 





Le 

in] 
\ 
= 


-at as bed” “swited se ba 


7a fe 


portance out of all proportion to the statistics of rail- 
way mileage or the census returns."+ Arthur Morton finds 
in the young ranching industry, ee adioet ian of the coal 
industry, first experiments in irrigation, and the build- 
ing-of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway that the 'founda- 
tions of the Alberta which we now know were being laid,"'? 
The Edmonton Bulletin did not explicitly cree 
the Calgary and Edmonton Railway with a large gate in 
settling and developing Alberta. In fact, it charged 
the railway, as nota LEAT out in a previous chapter, with 
impeding the settlement of lands when it was in its power 
to hasten it. The liberal use of the Bulletin as a source 
in the development of this chapter, however, implies a 
recognition by the Bulletin of the railway's fundamental 


importance to the settlement and development of Alberta. 


IMorton and Martin jeop. cit s,;op« 300. 


2Tbid., p. 93. 








MLN Ak re 

" ‘ pat . a at 0 +A 
-j tax o sottelsase 9 oF nc on 
*3 ey 7) even 2 


abald nots0M urls TA fn aniuso3 | 4 


ie sey me a’ 
fg05 od Yo nrokjashenane vecseabat 5 





















wears 0%: 
“blind ofa bras nokseyhrat = pak 
“shnvol" sf sada our tal 09 nb bisa Bist 
“S bre gnted stew worl won ow foie cc 0. 
' $ibox “ soatgee gon | bib abiel iva ee c 


La ab fr \ 
al 
7 


a | 
a 


= 


/ : Ee ean 
r “Gh obi sgitel & Hitkw yew! taf aosnoahi eae nn 
bon atto a ,2 138% at “ wamedtA “gigoleveb baa 
itiw ,1etq nivis enaseose 5B al 3110 batahoa es 
Tawog Sait “ha eal 34 pies abaal to soos! 3390 oat 3 
wi see to Sau iaxed Et add i ae 
8B sshigqut Jevewod 193 gaits aid 20 aa 
De oh 


: Be ese 
lg: ieee 2 ‘youl bo otft 20 nlgetiuil ody ae 


s9tu0e & es ocbotel 





SIxedTA is Soangofevab | ban snsmal 3308 ots o2 
, ; — tee eS 


000 w@vc-t2 «go \nbixeM baw ol : 


CONCLUSION 


The Calgary and Edmonton Railway played, along with 
peer factors, an indispensable role in the settlement and 
development of Alberta, an assertion supported by a compar- 
ison of Chapters I and II with Chapter x, Notwithstanding 
this fact, the foregoing study yields the conclusion that 
the Edmonton Bulletin exaggerated the railway's share of 
the responsibility for the SbsAeate condition of the tri- 
butary region. 

The Bulletin often saw the economic state of the 
Edmonton district in isolation from the Canadian, and in- 
deed the world, economic scene. In its etiology of the 
‘local and district economy, consequently, the Bulletin 
tended to assign to the Calgary and Edmonton Railway and 
to its senior associate, the Canadian Pacific Railway, a 
disproportionate measure of influence in the economy, not 
taking sufficient notice of external factors which were 
helping to create a prosperous or a stagnant condition, 
Today, however, it is still a common failing to interpret 
the regional economic condition apart from the national 


and international scene. Perhaps the pioneers' need to 


280 

















d . o : ; 
dztw gnols ,beystg yswltal notnomba bas eaated eT dit: ae 


sale ; 


6S ht eral 
en . , 
i ey 


bes tnsmeliise ef’ ab afor- aldseneqethat a 


4 ‘eg 


“Tsqn02 & Yd badxeqque noksieees ms ~saxedlA to 


gaibastentiwto -° Xx, ‘niga fijiw It bas I ‘¢redeads tor 


iv {> . ay . ate 


tad? nobeylands ats. abisiy ybuse. gntoge703 oda .2987. 2 ale “a 


' lo suse e‘y¥ewl iss ed? bovarsagsxs nisoliu8 pare a . 
-f33- shit to 1623 Ibnos simonoss edi 102 olidtanogeer @ a 


ae 


oe) pe ie ee 
-folges xa: <a 


28 


Ne ins 


of to $3632 ‘otmonoss oft wae aetie atiefiud oe 


‘“ 
alae 
a re nye 


“nt Dae nadbansd. eft mort solssfLoel at sobszetb soda 
swe tz "i Ree 

sft to ygolokse 222 ol nngne otmonose .bixow . bes 
 gkteliad az «vi dmeupsanos . ymonoss dobizetb 7 


bas yewllaal notnombd bas. yisgisd al? of naleee 03 b 
& .Yawised o}2 toed astbersd arid oimlooeas. 3 


te 


Wee . 


Jon ,YnomGos SMa nt asoneulint to etuesem « 
teow dotdw ecotopa laneaxe to sotson 3m 


Hols tbros Inangese 5. ™: are mi a 
te1qisial’ o3-gnhl tek wrosmoe 6 a - i by r 
i ES 
fanottsa gift work ee ge . 


rare gis 
on bad Neer | 


aaa 


281 


stress the values of individual initiative, self-reliance, 
and local freedom easily led to a magnifying of the power 
and freedom of the railway company. 

This explanation fails, however, to take account 
of how the isolated pioneer interpreted the facts that were 
rail to him. Some of these facts were obviously beyond his 
control--facts arising from natural conditions or from the 
economy of a distant world. These he could not manipulate 
or was not even aware of. All the more, therefore, he laid 
great stress on those factors which he considered variables 
rather than unalterable realities--high freight rates and 
poor service, for example. In this context, the railway 
company was made a scapegoat bearing responsibility for 
the settlers' economic difficulties. Caught in the age-old 
cost-price squeeze, the pioneer saw in the railway company 
the middle-man draining off much of the profit rightfully 
his own. The Calgary and Edmonton Railway, the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, eastern financial interests--these togeth- 
er were seen as exploiters of the pioneer for their own 
gain only. The Calgary and Edmonton Railway found itself 
a part of ies object against which the pioneers' protest as 
articulated by the Edmonton Bulletin was directed. Both in 
the high expectations they entertained concerning the rail- 


way and in the new grievances which its coming brought to 





sonadlsr~fae <oviveistat sh tedhi 


. she 
ee Pr poe 


ws 


tewog off to galyttagan s ot bel ¥ Ag rai ! 


” an Re ef, 


| |g tetgros pa: to 
a : a ee ry 4 a +0 ¥ 






















o i) 


etd baey ad yieuol vdo. ore ston ened 20 ota 


a | 
e 


. 


edd moti ‘10 rolsibnes Seiainbis mais gntaiss ado. 
sialugiasm tou bluos add e@edT obi zom taptetb: > to w pis : 
| ed, ae eee a IA 29) 218WS neve on ie 
sated shienos sd doldw aveceal seodds 20 onerse: 3 
bes ssget.3 iatex? (Aghinsagizilses ol detsd lean ads 


Die ee oF 


. ~ om “a 
veawits: sf ee ‘etno2 etd? al -elgraxs ‘r02, <ookvree te oq. 


a 


¥ 
4 


ge 


naga ia : 
103 \titdtenogaex guexeed Seogoqsoe s sbam caw YA (fib Gmos 

. ‘si ae i 
Stoney 3 a3 ni adgeis? 204 Iuoniadh a acini ‘exela39 a 9 


{ 
428 ry 


re 
"Acie a a 


' Oe 
Yasqmon Wulier ed3 ci wee ean I ods ‘<oxooupe ¢ solzg-3ao 


et in tidgia 32ile1q ods Zo doum #40. gnknbssb nsm-9 


| 
ve aa 
. 


Das t es 2 a. 
ast beeuad ots eabnatt nodaombs. bas vrpgiad edt | 


-disgo3 sead? ~"paaers i Satonsatt crsteas 


wei: 


Ae ai 





mo the ty ia ssanoig ots 20. een 


z ad Dee 


ae k dames weulbad nosnonbs bas et 





aaa 
@@ tases ong 'ewwenolg ada sokiw - 
nt doof bot osakb saw — : 


- €.5° WLS age 
“ites aii3 | gatexeomes benleItads 
“ys ¢ e¢ Q eh ee eas 


o8 1 sauna paiman ast 
ae =ar 


“a <5 7 %) a a 


282 


them--along with improved conditions--, the railway entered 
into the psychology of the pioneer, 

Without the railway, nevertheless, settlement and 
development could not have come about, as the Bulletin ed- 
itor repeatedly made clear. So basic to the development of 
Alberta was the Calgary and Edmonton Railway considered 
that the Canadian Government played an unusually important 
role in getting the line built. Prime Minister Macdonald 
spoke at some length in the House of Commons in justifying 
to Parliament the er Ernorten of the Calgary-Edmonton line. 
The company was given an uncommon mail-carrying subsidy in- 
cash of substantial amount in addition to the normal assist- 
ance granted to colonization railways. it was the govern- 
ment, apparently, who first approached Osler and Ross 
through the medium of the Prime Minister's office with a 
view to getting the line built. The Calgary and Edmonton 
Railway became part of Macdonald's national policy which 
dated back to the Dominion's rene, The settlement and 
development of the West and the age EfoSt Eastern industry 
he saw as essential to Canadian nationhood. The West would 
be a source of food and provide a market for Eastern indust- 
ry. To get settlers and their effects into that part of 
the West between Macleod and Edmonton and to get their pro- 


duce out was the purpose for which the Calgary and Edmonton 


« +; a 
4 ® 
na te a 


bszsine yswl tex eds :--anorst tb ri 




















+ ~ * - 


. 193 wae 


«be atsollud eds as _juods 9moo eved aan 
20 Jnemqolovab sd3 o3 olasd 02 .t8elo obem “eds 


a 


bsxsbiaqoo yaw thas | moaned bees ‘eagiad oft e sa mt 

Ne 

tnsjuognt yileverey ms beysiq tmearrvoD mid Mx) 
im aa 

5 >famobos aM tosetni omixT esilod eal! add ‘gates & | 


gk giteut mi ecros ial to savoH ot at dggnel mos as oe 
snk sotnoml-yragisd onl ‘Ro soltows3enoa eds ‘gasmabts: 
mi ybledue 3 etyu1s- ifsm sommeony ns asvig ssw uigmos 
-teleas en oft oF golzibbs at Jnavoms taboo © io ns 
~amivha iid gaw 32 -2yawlist dolssstnofos ot bedae t 9 
‘ge08 bas xols6 bodsboiggs text? ow <tsno:iais tm 
& kw esttlo e ‘rose ialM omtst off to mutbom a 
rotnomiS bas ymgfad sdT joked eakt eds sntseg ! 
fotdw ‘okies tsoolzsa 2 'bisaobosM eo ‘Sag Mii 
ban ta wee oat ‘eciuiadeant 2 'nolntnod oa 
wxteubal aze2es8a to daworg edi bas’ esse. 
blvow sesW sd? .boodnottsa antbaged 0: 
teubnt nretes 102 gedtem 8 sit 
to tuaq 3803 Sata etostis cael Spas r 


-orq thedd jsp of bie pr 


nosirunba bas spied: aa 
; oe = % 





283 


line was built. That purpose, despite the reservations of 
critics such as the Bulletin--some well-founded--, it 
served well on balance. The Calgary and Edmonton Railway 
can thus be seen as an instance of Canadian Government 
initiative in preparing the frontier beforehand for the ex- 
SBCEE rush of settlers. 

But the railway was really only one of several in- 
dispensable factors, albeit one of the most important, in 
the development of the pioneering region. Also necessary 
were the establishment of political institutions, provision 
for the enforcement of law and wat! extinction of the In- 
dian title to the land and their retirement to reserves, a 
regular system of survey and liberal land policies, the in- 
stallation of mail and telegraphic services. Not even the 
coincidence of all these factors could guarantee prosperity. 
The world economic condition must be favorable, and there 
must be people ready to move in, This latter factor in- 
volved the dispelling of some myths concerning Canada's 
West and the filling up of the last frontier below the In- 
ternational Boundary. Obviously, then, the role of any one 
of these factors can be and has been overemphasized--as in 
the case of the Edmonton Bulletin and the Calgary and Edmon- 
ton Railway. 


The question whether settlers in Alberta paid too 


a icy 






























to enolisvieee7 orl2 9: 


hie 
$t .—-bebawo-ffoie emoa-~ phe 9 


bh 


‘yswlte® sotmombS bas aagiad ott 

7 ae 
sat Smneets yoo maibsnad %6 aiepiadl ns efi 

~«9 oi 202 bastetoted x913aoz% ads sotragerg. 


; ote “ vateld2e0: sie jours F 53 
Fl 


= 


-at Iazusvee 2 9 Sn0 ine yliser BBW yswitas oft so 


at ,2nsixoqmt teom edt to smo Itodis <arotost olde rs 


“yrseesos wm oefA .neige7 gniteenotd sf Yo snemqolave ysb > oni 


= rch: 


potetyorq ,enatsusisenk. Psolsiiog io saomtletidaias ed 9 


= 


_— ¥, 


-sl sij to mpizontixe 1910 bra wal 20 tnemeotoins a 
s ,eevreeex of tasmstiget sleds Soe bast ed3 3 stile. eth 
eat #89 .dstoifog ‘bias Cexedil bas yevrue to mesaye. 
eff aava 20% .ssoivree ‘odiquagelet bos ilam to nt 


a 


~Wiitegerorg 2: 1 PB TOE biwoo anosoet esed3 IIs to 99: 


¢ 


<a} 303682 tevssl ebdt vt avon at bse og - 


Atha ys . 


gio} boa .sidbrowsd sd Jeun solstbseo abmapees, bao, 


¢'sbaned gaiarsomds _— S2o8 do gatile ; a 


“2. up ‘ie 

-al edi wotsd Yelinoxt geal ads io. — 
we aoe tie. 

eno yas io “sfon ont nods (wewokdd” » “ — od 
nt 2a~-bos ieadgtstevo need and ‘a 96 ma Bo sodas? § 


_ 


J ge “Tae 
J , Le ¥ q bos tect alle . 
-omba bus yiag! [sd ods bas abieiiu®, gotnombs sis 
a be a ae _ 
4 Ps 3 ‘ ‘. {2 2 . ees : > Oe ” 
aa We . i 3 ery ‘ % 
ay eee - a 


¢ 


aod bisgq ss19dIA ai 


284 
high a price for the Calgary and Edmonton Railway, as the 
Bulletin in effect charged, is part of the question whether 
the West paid too much for its railways. Rational criteria 
by which to answer the question are not available, The gov- 
ernment land grant, it appears, was not properly subordinat- 
ed to the purposes of the railway. It is difficult to 
avoid the opinion that financial interests behind the rail- 
way wanted the franchise for the sake of what they might be 
able to get out of the land grant. The railway, as : result, 
was not properly cared for and poor service followed at 
times. 

Certain questions arising out of ent study remain 
unanswered, pending more widely based research--involving 
especially an investigation of the Calgary and Edmonton Com- 
pany records as well as those of the Department of the In- 
terior. (The former are not yet available.) Precisely how 
was the railway financed? It is impossible to find common 
ground between the positions of Osler and his opponents. 
What was the exact role of the Canadian Pacific Railway be- 
hind the scenes of the Calgary and Remon eon Railway? Who, 
if anybody did, benefited most from Pal whois project? Is 
the Calgary and Edmonton Company cast in too unfavorable a 
light by the discussion in Chapter VI (Controversy)? Would 


private correspondence throw a much different light on the 



























1 ee ee a ee 


a ae 


f 


; > net Pe a 
hoo ed '5 -— ee a 
eds eA awl ten noaaoub3 bas ia ) 
aw hae. ‘ 
anne a aw 


red3edw noitaeup sit to a500 at cbagtade 396 ih 
= Tie 7 
x “a 

aitetl1 Isnotisa ayen bet est 102 doum ¢ ify . 


og 


vog ofl .eldsitave Jon 938 pnkseaup oe. ‘rower . 
Jentbrodue yiregqerq ton 2a .O789qqS ar annxg 
od tivotitib af 22 .yawltss ota to enagua af © of | 


sat it is: 
Teh oF er fa 
sd tfigim vedi Jedw to ease of 308 setdons1i ods Pe ya 


25 


iiveex so es ,Yowliss off .shetg bast edi to 3u0 t93, on ‘olds 


an 


-[ias odd baided etastaial istonsat? ted2 aolaiqo.s 


te bewoello? esolvxse “200g baa 2x02 bexs9 ulseqorg Jom 


temex ybaga aids jo 4u9 gabetus seahanai alssze} 
guivloval--dorssest beasd visbiw eTom guibaeq. <b 
“moo nosnomba dias yvragisd ef3 to nolgaghaveval as, ae 
-ni sds to tneasraqed sift to esorts as Iiew 28. ebro 
wod yYleetoest (.4 aidsi teva 39% Jom ou temz02 | oa), : 
ocmmme babh. 02 oldtesoqt at 31 ‘Sbeonant?. yk = da 
.etnenoqgo eid bas szeled to enotstaoqg. am gay: : 

-ed yewilsA okbtosd natbans) oda. oe * . pene 3 8 
.onwW Syswl bad sosnonbe bas YH ’ , ~ i Qo.) ansoe 
el ‘saaford afore oil mort a 23 x tb 
8 sidstovsing 009 al lh ba Be 
-biuew 3 (werevorsnad) IV & 


Pare ee 


285 


Company? How was the land grant disposed of? 


“94 





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; - : 
vi "1 ¢e 













etinamusod bodetf dud xf 
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A0Cl -O88! -sapamet 30 s2u0l ed2- 2o seandeg 
ePO0CI-OR8I .enommod to s gawolt ue 2s ical “ aban 18 
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! ' . Ot. "a 5 











s#q 
wh a 


=“ = 
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a were y y + 
7 


+ 







a 


-souoll-256% sho posb’ pore wat Bn 
| nfgood eat 2 MAD 





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 beral{[ el DomM ‘esnoxot | 
eLer ‘Beanie 


| sa 
rot@0%0T .BYsi wt iss ‘peace gies ‘benst 


«BYES A IT 


<P vs S- doef +09 bas a 


lf 


-tnt+t Stet94tA cisgiad renault 


ee) 


mcf ino! mal Lbama) ‘offd ‘i siseY zie 9 @er 
txawete@ 3 bi tdobood: ebasiieloont OF MOTO 


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290 


Stout, C.H. "Saddle, Notches, Candles and Oil, Early 
, Days-in Leduc," Alberta Historical Review, VI, 
no. 4 (Fall, 1958), pp. 16-24. 


Peake, . "Anglican Beginnings in and about Edmonton," 
Alberta Historical Review, III, no. 2 (Spring,- 
1955), pp. 15-25. 


te Unpublished Material 


Bussard, L.H. "Early History of Calgary." Unpublished 
M.A. thesis, University of Alberta, 1935. 


Ockley, Beatrice A. "A History of Early Edmonton." Un- 
published M.A. thesis, University of Alberta, 1932, 


Pearce Papers. Manuscript in Cameron Library, University 
of Alberta. 


Waddell, William S. '"'The Honorable Frank Oliver." Un- 
published M.A, thesis, University of Alberta, 1950. 















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APPENDIX A 


Progress of Construction on Calgary & Edmonton Railway 


1890: 


April 24 


May 16 


June 


July 


Dec. 


1891: 
Apr. 


July 


Aug. 


Dec. 


1892: 


Nov. 


21 


21 
4, 


31 


25 
6 


15 


25 
10 
7 


3 


Act of incorporation 
Grant of land subsidy & cash subsidy 
Authorization of agreement with C.P.R. 


Agreement with government for transport ser- 


_ vice; construction deadlines set 


First sod turned at Calgary 
Last train of season arrives at Red Deer 


Railway completed from Calgary to south bank 
of Red Deer River--93.78 miles- 


First train of season arrives in Red Deer 


Permission granted to open first 100 miles 
north of Calgary 


Last spike driven. Road completed from Cal- 
gary to south bank of N. Saskatchewan River 


Railway officially completed 
Railway reported officially fit for traffic 


Fifty miles south of Calgary officially re- 
ported fit for traffic 


Road completed from Calgary to north bank of 
Old Man River at Macleod--104.1 miles 


291 




























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_... APPENDIX Bl 

oa SS a aa a a es 

Calgary & Edmonton Railway 
Time Table 









re a is re me me nn ee ee en ee 





a 





Going South 





Mixed 
Going North 
Read Down 
Miles from 












Calgary ; 

Beddington 8.5 18:34 
Airdrie 1657 18:01 
Crossfield 28.7 A pee de) 
Carstairs 38.8 16°53 
Didsbury 45.8 16:28 
Olds 55.9 15:58 
Bowden aha oe oa Fi Bas 
Innisfail | 74.8 : 

Penhold | Doe 16-27 
Red Deer sage 93 att 


Siding 
| 


“Edmonton Bulletin, Aug. 15, 1891. 


—_——— 


292 








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