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U.S. Department of Justice 


\ 



Federal Bureau of Investigation 


Washington, D. C. 20535 

SEP 2 4 1999 


Mr. William J. Maxwell ( 

Department of English 

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Subject of Request: Claude McKay 

608 Wright Street, South 

Urbana, IL 61801 w FOIPA NO. 421391/190-HQ-1262051 


Dear Requester: 

Enclosed are copies of documents from FBI records. Excisions have been made to protect information exempt 
from disclosure pursuant to Title 5, United States Code, Section 552 (Freedom of Information Act) and/or Section 
552a (Privacy Act). In addition, where excisions were made, the appropriate exempting subsections have been cited 
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substituted showing the reasons or basis for the deletion. The subsections cited for withholding information from 
the enclosed documents are marked below: 


Section 552 


Section 552a 


□ (b)(1) 

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□ (d)(5) 

a (b)(2) 

□ (b)(7)(B) 

° 0X2) 

□ (b)(3) 

a (b)(7)(C) 

□ GOO) 

□ (b)(4) 

□ (b)(7)(D) 

□ (k)(2) 

a (b)(5) 

□ (b)(7)(E) 

□ (k)(3) 

□ (b)(6) 

□ (b)(7)(F) 

□ (k)(4) 


□ (b)(8) 

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□ (k)(7) 


(See Form OPCA-16a, enclosed, for an explanation of these exemptions.) 

Pursuant to your request, 119 preprocessed pages are being released. 

The documents responsive to your request were previously processed for another requester. In order to 
provide the information you requested as soon as possible, we have released the FBI information as it was originally 
processed. We have not contacted other government agencies concerning their information in FBI files. 




b If you desire, you may appeal any denials contained herein. Appeals should be directed in 
writing to the Co-Director, Office of Information and Privacy, U.S. Department of Justice, Flag 
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□ See additional information which follows. 


Sincerely yours, 

ox. 9^ 

/7 

John M. Kelso, Jr., 

Section Chief 
Freedom of Information- 
Privacy Acts Section 
Office of Public and 
Congressional Affairs 


Enclosures (2) 


0PCA-16a (Rev. 12-3-96) 


EXPLANATION OF EXEMPTIONS 

SUBSECTIONS OF TITLE 5rUNITED STATES CODE, SECTION 552 . — ■ 

(b) (1 ) (A) specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or 
foreign policy and (B) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive order; 

(b) (2) related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency; 

(b) (3) specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than section 552b of this title), provided that such statute (A) requires that 

the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion on the issue, or (B) establishes particular critena for 
withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld; 

T 

(b) (4) trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential; 

(b) (5) inter-agency or intra-agency memorandums or letters which would not be available by law to a party other than an aqency in litiaation 
with the agency; a 


(b) (6) personnel and medical files and similar fes the disclosure ot which would constitute a cleart^y^rranted invasion of personal privacy; 


(b) (7) records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement 

records or information (A) could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings, (B) would deprive a person of a right 
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or any private institution which furnished information on a confidential basis, and, in the case of record or information compiled by 
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for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions; or 


(b) (9) geological and geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning wells. 

SUBSECTIONS OF TITLE 5, UNITED STATES CODE, SECTION 552a 
(d) (5) information compiled in reasonable anticipation of a civil action proceeding; 

G) (2) material reporting investigative efforts pertaining to the enforcement of criminal law including efforts to prevent, control or reduce crime 
or apprehend criminals; 


(k) (1 ) information which is currently and properly classified pursuant to an Executive order in the interest of the national defense or 
foreign policy, for example, information involving intelligence sources or methods; 

(k) (2) investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes, other than criminal, which did not result in loss of a right, benefit or 

privilege under Federal programs, or which would identify a source who furnished information pursuant to a promise that his/her identity 
would be held in confidence; 

(k) (3) material maintained in connection with providing protective services to the President of the United States or any other individual pursuant 
to the authority of Title 18, United States Code, Section 3056; 

(k) (4) required by statute to be maintained and used solely as statistical records; 

(k) (5) investigatory material compiled solely for the purpose of determining suitability, eligibility, or qualifications for Federal civilian employment 
or for access to classified information, the disclosure of which would reveal the identity of the person who furnished information pursuant 
to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence; 

(k) (6) testing or examination material used to determine individual qualifications for appointment or promotion in Federal Government service 
the release of which would compromise the testing or examination process; 

(k) (7) material used to determine potential for promotion in the armed services, the disclosure of which would reveal the identity of the person 
who furnished the material pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence. 


FBI/DOJ 



/ 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION/PRIVACY ACTS SECTION 

COVER SHEET 


STTTITFCT: CLAUDE McKAY 



NOTICE 


THE BEST COPIES OBTAINABLE ARE 
INCLUDED IN THE REPRODUCTION 
OF THE FILE. PAGES INCLUDED 
THAT ARE BLURRED, LIGHT OR 
OTHERWISE DIFFICULT TO READ 
ARE THE RESULT OF THE CONDITION 
AND OR COLOR OF THE ORIGINALS 
PROVIDED. THESE ARE THE BEST 
COPIES AVAILABLE. 







ent Charles J. 

p ■ >. 

^5U j-j • 

. ■ - : X -.' r y : u - -* - 

Period for Which Madei 
t ’ 12/5/21 

Report Made by» 

• . ■ *■ -M 


Instructions ±r 


Report Made ati 
New York City 


Title and Character of Casei 

/ . 

IN BiM CLAUDE MCKAY. 

// 


Facts Developed: At NcVJ York; 


While engaged today I met McKay, one of the editors of the|p 
"Lit er at or 11 ' who stated that this publication may be compelled to diajl 

4 ■■■■-■ —■ ‘ • 

continue publication on account of lack of funds ,• brought about bj th<|~ 

fact that one of the trusted menbers stole over ^4000* ~ |§j| 

isBL 

• • McKay further stated that ^e ia still a member of a C. P* |||: 

- ‘ j:S|| 

group and that he intends rejoining the- I. W. W. because he owes abo|^ 

one year' a dues in the I. W. '!l. I learned that Michael Gold is at th 

head of the above mentinned publication* J| 



f/-3V?7 - // 








1 



. o 


d&CIJU. K.iPOK'J.’ 


HJC. 17,1'ja. 


3. i;! jlYIUVALS 


claitds iazAY 


negro radical and one of the editors of the "liborator," la j 
eaid to have Bade tho statement reoently that this publication nay have j 
to euopend publication heoause of lack of funla, brought about by the j 
cmbezzlecsnt of CdOOO. by one of the employees. kcKay, at the snmo tins', 
stated that he is still n nenber of the Communist Party and inton. a to 

rejoin the I* w f T? # 



trr : /« 


i f;AriI Wllt'N MAP*. . WHICH M4.J 


IT :.*/ 'l or’c..c i ty : — 

1 1 nX ANi' Jt J*ACtl« Of cAfr;.;: " 

TIT V?.IO\B ’T.CC^ HC^HHCC!) 

/ KCfiro Activities* 


K.rw»r ».«»* ■»' 


,-ACTS DCVtXOTCO: 


Vhilo at Hay Aker's Office / 7 i. 15 th street, llooia 401 
he 3 t itei that he honors the African Hood brotherhood because it is 
a true militant class conscious movement, which is not afraid to use 
cans and that in the ?ulsa riots last year the African Vlood Brotr.er 
j hood supplied the ITerroes with the ?uns anj£ lead in the fighting 

4 

there, which mi^ht also be said cf other race riots. 

He was ashed where he secured his informal; ion, and 
stated he has first hand information of this, but refused to divulge 
t.he name. 

Baher is a close friend of Claude I'cITay, and it is^ 

• . .. vi thij i - ■*. i j source of information. 

•-,omo months a.ro while placing Cyril bri^-C 2 under 
s-rvoillance in connection with the African bloci. brotherhood, mer. 

. \\\\2 of “--i in- to i house cn ’es t 13 Zd street , with a mm, 

v;ho -ns described at that tine, &"d that Cla”de "clTay v/as also preo; 

*i ;3i i-. is ..c.j that that man is one A. J. 

«,, * .o--i . i - -j ^ • ; ’i .*r of the Central fi-couti ve ' .wit t' 1 ' 

the *.*orl: 3 .*3 Party of Anorica. 




I 


190 - 1781 - 6 


*^1 




7 






*{p»M* •rneiAt. ctwiMweiiita 
Thc .cc.cta.t or >tat( 

iTMWNtlM, B. C, 


€ ; 




Department of state 

WASHINGTON 

Kov ember 1, $£ 22 , 


Dear Hr* Burns: 

With reference to your letter of July 21, 1922, end 
previous correspondence relative to CLAJD2 LC KAY, the 
t/ell-knovn radical of Eew York, I have just received 
infornation from London to the effect that he is at pre- 
sent in that city# Ko thing has been learned relative to 


his activities. 


Very ti 


< / 


William J. Burns, require. 
Director, Bureau of Investigation, 
Department of Justice, 

Washington, D. C. 







KIGA. 

SlgQ, ICtTlQ. 
Dooxjfflbor 7, 1022* 





■ .The Honorable, 

Tho Socretary of State, 
' ‘ •' r tfaohincton# 



* Girt 

... • i hovetho honor to forrard horonlth a roport ro- 

; oeiTOd through confidential courcos oonccrninc tho 

'* nttontion bolns Given the ne^ro question fc7 the Third 

. -./interactional. The substance of the report ras embodied 
« • 

. in ay tclejrcn Ho. 20-1, of December 7, 1922. 

’I hove the honor to be. Sir, 

*• Tour obodiont oorvant, # 


.v Enclosure 


T.H.B. C0L2IAH. 


•Third International and the Uesroeo.* 







i- — 


• 0 


Hig^'^Doo eraser 4, 1922# 


. t/iird r:?^^/.?io:tAL a:;? ran: u?3r<023. 


/Tho Fourth Congreca of tho Third International 
/ 1 • . 

Jiao given epcolal attention to tho nogro quotation, 

lvovlng octablichod q cpcoial committee for tho* ornan* 

lsatlon of joint notion of tho American Communists 

* and negroco against tho Anorican bourgeoisie. 

Tho following American negroes are now partioir- 

• # 

• • — 

a ting in tho Congress! J, Billings, Claaao liaokoy, 

Fayenh end Johnston. They arrived in ICocoow via 

• \ 

Siberia* •' 

* 

Following a statement mc&o by Billings at the 

. * ** 

ceoeion of iforonber 25th, tho Congroso resolved to 

render tho ufcaost ascietnnoo to tho negro novenont, 

to oall a ?/orld negro Congress In Moscow In 1923. and 
to begin an energetic propaganda among tho negroeo in 

* r * 

America in order to attract them to CO'.muniBt orgsn- 
iuations* .. r • • . • 

i 

Tho itCgro Commission, which inoluded tho above- 

*4 , 

mentioned negroes end certain American and Kuocicn 

. Ctaisinicts, resolved to organise, for the puryoBe of 
« 

. demonstrating tho symralhice of tho nascian prolotarlat 

• . 

' for tho nogro race, special negro detachments in tho 
fied Army and to begin an onorgotio rcoruiting 


r% < ^ ~V 

in tho United States to enlint n^r^erj^oy»t|()o purpose; 

Tho chief ofliQiS^ro derogation from tho Unites 
States in hillings* “ Hftn aanictant io Unolny* 



. V. y * 4 m <| j^*.?** #W»|» ■ ' *»*+1 *1 ' 



Billingo, rayeeh and Jolmuton will return to I 

tho, United Ctateo via CM to and Shanghai. They i 

s ' ; 

e^jpect to lcav9 ’jCodcov: between Dooorabar 0 and 12. j 

*’ > 

Hnchay will reaain in ^tafcoia a© President of tho \ 

fiopro Seotion of the /hcccutivo Coniaittoo of tho 

4 

•Third International. 

> ^ 

• • . a * • . 

; . * i • r 






1 







'^V&VSmmbl 


Blga, Latvia, 

Doc cab or 11, 1922. * 






The Honornblo, 

The Secretory of Stato # 
V Voohington. 



Sirs 

Adverting to my despatches Ko« 105,' of Deconbor 4, 

. 1922, and Do. 117, of Deooaber 7, 1922, I hare the honor 

to forward hercrith the foiloxring translations from the 

• # * • • * * 

Bolshevik pro 86: 

• . * : 

• •“*" 

TH2 SACS rUSSTIO!T 13 A2!EF.ICA. 

(Scmsary from F'osoon I2VFS7IA. Ko. 2G1. ITovoaber 1(T. 

1922.) . * • 

In this artiolo the aathor e&bodies an Interview 
• • 

with Claado JJonijay, an American nof.ro delegate to tho roa*th 
. Congress of the Third International. The aathor etotos 



^ 1 • .7 

w 


-• * M. • • 


•Comrade Wray Is a Journal let end poet} his epoo laity le 
agriculture.- In hie interview Kaokoy seeks to point cat 
the inequality existing between tho white and negro racos 
In America. Be lc auspicious of the philanthropic nctlTlties 
of such con as Julius aosenwald, intimating that. In educa.lng 
the negroes, they endea^r to win tholr sympathise lor tho 
purpooo of using then as strlkc-breakors, Comparisons of 
amount s epent by Tcrioao ctatos In tho oduoatlon of rhlto 
end negro ohlldren arc presented. Baokoy refers to the 
•Baoh to Africa" coveaent, hoaded by liarcus Ccrroy, hut 
states that It hao ylolded no practical results. Be . 
etatoo that -the negro population must understand that 
a ‘revolutionary movement mill break out among them eoac 
timo and It must begin on the territory shore they lire 
at the proccnt time, l.e., in America.- • In conolusion 
jjaokay states that between tho white and negro races In 
America -there Is no human, soolal contoot .... Vo aro 
not regarded as human boings.- 

• • ■ THK ?ACS CUESTIOH Itt TBS UITIT23 STA7SS. 

; (Kosooo 12 YjiS?IA, Ho. £5!>. Uoreaber 16, 1-9— .J 

- this article likewise oontalns an Interview with an 
"• Amerloon negro delegate to the rourth Congreoe of the 
• Third International, -Comrade Sayeoh." 

fiayosh gives various illustrations of the inequality 
' existing botwoen the white and negro races In Amorloo. 

Be refers to the foot thot thero ore separate waiting 
rooms In the rnllccy stotlono; that tho neeroeo hare to 





- 3 - •' 





" 'Mr _ 

t^ftTol in eoparato railway care; that la tho oltioa thoy 
are for cod to live in certain regions and that they aro . 
eicorisinatod against by the worteaon naseoo and organisations. 
The nogroos, eopeclally In tho South, he oaye, meet nlth 
jroat obataoloa in tho clootlon3 and the black foraors aro 


pnsorupuloasly oxploitod. 

Sayech otatos that tho economio situation of the negro 
isafcee him good soil Tor Coamuniot propaganda, but that, un- 
fortunately, the negroes are Tory poorly organised. In 
ooncluoion he points oat that ono of the foremost tasks 
of tho Coaounisto is the organization of the American 
negroco. Tho Amor lean Communist Party, ho says, *>nill 
haT© to doTolop an energetic propaganda end organization 
'work «... in order to include in the international troopo 


of Coaxunisa a largo 


now fighting 


unit - tho laboring nogrooa 


of tho United State 8. 

I have tho honor to be. Sir, 

Tour obedient Servant, 


Enclosures 

* Translationc:- 


. * ’ : f .*.3. COLS^U. 

1. "The Ksoe Question la Aaorioa." 

fi. "The Eaco Question in the United 
States." 









TLT3 RAC 3 rU’:3YI0:i ITT AFRICA. 

(Summary Xrom Moscow X2YJ55IIA, ilo.CCl, b'ovombor 10, 1922, ) 


/ - Interview with Comrade Clnuflo M aokag* 

Comrade tiackay Id a negro educated in Amort ca. 

At tho present time he ic in Russia whore he io as- 
sisting in studying the ner.ro Question. Corcredo 
IfcoJtsy is a journalist and poot, hio speciality is 
agriculture. Ho was graduated from an Agricultural 
Aoadcmy. 

In comparison with what Maokny tells ns ol the 
• cituation o£ tho '’colored** citizens o£ the "Xroest 
’* oX all Republics* 1 tho situation oX the Jews nr.der 
. the Tsarist regime and oven now in Rumania would 
seem hardly worth attention. 

Tho unequal righto oX tho "colored"* are man- 
iXostod everywhere and in everything. In a univer- 
sity no whito studont will tolerate the presenoe 
-next to oX a negro student; negro ohildren are 
..not admitted to tno school Xor white people; the 
teaohero oX the negro ohildren are deprived oX all 
pleasures of public li£e and hare heroically to sub- 
mit to ostracism. ** * * .* 

Tho education oX negredo depends entirely upon 
*.* tho aotiTitios oX so-called "whito philanthropists" 
mainly Xrom the Worth and oX thoir buroan in Cin- 
olnat/i, which t.ae cstablichod aXter the liberation 

i 

oX tho neghooo. This bureau prepares whito tcoohors 
'for tho negrooo who in turn educate tcaohors Xrom 





j-t' . * . I =• *••>•*• i- * njr**V* *•: 


o . 


- C - 


.or . • 


among the uegrooe. A capitalist V of Jullu * 

Sosenwald opened 600 schools In tho South end is 
, Coins to open 400 nore. It is interesting to 
J point out that the same jloaenwald is the foundor 
o* tho xugaalno "Urban moague 2ullotin*. This # 
nsgazina oooi 3 15 cents but is given to the negroes 
free of char-o. Its object is to a C itnto a«=©*2 the 
negroes and prepare dcteclrtsnta of "strike breakers 
' froa nnens the dark aasses of negro workmen. natural- 
ly these gentlemanly Soconwelds win the eyapathios 
of negroes who. being thankful, help out very often 
idien a strike breaks out. In each caeoo they are 
under the protection of tho American police, whereas . 
the latter prefers not to niix in when a lynching of 
"n negro tokos place. 

It is also interesting to pftint out that the 
goremnent spends for the education of a white child 

• three or four tines raoro than it expends on a nogro, 

■ for instance in Alabama $ 5.41 are epent for the ed- 

: ncation of a white child and $ 1.70 for a colored 

child; in Georgia i3 expended $ 9.58 for a white 
child, and 1.76 for a negro; in South Carolina $ 9.59 
is expended for a white child and $ 1.44 for a negro; 

• m Louisiana $ 13.73 is erpoadod for a white child 

and*} 1.31 for a nogro child. 

There cro about 100 granmar eohoole and only . 
about 3-4 colleges for tho negroes in tho Southern 

States. . 

- it would noon natural that under euoh conditions 

• the nosrooo would ropreBent the moot revolutionary 

• , : it '• ’• • *’ 

• • • 



•>»•»•*• £ V4,.- ■ • V 




- * - 



t J 


■ 0 } , 


element In the States. Bat the general situation 
In the United States roust ho coneidercd. The negro, 

. j an Opprcsoed slave, at tho present tine participates 
/ no revolutionary movement and thoro can he no talk 
shout any such movement among the masses of tho darky 
. olaceea-unoonc clous clavoo whose life is entirely in 
hands of the white people* At the eleotlonB negroes 
usually vote lor B.epublicans, whoa they regard as 
-• tholr liberators, because that was their official 
watchword in tho war between tho Northern and Southern 
States. This war was as a matter of faot a war bet- 
We on tho capitalistic Uorth and the agrarian slave- 
owners of the South, but this question does not in- 
tercut ns* Recently a new novenent broke oat among 
tho negroes, known under the slogan "Back to Africa"* 
"Is this novenent something like the movement 
. of tho "2ioniot8 , *T 

It resembles It a great deal* This movement 
. has* all the characteristic features of the Jewish 
Zionists* Tho leader of this movement is a very 
-capable agitator by namo of Markus Garvey, who ar- 
rived, to Uow-York in 1917 from tho British Sest Indies* 
.He olains that his organization cumbers already about 
4,000,000 American negroes* He publishes a weekly 
• with a circulation of over 60,000 copies. This move- 
ment represents also the interests of the American • 
colored capitalists* A steamship lice under the name 
y. of tho "31aok-Star Line" was organized with the object 
of carrying on trade with tho negro tribes of the Test 
Indies. CoCvoy iosuod chares worth $ 6 each and by 




w - « - . . . 

. ’ O O . • 

00 doing 09 Ueal*l $ 1,000,000 for purahaeo of otena- 
ero. Tho Coa-ony haa non thros stooaoro tut has 
proved to to Tor 7 inefficient from tho oomorolol 
standpoint and at tho praccnt tine atlcta only oa 
/ paper* Per has the "Bach to Africa- novenont 
yielded ary other practical revolts. 2n£vey's or- 
ganiaatica hos even had a negative influence an far 
as tho revolutionary spirit of nagroes ic concerned.* 

Tho negro population must understand that a revolu- 
tionary movement *111 treofc out among them some time 
and it must begin on tho territory where they live 
at tho present iitao, i*c* in America* 

Comrade Eeyeoh stated that there aro about 

60,000 reproes ©reared in nuch professions as.lcryors, 

\ # 
phyciolanc, etc* 

•. *»nhat is the attitude of the white people towards 
these colored intellectuals? Pill they come to then 

. and oonsult then?" . - .. 

• «py no means! That is quite imposeibl© under 
*the present oonditione. lfo white man will ever go 
to a colored doctor or lawyer* They worh only for 
the negroes* You cannot understand it; you Europeans 
* and eopcoially you Suosiana (here Coarade Uaobny became 
'particularly enphaeio). Perhaps you will undoretand 
if j gay that there is no human, Boolal contact between 
. the trMte end colored roonlo a t the present time and 
under preoent oenditiona; will you understand it now? 

Vo ere not rorarded as human bcln.rs"* 


• These* words woro tho oonolusion of our long inter- 


view* 


Article signed by Bor.V. (Borin Volin, presumably 

. Mote by Translator)* 


• # v.; *# %»•»••’%• • *’ " 

• r> 0 + »%i • r,^«**M4**^ U* *« *• 


r 



V o 


a 


i 


TO3 EA.CS rg?3?I0?T Iff TO* UtTITHO STA?r!3^. .. 

delogeto oi the it lerlcon Consul? * fa.17, w» 

(Translation Iron tbo Uoecou^IiYiSIIi, ro. £E9, Coventor 16, 

7ho Amor lean len ca iao no difference In ©wornl . 

* toW-on tho mo.., tat in reolity ovary negro In America 
fools -that bo ’is ecsethin; lexer than n taem being. 

She oconoBlo poeltlon of Ibo huge negro me.eo 
• ' (noearAlns to tho .tatlstlc. of 1310 there are mare 
’ . . ; than 12.0C0.000 negro., in the Bnit.d State.) should 

.y make them god «»U *« •« Cemmunlet propaganda. On- . 
fortunately that 1. not tho feet In reality. In the 
‘ ‘ ' f jxet pine, negro., arc very poorly orgonlccd. In the 

American I .deration of tabor. «hleh unite, about 4.0C0.CC0 
' • poaplo, there ere hardly t.are then 20-50,000 negroes. 

About 90 percent of th. negro., lire In the Southern States, 
' i.o. about 10,000,000 people. ..In the Borthorn State. llTe 
; . .to,* 10.6‘perc.nt or about 1.500.000 negroes and O.S per- 

.. oent livo in tho Wostcrn States* 

•• of tho negro 00 living in the Southern State. 73 per- 

cent «ro oocapl.d in agricultural labor and 73 percent 
'• V. C f negroes in tho Berth are working in industry. • Aooord- 
’ • jug t o otatictloo of ,1920, tho cooial division of negroes 

uno a. follows: (U engaged in agriculture - 2,095,o75, 

? ' • (2) house eervant. and olallor sorylco - 1,222,231, (3) 

testllo In J or. try - 631.337. (d) In transport "orriee - 

• ' £65.996. U) nlnlng Industry - 61.129, (6) various >ro- 
* .. feoelone - 61.2-16. (?) l' uS?11 ° oorrlcc - 22.532. 

Sho dbcooo of negroos have not bocn ablo yot to got 

•• ' rid of their suspicion of vhlto Kta*- 









ct ft ©enter? here elapsed since tho liberation of tbo 
colored peoplo bat tho cttltado of the white poo pip 


* resilne oppress I yo end husllicting* It la onoa^i 

/ ' t±s-.. ' * . "••••' 

to joint ont that there ore ©operate "welting roonn" 

cit tbo mil ray stations for tho colored peoplo* 

Ucgroos have so right to travol in tho oaso car with 

the whito pooplo end go forth* Tho white people 

pie? the rolo of opprossors, clave owners, although 

©lavory io. officially abolished* In tho dt loo tho 

*nogroes oro forced to livo in oortain regions, bocaaso 

tho landlords would not lot their apart neats to colorod 

pooplo, bo ins afraid of losing all their whlto lodgers. 
» • 

The worisen cascos and organizations cro also pro- 

* 

Radioed cgninst tho colorod peoplo* . Sat tho fittitede 

* touordo nogroes is rat tbo eaae throughout tbo United 
C tat oc* Saco hatred is espoo lolly strong in tho 
Southern States, dthoagh In the Uorth a negro feelo • 
that ho is something different froa a baton hoing* 

It ofton happens that after ft strilco tho ©bite worb- 
sen betray their colored: oollcogleo to tho oaployer 
and do not protect at fill if the anfortannte colorod *’ 
fitrilers are dianicsod* 

;; • • 

Jfogrooo, capoclally in the South, shore they 
* eooposo tho cajorlty of voters, eeet with great ©b* 
steolcs in tho elootione to'Congroes* Thoro is rase 

* hind of • tax which is colloctod froa tho Totors* 

. Unequal coonoaio conditions roe alt in tho fact that " 
this tax fvory esall as « natter of fact) ©on bo ; . 
ea*;ily pnid by tho whlto votore, who oro always bettor 
a off than the colored,* for whoa even this Insignificant 





Hjif mi*. 


. - ...» i . .* 

<J ‘ • 


• *% 4 

.• r,o ••••-• 


• iafesssi 






.twr is too high* the black farners are unscrupulously 

/ exploited, bo ins la tho najority of cocoa semll-t*^ 

/ mot Iona owners* . 

Chore lo about 26 percont of illiterate 
• • 
thenegroos in tbo South t whereas this porcont * 0 

tho white pooplo is alsoet nil* In Congees thero is 

only ono no.rro dole-nto - our comrcflo* 

Jhe groat tack of organising tho caeeeo of negroes - 

dll ions of farcer b and industrial vorkoro • has not been 

jet commenced, the trhole work is still ahead and tho 

.• Xaericon Cocooniet Party, after the Tonrth Confarencd 

% 

. of the International, when the question will go throng 

a detailed examination, will htTe to develop an enorgetic 

€ 

propaganda and organisation work as tf*g oar black coarndes, 
to vipo oat their suspicion and the ie. c 6 t traces of pre- 
judice in order to inolado in the international* troops 
of cocaunisn a large non .fitting unit — the laboring 
negro os of the United States* 

* *Ue cruet create farorable oondltions for straggle in 
the oconosic organisations, ro auet relj upon the cap- 
"•port of oar .oenrades, negro Conounlsts, who can bo re 
oasllj penotrate the castes of the black laborers,, since 

detruat totnrCs ns, white people, is cot jet completely 

■ * • 

. : vlpod oat* We nast organise gora cello ereryrhero arcr.j 
i :©nr black oonredea and cake then starting points for car 

fotore work*. v _ -- 

. * v ’-f he qoectlon deserrea a careful consideration which 
r . ^riii be fall 7 Justified on account of the Inyortaooe of 
\**the cork and itc result a for the general success of the 

• • * . •* _ .* • . M • 

* .. ^al JtpTOlut v. ' , . . v J§ * *. 




0- . 


J 

Riga, Decombor 11, 1932* 


t ■ vt 

/. 


. . f • •> I* 


• • • • * t 


• ’*.• 3?r 




148 




The Honorable, .• ; 

Tho Scorfjtuxy o* State, 

• • • , V— ; ; x : • 

• • T?a.ohlngtv.n* .. * ’ . • 

'em • ' '' ■ . - 

Vy': ! }V I £avo tho honor to send tho Dapartnent tho *. 
"VolloaiPS advance information in regard to ^h^oeoeion 

of tho Executive Connittee of tho Co«swiot International 

to consider tho negro Question. In America, which wan 

• held on Boweahor 88, ISSas Thoso preoent at tha oeaoion 
woro Bukharin. BllXir.50, Johnston, Jooo, Boat ins (BuntlnsT), 

• Ravens tfo in/ Katayw.a, Tahhaar, Ualaooa. iSaoha^, Kuuolnen, 

Laohoy and Safaro*. * * report of tho oinutco of tho 

“ eoea ion hate Just beon obtained through ooofldont ial ; * 
oouroea and will bo forwarded by next pouoh. . • 

• * •• • •** • ' . ' I .* * 9 * . * 

■ VI have tho honor to bo. Sir, 

ooedlont eorvant, % . :Z?pf 

• • 7 « 1 -6 ' ; ' 

IfiQrl??- 1 ---- 



rV idMf. ml’ 


_» 'rtL? V» i 


; ► 


* 



QiVi • 3 tM 


'//. 



» 

.December 12 t 1922* 


Deportment of State, , 

•Taebington, D.C. . v ' ■," ’ ;" r * 

* '. 9 . • - * 

Dear Mr- Earley: . ^v. .* ^ : . v. .. 

*;.. '• ,r ' 1 • * 

Dleaee refer to the osble message which y:ia 
received from the .American .vdnieter at Elga, dated 
December 5, submitting information concerning Sa^csh, 
Johnston, Claude tfacEay and J. Billings. 

I would greatly appreciate being informed 
l».v ybd* Office aa to the* definite route which these 
lndivlduciu will uao if they return to this, country.', 
in order that the- nay bo given appropriate attention 
upon their entry. It is further sag 3 cctou that yoa V 
* endeavor to. find oat whether or not passports have been 

issued to theae subjects, and is So, i would appreciate 
photostat copies# . •■ # 

Yours very 





Director. 


Cl- 1^7 -X 



3 


cparfment of $nziil 

' JSurcau of Snbcstigntton 

15 Park Row, mth Floor 

New York, N. Y. 


jxLEPHONE. Barclay 816q 
7 CE BOX Z41 

1 h all Station 


Dec. 13, 1922. 


Director, 

Bureau of investigation, 
Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C. 


Dear Sir: 


GUNBRAL INTB1LIGBNCB DIVISION. 
Re*. Saysch, John s ton, Clau a e 
McZay and J. Billings - Repre- 
sentatives of the Fourth Con- 
gress of the Communist Inter - 
national, Moscow. 


Referring to Bureau letter dated December 12th 
and initialed GFR, concerning the above named as taking part 
in the fourth Congress of the Third International at Moscow 
you are advised that every effort possible will be made to 
detect the arrival of these me n should th ey att empt to en1>er:.. 
by ~t~h~ is " n ort ah d^th^~ gr a t j o n au thoriti es will b e reque t - 

edr~ tb~~ giye them a thorough examination. 

Your attentipn is respectfully called to the 
report submitted by Agent Geo rge J. St arr fo r December 9th, 
1922 , F ourt h Congress of C o m mun ist.,,., I nt er - 

national, ” in which repo r t~~it~~Ts set forth~^hat S^shsa, or^ 
Saesha, is b¥n^ve^tc~be“^laud‘e McHay (colored ) and that 
'BXlTrhgs"“Is undoubtedly’ Hous ewoo d who at one time acted as a 
delegate from New York City to the Workers’ Party Convention 
of District No. 2. Housewood is a negro and for a time man- 
aged the book store run by his organization in which he was 
reported as being quite active. He was also said to have 
been a close friend of Cyril Briggs and about a year ago was 
reported as being then in the Bast Indies. Under Housev/ood's 
management the Workers’ Party book store showed a deficit of 
over one thousand dollars. — 

^ Claude Mcuay, w ho is a negro from the British 

West ..Indies one. timel acted as ...Associate Bditor of ’’The 
■Libe rat or. ” While in the United States he resided at 232 W. 
138th St . He is a member of the communist Party __of__Amer i c a 
and a c lose~~Tri end o f both Rose Pastor^ Stokes and - Cyril 
Briggs T He js p robably the neg ro .who was ref erredto in the 
local pap era a s 4 being nr e 3 en twnen Trot zky- reviewed the Red 
Army in.YY r os cow.some„_\ve_oks^ago . It is further reported that 
when he returns to the United states he will join the staff 
of ’’The Liberator.” McUay was reported to-'-this -off ice during 
the yea r 192 1 a s having been t he c onfidential man of Sylvia 
Pankhurst during the time she published the ’’Dreadnaught ” in 
London, B n gland . He is considered a poet of ability and has 


£ 7 - 3 * 9 ? 


t 


- 2 -' 

written a number of radical poems for various publications 
printed m the united states and ungland. He left London, 
-England, several years ago and came to Hew York where he re- 
mained for a period of about two years, departing a short 
time ago ostensibly for Russia.. He is not believed to be a 
.. ucitizeu_ojf_the Jlnited states, is a strong Jadvocate of the 
pr inc ip le s of nommn n ism, but is oppos ed to the idea of .the 
Party functioning under-ground inasmuch as he believes that^ 
~ihT“order to arouse the masses it is necessary to carry on as 
a legal organization. He is also a close friend of other 
prominent radicals in this city and while living in Rewjfork 
he had several meetings of ' Communists in his home -which for 
a_time was located at 20 Hast 131st St.JL According to a re-_ 
port received by this office, Ucllay is .s \ 

por a time he was also interested in the affairs of the I. *K 

W. 

This office is at a loss to furnish any report 
concerning Johnston in the absence of that individual’s first 
name. At~ first it was believed that it might possibly be 
Gabriel Johnson who was active in the affairs of the Univer- 
sal IJegro Improvement Association, but it has since been 
learned that that individual is now located in Monrovia, Li- 
beria. As you are aware, this Johnson was featured by G-arvey 
in his camoaign in this city during the present year as the 
• Imperial potentate from Africa. I am causing a further in- 
vestigation to be made of this matter and should any informa- 
tion be obtained of value, you will be advised immediately. 

\ 

I am forwarding copies of this letter to both 
the San Prancisco and Seattle offices of Bureau for their in- 
formation in the event that any of the above named ship from 



A 



w - 


On the Way to 

. ’ By ANISE 


> iL’rograd ' J 

se 


*' . IJ 0T 0 f Finland, Kovci/il^r 1*. J&2S. 
Dear Folk*: 

I’m on n steamer In the Bay of Finland, 
approaching rctrograd. Sitting up on deck writ- 
ing this letter; would yon believe it, after the m 
die of November. /Father I* with me; he is goin E 
into It us si a for a few week* to jet famine informa- 
tion,- while I am going to see all I can see i of the 
■Red Trade Union International and wnte you 
about it, and then take j. trip south to the Donets 
basin, the center of Russia’s fuel problem, and per- 

* bap* to Baku. 

j \Ve‘are about three days out from Berlin, on a 
I German line that* plies between Stettin and Petro- 
rrad. It is quicker than the train going to Pctro- 
grad, but a little longer, if one is going ta » 

In spite of the season, we have had a delightfu. 
voyage, clear, not very cold, and smooth. 

■ The steamer wa* built by the Germans in 1914, 
and captured by the Russians on the outbwak of 
■ war. It is now one of the few steamers owned by 
Germany, for it was returned last January, after 
the Entente had taken all the rest of Germany* 
shipping. When folks speak of Russia* 

Aor property,” that is worth remembering. The 
/Entente had plenty of hypocritical words to cover 
the' seizing of Germany’s ships, but they confix 
cated private property just as ruthlessly *?.«« 
‘Russians ever did. .. '«.•• . ) 

RUSSIANS RETURNING DOME > j 

There arc several families with children on the ; 
ship, indicating that parent* are no longer afraid , 
to take quite young children into Russia but expect 
to be able to get proper food for them. There are 
also many Russians, who have been prisoner* and 
are coming homo for the first time after eight year*. 

Americans think the war i* over, but it isn’t. 
Thousands of war prisoner* ail over Europe kno 
It isn’t. • There ore still thousands of Germans to 
j the distent provinces of Russia and thousands o 

: Russians in Germany, who have not been able to pay 

their way back again to their borne lands and who 
have not even had letter* to toll them if their pe©: 
plo aw living or dead. All Central and Eastern 

• | Europe is still clogged with war refugee* and war 

prisoner*.;. **V vV *' 





FRENOJI HOLD RUSSIANS PRISONERS 4 | 

| ' One of these Russians tells me that thew aw 
thousands of Russian* down in Algeria, held there * 
by the French and without letters or papers or any 
communications from Russln. They wew helping 
France on the western front in the early days of ; 
the war. Then came the Revolution and the Rus- ; 
alans declared that their country was at peace now, 
and that they would also no longer fight They 
were promptly jailed or * Interned, some of them 
taken to Algeria. And since France has no agree- 
ment with’ Russia yet, thew is no way of arranging 
to bring them home. * •*.**” I 

Around this Baltic Sea through which we sail, 
there arc no less than ton different language* 
spoken. And it Isr.’t such a large sea at that. 
Thew is Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian, 
Esthonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, German 
and Danish. No doubt, if you hunted the villages, 
you would find some more dialects, but I am talking 
merely of regular languages, spoken by separate 
•-nations.. .Each pf these groups has its own go .ern- 
*'*'**■ m a. 1M j pitsport regulations. 
[ for Europe to recover. 


- -a. jcw.. .y ~7Z?s 





■V- •] 


REPORT MADE AT: 


fl ew Yo rk. IKY. 

TITLE AND CHARACTER OF CASE: 


Jan. 6 ,1923.1 -Ja n . 5.1 925, 


RE: CLAUDE McKAY: 

7T— 




Hegro Radical Activities, Delegate to 
Third International. • — 


FACTS DEVELOPED: 

•At Dew York, fl.Y. 


Agent called on and interviewed MRS., CYRIL BRIGGS, 
2299 - 7th Avenue, R. Y. City, UcKAY is a personal friend~of 
IfR. CYRIL BRIGGS, and MRS. BRIGGS has promised Agent that just as 
soon as she can get information from her husband as to when McEAY 
will return to America, that she will get in touch with Agent at 
once. 






•^* 5 - 




REPORT MADE AT: 


, f 1 Sneol al Agent Chas « J. f 11: 

DATE WHEN M ADC: ' PERIOD FOR WHICH MADE: I REPORT MADE BY 


-^ewLYor k. IJ«Y, 1 Jan . 6 r 1 9J3^J^Tjin . 5.19 23 , 


James E, Amos, 


title and character of case. 


EEs CIATJDE L'cKAY: 


FACTS DEVELOPED: 

iAt Hew York. N.Y. 


Hegro Radical Activities, Delegate to 
Third International, - — 


^ Agent called on and interviewed LIRS. CYRIL BRIGGS, 

2 299 - 7th Avenue, fl, Y , City, KcKA^is a personal friend oT 

IfR • _ C YRIL__BR1 GGS^ and MRS, B R IGGS h aj^romis_e d Agent that just as 

soon as she can get Informati on from her husband as to when IT c KAY 
w ill return to America, that s he wil l get in touch with Agent at 
once . " 


^ 7 - 3^7 


■.*v» 


#■**!■ trncui «• 

Xmi BccnnAMr or itAii 

WMNHMtM. .. «. 




U- 






/•/• .’• V 


Department of State 


WASHINGTON 


January 11, 1923, 


l 1 r ’’ji- 

% 


Dear Mr. Burns: 

Please refer to your letter of December 13, in- 
itialed GFR:JIV1I, concerning Saycsh John 3 ton, Claude 
Mac Hay and J. Billings. As far as can be ascertained, 
these individuals have never received departmental 
passports. They, ho doubt, went out and will return 

as sailors. In this connection I enclose herewith 

• • * * 

oopy of a Despatch Bo. 143, dated December 11, which 
has been received from the American legation at Higa. 

Very truly yplfrs. 



Enclosure : 

From Riga, !To.l43, 
December 11, 1922. 


William J. Burns, Esquire, 

Director, Bureau of Investigation, 
Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C. 


% • 




Dear Hr. Burns : 

tfith further reforonce to Caycsh, Johnston, 

Claude Uacfcay. and J. Billies, imarican negro dele- 
gates to the Fourth Congress ox* th. Third International. 

I enclose herewith copies oi the Despatches Eo. 117 
and 138. dated Decanter 7; and' Decanter 11. respectively, 
which hare teen received Xrom the African legation at 


EigSe 


Very 


Enclosures: 

D9Sp Sa?ed # Deceiter.7 

Despatch # 133* 

dated December lie 


William J. Burns, Esqulro, 

Director, Bureau of Investigation, 

Department of Justice, 

Washington, D* C* 

# 






- ‘ » - •• m- - ; 




January 19 f 1923. 


Kr* Hoy A. Barling, ■ ;,. 

B. D. Bor 163, 

Seattle, Waoh* 1 . . 

■■■■.' -■ ■ > * , •/; v* •". ’ 

Bear Sir;- ~ ’ h 

.. *•••;✓ 

. • Inf ormation ho3 beon received fron a con- 
fidential source that four American negroes who have 
been part ioi pat ing in the Fourth Congress of the Third 
International, at Moscow, are now returning to the 
United States. The names of tho four are given as 
J« Billings, Claude Mackay, Sayeoh and Johnston. 

The chief of the He gro delegation from the 
United Staton is Billings, his assistant Jieing Mackuy. 
It is reported that Billings, Sayesh and John 3 ton v/ill 
return to tho United States via Chita and Shanghai, 
.leaving Moscow botween December 8 and IE. ‘Mackey* ' 

? iB to remain in Husain as President of the Kegro Sec- 
tion of the Executive Committee of the Third Inter- 
national. > ? 

Should theso oub^ecta return to the United 
States through a retort i& the territory covered by your 
offf£e, it is desired that they be given a very thor- 
ough examination. 

# 

Very t ruly^^r^^^ ' 

Director. 



ei-3^9 7- 7 0 Jp> ! y. 


* ‘ ’• . *' v ; ^ V* ' 


7 


This case originated at Trashing on 
Journal 1 to he made at originating office only< 


.A. Pile 


REPORT MADE AT: 

DATE WHEN MADE: 

j PERIOD FOR WHICH MADE: 

REPORT MADE BY: 

Los Angeles 

1/23.23 

1 

! 

1 

1 

to 

< 

to 

r— 1 

1 

a»a.eo,?::ii:3. 


TITLE AND CHARACTER OF CASE: 


J*BILLIBGS, OLATHE IIACEAY (Legro Delegates to 
SAYESH,--- — JOHIJSICL# 4th. Congress® 

— Third _ International) 


0Q12.HJTTIST 

ACTIVITIES 


FACTS DEVELOPED: 

At Los Angeles Calif;- 


Attention LIH E00VPF~2“< 


( Letter of Director 

Reference^ Dated Jan 19-1923® T.P.B:G.A®( J.r.K) 

• ( Re^Jegro Delegates to 3rd Internationale 

\7ith reference to the ITegro Delegates to the Pourth Congress of 
the Third International reported now to be en route to the united 
States, : This matter has been taken up with the Immigration and Custom 
^Authorities in all ports of Entrance in this District, an d request had 
been made that in the event any of these Delegates attempt to enter 
that they b e held togather with all baggage, docum ents etc, and~this 
notifi ed at once so that a thorough examinat ion may be made. 

Confidenti al Informants in contact with th a 
A MERICA, and C on f i^d^^a l_Inf ormant.s-on-Legro--Ac-t-ivitle_.s_. have also 
been instructed tatch . out for subjects 0 




<r/- 3V?7 


h 


>L : JD7. 


Ikjmrtmrnt nf 

S«rrmx nf Siturstigalum. 

post office Boy ho. 374, 

San Brancisco - California. 


2 9 T H 
1 9 2 S. 


Hr. V.'n. J. Burns, Director, 
Bu r e an o f I nve st i gat i c n , 
Department of Justice, 
Y/ashingt on, D. C. 


■ n n ’* 

.'ii x 


me:: bootjh - 2 — 


Dear Sir*-- 


Beceint is hereby aclmowledged of your 


letter under date of Jan. 1C, 1 922, initialed "DDB : G--" , 
in re. Z. Bnill’GS, c£ AU 33 KACIiii', SAT23H- ana 

s ; *• 

° Jl VJ D 3D0i:, four -American negroes v : ho have beeivpart ici- 
■natinp in the 4th Congress of the 3rd Internationale at 


I'.osc oiv. 


A similar letter on these same individuals 


was received by this office, save being dated Dec. 12,1 222, 
initialed ” GDB : JVfi.:" , at which time the matter was t alien up 
with the Immigration authorities, .confidential informants, 
etc., and should they arrive at this Port, this office 
should receive immeuiatc notice and the natter will be 


p r 0mpt£ V £.tt ©ny . 


7ery truly yours. 


Fr eder i 

Special Agent in 


6I-W97 


A 


O ro 





February 2 f 1923. 


4 .. .x'SJ? ^ 

. -1 .. , l ■S:*’*-' r‘2^3 


Mr. P. A. Watt, 

P. 0. Box 334, 

Portland. Oro. •" 

* * V 

Bear Sir;- * • ’ 

• • • 

Pie sue refer to ny letter of recent date 
concerning SAYCSH J0HB3£0B 9 CLAUB2 i'acKAY and J.---- 
B1LL1B33 # negroes present at a recent Congress of 
the Coonranlst International, which is considering 

V 

the negro question in America* " 

I have just been advised by the State Be- 

.. * . • • v 

partment that as far as can be ascertained these 
individuals have never received depart rental pass- 
ports. I'hey no doubt went out and will return as 


sailors. 


Very truly yours, 

• //HiQ 





• t’ ' 

^ 3)1 r actor. 


(S/-3 < /'?7 r/S 




TPBjGA 







February 2, 1923* 


Hr. Roy A. Twirling, 

P. 0. Pox 163, •* '- 

Seattle, Wash* , 

• ■ *•: ■ » • *, ’ . . • 

Dear Slr; r V - ; , 

, __ '•’ • • 

Please refer to ny letter of recont date 
concerning SA2CSH JCKIiSTOZf, CLAUDS HaoK^Y and J. 
B1LLIB03, negroes present. at a recent Congress of 
the Communist International, which is considering 
the negro question in America* ^ 

I have Just been advised by the State Do- 
partmont that as far as can be ascertained the£e 
individuals have never received departmental pass- 
ports* I’hey no doubt wont out and will return as 


sailors. 


Very t r til ^ y ours y 


Director* 




6t~1 L /9 7 - f 




IPE:OA 


Bebruary £6, 19£3. • 


Ur. K, 3» Brennan, 

B. 0. Bos 141, . 

City Hull station, 

lien 'lorl: City, ’ . . - , , 

t ' 

Dear Sir;- ' 

A. 

Please refer to my letter of December 1E # 
laot f and your reply thereto of the 13th, concerning 
SAj^CH, jOHSJiUii, CLAUDE and J. BILDIlttS 

V 

Pluaso advloe nb whothor you have been able 
to secure any furthor information upon any of those 
individuals, with particular reference to thoir citizen- 
chip, and if aliens* tine and place of entry, into the 
United States, - 


Very truly' yours, 

>7 r, ■- . •"> 

Director, 





OFFICE OF 

SPECIAL AGENT IN CHARGE 


/ : 


department of Justice 

Moreau cf SnbesfttQation 

15 Park Row, 14th Floor 
Hew York, N. Y. 


-• . -i.— ,-i i-jas 


TELEPHONE. BARCLAY tlMjj 

POST OFFICE BOX *4Vj35il 
O rv Hall station t 


Director, 

Bureau of Investigation, 
Department of Justice,- 
Washington, D.C. 


Dear Sir : 


February 28th, 19 23. • 


•GSIttRAl 'IH7KLLI GB1TC B ?)IVIS IOII 

Ri$ : ■ SAYSCK, JOkRSTOR, CLAUDE '-m 

MCKAY' & J. BILLIliGS - IJegro Communists 

'and Possible Entrants at this port ■ \^jfe 

from Moscow. IT. Y. File II o. rr 3t 


Acknowledgment is made of your letter of February 26th, .; J§| 
initialed TPB/GA, in which reference is made to your letter of ' 'i|K 

December 12th, 1922, concerning the persons named in the above • 

caption. 

_ '• " &&T - 

In this connection, I desire to advise you, as indicated ':|j| 
in my letter of December 15th, 1922* that arrangements were then made]||| 
at this uort to have the Boarding Division keep a, sharp lookout f °f,jM 
the arrival of these men; and at the same time the offices of the 
Bureau at San Francisco and Seattle were also advised of their poss-jB 
ible arrival. Since that time no information has been received 
regarding the arrival of these men nor /the ir citizenship but the 
matter is still being kept in mind and upon receipt of any infor- 
mation regarding them you will be promptly advised. / : 


Very 


.y yours 




VS’ifeoaaDi Agent in Charge. 


Ci- 3V9 7 -/& 


' Y . 'V V ^ i» ^r -1 «.•'•»' V’.«* J,'*»iV/;^ ■/‘'jii V •» * I 1 .'• * t i'j 'Vf* AH V - ’ ~ , 

v:. <■} - w r *• i- vaT- »■ a-^» 






Febmar^^. 1923 


M3H0RANDUIT. 
II?' RE: CLAUDE !U HAY 


Claude ;.cZay, a communist negro from Jamaica, 

/ / / 

! j' is -reported not to be a citisen c£ this cuuntry, 

v /- - : - 

.// According to "5ostcn Herald” be came to the United'" 

^ — / 

States in 1912 in order to study scientific farming. He •' 

attended the "ansas Agricultural College for 2 years during 

which time he became interested i^ literature rather than in 

farming, and he has since worked at anything from dishwashing 

to dining-car service on the new York - Philadelphia. Express, 

By some he is classed as a poet. He has written 
for many publications printed both in- the United States and in 
England, and is the author of "Harlem Shadows", a collection 
of radical poems, * ; 

t «C 

In July. 1921 it was reported that he had returned 
from England, but there is no mention as to why or for hew 
long he had been in that country. 

Soon he became an assistant editor of "The Liberator"; 

an officer of the African Blood Brotherhood; anav/as also very 

v \ 1 
active in communist circles. He is closely associated with 

Rose Pastor Stokes, and is said to agree with her principles 

of Communism, He is, however, opposed to the idea of party 

functioning underground. 

UcKay is a friend of one Ryan, an I.I7.V/. engaged in 
selling forged passports in Germany, and was a confidential 
man for Sylvia pankhurst during the time she published "Dread- 
naught" , in London, England. 

In December 1921 it was reported that tfe contemplated 
' rejoinir^ the I.V/.V/, in which his membership kad{yCa^se$., 

In August of 1922 ho was living at 2qT]2&st 14 th St., __ 
U.Y.C. Soon after this he went to Europe, acd in\ I Jove mb or was 
reported to be in London, Pram there he w nt on to the 4th 

V - • - . ; 

‘congress of the 3rd International held in ^Uosoow, £‘ {- ? " 



! M 

! s~M 




It was thought that he there used tha alias of 
'Sashs-'or-Beieha. Other American negro delegates to this 
conventi: n were Johnston, J. Billings' and one Saysch* 
Billings was chief of the delegation and Subject his 
assistant* All but Subject planned to return to the U.S* 
via Chita and Shanghai, leaving Moscow between the 8th 
and the 12th of December* Ee, however’, planned to remain 
in Hussia as President of the Ilegro Section of the Executive 
Committee of the Srd International. ' 







hzz *.Tion c? rax 
trviiED s;a.'m or auehica 


BIG A. 


Riga, Latvia, 
March 2, 1323. 








■*'••• Tho Honorable, 

. 5ho Socrotcry of State, v • 

• • • « 

•* * * - 

. v Foehington* _ • ; . ... 

*: . . * * 

Sir: 

I havo the honor to fort^rd horewlth tho trano- 
**' lotion of an nrtlolo by Trotsky, publichod in tho Mobcow 
1/ I2VES7IA, Ho. 34, of February 16 f l'123 t in whioh ho 

* cnfiuere oortcin o.nestiono propounded by tho Anorioan 



negro Concanist, Clcado i!ncXny# 

In the groetor part of the artiolo Trotciy duolla 
upon the nocossity of inotitutiais cacrgotio propaganda 
coons tho nogro troopo co aa to inprooo upon then that 
thoy ore boins aoed by Franco for tho parpoeo of on- 
alcving tho proletariat of Europo and that French and 




) 




and British capitalists are planning to nee the negro 
. rcoo, in caoo of necessity, against the revolutionary 
tvaeeoo of Eurouo* ' Trotoky obsorvoo,- hovovcr, that 
tho hoargeoloio aro conducting an crporlcont dnngorous 
to thonoolves when they involvo the loos civilisod 
colonial casces in international conflicts* Ha 
thinks that tho negroes , as w oil as colonial natlvos 
gonorolly, procorvo conserve tlo*a end "ccntfcl law 
nobility" only if thoy renoin in their nconl do- 
DftBtic surroundings and that when thoy are brought 
forth to caoriflce their livos for tho eako of 
©oopliontod international confliote thoy oro rendered 
coro euscoptibln to rcTOlut ionary Id one* 

Trotsky thinks that tho cost ioportent revolutionary 
pi'oblc a of the moment is tho training of faogro agitators* 
In America he thinks tho problem bocotaoo core ooaplicotod 
becaueo of tho "abominable stupidity end race hatred 
among the privileged circles of tho working class it- 
solf"* Eo calls for a "deadly etrugglo" against raco 
preJudico f which ho oonsiders to bo tfco best guarantee 
. for tho cnslavcr7 of tho whito and hlaok workmen* 

- ' In conclusion, Trotsky admits that ho is at a 
loos to of for advioa conoorning tho Dost ezpodlont 
. forms of organisation among tho nogrooo of Amorica, 
booauso he in "not familiar nith tho ooncreto con- 
ditions and possibilities*" 

• I have tho honor to be. Sir 
. 0 ,: / * . : Tour obodiont coxprunt. 







; • End o care : 1. 


"Ancroro to 
(XiTCSTXA, 


Comrrdo Clnndo 


41 0 • C*i t xooruor* 





l!aoV&7* w 
r 15, 13J3.) 



- 




tnciosyitE » l w °.O tch ** 


A!I37!?.?S ?0 CPl'P/T ^ ClJJjn T. VACiTAY# • / 

_/*. Article b? T>. 7rotr.!ry > 

(Trensletlon fron ITorcon in722TIA # ^4, refcTacry 15* 

/ *. y- 1323. i 

% 

Deer Comrafle Unc^ty: 

fl) rhot oan So prsotloallly done In order to 
prcrent Pronco fron nclns oolorel troopo on tho 
’ European continent?. That lo jour firfet action. 

Agitation saot be carried on to this effect 
among tho odored troopo thonoolToe. Tholr 0700 
oraet ho oponol and they irost unaorotond that in 
helping Trcnae to enclave Europe the colorod people 
enslavo thcnselvoo by cnpportlng the rule of Trench 
-capital in tho African ana other eolonioo. 

. ' In thio educational work among tho colored 
• peoplo the working oloao of Europe ie Ter? ouch in- 
terected ani in the fir at place tho Trench and nerean 
laborcro. • The time of eonoral resolutions concerning 
the rlghtc of colonial r.ationo for eclfdetorainatlon, 
tho cpnal lty of all nationo regardless of tho color 
Of tboir chin, etc. etc, hao past. How tho tine of 
, * direct action hao ooao. Every ten negroes gothorea 

trnaor the revolutionary bannor, unltod for practical 
*ork anoag the colored people, nro a hunarca tireo 
. nore important than ten gonoral resolutions, which 
heTO been ao gonorounly pnoec.d by tho Second Tnter- 
. • national. A party which would liait ito ectlTltioo 

... ln thio respect by ideal lot lo declarations. not 
. ohonlnj any effort tovmrdo tho nroctloal cnl lot-root 
of olano-concolouo negroes for carrying on of ito 







-B- 


•. progran would not deserve to bo cr.l 1 od a Cornrunlst 

*arly>& . . 

' *r* 5* 7 . 

* ^ • fe) Tiioro oan bo no doubt 'that the foot of In- ■** 
/ ArolYla& tho oo 1 3 red troops in tho imperialistic war 
and at tho present tisio In tho occupation of Ger.wm 
territoiy represents a carofally T/or’ced out and ex- 
ecuted attempt of European, and in tho f Lrat plr.co 
af * reach and British capital, to find foe- thoniolves 
e force outside of chaotic 2»zrojvj and by so doing to' 
obtain tho possibility of finding support, in c*-so 
neoosslty, in tho Mobilised v disciplined and armed 
African and Asiatic troops against the revolutionary 
cascoo of naropo. That is why tho question of in- 
volving colored troops in imperial let io wars is closely 
, • * 

•>. COiueotoC vith the qucotlon of revolution In Europe and, 

thoreforo, v/ith tho fate of the wording clues* * 

f3) Thoro can be no doubt that tho fact of involving 

tho loss civilized colonial cusses in intcrnetiwual 

imperial istlo conflicts represents an experiment cost 

dangerous for tho ruling boargooi3ic itself* The blcok 
• # • 

pooplo, as troll as tho colonlol natives genorally, pre- 

corva conservatism and "cental irttobility’* only if they 

* . .. ro.xain in their usual dooostio surround ings* But whon 

tho hand of capital nnd oven core - tho hand of militarise- 

* # 

pulls tfcea out of thoir uoual living conditions and conpols 
. them to caerlflco thoir lives for tho sclte of complicated 
• and n<r.t international questions and confliota {conflicts 
bo luoeji' tho hour jjooisio of vuriouc nations, or conflicts 
botveoa the clajcoo of tho saw nations,) then tho con- 
servative poyoologicul otubbornooo io immediately wiped 








0 ; th.revolstlonvry. ideas or* grasped *1 th * 

4iclvP** A •luAfc* 

■ , (ft Shot is uhy it i« ao laportcat nor. at it* 

present «ouont, to have cron a sn.sU «*>« °* « lcoa - 
oonoolous ncgroouj young ond devoted. interested in the . 
• ioproYieont ex the ocor.onio and sorrl level of the 
lluo h xeco r-od nt the con. tine capable of connecting. ' 

. Berelly «» **• ,1th tic feto of tho chela -rU «». 
in the first piece. .ith the fete of tho Interaction^ 

vroricUo clc-ttu* 

sf the pinrt in.l.rtsr« is the Vjst 


' l..-...rt,ant jw 'nt»-SH °* 13,0 

(f.) 5'cie problen oeeesos aoro ccsplics.cd la t-e 
Uni ;, S states of A.- trice on account of the aboalaablo 

stupidity and rocs hatred anons '^privileged circle* 

^ tcoif vhich £o not Ti£i& to ro- . 
oi tbs uorjtmG oU.ec itcoxi, 

oogniss ntsroos es bretnem in labor end ntru^lo. 

Coapora* policy ia beccd entirely on this prejudice 
nnd np to the preeoat tine ia the best «*»«*•• 
tho cnoluTory of tho nhit, «nd bine* •«**»•«. ««•* 

strugglo against thia policy aust bo carried on every- 
Bh.ro. Ono of tho neat important oothoda of otrugjl.^ 
against thia capltelictio corruption of alads ia to pace 
np tho huann dignity and revolutionary protest are eg the 
clnv.a of African oeoiV.l. This uor* can bo boot 
oarried on by the devoted and politically educated negro 
revolutionists. Naturally the -rh auct not.aaaa.vo the 
character of -blsoi chauvinist but »ust be eurriod on 

' i» tho spirit of solidarity cong •» »i at “ 030 

^of the color of their oiin. I on at a loss to any chat 

aro-tho moot expedient organlsation foroo for the oovesent 





4 






v M i wu not 

•— ? ' i, ° A,t9ric “ 304 

.«>' ... ^ ...» » — 

• jiciuol *H1 * or “ cU 

** ^ 5 1016410 **** 








r-o , 37 - 



COPY ,v 

AMCRICAN LEGATION 

• cofonheco. 


Honorable 

fho Secretory of Stcto# 

• . % • 

• Eefchiof,ton« ' v '* * 

1C ■ 

Slr ‘ x bsTe iha tenor to report. oenfirains =.7 telega 
lie. 6. liorct 0. 3 P.u.. ttnt ay ftonch Collcocoe. VIcoato 
■ 4e Ponteney. infer*, no. Xrea officio! **»«•> ro- ^ 

• oeived ty tin. ttat era Cloud. * *» ricen wcr ‘ 

.to !*, 4»t groduotod fro* tto Belot.vit nchool ot 

Uoooor. too tetn eopeolclly delegated. ty tto -orie 
. Covorncont for frep 8C cnio naons tto forth *»*!•« 
necroco. In on open letter. *tiot rooently 
IZVKS7IA. Srotsky V.es pstaiohod tto offlclnl iuotvuoUoca 
given to l^ctoy for tto c^ninetion of tt. tloct reoo 
!» tto United Stotoo ofioinot-ttolr *^rican oppr.oeero . 
, ^^foraea tfcot^otoy.ln onllins nt onoo for tto 

''Uflitafi. Stoteo* / * • 

1 hove tbo honor to ho. Sir, 

Your oboAlont oervant, ^ *• v * 


John 1 *;t> 31 o 7 Hrlnoo* 





A'l STI7.PS TO COVn/ZH T, C!/.TT P<« VACi.AY* 
Article h? T«« ^*r n t r.!ty • 


(Translation free, !!occcn_ir.72=TIi. So. M. Sebrarry IB, 
* / «w %.. 19£3« i 


Dear Conrcfie "nc^y: 

(1J Vh't oan bo prnotloallly done In order to 
prevent Franco iron nctns oolorcd troopo on the 
' European continent?. That 18 soar llrfet auction. 

Agltotlon snot b» oarrled on to this effect 
. onions tho oolorcd troopo thoneolvoe. Their oyoo 
- Buet bo ononod and they nast nndorotand that in 

holplns Frenoe to cnolnvo Europe the colored people 
. cnolevo thcr.selvon by enpportlns the rnlc of Trench 

- capital In the African and other oolonios. 

' m thio educat tonal work trams tho colored 

• • people the working cions of Europe 1 b very rnch ln- 

t erected end in tho flret place the Trench and <^rcnn 
laborero. • The tlr.e of eonoral ronolutiono cor.cernlns 
' tb0 n c htc of eolonlol nationo for eelfdetcrnlnotlon, 
tho cauallty of all nationo regardless of the color 

• of tholr chin, otc. etc, has pnst. Sow tho tine of 
direct notion has ooaoi Erery ten nesroos gathered 
under the revolutionary bannor, united for practical 
„ork onons the colored people, aro a hundred tire a 
nore Important than ten sonorol reeolutlono, vhlch 

• hare been co conerounly passed hy tho Second Inter- 
. . national. A party nhlch nould Unit lto actlvltlcn 

in th la respoot by Idealistic deolarntlORO. not 
• .. . ohonlnj any effort tovnrdn tho oroctloal cnllotaont 

of Olar,o-concolou« negroes for carry tn C on of lte