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^642038 


0 


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MICROCLIKATE OP ANOPHELES HYRCANDS AND ANQPHBLRs 
MACDUPENNIS HABITATS IN RICE FIELDS 


TRANSLATION TO. 1159 


August 1964 


CLEARINEHOVSE 
FOB IBDBKAL SCIENTIFIC AND 
TBCRNICAT^ IN^-’O iMAriiU 
Ha^opr'TMIorofiolit 


/ ' 


Best Available Copy 




UNITED STATES ABMT 
BZOLOOZCAL LABORATORIES 
Fort Dotrlek, Prodorlck, Maryland 




DDC AVAIIABILITY NOTICE 

Qualified requestors may obtain copies of 
this document from DDC. 

This publication has been translated from 
the open literature and is available to the 
general public. Non-DOD agencies may pur¬ 
chase this publication from Clearinghouse 
for Federal Scientific and Technical Informa¬ 
tion, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, 
Va, 






MICROCLIMATE OF ANOPHELES HYRCANUS AND ANOPHELES 
MACULIPENNIS HABITATS IN RICE FIELDS 


/Following is the translation of an article by N, P, 
Sokolov in the Russian-language journal Meditsin- 
ekava Parazitologiva i Parazltamyye Boleani (Medical 
Pai^sitology and Panasitio Illnesses)* No 
pages 725*728^7 


From the Department of General Biology and Parasitology 
(Director} Professor N« P. Sokolov) of the Andizhan 
Medical Institute 

(Received 17 May 1961) 


Observations on the microclimate of habitats of Anopheles 
hyroanue and fteettJritoeMHia maoulipennis saoharovi were carried out 
in the region of the Uzbekistan Rice Test Station. The habitats of 
A. hyrcanus are usually thickets of velvet grass ( Holcus mollis ) 
in rice fields. In living quarters» in places where domestic 
animals are kept, this species is found very rarely. The habitats 
of A. m. saoharovi are stables. ' ! 

Wa~prasen4~the resulty/^ol’ observation on soil and air tempci'O- 
ture, humidity and win5 velocity in habitats of mosquitoes and their 
comparison with the microclimate of the open area of the meteorologioal 
station located in the vicinity. Data obtained upon measurements 
of solar radiation in the biotopes A. Hyrcanus and A. nu. saoharovi 
have been published previously. /feditsinskava parazitologiya i para - 
zitamyye ^lezni ^ledical Parasitology and l^rasitic Disease^, 

1961, No 5)' \ 

The temperatures of plant-covered (velvet gr*asa) and exposed 
soil differed. Plant cover protects soil from intense insolation 
during the daylight hours and, therefore, significantly reduces 
the immediate influx of heat into the soil. During the night hours, 


\ 


1 




:*.t» In oon-tr«8t» Itnpedos irradiation which roduooe the outflow of 
heat fron the eoil. In addition» the ve^tatlon iotpedee turbulent 
nixing of the air, reduooe heat capacity of the eoil through eva<^ 
poratlon and aote on other prooeeses related to the presence of ve* 
getation* Table 1 illuotratee data of eoil temperature meaeuremento 
in vegetation overgrowth and for the area of the meteorological station. 


TABLE 1 

Plumal Oouree of Soil Temperature in Thickets of Vegetation 
(velvet g^es) and in the Area of the Meteorological 
Station (in degrees) 

b\ O .--ja/«<u __ 

<0 

< •.'.<!« H 

pHiKi HypMIW 


MtCM 


7 

20,2 


20 

11 

23 


22.7 ! 

' .-.Hill 

20.) : 

< .‘.u urn M 

26,4 1 

1 


LBCrBn)i a) 'hours of observation! b) 26«27 Julyf o) 9-10 August) 
d) overgro%rtb of velvet grass) e) area of meteorologLoal station) 
f) mean) g) minimal) h) maximal* 


Measurements made in the open area of the meteorological 
station hourly during 26-27 July and 9-10 September ^able 1 
shows 9*10 AxigU8j7 revealed a large difference in the soil 
temperature in velvet grass stands and in the area of the meteo- 
rologloal station* The soil temperature in the station area free 
of vegetation was 13«7-'15* higher during the midday hovtrs (IJ hours) 
than in the velvet grass areas) during the morning and evening hours 
the differenc<» levels off. The mean-diumal temperature of the 
soil in the velvet grass azreas on 26-27 July was %5* lover than the 
temperature of soil devoid of vegetation) the maxlamm temperature of 
the exposed soil reached >diile among the areas of vegetation it 
did not exceed 2^.4 

The diurnal course of soil temperatiire during other days was 
similar to the data presented above. The most Intense heating of 
soil in the velvet ^aes areas took place during the post-imldday 
hours) before noon the temperature gradually increased, but then 
gi^dually decreased. 




Z 







Plunt cover aloo has an essential effect on distribution of 
air temperature along the vertical. At the surface of the plant 
cover (at a distance of 160 om from the eoll), during the dayli^lit 
hours, the temperature ae a rule wao above that of layers of air 
surrounding the soil -» at a distance of 10 om from the eoil (Table 
2). For oomparieon, we present data on other biotopee* .. 

TABLE 2 

Diurnal Course of Air Temperature at Different Stations According 
to Measurements Made on 9-10 September 

fehiiyn '' >■ I .... U..1 y .ii 




<,1- :• ri I... 

I It'*' 


0 






1) 

i) 

K) 


u 

10 

n 

12 


15 
Hi 
17 

16 

19 

20 
21 
22 

23 

24 

I 

•i 

3 

4 
6 
0 


ill.Ml 


,:> a 
a5 

36.2 
3i 
3).2 

34.2 

32.2 
2/,2 
23.8 


19,C 


2m 


29, 

10,3 

30.2 


1.0 
IfrO ,4 
2 ’,2 
2}? .2 


^b.8 
28.2 
2r,0 
2 .8 
9.1.-2 
2.1.4 

n 

•20,6 
.10.0 
>*.2 
. .6 
;;i,6 
t 

* 0.2 
.‘.6 
r 8 


I ■' .*» 

s 


.-'i 


.•', 0.2 


.32 2 1 

3..2 

32,2 ! 




•>.8 

•»'i 

36 ; 

X. 

32.8 


3 .8 

1 32,0 

2’»,« 

i 31.8 

f* -1 

30.0 

23.4 

! 2 .2 

2 .4 

• 27.4 

:9.8 

25.4 



I'.y 

. 23.8 


' 22.8 


22.2 

iB.U 

2 .8 
, 20.2 

i7,ti 

'“.6 

' 20.2 

:;.a 

i 22.2 




24.1 






27.7 
20,2 
33,B 


LBGEMDt a) hours of observation; b) area devoid of vegetation 
(150 cm from sell); 0 ) within and on the surface of plant cover; 
d) air temperatun (in degrees); e) 10 om from soil; f) 160 cm from 
soil; g) in stable; h) legibl^l i) mean; i) minimal; k) maximal. 

The difference in the air temperature between the biotopee 
of the velvet grass stands and the stable during different hours of 
the day inoreaeed to as much as The air temperature of the stable 
as a rule was much higher than the teoperature within the plant cover. 


3 






In the rioe-pl«ntlnff zones> due to intenoAve evaporation 
of water both by plwito (rice) ao well as at the surface of the 
water during the entire vegetative period, a higji relative humidity 
waa maintained, Ito defloit in various biotopes is shown in Table 
Within the velvet graes stands, the relative humidity during the day 
was very bljli (81-100') I even during the daylight hours the air 
here was almoet tOvally saturated, IHie humidity was still higher in 
the rioe field, which oan be aoooxmted for by the prosonoo of large 
expanses of water surface. The humidity defloit here as a rule was 
very low. Within the rioe# this variable during the daylight hours 
was lower than at the surface of the rioe. 

Diurnal values of the relative humidity In all the biotopes 
studied were in the opposite direction to temperature changes( the 
highest humidity was observed during the night <uid morning hours i 
during this period sharply decided differences between the opexi sur¬ 
faces of the soil (lacking vegetation) and the near-surface layer of 
air within the vegetation disappeared. 

The difference of the Indioes examined between the biotopes 
of velvet grass and stable was very decided. The relative humidity 
during the day ranged within the stable within the limits 
and within the plant cover — within the limits 03-100'. Air within 
the plant cover was saturated with moisture or close to the saturated 
state during the hole day# while in the stable a relatively high 
moisture defloit was noted, etpeoially during the daylight hours, 

The signifioanoe of the wind as an ecological factor is accounted 
for by various factors. Wind in addition to moisture deficiency is 
an essential factor in evaporation. Its role' amounts to carrying 
off from the evaporating surface water vapor, in place of which air at 
a lower hxxmidlty enters the surrounding environment# which intensifies 
the prooess of evaporation. As observations revealed, the wind velo¬ 
city above the plant oover (rioe and velvet grass) was relatively low. 

Analysis of the data obtained permitted us to establish a 
decided difference between the microolimates of the biotopes of A. hyroanus 
and A. al, sacharovi . The first epeoies undergoes greater exposure to 
meteorological factors than does the first. The role of vegetation 
in establishing the microclimate of A. hyroanus habitats is exception¬ 
ally Important. The species composition of vegetation plays no part 
here. We mowed velvet grass over large areas and nonetheless the 
mosquitoes persistently remained under the out plants, since temperature 
and humidity conditions at the sites did not differ from the micro¬ 
climate of the velvet grass stands. 

Thus, biotopes of A. hyroanus in rioe fields are charaoterized 
h;/ the following features: 0 lower air temperature ojid relatively 

high illumination compared to the biotopes of A. m. saoharovi . since 
plant oover although shielded during the day from the effect of direot 
solar radiation, is not completely protected! 2) very low humidity 






Th« «x1iwi of molituro Mtwntion of tho Air dotor- 
nlnoe tho Intensity of w*t«r ov*poEiktlon for tbo aoBdulioos wid 
le vltfcl to lifo Activity» fivnporAtlon of vAt«r from the 
iifiAAOt body within th* lialtt of a dofinlt* temporAtUTA ranfft^ 

A» i0 known, inor»AtA« proportionml to th* humidity dofioit* EVa* 
porAtlon rogulAtAft mosquito body tAmporAturA, »lnoA the outflow of 
thA hoAt through AVAporAtion prooAAds for moAqultoee much morA in- 
tAHAivAly thAn through thAioAl rAdlAtion And thormAl oonduotlvlty, 
A..,hyrQAn\iB AXhiblta AdAptAtion to bi^h humidityi tbAreforo, it 
o«i bA AAAuaAd thAt AVAporAtion is rAtArdod in thASA lnsAotA« 


DiurjiAl 0hAn((;A8 in HolAtivA Humidity And Ihuaidity DAfiolt 
in Difforont Stu^rAA from MAASurAKAntA MAdo 9-10 August 


*l«0W 



^ KMIIMUHli 

Mn«ui)». 

AONHiv'M* 

BOyAKi 

oniocK* 

TNIMtM 


OTHOtiH* 

AtAHlVHt 

IMWWuntTM 

4 ) J 



a«Amumt 


It . . ,_, 

m 

fT^ t 


rTTTTimri 

■AkMHirtTII 
(» MW) 

/HI . 

7 

A 

• M 

40 

16.4 

m 

0^ 

C3 

■ 

Id' 

6.3 

10 

ei 

13,4 

13.7 

8S 

4.0 

(0 

11.6 


11 

81 

*1 

U,A 

83 

18.8 


li 

66 

10.7 

03 

3.1 

64 

11.3 


13 

81 

18.7 

. 

•»* 

67 

10,1 

36,2 

14 V 

43 

33,1 

88 

3,1 

63 

13.t* 

•>■1 

16 

1(5 

Cl 

• 84 

18,3 

I4.rt 

ii> 

mm 

?i 

V 

16,6 


17 

60 

16.6 

0) 

i.-i 

60 


18 

70 

8,3 

6.7 

04 

1.6 

CO 

11 


10 

8, 

98 

1.3 

73 

8.6 


00 

7A 

6,8 



63 

4,0 


01 

• M 

AM 


mm 

Mr 

, mm 

3,0 

30 

8'. 

3.6 



76 

6.8 


S 

OD 

0.7 

100 


76 

15.1 

mm 

1 



100 

tm» 

$0 

4,3 

mm 

i 

100 

mm 

100 

mm 

83 

3.3 

mm 

a 

0! 

t .8 

inn 


■lift 

UV 

4S i 

mm 

•t 

01 


ioo 

‘•M 

74 

4.7 


5 

81 

3,0 



83 

3,1 

• tp* 

_ 0 _j 

70 

sir 

100 

— 

73 

5.5 

mm 


73 

f! 

‘ 9!) 

• 3.1 

• 70.8 

1 8.5 

11.4 

Alt.HIIMrt , . V. (v 

43 

5*^ 


0 8 

53 

1 3.4 

3,0 

.'IjluC'VM.'. 

100 

, it.i 

•.1/ 

6 

88 

16,8 

36,2 


ZittBn)i a) hours of obsArvationti b) tit a ohAdAd by VAgAtAtiont 
o) within thlokAtf of vilVAt grAAt 10 om from foil^ d) AtAbloAi 
a) OAtAOMloglOAl ftAlli f) roUtivA humidity (in g) humidity 
dAfioit (in 8tt)| h) noAni i) minlmAlt j) mmicimAl* 





5