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OFFICE OF NAVAL KESEAXCH • PHYSICAL SCtiOtU DIVfSfOM 

Vol. 8, No. 2 Editor: Albrecht J. Neumann April 1958 



DIGITAL COMPUTER 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


COMPUTERS, U. S. A. 


Page No . 


1. AF Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Baee 1 

2. Bendix Aviation Corporation 1 

3. ELECOM, Underwood Corporation 3 

4. FLAC, Florida Automatic Computer 4 

5. 1LLIAC, University of Illinois 4 

6. JOHNN1AC, Rand Corporation 3 

7. Litton 20, Litton Industrie* 3 

8. NORC, Naval Proving Crounde 7 

9. ORACLE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory 8 

10. Whirlwind, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8 

11. RAYOAC, Naval Ordnance Test Center, Pt. Mugu 9 


COMPUTING CENTERS 


1. RICH Electronic Computer Center, Georgia Institute of Technology 9 

2. University of Rochester 10 

3. University of Wisconsin 10 

* 

COMPUTERS. OVERSEAS 

1. PERM (Technieche Hochschule Mdnchen) • 11 

2. CAB Series (Societe d'Electron! que et d'Automatisms) • 11 


MISCELLANEOUS 


1. University of Pennsylvania (New Course) 13 

2. Inventory Control U. S. Navy Aviation Supply Office 14 

3. National Bureau of Standards 14 

4. Wayne University (Summer Program) 14 

5. Contributions for Digital Computer Newsletter 15 









this document contained 
REPRODUCED FROM blank pages that have 
BEST AVAILABLE COPY been deleted 






COMPUTERS, U.S.A. 

AIR FORCE ARMAMENT CENTER - EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE. FLORIDA 


The ERA 1103 Electronic Computer System Installed at the Air Force Armament Center 
Is the second such system produced by the manufacturer. The system presently has provision 
for manual, paper tape and punched-card inputs; and paper tape, Flexowrltcr, punchod-card 
and display oscilloscope outputs. To accomplish read-out at higher speeds, a High-Speed Com¬ 
puter Output Printer (Typer) is currently under development and will be delivered by 1 May 
1956. This printer will be capable of printing alphanumeric outputs at rates up to 72,000 char¬ 
acters per minute. 

Plans are being made to replace the present 1024-word electrostatic storage system with 
a 4096-word magnetic core memory. Also, certain other internal modifications and additional 
items of terminal equipment are being seriously considered. These include: (1) magnetic tape 
input and output facilities, (2) a high-speed output plotter, (o| magnetic tape units of an Improved 
variety to replace present magnetic tape units which are a part of the storage system of the 
computer, (4) intervention switches, (5) a magnetic-core buffer to increase the input flexibility 
of the computer system, and (6) Charactron output display units. 

Some associated equipments currently under development include: an analog-to-digital 
conversion and buffering system to convert analog (voltage) data from a telemetering system 
or other data source into suitably-coded digital form for direct insertion into the computer; a 
Doppler Data Translator to convert veloclmeter magnetic data records into form suitable for 
direct entry into the computer; and other similar items. 


BENDIX O-IS 

The Bendix Corporation has announced a new medium price, general purpose Digital Com¬ 
puter. It is characterized by a flexible command structure, where each command consists of 
eight independent parts. These parts are source, destination, characteristic, single or double 
precision, immediate and deferred commands, timing number, next command, break point. 

Interpretive codes are available and may be entered into the computer on tapes together 
with the problem tapes, by means of preloaded tape magazines and a high speed tape reader. 

Punched tape readers and punches are used and a typewriter controls all computer opera¬ 
tions. A command indicator panel facilitates check out of new programs, by indicating the last 
command after the computer has stopped. 

A variety of input-output equipment is available. Standard accessories are Electric type¬ 
writer input and output, high speed photoelectric paper tape reader, and paper tape punch. 
Provisions have been made to add one to four magnetic tape units and punched card equipment. 

A digital differential analyzer attachment is available which widens the applicability of the 
0-15. Graph plotters and graph followers may be used with this equipment. 

The specifications are given below: 

Addition: Single Precision - 0.54 msec., Double Precision - 0.81 msec 

Subtraction: Single Precision - 0.54 msec., Double precision • 0.81 msec 

Multiplication: Single Precision - 16.7 msec., Double Precision - 33.1 msec 

Multiplication of nrbltrnry precision Is possible; tho factors may bo up to 57 binary 

digits plus sign with tho operation time equal to 0.27 msec for command access plus 0.54 

msec por digit of tho multiplier. 

Division: Single Precision, 18.7 msec., Double Precision, 33.1 msec 
All timoa Include Minimum access to Command. 

Shut and normalise: Automatic tally for convenient floating point operation 


- 1 - 


Extract and assemble - Conditional transfer of control based on: Sign of accumulator, 
Arithmetic overlow, State of input/output system, Presence or absence of any digit or 
digits in a word or group of words 

Number storage: Absolute value and sign, Word length of 29 or 58 binary digits 
Internal Memory 

Magnetic drum with high speed all electronic switching 

General store: 2160 words, Random access time 14,5 msec (average) 

Quick access store: 16 words, Random access times 0.54 msec (average) 

Arithmetic registers: Three 2 word, One 1 word 


External Magnetic Tape Memory 

Optional, one to four units 
Capacity: 300,000 words per reel 

Tape: Standard 1/2" width, maximum 10-1/2" dia. NARTB reel 
Block length: Arbitrary to 108 words' 

File length: Arbitrary number of blocks 
Read/write speed: 7-1/2" per sec. 

Search speed: 45" per sec. 

Input/Output 


Number system: Decimal or sexadecimal 

Standard Equipment: Master writer • 8 characters per sec.; Paper Tape 

Punch - 17 characters per sec.; Photoelectric Tape Reader - 200 characters per sec. 
from paper tape magazine 

Punch Cards: Serial punch card equipment may be coupled to the 0-15 
Input: 17 characters per sec 

Output: 11 characters per sec type 526 car< * ec,ul P men t 

Input/Output Commands: Type out; Punch paper tape; type and punch paper tape; Type out 
accumulator; Write on magnetic tape; Punch cards; Type in; Read punched paper tape; 
Read magnetic tape; Read punched card; Search magnetic tape forward; Search mag¬ 
netic tape backward; Reverse paper tape 
Computation proceeds during input/output 


PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS 


Basic G-15 Computer 


Size: 32" deep x 27" wide x 61" high 
Weight: 850 pounds 

Power Input: 3.8 KVA, 110-120 volts, 60 cycles, single phase 
Cooling: Internal forced air * 

Plug-ln efchea circultpmiLigei! 'UW RK packages; 300 diode packages 


Magnetic Tape Unit 


^---Size: 22" deep x 24" wide x 60" high 
Weight: 175 lbs. 

Power Input: 640 VA, 110-120 volts, 60 cycles, single phase 
Cooling: Internal forced air 


Dliitwl Differential Analyzer 

Size: 22" deep x 24" wide x 60" high 
Weight: 300 pounds 

Power Input: 1 KVA, 110-110 volts, 60 cycles, single phase 
Cooling: Internal forced air 


- 2 - 





ELECOM FILE PROCESSOR (UNDERWOOD CORPORATION) 


The ELECOM File Processor is a special-purpose computer designed to sequence, col¬ 
late, select, collate and select, and separate items ol data recorded on mapietic tape. (Fig. l) 
In performing these operations, it relieves a digital computer, sdeh as the ELECOM 125 Digital 
Computer, of much of the routine and repetitive work in commercial data processing. 





Figure 1 - ELECOM File Processor. The power supply, which is not shown is housed in a 
cabinet slightly smaller than that of the parent unit 


Data to be handled by the ELECOM File Processor are stored on magnetic tape. File or 
other data are divided into "items," each item corresponding, say to one account or Inventory 
Item. Items may be of any length and there is no need for all items on one tape to be of uniform 
length. Longer items are divided into "blocks" of 200 digits or less (counting each numeral as 
one digit, each alphabetic character as two digits). 

Having selected one of the above modes of operation for the File Processor, using a switch 
on the control panel, the operator introduces a "pattern" by means of punched-tape reader or 
typewriter keyboard which "keys" the File Processor as to which digits in an item are sig¬ 
nificant for tho operation about to tako place. The patiorn is never more than 220 digits long 
and takes 22 seconds to Introduce using a punched-tapo reader. Speed of introduction by key¬ 
board deponds on the speed of the typist. 

Operation from this point on is automatic except for any necessary changing of tape reels. 




Hi Knit* an- written on output mapo-tii tape whirl) ran hr fed lo a hlgh-npecd prlntrr for 
MihM'ipirnl vtHual examination or lo the KL.KCOM digital computer whrrr Ihry may hr used In 
the course of romputatlon. 

Malnlrnanrc of an Inventory file servea to Ithmtrutc a typical application of the ELECOM 
File Processor, Such a flic may contain rut rim for thousands of Items, and a considerable 
•mount of Information may hr recorded for each Item. A day’s .shipments, however, might 
Involve only a handful of Items, and the only operation necessary may he the correction of the 
•lock balance for each of (he few Items. The problem, therefore, Is to select from thin volu* 
ml nous file only a few Items, and In each of these Items to change only one figure. This opera* 
tlon la readily accomplished with the File Processor. 


FLAC (FLORIDA AUTOMATIC COMPUTER) 

FLAC haa now been in operation for approximately throe yearn, processing the full data 
computation load at the Air Force Missile Test Center. The Data Reduction Facility at the 
center is operated by the RCA Missile Test Project. Recently an Air Force contract was signed 
with the International Telemeter Corp. for a 4096 word high speed magnetic core memory to 
replace the 512 word acoustic delay line unit now In operation. Each word will be 44 binary bits 
plus sign and the new memory will have an access time to any word of approximately 50 micro¬ 
seconds. 

Improvements to increase read-in and read-out speeds are being accomplished by new 
punched paper tape readers capable of speeds of 600 to 600 characte •. s per second. The first 
two of these units employing an entirely new reading principle have been delivered and are now 
In the proceaa of being mated to FLAC. 

Missile position data recorded in the field directly on magnetic tape in binary coded decimal 
can now be read into FLAC for Immediate computations. The future trend at this center will 
be toward recording raw data on magnetic tape directly in FLAC format so as to greatly reduce 
the data processing cycle. 

For the four week period 28 November - 23 December 1965 FLAC operating time was dis¬ 
tributed as follows: 


Problem Running 223.6 hours 

Code checks 73.8 

Good Idle time .9 

Scheduled Engineering 65.4 

Unscheduled Engineering (computer) 18.6 

Unscheduled Engineering (auxiliaries) 3.1 _ 


365.4 hrs. 

Scheduled Engineering Includes marginal checking and computer time used for testing of 
new input-output devices, etc. Average "good time" for FLAC for the lant six months was 88 
percent. FLAC is currently operated in a five day week utilizing two to three shifts as the 
workload requires. 


ILLIAC, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

The llliac continues to be used on a regular 24-hour basis In the Digital Computer Labo¬ 
ratory for research and teaching at the University of Illinois. The approximate distribution of 
llliac time may be noted from the following table: 

Hourly Use of llliac During December 1965 


Regular Maintenance and llliac Engineering 43 hours 

Unscheduled Maintenance or Repair 13 " 

Read-Around Memory Testa 5 " 

Leapfrog - Machine Test Routine 79 " 

Wasted 1 


- 4 - 







Use by Departments 


Digital Computer Laboratory 

29 hours 

Physics 

79 

II 

Control Systems Laboratory 

74 

»» 

MURA (accelerator study) 

114 

M 

Structural Research 

9 

*♦ 

Psychology 

Fleetrlca! Engineering 

1 

M 

3 

ft 

Chemistry 

23 

It 

Agriculture 

11 

II 

Economics 

3 

M 

Thonrettent and Applied Mechanics 

2 

H 

Institute of Communications Research 

1 

II 

Classes 

12 

n 

Demonstrations 

1 

M 

Miscellaneous 

9 

if 


A total of 24 errors or Interruptions of the machine at non-scheduled times were noted 
during the same period of December 19S5. Twelve of these difficulties were associated with 
reading and punching paper tapes. 

During the Summer of 1953 the circuits for an auxiliary memory using a magnetic drum 
were checked out. During the Fall these circuits have been installed in a final frame in the 
room with the Illlac. Tests are being made now on the completed circuits which will provide 
12,800 words of auxiliary memory. The circuits provide vacuum tube switching to permit 
switching from one track to another between words as readily as reading successive words 
from the same track. Transfers are one word (40 bits) per order or instruction in Illlac. The 
circuits use the non-return-to-zero magnetic recording system as well as a logical detection 
scheme to prohibit some kinds of reading errors. 

Active work is under way in the Digital Computer Laboratory tn the following areas: 

1. The preparation of new routines for the library of routines, Including recently, new 
routines for using the drum memory, floating address and compiling routines, multiple 
regression routine for statistical analysis and improvements in differential equation 
routines. 

2. Research in the algebras of switching circuits, particularly those with application to 
asynchronous circuits. 

3. Research in some partial differential equations particularly important in hydrodynamics. 

4. Research in direct-coupled asynchronous circuits in the fastest speed ranges. 

The University offers four separate courses in the field of computers or computing. Over 
100 students have taken advantage of these courses. 


JOHNNIAC (RAND CORPORATION) 


There have been no major additions or modifications to the JOHNNXAC computing system 
during the past three months. Presently the computer is being operated on a 120-hour per week 
schedule. Normally the machine is available for code checking or production 22 hours per day, 
the remainder being used for scheduled maintenance periods. 

Performance figures for the major sections of the machine in terms of mean free time 
between errors during the put two months are as follows: 



Arithmetic and Control 100 hours 

Core Store 225 " 

Drum Store 83 

Input-Output control, Console. Supervisory control, 

Power Supplies and Air conditioning 72 

Hiph-speed Printer 42 " 

Punched card equipment 19 ’’ 


The mean free time between errors for the entire system is approximately ten hours. The 
overall performances of the arithmetic, control and core store arc quite satlsfaetory since the 
modest amount of machine errors caused by those sections are the results of permanent type 
component failures (i.e., open heaters, shorts, etc.). The probability of random type errors In 
these sections is almost zero. 


LITTON 20 DIGITAL DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZER 


A new digital differential analyzer, with twenty integrators, has been announced by Litton 
Industries, Beverly Hiiis, California. Each integrator is capable of summing inputs from all 
integrators, provides for sign reversal, and integrates with respect to a variable. 

The total volume of the machine occupies less than two cubic feet, and tt weighs 79 pounds 
and requires 320 watts of power. The small size is a result of arrangement of the data (Initial 
conditions, register lengths, and programming) stored so as to minimize electronic equipment 
external to the main storage. 

The machine Is shown in Figure 2. It contains 46 tubes, including a small cathode ray 
tube and 520 silicon Junction diodes. The maximum register length is 18 binary digits. There 
are 10 flip flops and the main storage la on a 7 Inch diameter magnetic drum. The pulse rate 
is 100 KC and iteration rate is 62 per second. 

Accessories include a plotter, a plotter follower which will operate as both a plotter and a 
curve follower for arbitrary function inputs, a tape punch and fill unit which provides a means 
of automatic insertion of all information and also an easily repeatable record of the program, 
and a typewriter to tabulate data in decimal form. 


Specifications 

Size: 15 x 26 x 10 inches 
Weight: 79 pounds 

Power: 320 Watts - 110 volts A.C. - 80 cycles 
Inputs' (a) keys on front of computer; 

(b) paper tape reader; 

(c) graph follower. 

Computational Elements: 20 integrators 
Integrator Features: 

(a) automatic summation of "dy" inputs; 

(b) summation of "dx" input in lieu of "dy" Inputs; 

(c) direct sign reversal of the output from an integrator; 

(d) every integrator can communicate with all other Integrators or with itself; 

(e) any number of multiple inputs to each integrator. 

Integrator Connections: Integrator connections are made by keyboard programming and not by 
plug boards. 

Iterative process: A11 integrators are iterated 60 times each second. 

Accuracy: Controlled by program - up to one part In 250,000 without resorting to double preci¬ 
sion programming. 

Oitputs: 

(a) digital Information displayed on cathode ray tube mi front panel of computer; 

(b) any aet of variablee direct to Graph Plotter. 

Maintenance: Plug-In circuitry provides rapid maintenance. 


-6- 







AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT 

Combination Paper Tape Punch, for pre-recording Input data, and Paper Tape Reader for fitlincr 
input data to computer. 

Size: 18 x 12-1/2 x 8-1/2 Inches 

Weight: 30 pounds 

Power: 65 watts 

Speed: 15 characters per second 

\ 

Graph Plotter or Graph Plotter/Follower 

Size: 19 x 18 x 9 inches 
Weight: 45 pounds 
Power: 100 watts 
Plotting resolution: 0.01 Inch 


NORC (NAVAL PROVING GROUND DAHLGREEN) 

Operation of the NORC on a 24 hour por day, 5 day per week schedule continues. Durln:; 
the month of January, the calculator was available for 323 hours which is 80 porcent of sc hed¬ 
uled operating time. On an average dny portions of 30 different problems are run, represent¬ 
ing a variety of problem sponsors. 


- 7 - 




To mcrrasc the versatility of the NORC. preliminary plans are being considered for the 
procurement of additional internal storage of large capacity to supplement the present Williams 
tube and magnetic tape storage systems. High speed printing and plotting facilities are also 
planned. 

Aiken Dahlgreen Electronic Calculator (ADEC) and Aiken Relay Calculator (ARC) opera¬ 
tions will continue on 40 hour per week schedules. 


THE ORACLE (OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ) 

Improvement of the Oracle Magnetic T ape Unit has greatly increased the speed of opera¬ 
tion, reliability and storage capacity. Operational speed has been increased by doubling the 
pulse packing density. Reliability has improved by obtaining good mylar base magnetic tape 
having long life and requiring less than 1 percent of the tape to be discarded due to impurities. 
The magnetic tape reading amplifiers have been re-designed to use transistors. The Magnetic 
Tape Unit now can store approximately 2-1/2 million full machine words per reel of tape. 
Total unit storage capacity is approximately 10 million words. 

Detailed characteristics are as follows: 

Four drives - Total capacity 10 million machine words 7 

42 channel heads - 40 information channels, 1 word control channel, 1 parity bit channel 
Read and write forward and backward 
Hunt forward and backward 

Read and write arbitrary number of words; hunt arbitrary number of blocks 

Tape speed: 50"/sec 

Tape packing density: 200 pulses/inch 

Fixed block: 256 wda/block, block control-photoelectric 

Loading speed: 10,000 machine words per second (word 40 binary bits) 

Start: 5 ms 
Stop: 2 ms 

Tape life: At least 30,000 passes 

Tape Characteristics: 3 mil mylar base, 1 mil magnetic coating, 2000 ft. lengths maximum. 

A photographic output device has been added to the Oracle which enables rapid output of 
graphical or digital data. The cathode ray plotting tube is 3" in diameter. There are 1024 
possible spot locations In each row and column which make up the roster; however, only about 
200 spots across.any.one_lln e ar e discernibl e. The accuracy of the system Is approximately 
~1 percent. 

A special circuit arrangement Is used to enable rapid digital plotting. A plotting speed of 
about 2,000 characters per second Can be attained. Individual points can be plotted in about 10C 
microseconds Including the extraction of plotting orders from the memory. The camera has a 
machine controlled film advance with a capacity of 200 frames. 

The Oracle electrostatic memory has been converted for use of RCA 6571 storage tubes. 
These tubes are Impurity free so that a redundant storage scheme Is no longer necessary. 
Hence, the full storage capacity oI 2048 words Is now realised. The inspection scheme was 
changed to the nilac system to improve read-around performance. 


WHIRLWIND I 

For October, November and December 1955 


Applications 

During the past 3 months, the 8dontiflc and Engineering Compulation Group, in conjunction 
with various departments at MIT, processed 85 problems for solution on Whirlwind I. These 
problems are described la the Project Whirlwind Summary Reports submitted to the Office of 
Naval Research aad cover some 17 different fields of applications. Tbs results of 16 of the 


- 8 - 








problems have been or will be Included in academic theses. Of these, 13 represent doctoral 
theses and 3 represent master’s. Thirty-one of the problems have originated from research 
projects sponsored at MIT by the Office of Naval Research. 

Systems 

The following are some figures on computer reliability during the period 23 September 
1955 to 31 December 1955. 


Total computer operating time 

2222 

hours 

Total lost time 

51 

hours 

Percentage operating time usable 

97.7% 


Average uninterrupted operating time between failures 

20.6 

hours 

Failure incidents per 24-hour day 

1.17 


Average lost time per incident 

28.3 

minutes 

Average preventive maintenance time per day 

1.75 



RAYDAC (U. S. NAVAL AIR MISSILE TEST CENTER, POINT MUGU, CALIFORNIA) 

The following statistics give the percentages for the "average" RAYDAC week in 1954 and 
1955. 



Description 

1954 

1955 

1 . 

Problem set up and code checking 

48.7% 

43.7% 

2. 

Production 

12.3% 

20.8% 

3. 

Scheduled unavailability 

S.6% 

11.8% 

4. 

Unscheduled unavailability 

29.4% 

23.9% 

8. 

Number of weeks 

46 

42 


6. Total RAYDAC operating time 2285 hours 2689 hours 


COMPUTING CENTERS 


RICH ELECTRONIC COMPUTER CENTER 

Georgia Tech's Rich Electronic Computer Center was formally dedicated on December 2, 
1955. Principal speakers for the occasion were Dr. Howard H. Aiken, Director, Computation 
Laboratory, Harvard University; Dr. Howard T. Engstrom, Vice President, Remington-Rand 
Division, Sperry-Rand Corporation; and Mr. C. L. Keenoy, Vice President for Engineering and 
Product Development, The National Cash Register Company. 

Operating experience with the Remington-Rand ERA-1101 during the four months of Octo¬ 
ber, November, and December 1955 and January 1958 was as follows: 



Hours 

Percent 

Total scheduled ERA-1101 Operating time 

767.8 

100 

Scheduled maintenance 

141.3 

18 

Unscheduled maintenance 

27.8 

4 

Idle, available for use 

171.4 

22 

Use for production 

427.3 

86 

Total time available for use 

596.7 

78 


The percentage of hours used tor productive purposes has risen from 83.7% in October to 
63.0% in January 1986. 


- 9 - 


Productive time on the ERA-1101 has been utilized on problems arising in connection with: 

(a) research done by the Engineering Experiment Station; 

(b) research done by Georgia Tech students and faculty; 

(c) the development of a library of subroutines; 

(d) research and problems proposed by Institutions other than Georgia Tech.; 

(c) the training of Georgia Tech, students and personnel. 


UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER, COMPUTING CENTER 

The University of Rochester has established a University Computing Center which will 
include a Burroughs E 101 machine, and an IBM 650 electronic computer, to be received next 
summer. The University will initiate a whole new computing group and a training program 
which will serve the University community as well as local Industry. 

The project was authorized by representatives of the university and of local companies in 
the optical, banking, retail, machine tool and electronicfields after a five-year study of com¬ 
puter equipment and techniques, and of programs at other institutions. 

Credit and non-credit courses for both undergraduate and graduate students will be offered 
in the College of Arts and Science, University School (extension), and in summer sessions. 
These will include numerical methods and electronic computing, and numerical analysis, both 
already in the college curriculum, and new offerings in programming and data processing. 

Dr. Thomas S. Keenan has been named administrator of the new University of Rochester 
Computing Center. 


UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, ARMY MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER 

The Department of the Army has announced plans for the establishment of a Mathematics 
Research Center at the University of Wisconsin to conduct research in mathematics and high 
speed computation theory. 

The general objective in establishing the Center is to provide a nucleus of highly qualified 
mathematicians who will carry on investigations in mathematics of interest to the Army and who 
can be called upon for advice on specific problems beyond the capability of Army facilities. In 
addition to fulfilling an Army need, the Center will aid the national effort in mathematics re¬ 
search and increase the availability of trained mathematicians. 

The following functions will be fulfilled by the Center: (1) Assemble a high-quality mathe¬ 
matical group for the Army, (2) Supplement the research work of existing Army activities, (3) 
Provide a source of advice and assistance on mathematical problems, (4) Serve as a facility 
where fresh scientific contact between Army research and development personnel and other 
scientists will be made possible, (5) Provide a means of acquainting academic mathematicians 
with the interests of the Army, (8) Create a reservoir of mathematicians familiar with military 
problems of vital significance in the event of mobilization, and (7) Contribute an important 
activity to the mathematics research community. 

The Center will fulfill research requirements in the following areas: (1) numerical anal¬ 
ysis, including the engineering physics of high speed computers, (2) statistics and probability, 

(3) applied mathematics and analysis and (4) operations research, including linear and non¬ 
linear programming, game theory and its applications, decision theory, information theory and 
optimisation problems. 


J 


. - 10- 




The Center will employ a resident staff under the direction of Dr. R. E. Lanier, Professor 
of Mathematics: will train groups of specialized applied mathematicians, provide an opportunity 
for graduate students at the University to perform advanced research and will be equipped with 
a large-scale high-speed computer facility. 

It is expected this Center will provide the mathematics complement to the support of long 
range research Intended to produce major capability improvements and inspire confidence in 
new approaches and ingenious applications of new ideas. 


COMPUTERS, OVERSEAS 


PERM (Institut fur elektrische Nachrichtentechnik und Messtechnlk) 

Technische Hochschule Munchen 

The PERM (Programmgesteuerte Elektronlsche Rechenanlage Munchen) has recently been 
put into regular operation. This machine has been constructed by a computer group at the 
Technische Hochschule Munchen under the direction of Prof. Hans Piloty and Dr. Robert Plloty. 
It is a medium sized (2400 tubes) and medium speed (300 op/sec) binary parallel machine with 
automatic (wired in) floating point and high speed (15000 rev/min) drum memory of 8090 words 
capacity. Input: is by punched tape via a photo-electric tape reader. Output: is at present by 
teletype. Magnetic tape output buffers will be Installed. A comprehensive order list and facili¬ 
ties for automatic address change are included to allow the use of a library or subroutines in 
an Invariant form. Details of the computer are published in "Nachrichtentechnlsche Zeitschrift" 
(NTZ) Heft 11 und .2/1955. 

With the beginning of next year the computer will be operated in the form of a separately 
managed computing center within the Technische Hochschule. Limited computing facilities 
will be available for users outside the Technische Hochschule. 


SEA - CAB SERIES COMPUTERS (Sccl&d D'Electronlque et D'Automatlsme) 

Two series of large scale, general purpose, binary digital computers have been developed: 
the first series comprises a modified version of the CAB-2.000 computer, the second com¬ 
prises a computer with new characteristics and Is labelled CAB-3.000. CAB means "Cal- 
culatrice Arithmetlque Blnatre." - 

The computers of both series are serial machines. Printed standard component plugs are 
used in both series and provide great flexibility regarding the numbers of digits per words and 
numbers and capacities of the stores. ■ 

CAB 2.100 - 

Master clock frequency - 100 KC/s. 

Length of one word (either number or instruction): 

CAB 2.122 - 22 significant digits plus 1 gap digit (one minor cycle = 0.23 mS.) 

CAB 2.132 - 32 significant digits plus 1 gap digit (one minor cycle = 0.33 mS.) 

CAB 2.140 - 40 significant digits plus 1 gap digit (one minor cycle = 0.41 mS.) 

One major cycle (one revolution of a magnetic drum) = (128 minor cycles) 

Instruction Code - of the single-address type; Conditional transfer instructions, 26 Func¬ 
tion Letters, Symbolized operations, B - box index 
Number Code - Binary point fixed at the left end of a word, Positive numbers in true 
binary, Negative numbers in two's complement 
Arithmetic Unit - includes two accumulators and one register, computes in fixed binary 

point (a denominational shifting Instruction enables computation in floating binary 


- 11 - 


point), add and subtract in one minor cycle, multiply, divide, extract square root 
in n minor cycles, n being the number of significant digits in a word, shift to the 
lefr and to the right at a rate of 1 minor cycle per one digit shift. 

Stores - a) Fast access stores (access time lower than 1 pulse period) Ferrite core 

matrices, each of 64 words capacity: 1 Store for Number-words, 1 store for 
Inst ruct ion-wor ds. 

b) Stow access store: 1 magnetic drum 64 or 128 magnetic tracks, of 128 words 
each (8,192 or 16,384 digits). 

Exchanges of informations between fast and slow access stores arc made in blocks 
of 32 or 64 words. 

Input-Output - through multiple equipment; each provided with a special address. Normal 
Input (address 0): reads a perforated tape, Normal Output (address 0): perforates 
a tape. Additional equipments (addresses ranging from 1 to 15) according to 
clients' request being: Further tape readers and perforators, magnetic tape 
readers and recorders, Analog-to-Digital and Digltal-to-Analog converters, 
"ENAC" recorder and "Numerograph" photographic recorder. 

"ENAC" is an automatic recorder, adapted to the mapping of four sets of data, given 
each as a time-distributed series of discrete digital values. In simultaneous record¬ 
ing operation, its rate is 1 point per 0.8 sec. For separate recording operations, itB 
rate is 1 point per 0.4 sec. 

"NUMEROGRAPH" is an ultrafast automatic recorder using standard 35 mm. film, at 
a minimum speed of 2.000 characters per second, 100 characters and spacings per 
line. 

Two CAB 2.022 computers are now in normal operation for scientific purposes. 

A series of CAB 2.022 are under manufacture, one of which is intended for the auto¬ 
matic preparation of sales statistics in an important French Company (StC Monsavon- 
1'Oreal). 


CAB 3.000 - 


Master clock frequency - 100 KC/s 

Length of one word (either number or instruction): 

CAB 3.024 - 24 significant digits plus 2 gap digits, one minor cycle = 0.26 mS 

CAB 3.032 - 32 significant digits plus 2 gap digits, one minor cycle a 0.34 mS 

CAB 3.040 - 40 significant digits plus 2 gap digits, one minor cycle =» 0.42 mS 

Instruction Code - single address kind with the inclusion of a restricted, second address, 

From 26 to 32 Function letters, Symbolized operations, B- box index, Instruction - 
check Index, Conditional transfer instructions 
Number Code - Binary fixed point at the left of a word, Positive numbers in true binary, 
Negative numbers in four's complement 

Arithmetic Unit - includes four accumulators, and overflow testing circuits, computes in 
fixed binary point, and in floating binary point when a stored sub-routine is called 
for. Add and subtract in one minor cycle, multiply in two minor cycles, divide in 
n minor cycles, n being the number of significant digits in a word. 

8tores - a) Fast access internal stores: Ferrite core matrices - 2 matrices each of 256 
or 512 words, of n digits each; if requested, each matrix may contain up to 
1024 words. Access time lower than 1 pulse period, 
b) Slow access external store: 1 magnetic drum, of 64 or 128 magnetic tracks, 
each of 128 words (8,192 or 16,384 words). Exchange of* information between 
internal and external stores in blocks or groups each of 32, 64 or 128 words 
is possible; internal computation is not interrupted. 

Input-Output: Same as for CAB 2.000 with a maximum of external input and output equip¬ 
ments up to 64. Word-by-word input or output to or from the arithmetic unit, 
Grouped Input or output to or from each one of the fast access stores (each group 
of 32 or 128 words), Input and output operations do not break the course of inter¬ 
nal computation, when using the fast access stores. 


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A scrlra of CAB 3.000 Is bring manufactured, two of which arc Intended for military and 
scientific purposes, and one of which (of the CAB 3.024 kind) will he used by the 'institute 
National do la Statistiquo ct des Etudes Econnmtqucs.'' 

CAB 5,040 - a new computer under development, comprising special provisions with respect to 
the other CAB 3.000 of which the general organization Is retained. 

Arithmetic Unit: adapted both for computation with floating binary point and fixed binary 
point. Fixed point, 40 Significant digits. Floating binary point: 32 significant 
digits, exponent from >128 to +127 
Master clock frequency - 200 KC/s 
One minor cycle * 210 microseconds 

Fixed point operations - add and subtract in 0.21 mS, multiply in 0.21 mS, divide in 8.82 
mS 

Floating point operations - add and subtract in 0.42 mS, multiply in 0.21 mS, divide in 7.14 
mS, conditional sequence break in 0.42 mS 
This computer is in the development stage. 

NUMEROGRAPH S.E.A. - 

Ultra-fast alphabetic and numerical display recorder, for use as an output equipment for 
digital computers. The displays appear upon the screen of a cathode ray tube and are'recorded 
on standard 35 mm film. Each line of the, record contains 100 characters and spacings; the 
characters may be letters (including capitals), figures and various signs and symbols. Minimum 
speed: 2,000 characters per second. 

Several units are manufactured for attachment to CAB computers of the 2.000 to 3.000 
types. 

ENAC Plotting Recorder - 

This automatic graph plotting recorder accepts information in form of a series of coded 
digital values from either: a hand-controlled keyboard, a digital computer, a punch card com¬ 
puter. Digltal-to-Analog conversion is achieved by means of a special storing register in¬ 
cluded in the recorder proper. 

The recorder can interpret data given in floating binary point number codes. 

Several units have been manufactured for attachment to CAB computers and punched-card 
computers. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, MOORE SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

A new graduate course, EE 834, "Applications of Large-Scale Digital Computers to Busi¬ 
ness and Industrial Systems" has been introduced into the curriculum at the Moore School. 

The course is open to graduate students of engineering and business administration. 

During the first term business problems such as payroll procedures and inventory control 
in manufacturing industries were discussed. Department store accounting and stock control* 
was surveyed and appraised. In the socond term the management phase of "Decision-making" 
via programming and electronic computer and the problem of coding were discussed. For busl- 
n ®“* ■y*J ern *> banking and Insurance were surveyed. Professors A. Mats of the Wharton School 
and 0. W. Patterson of the Moore 8chool are in charge of the course alternating between the 
business and engineering phase as subject and discussion require. 

- 13 - 




U, S. NAVY AVIATION SUPPLY OFFICE - INVENTORY CONTROL WITH AN IBM "702" 


Union an IBM typo "702" EDPM, Iho U. S. Navv Aviation Supply Office, Philadelphia, Pu., 
«lcctronlcally calculate* procurement and dlstrllmtion requirements for 120,000 aviation spare 
part*. Ultimately, thin type of information may be electronically formulated for 300 - 400,000 
aviation* item*. 

Employing conventional machine and manual methods, these calculations required ninety- 
three days; with the IBM "702," this ninety-three day figure has been reduced to fifty-eight 
day* • a saving of thirty-five days! In addition, information regarding the amount of spares 
necessary to sustain an aircraft throughout its useful life is also produced during this same 
fifty-eight day period. This latter type of information, known as "life-of-Type Requirements," 
was never before calculable because of the prohibitive time elements Involved using conven¬ 
tional machines. 

Further, the Program Usage Replenishment System has been programmed on the ASO's 
EDPM equipment. PURS is a mechanized stock control system designed to determine spare 
part distribution and procurement requirements predicated upon future CNO aircraft deploy¬ 
ment plans, and BUAER overhaul schedules. 

Based upon PURS, the ultimate product of ASO's "702" Is a Consolidated Stock Status Re¬ 
port (CSSR). This report ltsts which Items must be redistributed, which activities are short 
of stock, and which Items must be purchased In order to maintain minimum stock levels. In 
addition to the CSSR, electronic calculations will be made also for the annual Fiscal Year 
budget, stock retention, and disposal information. The quarterly production of the CSSR alone 
requires the development of 3,000 to 3,500 reels of magnetic tape which must be saved for 
ninety days. 

Supporting the ASO's EDPM installation (which operates three shifts a day, six days a week) 
is a staff of twenty-two military operators; six officers, several clerical personnel and fifteen 
programmers. 

The production of ninety-three programs - some 120,000 instructions - In a little over 
thirteen months Is a staunch testimony to the skill and ingenuity of a civilian programming 
force recruited from and trained within ASO. 

Thus, through the use of electronic equipment, the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts and the 
Aviation Supply Office have taken vast strides toward the creation and maintenance of a nearly 
"automatic" Inventory control system. 


NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 


A new section, Applications Engineering, has been established in the Data Processing Sys¬ 
tems Division of the National Bureau of Standards. This section ie concerned with the sys¬ 
tematic analysis of functions which involve extensive data processing tn such areas as account¬ 
ing, Inventory control, logistics', data or document retrieval and management and economic 
analysis. Other responsibilities Include research In new areas of applicability of data proc¬ 
essing systems, new techniques for analysis of data processing problems, methods for more 
efficient handling of Information, and the evaluation of available systems and equipment in 
terms of particular problem requirements. S. N. Alexander, Chief of the Data Processing 
8ystems Division, Is serving ae Chief of the new section, with Mary E. Stevens as Assistant 
Chief. 


WAYNE UN1VER81TY, COMPUTATION LABORATORY - SUMMER COURSES 

The Computation Laboratory of Wayne University has announced three one week summer 
courses, on Automatic Computers, Electronic Data Processing In Business and Government, 
and Applications of Computers to Engineering, Science and Industry. The courses are planned 
to run from S3 July to 11 August for three consecutive weeks. 


- 14 - 








Further Information and the final program may be obtained from A. W. Jacobson, Director, 
Computation Laboratory, Detroit 1, Michigan. 


CONTRIBUTIONS FOR DIGITAL COMPUTER NEWSLETTER 

The NEWSLETTER is published fov ; times a year on the first of January, April, July and 
October and material should be in the hands of the editor at least one month bofore the publi¬ 
cation date in order to be included In that issue. 

The NEWSLETTER is circulated to all interested military and government agencies, and 
the contractors of the Federal Government. In addition, it Is being reprinted in the Journal of 
the Association for Computing Machinery. 

Communications should be addressed to: 


A. J. Neumann, Editor 
Digital Computer Newsletter, 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 2S, D. C.