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AD 69 4638 


DIGITAL COMPUTER - 

NEWSLETTER 



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Off ICS OF NAVAL RSSCAZ CH 


Vol. 14, No. 3 


THathsmatical SCISHCSS DIVlJIW 

Gordon D. Goldstein, Editor D D Oil y 1962 


CONTENTS 



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EDITORIAL NOTICES I ni OCT 1 6 196-9 - 

H Editorial Policy I I D 

5: SS^:„ c pSrcr ion * ; UUlblifiLLjOUTb 

COMPUTERS A ND DATA PROCESSORS, NORTH AMERICA O 

1. Advanced Scientific Instruments, Inc T,“ADVANCE II, AS1-420 and ASI-210, ^ 

Minneapolis 22, Minnesota 

2. Bend be Computer Division, Multiple-Processor G-21, Los Angeles, California 

3. Control Data Corporation, Control Data 3600, Minneapolis 20, Minnesota 

4. Control Data Corporation, Control Data 6600, Minneapolis 20, Minnesota 

5. Electronic Associates, Inc. HYDAC SERIES 2000-Hybrid Digital/Analog Computer, 

Long Branch, New Jersey 

6. International Business Machines Corporation, IBM 7094, White Plains, New York 

7. Scientific Data Systems, 900 Series Computers, Santa Monica, California 
6. U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, Computing Laboratory, BRLESC, 

Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 



?. National Bureau of Standards, Recording Physiological Measurements for Data 
Processing, Washington 25, D. C. 

2. Ordnance Tank Automotive Command, New Computing Systems, Detroit 9, Michigan 

3. U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Mathematics Department, White Oak, 

Silver Spring, Maryland 

4 . U.S. Naval Underwater Ordnance Station, Analysis Branch, Newport, Rhode Island 

5. U.S. Naval Weapons Laboratory, Computation Center, Dahlgren, Virginia 

6. U.S. Navy David Taylor Model Basin, Flame Program, Washington 25, D. C. 

7. U.S. Navy David Taylor Model Basin, Performance Data for LARC System, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

COMPUTERS AND CENTERS. OVERSEAS 

H Inatitut Fflir Angewandte Mathematik, Johannes Gutenberg-Uuiversitat, Siemens 2002, 
Mains, Germany 

2. Leo Computers, Ltd., LEO HI Time-Sharing, London, England 

3. Leo Computers, Ltd., LEO HI/F, London, England 

4. Leo Computers, Ltd., LEO Document Reader, London, England 

5. National Physical Laboratory, Autonomies Division, An Artificial Language for 
Information Retrieval, Teddington, Middlesex, England 

MISCELLANEOUS 

1. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., Multi-Font Character Recognition, 

Buffalo, New York 

2. A.B. Dick Company, High*Speed Videograph Printer-Plotter, Chicago 48, Illinois 

3. Honeywell EDP Division, Auto-Corrective Optical Scanner, Wellesley Hille, 81, 
Massachusetts 

4. Memistor Corporation, The M-2CR Memistor, Mountain View, California 

5. The National Cash Register Co,, Photochromic Dynamic Display, 

Hawthorne, California 

6. Penn State and IBM, Home-Study Course in Computer Programming, 

University Park, Pennsylvania 

7. Symposium on Optical Character Recognition, 15-17 January 1962, Washington, D« C. 

8. University of Illinois, PLATO 11, Urbana, Illinois 

9. U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, Computing Laboratory, The Computer 
Tree, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 


Approved by 

The Under Secretary of the Navy 
25 September 1961 


Kuproduccd bv llio 

CLEARINGHOUSE 
lor Eodur.il Scionlilic & Tuchmc.il 
Informotion Springfield Vn. 22151 


NAVEXOS P-645 

' o&cujtfiiat ikai approved" 

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EDITORIAL NOTICtS 


EDITORIAL POLICY 

The Digital Computer Newsletter, although 
a Department of the Navy publication, is not 
restricted to the publication ol Navy-originated 
material. The Office of Naval Research wel¬ 
comes contributions to the Newsletter from 
any source. The Newsletter Is subjected to 
certain limitations in size which prevent pub¬ 
lishing all the material received. However, 
Items which are not printed are kept on file 
and are made available to Interested personnel 
within the Government. 

DON is published quarterly (January, April, 
July, and October). Material for specific Issues 
must be received by the editor at least one 
month in advance. 

It Is to be noted that the publication of in¬ 
formation pertaining to commercial products 
does not, In any way, Imply Navy approval of 
those products, nor does It mean that Navy 
vouches for the accuracy of the statements 
made by the various contributors. The Infor¬ 
mation contained herein is to he considered 
only as being representative of the state-of- 
the-art and not as the sole product or technique 
available. 


POLICY FOR CONTRIBUTIONS 

The Office of Naval Research welcomes 
contributions to the Newsletter from any source. 
Your contributions will provide assistance in 
Improving the contents of the publication, there¬ 
by making It an even better medium for the ex¬ 
change of Information between government 
laboratories, academic Institutions, and In¬ 
dustry. It Is hoped that the readers will partic¬ 
ipate to an even greater extent than In the 
past In transmitting technical material and 


suggestions to the editor for future Issues. Ma¬ 
terial for specific Issues must be received by 
the editor at least one month In advance. It la 
often impossible lor the editor, because of 
limited time and personnel, to acknowledge 
individually all material received. 


CIRCULATION POLICY 

The Newsletter iB distributed, without 
charge, to Interested military and government 
agencies, to contractors lor the Federal Gov¬ 
ernment, and to contributors of material for 
publication. 

For many years, in addition to the ONR 
Initial distribution, the Newsletter was re¬ 
printed by the Association for Computing Ma¬ 
chinery as a supplement to their Journal and, 
more recently, as a supplement to their 
Commup itlons. The Association decided 
that their Communications could better 
serve its members by concentrating on ACM 
editorial material. Accordingly, effective 
with the combined January-April 1961 Issue, 
the Newsletter became available only by 
direct distribution from the Office of Naval 
Research, 

Requests to receive the Newsletter regu¬ 
larly should be submitted to the editor. Con¬ 
tractors of the Federal Government should ref¬ 
erence applicable contracts in their requests. 

All communications pertaining to the News¬ 
letter should be addressed to: 

GORDON D. GOLDSTEIN, Editor 
Digital Computer Newsletter 
Informations Systems Branch 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 


COMPUTERS AND DATA PROCESSORS, NORTH AMERICA 


ADVANCE II, ASI-420 AND ASI-210- 
ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, 
INC., MINNEAPOLIS 22, MINNESOTA 

Advanced Scientific Instruments, Inc., has 
designed three computers which cover the field 


in computing and data processing capability. 
They are, in order of decreasing size, the 
ADVANCE II, the ASI-420, and the ASI-210 

All three machines are high speed, paral¬ 
lel, Internally programmed, solid-state 


1 




computers with random access core memnria* 
having a tuiai cycle time of 2 microseconds, 
Including addressing of the next word. All of the 
computers have extensive input-output buffer- 
ins facilities which make them adaptable to real¬ 
time applications, and which permit the integra¬ 
tion of large quantities of peripheral equipment. 

To date ASI has delivered one 210 to God¬ 
dard Space Flight Center, one 210W (a modified 
210) to Argonno National Laboratory, and haa 
announced the sale of another to Chance Vought 
Corporation. 

The 210 system sold to Chance Vought car¬ 
ries a price tag of $113,000. The medium scale 
ASI-420 sells for $324,000, and the larger scale 
ADVANCE n for $860,000. 


Programming 

The instructions used in all ASI computers 
are divided into two classes, termed cIosb A 
and class B. Class A Instructions are used 
universally in all three machines, and programs 
prepared with class A instructions can be exe¬ 
cuted on any ASI machine. Claes B instructions 
are used only with the larger ASI-420 and 
ADVANCE II computers; programs prepared 
with the class B instructions can be executed 
without modification only on the larger machines. 


Input-Output 

The input-output system of the ADVANCE 
II computer consists of several input-output 
assembly registers and an independent control 
system. Information can be exchanged between 
the computer and external devices completely 
Independently of arithmetic operations, and the 
input-output system can provide off-line com¬ 
munications between items of peripheral equip¬ 
ment. The total information transfer rate of 
the ADVANCE n input-output system is 250,000 
words per second. Additionally, the ADVANCE 
n has a direct, high speed Input-output channel 
•capable of 500,000 42-bit word transfers per 
second. 

The ASI-420 and ASI-210 computers also 
use input-output assembly registers for external 
communication, but these are controlled by the 
central control system. The transfer of a block 
of Information is initiated with a single instruc¬ 
tion. Thereafter, each assembly register is 
serviced by the memory during specific times 
set aside for this purpose in all instructions, 
and the program is not further affected by the 
transfer. In other words, the memory is 


time shared by the arunmetic and input-output 
sections of the computer. 

Either fixed or variable block transfers 
are made possible by two memory address 
registers associated with each assembly regis¬ 
ter. One ot these registers contain! the addreee 
of the first word of the block, and the other con¬ 
tains the address of the last word of the block. 
With the transfer of each word, the first regis¬ 
ter is incremented. When the contents of the 
registers Are Identical, the block has been 
transferred and input-output operation ceases. 
The size block can be varied simply by the 
addresses entered originally into the address 
registers. 


Advance n 

The ADVANCE II computer Is a 42-blt 
machine with a memory expandable to 32,768 
words. The computer has an optional maximum 
of eight buffered input-output channels with a 
combined transfer rate of 250,000 words per 
second. Arithmetic speeds of the computer 
are: 


Operation 

Speed (psec) 

add 

6 

multiply 

33 

divide 

33 


The speed of the machine is enhanced by 
an instruction look-ahead feature in which the 
next Instruction of a program is extracted from 
the memory, and Indexing of the operand Is per¬ 
formed while the current instruction is being 
executed. This operation is performed simul¬ 
taneously with arithmetic operations because 
the memory address register is not used In 
arithmetic functions, and the indexing addition 
is performed in an independent 15-blt adder. 
When the current instruction is completed, the 
next instruction is Immediately ready. 

An 84-blt, 512-word magnetic core memory 
stores micro-program commands from which 
the instructions of the computer are constructed. 
The operation code of an instruction is trans¬ 
lated to the address of the first command In 
the micro-program memory. Thereafter, the 
memory is stepped through successive memory 
locations, and the resultant commands complete 
the Instruction. Any command or sequence of 
commands can be repeated under control of a 
repeat counter. 




The micro-program memory can be filled 
or replaced from either the main memory or 
liie paper laps rentier ox iiiu computer, instruc¬ 
tion substitutions can be made easily, and unique 
Instructions for specific applications can be 
formulated from the available micro-commands. 
This feature provides the ADVANCE II with 
exceptional flexibility. 

One of the most powerful features of the 
ADVANCE n Is its ability to communicate with 
other ASI computers In multi-computer com¬ 
plexes. Such communication can be effected 
both through the real-time, high-speed, Input- 
output channels and through the buffered chan¬ 
nels. Each computer regards the other merely 
as external devices, and through the facilities 
of the trapped Interrupt, can be alternately Iso¬ 
lated from the other computers or enabled to 
participate, all under program control. In this 
way, “executive privilege" for one computer is 
not necessary, and independent computer pro¬ 
grams can be “merged" effectively. Inter¬ 
computer communication Is made possible sim¬ 
ply by wiring, and no auxiliary electronics Is 
required. 


ASI-420 

The ASI-420 Is a 42-bit machine with a 
memory expandable to 18,384 words. The com¬ 
puter has an optional maximum of six Input- 
output buffer channels with a combined transfer 
rate of 125,000 words per second. Arithmetic 
speeds of the machine are: 


Operation 

Speed (psec) 

add 

10 

multiply 

64 

divide 

96 


The speed of the ASI-420 is less than that of the 
ADVANCE II because of the time allowed in 
each instruction to service the Input-output buf¬ 
fer registers. This time is allowed whether or 
not Input-output data Is transferred, and remains 
the same regardless of the number of channels 
used. Therefore, the transfer rate of 125,000 
words per second is constant for machines with 
any number of buffer channels. 


ASI-210 

the Asi-aiO is a general purpose, nign 
speed, solid-state digital computer of small 
size. It is well suited to applications In scien¬ 
tific and engineering computations, data reduc¬ 
tion, and real-time process control. The 
ASI-210 has the following outstanding features: 

1. Stored program, parallel operation, 
solid-state circuits, 21-bit word length, and 
magnetic core memory expandable to 8192 words. 

2. Buffered Input-output channels with total 
transfer rate of 62,500 21-bit words per second. 
Number of buffered channels is one, with one 
additional channel optional. Buffers can be uBed 
in an effective manner off-line for conversion 
operations. 

3. Multiple indexing using Index words 
stored In the computer memory. 

4. Indirect addressing. Successive Indirect 
addressing is possible with Indexing at each 
step, 

5. Trapped interrupt. Logic circuits, 
which sense Interrupt eventB, can be armed or 
disarmed under program control to Jump the 
program into corresponding sub-routines upon 
occurrence of the event. The trapped interrupt 
feature saves a great deal of time and memory 
In programs because the Interrupt conditions 
do not have to be tested repeatedly. It Is also 
useful in cases where two or more computers 
are used together In the same system, or where 
a computer converses with several Items of 
peripheral equipment. 

6. One-megacycle phase rate operation. 

Add time 10 microseconds; multiply time 54 
microseconds, Including Indexing and memory 
access time. 

7. Six sense switches. Program branch¬ 
ing may be controlled by sense switches on the 
operators console, 

8. No air conditioning Is required. High 
reliability operation in extreme temperature 
and humidity conditions. Equipment is designed 
to operate in ambient 32* to 125"F at B5 percent 
relative humidity. 


3 




Number Format 

BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 


sign 

bit 

21 


Magnitude bits 20-1 


B represents 1 binary digit. 

INSTRUCTION FORMAT 
Instruction Word 

BBBBBBBBBBBBBBDBBBBBB 

^ ^ y 

I f_I__ r\ ___1_IJ_ 


Operation 

code 

bits 21-17 


Index address Operand address 
bits 15-14 bits 13-1 


Indirect address 
bit 16 


Index Word 

^bbbbbbb^^bbbbbbbbbbb^ 

fottnro hit u Inrtov ha no' 


Ignore bits 
21-14 


Index base' 
bits 13-1 


B represents 1 binary digit. 

Instruction List 
Notation 

A Register A is the accumulator 

E Register E is a second major 
arithmetic register 

() Contents of, for example, (A) signi¬ 
fies the contents of the A register 

+ Add 

Subtract 

. Multiply 

=• Divide 

- » “Is placed in* 


I | Absolute value, for example. (A) 
i signifies the absolute value of the 
! ! contents of the A register 

- Complement of, for example, (K) 

signifies the complement of the 
contents of the A register 

@ Logical OR, for example, (E) @ 

(m) signifies the logical OR of the 
complement of the contents of the 
E register and the operand 

0 Logical AND, for example, (E) Q 
(m) signifies the logical AND of the 
contents of the E register and Uv; 
operand 

a Register A designator in the 

operand address 

e Register E designator in the 

operand address 

s Shift right designator 

c Shift circular designator 

g Gray to binary shift Indicator 

k Shift count 

l h Index base 

p Effective operand address 

m The memory location specified by p 

1 Address of present Instruction 

. (m) Operand 

Unless otherwise Indicated, the operand 
address Is subject to indexing and indirect 
address. 

Arithmetic 

The adder used In the ASI-210 Is a closed 
loop binary adder using left end-around carry 
operation in the one’s complement addition. 

The sign bit (21) is a zero (0) for positive num¬ 
bers and a one (1) for negative numbers. This 
is useful In most operations using the entire 
register A. However, In certain instances such 
as indexing, only a small portion of the adder 
Is used and provisions to prevent end-around 
carry are made. Operation is then carried out 


4 


In the two's complement addition which gives the correct answer without carry. A comparison of 
the two systems is shown: 


Decimal 

Binary 

i’s Comp. 

2’s Comp. 


r>3 

on 

4-3 

+3 


2 

010 

4-2 

4-2 


1 

001 

+1 

+ 1 


0 

000 

+0 

+0 


7 

111 

-o* 

-1 


6 

110 

-1 

-2 


5 

101 

-2 

-3 


_4 

100 

-3 

-4 


-0 is meaningless. All carries arc forcibly 
entered in adder so that the number becomes 
000 or 4-0, 


ASI-210 Instruction Chart 


Octal Code 

Instruction 

Including Index 
& I/O Time 
(nsec) 

Not Including Index 
& I/O Time 
(paec) 


HALT 

8 



JUMP 

8 

4 

sKISii 

RETURN 

12 

8 

06 

END INTERRUPT 

8 

4 

10 

ADD 

10 

6 

12 

SUBTRACT 

10 

6 

14 

LOAD A 

10 

6 

16 

LOAD E 

12 

8 

20 

ABSOLUTE VALUE 

8 

4 

22 

NEGATE 

8 

4 

24 

CLEAR 

12 

8 

28 

STORE A 

8 

6 

30 

MULTIPLY 

54 

50 

32 

DIVIDE 

56 

52 

34 

ROUND 

14 

10 

36 

STORE A ADDRESS 

10 

6 

40 

COMPARE<A 

14 

10 

42 

COMPARE * A 

14 

10 

44 

TEST A < 0 

10 

6 

48 

STORE E 

10 

6 

50 

AUGMENT INDEX 

12 

12 

52 

TEST INDEX 

10 

10 

54 

STORE ADDRESS 

12 

12 

66 

LOGICAL OR 

12 

10 

60 

SHIFT 

104-2K 

6+2K 

62 

NORMALIZE A 

14+2K 

10+ 2K 

64 

NORMALIZE A,E 

14+2K 

10+2K 

66 

LOGICAL AND 

12 

10 

70 

TRAP 

8 

4 

72 

SENSE SWITCH 

10 

6 

74 

EXTERNAL DEVICE 

16 

12 

76 

ASSEMBLY REGISTER 

20 

16 
















Explanation of Instructions 

111 A DU (A) + (m) —* A 

Add the operand to (A). The sum will appear in Register A. This instruction can result in an add 
overflow. 

12 SUBTRACT (A)-(m)-»A 

Subtract the operand from the contents ol A. The difference will appear in Register A. This instruc¬ 
tion can result in an add overflow. 


30 MULTIPLY (A) • (ro>—*AE 

Multiply the contents of A by the operand. The most significant bits of the product will appear in 
Register A and the least significant bits in Register E. 

32 DIVIDE (AE) t (m)—* E rem-*A 

Divide the contents of A and E by the operand. The quotient will appear in Register E and the 
remainder in Register A. A fault interrupt may occur if the contents of A is greater than or equal to 
the operand. 

24 CLEAR 0—>A, or 0—>E, or 0—*AE 

Clear A If the a designator bit 12 of the operand address is a 1. Clear E if the e designator bit 11 
of the operand address is a 1. Clear A and E If the a and e designator bits 12, 11 of the operand 
address are l's. 

22 NEGATE (A) —>A, or (E)—>E, or (AE)—> AE 

Complement the contents of Register A if the a designator bit 12 of the operand address is a 1. 

Complement the contents of Register E If the e designator bit 11 of the operand address is a 1. 

Complement the contents of Register A and E if the a and e designator bits 12, 11 of the operand 

address are l’s. 

20 ABSOLUTE VALUE |(A)|-*A, or |(E)|—>E, or |(AE)| —»AE 

Make the contents of A positive If the a designator bit 12 of the operand address is a 1. Make the 
contents of E positive if the e designator bit 11 of the operand address is a 1. Make the contents of 
A and E positive if the a and e designator bits 12, 11 of the operand address are l’s. 

34 ROUND (E20) + (A)—*A 

Add the most significant bit of Register E to the contents of A In the least significant bit. The result 
will appear In Register A. Register E will be unchanged, 

36 STORE A ADDRESS (Ajg.j)—? 

Stores operand address portion of (A) in the operand address portion of the operand (m). 


Transfer 

14 LOAD A (m)—*A 

Bring the operand to Register A. 

16 LOAD E (m)—»E 


6 






Bring the operand to Register E, 


28 STORE A (A)—»m 

Store the contents of A in the memory location specified by the operand address. 

48 STORE E (E)—>m 

Store the contents of E in the memory location specified by the operand address. 
60 SHIFT 

Bit 

Designator 


SHIFT (A) RIGHT 
SHIFT (A) LEFT 
SHIFT (A) LEFT CIRCULAR 
SHIFT (E) RIGHT 
SHIFT (E) LEFT 
SHIFT (E) LEFT CIRCULAR 
SHIFT (AE) RIGHT 
SHIFT (AE) LEFT 
SHIFT (AE, LEFT CIRCULAR 
CONVERT (E) FROM GRAY CODE TO 
BINARY LEAVING THE RESULT IN A 

See “INSTRUCTION LIST, Notation’ for definition of designators a through k. 

Right shifts arc open-ended shifts. Left shift may be either open-ended or circular shlftB. In open- 
ended shifts, the bits introduced into the register are identical to the sign bit 21 which remains 
unchanged. In circular shifts, the sign bit 21 is shifted along with the number. The number of shifts, 
specified by the shift count (k), cannot exceed 63 decimal (2 s -1). 

62 NORMALIZE A (A) • 2 k until A20 t A2I, and, 

k + (m)—am 

Shift the contents of A left, leaving the sign bit 21 unchanged, Until the sign bit 21 and the most sig¬ 
nificant bit 20 are different. With each shift, the sign bit will be entered in the least significant 
bit 1 of A and the most significant bit 20 of A will be lost. Add the number of shifts required to the 
operand address portion of the operand specified by the operand address. 

64 NORMALIZE A AND E (AE) • 2 k unlll A20 * A21, and, 

k + (m)— 

Shift the contents ol A and E left, leaving the sign bit 21 unchanged, until the sign bit 21 and the most 
significant bit 20 of A are different. With each shift, the sign bit 21 ol' E will be entered In the least 
significant bit 1 of E, and the most significant bit 20 of E will be entered into the least significant 
bit 1 of A. The most significant bit 20 of A will be lost. Add the number of shifts required to the 
operand address portion of the operand specified by the operand address. 

66 LOGICAL AND (E)©(m)—»A 

Form the logical “and" of the operand and the contents of E in Register A. An example of the blt- 
for-btt result is as follows: 


i2 11 10 9 8 7-1 



Contents of E 1100 
Operand 1010 

Logical and 1000 


7 






58 LOGICAL OR (E) © (m) —*A. 

Form the logical “or* of the operand and the contents of E In Register A. An example of the blt-for- 
blt result Is as follows: 

Contents of E 1100 
Operand 1010 

Logical or ITl5 

50 AUGMENT INDEX p + lfc,—»lb 

Add the specified operand address to the Index base, and replace the Index base with the sum. This 
Instruction can result In an Index overflow. The addition will be In the two’s complement system. 
This Instruction permits decrementing as well as Incrementing. 

52 SKIP IF INDEX HIGH 

The specified operand address of this Instruction is the complement of the index limit addresB. This 
limit address is in one’s complement If the limit 1 b positive, and in two’s complement if the limit is 
negative. When the Index base (contents of the index register in two’s complement format) exceeds 
the limit address, the next Instruction in sequence will be skipped. . .otherwise the instructions will 
continue In sequence. The skip will occur when the addition of the 13-hlt limit address with the 
13-bit Index base causes a carry into the 14th bit position. 


Examples 

If the lndox base exceeds four and It is desired to skip, the index limit address will be: 

1111111111011 (Binary - one’s complement) 

14th 14th 

BU Bit 

Index Base X0000000000100 X0000000000101 

Index Limit X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 1 

Sum X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10000000000000 

No akip occurs when Skip occurs when 

index base = 4 index base = 5 

If the Index base exceeds -4 and It is desired to skip, the index limit address will be: 

000000000001 1 (Binary - two’s complement) 

14th 14th 

Bit Bit 

Index Dase X"i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 

Index Limit X0 000000000011 X000000000001 1 

Sum X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10000000000000 

No skip occurs Skip occurs when 

when lndox base = -4 index base = -3 

(in two’s complement) (in two’s complement) 

(l.e., If the limit desired is a nogativo number, the rule is tho following: 
lllmltl -1 = index limit address) 


8 






04 BFTflOM I j. S-*.-< 

--- " ' 1 thru 13 

Store the address of the instructturi following 
the next sequential Instruction In the operand 
address of the operand. By letting the operand 
be a jump Instruction at the end of a sub-routine, 
the program can jump into the subroutine on the 
next instruction and return to its program se¬ 
quence at the end of the sub-routino. 

02 JUMP 

Talte (m) as the next Instruction, 

00 HALT 

Halt, and take (m) as the next Instruction when 
operation Is resumed, 

40 COMPARE<A (m) < (A), skip and take 

1 + 2 

(m) > (A), take 1 + 1 

If the operand Is less than the contents of A, 
skip the next Instruction of the sequence. 

42 COMPARE » A (m) « (A), skip and take 

1 + 2 

(m) / (A), take 1 + 1 

If the operand equals the contents of A, skip the 
next Instruction of the sequence. 

44 TEST A < 0 

If (A) are less than 0, take next Instruction 
from operand. 

54 STORE ADDRESS IN INDEX p—!»I b 

Store the operand address In the base address 
portion ol the memory location specified by the 
Index address. The operand address will not be 
Indexed. 

00 ENDINTERRRUPT 

Take (m) us the next Instruction, then discon¬ 
tinue the Interrupt. This instruction must be 
used at the end of an Interrupt routine. 

70 TRAP 

if bit 12 of the operand address Is a “l," the 
contents of the trap flip-flops will bo stored In 
operand address portion ol register A In the bit 
positions specified helow. If bit 11 Is a “1,* the 
specified traps will be armed. If bit 10 Is a “1,” 
the specified traps will be disarmed. If bit 13 
Is a “1," the contents of the Add ovorflow and 


Index overflew fllp-fiu|/i, may be aiurati in ine 

bits of A corresponding to their trap designators. 
These two flip-flops will be reset by recogni¬ 
tion of interrupt or by storage In A sc described. 
Bit specification of the operand address of the 
Set Trap instruction: 

13 Store flip-flop designator 
12 Store trap designator 
11 Arm trap designator 
10 Disarm trap designator 

1 External device Interrupt trap 

2 Busy Interrupt trap 

3 Operator Interrupt trap 

4 Fault interrupt trap 

5 Add overflow Interrupt trap 

7 Index overflow Interrupt trap 
3 Operator control light 1 
0 Operator control light 2 

74 EXTERNAL DEVICE 

Interpret the operand as an external dovloo con¬ 
trol word (EDCW). A buoy Interrupt could re¬ 
sult from this instruction. The external device 
control word (s described In detail under 
external device Instruction. 

72 SENSE SWITCH 

If any of the sonso switches 1-0 specified In the 
operand address bits 1-6 is set, skip the next 
Instruction In the normal sequence, if the next 
Instruction is a Jump Instruction, this Is in effect 
a programmed Jump that Is conditional upon the 
sense switches. These swltchus may be changed 
at any time by the oporator. If more than one 
sense switch Is speckled, the skip will occur 
If any of tho specified switches Is set. 

78 ASSEMBLY REGISTER 

Interpret the operand as an assembly register 
control word (ARCW). A busy interrupt can 
result from this Instruction, The assembly 
register control 'vord Is described In detail 
under assembly register Instruction. 


Trapped Interrupt 

A number of events can cause the program 
of the computer to be Interrupted. Some of 
these are: 

Busy Oporator 

Add Overffow Extornal device 

Fault 


Index overflow 




An Interrupt trap associated with each event may 
be set under program control to either respond 
when the event occurs or to ignore it. The traps 
are controlled by the “trap" Instruction. Bits 
11 and 10 in the operand address designate 
whether the specified traps will be armed or 
disarmed, and bits 9 through 1 oi the operand 
address specify which traps (or indicator flip- 
flops) are to be armed (set) or disarmed 
(cleared). If bit 12 of the operand address is 
present the condition of each of the traps will be 
stored in the operand address portion of regis¬ 
ter A In the bit position that corresponds to the 
designating bit for that particular trap in the 
“trap* Instruction. This will occur before any 
changes are made In these conditions as a result 
of bit 11 or 10 occurring in the same “trap* In¬ 
struction. This is very useful in sub-routines 
that require the use of these traps, but that 
also must return these traps to their previous 
condition at the end of the sub-routine. 

By specifying bit 13 In the trap instruction, 
ti:c contents of the Add overflow and Index 
overflow flip-flops may be stored in the bits of 
A corresponding to their trap designators. These 
three flip-flops will be reset by recognition of 
interrupt or by storage in A as described. 

If a particular trap is set to respond to the 
occurrence of an event, an interrupt is initiated 
when the event occurs (and the interrupt routine 
flip-flop is set). As a result of this interrupt, 
the current instruction will be completed and 
the address of the following Instruction will be 
stored in the Interrupt fixed address (00110). 
Then control is transferred to a unique fixed 
address (identified below) associated vth the 
particular event or condition which c- sed the 
Interrupt. The contents of the unique fixed 
address will usually be a jump instruction lead¬ 
ing to a sub-routine. Thus, the programmer 
may have a different sub-routine for each event 
that may cause an interrupt, l'he sub-routines 
will be entered without the necessity of the 
programmer writing a decoding program to 
find which sub-routine to enter since the occur¬ 
rence of a particular interrupt causes a jump 
to a particular sub-routine. At the end of each 
sub- routine is a jump to the interrupt fixed 
address (00110). In the interrupt fixed address 
is an “end interrupt* instruction which is identi¬ 
cal to a jump instruction except that it clears 
the interrupt routine flip-flop. The “end 
Interrupt* instruction will cause a return to the 
main program at the point where it was inter¬ 
rupted. Only a priority external device may 
interrupt an “interrupt sub-routine." When 
automatic interrupts are not available, the pro - 
grammer must write a scanning program that 


repeatedly checks certain conditions to see 
whether the mam program should be interrupted. 
The ability to uBe the trapped interrupt feature 
to handle such conditions as arithmetic overflow 
gives the programmer the opportunity to make 
any necessary corrections and reenter the main 
program to continue the calculations. By being 
able to selectively arm and disarm traps, the 
programmer has complete program control over 
either initiating an interrupt when a particular 
condition occurs or ignoring its occurrence. 

The following is a description of the inter¬ 
rupt conditions: 

BUSY interrupt will occur if an external 
device Is instructed to do something which it 
cannot do because either the device or its 
assembly register is busy. This Interrupt may 
also occur if an “assembly register* Instruction 
addresses a busy channel. 


External Device Interrupt 

External device interrupt will occur when 
an ED sends a signal to the central computer 
that it desires to transmit information. External 
device interrupt addresses are assigned octal 
numbers from 00000-00077. These numbers 
are scanned through periodically to see if an 
ED requests Interrupt. The normal ED r s are 
assigned Interrupt addresses at the low end of 
the memory (i.e., 00,02,04,06, ...) correspond¬ 
ing to the ED addresses. When an ED requests 
interrupt, the ED Interrupt flip-flop is set, the 
current instruction is completed and the address 
of the next instruction.is stored in a fixed loca¬ 
tion 00110. Tht n contiol is transferred 
(jumped) to the interrupt address corresponding 
to the ED address which requested the inter¬ 
rupt. An “end interrupt* instruction, which is 
identical to a jump instruction except that It 
clears the interrupt sub-routine flip-flop, may 
be inserted in the interrupt fixed address. Cer¬ 
tain ED are assigned priority interrupt addresses 
in a block at the higher end of the memory 
(i.e., .,66,68,70,72,74,76). The lowest num¬ 

ber in the block has the highest priority. Only 
these priority Interrupt devices can interrupt 
a “normal interrupt sub-routine.* If a priority 
ED requests ii.errupt, the scanner jumps to toe 
priority block and scans through for the highest 
priority ED requesting interrupt. A second 
flip-flop is set, the next instruction is stored 
in fixed location 00114 and control is transferred 
to priority ED. When the priority interrupt 
sub-routine is completed and an “end interrupt” 
jump is executed, the priority interrupt flip- 
flop alone is reset. The normal interrupt 


10 




flip-flop is maintained In Its set condition. 

After the interrupt is recognized, the scanner 
will look for any other priority interrupt. If 
none is requested, control may be transferred 
to the original interrupt sub-routine. After 
this sub-routine is completed and an “end inter¬ 
rupt” Jump is executed, the first flip-flop is 
reset and control may be transferred to the main 
program. 

External devices in which a failure is ol 
critical interest to the running program are 
assigned a second number (normally the odd 
address following the proper ED address; i.e., 
01,03,05,..,), This address Is not employed in 
any ED instruction, but is the address of the fixed 
memory location associated with a failure inter¬ 
rupt by the particular ED. Thus, there is the 
possibility of two Interrupt routines associated 
with a particular ED: one for normal interrupt 
and one for failure. 


Fault Interrupt 

Fault interrupt will occur for the following 
reason: 

Dividend > divisor in “divide” 


Add Overflow Interrupt 

Add overflow interrupt will occur when the 
result of addition or subtraction exceeds the 
length ol the arithmetic register and changes 
the sign bit 21. 


Index Overflow Interrupt 

Index overflow Interrupt will occur when 
the result of the augment index instruction 
exceeds the length of a memory address. 


Memory Fixed Addresses 
Octal 


00000-00077 

External device interrupts 

00100 

Operator interrupt 

00101 

Unspecified 

00102 

Fault Interrupt 

00103 

Add overflow Interrupt 

00104 

Exponent overflow interrupt 

00105 

Index cverflow interrupt 

00106 

Busy interrupt 

00107 

Unspecified 

00110 

Interrupt fixed address 

00114 

Priority ED Interrupt fixed address 

00115-00117 

Index registers 


Input-Output System—General Features 

All transfer of data to or from the computer 
Is conducted via input-output channels which 
communicate directly with the magnetic core 
memory of the ASI-210. The access to the 
memory is time-shared between the operating 
program and input-output data transfer; in a 
typical situation, approximately 15 percent of 
the memory time is available for Input-output 
data transfer. Since the arithmetic and control 
functions of the operating program do not re¬ 
quire access to the memory every computer 
cycle, they may proceed simultaneously with 
input-output data transfer with little or no Iobb 
in Bpeed. 

The standard ASI-210 is provided with one 
input-output channel. An additional channel may 
be optionally, supplied. 

Each piece of on-line peripheral equipment 
is known as an ‘External Device* (abbreviated, 
E.D.). Each external device has an unique 
address. The ASI-210 can accommodate up to 
64 external devices with two-channel operation. 

The ASI-210 input-output system is pro¬ 
vided with program interrupt features so that 
testing of the condition of the external devices 
by the running program Is not necessary. 


MULTIPLE-PROCESSOR G-21- 
BENDIX COMPUTER DIVISION, 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 

Bendix Computer Division is developing a 
large-scale special purpose computer system 
with a vast memory and true parallel process¬ 
ing capabilities. The super-system, designated 
the G-21, will be a multiple-processor com¬ 
puter using proven off-the-shelf components of 
the G-20 computer system. It will be capable 
of handling massive amounts of data fed to it 
from a variety of sources on an on-line, real¬ 
time basis. 

The system is designed for special military 
control applications which require the collect¬ 
ing and processing of large amounts of intelli¬ 
gence and operational data for immediate 
presentation to military commanders. 


Large Memory 

The key to the new G-21 system is the 
multiple processor design which affords one 
of the largest memory reservoirs. Up to three 


11 



centrsi processor ur.lis (CPU's), witn ay,344 
words ol random access common core memory, 
can be linked In a single system. An additional 
8102 words of exclusive memory Is reserved 
for each processor, thereby giving a total high¬ 
speed memory capacity of 81,920 words. 

Three segments of the same problem or 
three separate problems may be handled simul¬ 
taneously with this configuration. 

If necessary, several 0-21 systems may 
be Interconnected without modification of exist¬ 
ing equipment. Transfer of data between sys¬ 
tems at extremely high speeds will be possible 
through completely buffered communication lines 
under the control of independent input-output 
processors. 

Input to the C-21 in a complex military 
control center, could come from any number 
ol BourceB, such as, radar, teletype, microwave, 
telephone, A/D converters, and analog and 
digital computers, as well as from conventional 
computer input units. 

24-Hour Problems 

Unusual flexibility of the G-21 would allow 
it to handle so-called “24-hour problems* - 
continuously receiving data from a number of 
sources, processing the data, and finally deliver¬ 
ing outputs in a variety of forms ranging from 
luminescent screen display to teletype signal, 
or even to the firing of a weapon. Design of the 
system also allows individual problems to be 
handled without interrupting the 24-hour 
operation. 

A unique self-adapting feature is built into 
the machine's programming. An executive con¬ 
trol program, designed to meet specific user 
requirements, would recognize the demands 
being placed on the system, and assign appro¬ 
priate processors io the same sequence of 
operations stored in one portion of the common 
memory, or It can assign one processor to a 
sequence of operations without affecting the 
activities of the other processors. It also will 
switch the role of a processo.;, at will, among 
many functions. 


True Parallel Processing 

This flexibility affords true parallel proc 
easing, eliminating the need for parts of a 


programming system to operate sequentially. 
Information can now be traded instantly through 
use of data tables common to the multiple 
processors. Through program modules, operat¬ 
ing simultaneously, reaction time of one module 
to conditions as they are identified by another 
is reduced significantly. 

A “fail-safe* feature of the executive pro¬ 
gram will insure system reliability. If one oi 
the processors should fall, the remaining 
processors will automatically adjust and hold 
lower-priority problems until time Is available. 
The most Important problems assigned to the 
machine would be unaffected. 


Field tests of G-21 components already in 
use at G-20 Installations indicate assured high- 
reliability standards lor the new machine. As 
an example, figures gathered from the early 
months of customer use of the central proc¬ 
essors units show an availability record of 
better than 99 percent. 


G-21 Programs 

Programming packages for the G-21 will 
Include many of the compilers, assemblers, 
routines, and sub-routines developed over the 
past 3 years for the G-20. 

The G-21 is the second phase in the devel¬ 
opment of a universal computer design aimed 
at eliminating the obsolescence problem for 
computer users. Future Bendlx computer 
developments will be keyed to G-20 and G-21 
concepts, to provide compatibility with exist¬ 
ing systems. 


Standard hardware elements, in addition to 
the central processors, include high-speed 
magnetic tape units, high-speed printers, disc 
memory units, auxiliary core memory units, 
control buffers, data communicators, and 
punched-card and punebed-paper tape units. 

Price of the system will vary according to 
application needs, but a minimum G-31 system 
(two CPU’s, one data communicator, three 
memory units, one high-speed line printer, 
three magnetic tape units) will cost upwards of 
$1,250,000. Approximate delivery date will be 
18 months from receipt of order. 


12 






CONTROL DATA 3600- 
CONTROL DATA CORPORATION, 
MINNEAPOLIS 20, MINNESOTA 

Cuntrol Data Corporation recently released 
details on their new, powerful, large-scale 
digital computer - Control Data 3600. This 
computer features modular expandability of Its 
high-speed magnetic core memory, high-speed 
data communication channels, ard computing 
power. Control Data Corporation takes pride 
In making this announcement less than 2-1/2 
years after delivery of their first large-scale 
computer - the highly successful 1604. The 
first 3600, with a complete programming system 
Included, is scheduled to be ready for delivery 
in approximately 1 year. 

The system 1 b exceptionally suited for 
handling large-volume data processing and solv¬ 
ing large-scale scientific problems at very high 
speeds. The advanced level of speed and flexi¬ 
bility In the 3600 are especially Important In 
real-time applications where computed results 
must be available nearly aB fast as the problem 
is presented to the computer. The special fea¬ 
tures In the 3600 offer superior inherent machine 
capabilities at a price substantially lesB than 
other computers approaching the capabilities 
of the 3600. One of these advanced capabilities 
Is the modular design of the 3600 which permits 
smooth expansion of a basic 3600 system in step 
with the user’s Increased requirements as they 
arise. This is achieved without the necessity of 
inter-connecting the modules with control units, 
or “black boxes.” 

The magnetic core memory of the 3600, 
expandable in modules from 1-1/2 million bits 
of information to more than 12-1/2 million bits, 
has an information access time of less than 1 
microsecond. The 3600 utilizes special circuits, 
which make use of tunnel diodes, to speed up 
basic arithmetic processes in the nanosecond 
(or billionths of a second) range. 

In transmitting data to and from peripheral 
equipment, the data communication module 


operates independently and asynchronously of 
the main computer program. Each data com¬ 
munication module haa four bi-directional data 
channels, expandable to eight at the customer's 
option. These high-speed channels permit data 
to be transmitted to and accepted from peripheral 
equipment In large-volume and at tremendously 
high speeds while the computer continues to 
perform highly complex computations. As many 
as 32 bi-directional data channels can be Incor¬ 
porated in the fully expanded 3600, each able to 
handle up to eight control and/or peripheral 
devices. 

A complete programming system will be 
delivered with the first 3600 computer system. 
Oriented around the Control Data Master Con¬ 
trol System (MCS), the computer programming 
will be totally Independent of the hardware- 
size and type of a given 3600 system, whether 
the customer has a basic or an expanded ver¬ 
sion. Therefore, the programming will be as 
tailor-made to the customer’s requirements as 
Is the hardware used. The MCS provides for a 
common library to incorporate systems pro¬ 
gramming such as FORTRAN and COBOL, an 
open-ended feature to Incorporate new com¬ 
pilers and programming systems as they are 
developed, and a “linking-loader* feature to 
incorporate several independently compiled or 
assembled sub-programs into one main com¬ 
puter program. 


A basic 3600 computer system, including 
necessary peripheral equipment, is in a pur¬ 
chase price range of $2 to 32-1/2 million. 
Lease of the same equipment will be approxi¬ 
mately $55,000 to $60,000 per month. This 
price includes, as standard 3600 computer 
hardware, many features that are generally 
held as optional in other systems approaching 
the capabilities of the 3600. For example, both 
fixed- and floating-point arithmetic. In both 
single and double precision, Is standard in all 
3600 systems. 


13 





Characteristics 


Modular Design and Expandability 


Basic System 


3604 Compute Module 
3603 Storage Module 

32,768 48-bit words in each module, each 
word with 3 parity bits 

3602 Communication Module 

Equipped with four (4) high-speed 3606 
Data Channels 

3601 Console 

Includes input-output electric typewriter 
250-card-per-mlnute punched card reader 


Expandable to 


As many as five compute modules can be 
linked together. 

Expandable in 32,768-word modules to a total 
of eight for more than 12-1/2 million bits 
of information. 

Expandable up to eight data channels per 
module, up to eight moduleB per 3600 com¬ 
puter. Total expansion to 32 bi-directional 
channels. (As many as eight control and/or 
peripheral devices can be handled by each 
bi-directional data channel.) 


i 


Operating Speede 
Magnetic Core Memory 

Memory cycle time-l.S microseconds 

Effective cycle time (access)-—— 0.7 microseconds 

Internal Computing Speeds 

Typical average execution times are given in microseconds. 


Instructions 

Fixed Point 

Single Precision 
Floating Point 

Double Precision 
Floating Point 

Multiply 


1-6 

2-26 

Divide 


1-14 

2-26 

Fetch/Store 


1.5-2.2 

3 

Add/Subtract 


4 

5 


Special High-Speed Circuits 

These special circuits employ tunnel diodes to speed up baste arithmetic operations into the 
nanosecond range. These operate at 4 nanoseconds per stage. 

The basic cycle time ol the adder network, for example, is 250 nanoseconds. The shift time 
is a constant 250 nanoseconds regardless of the number of places shifted. 

Examples of Arithmetic Function Speeds 

The 3600 Computer can perform the following functions in 1 second: • 

670,000 fixed-point additions or subtractions 

250,000 floating-point additions or subtractions in single precision 

200,000 floating-point additions or subtractions in double precision 


14 

















167,000 floating-point multiplications (single precision) 

71.500 floating-point divisions (double precision) 

38.500 floating-point multiplications and/or divisions in double precision 


Input-Output Communications 

Input an i output operations occur independently and asynchronously with operations in the com¬ 
pute module. The standard four bi-directional data channels in each communication module (or 
expanded modules with eight channels) permit data to be transmitted to and accepted from peripheral 
equipment In large volume and at tremendously high speeds while the computer continues to perform 
highly complex computations. The computer only directs the selection of a specific external device 
and the channel In which the I/O activity is to take place. Once operating conditions have been 
Initiated, the communication module supervises all I/O functions. Data being transmitted or received 
goes to or from the magnetic core memory directly, and does not pass through the compute module. 


Computation Capabilities 

The 3604 compute module performs all computing and logical operations in the 3600 system. 
Included as standard hardware in the compute module are provisions for fixed- and floating-point 
arithmetic in both single and double precision. The 3604 operates In a parallel binary mode. 

Several new categories of instructions have been included In the 3600 instruction repertoire: 

1. Commands for manipulating portions, or “bytes,” of a data word. For example, bytes of 
48 bits or less may be transmitted to any portion of a computer register or memory storage word 
in a single operation. Indexing through bytes in a word (horizontally) or through a list of such words 
(vertically) In the same operation is also provided. 

2. Double-precision, floating-point commands include add, subtract, multiply, divide, fetch, 
and store. (A 10-bit plus sign exponent is used with an 84-blt plus sign fraction.) 

3. A special instruction for list processing, as well as several new indexing operations. 

4. A universal bit-sensing instruction that permits any bit to be tested and branched upon. 

5. A powerful, extremely fast, interrupt facility is provided, as well as Instructions for process¬ 
ing interrupts. 

6. Six sense switches are Included on the console and can be programmed sensed. These are 
in addition to three selective jump and three selective stop switches. 

7. A 48-bit sense-light register able to set or clear each position in a register under program 
or manual control. 

8. Two hounds registers of 18 bits each, used for memory lockout. Information is not written 
into the region of the memory specified by the addresses within the bounds registers. 

Other important features in the 3600 are: 

1. Two-way search instructions 

2. Auto-load buttons for card and magnetic tape equipment 

3. Direct card reader entry into arithmetic register 


15 







FORTRAN 


immIV 


4. Parity check on all I/O data 
transmission 

6. Special computing (unctions can be 
added easily via special channel in the compute 
module (i.e., trigonometric and exponential 
(unctions, etc.). 


Programming 

In parallel with the development o( the 3600, 
Control Data Is developing a complete and inte¬ 
grated software system to be delivered with the 
first computer. This software system will be 
oriented around a Master Control System (MCS), 

The MCS will act as a common communi¬ 
cation link among all programming systems 
and I/O devices, interrupt, and memory allo¬ 
cation (unctions. Thus, the MCS will allow 
programming systems to be independent o( 
particular machine condgurationa, as well as 
of types and numbers of I/O media. In addition, 
the MCS will provide: 

1. A library common to all systems, such 
as FORTRAN and COBOL, which will operate 
within the MCS. 

2. An open-ended ability to Incorporate 
new compilers and operating systems as they 
are developed. 

3. A linking loader that will permit Joining 
together, in one program, several sub-programs 
that may have been separately and independently 
compiled or assembled. 

4. A system easy to modify and adapt, 
when necessary, to the needs peculiar to a 
given installation. 

Some of the Important programming sys¬ 
tems operating under control of the MCS will 
be: 

MONITOR SYSTEM . A complete operations 
supervisory system for automatic control of 
all Jobs. It will allow stacking of Jobs with 
arbitrary intermixing of different Job types, 
such as assembly, compilation, and execution. 

COM PASS . A comprehensive assembly 
system with versatile language features for 
representing the extensive instruction reper¬ 
toire in a simple symbolic notation, employing 
advanced assembly techniques. 


extensions to, and generalizations of, the basic 
FORTRAN language using advanced compiler 
techniques lor producing optimum object 
programs. 

COBOL , A complete compiling system for 
business-oriented applications. 

1604 Compatibility Package . A software 
package which will execute interpretively all 
trapped I/O Instructions of a 1604 program 
running in the 1604 compatibility mode. 


Optional Peripheral Items 

A variety of optional on/off-llne peripheral 
items may be used with t.'e 3600 computer. 
These include 12-, 24-, an/ 48-bit bi-directional 
data channels; a 48-bit inter-computer data 
channel; special function generators; magnetic 
tape handlers and tape synchronizers; medium - 
and high-speed card readers, card punches; 
low- and high-Bpeed line printers; paper tape 
I/O equipment; keyboard entry devices and 
typewriters; and disc files. 


CONTROL DATA 6600- 
CONTROL DATA CORPORATION, 
MINNEAPOLIS 20, MINNESOTA 

Control Data Corporation has announced 
that the Company has received from the U.S. 
Atomic Energy Commission a $5,574,000 order 
to furnish and install a super, high-speed com¬ 
puter Bystem at the Lawrence Radiation 
Laboratory, The Bystem, called the Control 
Data 6600, is to be installed and ready for 
acceptance testing at the Livermore (California) 
laboratory not later than February 29, 1964. 

The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory ts operated 
for AEC by the University of California. 

Control Data Corporation was selected to 
furnish the new system on the basis of its pro¬ 
posal made In response to a solicitation to the 
computer industry by AEC In 1961, with the 
delivery of the system requested in mid-1963. 
Under the terms of the negotiated contract, 
the Company will furnish interim computer 
capacity on the Control Data 3800 Computer 
System (see 3600 description, this issue of 
DCN) until the new system is accepted. The 
request for proposals stipulated that the sys¬ 
tem required, although faster than any existing 
machine, was not to be a specially designed 


16 







computer, It was to be capable of high speed 
operation for employment in the solution of 
broad complex scientific problems. 

The Control Data 6600 Computer System 
Includes a single central processor with a high¬ 
speed arithmetic and logical unit, a central 
memory of 61,440 words, peripheral processors, 
associated consoles, and input-output equipment. 
The system central processor Is a high-speed, 
logical and arithmetic unit, especially designed 
for rapid floating-point operations, 

The high speed in computing Is obtained 
through the use of semi-micro instructions and 
multiple transistor registers for temporary 
storage. Simple instructions can be combined 
optimally to execute complicated sequences 
without loss of time in referencing core storage 
temporary locations. 

The new computer system will enable 
scientists to cope with the increasingly complex 
problems that scientific advances pose and to 
obtain solutions to present problems in finer 
overall detail. The new system, which was 
designed to be faster than any now existing, 
will make it possible to solve in shorter time 
comprehensive technical problems that now 
require many hours of machine operation. Thus, 
the addition of CONTROL DATA 6600 will sig¬ 
nificantly increase the overall work capacity 
of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. 


HYDAC SERIES 2000-HYBRID DIGITAL/ 
ANALOG COMPUTER, 

ELECTRONIC ASSOCIATES, INC., 

LONG BRANCH, NEW JERSEY 

The EAI HYDAC Series 2000 Hybrid 
Digital/Analog Computer introduces a new con¬ 
cept to engineering and scientific computation 
by providing the engineer with a single computer 
that he can easily operate alone and apply either 
analog or digital techniques as desired to the 
solution of the problem. The costly process 
previously practiced in attempts at hybrid 
computation - that of combining a complete 
digital data processing computer with an analog 
computer - has been refined considerably and 
made economically practical. Analog and digital 
operations are now combined in one centralized 
system to achieve a computational efficiency 
that is well beyond the limits of either analog 
or digital computers used alone. The tradi¬ 
tional advantages of both analog and digital 
computers - the analog computer’s speed, lower 
coot, and ease of programming and the digital 
computer’s unique capacity for data storage 


and time sharing of components - have been 
combined to expand problem solving capabilities 
at lower cost. 

Since many of the digital operations re¬ 
quired for hybrid computation schemes involve 
mainly those of timing, selection, sequencing, 
memory look-up, and calculation of simple 
functions, such schemes can be accomplished 
without the expense of large data processing 
digital machines. Digital operations can become 
an integral part of the expanded general purpose 
analog computer making them available to com¬ 
puter laboratories that have no digital computers, 
or during those periods when time is not avail¬ 
able on the latter. With HYDAC Series 2000, 
analog and digital computation can be centra¬ 
lized in a single laboratory thereby eliminating 
scheduling and training difficulties. 

Programming of the entire system paral¬ 
lels closely the relatively simple operation of 
the analog computer. The transition from the 
use of relays and switches in the general pur¬ 
pose analog computer to logic devices is made 
very easy. Extensive retraining of analog pro¬ 
grammers is unnecessary. 

Analog operations of summation, Inversion, 
continuous integration, multiplication, division, 
and function generation are performed by a 
proven computing system. All electronic, wide 
bandwidth computing components Insure high 
dynamic accuracy for real-time or repetitive 
mode of operation. Multiplication and other 
nonlinear operations are performed with signal 
frequencies in the kilocycle range, so as to 
realize full advantage of the high-speed digital 
circuits. 


Digital Computing Components 

Digital computing components are general 
purpose In concept and design. Five major groups 
of components are available to provide programmed 
digital logic, digital memory, analog memory, 
analog digital conversion, and advanced digital 
arithmetic. Each of these groups of components 
could be the complete Justification for HYDAC 
Series 2000, however, a more powerful and 
useful system is one that combines several of 
the major classes of digital components. 

Modular designed digital building blocks 
permit fullest advantage of the economy and 
flexibility of the pre-patch panel concept to be 
realized. Digital switching circuits employing 
one basic type of universal gating circuit for 
maximum flexibility and added economy are 


17 





used to perform basic digital operations. Com¬ 
pletely solid state with 20-megacycle switching 
capabilities these basic modules are combined 
on printed circuit cards to foi m more complex 
operations. 

The 2000 is the result of a comprehensive 
design Btudy by experienced computer users, 
programmers, and designers who are concerned 
with the basic requirements of hybrid computation. 

Major components of the 2000 are a general 
purpose analog computer and a digital console. 
This console is designed to take fullest advantage 
of the economy and flexibility of the pre-patch 
panel concept; modularized digital building 
blocks capable of performing basic digital opera¬ 
tions plug into standard connectors behind the 
patch panel, and each is terminated in a four-by- 
ten hole area of the patch panel. The digital 
building blocks are interchangeable. HYDAC 
Series 2000 may be made to have many different 
capabilities by employing different combinations 
of building blocks. This flexibility is obtainable 
without prejudice to design or wiring of the 
digital console. Reliability, economy, and ease 
of maintenance result from all solid-state design. 

Digital operations in the 2000 are assembled 
from the following console units and groups of 
digital computing components. 


Digital Console 

With provisions for mounting the digital 
computing components, the basic console unit 
provides power supplies with necessary wiring, 
facilities for control and slaving of the unit to 
the analog computer, selector switches, flip- 
flop Indicator lights, and control buttons, etc., 
and the 3450-hole pre-patch panel system. A 
clock unit with timing signals terminated on the 
patch panel provides control timing and synchro¬ 
nization for the entire system. Console expan¬ 
sion unitB available include a punched-paper- 
tape Input-output system, a decimal-binary 
conversion system and special control units. 


Logic Building Blocks 

Logic components are very high speed (50 
nanoseconds switching time), solid-state switch¬ 
ing circuits, each designed to provide specific 
logic functions. A wide choice of functions is 
available, as well as a choice of the level of 
logical organization, such as; logic gates, RST 
flip-flops, 4-bit shift registers, monostable 
multivibrators, up-down counters, preset 


counters, ring counters, BCD counters, dif¬ 
ferentiators, buffer registers, adders, multi¬ 
pliers, special control units, and timing units. 


Digital Memory Building Blocks 

High-speed digital memory unite, known 
ae serial memory units, are available in four 
different sizes with circuits to make it possible 
to provide control directly from the patch panel 
and to connect the units together for special 
functions. 


Analog/Dtgital Converters 

These building blocks convert control sig¬ 
nals and analog voltage signals from analog to 
digital, and back to analog. High-speed elec¬ 
tronic switches and incremental converters, 
as well as conventional whole number converters, 
are also available to satisfy additional conver¬ 
sion requirements. 


Analog Switching and Memory 

These building blocks consist of MICRO¬ 
STORE memory and switching modules which 
are operated in combination with analog opera¬ 
tional amplifiers to provide high-speed point 
storage of analog voltages plus electronic 
switching capabilities. 


Advanced Digital Arithmetic Units 

These digital building blocks consist of 
accumulators, adders, summers, input units, 
constant storage units, and comparators. These 
units provide the analog computer with expan¬ 
sion units capable of high precision computations. 


Applications 

The combination of analog and digital 
operations not only allows more economic 
analysis of certain classes of engineering and 
scientilic problems, but in some instances is a 
far superior method of analysis. Although the 
range of applications of the analog computer 
is indeed wide, the additional ability to store, 
to process data, and to use the results of this 
processing as input data for further calcula¬ 
tions extends the scope of application of the 
analog machine. HYDAC Series 2000 provides 
these capabilities and thus increases the rangp 
of problems that the analog computer can 


18 


solve economically, it gives new meaning to 
high-speed computation. 

Among the move important applications 
of this new computer are: 


Iteration and Optimization Studies 

Problems of this nature arising in model 
building, process simulation, parameter studies, 
and end-point boundary value systems can be 
optimized by trial and error methods. Compu¬ 
tation time is significantly reduced by the 
Incorporation of suitable logic and switching 
functions to allow the analog computer to pro 
ceed automatically through a complete Iteration 
procedure until an optimum is found. The same 
logic functions facilitate the automatic program¬ 
ming of parameter searches, performance curve 
fitting, and matching of boundary values. 


Partial Differential Equations 

The solution of many scientific problems 
is represented by the solution of linear or non¬ 
linear partial differential equations. Solutions 
based on difference techniques utilizing function 
storage and playback permit equipment savings 
through the time sharing of analog circuits. 

Such techniques allow the time-domain simula¬ 
tion of field problems where space variables 
are replaced by high-speed time sweeping, 
while the physical analogy of time is preserved. 
Hybrid operations also facilitate the solution of 
boundary value partial differential equation 
problems by the method of characteristics or 
by Integral equation methods through the use 
of serial solution techniques and time 
multiplexing. 


Simulation of Logic Functions 

Often a problem being studied is partially 
represented in its physical description by 
decision functions. Such problems occur with 
increasing frequency in the study of space 
vehicle characteristics and the control of com¬ 
plex processing. A prime example is the simu¬ 
lation of an adaptive control system, Here the 
dynamic behavior of the system being controlled 
is represented by normal analog elements while 
the logic of the control system Is represented 
by the available digital logic elements. 


integral Equations 

This important class of equations, whether 
arising directly or Indirectly as in the solution 
of partial differential equations, can be solved 
efficiently by a combination of analog and digital 
elements. Simpler investigations, such as those 
Involving the solution of the Volterra and Fred¬ 
holm integral equations, can be programmed 
easily using general purpose elements. More 
complex solutions now become economically 
al ractive. 


Auxiliary Mathematical Functions 

Special operations such as multiplications, 
transport delay simulation, function generation, 
slow integration, etc., may be custom designed, 
with suitable programming, for combined opera¬ 
tions with analog elements. 

Problems which have been programmed for 
solution with the 2000 at EAI’s Princeton Com¬ 
putation Center include: 

1. A generalized optimization control 
program to optimize any non-linear function of 
n variables that is programmed for an analog 
computer. 

2. An eigenvalue problem for determining 
the normal modes of a vibrating beam. 

3. A reaction-jet space capsule control 
problem. 

4. Iteration solution of tubular reactor and 
control system design problem. 

5. Solution of partial differential equations 
by the method of characteristics. 

6. Integral equatlun solution of a boundary 
value problem. 


IBM 7094-INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 
MACHINES CORPORATION, WHITE PLAINS, 
NEW YORK 

The IBM 7094 data processing system is 
the most powerful in the company’s line of 
Intermediate- and large-scale solid-state 
r.ctentlflc computers. This line also includes 


19 


the 7040, 7044, and 7090. Increased soeed and 
processing power of the 7094 are provided by 
(aster adding circuitry, additional index regis¬ 
ters and instructions, and the facility for per¬ 
forming double-precision floating-point 
arithmetic. 

The new system is offered in a wide variety 
of input-output configurations and has storage 
capacity of 32,768 words. It can be linked to 
various IBM Tele-processing devices for full 
data transmission ability. A library of 7094 
programs covering a wide range of computer 
functions is provided at no cost by IBM. Sys¬ 
tem compatibility enables a customer with a 
7090 to use his new 7094 with virtually no 
reprogramming, 

The memory reference cycle is 2,00 micro¬ 
seconds for the 7094, compared to 2.10 micro¬ 
seconds for the 7090. When processing is per¬ 
formed in the floating-point mode (generally 
used when the numbers involved vary greatly 
in magnitude), the 7094 can perform mathe¬ 
matical computations 1.4 to 2.4 times faster 
than the 7090, depending upon the technique 
used to solve problems. Memory reference 
speeds for IBM’s Intermediate- and large-scale 
scientific systems are as follows: 


System 

Memory Reference Speed 
(psec) 

7094 

2 

7090 

2.18 

7044 

2.5 

7040 

8 

709 and 704 

12 


Modular design provides upward compati¬ 
bility of these systems. A user can enlarge 
his system or advance to a more powerful com 
puter with a minimum of reprogramming. 

A team of IBM customer engineers can 
expand a 7090 which is already on rental to a 
7094 in the user’s office within 72 working 
hours, including installation and system test¬ 
ing. The changeover involves installation of a 
higher-speed processing unit containing faster 
solid-state adding circuitry, additional instruc¬ 
tion circuitry to accommodate new commands, 
and four additional index registers. Faster 
circuitry is installed in other elements of the 
system and a display panel for the additional 
index registers is mounted on the operator’s 
console. 


IBM 1301 disk storage units and Hypertape 
magnetic tape drives can be linked to the sys¬ 
tem for high-speed input and output of data. 

Up to five 1301’s with a combined capacity of 
279 million characters can provide additional 
storage on magnetic disk files. 

Up to 20 Hypertape units, capable of read¬ 
ing data from and writing data on tape at the 
rate of 170,000 characters a second, or up to 
80 IBM 729 tape units, ranging in read-write 
speed from 41,700 to 90,000 characters a 
second, can be linked to the Bystem. Various 
combinations of Hypertape and 729 tape units 
can be used with a single 7094. 

An IBM 1011 paper-tape reader, capable 
of reading data into the computer at the rate 
of 500 paper-tape characters a second, enables 
the system to accept data transmitted directly 
by teletype, Common carrier telegraph equip¬ 
ment can also serve as remote input-output 
devices for the system. 

Ability to transmit and receive data over 
long distances in computer language is provided 
by the IBM 1009 data transmission unit. This 
IBM Tele-processing device enables the 7094 
to communicate over leased telephone or tele¬ 
graph lines with another computer (7094, 7090, 
7040, 7044, 1401, 1410), a magnetic tape trans¬ 
mission unit or a card transmission unit at 
speeds up to 300 characters per second. 

The 1014 remote inquiry unit, another 
IBM Tele-processing device, is equipped with 
and input-output typewriter and can be used 
for direct interrogation of the computer from 
a point up lu 8 miles away. 


Programming Support 

A number of 7090/94 programming sys¬ 
tems and languages will be provided by IBM 
to 7094 users without charge. The 7094 is so 
designed that programs written for the 704, 
709, 7040, 7044, and 7090 can be run with a 
minimum of modification and at higher speed, 
7090/94 programs provided by IBM are: 

FORTRAN 

The widely accepted IBM FOR mula 
TRAN slation system enables the user to write 
his programs in a language closely resembling 
that of mathematics. Thus scientists and 
mathematicians can code problems with a 


20 









minimum of computer knowledge. The 
FORTRAN Assembly Program converts these 
coded tnstr etions Into machine language. 


COBOL 

This COmmon Business Oriented Language 
permits the user to "write programs using 
familiar business terms. COBOL is the result 
of work by the Conference on Data Systems 
Languages (CODASYL), a voluntary effort of 
various computer manufacturers and users 
under sponsorship of the Department of Defense. 
The COBOL processor converts English-like 
instructions In COBOL language Into a machine- 
language program. 


Input-Output Control System 

IOCS relieves the user of having to write 
repetitive Input-output instructions for every 
program. It provides a complete set of instruc¬ 
tions for effective use of all input-output devices, 
including the 1301 and Hypertape. 


Sort 

This program facilitates automatic reorgani¬ 
zation of data stored on magnetic tape. 


0PAC 

Designed for business applications, this 
programming system provides for the establish¬ 
ment and maintenance of data files and the pro¬ 
duction of reports with a minimum of program¬ 
ming effort. 


Basic Monitor (IBSYS) 

This system permits uninterrupted proc¬ 
essing of any of the above programs written 
for either the 7d90 or the 7094. It calls pro¬ 
grams into use from a tape library and enables 
them to take full advantage of whichever input- 
output devices are linked to the system. 


Commercial Translator 

Designed for commercial data processing 
applications, it enables the user to write his 
programs in a language based on English. 


A typical IBM 7004 sells for $3,134,500 
and rents for $70,000 a month. Installation of 
tile 7094 will begin in the fourth quarter of lttOH. 
The new system li manufactured at the company’s 
Poughkeepsie, New York, plant. 


900 SERIES COMPUTERS- 
SCIENTIFIC DATA SYSTEMS, 

SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

Th9 Scientific Data Systems 900 Series of 
computers consists of three general-purpose 
digital computers - the 610, 620. and 930. This 
article primarily describes the flrBt two, the 
930 is only briefly treated. All the computers 
in the aeries are Intended both for special- 
purpose system integration and for general- 
purpose scientific use. All sell for under 
$ 100 , 000 . 

The computers operate with a 24-bit binary 
word; a twenty-fifth bit provides a parity oheck 
on all memory operations. Fourteen bits of 
the instruction serve to address up to 16,364 
words of random access core storage; 6 bits 
are used for the operation code. One bit is used 
to signify that the address Is Indirect; that Is, 
that the effective address is to be found in the 
location specified by the address portion of the 
given Instruction. The location thus specified 
may, in turn, contain an indirect address bit. 
The number of Iterations of this process is not 
limited. Another bit adds the contents of an 
index register to the address prior to execution 
of the Instruction. If an indirect address bit 
is present, the effective address is found in the 
location that results after indexing. A relative 
address bit is also provided in order to simplify 
the loading of sub-routines, etc. The final bit 
in the Instruction is used to signify that the 
operation code is to be interpreted as a Pro¬ 
grammed Operator. This requires some 
explanation. 

There are many practical advantages to be 
gained from designing a series of computers 
such that programs for any given computer, 
within the limitation of memory size, can be 
run by any other computer in the series. For 
example, within a given facility a number of 
different computers can be employed, each of 
an appropriate size. If any one of these is 
unavailable, another can be directly employed 
without extensive reprogramming, This pro¬ 
gram compatibility is relatively simple to 
mechanize If the programs from a smaller 
computer are run on a computer with an 


21 




instruction renertnire thot_ ;pcsl:tr.g, 

contains the smaller computer’s instructions 
as a subset. It is the inverse problem that the 
programmed operator is intended to solve. The 
presence of the programmed operator bit causes 
the operation code to be Interpreted as a sub* 
routine entry address. Thus larger computer 
instructions that do not exist in the smaller 
computers are interpreted directly by sub¬ 
routines in the smaller computers. As a result, 
all programs for the 900 Series are inter¬ 
changeable, that is, the computers are ’‘sym¬ 
bolically homogeneous." An example will 
clarify this term. All three 900 Series com¬ 
puters use different multiply commands. The 
910 has only MULTIPLY STEP, the 920 has 
MULTIPLY, while the 930 has FLOATING 
POINT MULTIPLY as well as MULTIPLY. In 
running a 930 program on the 910, for example, 
the FLOATING POINT MULTIPLY command is 
identified by the loader as a programmed 
operator and, upon execution of this command, 
the operation code is interpreted as the address 
to which the program transfers in order to pick 
up the appropriate floating-point multiply 
sub-routine. 

In addition to providing symbolic homo¬ 
geneity, the programmed operator serves to 
extend the command list of any of the 900 Series 
computers for a given application. For example, 
in some classes of programs, complex arith¬ 
metic instructions are useful. The symbol, 

ADJ (Add Complex), can be assigned an instruc¬ 
tion code and the address portion used to specify 
the location of the real part of the operand. The 
Imaginary part is stored in the adjacent memory 
cell. This instruction code will cause a pro¬ 
gram transfer to the sub-routine while storing 
the return address. 

Although all programs are Interchangeable, 
the time and memory requirements for a given 
problem vary among the three computers. The 
baste execution time for addition Is 16 micro¬ 
seconds for all computers, including indexing 
and all memory accesses. The 920 requires 
128 microseconds to produce a 47-bit product 
from two 24-bit factors including memory 
accessing and indexing; the 910 requires 246 
microseconds. The floating-point (39-bit man¬ 
tissa, 9-bit exponent) sub-routine set requires 
90 words and approximately 800 microseconds 
per floating-point operation in the 920, while 
the 910 requires 180 words and approximately 
3000 microseconds per instruction. 

Input-output is probably one of the most 
critical design problems in low-cost computers 
that are to be used for both systems and general 


scientific computing. Ail 900 Series computers 
have identical input-output logic which incorpo¬ 
rates five separate methods of operation: 


Single Bit Control 

Up to 16,000 different control signals can 
be generated or tested by the 900 Series com¬ 
puters. For example, a single Instruction 
starts a specific magnetic tape unit, indicates 
the number of characters per word, and the 
buffer that ts involved. A single instruction 
can also test the state of the breakpoint switches, 
the parity error detector, or any other signal, 
and Bkip as a function of the result. 


Input-Output Buffer 

A full word plus one character buffer is 
provided which accepts and transmits words 
between the memory and external devices. The 
extra character minimizes timing problems 
and bo increases programming efficiency. The 
buffer operates upon characters of up to seven 
bits, generates and checks parity, and operates 
simultaneously with computation. A program 
interrupt is provided to facilitate this simul¬ 
taneity. The program control automatically 
transfers to an Input-output processing routine 
when the buffer either is empty during output 
or contains a word during input. Using this 
scheme, 15 kc character rate magnetic tape 
information can be processed while permitting 
the computer to operate 64 percent of the time 
on other programs. The maximum transfer 
rate Is 41.6 kc. Because the buffering hard¬ 
ware is integral to the computers, the cost of 
magnetic tape units is minimal. The 15 kc 
tape units for the 900 Series are under $20,000. 

As an optional feature, a second and Identi¬ 
cal buffer is available for applications that 
require simultaneous input and output. Using 
this buffer, for example, a gapless magnetic 
tape can be read and an IBM-format tape 
written, simultaneously, at a rate of up to 5 kc. 


Parallel Input-Output 

In operating with certain devices such as 
printers, anaiog-to -digital converters, and 
display systems, it is more convenient to proc¬ 
ess words than characters. For these cases, 
the computer can transmit or accept 24 bits 
in parallel along with an interlock signal to 
synchronize the transfer. A 25th bit is pro¬ 
vided for parity information. Using this 


22 



parallel transfer method, several 900 series 
computers can be interconnected to perform 
complex tasks that are beyond the capabilities 
of any single computer. The maximum transfer 
rate is 62,800 words per second. 


External Memory Interlace 

The memories of the BOO Series computers 
can be time-shared between the computer proper 
and external devices. Prior to accessing memory 
for each instruction, the computer automatically 
tests to see if an external device, such as a 
magnetic tape unit, requires access to the 
memory for either Input or output. If access is 
required, the computer is halted for the 8 
microseconds necessary to transfer a word and 
computation is then resumed. Character trans¬ 
fer rates of up to 124 kc are possible with the 
computer operating and 500 kc with the computer 
in HALT. An unlimited number of buffered 
input-output devices may be connected to a 900 
Series computer using this technique. A 30 kc 
magnetic tape unit with automatic search is one 
such device that is available. 


Priority Interrupt 

An optional feature of the 900 Series is a 
priority Interrupt system with up to 1024 chan¬ 
nels in blocks of 16. Each channel causes the 
computer to Interrupt to a unique memory loca¬ 
tion. Each channel has an assigned priority 
status such that, when it is activated, it causes 
the interruption of previous Interrupts of a 
lower status and, In turn, it Is Interrupted by 
channels of higher status. 

The number of input-output devices that 
can operate with any of the 900 Series com¬ 
puters is essentially unlimited. Any number 
and combination can be employed. In addition 
to the magnetic tape units already discussed 
and the high-speed, paper-tape punch and 
reader and typewriter provided as standard 


equipment, card readers, printers, disc files, 
analog-to-dlgital converters, and dlgital-to- 
analog converters are available. 

Special power failure protection Is provided 
on all computers. Special sensing devices sense 
the status of the ac -Input line before each memory 
operation and halt the computer if the line is low 
or if power has failed. With priority Interrupt, this 
sensing system can be used to store all registers 
before the dc-power fails. The computer can then 
simply be restarted when power is again available, 

A typical system that illustrates the speed, 
memory efficiency, and input-output flexibility 
of the 900 Series 1 b the general data acquisition 
and evaluation problem. Analog data Is multi¬ 
plexed and converted to digital form under the 
control of the computer. The resultant data is 
entered Into the computer and compared with 
high and low limits. A linear transformation 
is then performed in order to eliminate zero 
and full-scale errors and, at the same time, 
to translate the raw data into engineering units. 
The program to perform these operations 
requires 29 instructions in the 910 and approxi¬ 
mately 600 microseconds per point. In the 920, 
17 wordB and 300 microseconds per point are 
required. 

In construction, the 900 Series i:. unique 
for nonmllitary computers in that only silicon 
semiconductors are employed. The 910 uses 
approximately BOO transistors and 600 watts 
of power, while the 920 has 1100 transistors 
and requires 1000 watts. No air conditioning 
is needed in either case since the computers 
will operate in ambients of from 0° to 55° C. 

A complete software system for the 900 
Series includes a utility package, a symbolic 
assembler, and a FORTRAN-compatible com¬ 
piler. The latter Is similar to the IBM 1620 
FORTRAN n compiler with the addition of 
magnetic tape statements. Again, because of 
the symbolic homogeneity of the 900 Series 
computers, any of the computers can be em¬ 
ployed for compiling and the resultant object 
program run on any other of the computers. 


23 








SDS 900 SERIES CHARACTERISTICS 


SDS fllO Computer 

24 -bit word plus parity bit 

Binary arithmetic 

Single address instructions with: 

Index register 
Indirect addressing 
Programmed operators 

Basic core memory 2048 words expandable to 
16,384 words 

Typical execution times (including memory 
access and indexing): 

Add - 16 psec 

Multiply-248 peer 

Floating-Point Operations: 

(39-bit Mantissa + 9-bit Exponent) 

Add -1984 pser 

Multiply ------ — - — — 2600 psec 


Program Interchangeability with other SDS 900 
Series computers 

Parity checking of all memory and input-output 
operations 

1024 channels of priority Interrupt (opt’l) 
Memory nonvolatile 'ith power failure 

Input-Output: 

Standard: 

300 character/second paper tape reader 
Program Interrupt 
Display and manual control of 
Internal registers 
Optional: 

60 character/second paper tape punch 

Automatic typewriter 

Magnetic tape units (IBM compatible) 

Line printer 

Punched card equipment 

Direct communication with IBM 7090 

A/D converters, etc. 

Buffered input-output at rates in excess of 
80,000 characters/second 

FORTRAN Ii and Symbolic Assembler as part 
of complete software package 

All silicon semiconductors 

0° to b5°C operating temperature range 

Dimensions: 75 x 24 x 27 in. 

Power: llOv, 60 cps, 8 amps 

PRICE: $41,000 


SDS 920 Computer 

24-bit word plus parity bit 

Binary arithmetic 

Single address instructions with: 

Index register 
Indirect addressing 
Programmed operators 

Basic core memory 4096 words expandable to 
18,384 words 

Buill-ln Floating-Point Instructions 

Multi-precision Instructions 

Typical execution times (including memory 
access and indexing): 

Add - 16 psec 

Multiply- 128 psec 

Floating-Point Operations: 

(39-bit Mantissa + 9-bit Exponent) 

Add- 368 psec 

Multiply--- 560 psec 

P, ogram interchangeability with other SDS 900 
Series computers 

Parity checking of all nemory and input-output 
operations 

1021 channels of priority Interrupt (opt’l) 
Memory nonvolatile with power failure 

Input-Output: 

Standard: 

J00 character/second paper tape reader 
60 character/second paper tape punch 
Automatic typewriter 
Program Interrupt 
Display and manual control of 
Internal register} 

Optional: 

Magnetic U. ;• « J r s M.HM compatible) 
Line printe . ■ 

Punched ca. ju "'.ii 

Direct com;nun .nth IBM 7090 

A/D converter , t 

Buffered input-output rates In excess of 
80,000 characters/:^.!, ond 

FORTRAN n and Symbolic Assembler as part 
of complete software package 

All silicon semiconductors 

0° to 55°C operating temperature range 

Dimensions: 66 x 48 x 27 In. 

Power; llOv, 60 cps, 10 amps 

PRICE: $89,000 


24 















BRLESC—U.S. ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH 
LAuOkaIUKIES, COMPUTING LABORA¬ 
TORY, ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, 
MARYLAND 


Introduction 

The complement of large-scale, digital, 
electronic, general-purpose computers now 
consists of the EDVAC, ORDVAC, and the new 
Ballistic Research Laboratories’ Electronic 
Scientific Computer (BRLESC), which Just 
recently haB been placed In full service. BRLESC 
was designed, developed, and assembled by BRL’s 
Computing Laboratory Engineers, Mathematicians, 
and Technicians, from con tractor-provided com¬ 
ponents. The scientific computational workload 
of BRL Is gradually being shifted to the BRLESC. 
Many important old problems can now be solved 
in a small fraction of ,te tJme formerly re¬ 
quired. Some problems which were previously 
unsolvable on EDVAC and ORDVAC because of 
limited speed and storage capacities, are being 
readily solved by the BRLESC. The BRLESC 
has 4096 words of magnetic core storage with 
a 0.6 microsecond access and 1.2 microsecond 
cycle-time, 63 index registers, a 68-bit word 
length, fixed- and floating-point logical and 
arithmetic operations, and an extremely rapid 
compiler. A three-address instruction requires 
about 5 microseconds. A fast-carry logic 
1 -microsecond parallel digital adder is used. 

A selection of off-line conversion from and to 
various media Including cards, tapes, and printer 
is available. 

A BRLESC high-speed digital computer 
compiler (FORAST) has been coded and checked. 
This compiler is a machine-language set of 
instructions that accepts programs which are 
written in any of three languages or any com¬ 
bination of the three. The languages are: 

1. Mathematical formula and English 
statement language, 

2. BRLESC symbolic language, and 

3. BRLESC absolute language. 

This BRLESC compiler language is compatible 
with the ORDVAC. 

The preparation of aiming data for fre6 
rockets, one of the missions of the Computing 
Laboratory of the Ballistic Research Labora¬ 
tories, is based on the reduction of data from 
flight tests; that is, the mathematical simulation 


of each such test. The advent of BRLESC with 
its great computational speed has permitted 
the introduction of vastly more precise and 
sophisticated techniques in these reductions, 
resulting m a more complete mathematical 
model of the rocket being considered with con¬ 
sequent Increase In accuracy of the aiming data 
provided for It in the form of a firing table. 


Origin of BRLESC 

. In 1956, BRL transferred $100,000 to the 
National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to assist 
in the development of universal logical packages 
which could be used In the construction of a new, 
fast, reliable, scientific computing machine. 

A logical package Is a group of decision mak¬ 
ing circuits which are capable of developing a 
certain result in accordance with conditional 
input statements. For example, one type of 
element ‘‘agrees’’ that an entire statement Is 
true If all of a group of conditions are fulfilled; 
another type yields a "true" signal If only one 
or more of the conditions are met. With these, 
coupled with the ability to reverse a decision, 
all the arithmetic, logical operation, and number 
manipulations may be performed with reason¬ 
able economy of electronic parts. 

At the time the funds were transferred, 

NBS was committed to the design of their new 
PILOT Multi-Computer System. The funds 
assisted the Bureau in arriving at a tentative 
design of arithmetic, logical, and control units. 
After tests by BRL, certain changes in the 
design of the logical package were requested. 

Modifications of the logical packages were 
approved by NBS. In February 1958, the sum 
of $175,000 was transferred to the Bureau to 
cover the cost of 6000 packages for BRL, to be 
procured along with the NBS’s own requirement 
for PILOT. At this time BRL’s programming 
staff prepared a description of the instructions 
to be automatically executed by'BRLESC. Due 
to various considerations - the different types 
of application, desire for easy programming, 
and overall economy - BRL and NBS parted 
ways In development. All that there Is In com¬ 
mon today between BRLESC and the NBS com¬ 
puter is the logical package and aspects of the 
high-speed arithmetic unit. BRLESC is UBlng high 
NBS-proposed high-speed carry logic. BRLESC’s 
instruction code, physical construction, Internal 
nrrangement, control logic, peripheral equip¬ 
ment, and many other aspects are different. 

High-speed carry logic is an improved 
method of licking a problem that confronts 


25 



ftnymt* who a/Ma a rntmnn of flmtraa 

It la a third-grader or BRLESC, the matter of 
"one to carry* can be a poaer, both from the 
•tandpolnt of setting the right result, and of the 
time required to get It. In the human cane, a 
peraon doing the aum 99B9 plus I recogniaea the 
"one to carry” aapect aa universal, and jumpa 
forward to the anawar 10,000 Inatantly. In a 
rough way thla type of thing la also Involved in 
the BRLESC high-speed carry logic design. 
Thus, the computer recognizes whether there 
will be a carry or not In all columns at once, 
for after all, either there la a carry or there la 
not. If there la, it can only be a one. A carry 
cannot propagate past a sum digit which la 
ZERO; therefore, signals can be generated to 
indicate at which digit positions a carry should 
be'generated. In far leas time than It would take 
to wait and aee If there la a carry propagated 
from all previous digit positions during a 
summation,. 


BRLESC’s High-Speed Storage Unit 

The high-speed storage unit developed for 
uae In BRLESC represents a new step forward 
In the development of computer components. 

The development contractor - Ampex Computer 
Products Co - has delivered this unit, not only 
to BRL for use In BRLESC, but has furnished 
similar units to a number of computer manu¬ 
facturers for Integration Into their own sys¬ 
tems to meet other defense requirements. It 
furnishes a current example of how Ordnance 
requirements have been met, with correspond¬ 
ing benefits to other defense activities. 

Construction cost accounts of most large- 
scale, electronic, digital computing systems 
reveal that the high-speed storage element Is 
the most expensive single Item. This Is the 
section of the computer which "receives, stores, 
and Issues* Information and Instructions In the 
form of computer numbers or "words.” 

BRLESC uses a high-speed magnetic core 
storage unit having a capacity of 4096 words, of 
up to 72 "bits* each (64-bit numbers are used). 
The translation of these bits into decimal terms 
Is equivalent to approximately 19 decimal digits. 
Such long word length Is necessary to provide 
the extreme precision required of calculations 
made In connection with scientific research. 

For many other types of application, such as 
ordinary commercial calculations, such a high 
degree of precision Is not required and Is not 
Incorporated in many of today's computers. 

The capability to handle long words carrteB 
with it a requirement that the computer be able 


mssWa its* a# iiswy wn w liflti Tl»« saw - 

plete read-wrlte cycle time of the BRLESC 
memory Is l.B microseconds, which is the 
fastest large-scale memory in operation today. 
BRLESC Is approximately one-half as fast as' 
the two fastest high performance computers yet 
constructed 1 anywhere, and twice as fast as the 
most rapid computer currently available com¬ 
mercially. 2 The faster machines use overlapping 
memory cycles from separate banks of memory 
to achieve high effective memory speed. This 
cycle time Is Important, since three to four 
cycles may be required when the computer adds 
two numbers. Even though the elapsed time 
for one cycle is only 1.5 millionths of a second, 
thiB value becomes critical when a long series 
of computations are undertaken. The computer 
executes Instructions In the form of a huge 
number of small steps, each requiring a specific 
time Interval to perform. These many small 
steps run Into the billions for typical problems. 

In view of the time required for delivery 
of the proposed high-speed storage element, 
the Chief of Ordnance gave early approval to 
the contract with Ampex Computer Products 
Company. After certain delays due to technical 
difficulties, the operational unit was delivered 
to BRL on May 15, 1961, at a total cost of 
$680,000, Including supplements, under Ordnance 
Contract No. DA-04-495-ORD 1500. The result¬ 
ing storage element represented a major step 
forward in computer components. As stated 
above, the advance was immediately incorporated 
Into other computer designs. Approval has been 
obtained to Increase the storage capacity to 
12,288 words. 


Other BRLESC Features 

BRLESC was designed primarily for the 
solution of scientific problems In which high 
computational speed and high precision are 
required. It may be programmed to perform 
any task amenable to numerical methods of 
solution. The binary system Is used exclusively 
In the arithmetic unit of the machine. ThlB Is 
the system mentioned previously, in which 
decimal numbers (to the base 10) are converted 
Into binary numbers (to the base 2) which yields 
a long string of ONES and ZEROS. A BRLESC 
program will convert decimal Input information 


^BRLESC is roughly 1/2 the speed of LARC 
and roughly 1/3 the ipeed of STRETCH 

2 IBM 7090, which is 1/4 the speed of LARC and 
1/6 the speed of STRETCH 


26 









Into binary form for rnmrutatlnnal nurnnaaa 

and that convert the results to decimal form 
for output, lor the convenience of the user. 

To supplement the high-speed storage ele¬ 
ment, magnetic drum storage units will be 
installed as back-up memory. It Is expected 
that the capacity of the drums will be about 
35,000 words. 

BRLESC has facilities for reading cards, 
punching cards, reading magnetic tape, and 
recording on magnetic tape. A maximum of 
16 magnetic tape handlers are directly accessi¬ 
ble to the programmer. Any two magnetic tape 
handlers, one drum, the cardreader, and the 
cardpunch may be operated concurrently under 
separate automatic controls. 

Access to Information by the computer is 
an Important aspect of Its value. Time Is re¬ 
quired to put Information Into the computer, 
and to print or otherwise record the results of 
its calculations. In fact, computers make the 
actual calculations so rapidly that the Input 
and output aspects can be troublesome, that Is, 
slow, tedious, mechanical motions of masses of 
stored data and Instructions. In the caBe of 
BRLESC, information may be transferred to the 
machine via punched cards or magnetic tape. 
The actual information read into BRLESC may 
be a straight binary number, a binary coded 
decimal number, a binary coded group of alpha¬ 
betic characters, or, broadly speaking, any 
type of binary coded Information that the pro¬ 
grammer desires. 

Another valuable feature of BRLESC Is Its 
ability to change addresses In Instructions by 
fixed amounts, automatically. A simple analogy 
Is the case of the village postmaBter who askB 
his assistant to put a certain circular In every 
pigeonhole postbox In the office. The assistant 
will not need to be told specifically to first fill 
box one, then box two, then three, and so on. 

One direction will be sufficient. A more com¬ 
plicated analogy Is the bank clerk making up a 
table of monthly payments on loans of various 
sizes. Interest rates, and repayment periods. 

If he Is capable, he will progress from one to 
another without requiring new instructions. 

After computing the payments for a 5% loan of 
$10,000 payable in 10 years, he will repeat the 
calculations for 5-1/2%, then 6% and for terms 
of 15, 20 and 25 years and so on. 

This feature of BRLESC, which Is called 
Indexing, permits the programmer to use the 
same set of instructions to process as many 
sets of data as he desires, simply by changing 


fha in/lav upln« Initaarl nl mortifying IK; WaaU 

overall Instructions. Hie details of modifying 
index registers, counting, or Jumping to a dif¬ 
ferent aet of Instructions, to cite a few examples, 
are sometimes referred to as "housekeeping.* 
BRLESC has been designed ao that most of this 
housekeeping work can be done concurrently 
with arithmetic operations. For example, while 
BRLESC is performing a single multiplication 
operation, as many as four "housekeeping* 
Instructions may be processed independently of 
the arithmetic unit, at a great saving of time 
in the overall computations. 

As Indicated, BRLESC operates In response 
to an internally-stored program of detailed 
Instructions. Arithmetic and logical operations 
can be performed on these Instructions, per¬ 
mitting Instructions to be altered In accordance 
with the results thus far obtained during the 
course of the program. For example, the com¬ 
puter might work on evaluating a complex elec¬ 
trical circuit, expressed In mathematical ternis, 
to determine what the value of current would be 
at a certain point X In the circuit. Let us 
assume that 5 amperes Is the maximum current 
value tolerable, In the actual physical case. 

The computer can be relied upon to examine the 
current value it computes, and do one thing if 
this value Is less than 5 amperes, or another 
thing If the value is greater than 5 amperes. 

In one actual case it was desired to determine 
whether a certain machine gun previously used 
on a tank could be adapted to mounting on a 
helicopter. A machine gun must have a sufficient 
recoil velocity so that between shots there Is 
enough time for the firing mechanism to be 
cocked and a new cartridge properly chambered. 
Recoil involves action and reaction between gun 
and its mount. Thus a gun mounted on a tank, 
on a heavy mass, will have a faster recoil than 
when mounted airborne fashion on a relatively 
light helicopter. The computer doing calcula¬ 
tions of recoil velocity waB able to appraise 
the various results obtained, and then make 
new calculations with new or modified Instruc¬ 
tions, automatically, based upon these initial 
results. The ability of the computer to modify 
Its own instructions, along with the Indexing 
feature, saves writing countless thousands of 
additional Instructions In complicated problems. 


BRLESC Potential 

What actually will BRLESC do for the 
Ordnance Corps and the scientific community ? 
It will permit the solution of problems which 
could never be solved before, due to the exces¬ 
sive amount of time or space required; and It 


i 

i 

i 

3 


27 




will nrovide a precision not usually possible 
without the great pain of multi-precision 
arithmetic. BRLESC will be used in the compu¬ 
tation ot tiring tables and guidance control data 
lor Ordnance weapons, including missiles. II 
will handle interior ballistics problems, tor 
example, the behavior ot projectile, propellant, 
and launcher; stability and thermodynamic 
properties ot rocket propellants; reflected shock 
waves; vibration ot gun barrels; and flow of 
fluids through porous media. 

Terminal ballistics studies to be performed 
Include nuclear, fragmentation, and penetration 
effects, in such areas as explosion kinetics, 
shaped charge, ignition, and heat transfer. 

Ballistic measurement studies to be per¬ 
formed will include photogrammetry, ionospheric 
measurements, damping of satellite Bpln calcu¬ 
lations, reduction of satellite doppler tracking 
data, and computation of satellite orbital ele¬ 
ments. Other studies will comprise anti-aircraft 
and anti-missile evaluation, war-gaming prob¬ 
lems, linear programming for solution of Army 
logistical problems, probabilities of mine deto¬ 
nations, lethal and kill probabilities of mine 
detonations, and lethal area and kill probability 
studies of rocketB and guided missiles. 

History of BRL Computers 

At the beginning World War II, the Ordnance 
Department had the sole responsibility for pro¬ 
viding the principal scientific and logistic sup¬ 
port for the Army. 

The only scientific facility available to 
them for carrying out these experiments with 
weapons was the Ballistic Research Laboratory 
at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Its computing 
group was staffed by a handful of well trained 
and highly skilled civilian employees of the 
Ordnance Department. The laboratory was re¬ 
sponsible for the preparation of artillery firing 
and aircraft bombing tables for the Army and 
the Army Air Corps. They also obtained 
experimental data of high accuracy and preci¬ 
sion, necessary to the computation of the firing 
and bombing tables. 

This group of scientists at the Proving 
Ground had available to them at the time an 
Important calculating device, the Bush differen¬ 
tial analyzer. This continuous variable calcu¬ 
lator had been Installed at the Proving Ground 
about 5 years earlier. 


This analyzer, consisting of ten Integrating 
units and two output tables, was an important 
mechanical aid to computation. Despite Its 
capability and value, the analyzer had several 
severe limitations. Probably the most severe 
ot these was the mechanical torque amplifier, 
which frequently failed toward the end of a long 
trajectory run with the loss of the preceding' 
computations. 


ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator 

and Computer) 

In 1042 the United States was locked In 
bitter combat with the Axis Powers. It was 
Imperative that a faster calculation method be 
devised to provide the troops with firing tables 
for the many new weapons being developed. 

The Moore School of Electrical Engineer¬ 
ing believed that they could utilize electronics 
and develop a computing machine. The Ordnance 
Corps awarded them a contract for the design 
and construction of an electronic computer. 

In 1947 the completed computed was 
installed at BRL. The latest thing In computers 
at that time, the ENIAC, was a decimal machine 
utilizing 10,000 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays and 
hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, 
and inductors. It had 30 separate units weigh¬ 
ing more than 30 tons. In calculating a 60- 
second trajectory, ENIAC completed the job in 
30 seconds, half the time of the actual flight 
of the projectile from the gun to the target. 


EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable 

Automatic Calculator) 

The urgent need for an operational com¬ 
puter had made It necessary to freeze the 
engineering design of the ENIAC early in the 
game. It was agreed upon between BRL and the 
Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the 
University of Pennsylvania that, as work on 
ENIAC permitted, the design and construction 
of an Improved computer should be pushed 
forward. The EDVAC, with greater flexibility 
and better mathematical performance, was 
installed at BRL in 1949 and placed in opera¬ 
tion in 1950. 

The major features of this computer were: 
use of the binary system (rather than the 


28 




decimal system ot numeration that had been 
used in ENIAC), serial arithmetic mode (Im¬ 
proved meanB of transferring numbers from one 
part o! the computer to another), a four-address 
Instruction (permitting a total of 16 different 
commands to the computer), and duplicate cir¬ 
cuitry for check purposes. EDVAC was the first 
Internally-stored program computer to be built. 
With an internally-stored program device, the 
"pattern of Interconnections” Is set up by the 
computer itself, on command. The program at 
any given time can be recorded on magnetic 
tape, a form of “memory* for the computer. 
Reversing the process, the tape can be fed back 
Into the computer at any time and all of the 
previous programs or “Interconnections* will 
be reestablished. This is of obvious advantage 
when work on one problem must be momentarily 
suspended in favor of another, not to mention 
the simplicity with whlchprograms maybe modi¬ 
fied during the course of a computation, based 
on results obtained thus far. Thus the com¬ 
puter makes Its own decisions, according to 
what It has discovered. This represents a great 
breakthrough In computer design concept. 

Work on the EDVAC stimulated design and 
construction, by other groupB of a large family 
of similar computers. Including SEAC, DYSAC, 
MIDAC, FLAC, and the later UNIVAC's. 

Next In line of development was the ORDVAC, 
a parallel binary computer which In turn spawned 
a new group of computers - ORAC, ORACLE, 
JOHNNIAC, ILLIAC, SILLIAC, MANIAC, 
CYCLONE, ERA 1103 (UNIVAC Scientific), and 
IDM 701, that were constructed by many organi¬ 
zations In government, Industry, and education. 

These designs constituted little, if any¬ 
thing, new In computation design, but carried 
out existing design principles using the ever 
advancing technology of electronics. During 
the early 1950’s a major part of the scientific 
computational workload of the Western world 
was accomplished on these machines. 


ORDVAC (Ordnance Variable 
Automatic Computer) 

ORDVAC was constructed by the University 
of Illinois for the Ballistic Research Labora¬ 
tories at the Proving Ground, under a contract 
from the Ordnance Department. 


The machine was originally designed to 
solve the following types of problems: 

1. Exterior ballistics problems such as 
high altitudes, solar and lunar trajectories, 
computation for the preparation of tiring tables, 
and guidance control data for Ordnance weapons, 
Including free flight and guided missiles. 

2. Interior ballistics problems, Including 
projectile, propellant, and launcher behavior. 

3. Terminal ballistics problems, Including 
nuclear, fragmentation, and penetration effects 
In such areas as explosion kinetics, shaped 
charge behavior, Ignition, and heat transfer. 

4. Ballistic measurement problems such 
as photogrammetrlc, Ionospheric, and damping 
of satellite spin calculations, reduction of 
satellite doppler tracking data, and computation 
of satellite orbital elements. 

5. Weapon systems evaluation problems, 
such as antiaircraft and antimissile evaluation, 
war game problems, linear programming for 
solution of army logistical problems, probabili¬ 
ties of mine detonations, lethal area and kill 
probabilities of mine detonations, and lethal 
area and kill probability studies of missiles. 

ORDVAC is a general purpose computer 
capable ot carrying out individual arithmetic 
operations at high speed using a parallel binary 
number system, in an asynchronous manner. 
Originally, the ORDVAC operated with an 
electrostatic storage unit. This has since been 
converted to a magnetic core storage unit, with 
Increased speed and capacity, 


Bibliography 

BRL Memorandum Report No. 1378, “A Brief 
Description of the Engineering Character¬ 
istics of the BRL Electronic Scientific 
Computer* 

BRL Memorandum Report No, 1379, “The 
Instruction Code for the BRL Electronic 
Scientific Computer (BHLESC)’ 

Ordnance, January-February 1961, “ENIAC 
Story” 


■ 


29 



COMPUTING CENTERS 


RECORDING PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURE¬ 
MENTS TOR DATA PROCESSING- 
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS, 
WASHINGTON 85, D, C. 

A method for using computers to study the 
reactions of the human body to psychological 
stimuli has been developed at the National Bu¬ 
reau of Standards. The method employs equip¬ 
ment that accepts simultaneous, rapidly occur¬ 
ring psychophyeiological measurements in 
analog form, converts them to digital form, and 
records them on magnetic tape for later com¬ 
puter processing. The electronic circuits to 
drive and Interconnect a standard analog-to- 
dlgltal converter and recorder were designed 
for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research 
by a team which included E. S. Sherrard, of the 
NBS data processing systems division and 
Herbert Zimmer, psychologist at the University 
of Georgia. Although Intended to record the 
responses of subjects in a continuing psycho¬ 
logical investigation, this equipment can be use¬ 
ful for multichannel recording in many biologi¬ 
cal applications which yield rapidly changing 
analog data. Such applications include studies 
of psychological conditioning, reactions to drugs, 
and autonomic responses to emotions and 
situations. 

Studies in experimental psychology often 
require measurements of subjects' reactions to 
psychological stimuli. Where autonomic re¬ 
sponses are being studied, (ha subject may be 
unable to describe or time the stimuli or to 
appraise objectively hie responera, sums of 
which he may nut even be aware of. Ftr jrdlng 
several slmultanvouely occur ring end some¬ 
times rapidly changing reactions has been isie 
of the technical problems In the etudy ui auto 
nomtr reectluns. Medlrsl Instrumentation has 
provided transducers to measure autonomii 
conditions ot thi human lusty, but s weans 
recording the dels tm Ictei study end (shuts 
tloii lies been uended 

Use id a poivgtapli, sui li us s "In ityiui tm 
has filled Ills IS ul dill* need In sunn- i »«••• 

This Instrument records Itodv ies|sin«ea t- hmi I. 
of S Bel les id ellwcull (qm nlli.io. |ini i- iln m l 
JecO as me Saul entente Into-,I dlt i"Mi hi 
moving lull Id g< itpii papii |d« el I 
speclloli id tlw isapotisne >d oeln id> t- 

Tlte lattulstlnn id these detu In nn ' I. in 

reqult emeiils i null! Ih iii ■ i'Hi|il' ' .. 

latter, Itul the lew dels kntiplo-.' . n limit 
llUl't'IS WtlUUI ilSln It: ill (lilt III >il*lllil I I 1,1 11: t 
compute i ose 


The converter-recorder method was de¬ 
veloped to record, for later statistical treat¬ 
ment, paychological data (abbJect reaction! to 
visual stimuli gt - nat 30-sscond Intervals) 
acquired on a proodctlon-line basis. It scans 
the continuously meaeurlng transducers r* a 
0.1-second repetition rate; since auccees' re 
converted readings for any analog channr i show 
little change they are, in effect, contlmr usly 
presented meaeurementa. The record for each 
stimulus consists of measurements during the 
20-second irast-stimulus period, which are 
compared against the baseline supplied by 
measurements of the same conditions during 
the 10-second pre-stimulus period. 


Analog Data Handling 

The converter-recorder will handle eight 
channels of analog measurements and two 
channels of nulse-coded session and time Iden¬ 
tification .U. The following physiological 
condition* are measured by the transducers 
used: Skin resistance, respiratory movements 
of the chest, respiratory movements of the dia¬ 
phragm, Integrated muscle action potential, 
time Interval between R-spikes of an electro¬ 
cardiogram, pulse amplitude, skin temperature, 
and integrated ahifts of body weight. 

The analog signal in each channel la am¬ 
plified by a preamplifier selected or designed 
for signals having the characteristics of that 
analog measurement, Six of the analog signals 
are also presented continuoualy on a strip- 
chart recorder for on-the-apot observations 
and Initial equipment adjustments. 


Conversion and Digital Recording 

Ruth analog data end the digital session 
end time dais ere scanned by the converter at 
a IU milileerond-per-channel rale to convert 
<-«i h main* channel to an li-bit binary-coded 
digital atgnsl The II bits of digital Informa- 
i inn tm x b analog channel can accommodate 
biiogial numbers from -1024 to * 1024 for a 
•ci" «entered rang*, for example. The digital 
signals nMalhml are buffered and again con¬ 
'd ted, <iiia time lo a maximum of five words 
•d IS binary digtla each, thi a Information is 
supplied 1,1 a diode aelector matrix via 160 leads, 

I ln diode eeieclor matrix functions to con- 
iih 1 sui eeasive groups of six digital lines to 
Hie »u parallel heads which record the digital 


in 



r 


aienals on mairnatir tape ThP motrlv ho« a 

format of five words, each with six characters 
of six bits each; It is scanned at a character 
rate of 300 cps to attain a word rate of 10 per 
second. 

The six channels of information plus one 
channel for parity check are recorded on halt- 
inch tape driven continuously at 1.5 inches per 
second. The tape transport used accommodates 
10-inch reels for recording 12, 1/2 hour experi¬ 
ment sessions - a full word day. 

The seven-channel recorded tape is the end- 
product of the data converter-recorder; the In¬ 
formation recorded on it is ready for use by a 
digital computer. In Its preparation, the pres¬ 
ence of an operator Is required only for initial 
checkout of the equipment, selection of the film 
strip which serves as the stimulus, and attach¬ 
ment of the transducers to successive subjects. 
The treatment of these data by a digital com- 
pu'er can eliminate all repetitive manual com¬ 
putation and minimize steps needed for statisti¬ 
cal analysis. 

Analog-to-digital converters and digital 
recorders are used for a variety of projects, 
especially where statistical treatment of the 
data is to follow. The present converter- 
recorder will be useful for recording several 
simultaneous channels of continuously read 
analog data, or mixed continuous and discretely 
quantized information (analog and digital), pro¬ 
vided only that the reading repetition rate is 
compatible with the greatest rate of variable 
change. The 6-hour duration of a single reel of 
magnetic tape makes It particularly convenient 
to record and store a day’s measurements. 


NEW COMPUTING SYSTEMS—ORDNANCE 
TANK AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND, 

DETROIT 9, MICHIGAN 

The Ordnance Tank Automotive Command 
(OTAC) has pressed the start button on OTAC’s 
second generation electronic computer system. 
This action put computers to work for two new 
agencies using a Department of Defense-wide 
system and on eight new OTAC jobs, The new 
equipment, RCA 501 and 301 systems, will be 
capable of doing twice the work of the old com¬ 
puter at two-thirds the cost. 

The new computer system will: 


—v*. »*• tiav uvivimw <*utouiuurc 

Supply Center's (DASC) annual program of 
about $200 million. 

3. Prepare the procurement package to be 
eent to bidders and make preliminary bid 
evaluation. 

4. Keep industrial readiness records and 
data necessary to buy approximately 1200 iank- 
automotlve items monthly. 

5. Analyze vehicle performance on the 
1 million OTAC vehicles in the field. 

6. Analyze Internal cost and keep track of 
cost and deliveries on contracts. 

7. Expand OTAC’s computer system to 
provide support to DASC to supply manage 
184,000 supply items, such as engines, tires, 
tubes, etc. - an inventory valued In the neigh¬ 
borhood of $800 million. 

8. Fill approximately 3500 supply requisi¬ 
tions daily from Army, Air Force, Navy, 
Marines, and MAP countries. 

9. Reduce processing time on high priority 
requisitions from 3 days to within 2 hours of 
receipt. 

10. Print Supply Catalogs for the 266,000 
Automotive Supply Center items. 

11. Prepare $46,000,000 annual payroll for 
6500 people, 

12. Keep personnel records on 6500 people, 
including operation of the promotion program. 

The new Mobility Command (MOCOM) will 
be composed of eight major field installations, 
including OTAC/Detrolt Arsenal, operated by a 
total of over 12,000 military and civilian per¬ 
sonnel. MOCOM will manage the whole spec¬ 
trum of mobility equipment from research and 
development through production of over 238,000 
separate Items - well over half of all the items 
of the Army Materiel Command as a whole. 

The Automatic Data Processing System 
(ADPS) in OTAC Headquarters will tie together 
the MOCOM program to be carried out in the 
following field installations; 


i 


1 

1 






< 


! 

1 


t . 


1 



I 


j 

1 


[ 


1. Control the Mobility Command’s pro¬ 
jected annual program of about $2.5 billion. 


31 


1. OTAC/Detrolt Arsenal , with 5226 per¬ 
sonnel, and its responsibility for development, 
production, and procurement of tank-automotive 


ii fidsfe&u rsfc- 







aqulpmont. Including tanka a«1(>nrnna1lad artll. 
lery, personnel carriers, trucks, trailers, and 
commercial vehicles (or the Department o( 

Defense. 

2. General Supplies and Supply Control 
Offices. In Columbus. Ohio, with 328 personnel. 

Is the National Inventory Control Point and Na¬ 
tional Maintenance Point (or general supplies- 
type equipment, including materials handling 
equipment repair parts. 

3. General Supplies Procurement Office , 
Columbus,Ohio, staffed with 194 personnel, 
procures general supplies-type equipment, 

4. Engineer Maintenance Center , Colum¬ 
bus, Ohio, with ITT7 personnel, is the National 
Maintenance Point for engineering equipment- 
construction machinery and electric power 
generating equipment. The Center Is alBO the 
National Inventory Control Point and Stock Con¬ 
trol Center for repair parts support for assigned 
Items. 

8. Engineer Supply Control Office , St. Louis, 
Missouri, with 798 personnel, Is the National In¬ 
ventory Control Point and Stock Control Center 
for engineering equipment, including construc¬ 
tion machinery and electrical power generating 
equipment. 

6... Engineer Procurement Office , Chicago, 
Illinois, with 280 personnel, procures engineer¬ 
ing equipment, administers contracts, and io 
responsible for technical surveillance of con¬ 
tract specifications. 

7. Aeronautica l Agenc y and the Surface 
Transportation Agency , SI. Lauis/Missouri, 
are staffed by a total of 2218 personnel, with 
small elements In the Transportation Research 
and Development Office at Fort Eustls, Virginia, 
and the Aero Test Laboratory at Fort Rucker, 
Alabama. The Aeronautical Agency is respon¬ 
sible for procurement, Inventory control, and 
maintenance for all aeronautical equipment, 
Including observation, utility, and transport air¬ 
craft. The Surface Transportation Agency 
manages the procurement, Inventory, and main¬ 
tenance of amphibian, rail, marine craft, and 
overland trains, 

8. Engineer Research and Development 
Laboratory , Fort Belvoir, Virginia. with 1775 
personnel nas the responsibility for research, 
design, development, and product engineering 
for construction machinery, electrical power 
generating equipment, and related items. 


Th« artalvAiH nf vphirl* nprfnrmnnnp will 

provide feedback data to research and engineer¬ 
ing elements to Isolate design problem; indus¬ 
trial elements to Improve production and pro¬ 
curement through isolation of production, 
inspection, and/or testing problems; Bupply 
elements to isolate maintenance problems, 
determine feasibility of maintenance versus 
replacement, and analyze economies of main¬ 
tenance. The data will be used to project prob¬ 
ability studies to create new shapes and char¬ 
acteristics for vehicles. For example, based 
on these data, a determination might be made 
to change design and production characteristics 
to allow a 20,000-mile experience before major 
maintenance 1 b required. 

An example would be the analysis of cer¬ 
tain type of springs on certain types of terrain. 
For example, desert terrain might result in 
such poor performance that a decision to use a 
different type of material might be made. This 
historical data can be used to establish new 
ground rules. OTAC might decide to build a 
spring for this terrain with the probability of 
going 15,000 miles before requiring any kind of 
maintenance. Computer simulation of perform¬ 
ance before production will permit the design 
to get into production much more rapidly than 
possible with design models and tests. This 
technique will save time from design to use 
and will permit more accurate initial design. 

The now computer system performs the 
following Supply Actions: 

Determines customer priority 
Checks availability 
Checks location 
Reduces balances 
Records Inventory 
Flags danger levels 

Redistributes stocks to depots (leveling) 
Triggers procurement action 

Controls procurement deliveries and 
dollars 

Produces shipping instructions 
Publishes changes to Armed Forces users 
Establishes supply needs 
Prices all actions. 

The first generation, the RCA BIZMAC 1, 
used since 1956 to manage OTAC’s 80,000 item 









inventory, saved the government millions of 
dslliia by eliminating duplicate requisitions 
and speeding supplies to the troops. It enabled 
Ordnance Tank-Automotive Command, never 
before able to fill Army Requisitions in the re¬ 
quired three days, to process S3 percent of the 
requisition on time. 

The new system will save even more be¬ 
cause it will extend the area of use. In addition, 
prorating the Initial cost of BIZMAC over the 
years of operation at OTAC and the annual 
maintenance figure, the cost to the government 
averaged more than $1.5 million a year. The 
new equipment will do twice the work of the old 
system at two-thirds the cost. 


MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT-U.S. NAVAL 
ORDNANCE LABORATORY, WHITE OAK, 
SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND 

On the last working day of December 1961, 
an IBM 7690 was turned over to the Mathematics 
Department at NOL. This machine replaces an 
IBM 704 which had been In use at NOL for over 
3 years. The computer configuration Includes 
eight magnottc tape units (one switched over 
from the 1401 system) and the cathode-ray tube 
output unit which had previously been installed 
on the 704. The transition was smooth since 
most of the workload hud been converted to the 
new system before Its installation. 

Since the installation, two changes in the 
computer configuration are contemplated, First, 
three additional tape units will be Installed on 
the 7090 and one additional unit will be Installed 
on the 1401 system, The reason for this Is that 
many of the larger problems are being penal¬ 
ized by the small number of mugnetlc tape units, 
Compile and run has nut been possible mid full 
advantage of the simultaneous Input-output could 
not be appreciated. Those units are expected to 
be Installed In June 1902. Second, the cathode- 
ray tube will be removed due to the high cost 
und low utilization of this unit. It is planned to 
linndlo the plotting load on other plotters In the 
Laboratory and by renting small amounts of 
time from other Installations. The ert unit is 
due to bo discontinued In June 1962. 


ANALYSIS BRANCH—U.S. NAVAL UNDER¬ 
WATER ORDNANCE STATION, 

NEWPORT, R. I. 

The IBM 660, until recently the workhorse 
ol' the computing section, has been replaced by 


an IBM The zystiui presently in use IS 

composed of the central processor with floating 
point, card input-output, and 60K positions ol 
core storage. The computer is used primarily 
tor scientific computing in support of the BAD 
groups, and for processing data relating to 
weapons testing, Magnetic tape units will be 
added (September 1962) primarily to aerve aa 
Information storage tor propulsion test data. 

The present computer is being operated on u 
full one-shift basis. Off line peripheral equip¬ 
ment includes a full assortment of keypunches, 
sorters, 407, etc,, as well as an oscillograph 
reader, film reader, and an electro-plotter. 

Assistance to other naval activities lr, the 
Narragansett Bay area ts provided, aB required, 
on an overtime basis, 


COMPUTATION CENTER-U.S. NAVAL 
WEAPONS LABORATORY, 

DAHLOREN, VIRGINIA 

Stretch 

A site Is now being prepared for Installa¬ 
tion of an IBM STRETCH computer In late 
summer 1962. The system will Include 48K 
core memory, u disc file, and 10 tape units. 

The STRETCH replaces an IBM 7090 which hus 
been moved to another building for use, along 
with an additional 7090, in the Naval Space 
Surveillance system. Operation of the NORC 
will be continued. 

It 1 b expected that STRETCH time will be 
available for use by other government agencies 
mid government contractors. Inquiries for such 
use should be dii ected to Head, Computation 
Division, Naval Weapons Laboratory. 


High-Spood CRT Printer 

The high-speed printer mentioned as under 
construction In a previous Issue of this News¬ 
letter, Is now in regular operation. Connected 
to an IBM 1401, this printer records on 35-mm 
film the data from output tapes of a 7090, 
STRETCH, etc. Output may consist of alpha¬ 
numeric characters or plotted point graphs; 
format ts controlled completely by the tape 
and/or the 1401 program. Printing speeds up 
to 16,000 characters per second are attained. 
Hard copy Is reproduced from the film by 
moans of a Zcrox Copyflow machine. 


33 






r 

f 


vi.iur SBrRBjiu-t_i e W*tiy DAVID 
" TAYLOR MODEL BASIN, 

WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 

FLAME, a flexible, three-spatial- 
dimensional, few-energy group (up to 4), nuclear 
reactor depletion code has been programmed 
for LARC at the Applied Mathematics Labora¬ 
tory of the David Taylor Model Basin. The need 
for such a code to assist in the prediction of the 
life-time behavior of water-moderated reactors 
has been outlined by E. M. Gelbard, G. J. 
Habetler, and R, Ehrlich In the Proc. 2nd U. N. 
International Conference on the Peaceful Uses 
of Atomic Energy Mi (1958). FLAME solves 
a finite-difference approximation to the few- 
group neutron diffusion equations, taking ac¬ 
count of interface and boundary conditions. As 
many as 100,000 network points can be treated. 


rLAmu la the fiiat pi ailliAi j/iugiam fur treat¬ 
ing problems of this magnitude. 


PERFORMANCE DATA FOR LARC SYSTEM- 
U.S. NAVY DAVID TAYLOR MODEL BASIN, 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 

The LARC System waB turned over to the 
Applied Mathematics Laboratory, David Taylor 
Model Basin, for operation in February 1961. 
Reliability testing was completed successfully 
In September 1961. Table I lists performance 
data for the year June 1961 to May 1962. 

When the system was turned over, the poorest 
reliability was experienced in the core memory 
and drum file sections. Performance totals for the 
drums tabulated In Table n show significant im¬ 
provement over the first 15 months of operation. 


Table I. LARC II Monthly Performance Figures 


Month 

Total ON 
Time 

Productive 

Time 

Down 

Time 

Total No. 
of Inter¬ 
ruptions 

Mean Error 
Free Time 

Down Time 
Per Error 

Performance 

Percentage 

Jun 61 


203:24 

32:16 

85 

2:43 

■ 


87.8% 

Jul 61 

471:00 

336:16 

69:04 

151 

2:13 

■ 


83.0% 

Aug 61 

556:00 

383:05 

112:02 

186 

2:05 


36 

77.4% 

Sep 61 


368:47 

27:54 

86 

4:18 


19 

93.0% 

Oct 61 

309:02 

217:05 

15:08 

37 

5:51 


24 

93.5% 

Nov 61 

332:20 

243:42 

15:09 

37 

6:35 


24 

94.2% 

Dec 61 

330:23 

223:47 

35:41 

50 

4:28 


43 

86.2% 

Jan 62 

352:53 

249:32 

43:06 

79 

3:30 


33 

85.3% 

Feb 62 

414:05 

357:31 

23:49 

64 

5:35 


22 

93.7% 

Mar 62 

514:50 

429:04 

37:18 

61 

7:02 


37 

92.0% 

Apr 62 

454:29 

383:07 

21:44 

73 

5:15 


18 

94.6% 

May 62 

411:06 

311:18 

29:14 

86 

3:37 


20 

91.9% 

Yearly 








89.0% 

Totals 

5069:18 

3736:36 

462:18 

995 

3:45 

: 28 


Table TI 


3-Month Period 

Drum Down Time 

Repair Time per Failure 

March to May 1961 



June to August 1961 



Sept, to Nov. 1961 

53:45 


Dec. 1961 to Feb. 1962 

30:10 

1:15 

March to May 1962 

15:10 

:45 


34 



























A comparison of the last two columns of 
Table □ implies that the number of drum fail¬ 
ures has remained fairly constant. Most of the 
improvement has been due to the less catastro¬ 
phic nature of the failures and Increasing skill 
of maintenance personnel in returning the drums 
to operation quickly. 

Tables I and II cannot be compared directly, 
that is, the effect of drum failures on the over¬ 
all system operation cannot be obtained from 
Table □, because of differences in measurement, 
For example: 

/PerformanceN _ ''Total time LARC was avatlable\ 
^ Percentage / " \ to run scheduled programs j 


x loo* , Productive Tim e 
V SSfiml / 100% Productive+Down Time 

In this calculation, Down Time refers to time 
when the scheduled program cannot run. Table 
II lists all Drum Down Time, that Is, all time 
charged against any drum In the system regard¬ 
less of whether a scheduled program can run 
without it, Since most programs make use of 
only a few drums during the check-out phase, 
the total drum down time does not necessarily 
appear In system totals. With large scale full- 
capacity production runs such as FLAME, the 
entire system is used and all Down Time is 
significant. 


COMPUTERS AND CENTERS, OVERSEAS 


SIEMENS 2002-INSTITUT FtlH ANGEWANDTE 
MATHEMATIK, JOHANNES GUTENBERG- 
UNIVERSITAT, MAINZ, GERMANY 

Three IBM 727 magnetic tape units and a 
10,000-word magnetic core storage were added 
to the Siemens 2002 (see DCN, April 1959) 
transistorized digital computer at this institute. 
The Siemens 2002 in the form which is installed 
here now includes a 12,000-word magnetic core 
storage and a 10,000-word magnetic drum. 


LEO HI TIME-SHARING-LEO COMPUTERS 
LTD., LONDON, ENGLAND 

LEO III serial number 1 (see DCN, October 
1960) has been Installed at the Company Head¬ 
quarters and number 2 has just been sent to 
South Africa to undertake work in association 
with Rand Mines. Fourteen of these medium 
size computers in the 150,000-350,000 area 
have been sold before the first one came on 
stream. This represents quite a success in 
England. 

A problem that often faces the computer 
user in organising commerical jobs Is that the 
data and results are large in volume, but that, 
the Arithmetic Unit is not fully occupied by the 
Input-output processes themselves. At other 
times the reverse may be the case, and the 
amouut of calculating time required to do a Job 
may far exceed the input-output requirements. 
LEO IH enables jobs of these two types to be 
run on the machine simultaneously so that a far 
better balance is achieved between the reading 


of data, printing of results, and the carrying 
out of various calculations. The advantages of 
the LEO HI system lies in the fact that the jobs 
are loaded and unloaded by the operators quite 
independently of one another and the program¬ 
mer need only concern himself with the Indi¬ 
vidual Job that he is writing. Any s»t of jobB 
can be run together provided that there Is suf¬ 
ficient peripheral equipment and storage avail¬ 
able. The grouping is thus at the discretion of 
the operator on the spot. 


Automatic Interruption and 
the Master Routine 

The key to the LEO IH system is the method 
of automatic interruption used to cause a switch 
between the various programmes operating at 
the same time. This efficiently provides a 
means of time-sharing. However, time-sharing 
is a system concept, not just a matter of hard¬ 
ware, and LEO has supplemented its machine 
interruption feature with an extensive operating 
and programming method which actually simpli¬ 
fies the work of the programmer and allows 
both operator and programmer to treat each 
programme as a completely self-contained 
entity. LEO deliberately allotted a separate 
development group to the project of preparing 
this software, because it was seen that without 
it the full advantages of the computer facilities 
offered would not be achieved by the user, 

The main elements of the software are the 
translator which interprets the programmers 
coding (Intercode) into machine language coding 
and the Master Routine. 


35 







The Master Routine lists the programmes 
running In an order oC priority. Whenever a 
high priority programme eennot continue be¬ 
cause an Item of equipment is engaged, the 
priority control section of the Master Routine 
causes control to be passed to the next pro¬ 
gramme in the priority list. When an item of 
equipment which caused a delay becomes free 
it signals the fact, automatic interruption 
occurs, and priority control tahes over and 
locates the top priority programme now free to 
continue. 


Special Checks and Precautions 

Various precautions have been taken to en¬ 
sure that the parallel operation of programmes 
does not result in any errors which would not 
otherwise occur. On the programming side, all 
the necessary features, such as tests or equip¬ 
ment readiness, are automatically Incorporated 
by the autocode translation routine; loading of 
the programme and allocation of store space is 
checked and executed under the control of the 
appropriate sections of the Master Routine. 
This ensures tiiat a programme is not loaded 
unless the necessary equipment and storage is 
free and so guarantees that there is no conflict 
between programmes. 


The Tag Reservation System 

As a further precaution against one pro¬ 
gramme altering the data or instructions apper¬ 
taining to another programme, the LEO Tag 
Reservation System enables each word in the 
computer store to be marked with a tag identi¬ 
fying its allotted programme. If a programme 
attempts to refer to a location outside its own 
store area, a special interruption takes place 
and the programme is suspended. The same 
feature is used to prevent input-output equip¬ 
ment from overrunning the buffer areas of 
storage to which they are required to work. 


The Demonstration 


The object of the demonstration is to show 
three programmes running together on a time¬ 
sharing basis, as follows: 


Programme A. Magnetic Tape to Printer 

Programme B. Paper Tape to Magnetic 

Tape including a sequenc¬ 
ing routine 


Programme C. Counting Programme. 


These programmes will run in the above 
order of priority with A taking precedence. 

The volume of data for each programme 
haa been so adjusted that each will run for 
approximately the same length of time when run 
together. 

Each programme will be firstly run by 
itself, then followed by a simultaneous operation. 

A comparison of the times tor programmes 
running separately and all three run together 
follows. The left-hand column, “% ACT* refers 
to the degree of activity of calculating unit of 
the computer, expressed as a percentage of the 
total running time for the programme, 


Table I 



Time Shared 



Theoretical 

Recorded 

A 12 

6 min 41 sec 

6 min 45 Bee 

6 min 41 sec 

B 75 

7 min 19 sec 

7 min 37 sec 

7 min 28 sec 

C 100 

2 min 30 sec 

9 min 6 sec 

8 min 38 sec 


The theoretical running time has been cal¬ 
culated by taking into consideration delays 
caused by other programmes sharing input and 
output channels or the calculating unit. These 
calculations are approximate and the actual 
figures quoted above depend on the skill with 
which individual operators carried out the 
various runs. 

When all three programmes are running 
together, the running efficiencies of Pro¬ 
grammes A, B, and C are calculated to be 99, 

96, and 12 percent, respectively. 

On completion of Programme A, Pro¬ 
grammes B and C continue and their theoretical 
running efficiencies are calculated to be 99* and 
24 percent, respectively. 

From these figures, when time is shared 
the theoretical running times are calculated to 
be those shown in Table I. 


The top priority programme does not neces¬ 
sarily operate at 100-percent efficiency be¬ 
cause there is a very small overhead of time 
spent by the Master Routine in carrying out its 
supervision functions, 


36 






ht .u wr- LEO COMPUTERS, LTD., 

LONDON, ENGLAND 

LEO m (see LEO Ill Time-Sharing, this 
issue DON) has been designed as a general pur¬ 
pose computer lor application to a wide range 
of business problems. It has been built on the 
modular principle with the main frame, individ¬ 
ual blocks of storage, and input and output chan¬ 
nels all physically separate, so that a wide 
range of different assemblages can be formed 
to suit different needs incorporating standard 
parts. 

Experience has already demonstrated that 
LEO in is admirably suited to the needs of a 
wide range of organisations. However, for 
users who have very large volumes of work in¬ 
volving lengthly calculations or calling for 
simultaneous execution of several jobs, a LEO 
HI/F can be provided with faster arithmetic 
circuits and a store with quicker access ele¬ 
ments. The latter can have a store cycle time 
of 2.5 or 6 microseconds according to need. 

The resulting overall speed of arithmetic opera¬ 
tions is respectively 3 or 5 times that for the 
standard model. 

To ease the engineering problems of work¬ 
ing at the higher speeds, the design of the equip¬ 
ment is more compact and has resulted in a re¬ 
duction of two cabinets for housing the main 
frame. As is to be expected however, the cost 
of the faster circuitry is greater than for the 
standard computer; for example, for a store of 
4006 long words with cycle time of 6 micro¬ 
seconds the main frame will cost about 25 
percent more. 

The logical design of LEO IU/F is fully 
consistent with that of the now standard system, 
Inasmuch as completely standard assemblers 
are used. Any new assemblers which may be 
announced later for the standard model will be 
suitable for the faster one and vice versa. The 
instruction code is the same as that of the 
standard LEO in. Full programme compati¬ 
bility is thus assured. 

As in the standard model, both mixed radix 
and binary arithmetic are provided. Floating¬ 
point arithmetic in binary is fitted to all LEO 
HI/F models. 

The equipment Is planned to be available 
early in 1964. 


LEO DOCUMENT READER-LEO COM¬ 
PUTERS, LTD., LONDON ENGLAND 

The LEO Document Reader to a relatively 
simple and cheap machine for the automatic 
reading of handmarked documents. 

Many suggestions have beer made for the 
automatic reading of data recorded by cash 
r> <lsters, adding machines, and the like, as 
recognisable printed characters or as holes 
punched in paper tape or cards. Such recording 
equipment is relatively expensive, and so are 
reading machines tor printed or typed characters. 
So far there are no machines available (or read¬ 
ing handwritten characters. 

We feel that in many cases it is desirable 
to be able to produce an automatically readable 
document simply by means of a pen or a pencil, 
without any expensive or cumbersome equip¬ 
ment. This would enable, for instance, a sales¬ 
man in the field to take orders without having 
to carry around with him a portable typewriter 
or punch. Generally, it Is more convenient end 
also cheaper to use a pencil or a ball-pen In¬ 
stead of a typewriter or an adding machine. 

S-ch a handmarked document subsequently can 
be read directly Into a computer. 

Investigation of various data preparation 
jobs leads us to believe that documents properly 
designed for handmarking can be most effective, 
and that in many cases handmarking can be just 
as easy and convenient as handwriting, some¬ 
times even more so. Suitably designed hand- 
marked documents are easier to read auto¬ 
matically than typed characters, and a machine 
for reading marks can be produced more cheaply 
than a character reader. 

The LEO Document Reader has been de¬ 
signed for a specific application, namely the 
ordering and dispatching of bakery products 
ior a considerable number of retail shops. 
However, It can read a great variety of different 
forms, provided they are of a suitable size and 
have the specified arrangement of columns and 
rows. A typical form is shown In Fig. 1; the 
marking is done simply by drawing a line con¬ 
necting ihe two dots of the required square. 

Ball pen or pencil (preferably grade HB or B) 
may be used. A form may have up to 16 verti¬ 
cal columns and up to. 99 horizontal rows of 
squares, the significance of each column and 
row being clearly designated. 


37 



c/21 BAKERY RAILS ORDER FORM 



J. LYONS a COMPANY LTD. 


Figure 1 


Columns are spaced four to an inch; mini- it is sufficient to smudge it so that it fills the 

mum row spacing is six to an inch. Forms may fop half of the square, or at least extends be- 

be from S to 10 inches wide and from 4 to 18 yond the upper location line. This method is 

inches long. effective because the signal results from the 

boundary between light and dark rather than 
Pairs of horizontal lines at the right-hand from the centre of the dark area, 
end of each row are location marks which define 

the scanning period for each row. The mark Handmarked documents tend to become 

drawn between two dots in a square must be dirty. While a proper mark produces an am- 

sufficiently straight to remain within the two plified output of the reading photocell of more 

location lines. If it is desired to erase a mark, than 20v, a smudge or fingerprint may produce 


38 


















up to ISv, Similarly, a week mark may produce 
something like ISv. To cope with such border 
cases we Introduced the concept of a doubtful 
mark. When a doubtful mark occurs, that is 
when the output of any reading cell is about ISv, 
the machine stops, and an alarm light on the 
control panel indicates the respective column. 
The operator then examines the line of marks 
being scanned through a veiwing window, decides 
whether the doubtful mark is valid or merely a 
smudge, and restarts the machine by pressing 
one of two buttons either to accept the mark or 
to Ignore the smudge. However, in order to 
speed up the procedure we are going to change 
this arrangement. In future the row in which a 
doubtful mark occurs will be automatically 
marked and the form ejected into a reject box 
without stopping the machine. 

At present our Document Reader is coupled 
to a tape punch, so that the information scanned 
from the document is punched into tape. How¬ 
ever, it is possible to provide a facility to punch 
the information into cards, or to feed it directly 
into the computer. 

At present the documents are fed through 
the Reader at a speed of 20 Inches per second. 
Each time a mark has been sensed the paper 
stops and punching commences. Using a 110 
characters a second Teletype punch, the punch¬ 
ing of each line takes about 60 msecs. Actually 
for each marked line on the form we punch on 
the tape three rows of Information, two rows for 
the line number, and the NUMBER END indica¬ 
tion. For a foolscap form with IS lines marked, 
the total time taken for reading and punching is 
about 2-1/2 seconds, or approximately 1440 
forms per hour. This is approximately 32 times 
faster than handpunchtng and verifying. 

The end of the form is sensed by the ma¬ 
chine as a wider gap between the last two loca¬ 
tion marks. The Document Reader then punches 
a BLOCK END character followed by five blank 
rows. This blank space helps the visual identi¬ 
fication of forms on the paper tape. 

When the end of form signal is detected, 
the number of lines counted is compared with a 
preset number. In case of disagreement the 
form is'ejected, and the machine punches five 
rows of all holes, five rows of blank tape and a 
BLOCK END character. 

The proper functioning of all reading photo¬ 
cells is automatically checked after the passage 
of each form. 

The experimental Document Reader was 
used for a 8-month trial run on orders actually 


taken by travellers. Following this, It read 
documents continuously tor 2 days. Out of many 
thousands of marks on the documents0.3percent 
gave doubtful mark alarm. Not a single mark 
was missed. 

On the basis of this experimental machine an 
improved version has been designed and made 
as a pre-prototype machine. Production ma¬ 
chines are expected to be available towardB the 
end of 1062. 

The LEO Document Reader is merely an 
optical mark-sensing machine; It is not a 
character reader. We make no apologies, be¬ 
cause we are sure that our machine does help 
in many cases to solve the problem of data 
preparation. 

Further developments of our Document 
Reader are directed towards speeding-up, 
direct use on-line, recognition of printed marks 
produced on a high-speed printer, improvement 
of marking accuracy, and the use of continuous 
stationery. 


AN ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE FOR INFORMA¬ 
TION RETRIEVAL-NATIONAL PHYSICAL 
LABORATORY, AUTONOMICS DIVISION, 

T EDDINGTON, MIDDLESEX, ENGLAND 

The ACE computer is being programmed 
in an experiment to construct an artificial 
language to be used for the Indexing and re¬ 
trieval of information. This artificial language 
will consist of overlapping groups of statistically 
related key words. A many-one transformation 
will map statements in natural language on to 
corresponding statements in the artificial lan¬ 
guage. It is hoped that, In this way, sets of state¬ 
ments in natural language that would normally be 
regarded as being equivalent (e.g., differently 
worded requests for information on a given topic) 
will be mapped on to the same statement in the 
artificial language. 

The ACE program will analyse a large 
quantity of scientific text and obtain the fre¬ 
quencies of occurrence of keywords and of pairs 
of words occurring within the same context. By 
applying a tesi of statistical significance (e.g., 
chi-squared test) the statistically related pairs 
of words will be found. The keywords will then 
be grouped In various ways on the basis of this 
information. The word groupings thus obtained 
will then be evaluated and compared by using 
them in an experimental indexing and retrieval 
system. 


3S 










High-Speed Computing 

The work of the High-Speed Computing 
Group of the Autonomica Division hits been con¬ 
centrated on a atudy of the potentialltiea of the 
thin film cryotrons formed by vacuum deposition. 

Studies of thin films of tin have shown that 
both the superconductive properties and the crys¬ 
talline structure are strongly dependent upon the 
conditions of formation of the film. It is of par¬ 
ticular Importance to reduce the partial pres¬ 
sures of oxygen, water vapour, and carbon 
dioxide during deposition. Close control of the 
substrate temperature and the rates of vapour 
deposition are also essential. 

Simple cryotron circuits of tin, lead, and 
silicon monoxide Insulator have been tested 
and their time constants have been found to 
agree with those predicted from a knowledge of 
cryotron normal resistance and circuit induct¬ 
ance. It should be possible to reduce the cir¬ 
cuit time-constants by a factor of 10 when a 
really reliable thin film Insulator Is found which 
will stand repeated thermal cycling. 

The next stage in the work Is the making 
and testing of more complicated circuits such 
as shift registers. The liquid helium cryostat 
already in use will hold at least 20 substrates 
each 4 inches square. Impedance matched inter¬ 
plane connections will also be studied. 


Character Recognition 

Work is being carried out on a multi-font 
reading system based upon a feature description 


of a character. An auto-corrslation process la 
used to detect the orientation, length and posi¬ 
tion within the character, of straight lines and 
curves. The use of auto-correlation permits 
detection of theae properties independent of the 
poeitlon and orientation of the character. The 
range of application of the approach ie being 
Investigated with an oi/tical system using photo¬ 
graphed copy in transparency form. The prin¬ 
cipal problem here Involves the choice of a 
small number of auto-correlation functions 
which adequately deacribed the characters to 
be recognised. 

The need to evaluate any specified auto¬ 
correlation function for an opaque pattern, has 
led to the construction of a prototype reading 
device. This consists of a flying spot scanner 
feeding analogue networks which compute a 
restricted class of auto-correlation function. 

It la expected to read any single Btyle of numeral 
at a high speed. 


References 


M. B. Clowes and J. R. Parks, *A New Tech¬ 
nique in Automatic Character Recognition,” The 
Computer Journal, 4, 2, 121 (1961) 

M. B. CloweB, “The Use of Multiple Auto¬ 
correlation in Character Recognition,” Pro¬ 
ceedings of the Symposium on Optical Character 
Recognition, January 1962, Washington, D. C. 

(in press, Spartan Books, 6411 Chillum Place, 
Washington 12, D. C.) 


MISCELLANEOUS 


MULTI-FONT CHARACTER RECOGNITION— 
CORNELL AERONAUTICAL LABORATORY, 
INC., BUFFALO, NEW YORK 

During the past 6 years Cornell Aeronau¬ 
tical Laboratory (CAL) has been engaged in a 
continuing program of pattern recognition re¬ 
search. Recently a portion of this work, sup¬ 
ported by the Office of Naval Research, has 
turned toward the application of the perceptron 
class of pattern recognition devices to such 
useful tasks as the recognition of printed 
characters in machine scanning of business re¬ 
ports or tax forms. The overall program is 
based on numerous pattern recognition systems 
and concepts, including those derived from the 
early perceptron work. 


Objective: Recognition of Imperfect, 
Mixed-Font Characters 

The objective of CAL’s current program is 
to investigate computer concepts for recogniz¬ 
ing imperfect printed characters of varying 
type faces, i.e., mixed fonts. Supplementing 
analytical studies, a highly flexible general- 
purpose computer Implementation of a recogni¬ 
tion system is employed. This research was 
stimulated by earlier experiments with the 
Mark I perceptron, which demonstrated the 
ability of such a unit to recognize a complete 
alphabet with a limited amount of distortion. 
The same machine was used to establish the 
fact that recognition of limited sets of the 
alphabet could be accomplished, with proper 


40 






training, using a large amount of distortion, 
translation, and noise 

To illustrate multi-font characters, Fig, 1 
shows the first seven letters of the alphabet in 
both lower and upper case In three of the fonts 
used In recent studies. Upper-case letters are 
recognized as distinct from lower-case letters, 
since there may be significant Information con¬ 
tent in the fact that a letter is upper or lower 
case, Figure 1 illustrates the marked geo¬ 
metric differences in the three fonts selected, 
The first font, taken from a Buffalo newspaper, 
la a bold type using a minimum of serifs or 
detail. The second font, which was taken from 
a second local newspaper, Is an italicized type 
with serifs and more detail Incorporated. The 
third font contains the well-known addresso 
graph characteristics. To get these undistorted 
letter samples, considerable retouching had to 
be done to eliminate a large amount of noise 
and distortion^Inherent in the available samples. 
The formation of the lower case “a” in the three 
fonts is markedly different, with the second font 
Incorporating no upper loop in the formation of 
tho italic “a.* Throughout the alphabet, simllar 
variations from one font to another can be 
observed. 

The types of noise and distortion incorpo¬ 
rated in the samples as part of this program 
are illustrated in Fig. 2, which shows typical 
imperfect characters in the three fonts. In 
some cases the distortion is that of background 
noise produced by the paper; in other cases the 
noise is that of geometric distortions of the 
character produced by the method of making 
the impression. 

a b c d e f g 

a b c d e f 8 
a b c d e f g 
A B C D E F G 
ABC DEF G 

A B C D E F G 

Fig. 1 


I 

i 

4 



I 

* 

5 

b 


t 

5 


mb 

b t 
4 5 


i»t w a 

6 7 8 9 

c | e f g 
is l w n 
6 7 8 9 

e d * f s 

js l in 

S 7*9 

Fig. 2 


Experimental Facilities 

Since it was intended to implement pattern 
recognition devices in a general-purpose com¬ 
puter (IBM 704), a means of Inserting pictorial 
material Into that computer was necessary. 

For this purpose, the system shown in Fig. 3 
was constructed. The output of a commercially 
available facsimile machine was converted to 
digital form for insertion into the real-time 
package of the 704, The facsimile machine was 
modified to provide special synchronizing sig¬ 
nals used by the control system to coordinate 
reception of the 704 successive binary words 
representing image density. The result of 
processing an undistorted lower case “a* from 
one of the type fonts into the 704 is shown in 
Fig. 4. The figure is the result of making a 
printed readout from the tape memory of the 
stimulus in the machine. Although the Input sys¬ 
tem produces 16 gray scale levels in the 704 from 
photographic material, the output in this case 
has been thresholded to produce a binary output. 


41 









outputs are statistically independent. Since the 
second assumption is not completely valid, the 
initial weight selection is not expected to be 
perfect. However, these assumptions do pro¬ 
vide a means of shortening the training cycle, 
and expeditiously deriving the weights neces¬ 
sary to the design of a practical machine to 
recognize printed characters. 


Fig. J 


CCWHfCTIOHt CONNICTIOM 

THROUGH «IIC«U THROUGH VARIAILt 



Fig. 4 


Procedure for Establishing 
Initial Weights 

Normally it Is not known at the outset what 
the variable weights should be. Several train¬ 
ing routines were proposed and used in the 
original perception research. They have been 
shown theoretically to converge to a solution 
(correct classification) if a solution exists. As 
the number of different patterns in the 0 and 1 
classes and the number of dichotomies which 
must be achieved Increase, the training time 
can become rather long. 

For example, to recognize uniquely all the 
upper case and lower case letters together with 
the numerals and a reasonable set of punctua¬ 
tion marks, it would be necessary to expose 
the machine in training to over 70 symbols, re¬ 
quiring many exposures per letter during the 
training. To reduce training time a method for 
initially setting the weights, based on the use 
of Bayes’ theorem,* was hypothesized. It was 
necessary to employ some assumptions to 
make these Initial weight selections: (1) use 
Bayes’ rule, and (2) assume that the A-unlt 


ijc 

Classification based on probability densities 
and prior probabilities. 


First Results 

A 100-A-untt perception haa been trained to 
recognize six undistorted letters of the alphabet 
in both upper and lower case versions and In 
three fonts. In doing so, It was distinguishing 
each of the 12 distinct symbols from all fonts, 
upper and lower caBe, as well as all numerals. 
The significance of accomplishing this in a 
100-A-unit machine can be appreciated by the 
following observation: although very few ex¬ 
perts doubt the ability of perceptrons to perform 
difficult recognition tasks, many have feared 
that a perceptron, designed to recognize many 
fonts in many complete alphabets, and upper/ 
lower cases, would be prohibitively large. The 
actual implementation of a 100-A-unit percep¬ 
tron would be very moderate. In fact, the 
Mark I, which was built using elementary con¬ 
cepts without any prior experimental model on 
which to base the design, had 500-A-units. 

The most exciting result of the initial ex¬ 
periments, however, was the finding that in 
every case (except one in which the threshold 
for the A-unit linear discriminator was placed 
too high) the initial weight selection produced 
a machine which required no further training. 

In other words, having gone through the Bayes’ 
rule computation of weights for the 100-A-unlt 
perceptron, the device properly classified all 
the undistorted examples presented to it. Thus, 
without any further training the machine gave a 
positive output for the desired positive class 
symbol, whereas exposure to every other letter 
of three font alphabets in both upper and lower 
cases and the 10 numerals, produced a negative 
output. This result was achieved with all 12 of 
the symbols to which the machine was trained. 
When the threshold for the A-unlts was made 
as high as three, however, four training cycles 
were required before completely correct classi¬ 
fication was achieved. For thresholds of two 
and one, the machine accurately classified its 
input Immedlatelyafter initial weight computation. 

In subsequent tests an R-unit was trained to 
recognize undistorted lower case n’s in several 
different positions In the input field. After this 
training, the machine was tested by having It 


42 













classify all of the letters and numerals in the 
distorted or noisy alphabets of the three type 
fonts. 

The results were quite encouraging, In that 
only 28 mistakes occurred in the classification 
of 186 characters - a 15-percent error ratio. 

Of these, one was an incorrect classification of 
a noisy n, and 27 were cases in which other 
letters or numerals were classified as an n. 

This percentage is also higher because the sys¬ 
tem is not complete. In a complete Bystem 
there would be an R-unlt for each letter or 
numeral. Relative outputs of all R-unltB prop¬ 
erly scaled, would be compared, with the highest 
positive output identifying each letter. There¬ 
fore, in a complete system, some of the 28 
errors of mistaken letter identity would not have 
occurred because other R-unlts would have 
higher outputs than the output of lower case n’s. 


Future Experimentation 

As mentioned earlier, this is a continuing 
program and the results reported are prelimi¬ 
nary in nature. CAL plans to continue experi¬ 
ments exploring character noiBe and translation. 
In the course of this research, an increase Is. 
anticipated in the density of S- to A-unit con¬ 
nections from the 10 excitatory and 10 inhibitory 
connections employed in the Initial experiments. 
The results of subsequent experiments should 
suggest variations on the main line of research. 
CAL expects to explore these variations. 


HIGH-SPEED VIDEOGRAPH PRINTER- 
PLOTTER - A. B. DICK COMPANY, 

CHICAGO 48, ILLINOIS 

A high-speed electrostatic printer which 
simultaneously prints a permanent paper record 
of both alphanumeric data and analog curves at 
speeds up to 10 inches per second has been in¬ 
troduced by A, B. Dick Company. It is believed 
to be the first printer-plotter with these 
capabilities. 

The Model 9041 Videograph Printer-Plotter 
performs as an analog recorder, a digital page 
printer, or combines both forms of output. It 
operates on information received from a data 
acquisition system or from playback of magnetic 
tapes. Data is printed out directly on an 8-1/2- 
inch-wlde paper web. 

The Company also announced that the first 
production model of the printer-plotter has been 
purchased by the Rocketdyne Division of North 


American Aviation, Inc., along with an A. B. Dick 
Input Control System. The equipment will be 
used to record results of rocket engine testing. 

In addition to its high speed capability, the 
major advantages of the printer-plotter are 
high reliability, flexibility, and low operating 
cost. With it, film processing and printed forms 
are eliminated. 


Prints Through Cathode-Ray Tube 

The printing function of the printer-plotter 
is performed through a special cathode-ray tube 
having a matrix of fine metal wires permanently 
sealed through its faceplate. The electron beam 
of the tube is deflected and modulated by means 
of video-type electrical signals across the inner 
ends of the wires, while the outer ends of the 
wires are in contact with a moving web of paper. 
The paper is coated with a simple dielectric 
material which received latent electrostatic 
images directly on the surface of the paper. 

These charge patterns are made visible and 
permanent through a developing process. 

For alphanumeric printing, a special Video¬ 
graph Character Generator is employed to convert 
digital input signals into waveforms that are di¬ 
rected to the matrix of the tube to form character¬ 
shaped Images on the paper at high speeds. 

Through suitable control circuitry, the 
electron beam of the tube can be directed in a 
linear sweep by video input signals or driven in 
response to digitally coded input signals for • 
accurate point plotting. 

3600 'Lines Per Minute 

As a page printer the unit prints out a for¬ 
mat of 72 columns with ten characters per inch, 
five to seven lines per vertical inch, at a rate 
of 3600 lines per minute. 

A manually operable cutting attachment 
permits selective cutting of the web into any 
output length. Output also may be rewound into 
roll form. 

Only manual functions required for opt.ra¬ 
tion of the printer-plotter are replacement of 
the paper supply roll and charging and replen¬ 
ishment of the developer. Controls are push¬ 
button type, with indicator lights. 

The unit is' approximately 54 inches long, 

24 inches wide, 42 inches high, and weighs 750 
pounds. 


43 



Input System Design 

Design of the input control system used 
with the VIdeograph Printer-Plotter depends on 
the specific application Involved. The complete 
system designed by A. B. Dick Company for 
Rocketdyne has the function of producing con¬ 
tinuous multiple curves or traces of test data 
obtained from a data acquisition system. In 
the data acquisition system, sensory instru¬ 
ments located at a test position will provide as 
many as 150 Inputs of analog information to a 
data control center. 

At the data control center, each of the 
analog inputs will be converted into a four¬ 
digit decimal number which will be transmitted 
in digital form to the printer-plotter output sys¬ 
tem for recording. 

AUTO-CORRECTIVE OPTICAL SCANNER- 
HONEYWELL EDP DIVISION, 

WELLESLEY HILLS 81, MASSACHUSETTS 

Honeywell Electronic Data Processing 
(EDP) has announced the development of an ex¬ 
clusive auto-corrective technique for use with 
its optical character readers that should re¬ 
duce to 0.2 percent the document rejection rate 
because of mls-scanning or defaced information. 
Document rejection rates generally accepted 
by the EDP industry In scanning operations 
range from 5 to 10 percent. 

Auto-correction la achieved in the Honey¬ 
well system through addition of two or more 
ortho-correction (checking) digits to the infor¬ 
mation on the document to be scanned. By 
means of these digits the scanner, linked to a 
Honeywell computer, automatically regenerates 
lost or damaged data. Documents remain 
readable to the scanner even though portions of 
the document containing the data have been de¬ 
faced. The correction process is accomplished 
without interruption and without rejection of the 
document. 

The technique represents a new, two-way 
approach to reliable optical scanning. The 
reading device has the ability to scan and re¬ 
scan any document any number of times, at 
high speed and without machine interruption. 
This compensates for temporary scanning 
failures - such failures as might be caused by 
a speck of dust on the document. The document 
acceptance rate, however. i« even more sub¬ 
stantially increased through the orthotronic 
regeneration of Incorrect or permanently de¬ 
faced data. The combination of orthotronic 


control and automatic re-scanning accelerates 
the input of data to the computer and effects a 
major improvement in (he percentage of docu¬ 
ment batches automatically processed by the 
scanner without manual Intervention. 

Test runs of orthotronic scanning at 
Honeywell’s EDP engineering laboratories 
were performed as follows: 

Batches of some 250 documents were pro¬ 
duced on a high-speed printer connected on¬ 
line to a Honeywell 800 Computer which calcu¬ 
lated and appended the ortho-digits to the data 
to be scanned. (The printing of these ortho¬ 
digits requires no additional time.) The 
scanner, connected on-line to the trunk system 
of the Honeywell 800, processed the batches 
with the orthotronic control capability Inopera¬ 
tive. The reject rate, after hundreds of runs, 
averaged about 8-15 percent, or 23 documents 
in each batch of 250 documents. In a conven¬ 
tional scanning system, each of these rejected 
documents would have had to be examined 
manually to determine the reason for the 
scanning failure. Re-scanning the same batches, 
with orthotronic correction, resulted in the doc¬ 
ument rejection rate dropping to 0.2 percent, 
which is less than one reject per batch. 


Returnable Media 

In the case of returnable media documents, 
such as invoices and subscription forms, the 
ability of the Honeywell computer to calculate 
and append the orthotronic digits to the data 
printed for scanning, provides “turn-around" 
documents to which no further information need 
be added for corrective purposes prior to opti¬ 
cal reading. However, a “mark-scan" option is 
available with the Honeywell computers for use 
in instances where additional information is to 
be added to “turn-around" documents prior to 
scanning. 

The Honeywell system is a breakthrough in 
optical scanning and is certain to have a marked 
impact on the future development and applica¬ 
tions feasibility of document reading. In other 
scanning systems any document that cannot be 
road correctly, regardless of reason, is auto¬ 
matically rejected by the scanner. These re¬ 
jects then require special handling. 

'''rthotronic-correction will be standard 
procedure with all Honeywell optical scanning 
systems, several of which are on order for 
delivery within the next few months. 


44 





THE M-2CR MBMXSTOR—MKMJBTOH 
CORPORATION, MOUNTAIN VIEW, 
CALIFORNIA 

A new electronic circuit element called the 
memlstor (a resistor with memory) is being 
manufactured in several forms by Memlstor 
Corporation for use In adaptive systems, thresh¬ 
old logic systems, analog systems, and hybrid 
analog-digital systems. The Memlstor consists 
of a conductive substrate with Insulated con¬ 
nection leads, and a metallic anode, all in an 
electrolytic plating bath. The conductance of 
the element Is reversibly controlled by elec¬ 
troplating. Like the transistor, the memlstor 
is a three-terminal element. The conductance 
between two of the terminals Is controlled by 
the time integral of the current In the third, 
rather than by its instantaneous value, as in the 
transistor. The memlstor is functionally 
equivalent to a transistor with a "built-in* 
integrator. 

The memlstor was invented at Stanford Uni¬ 
versity by B. Widrow and M. E. Hoff. Their origi¬ 
nal work was done under Tri-Service support, 
administered by the Office of Naval Research. 


Adaptive “Neuron* Circuits 

The memlstor was developed to provide 
simple, cheap, and reliable variable-gain 
elements with memory for adaptive threshold 
logic circuits. The ADALINE “neuron” con¬ 
sists of an adjustable threshold function and the 
adaptation machinery for automatically adjust¬ 
ing its weights. (This is described in Stanford 
University Electronic Laboratories Technical 
Report 1553-1 of June 1960, by B. Widrow and 
M, E, Hoff.) The structure of ADALINE 
changes Bomewhat with each training experience. 
A steepest descent method requires that each 
of its weights be changed by the same magnitude 
with each training cycle, some weights increas¬ 
ing, and some decreasing, depending on the 
state of the input signals and the desired output 
state. The memlstor allows a very natural 
implementation of such an adaptive process. 

A memlstor cell stores a single weight in the 
value of its conductance. Current sources of 
fixed magnitude are turned on simultaneously 
to plate the memistors, and they are sensed 
by ac-voltage sources. Their current outputs 
arc summed by a Kirchhoff adder. Information 
is stored in the memistorized ADALINE in 
terms of the thickness of plated metallic films. 

Very complex logic functions can be 
trained into threshold elements and networks 


of threshold elements, These will provide 
adaptive logic, “neuron* memory eystema with 
aaeociatlve information atorage and retrieval, 
pattern claeslflcatlon aystema with generalising 
capabilities, and reliable digital syatems that 
can adapt around their own internal flawa. All 
of these characteristlca and capabilities have 
been demonetrated, at Stanford with a machine 
called MADALINE which contains 300 memis- 
tors. MADALINE la currently being tested in 
a connection to an IBM 1020 computer. 


Analog ClrcultB 

Memlstor* have been used aa integrators, 
multipliers, modulators, pulae counters, time 
base generators, and In sample and hold cir¬ 
cuits. The Inherent characteristics of the de¬ 
vice, such ae long-term stability, relative in¬ 
sensitivity to temperature, linear relation 
between conductance and integral of plating 
current, ability to integrate long' pulses and 
extremely short pulses, low power require¬ 
ments, and compact size and weight, make it 
attractive for analog applications. 


M-2CJR Memlstor Characteristics 

Memlstor M-2CR can be plated over a 
resistance range from SOX? to 2fl, and covers 
this range in 10 seconds with a plating current 
of 0.2 ma. The plating potential is 0.2 volt, so 
the required plating power, is 0.04 milliwatt. 
Sensing the conductance without destroying the 
stored Information is accomplished with ac- 
voltage that could range in frequency from 60 
cycles to several megacycles. The Integration 
of the plating current is accurate to within 5 
percent, regardless of the frequency content of 
its waveforms. Pulses as short as 0.5 micro¬ 
second have been integrated. 

The M-2CR cells are ma'de in single units 
for analog applications, and in sheets of 10 or 
20 for adaptive neuron applications. Those that 
are printed on sheets have had, at the same 
time, some of the resistors and interconnec¬ 
tions of the ADALINE element also printed. 
This is a first step towards completely inte¬ 
grated neuron circuitry, Each memlstor cell 
contains about two drops of plating fluid, and 
is encapsulated. The M-2CR is insensitive to 
shock and vibration, is non-microphonic, in¬ 
sensitive to temperature (taken from 100* to 
-196°C with no permanent change in character¬ 
istics), and exhibits less drift than 1 percent 
per week. As an electronic integrator, the 
time constant is of the order of several years. 


45 








At the present time, work is piogressing 
toward making these cells more accurate as 
analog Integrators (goal Is 1 percent), making 
them faster with less power, making them 
more stable, and reducing costs in volume pro' 
ductlon to make large networks of adaptive 
neurons economically feasible, At the present 
time, a rough figure for a completed neuron 
system, almost regardless of configuration, is 
about SO dollars per weight. 


Electrical Specifications 

The unit is an electronically adjustable 
resistor with the rate of change of resistance 
controlled by dc-current in a third electrode. 
Over the active range of the memistor, the rate 
of change of conductance is proportional to the 
control electrode current, and is essentially 
independent of the resistance value. The re¬ 
sistance range of the memistor covers from 
30 ohms to about 2 ohms (0.033 mho to 1/2 mho). 

Three leads, brown, white, and red are 
provided (see Fig. 1), The resistance (of the 
substrate) is measured, using an ac-current, 
between the brown and white leads. The ac- 
voltage drop between these leads should not 
exceed Q.l-v rms. 

To decrease the substrate resistance, the 
red lead is made positive with respect to the 
brown and white leads. The average dc-current 
Into the red lead should not exceed 0.25 ma. The 
dc-voltage drop across the cell will be about 
0.2 v. For a plating current of 0.2 ma, the rate 
of change of conductance is about 0.03 mho/sec 
(the resistance changes from 3012 to 2fl in 10 
seconds). 

The resistance of the substrate may be 
raised by making the red lead negative with 
respect to the brown and white leads. Again 
currents should not exceed 0.25 ma, and the 
rate of change of conductance is the same. 

When the resistance of the substrate is set 
to its maximum value (completely stripped), a 
negative vollage connected to the red lead will 
produce relatively little plating current. The 
voltage drop across the cell should not be per¬ 
mitted to rise in excess of 1.5 v, or gas will be 
produced in the cell. 

When this voltage is removed and the red 
lead again made positive, the resistance will 
begin to fall immediately. However, when cur¬ 
rent tending to reduce the resistance below its 


OC 



1 ohm minimum Is applied to the cell for a 
length of time, the current must be reversed 
and maintained for approximately the same 
length of time before the resistance will begin 
increasing. 


PHOTOCHROMIC DYNAMIC DISPLAY— 

THE NATIONAL CASH REGISTER COMPANY, 
HAWTHORNE, CALIFORNIA 

A contract for a photochromic dynamic 
display has been awarded to the Hawthorne, 
California electronics division of the National 
Cash Register Company by the Naval Ordnance 
Test Station at Pasadena, California. 

The display will be used to analyze com¬ 
puter data display requirements In real-time 
applications for advanced Navy weapons 
systems. 

The display provides real-time tracking 
through the use of slides coated with a molecular 
dispersion of light-sensitive, reversible photo¬ 
chromic dyes. 

Tracks appear on the slide when individual 
molecules of the normally transparent dye are 
switched to an opaque state by beams of ultra¬ 
violet light moving in response to input signals. 
These tracks, as well as background reference 
information, are projected onto the display 
screen. 

A unique feature of the display is that per¬ 
sistence of the opaque tracks can be varied by 
controlling illumination intensity, since high* 
intensity light returns the dyes to their trans¬ 
parent state. This property also allows the 
tracks to be easily erased. 

The $65,00" contract covers the fabrica¬ 
tion and installation of the display unit. 


46 








HOME-STUDY COURSE Df COMPUTER 
PROGRAMMING-PENN STATE AND IBM, 
UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA 

The Pennsylvania State Univetsity and 
International Business Machines Corporation 
announced what is believed to be the Nation’s 
first university-sponsored home-study course 
in programming. The need for a course of this 
type is based on the extension of electronic data 
processing into almost every area of business, 
government, and science. 

Many computer users, facing a shortage of 
programmers, have set up their own training 
programs; but it often is difficult for them to 
find qualified people to enter the training 
programs. 

Students who complete this programming 
course with high grades will have indicated that 
they have the interest and aptitude required for 
this work. 

What kind of aptitudes are required for 
programming? 

A background in college mathematics is 
helpful; but a college background is considered 
less important than a keen analytical mind, 
capable of reducing complex problems to their 
component parts and perceiving the easiest, 
most direct solution. 

IBM has prepared a 12-part textbook for 
the course. A home-study guide, which helps 
fill the role of the instructor, has been pre¬ 
pared by Penn State. It advises the student how 
to get the most out of the course. 

The course covers the entire range of 
programming principles as they apply to all 
computers, from the smallest business com¬ 
puter to the most powerful scientific system. 

It introduces the student to the basic 
elements of data processing; explains the equip¬ 
ment, and takes him into the coding of a pro¬ 
gram. In more advanced sections, it covers 
technical subiects such as symbolic program¬ 
ming, address modification, branching, and 
other operations. 

The entire course is administered by mail. 
The teaching staff of the university supervises 
lessons and grades test papers. Final exami¬ 
nations are given by a proctor selected by the 
student in his home city. 


Students receive a final grade an a comple¬ 
tion certificate when they finish the course. 

Tuition, including all costs of handling the 
course, testing, and administration, is $24. 

Cost of the texi and mailing is approximately 

$ 10 . 

The programming course Is the newest in 
a series of correspondence courses offered by 
Penn State in cooperation with IBM. 

Among these are courses in punched card 
data processing principles and punched card 
applications. There are also courses in elec¬ 
tricity and electronics with emphasis on com¬ 
puter applications. 

Penn State has been giving correspondence 
courses, many for college credit, since 1012. 
Each year more than 10,000 home-study 
courses are given to an estimated 8000 students 
all over the world. A staff of 16 directs this 
complex operation. 


SYMPOSIUM ON OPTICAL CHARACTER 
RECOGNITION-15-17 JANUARY 1962, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

A Symposium on Optical Character Recogni¬ 
tion, held 15-17 January 1062 at Washington, D. C. 
under the joint sponsorship of the Office of Naval 
Research (ONR) and the National Bureau of 
Standards (NBS), was attended by more than 800 
computer scientists and users from the United 
States and abroad. Plans for the symposium 
were made by a conference committee consist¬ 
ing of Donald K. Pollock (ONR), Bernard Radak 
(BUSANDA), and Mary E. Stevens (NES). Twenty- 
two papers covering both the operative and re¬ 
search phases of optical character recognition 
Bystems were presented in two sessions. This 
was followed by panel discussions of (1) user 
requirements for new systems, and (2) the ho¬ 
rizons of optical character recognition work. 

Many experts believe that the next great 
step forward in automatic data processing will 
come through the development of techniques for 
automatic character recognition. Data process¬ 
ing systems in use today require, as inputB, 
Information that has been carefully translated 
into the machine’s language and encoded! in a 
suitable medium. Only a few systems will 
accept information not already coded on cards 
or tape. One such system, F06DIC, develop? 
by NBS for the Bureau of the Census uses 


47 




optical sensing ot raaponaa placement in a for¬ 
mat designed to be self-coding. Another type of 
machine Identifies documents by magnetically 
scanning areas of numerals printed In a spe¬ 
cially dealgned typeface and with magnetic Ink. 
Present-day devices, a few in operation and 
others under development, can read one or a 
few fonts ot typed or printed material. How¬ 
ever, no reading machines with true multifont 
recognition capabilities are as yet In productive 
operation, and no devices are as yet available 
which can read handwritten material with the 
degree of success that would be accepted In 
many tasks as a reasonable substitute for the 
human reader. 

Today's data processing systems would be 
much more useful if they could accept a variety 
of printed, written, or graphic data as Inputs. 
The symposium was arranged bo that inves¬ 
tigators working toward this end might benefit 
from knowledge of developments and findings in 
other laboratories. In addition, potential users 
were invited to attend to permit an interchange 
of information with respect both to require¬ 
ments and to present-day capabilities. The 
Information thus shared should facilitate de¬ 
velopment of new methods of optical character 
recognition and speed the day when more flex¬ 
ible input systems will become available for 
data processing. 

The symposium was divided into two one- 
day and two half-day sessions. The first ses¬ 
sion featured talks on the characteristics of 
operative character recognition systems, given 
by people involved in developing them. The 
second session explored the trends In present 
character recognition research, while the third 
and fourth presented panel discussions on user 
requirements and the prospects for the future. 

The symposium opened with a welcoming 
address by M. C. Yovlts of ONR. The first 
session consisted of talks, under the chairman¬ 
ship of D. K. Pollock of ONR, describing char¬ 
acter recognition systems now in operation or 
being prepared for delivery in the near future. 
The first paper was by W. T. Hannan of Applied 
Research, Defense Electronics Products, RCA. 
He described the RCA multifont reading machine 
which uses interchangeable photographic matrix 
masks as reference patterns, accomplishes the 
recognition-decisions by means of optical cor¬ 
relation techniques, and Incorporates automatic 
line and character location features In the elec¬ 
tronic scanning system. A reading rate of 500 
characters per second at accuracies of 1 to 5 
errors per million characters was reported for 


this machine. Potential applications to the 
reading of printed pages, including Cyrillic 
texts, were discussed. 

O. L. Fischer and C. C. Heasly, Jr. of 
Farrington Electronics were the co-authors of 
a paper which discussed optical scanning re¬ 
quirements with special reference to automatic 
Input systems for a variety of application. A 
new model Farrington reader, the Selected 
Data Page Scanner, was announced in a press 
release coinciding with the opening of the sym¬ 
posium. The new reader Incorporates inter¬ 
changeable plugboard-programming format- 
control features to facilitate line location and 
field location within a line and to accommodate 
various word length and storage mode conditions. 

Following this paper, J. Rablnow described 
the several approaches to automatic character 
recognition that have been Investigated by the 
Rablnow Engineering Company, Inc. Readers 
using varied techniques, including optical-mask 
coincidence correlation, weighted area matrix 
correlation, and multiple non-re-entrant curve 
tracing, were discussed. It was concluded that 
anything now typed or printed can be read by 
machine and that within 5 to 10 years, cursive 
handwriting should be machine readable. 

J. B. Chatten and C. F. Teacher of the 
Phllco Research Center next described the use 
of high resolution flying spot scan techniques in 
a variable-font address reader being developed 
for the Post Office Department. Features in¬ 
clude automatic character location, means to 
normalize the size of unknown characters, fol¬ 
lowing of lines regardless of tilt, and provisions 
for re-scanning to resolve ambiguity on a 
character-by-character basis. Recognition 
decisions in the Philco reader are based on 
shift-register correlations where the unknown 
pattern is compared with a number of weighted 
area reference patterns stored in the form of 
resistor arrays. 

The principles of operation of a page-reader 
for Cyrillic text, under development by Baird- 
Atomic, Inc., were presented by J. A, Fitz- 
maurice. This reader uses an optical correla¬ 
tion technique for character recognition at rates 
up to 1000 characters per second. Input is in 
the form of microfilm copies of pages of printed 
Russian language material. Problems of han¬ 
dling special symbols, equations, and other 
interspersed graphic material were discussed. 

The advantages of vidicon scanning tech¬ 
niques in character recognition systems using 


48 









an area analyala principle were discussed by 
P. Barth of the National Data Processing Cor¬ 
poration, a Division of Remington Hand UNIVAC, 
He deacribed reaulta of thla technique aa giving 
recognition rates of up to 1000 characters per 
second for 20-microsecond exposures of the 
source documents. 

Leon Mlntz deacribed the typed page reader 
developed for the Army Signal Corps by the 
Control Instrument Division of Burroughs Cor¬ 
poration. This equipment was designed to read 
upper- and lower-case alphanumeric characters 
In standard elite type font. The device reads 
types pages stacked in Its input hopper and con¬ 
verts the characters into teletype code at a rate 
of 75 characters per second. Line tilt of as 
much as 10 degrees can be accommodated with¬ 
out loss of reading accuracy. 

A numeric character reader that will 
accept wide tolerances in quality of printing 
was described by R. K. Gerlach of the Elec¬ 
tronics Division of the National Cash Register 
Company. The NCR equipment was designed 
for use with a special font; source documents 
consist of paper strips imprinted by various 
accounting and cash register machines. Reject 
rates of the order of 10" 4 and error rates of 
10“ 6 were reported for this equipment. 

A paper by W. T. Booth, G, M. Miller, and 
O. A. Schlelch described character recognition 
developments at the General Electric Company. 
A recently developed machine has been designed 
to read the numeric font under consideration by 
the X3.1 Subcommittee of the American Stand¬ 
ards Association. Several recognition logics 
for reading at rates up to 2500 characters per 
second were deacribed. Problems in reading 
mlsregistered and degraded characters were 
discussed. 

The first day's session was concluded by 
E. C. Greanias of the Advanced Systems De¬ 
velopment Division, IBM, who discussed vari¬ 
ous factors which affect the realization of 
practical character recognition devices. The 
nature of the documents to be read, the admin¬ 
istrative control that can be exercised in docu¬ 
ment preparation, the costs of handling rejects, 
were discussed in terms of determination of 
economic feasibility. The progress .made in 
the development of methods of pattern analysis 
was noted. The recognition logic, testing pro¬ 
cedures, and printer evaluation studies used 
in the development of the IBM 1418 reader 
were described. 


The second day’s session was dsvoted to 
trends in character recognition research. The 
flrat speaker was A. B. Novikoff of the Mathe¬ 
matical Sciences Department, Stanford Research 
Institute. He discussed the need for a usable 
mathematical model tor "geometric 00100 ” 
which results from random disturbances of a 
pattern from its Ideal representation, General 
requirement* which such a model should satisfy 
and the example of a particular proposed model 
were described. 

A system for reading cursive handwriting 
was described by L. D, Harmon of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories. Two distinct problems 
are Involved: The segmentation of the hand¬ 
written word into its component characters and 
the recognition of the script letters themselves. 
A system involving the use of local, crlterlal 
features has been developed and tested on 
sentences written with a special stylus under 
the constraints of observing base and guide 
lines. An accuracy of 90 percent was achieved 
with a number of samples from different writers. 
The use of confusion matrix BtatlstlcB and 
diagram probabilities to Improve performance 
was described. 

A comparison of computed moments of 
input character patterns with the corresponding 
moments of prototype patterns was described 
by F. L, Ait of the National Bureau of Standards. 
He pointed out that certain combinations of mo¬ 
ments are relatively invariant for pattern trans¬ 
formations such as size, translation, and some 
slanting. Experiments on a computer Indicate 
that a process using a modest number of sam¬ 
ple points and computing moments only up to 
the sixth order Is adequate to discriminate be¬ 
tween the characters of a given alphabet. The 
general problem of classifying Items char¬ 
acterized by a set of numbers was discussed. 


The next paper, by R. F. Meyers, V. E. 
Giuliano, and P. E. Jones of Arthur D. Little, 
Inc., similarly postulated sets of mathematical 
derivatives of certain Integral measurements 
of character patterne. It was noted that 
methods based on measurements of a number 
of moments or a number of Fourier coefficients 
offer means to normalize by computing a set of 
invariants with respect to frequently encountered 
pattern transformations, such as translation or 
scaling. A procedure was described for obtain¬ 
ing a set of measurement functions which mini¬ 
mize the error rate for a given alphabet and a 
given degree of noise. 


49 







D. M. Baumann of the Massachusetts Insti¬ 
tute of Technology described preliminary re¬ 
sults of a study of the use of area weighting 
techniques for automatic character recognition. 
Input character patterns were categoriced into 
subsete on the basis of optical sensing through 
a sequence of photographic masks. Mask de¬ 
sign was based upon statistical parameters of 
a set of characters and weighting functions 
chosen to provide optimal separation. 

A paper by L. O. Roberts reviewed char¬ 
acter and pattern recognition developments at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology dur¬ 
ing the past S years. It was noted that earlier 
research on handprinted characters was followed 
by studies on cursive handwriting and that prog ¬ 
ress has been made in characterizing hand¬ 
written strokes. 

Continuing pattern recognition research in 
the general Perceptron research program was 
reported in a paper by W. S. Holmes, H. R. 
Leland, and J. L. Muerle of the Cornell Aero¬ 
nautical Laboratory. In particular, a multi¬ 
layered Perceptron system has been simulated 
by computer to investigate the feasibility of 
training the system to recognize mixed torn 
alphanumeric characters. The input pattern is 
prefiltered to provide a transformed image 
space, combinations of intensities at selected 
points in the transformed image space are used 
as properties, and a linear discriminant func¬ 
tion is applied to classify the pattern. 

A scheme for recognizing patterns from 
an unspecified class was described by C. Barns 
of Swarthmore College. Small subsets of speci¬ 
mens of each of the patterns to be recognized 
are stored in the machine. The information 
contents of these subsets change during a learn¬ 
ing phase to become more typical of the pattern 
represented. Possibilities for Implementation 
by optical comparisons were discussed, 

In a paper by W. H. Highleyman of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, a distinction was made 
between the ‘receptor* and the ‘categorizer* 
operations of a pattern recognition system. 

The categorizer typically determines, from 
measurements made by the receptor on an 
unknown pattern, the particular pattern class 
to which the unknown belongs. The paper con¬ 
sidered in detail that class of categorizers 
involving the linear decision functions. In con¬ 
nection with the problem of recognizing hand¬ 
printed numeric characters, procedures were 
illustrated based upon sampling from pattern 
classes to be identified for choice of linear 
decision function. 


Techniques for multtfont print recognition 
were described by M. C. Andrews of the 
Thoms* J. Watson Research Laboratory of 
IBM. Problems encountered and experimental 
techniques which offer apparently promising 
solutions were discussed. The speaker also 
described automatic error detection and cor¬ 
rection methods applicable to systems which 
are required to accept and proceas natural 
language text. 

M, B. Clowes of the National Physical 
Laboratory, Teddington, England, described a 
method for character recognition involving one 
or more autocorrelation functions of an unknown 
pattern. The form of the autocorrelation func¬ 
tion specifies a character feature, such as a 
straight line or a “hook.* Such functions are 
Invariant with respect to transformations of 
size, rotation, and translation and are relatively 
Insensitive to minor changes in style or printing 
quality. 

L.Uhr of the University of Michigan pre¬ 
sented a paper, prepared by himself and C. 
Vossler of the Systems Development Corpora¬ 
tion, reviewing current trends In the ‘search 
to reconglze.* He noted the specific problems 
to be solved - the array differing with selec¬ 
tions of font and vocabulary size, method of 
presentation, and method of recognition. It 
was also noted that, on the other hand, general 
methods for pattern recognition would allow for 
common solutions to families of problems. He 
then described a specific experimental tech¬ 
nique which enables an adaptive categorization 
ol information-carrying features of unknown 
inputs, Results were given for subsequent rec¬ 
ognition both of hand-drawn alphanumeric char¬ 
acters and of certain outline drawings, including 
comic-strip faces. 

The third session of the symposium con¬ 
sisted of a description and panel discussion of 
representative user requirements In various 
government agencies. The panel was under the 
chairmanship of B. Radack, Bureau of Supplies 
and Accounts, Navy, and was composed of 
G. Shiner, Rome Air Development Center; 

C. Sparks, U.S. Civil Service Commission; 

P. Howerton, Central Intelligence Agency; 

Major L. Sears, Army Finance Office; R. Hes- 
slnger, Post Office Department; and W. Velander, 
Navy Management Office. 


The fourth and final session was held 
Wednesday afternoon, 17 January, under the 
chairmanship ot M. C. Yovits of the Office of 
Naval Research. This session was opened by a 


SO 





keynote address by O. 0. Selfridge of the Mas¬ 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. The follow¬ 
ing panel discussion brought forth remarks on 
the horizons for optical character recognition 
research by J. D. Noe, Stanford Research In¬ 
stitute; J. C. R. Llcklider, Bolt, Baranek, and 
Newman; H. A. Affel, Jr., Auerbach Corpora¬ 
tion; D. H. Shepard, Cognitronlcs; D. Brick, 
Sylvanla; and J. J. Eachus, Minneapolls- 
Honeywell. 

A Proceedings will be available, in Sep¬ 
tember 1962, at an approximate price of 
$10.00. The publisher is Spartan BookB, 6411 
Chlllum Place, Washington 12, D. C,, and orders 
shquld be directed to Spartan Books or to a 
bookstore. 


PLATO II—UNIVE RSITY OF ILLINOIS, 
URBANA, ILLINOIS 

Introduction 

The purpose of the PLATO (Programmed 
Logic for Automatic Operations) project is to 
develop an automatic teaching system capable 
of tutoring simultaneously a large number of 
students In a variety of subjects. The central 
control element of the teaching system is a 
general purpose digital computer. The PLATO 
system differs from most teaching systems in 
that a single high-speed digital computer is 
used to control all student stations. Thus, it 
has available the power of a large digital com¬ 
puter to teach each student. A complete de¬ 
scription of the equipment and systems organ¬ 
ization was described in the April 1962 issue 
of DCN. 


Teaching Studies with College 
Undergraduates 

A study was completed in which PLATO II 
was used to teach the first week of the Uni¬ 
versity’s course “Introduction to Automatic 
Digital Computing (Math 196).” This course 
uses the IBM-660 as a vehicle for Introducing 
the student to the basic notions of automatic 
computing. 

On the first day of class, some 20 students 
wore chosen at random and asked to attend a 
demonstration of the machine. Alter the dem¬ 
onstration, nine volunteers were found whose 
schedules were compatible with our schedule 
for use of the computer. These nine students 
formed the subjects of our study. 


Each student was first given a practice 
session (with specially prepared material) to 
familiarize him with the operation of the ma¬ 
chine. These practice sessions reconfirmed 
our previous experiences that students could 
master the operation of the machine in a few 
minutes. No student reported any difficulty in 
this respect, either during the practice session 
or the lessons proper. 

Each student was then scheduled for three 
lessons on the machine. Since these lessons 
paralleled, almost exactly, the subject-matter 
discussed by the instructor in class, the stu¬ 
dents were encouraged not to attend class for 
the week of the study. None did. 

Topics covered by the three lessons were: 

Lessoh 1; The Word as a Number (fixed 

and floating point representation) 

Lesson 2: The Biquinary Code and the 
Storage Unit 

Lesson 3: The Arithmetic Unit, Instruc¬ 
tion Format, the Control Unit, 
and Execution of Single 
Instructions. 

Since the PLATO R system can teach two stu¬ 
dents simultaneously, the students were, when 
possible, scheduled in pairs so that the nine 
students each taking the three lessons represent 
roughly 15 hours of scheduled computer time. 

The records kept by the computer during 
each run of each student’s progress through 
the material are currently being studied. The 
results and conclusions will be available shortly 
for publication. The data collected provides 
information about: 

1. The learning ability of each student. 

2. The effectiveness of each lesson. 

3. The data rate requirement placed on 
the system. 

More specifically, under each item the follow¬ 
ing kinds of information are available. 

1. Student 

a. length of time the student spent on 
each lesson 

b. number of times the student re¬ 
quested help 


51 







c. imuiucr ui wrung answers submitted 
by the student. 

2. Lesson 

a. average length of time spent on each 
slide, 

b. problems of the main sequence for 
which heop was requested 

c. problems for which the computer 
was requested to supply the correct 
answer by the student. 

3. System 

a. average rate of inputs to central com¬ 
puter (per unit time per student) 

b. number of times each type of request 
was entered into the computer (e.g,, 
continue. Judge, etc.). 

Some data may be of significance in more 
than one of the above categories, nor is the 
above list intended to be exhaustive. It does 
give a fair sample of the type of data available 
from a study with PLATO D. 

At the end of the third week of the course, 
the instructor gave the class an examination 
covering both material taught with the machine 
and later material taught only In class. The 
average grade on this examination of the stu¬ 
dents who had participated in the study was 
almost precisely equal to the class average as 
a whole. 

Finally, we should like to report that all 
students, at leaBt for the week of the study, 


seemed entnusiastic about the machine. None 
Indicated any desire to drop out, although they 
were reminded several times that they could 
do so. 


THE COMPUTER TREE—U.S, ARMY 
BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORIES 
COMPUTING LABORATORY, 

ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, 

MARYLAND 

The automatic data processing industry is 
a direct outgrowth of Army sponsored research, 
which produced ENIAC, the first modern elec¬ 
tronic computer, in 1945, The computer indus¬ 
try has grown to a multi-billion dollar activity, 
and has penetrated every profession and trade 
in Government, business, industry, and educa¬ 
tion. The Computer Tree shows the evolution 
of computers, The serial computers, repre¬ 
sented by the EDVAC, and the parallel com¬ 
puters, represented by the ORDVAC, are shown 
as separate trunks. This has also tended to 
separate the Blower business computers from 
the taster scientific computers. Military re¬ 
quirements have fostered a central composite 
shoot and have stimulated other growths. 
Manufacturers have entered the computer field 
at different times, producing various branches 
along the main bough. The radial distance from 
the ENIAC is an approximate indication of the 
year each computer was either developed, con¬ 
structed, or placed In operation. 

The ENIAC, EDVAC, ORDVAC, and BRLESC 
were sponsored or developed by the Ballistic 
Resoarch Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Maryland (see other BRL article, this 
issue of DCN).