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14. ABSTRACT 

Sustained unilateral hand clenching alters perceptual processing and affective/motivational state, presumed to 
reflect increased hemispheric activity contralateral to the side of motor movement. Data from 
electroencephalographic and imaging studies are contradictory regarding the relationship between sustained hand 
clenching and brain activity. To investigate relationships between brain activity, sustained unilateral hand 
clenching, and changes in affect and perceptual processing, frontal hemispheric activity was measured via 

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15. SUBJECT TERMS 

Hemispheric activity. Lateralization, Cognition, fNIRS 

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ABSTRACT OF PAGES 

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Standard Fonn 298 (Rev 8/98) 
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19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 

Ruth Propper _ 

19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER 
973-655-5201 


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a. REPORT 

b. ABSTRACT 

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7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 

Montclair State University 
Research & Sponsored Programs 
1 Normal Avenue, College Hall 309 

Montclair, NJ _ 07043 -1624 _ 

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(ES) 

U.S. Army Research Office 
P.O.Box 12211 

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 


8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT 
NUMBER 


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ARO 

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NUMBER(S) 

63346-LS-RIP.l 


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3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 

5-Aug-2013 - 4-Aug-2014 

5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 

W91 INF-13-1-0312 _ 

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2. REPORT TYPE 

Final Report 

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 

Final Report: Investigation of a Neurocognitive Biomarker and 
of Methods to Mitigate Biases in Cognitive/Perceptual/Emotional 
Processing 


6. AUTHORS 
Ruth E. Propper, Ph.D. 


1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 
03-03-2016 


































Report Title 

Final Report: Investigation of a Neurocognitive Biomarker and of Methods to Mitigate Biases in 
Cognitive/Perceptual/Emotional Processing 

ABSTRACT 

Sustained unilateral hand clenching alters perceptual processing and affective/motivational state, presumed to reflect increased hemispheric 
activity contralateral to the side of motor movement. Data from electroencephalographic and imaging studies are contradictory regarding the 
relationship between sustained hand clenching and brain activity. To investigate relationships between brain activity, sustained unilateral 
hand clenching, and changes in affect and perceptual processing, frontal hemispheric activity was measured via Functional Near-Infrared 
Spectroscopy (fNIRS), using derived 02FIb prior to, during, and post-sustained unilateral hand clench. Participants’ mood and spatial 
perception were recorded pre- and post-clenching. Sustained unilateral hand clenching altered brain activity and mood, but not spatial 
perception. 02Hb increased bilaterally following sustained unilateral hand clenching, relative to baseline, regardless of hand. Sustained 
unilateral hand clenching resulted in greater ipsilateral, compared with contralateral, 02Hb. An interaction between side of hand clench and 
change in mood was in the direction predicted by theories of hemispheric lateralization of emotion: Following left hand clenching, 
individuals became more affectively negative, and following right hand clenching, they became more affectively positive. The only 
relationship between 02FIb and behavioral measures was a positive correlation between left hemisphere 02Flb during hand clenching, and 
post-clench nervousness. 


Enter List of papers submitted or published that acknowledge ARO support from the start of 
the project to the date of this printing. List the papers, including journal references, in the 
following categories: 

(a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


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(b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: 


(c) Presentations 






Number of Presentations: 0.00 

Non Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Non Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 

Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 

(d) Manuscripts 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Manuscripts: 

Books 


Received Book 


TOTAL: 







Received 


TOTAL: 


Patents Submitted 


Patents Awarded 


Awards 


Graduate Students 


NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 

Total Number: 



Names of Post Doctorates 



NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 


Total Number: 




















Student Metrics 

This section only applies to graduating undergraduates supported by this agreement in this reporting period 

The number of undergraduates funded by this agreement who graduated during this period:. 0.00 

The number of undergraduates funded by this agreement who graduated during this period with a degree in 

science, mathematics, engineering, or technology fields:.0.00 

The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and will continue 

to pursue a graduate or Ph.D. degree in science, mathematics, engineering, or technology fields:.0.00 

Number of graduating undergraduates who achieved a 3.5 GPA to 4.0 (4.0 max scale):.0.00 

Number of graduating undergraduates funded by a DoD funded Center of Excellence grant for 

Education, Research and Engineering:. o.OO 

The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and intend to work 

for the Department of Defense.0.00 

The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and will receive 

scholarships or fellowships for further studies in science, mathematics, engineering or technology fields:.0.00 


Names of Personnel receiving masters degrees 

NAME 

Total Number: 


Names of personnel receiving PHDs 

NAME 

Total Number: 


Names of other research staff 

NAME PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 

Total Number: 


Sub Contractors (DD882) 


Inventions (DD882) 


Scientific Progress 


See Attachment 


Technology Transfer 






















FINAL PROGRESS REPORT (FPR) 


Statement of problem studied/ summary of the research projects on which the 
equipment has been used, including support of the research work described in the 
proposal: Sustained unilateral hand clenching alters perceptual processing and 
affective/motivational state, with these alterations presumed to reflect increased hemispheric 
activity contralateral to the side of motor movement. By increasing the activity of one versus the 
other hemi-cortex, sustained unilateral hand clenching is thought to result in a processing bias 
toward the more activated, contralateral, hemisphere, and a concomitant change in behavior (for 
example, see Beckman, Gropel, & Ehrlenspiel, 2013; Goldstein, Revivo, Kreitler & Metuki, 
2010; Harmon-Jones, 2006; Peterson, Gravens, & Harmon-Jones, 2011; Peterson, Shackman, & 
Hannon-Jones, 2008; Propper, McGraw, Brunye, & Weiss, 2013; Schiff & Lamon, 1994; Schiff 
& Truchon, 1993; Schiff, Guirguis, Kenwood, & Herman, 1998) 

Goldstein, Revivo, Kreitler, and Metuki (2010), using a common method for inducing 
sustained unilateral hand clenching, had participants clench either their right or left hand as hard 
as possible for 45 seconds, followed by a resting period of 15 seconds, with this sequence of 
clench-rest being repeated four times. Participants then performed a line bisection task, 
considered a measure of hemispheric activation and perceptual attention, and the Remote 
Associates Task (RAT, Mednick, 1968). Sustained unilateral hand clenching of the left hand 
resulted in increased leftward line bisection bias, suggesting increased right hemisphere activity. 
Additionally, such clenching resulted in superior RAT performance, with this effect suggested to 
reflect the increased access to the wider semantic network of the right hemisphere. 

Several studies have demonstrated changes in emotional state following sustained 
unilateral hand clenching. For example, Schiff and Lamon (1994) found that the emotional tone 
of stories was more negative following left (right hemisphere activation), compared to right (left 
hemisphere activation), sustained unilateral hand clenching. Similarly, Harmon-Jones (2006) 
reported increased approach motivational affect following sustained right unilateral hand 
clenching (left hemisphere activation). The effects of hand clenching on emotional/motivational 
state are in accord with, and have been interpreted as fitting, theories of cerebral lateralization of 
emotion/motivation, with the left hemisphere being approach/positive, and the right hemisphere 
withdrawal/negative (e.g.; Davidson, 2002). 

Despite the behavioral evidence suggesting that sustained unilateral hand clenching alters 
contralateral cerebral function, thereby inducing a processing bias toward the contralateral 
hemisphere, the neural substrates underlying changes in behavior following sustained motor 
movements are not clear. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of sustained unilateral hand 
clenching seem to support the hypothesis that these motor movements increase contralateral 
frontal hemispheric activity, as demonstrated by decreased EEG power in the contralateral 
hemisphere during clenching (e.g.: Harmon-Jones, 2006; Peterson, Gravens, & Harmon-Jones, 
2011; Peterson, Shackman, & Harmon-Jones, 2008). However, examinations of cortical activity 
using imaging techniques such as Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and 
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) demonstrate both contralateral and ipsilateral 
brain activity during or following sustained unilateral hand motor movements (e.g.: Derosiere, 
Alexandre, Bourdillon, Mandrick, Ward, & Perrey, 2013) For example, Shibuya, Kuboyama, and 
Tanaka (2014), and Shibuya, Sadamoto, Sato, Moriyama, and Iwadate (2008) both using fNIRS, 
demonstrated activation of both contralateral and ipsilateral motor areas during performance of 
sustained unimanual (finger) force production. Particularly relevant, Derosiere et al. (2013), 



using fNIRS, examined frontal cortical areas during a sustained unilateral handgrip task. At high 
levels of force generation, the ipsilateral frontal lobe demonstrated greater activation than that of 
the contralateral frontal lobe. Given that currently used methods for generating contralateral 
hemispheric activity to induce changes in behavior require participants to clench their hands ‘as 
hard as they can’ for a sustained period of time (usually 45 seconds, repeated between 2 to 4 
times), and given that stronger clenching is associated with increased ipsilateral relative to 
contralateral frontal lobe activity (e.g.: Derosiere, Alexandre, Bourdillon, Mandrick, Ward, & 
Perrey, 2013), the relationship between changes in behavior induced by sustained unilateral hand 
clenching, and the neuronal processes responsible for such changes following hand clenching, is 
unclear. 

The purpose of the research was to examine motor movement-induced changes in 
perception and affective/motivational state, and their relationship to brain activity in the 
prefrontal cortex as measured via fNIRS. Line bisection was chosen because performance has 
previously been shown to change following sustained unilateral hand clenching (e.g.: Goldstein, 
Revivo, Kreitler, & Metuki, 2010), with left hand clenching resulting in leftward bias, presumed 
to indicate increased right hemisphere activity. Emotion was also assessed because changes in 
mood following sustained unilateral hand clenching have also been reported (e.g.: Harmon- 
Jones, 2006; Schiff & Lamon, 1994). These emotional changes have been consistent with 
theories of lateralization of emotional/motivation state (e.g.; Davidson, 2002), such that 
unilateral clenching of the left hand, presumed to activate the right hemisphere, results in 
negative or withdrawal motivations, and unilateral clenching of the right hand, presumably via 
activation of the left hemisphere, results in positive or approach motivations. FNIRS was used to 
assess prefrontal cortical activity following sustained unilateral hand clenching, and the 
relationships between brain oxygenation, mood, and line bisection perfonnance were examined. 
Specifically, In order to investigate the relationship between brain activity, sustained unilateral 
hand clenching, and changes in affect and perceptual processing, frontal hemispheric activity 
was measured via Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), using derived CLHb prior to, 
during, and post-sustained unilateral hand clench. Participants’ mood (via the Brief Mood 
Introspection Scale) and spatial perception (via Line Bisection) were recorded pre- and post- 
clenching. Additionally, tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), a potential indicator of 
hemispheric activity (see Propper & Brunye, 2013), was also investigated. Because TMT may 
indicate hemispheric activity, and therefore has the potential to be a marker for cognitive 
performance, linking TMT with other neurophysiological markers of hemispheric activity 
(e.g. fNIRS-derived CLHb) would support the utility of this simple measure. 

Summary of most important results: Sustained unilateral hand clenching altered brain activity 
and mood, but not spatial perception. Results revealed increased CLHb bilaterally following 
sustained unilateral hand clenching, relative to baseline, regardless of hand. In agreement with 
previous fNIRS studies, sustained unilateral hand clenching resulted in greater ipsilateral, 
compared with contralateral, CLHb. (See Appendix A for Figures of relationships between side 
of unilateral hand clench and CLFIb.) An interaction between side of hand clench and change in 
mood was in the direction predicted by theories of hemispheric lateralization of emotion: 
Following left hand clenching, individuals became more affectively negative, and following right 
hand clenching, they became more affectively positive. The only relationship between CLFIb and 
behavioral measures was a positive correlation between left hemisphere CLFIb during hand 
clenching, and post-clench nervousness. No relationship between any measure or manipulation 



with TMT was found. Result indicate sustained unilateral hand clenching alters hemispheric 
activity as well as affective/motivational state. However, the underlying relationship between 
brain activity and mood is still unclear. 

Summary of future research on which the equipment will be used: Future research will 
investigate variations in muscle strength using EMG in conjunction with behavioral, cognitive 
and fNIRS monitoring to determine if hand clenching strength is related specifically to changes 
associated with unilateral hand clenching. Other work will attempt to replicate fNIRS findings 
of primarily ipsilateral hemispheric activity subsequent to unilateral hand clenching using EEG. 
Additional research explicitly varying strength of hand clenching (for example, by having 
participants clench 50% of effort) in examinations using fNIRS and 
behavioral/cognitive/perceptual measures will further shed light on the interrelationships 
between hemispheric activity changes as a result of sustained unilateral hand clenching and 
changes in emotion, cognition, and perception. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beckmann, J., Gropel, P., & Ehrlenspiel, F. (2013). Preventing motor skill failure through 
hemisphere-specific priming: Cases from choking under pressure. Journal of 
Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 679. 

Davidson, R.J., (2002). Anxiety and affective style: role of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. 
Biological Psychiatry, 51, 68-80. 

Derosiere, G., Alexandre, F., Bourdillon, N., Mandrick, K., Ward, T. E., & Perrey, S. (2014). 

Similar scaling of contralateral and ipsilateral cortical responses during graded unimanual 
force generation. Neuroimage, 85, 471-477. 

Goldstein, A., Revivo, K., Kreitler, M., & Metuki, N. (2010). Unilateral muscle contractions 
enhance creative thinking. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(6), 895-899. 
Hannon-Jones, E. (2006). Unilateral right-hand contractions cause contralateral alpha power 
suppression and approach motivational affective experience. Psychophysiology, 43(6), 
598-603. 

Peterson, C. K., Gravens, L. C., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2011). Asymmetric frontal cortical activity 
and negative affective responses to ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective 
Neuroscience, 6(3), 277-285. 

Peterson, C. K., Shackman, A. J., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2008). The role of asymmetrical frontal 
cortical activity in aggression. Psychophysiology, 45(1), 86-92. 

Propper, R. E., McGraw, S. E., Brunye, T. T., & Weiss, M. (2013). Getting a grip on memory: 

Unilateral hand clenching alters episodic recall. PloS One, 8(4), e62474. 

Schiff, B. B., & Lamon, M. (1994). Inducing emotion by unilateral contraction of hand muscles. 
Cortex, 30(2), 247-254. 

Schiff, B. B., & Truchon, C. (1993). Effect of unilateral contraction of hand muscles on 

perceiver biases in the perception of chimeric and neutral faces. Neuropsychologia, 
31(12), 1351-1365. 

Schiff, B. B., Guirguis, M., Kenwood, C., & Herman, C. P. (1998). Asymmetrical hemispheric 
activation and behavioral persistence: Effects of unilateral muscle contractions. 
Neuropsychology, 12(4), 526. 



Shibuya, K., Kuboyama, N., & Tanaka, J. (2014). Changes in ipsilateral motor cortex activity 
during a unilateral isometric linger task are dependent on the muscle contraction force. 
Physiological Measurement, 35, 417-428. 

Shibuya, K., Sadamoto, T., Sako, K., Moriyama, M., & Iwadate, M. (2008). Quantification of 

delayed oxygenation in ipsilateral primary motor cortex compared with contralateral side 
during a unimanual dominant-hand motor task using near-infrared spectroscopy. Brain 
Research, 1210, 142-147. 

Tanaka, M., & Watanabe, W. (2011). Neural compensation mechanisms to regulate motor output 
during physical fatigue. Brain Research, 1395, 46-52. 



APPENDIX A 

Fig. 3a-3d fNIRSoft-derived frontal-view topograph, with a 190 threshold for visualization. 
‘Warmer’ colors (i.e.: red, orange, yellow) denote increasing CFHb 

3 a 02Hb in the left and right hemispheres during 30 seconds of the second left hand clenching 
condition 

Fig. 3b CFFIb in the left and right hemispheres during the 20 seconds post-clenching in the left 
hand clenching condition 

Fig. 3c OiHb in the left and right hemispheres during 30 seconds of the second right hand 
clenching condition 

Fig. 3d CFFIb in the left and right hemispheres during the 20 seconds post-clenching in the right 
hand clenching condition 


Figure 3a 


Figure 3b