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A0-A102 803 NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTEAI^RmINSTER PA AIRCRAFT—ETC F/S 6/7 

PROCEDURAL HANDBOOK FOR ESCA^ SrSTEw/ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION HE—ETCfU) 
MAY 81 R SNYDER e.inui 

UNCLASSIFIED NAOC-81066-60 
























BIB FILE COPY ADA102803 



REPORT NO. NADC-81066-60 




PROCEDURAL HANDBOOK 
FOR 

ESCAPE SYSTEM/ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 
HELMET USAGE ASPECTS, INCLUDING FAILURE ANALYSIS 


Robert Snyder 

Aircraft and Crew Systems Technology Directorate 
NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER 
Warminster, Pennsylvania 18974 


20 May 1981 



FINAL REPORT 
AIRTASK NO. 512-000002 
WUP>1J591 


Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 


Prepared for 

NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND 
Deportment of the Navy 
Washington, D. C. 20361 


^18 0 49 




NAOC Report 81065-60 


NOTICES 


REPORT NUMBERING SYSTEM - The numbering of technical project reports issued by 
the Naval Air Development Center is arranged for specific identification 
purposes. Each number consists of the Center acronym, the calendar year in 
which the number was assigned, the sequence number of the report within the 
specific calendar year, and the official 2-dlglt correspondence code of the 
Command Office or the Functional Directorate responsible for the report. For 
example: Report No. NADC-78015-20 indicates the fifteenth Center report for 
the year 1978, and prepared by the Systems Directorate. The numerical codes 
are as follows: 

CODE OFFICE OR DIRECTORATE 

00 Commander, Navy Air Development Center 

01 Technical Director, Naval Air Development Center 

02 Comptroller 

10 Directorate Command Projects 

20 Systems Directorate 

30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 

^0 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 

50 Software Computer Directorate 

60 Aircraft & Crew Systems Technology Directorate 

70 Planning Assessment Resources 

80 Engineering Support Group 

PRODUCT ENDORSEMENT - The discussion or instructions concerning commercial 
products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they 
convey or imply the license or right to use such products. 






lINCl.ASSIl'll.l) _ 

■IECU.’.ITy classification of this page (trhmn Oaia Enlarad) 


REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 


n REPORT number 


naih;-sih(i6-(i0 


3 Ape READ INSTRUCTIONS 

_ BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 

2 GOVT ACCESSION NO. S RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER 




4 title Cfnd SubUli*) 

j ProL'cdural Handbook for l-scapc Systcm/Accident 
j Investigation Helmet Usage Aspects Including 
' I'aihn'e Analvsis/- 


5 TYPE OF report » PERIOD COVERED 


l inal Keport' 


PSNFOIMIINB OmPntEPORT number 


- AkWTHCmfi; 


Robert/ Snyder 


• ■ CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERf*; 




S PERFORMING ORGANIZATION name AND ADDRESS <0 PROGRAM ELEMEN T, PROJ ECT. T ASK 

AREA « WORK UNIT NUMBERS 

Aircraft and Crew Systems Technology Directorate 

Naval Air Development Center AIRTASK NO. .SI J-()()i)()i)d 

IVarminstcr, PA 18974 _ WIIP l-i.J.S9l _ 

II CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO ADDRESS <2. RSfiORT OATB 

Naval Air Systems Command j f j2(P May 19K1 I 

Department of the Navy . u. 4tm®€R or facIs 

Washington, D.C. 20361 _ 

14 MONITORING AGENCY NAME A AODRESSflf dl/Farani (ram Conlroltlng Olllef) IS SECURITY CLASS (ol Ihit import) 


AIRTASK NO. .S 1 2-()()l)()l)2 
WIIP l-i.J.S91 

12. I^ORT OATB 

I ■' j2(r'May 19K1 i 


16 distribution statement faf thit Kmpori) 


line 1 ass i f i cd 

15* DECL ASSI FI CATION DOWNGRADING 
SCHEDULE 


■Appi'ov'cd for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 


I 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of tff mb§ifm€t In Block 20, 11 dtltoront trom Rmport) 


18 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 


19 KEY WORDS fContlnuo on tovoroo oldo U nmeomomey mnd tdonUty by block numbor) 

Pscaiie System 
Accident Investigation 
Helmet Usage 
lailure Analysis 
Handbook _ 

Vq. abstract (Conilnuo on rmyroo oldo 11 noeooomry mtd Idonttty by block numbor) 

Aircrew protective helmets are currently developed to reduce the severity 
of head impact injuries. Many helmets involved in ejections and land and water 
crashes may provide clues concerning the sequence of events immcdiatel)’ jirior 
to and/or during the accident. Helmet design may have been a factor in the 
serious and sometimes fatal injuries sustained during these accidents. This 
handbook will describe a systematic analysis of aircrewman's helmets involved 
in accidents or ejections. This analysis may identify and recognize design 
weaknesses and result in the initiation of appropriate effective remedial actio i. 


DO 


EDITION OF I NOV •! I( OMtOLCTE 

S/N 0102. LF-014-6601 


SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE fWhmi OaIA Bnimrmd) 


n ■. J 


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NADC-81066-60 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 


INTRODUCTION . I 

HANDBOOK (MANUAL) . 4 

ENCLOSURE 1 - FAULT TREE ANALYSIS. 10 

ENCLOSURE 2 - OPNAV INSTRUCTIONS FOR HELMETS INVOLVED IN EJECTIONS 

AND/OR CRASHES . 14 

ENCLOSURE 3 - DYE PENETRANT PROCEDURES . 16 

ENCLOSURE 4 - SAMPLE NADC LETTER ACKNOWLEDGING RECEIPT OF DAMAGED 

HELMET. 17 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT . 17 


Accession For 

NTIS GRAStl 
DTIC TAB n 

Unannourced □ 

Justification-. 


By-—-- 

Distribution/ 

Availability Codes 
' Avail anti/or 

Dist Special 

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I N I' K 0 1) (I C T I 0 N 


Aircrew protective helmets as traditionally and currently conceived and 
developed arc designed to prcvent/rcducc the incidence rate and severitv of air- 
crewmaii head impact injuries. In addition, helmets have been and currently arc 
em]'loyed to mount many varied oi|uipmcnts, ranging from jirotcctivc types such as 
oxvgen mask and eye protection to weapons systems elements such as target sight¬ 
ing systems. 

I here exists a body of in-service information suggesting that while the need 
tor classical head impact injury prevention type protective designs has declined, 
helmet involvement in and influence upon new forms of head and neck injuries is 
increasing. further, the evidence suggests that such injuries are increasing 
I'oth in freiiuency of occurrence and in severity. This evidence also suggests 
that some of this change in head and neck injury patterns may be due to phvsical 
interactions between the helmet (and/or helmet mounted equipments) and elements 
ot the esca[)e svstem. 

Individual!)', and statistically as a group, many helmets involved in election 
and land and water crashes may provide clues concerning the sequence of events 
immediately prior to and/or during the accident, and they also may provide defin¬ 
ition of the injury causal mechanisms. There is strong evidence at this point 
in time that helmet design has been a contributing factor in serious, sometimes 
fatal, injuries sustained during ejection. To assure (1) identification and 
recognition of .such design roles, and (2) correct definition of the problem and 
initiation of appropriate, effective remedial action, it is necessary to intro¬ 
duce a systematic analysis of helmets employed during accidents and ejections 
regardless of whether (1) the wearer sustained injuries or not, (2) injuries .-us- 
tained were head injuries, neck injuries or others and/or (.'S) whether or not the 
hell,let sustained readily apparent damage. There is a need for a continuing cri¬ 
tical reappraisal based in part u[ion in-service experience concerning the nature 
and significance of the specific threat(s) for which the helmet provides a wearer 
a measure of [Protection and, in addition, the nature and significance of injurv' 
patterns suggesting the helmet as either a causal or a contributory factor. 

Ihe specific nature of individual damage patterns and the statistical char¬ 
acteristics of these damage patterns taken as a group often may point to peculiar 
and/or to normal helmet equipment-escape system interactions ca[)able of endanger¬ 
ing ejectccs, either directly (injury) or indirectly (damage to protective or 
survival equipments capable of degrading ejectee survival in the surface envir¬ 
onment). The inspection processes herein established have been selected and/or 
developed to produce the following necessary data (1) to discern the statistical 
[Patterns, (2) to ascertain likely causal factors and undesirable interactions, 

(.p) to identify specific causal factors for specific individual damage patterns, 
and (4) to cause input of these data to the head protective escape ay^item and othei 
appro[priate design processes to enable designers to reduce frequency and severitv 
of ejectee injury and/or damage to ejectee equipments. 

To assure complete understanding of the helmet usage environments and their 
affect (s) upon (1) wearer safety, (2) helmet integrity and (.^) helmet protective 


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NADC-81066-60 


capability, it is planned that all helmets used/involved in escape and/or crash 
will be subjected to a Phase 1 Nondestructive Inspection. In the event that 
the Phase I inspection unveils indications of peculiar and/or anomalous helmet 
beh ivior, a Phase II In-depth Nondestructive Inspection will be conducted. If 
this ajipears warrented, a Phase III Destructive Test Program will be implemented 
to replicate damage pattern(s) and/or to ascertain other information concerning 
the helmet. 

This handbook presents detailed Phases I and II, including worksheets to 
be completed for each helmet received, and information to guide the investiga¬ 
tors in developing Phase III investigations tailored to the specific needs of 
each case in which destructive testing is considered necessary. The information 
obtained during these investigative efforts will be: 

(1) combined with all prior data acquired and analyzed for patterns, 

(Jl provided to the appropriate medical officer and aircraft accident/ 
incident board, and 

(.i) employed to update design and quality assurance requirements for 
helmets, heImet-mounted equipments and aircrew automated escape 
systems as appropriate. 

I'he approaches found herein and implemented by the enclosed OPNAVINST (Chief 
of .\aval Operations Instructions) and OPNAV Instruction amendments have been 
established to assure the systematic acquisition and analysis of the in-service 
data in an attempt to reduce the potential for head and neck injuries during 
escape system operation and during crash. Failure to institute systematic in- 
service data acquisition and analysis assures that only partial, piecemeal infor¬ 
mation enters the design and quality assurance requirements and may result in 
introducing bias that can degrade the helmets protective capability and the wear¬ 
er's safety. 


Issuance of this Handbook is being accompanied by the enclosed OP.NAVIN.ST 
(linclosure #2) requiring that helmets employed in ejections or crashes be sub¬ 
jected to the systematic thorough analysis herein defined to: 

(!) identify and do ument conditions attendant to the helmet's use, 

(2) identify and catalog all damage to the helmet (and where possible 
to the helmet mounted equipments involved), 

(.S) ascertain and document the nati 'e of all head and neck injuries 
sustained by the ejectee (or crashed crewman) wearing the helmet, 

(4) determine the efficacy of the helmet in preventing impact injuries 
to the head and in avoiding escape system-helmet interaction injur¬ 
ies to the ejectee's head and neck, 

(5) compare damage patterns to previously established damage patterns, 
and 


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NAI)C“ 81066-60 


(6) compare injury patterns to previously established injury patterns, 
to injury patterns for comparable helmet damage, to injury [)at- 
terns for similar conditions, and to injury patterns for compar¬ 
able damage and similar conditions. The OPNAVINST also sets forth 
the conditions which will require performance of non-destructive 
(Phase II) and destructive tests (Phase III) upon the helmet used 
and/or upon identical sample helmets for obtaining additional 
information for evaluating the performance of the helmet and/or 
possible causal factors. 

In order to assure that the helmets are delivered for analysis and to aioid 
the introduction of changes from their critical, "as used/as recovered" condition 
the OPNAVINST instructs the Fleet concerning the procedures to be observed in 
the recovery and subsequent handling, documentation, protection, packaging, and 
shipping of such helmets. 

A form letter will be generated by NAVAIRDEVCHN (Naval Air Development Cen- 


1. Acknowledging receipt of the damaged helmet 

2. Indicating when a response will be provided 

.■i. Indicating what investigative procedures will be followed. 



NADC-81066-60 


HANDBOOK (MANUAL) 

Phase I - Preliminary Nondestructive Inspection 
Phase 11 - In-depth Nondestructive Inspection 

A. Data recorded for Case No. _ 

(1) Date received _ 

(2) Shipping activity _ 

(3) Accident date _ 

(4) Type aircraft _ Bu. No. _ 

(5) Aircrew station of helmet wearer _ 

(6) Type event in which helmet was used: 

a. Ejection Yes _ No _ 

1. Type ejection seat _ 

b. Crash Yes _ No _ 

1 . Water CH Land CZl 

2. Type seat _ Where located _ 

3. Type aircraft _ 

4. Fully restrained Yes _ No _ 

(7) Enumeration of reported (MOR - Medical Officer's Report) injuries 
to head: 

(8) Enumeration of reported (MOR) injuries to neck: 


(9) If cervical fracture and/or other vertebral fractures reported 
(MOR): 


NA[){'.-810(i(i-60 


(10) Helmet wearer data: 

a• Age _ 

b. Weight _ 

e. Stature 

d. Seated height __ 

(11) Helmet data: 

a. Make _ Model 

b. Manufacturer 

c. Serial No. _ 

d. Date of Manufacture __ 

e. Form Fit [Z] I’ads [Z] 

f. Number of fitting pads _ 

1. Locations __ 

2. Thickness _ 

B. Helmet Condition Documentation: 

(1) Helmet configuration description 

a. Describe any helmet modifications from standard model, list 
all helmet mounted equipments and/or provisions for mounting 
equipments on helmet. 

(2) Complete figures 1 through 9 on Standard Helmet Damage Chart, 
indicating, through symbols and keys, how damage became apparent. 

STANDARD HF.l.MF.T DAMAGE CHART 

Figure 1. Front View 
Figure 2. Right side, exterior 
Figure .1. Left side, exterior 
Figure 4. Back, exterior 
Figure .S. Top, exterior 
Figure (>. Bottom view 
Figure 7. Back, interior 
ITgure 8. Right side, interior 
ligure 9. Left side, interior 


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NADC-81066-60 


Notes: 

1. Place following information on each figure: 

a. Case No. 

b. Type/Model Helmet __ 

c. Ser. No./Lot No. __ 

d. Examination Date 

e. Examiner/Recorder 

On interior view, number and identify each helmet pad 

(3) Photographs 

a. Normally black and white 8"xl0" glossy prints of all 
equipments received with helmet and of helmet. 

b. Color photographs to be employed only where nccessarv 
for clarity. 

c. Photographs in nine standard positions matching damage 
charts. 

(4) Coherent Light Inspection 

(Photograph any damage which was not noticeable under standard 
lighting) 

a. Light wavelength _ 

b. Light intensity __ 

c. Lens size _ 

d. Distance from lens to helmet __ 

(5) Infra-red Inspection 

(Photograph inside and out in all standard positions whether 
additional damage apparent or not) 

a. Light wavelength __ 

b. Light intensity _ 

c. Lens size _ 

d. Distance from lens to helmet 


- 6 - 


NAl)C-81()66-6() 


((') Spectral Analysis 

a. Reflective spectral analyses 

b. Refractive spectral analyses 

[lixatninc each damage area and its immediate surrouiul i ngs 
and record spectral lines and spectral line interpretations.) 

(i’l Dye Penetrant Inspection 

a. Type penetrant _ 

b. Type light _ 

c. Type intensity _ 

d. Distance from light source to helmet _ 

e. Dye penetrant procedure used ____ 

(f.nclosure I'.S to handbook) 

(Treat and examine each damage area and its immediate sur¬ 
roundings in accordance with procedure used _ 

Photograph each damage area keying photographs to Helmet 
Damage Chart.) 

(H) I’athological Inspection 

a. Analyze obvious head trauma and its relationship to the 
heImet 

b. Test for blood and blood types 


rii.i^e 111 - Destructive Analyses 

•Simulation/duplication of observed damage/degradation of the sub¬ 
mitted helmet using an identical substitute helmet. This testing 
will be done only in those cases in which it would appear that the 
helmet failed to perform a critical function within the survivable 
range of conditions. 


\. Impact Test 

Determining impact energy for helmet damage analysis 


( 1 ) 


A special helmet impact test fixture will be constructed which 
will allow duplication of damage and determination of impact 
energy. An anthropomorphic head and neck will be used to approx¬ 
imate actual head/neck response essential to the accurate deter¬ 
mination of impact energy. Similar helmets will be impacted with 
impactors of various sizes and shapes at various velocities, in 
progressive steps, until helmet damage has been closely reproduced. 


1 


I 

! 


I 

I 


r 



- 7 - 


NADC-81066-60 


B. Kiiulhlast Test 

Determination of windblast loading of helmet retention system 

ll) This test will evaluate head loading from the dynamic pressure 

of windblast on similar helmets. Of concern are those forces act¬ 
ing on the head through the helmets retention system; that is, the 
chin and nape straps. In addition, investigations will be made 
of the possible forces exerted on the neck by the helmet edge 
which may be a causative factor in recent occurrences of cervical 
fracture. The intent is to simulate ejection conditions through 
windblast and to record the above head loading data for two cases 
of windblast exposure. 

C. Chin Strap Failure Tests 

The objective of this test will be to determine the ultimate chin strap 

failure levels and mode of failure for similar helmets. 

(1) Helmet chin strap failure loading and damage analysis will be 
accomplished by two methods. 

a. Static loading - using standard chin strap test fixtures. 

b. Dynamic loading - using a specially designed load application 
device which will load the chin strap in essentially the same 
manner as experienced in ejection windblast conditions. 

D. Controlled Parachute Drop Tests 

•A possible damage causing mechanism could be related to parachute canopy 

fittings striking the helmet during the parachute opening phase of 

ej ection. 

(1) Ihe acceleration profile of the canopy fitting during the parachute 
opening will be determined for the ejection condition. 

(2) This computer analysis will use the 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory 
simulation which is in operation at NAVAIRDEVCEN. This task will 
include gathering and preparing input data, reviewing qualification 
test films, to run, compile and verify simulation for the parti¬ 
cular Navy escape system. 

(.3) Determination of worst case condition (max. parachute loading). 

(4) Output of riser acceleration and riser load time for all para¬ 
chute configurations. 

(.Sj Conduct simulated parachute drop test with input conditions (output 
of computer program) in order to determine the range of accelera¬ 
tion v^. time profiles of parachute canopy fittings. 


- 8 - 



NAl)C-8106()-()() 


Material Test of Submitted Helmet 

(1) Microscopic tests, tensilo/comprcssive tests of sections of 
material. 

(2) lixtont of dclamination. 

(5) If required, determine percentage of moisture absorbed in 
fiberglass shell. 

(4) Make similar sections of undamaged similar helmets (from the same 
manufacturer) for baseline purposes. These sections will repre¬ 
sent those sections of damaged helmets in which a pattern ma>’ 
have been set. 

lamilial Analysis 


There will be a familial (statistical, trend, etc.) analysis of obser¬ 
vations both gross as well as detailed observations obtained througli 
the non-destructive examination. 

Archival Section 

(1) Statistical and visual documentation (photographs or actual sub¬ 
mitted helmets) will be maintained for future reference. 

(2) i-stablish a reference for all items in aircraft which could come 
in contact with the helmet-head rest, koch fitting, parachute har 
ness, ejection seat, airplane canopy, etc. Identify what their 
materials are and expose them to a spectral analysis to give a 
library of lines against which these lines can be compared with 
the spectral lines of the damaged helmet. 

(5) A similar library will be established for all nondestructive test 
ing of sample undamaged helmets (from the same manufacturer) to 
establish baselines. 



NADC-81066-60 


ENCLOSURE NO. 1 - FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 


A fault tree type analysis depicts ways in which a helmet could fail to 
protect the wearer from head and/or neck injuries. Note, however, that failure 
to protect the wearer need not necessarily be the result of defective helmet 
design requirements, design execution, manufacture, and/or quality. It may ht 
the result of improper design requirements, design execution, manufacture, and/ 
or quality of other elements of the wearer's total life support system. Note 
also that in many instances the helmet may be the only recoverable evide cc for 
ascertaining what sequence of events most likely led to a specific injury. 



I AULT TRLE ANALYSIS 


NAI)(:-81()(i()-(>(l 



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NADC-81066-60 


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MOUNTED MOUNTED 

EQUIPMENTS EQUIPMENTS 


















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NADC-81066-60 


ENCLOSURE NO. 2 - OPNAV INSTRUCTIONS FOR HELMETS INVOLVED 
IN EJECTIONS AND/OR CRASHES 


OPNAVINST 3750.6L 
27 OCT 1978 

Information addressees will include: CNO, NAVSAFECEN, COMNAVAIRSYSCOM, Commandant 
of applicable Naval District, CINCUSNAVEUR (for European and Middle East area), 
CINCPACFLT (for Pacific), COMSEVENTHFLT (for Far East), CINCLANTFLT (for Atlan¬ 
tic) . 

405 d. Aviation Life Support Systems (ALSS) (R 

(1) All parachutes, parachute harnesses and associated equipment (R 
utilized in bailouts or ejections will be shipped to Commander, NAVAIRDEVCEN, 
Warminster, Pennsylvania 18974. The equipment will be clearly marked "For 
Evaluation and Testing." After preliminary investigations, and nondestructive 
testing, the complete parachute system will be forwarded to Commanding Officer, 
NATPARACHUTETESTRAN, El Centro, California, for further test and evaluation 
in accordance with NAVAIR 13-1-6.2. 


(2) All helmets involved in an aircraft accident, as described (A 
by subparagraph 105a, will be shipped to NAVAIRDEVCEN if any of the following 
criteria is met: 


(a) Damage to the helmet. (A 

(b) Failure of the visor. (A 

(c) Damaged oxygen mask pulling loose from helmet. (A 

(d) Helmet lost on ejection but recovered. (A 

(e) Neck injuries to include sprains, fractures, abrasions, (A 

contusions, or lacerations thought to be directly related to the helmet. 

(f) Facial injuries. (A 

(g) Skull fractures. (A 

(h) Unconsciousness. (A 

(i) Fatal head injuries. (A 

(j) Fatal injuries in which helmet and attachments were (A 


recovered. 

(k) Accidents of high interest (new aircraft, air shows, (A 

property damage, etc.). 

(3) Ejection seats which were activated as a result of a mishap will (A 
be shipped to the appropriate CFA and clearly marked "For Evaluation and 
Testing." 


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NAnC-81066-6() 


OPNAVINST 37S0.(il. 

J7 Ot:r 11)78 

Aiu- item of aircrew personal survival equipment that malfunctions, or was sus[)cctei.l 
to malfunction, will be shipped to NAVAIRDHVCtiN. This will include but not lie 
limited to damaged flight boots, burned flight suits, improperly functioning 
mask, flotation garments, seat survival kits, g suits, or survival vests. The 
ei|uipment will be shipped as complete as possible and not damaged or dismantled 
beyond that absolutely necessary for the accident investigation. High cost 
items such as rigid seat survival kits and radios will be returned to the parent 
activity after all the tests are completed, providing the unit is RFI . 

e. Assistance in Wreckage Recovery . In order to facilitate recovery of 
aircraft wreckage for investigative purposes, accident investigative boards of 
the military services may request assistance of the nearest military base. for 
information regarding the availability of requisite equipment, the board may 
contact the cognizant Naval or Coast Guard District (Commandant, Air l■orcc Head¬ 
quarters, or Army Area Headquarters, as appropriate. 

10(1 SPhClAL MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS 

a. The senior member of the aircraft mishap board will ensure that all 
members of the board participate in the discussion of the mcdical/human factors 
involved in the mishap. The significant findings in the AAR and the MOR must 

l<) be com[il imentary and coordinated. 

b. for specific requirements, sec Chapter VII. 


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NADC-81066-60 


ENCLOSURE NO. 3 - DYE PENETRANT PROCEDURES 


DIRECTIONS 

CLEANER 

Use on dirty parts to preclean before test. Apply wet film to part, allow solvent 
time, wipe clean with rag. Repeat if still dirty. Allow time to dry before 
using Penetrant. 

PENETRANT 

Spray Zyglo Fluorescent penetrant on suspected area to wet surface wall, pre¬ 
ferably at 60®F. or above. Allow one to thirty minutes before wiping, depending 
on crack contamination. 

REMOVE PENETRANT 

Apply CLEANER to wall and dissolve surface penetrant, and wipe clean with cloth. 

Be sure to remove all penetrant from surface - you can check with black light. 

DEVELOPER 

IMPORTANT; Shake thoroughly until agitators rattle. Spray thin coat over area 
being inspected, enough to wet surface over-all and dry to thin layer. Use 
portable high intensity black light to inspect for fluorescent indications of 
cracks, pores, etc. 

HOW TO OPERATE SPRAY CAN 

(iD®E. or above. Press trigger on top of can, with nozzle 6" to 8" from area 
to be sprayed, while moving gun in line to lay wet bath across desired area. 


- 16 - 



NADC-81066-60 


ENCLOSURE NO. 4 - SAMPLE NADC LETTER ACKNOWLEDGING 
RECEIPT OF DAMAGED HELMET. 

From: Commander, Naval Air Development Center 
To: 

Subj: Helmet(s) involved in Escape System/Accident Investigation; receipt of 

Ref: (a) Procedural Handbook For Escape System/Accident Investigation lielmet 

Usage Aspects Including Failure Analysis 

1. In accordance with reference (a), receipt of damaged helmet(s) is acknowledged. 

2. An investigation of helmet usage aspects including a failure analysis will 
be made wherever pertinent in accordance with reference (a). 

3. A response will be forwarded, when required, as soon as the investigation 
and analysis is completed. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


The author gratefully wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Fred Guill 
(NAVAIRSYSCOM, AIR-531C) in preparing this handbook. 


- 17 - 


DISTRIBUTION LIST 


REPORT NO. NADC-81066-60 

AIRTASK NO. 512-000002 
Work Unit No. WUP 1-1J591 

No. of Copies 

Commander, Naval Air Systems Command, Washington, DC . 255 

(1 for AIR-531, S31A, 531B, 5311, 5312, 250 for 521C) 

Commander, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, 

Pennsacola, FL (Felix Palmer) . 1 

Commander, Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, MD (SY-71) . 1 

Commander, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (64) .... 1 

Commander, .Naval Safety Center, Norfolk, VA (Dr. V. Voge) . . 1 

Commander, Naval Weapons Engineering Support Activity, 

Washington, DC (Code 19) 1 

Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, DC (506N) . 1 

Commandant of the Marine Corps, Washington, DC (APW-71) ... 1 

Commanding Officer, Bureau of Medicine, Washington, DC 

(Capt. L. E. Williams). 1 

Commanding Officer, U.S. Army Aeromedipal Research Laboratory, 

Ft. Rucker, AL. 1 

Commander, Aeronautical Systems, Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, 

OH. 1 

Director, Defense Technical Information Center, Alexandria, 

VA (DDA) . 12 

Me Donnell Aircraft Co., St. Louis, MO. 1 

Grumman Aircraft, Beth Page, L.I., NY . 1 

Douglas Aircraft Co., Longbeach, CA . 1 

LTV Aerospace Corp., Dallas, TX . 1 

Lockheed Corp., Burbank, CA . 1 

Martin Baker Aircraft Co., Ltd., Middlesex, England . 1 

Stencel Aero Engineering Corp., Asheville, NC . 1 

Sikorsky Aircraft Co., Stratford, CT . 1 

Boeing Vertol Co., Philadelphia, PA . 1 

Bell Helicopter Co,, Ft. Worth, TX. 1 

Centex Corp., Carbondale, PA . 1 

Scott-Sierra Engineering Co., Sierra Madre, CA . 1 






















END 

DATE 

FILMED 

9-81 

DTIC 

_ — - - - r 'ii'Tif' Tif