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Oi [THE FAMILIES OF U.S. NAVY PRISONERS OF WAR 


O. S. NICE 

b. McDonald 

T. McMILLIAN 


REPORT NO. 80-6 






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The Families of U.S. Navy Prisoners of 
War from Vietnam Five Years 
after Reunion* 


D. STEPHEN NICE** 

BARBARA McDONALD** 

TOM McMILLIAN** 

Naval Health Research Center 

Marital stability and perceptions of marital adjustment and family environment were 
investigated among Navy prisoners of war repatriated from Vietnam (RPWs) and a 
Navy comparison group. Study 1 indicated that the post-repatriation divorce rate 
among the RPW group was significantly higher than for the comparison group. Pre¬ 
dictors of divorce among RPW families included smaller number of children, longer 
captivity duration, and religious affiliation. Study IIyielded no significant differences 
when perceptions of marital adjustment and family environment were compared 
between a subset of RPW and comparison families who remained intact. A structure- 


oriented family profile was found for both 
family system adaptation to military life. 

For more than a decade, the health and well¬ 
being of the American prisoners of war 
(POWs) from Southeast Asia and their 
families have been matters of deep personal 
concern to millions of Americans. Studies of 
family adjustment during World War II 
(Boulding, 1950; Hill, 1949) and Vietnam 
(Bey and Lange, 1974; Cretekos, 1971) found 
that both the departure and the return of the 

*D»t» for the preient article were collected from 
March to Se p tembe r , 1978. Report Number 80-6 was 
supported by Naval Medical Research and Development 
Command. Department of the Navy, under Research 
Work Unit ZF51.524.022-0006. Opinions expressed in 
this paper are those of the authors and are not to be 
construed as necessarily reflecting the official view or 
endorsement of the Department cl the Navy. 

Reprint requests should be directed to Dr. Nice, 
Head Outpatient Services Division, Naval Health 
Research Center, P.O. Box 85122, San Diego, California 
92138. The authors gratefully acknowledge the 
assistance of Mrs. Dorothy Benson and Mr. James 
Phelan in the data collection and processing phases of 
this study. 

"^Outpatient Services Division, Naval Health Research 
Center, P. O. Box 85122, San Diego, California 92138. 


groups which indicated a possible general 


serviceman represented a crisis or potential 
crisis situation. While family reintegration 
difficulties might be expected following any 
period of war-induced family separation, the 
POWs of the Vietnam era were expected to 
face special problems because of the extent of 
the separation period (70 percent of the men 
were held captive for periods of four to nine 
years, [Ballard, 1973]), the family stresses and 
problems which emerged during separation 
(Hall and Simmons, 1973), and the vast 
social and technological changes effected 
throughout the Vietnam era (Segal, 1973). 
These factors prompted Segal (1973) to 
advocate a gradual and buffered program of 
societal and family reintegration. 

In anticipation of family reintegration 
difficulties, social service outreach and family 
research initiatives were included in the 
comprehensive, longitudinal health care 
follow-up of the returning POWs (Plag, 
1974). Prior to the return of the POWs, 
McCubbin et al., (1975b) interviewed 
families of men who were POWs or missing in 
action and reported changes in family 


May 1981 


JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 


431 




systems, modifications in wives’ personalities 
and expectations for marriage, and alterna¬ 
tions in family life styles. Previously, such 
changes had been found to interfere with the 
process of family reintegration (Hill, 1949; 
Baker et al., 1968) and they signaled the need 
for continued family follow-up. 

Expectations that family reintegration 
would require substantial adjustment ap¬ 
peared to be borne out as McCubbin et al. 
(1975a) found that approximately one year 
after repatriation, the process of reestablish¬ 
ing marriages and family structure involved 
extensive renegotiations between marital 
partners. The best predictors of the 12 to 16 
month follow-up criterion of family reintegra¬ 
tion were (1) length of marriage before 
casualty, (2) wife’s retrospective assessment 
of the quality of marriage before casualty, 
and (3) wife’s emotional adjustment during 
the separation period. Each of these 
predictors was positively correlated with the 
criterion. 

Although the separation and reunion 
experience was highly stressful and often 
required major adjustments for the families 
of the repatriated POWs (RPWs), the 
long-term effects of the captivity experience 
on family functioning remain unexplored. 
Long-term effects of captivity have both 
theoretical implications, regarding adjust¬ 
ment to prolonged family separation, and 
applied implications, regarding the nature 
and supportiveness of the post-captivity social 
environment. The present study investigated 
the marital stability, marital adjustment, and 
family environment of the families of Navy 
RPWs and a matched control group five years 
after reunion. 

Two separate but related investigations are 
included in the present report. In Study I, the 
incidence of divorce was investigated for all 
Navy RPWs and a Navy comparison group. 
Background factors associated with the 
occurrence of divorce among the RPWs were 
explored through correlation and regression 
techniques. 

Study II assessed the marital adjustment 
and family environments of a subset of RPW 
and control couples who remained married. 
This study was conducted in order to explore 
any differences in family functioning which 
might be attributed to the prolonged 
captivity-related separation. 


STUDY I 

Subjects 

Between February and April of 1973, a 
total of 138 Naval aviators held captive in 
North Vietnam were repatriated and returned 
to the continental United States. All of these 
men were officers and 71 percent were college 
graduates. Upon repatriation, this group was 
invited to participate in a longitudinal and 
systematic program of health care follow-up 
(Plag, 1974). 

In early 1975, procedures were initiated to 
select a matched comparison group of 138 
Naval aviators to participate in the ongoing 
medical follow-up of the RPWs. The Navy 
RPWs and the comparison group members 
were matched using the following variables: 
(1) the comparison group member was flying 
missions in Vietnam within one year of the 
RPW’s capture, (2) age, (3) year of 
commissioning, (4) job designation—pilot or 
bombardier/navigator, (5) education, (6) 
marital status, (7) rank, (8) total number of 
flight hours, and (9) type of aircraft flown in 
Vietnam (Spaulding et al., 1978). Within 
these groups, a total of 101 RPWs and 100 
comparison group members were married at 
the time of their tour in Vietnam. At the time 
of the RPWs’ casualties, the men in both 
groups were approximately 32 years of age, 
averaged about 16 years of education, had 
typically obtained the rank of Lieutenant 
Commander, and had been married for an 
average of eight years. Although there was a 
slightly higher proportion of Catholics in the 
RPW group (28 percent) than in the 
comparison group (18 percent), the two 
groups did not differ significantly on any of 
tiie demographic variables. All members of 
both groups who were married at the time of 
their tour in Vietnam were included in the 
assessment of marital stability. 

Measures 

Marital stability. The incidence of divorce 
during the five years following repatriation 
was used as the criterion of marital stability. 
Background characteristics such as age, 
rank, education, and age at marriage have 
been shown to be related to marital stability 
(Glick and Norton, 1977) and were included 
in this study as potential predictor variables 
of marital stability among the RPW families. 


432 


JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 


May 1981 




TABLE 1. ANNUAL NUMBER OF DIVORCES IN THE RPW AND COMPARISON OROUPS 



Number 
Married 
at Time 
of 

Casualty 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 

Tout 

RPW 

101 

16 

6 

1 

5 

2 

1 

31 

Comparison 

100 

6 

1 

2 

1 

3 

0 

13 


Religion, length of marriage, number of 
children, and length of captivity were also 
included as potential predictors of marital 
stability. The assessment of marital stability 
and background characteristics of the RPW 
and control families involved analyses of 
existing records and required no active data 
collection. 

Results of Study I 

Marital stability, as measured by the 
annual incidence of divorce, is shown in 
Table 1. The overall incidence of divorce 
among the RPW families was significantly 
higher than among the comparison families 
[x 1 (1) = 8.20, p < .01]. * 

In order to derive a composite of variables 
to identify those RPW families who have a 
higher probability of divorce following the 
capitivity-induced separation, eight back¬ 
ground variables conceptually related to 
marital stability were entered into a Pearson 
product-moment correlation matrix with the 
criterion measure of divorce (Table 2). This 
procedure permitted the elimination of those 
variables which did not obtain a statistically 
significant relationship with the criterion. 
Three of the original eight predictor variables 
demonstrated a significant relationship with 
the criterion measure and were entered into a 
stepwise multiple regression analysis. 1 These 
variables were: number of children, religion 
(Catholic/Non-Catholic), and length of cap¬ 
tivity. A regression equation was derived 
which yielded a significant multiple R of .39 
[F (3,96) = 5.94, p < .001]. These results 
will be discussed in conjunction with the re¬ 
sults of Study II. 


■The correction for continuity was used in the 
computation of the x l statistic. 

’The limited amount of cr it er i on variance in the 
comparison families precluded the develop men t of a 
reg ression equation in this group. 


STUDY II 

Subjects 

A subset of 29 RPW families and 38 
comparison families participated in a more 
extensive follow-up assessment of marital 
adjustment and family environment. The 
three criteria for participation in this follow¬ 
up were: (1) that the family had been inter¬ 
viewed at least once during an annual family 
follow-up initiated in 1972 (McCubbin et a/., 
1975b), (2) that the couple was married prior 
to the husband’s tour in Vietnam, and (3) 
that the marriage remained intact at the time 
of this study. A comparison of this subset of 
RPW and comparison group members 
indicated that at the time of the RPWs’ 
casualties, the men in both groups averaged 
33 years of age, had typically obtained the 
rank of Commander, had completed 16 years 
of education, and had been married for an 
average of nine years. The two groups did not 
differ significantly on any of these demo¬ 
graphic variables. There was, however, a 
significantly larger proportion of Catholics in 
the RPW group than in the comparison 
group [x 1 (1) = 4.26, p < .05]. 

Measures 

Marital adjustment. The 32-item Dyadic 
Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) was used to 
assess the marital adjustment of the 
husbands and wives in each group. The scale 
is composed of four empirically derived 
subscales which assess dyadic consensus, 
affectional expression, dyadic satisfaction, 
and dyadic cohesion. The internal consis¬ 
tency estimates (coefficient alpha) of the 
scales range from .73 to .96. Other 
psychometric properties of this scale are 
presented in the literature (Spanier, 1976). 

Family environment Family environment 
was measured by the Family Environment 
Scale, Form R (Moos, 1974). The 10 sub¬ 
scales of this 90-hem questionnaire are clus- 


May 1981 


JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 


433 








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tered into three major dimensions: (1) rela¬ 
tionship —cohesion, expressiveness, conflict; 

(2) personal growth —independence, achieve¬ 
ment orientation, intellectual-cultural orien¬ 
tation, active recreational orientation, moral- 
religious emphasis; and (3) system mainte¬ 
nance —control and organization. The inter¬ 
nal consistency estimates (coefficient alpha ) 
of the scales ranged from .64 to .79. Further 
psychometric information is presented else¬ 
where (Moos, 1974). 

In addition to the psychometric informa- ( 
tion presented in the Family Environment 
Scale Manual (Moos, 1974), Moos and Moos 
(1976), using cluster analysis on the 
normative Family Environment Scale data, 
developed a number of empirically derived 
typologies of the social environments of 
families. Six distinctive clusters of families 
were identified in this research: expression- 
oriented, structure-oriented, independence- 
oriented, achievement-oriented, moral/reli¬ 
gious-oriented, and conflict-oriented. Each 
typology was graphically represented on a 
normative standard seme profile and related 
to various background characteristics. 

Procedure 

The Dyadic Adjustment and Family 
Environment Scales were included in a larger 
research protocol which was administered to 
the members of the RPW and comparison 
groups during a series of home interviews 
conducted between March and December, 
1978. The interviews were distributed among 
a staff of two civilian psychologists, a civilian 
social worker, and an Army social worker. 
Because of the length of the assessment 
protocol and the occasional absence of a 
family member from the interview, question¬ 
naires were sometimes left with the families to 
be completed and returned at a later date. On 
those occasions when questionnaires were 
left, separate return envelopes were provided 
and each participant agreed to respond 
independently. 

Results of Study II 

For each of the four subscales of the 
Dyadic Adjustment Scale and each of the ten 
subscales of the Family Environment Scale, 
r-tests for independent samples were com¬ 
puted between RPW and comparison fami- 


May 1981 




434 


JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 









TABLE 3. ANALYSIS OF RPW AND COMPARISON FAMILY GROUPS ON THE SUBSCALES OF THE 
DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE 



RPW (N 

[ - 52)* 

Control (N . 76)*> 




Mean 

S.D. 

Mean 

S.D. 

t<df - 126) 

P 

Dyadic Consensus 

50.98 

7.06 

51.57 

12.73 

-.30 

n.s. 

Affective Expression 

9.27 

2.18 

9.26 

5.08 

.01 

n.s. 

Dyadic Satisfaction 

39.83 

6.41 

38.33 

7.67 

1.16 

n.s. 

Dyadic Cohesion 

13.47 

4.48 

15.24 

6.21 

.22 

n.s. 

■The RPW sample is represented by 23 couples with complete data and six individuals whose respective spouses 

had incomplete data. The group statistic represents the sum of all individual husband and wife (cores. 


“For the comparison group all 38 couples had complete data. 




TABLE 4. ANALYSIS OF RPW AND COMPARISON FAMILY OROUPS ON THE SUBSCALES OF THE 

FAMILY ENVIRONMENT SCALE 







RPW (N - 47)» 

Control (N - 71 )b 




Mean 

S.D. 

Mean 

S.D. 

Hdf - 116) 

P 

Cohesion 

6.91 

2.27 

6.99 

2.21 

-.17 

n.s. 

Expressiveness 

5.62 

2.14 

5.83 

2.29 

-.56 

n.s. 

Conflict 

2.94 

2.02 

2.48 

2.03 

1.20 

n.i. 

Independence 

7.00 

1.14 

6.80 

1.51 

.76 

n.s. 

Achievement Orien- 







taboo 

5.53 

1.86 

6.08 

1.83 

-1.59 

n.s. 

Intellectual-Cultural 







Orientation 

5.47 

1.95 

5.62 

2.38 

-.37 


Active-Recreational 

5.74 

2.05 

5.63 

2.11 

.30 

n.s. 

Moral-ReUgkmi 

6.38 

2.16 

5.98 

2.39 

.94 

n.s. 

Organization 

6.19 

2.07 

6.08 

2.18 

.27 

n.s. 

Control 

5.87 

2.03 

5.32 

2.15 

1.39 

n.s. 


■The RPW sample is represented by 19 couples with complete data and nine individuals whose respective spouses 
had incomplete data. The group statistic represents the sum of all individual husband and wife scores. 

b The comparison sample is represented by 34 couples with complete data and three individuals whose respective 
spouses had incomplete data. 


lies. 3 The critical level of a was set at .01 to 
correct for the experimentwise error rate 
introduced by the number of comparisons 
(Harris, 1975). As shown in Tables 3 and 4, 
no significant differences were found between 
these groups on any of the subscales of either 
the Dyadic Adjustment Scale or the Family 
Environment Scale. The absence of signifi¬ 
cant differences between the RPW and 
comparison families indicated that the 
stresses of captivity-related family separation 
had not significantly affected the long-term 
adjustment or patterns of interaction of the 
intact RPW families. 

Although the family environments of the 
intact RPW and comparison families did not 

'In this sample the pattern of in te rcorrelations of the 
10 subscaies of the Family Environment Scale roughly 
paralleled the pattern presented by Moos (1974). The 
i nte rcorre i ations of the four subscaies of die Dyadic 
Adjustment Scale ranged from .68 to .85. 


differ significantly, the availability of norma¬ 
tive data (Moos, 1974) suggested an interest¬ 
ing comparison between these Naval aviator 
families and the broader constituency of 
families sampled in the development of the 
scale norms. A normative standard score 
profile of the RPW and comparison families 
generally resembled the structure-oriented 
family typology discussed by Moos and Moos 
(1976). Both the RPW and comparison 
families who participated in the present 
investigation and the structure-oriented 
families discussed by Moos and Moos (1976) 
exhibited relatively high standard scores on 
cohesion, moral-religious emphasis, and 
organization and relatively low standard 
scores on conflict. 4 


'Complete standard score profiles of the RPW, 
comparison, and structure-oriented families are avail¬ 
able from the author upon request. 


May 1981 


JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 


435 





DISCUSSION 

As the POWs of the Vietnam Era were 
repatriated and returned home after the war, 
the process of reestablishing their marriages 
and family structure involved substantial 
renegotiations between marital partners 
(McCubbin et al., 1975a). While the large 
majority of the marriages (70 percent) 
survived this process, a significant number 
did not. McCubbin and his colleagues 
reported that during the first year following 
repatriation, the wives were in control of the 
reintegration process. Some wives had 
determined before their husbands’ return 
that they had no recourse but to terminate 
their marriages and begin new lives for 
themselves (McCubbin et al., 1975a). This 
observation is indirectly supported by the fact 
that 52 percent of all post-captivity divorces 
among RPWs occurred within the first year 
following repatriation (Table 1). 

The results of the present investigation 
indicated that the best background predictors 
of divorce among the RPWs were number of 
children, length of captivity, and religion. 
Those couples who had been separated for 
longer periods of time, had few or no 
children, and were non-Catholic were most at 
risk for divorce. The prolonged and 
indeterminate absence of the husband/father 
during the POW situation encouraged 
families to develop behaviors which may have 
actually lessened the probability of a 
successful post-reunion adjustment (McCub¬ 
bin et al., 1975a). Increases in the maturity, 
independence, and self-confidence of the 
watting wives oftentimes interfered with the 
reintegration process. The presence of the 
children, on the other hand, may have signi¬ 
fied a stronger commitment to family life 
and thus have reduced the probability of 
divorce. Likewise, membership in the 
Catholic Church was a factor in reducing the 
probability of divorce. Religious beliefs have 
previously been found to play an important 
role in the family’s ability to manage stress, 
particularly in the more severe stress 
situations (McCubbin, 1979). 

Among the RPW and comparison families 
who remained intact over the five years after 
repatriation, analyses were conducted to 
identify any residual or long-term effects of 
the POW experience on family functioning. 
These analyses revealed no significant 


differences between the RPW and compari¬ 
son families on any of the various aspects of 
marital adjustment or family environment. 
Although the family separation and reinte¬ 
gration experienced by the RPW fam ilies 
represented a prolonged period of stress and 
adaptation, long-term residual effects of this 
experience were not evident among the 
couples who remained together. It appears 
that separation-related difficulties which did 
not result in a dissolution of the marriage had 
been successfully resolved by the fifth year 
following repatriation. 

The Family Environment Scale profile of 
the RPW and comparison families who 
remained intact closely paralleled the struc¬ 
ture-oriented family typology derived by 
Moos and Moos (1976). According to these 
authors, structure-oriented families typically 
show a strong emphasis on structuring family 
activities and on explicitness and clarity with 
regard to family rules and responsibilities. In 
addition, family members are strongly 
committed to the family and consider 
themselves, in general, to be mutually helpful 
and supportive (Moos & Moos, 1976). Such 
emphasis on structured activities, role clarity, 
and intrafamily support may represent an 
adaptation of the family system in order to 
stabilize the effects of disruptions, such as 
family separation and geographic mobility, 
which are inherent in Navy life. This 
hypothesis is consistent with a dynamic model 
of family stress proposed by McCubbin 
(1979). Building on the work of Hill and 
Hansen (1962), Burr (1973), and others, 
McCubbin postulated that family adaptation 
to stress involved a complementary relation¬ 
ship between the reactive management of 
stress-reducing resources within the family 
unit and the active processes of coping and 
adaptation. McCubbin hypothesized that 
"families manage their internal affairs to 
maximize the flow of energy into the employ¬ 
ment of coping behaviors effective in 
diverting, reducing, or possibly removing the 
sources of stress” (McCubbin, 1979:238). 
While specific coping behaviors were not 
assessed in the present investigation, we 
believe that the structure-oriented pattern of 
conflict inhibition and moral-religious emp¬ 
hasis may facilitate the rapid mobilization of 
coping resources and thereby reduce family 
vulnerability to stress and enhance recovery. 
Although the results of this small, select 


436 


JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 


May 1981 


subsample of Naval aviators should not be 
generalized, more extensive investigations of 
the social environments of military families 
may prove valuable in understanding the 
processes of family adaptation to military life, 
the health and health care utilization impli¬ 
cations of the military family as a social 
support, and the potential effectiveness of 
various family support programs. 


REFERENCES 

Baker, S.. L. Cove, S. Fagen, E. Fischer, end E. Janda 

1968 “Impact of father absence III. Problems of 
family reintegration following prolonged father 
absence.” American Journal of Orthopsychia¬ 
try 38 (2):347 (abstract). 

Ballard, P. A. 

1973 “POW problems: A psychosocial viewpoint." 
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 
American Psychological Association, Honolu¬ 
lu (August). 

Bey, D. and T. Lange 

1974 “Waiting wives: Women under stress." 
American Journal of Psychiatry 131 (March): 
283-286. 

Boulding, E. 

1950 “Family adjustments to war separations and 
reunions.” The Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science 272 
(November):59-67. 

Burr. W. 

1973 Theory Construction and the Sociology of the 
Family. New York:John Wiley and Sons. 

Cretekos, C. J. G. 

1971 “Common psychological syndromes of the 
Army wife.” Paper presented at the annual 
meeting of the American Psychological Asso¬ 
ciation, Washington, D.C. (May). 

Glick, P., and A. Norton 

1977 “Marrying, divorcing, and living together in 
the U.S. today.” Population Bulletin 32 (5): 
1-39. 

Hall, R., and W. Simmons 

1973 “The POW wife—a psychiatric appraisal.” 
Archives of General Psychiatry 29 (November): 
690-694. 


Harris, R. 

1975 A Primer of Multivariate Statistics. New York: 
Academic Press. 

Hill. R. 

1949 Families Under Stress. Westport, Connecticut: 
Greenwood Press. 

Hill. R.. and O. Hansen 

1962 “The family in disaster.” Pp. 185-220 in G. 
Baker and D. Chapman (Eds.), Man and 
Society in Disaster. New York: Basic Books. 

McCubbin, H. 

1979 “integrating coping behavior in family stress 
theory.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 41 
(May):237-243. 

McCubbin. H., B. Dahl, G. Lester, and B. Ross 

1975a “The returned prisoner of war: Factors in 
family reintegration.” Journal of Marriage and 
the Family 37 <August):471-478. 

McCubbin, H., J. Hunter, and B. Dahl 

1975b "Residuals of war: Families of prisoners of 
war and servicemen missing in action.” Journal 
of Social Issues 31 (4):9S-109. 

Moos. R. 

1974 Preliminary Manual for the Family Environ¬ 
ment Scale. Palo Aho: Consulting Psycholo¬ 
gists Press. 

Moos, R.. and B. Moos 

1976 “A typology of family social environments.” 
Family Process 15 (4):357-372. 

Flag, J. 

1974 “A proposal for the long-term follow-up of 
returned prisoners of war, their families and 
families of servicemen missing in action: Basis 
for the delivery of health cate services.” Paper 
presented at the Prisoner of War Research 
Conference, San Diego, California (April). 

Segal, J. 

1973 "Therapeutic consideration in planning the 
return of the American POWs to continental 
United States.” Military Medicine 138 (2):73- 
77. 

Spanier, G. 

1976 "Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for 
assessing the quality of marriage and similar 
dyads.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 38 
(February): 15-28. 

Spaulding, R., L. Murphy, and J. Phelan 

1978 “A comparison group for the Navy repatriated 
prisoners of war from Vietnam: Selection 
procedures used and the lessons learned.” 
Technical Report Number 78-22. San Diego: 
Naval Health Research Center. 


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JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 


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The Families of U.S. Navy Prisoners of War from 
Vietnam Five Years After Reunion 

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D. Stephen Nice, Barbara McDonald,.and 

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19. KEY WORDS (Conttnua on ravaraa alda It nacaaaary and Idantlly by block numbar) 

POW 

Family Environment 

Families 

Marital Adjustment 

20 ABSTRACT (Contlnua on ravaraa alda II nacaaaary and Idantlly by block numbar) 

Marital stability and perceptions of marital adjustment and family environment 
were Investigated among Navy Prisoners of War repatriated from Vietnam (RPWs) 
and a Navy comparison group. Study I indicated that the post-repatriation 
divorce rate among the RPW group was significantly higher than for the compari¬ 
son group. Predictors of divorce among RPW families Included smaller number of 
children, longer captivity duration, and religious affiliation. Study II 
yielded no significant differences when comparing perceptions of marital 


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adjustment and family environment between a subset of RPW and comparison fami¬ 
lies who remained intact. A structure-oriented family profile was found for 
both groups, indicating a possible general family system adaptation to military 
life. 


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SECURITY CLASSIFICATION of THIS PAOECR»i»n Data Entarad)