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ID-A133 680 AN INTELLIGENT fiATEHAV FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 

THE TECHNOLOGV INFORMATION SVSTEM(U) DEFENSE TECHNICAL 
INNORHATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA G A COTTER JUN 84 
UNCLASSIFIED DTIC/TR-83/6 F/G 5/2 


END 






















MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A 











REPRODUCED AT GOVERNMENT EXPENSE 


DT1C/TR 83/6 


r 

AD-A133 800 


AN INTELLIGENT GATEWAY 
FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
THE TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEM 

JUNE 1984 



Office of Information Systems and Technology 
Defense Technical Information Center 
Cameron Station 
Alexandria, Virginia 22304-6145 










REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 


la. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 
Unclassified 


2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 


2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 


4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 

DTIC-TR 83/6 


6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 
Defense Technical Information 
Center 


6c ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 
Cameron Station 

Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 


8a. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 
ORGANIZATION 

Defense Technical Information 
Pfintfir 


8c ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 
Cameron Station 

Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 


6b OFFICE SYMBOL 
(If applicable) 

DTIC 



lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 


3 DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF REPORT 


5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 


7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION 


7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 


9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 


10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 


PROGRAM 
ELEMENT NO. 

65801S 


PROJECT- 

NO. 



it. TITLE (Include Security Classification) 

An Intelligent Gateway for the Department of Defense, The Technology Information System (u) 


13b. TIME COVERED 
FROM_ TO 


14. DA T< = OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 
19o4 June 


COSATI CODES 


GROUP SUB-GROUP 


12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 

Cotter, Gladys A. 


13a. TYPE OF REPORT 
Technical Report 


16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 

Presented at the Air Force Scientific and Technical Information Officers Policy 
Conference, Alexandria, VA, 


18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) 
Intelligent Gateway, Information Processing, Information 
Exchange, Information Centers, Information Retrieval, 
Information Systems, Information Sciences 


19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) 

The Director of Research and Laboratory Management, Office of the Under Secretary of 
Defense for Research and Engineering, Research and Advanced Technology (0 USDRE(r/at/r/LM)) 
has directed that DTIC be the DoD focal point for development of an intergovernmental 
intelligent gateway computer system. The gateway is a cooperative effort among DoD/DTIC, 
DOE, NASA, and NTIS. Present day access to information resources (databases) is limited 
since each database has its own complex access procedures and command language. In 
addition, results from multiple databases cannot be combined or analyzed easily by the user. 
The gateway system will provide DoD researchers and managers access to many different 
databases using a single, simple access procedure. .Data Analysis, merging, post processing, 
and graphical presentation can be easily and quickly accomplished through the gateway. 


20 DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY Of ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 

O unclassified/unlimited 13 same AS rpt □ dtic users Unclassified 


22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 122b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) I 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL 

Gladys A. Cotter_1(202) 274-7661 I DTIC-JA 


00 FORM 1473, 84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 

All other editions are obsolete. " — ——— — 


Unclassified 










































BACKGROUND 


The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) is 
participating in an joint agency effort with the Department of 
Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
(NASA) to develop an intelligent gateway computer system. We have 
similar and often mutual users who need access to a wide variety 
of information resources, many of which are available online. 
Unfortunately, incompatible computer resources, complex and 
different access procedures and command languages, and the absence 
of the ability to aggregate, post-process and analyze data online 
limit the usage and usefulness of these resources. Our goal is to 
maximize online availability of these resources through the u r e of 
an intelligent gateway computer. 

Each participating agency is responsible for developing a 
directory of the online information resources under its control. 
DTIC has surveyed the DoD community to identify existing DoD 
databases, their scope and availability for sharing. Survey 
results are being used to develop the DoD resource directory and 
determine which databases should be accessible through the 
gateway. This information will provide the basis for establishing 
a DoD gateway which, in turn, will be a node in an 
intergovernmental gateway network with NASA and DOE. This network 
is depicted in Figure 1 . 


THE TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEM (TIS) 


The Technology Information System (TIS), currently under 
development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), 
is the prototype system for the network. TIS is an intelligent 
gateway computer system which provides for distributed networking, 
electronic communication, interactive modeling, data management, 
and graphics. 























The current method for searching a database by use of a remote 
terminal requires that the researcher identify and access an 
appropriate distant computer and follow the unique search 
practices that have been programmed into it. The normal search 
requires that several databases be accessed, probably more than 
once each, and the researcher is burdened with interpreting and 
following a different instruction manual for each system. The 
product of the search is a volume of printed matter that must be 
culled for the relevant material that is to be retained for use. 
For the infrequent user, most of the time and effort expended in a 
search are non-productive; they are given over to identifying 
appropriate databases, accessing them, reading instruction 
manuals, and cutting and pasting printouts. The need is for the 
resulting information product, which takes relatively little time 
to assemble. The rest of the search process is expensive 
overhead. 

The Technology Information System links people, information 
centers and computers. To accomplish this TIS functions as an 
electronic switch, a translator, a super-intelligent terminal, a 
communications interface and a transaction controller. TIS 
streamlines, speeds-up, and modernizes the search process by 
providing a fast, smart robot to do much of the drudge work. The 
researcher need only access one computer — TIS — and learn one 
set of access protocols. Through TIS, the researcher has a single 
point of access to multiple, diverse databases which are 
geographically distributed throughout the world. TIS provides a 
directory of resources which can be accessed through the gateway 
and automatically switches authorized users to the information 
utility of their choice. TIS provides a protocol translator for 
connecting to and disconnecting from these resources. Users are 
provided online instructions, sample search sessions, and contact 
points with phone numbers for each of the resources. In 
addition, data analysis can be performed through the extensive TIS 
library of post-processing routines. As a result, TIS eliminates 
much of the non-productive overhead of d .tabase searching. 

















COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITIES 


Communications capabilities are the backbone of any gateway 
system and TIS has many outstanding features here. Users can 
access TIS via TYMNET, ARPANET, ETS, WATS and commercial phone 
lines. After login, many communications options are available. I 
will focus on electronic mail, write, link, connect, dial, and 
download. 

Electronic Mail 


Electronic mail service is available to all TIS users twenty 
four hours a day. Standard electronic mail features, such as 
send, receive, answer, and forward, are incorporated. Mail 
messages can be sent simultaneously to multiple addresses, with 
lengthy documents attached if needed. Users recognize the 
benefits of being able to comunicate with numbers of people at the 
same time and of avoiding the call-back routine. Messages can be 
filed for future reference or deleted from the system upon 
command. 

Write 

WRITE is another communications option, which allows users 
online to communicate with each other via their terminals. You 
first enter the command $WH0, to get a display list of who is 
currently online. You then enter the command ^WRITE, followed by 
the name of the user you wish to communicate with, which notified 
that user who then has the option of responding. The WRITE 
command is only useful when parties who want to communicate are at 
their terminals, by chance or arrangement, at the same time. 

Link 


The LINK command is unique to TIS and allows users at 
different and various locations to link their terminals so that 
they are viewing the same data display. All users have control 







over the display and can issue commands at will. Of course, 
linking necessitates a cooperative spirit and some coordination. 

The LINK command has proven advantageous in numerous 
situations. For example, an instructor can provide on-line 
tutorials to a student or a class at a different location. This 
technique was used by Dr. Sullivan of the Chemical Information 
System (CIS), in Washington, D.C., to provide a demonstration of 
CIS to a class in Brazil. The use of a speaker phone enhanced 
this demonstration by providing simultaneous voice communication. 

The LINK command is also useful for joint online editing of 
reports. This practice eliminates mail delays and allows users to 
discuss changes while viewing the data together. 

Through the LINK command information specialists and 
end-users can perform interactive database searches. The end-user 
benefits from the specialist's expertise while the specialist 
benefits from the end-user's immediate feedback. This 
communications capability can be used to facilitate technology 
transfer from the government to industry. 

Connect 

The CONNECT command provides users with automatic access to 
information resources. Users do not have to know telephone 
numbers, ARPANET locations, passwords, access protocol or logout 
protocol. The user issues the CONNECT command and a data resource 
name. TI3 then attempts to establish a connection to the resource 
and logs the user in. The user is provided feedback during this 
process with a display such as: 

Attempting TTH1ET connection to DoD/HATRIS 
Connection made 

Attempting login to DoD/HATRIS 
Login complete 

DoD/MATRIS is ready. Please enter your request. 



TIS uses TYMNET, TELENET, ARPANET, COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE and PTS to 
establish connections. 


The CONNECT command can be used to access information centers 
worldwide. Systems such as DoD/MATRIS, DOE/RECON, NASA/RECON and 
DIALOli are currently available. In order to be eligible to use 
the CONNECT command for access to a resource, a TIS user 
establishes an account with that resource and obtains the required 
access identification information, such as passwords, to be 
programmed into the gateway by the TIS Data Base Administrator. 

The billing process is unaffected by gateway access. Vendors 
maintain the same billing structure and users maintain the same 
reimbursement structure, regardless of the TIS access procedures. 
TIS has several levels of security to ensure that password 
integrity is not violated. 

Dial 


Users who wish to access a resource other than those listed 
in the TIS resource directory take advantage of the DIAL command, 
rather than the CONNECT command. DIAL allows users to call any 
information center, computer, or terminal, no matter where the 
location. Using DIAL implies that the user knows the necessary 
passwords and telephone numbers. DIAL allows the user to access 
an off-network facility while retaining TIS capabilities such as 
downloading and file transfer. 

Downloading 


Once you are connected to a resource through TIS, you can 
download data from that resource. Downloading data opens many 
options to you. For example, you can review it at your own pace, 
merge it with other data, and share it with other users by 
allowing them to access your file. You can also transfer your 
file to other users so that they can manipulate the data to suit 
their own needs. You can share your data selectively on a 
worldwide basis. 















POST PROCESSING 


TIS offers a library of post-processing routines for numeric 
and bibliographic data. In order to execute post-processing 
routines, users must download the data into a TIS file. 
Post-processing routines, as with the CONNECT command, are 
available for selected resources. The routines currently 
available are REVIEW, DISPLAY, PERMUTE, CROSS-CORRELATE, and 
CONCORD. 

REVIEW allows users to process citations and determine 
relevance at their convenience. Users are presented with the 
author, title, date and several lines of an abstract. Based on 
this information they may choose to continue to work with the 
citation or discard it and move on to the next. If they continue 
to work with the citation they may add local options, which 
include assigning relevancy values and index categories that are 
searchable. Users also can flag citations for which they wish to 
order the full text, plus add their own comments to a citation. 

The DISPLAY routine allows users to generate bar charts 
representing the yearly publication rate for a subject area, 
personal author, or corporate author. This type of graphic 
representation makes growth trends immediately apparent. 

PERMUTE provides statistics on the frequency of occurrence 
for descriptive terms in the citations. Single and compound 
expressions containing up to four terms are analyzed. These terms 
are presented in alphabetic order, preceded by the number of 
occurences. 

The CROSS-CORRELATION and CONCORD routines analyze the 
relationships among data elements chosen by the user. These 
routines provide intelligence that is very tedious to extract 
manually from standard bibliographies. 







A goal which is shared by DTIC, NASA, and DOB is to provide 
our users with the capability to merge search results from our 
databases, eliminate duplicate citations, and produce one relevant 
information product in the desired format. We want our users to 
be able to work with our databases and get more value from them. 

We are convinced that TIS is a major step toward achieving this 
goal. 

Output from TIS can be transfered to word processors and 
merged with reports, sent to typesetters as camera ready copy or 
routed to high speed printers. TIS simplifies all phases of 
technical reporting. Information processing, report generation, 
review and release and publication can all be accomplished through 
TIS with this printing interface capability. 

TIS is linking the electronic office, on-line information 
centers, computer centers and home computers. Through the 
integrated information system, it provides unified access to 
numerous, dissimilar data files. Some of the ways in which TIS 
currently is being used are: 

. To find, aggregate, organize, evaluate, and report 
technical inforraation/data. 

. To do comparative, interactive modeling and 
performance prediction. 

. To provide communications among administrators and 
project staff, nationwide. 

. To access any national or international information 
center, or domestic or foreign-based computer. 

TIS brings high ^’cir ,/ to the database searching process 
because: 
















. It integrates all of the procedural and mechanistic 
functions of the process in one automated system that 
is search-logic specific. 

. It automatically provides connections between and 
among information systems. 

. It provides routines to extract, aggregate, 

disaggregate, and post-process data collected during 
search. 

. It provides routines for generating conventional 
graphics. 

. It is friendly with - even compassionate of - 

computers, terminals, word processors, typesetting 
equipment, and other hardware. 

. It is indifferent to the communications path - trunk 
line, PTS, WATS, TYMNET, ARPANET - as long as someone 
pays the bill. 

. It provides users with a guiding menu and help 
o ptions. 

TIS is running on a VAX-11/780, uses the UNIX operating 
system, and includes INGRES as the database management system. 

INTERAGENCY DEVELOPMENT GOALS 

A Steering Committee, comprised of representatives from DoD, 
NASA and DOE, meets on a regular basis to establish mutual goals 
for TIS and evaluate progress toward achieving those goals. Our 
ultimate objective is to develop a system which can respond to a 
researcher's information need by locating the appropriate 
databases conversing with them on the researcher's behalf, and 









providing a single, final, relevant information product. We are 
proceeding towards this goal in stages which we believe are 
realistic from technological and budgetary viewpoints. 

The development goals for FY 1984 are to extend the TIS 
post-processing routines to all of our databases and to initiate 
efforts to provide automatic multi-file post-processing. As 
mentioned earlier, multi-file post-processing involves the 
elimination of duplicate citations. To accomplish this, we plan 
to utilize TIS to translate citations into a common format and 
execute an algorithm for identifying duplicate citations. The 
formula for the algorithm has yet to be developed, but initial 
discussions indicate that some combination of author, report date, 
and title will be utilized. Users will be able to override 
machine decisions about duplicates, if they desire. In addition, 
we want to have menus available so that users can add databases to 
the post-processing programs. Many of these efforts will be 
carried over into 1985* 

Also in FY 1985, we will concentrate on developing a design 
for a common interface for querying diverse databases. This 
interface will relieve the user of the need to learn and master 
separate languages and procedures for each data base accessed. We 
intend to explore command-, menu- and natural lanaguage-oriented 
interfaces. It is possible that the disparate needs of our user 
community will require that more than one type of interface be 
implemented. Research, development and implementation efforts in 
this area will carry on through FY 1987- 

DoD IMPLEMENTATION 

DTIC has the mission to explore and acquire techniques and 
arrangements to facilitate access to 3TI data bases, on-line 
services, and networks relevant to the conduct and management of 
research and engineering programs. In recognition of this 




mission, DTIC was established as the DoD focal point for all 
actions required to develop 'CIS for the DoD community. These 
actions include coordinating requirements from all DoD sources and 
serving as a channel for interservice funding of the project. 

At the present time, all system development, test and 
evaluation is taking place on the TIS prototype system at LLNL. 
DTIC is sponsoring a number of DoD user entities who have agreed 
to test TIS in their operations and make recommendations regarding 
its evolution into a DoD Intelligent Gateway System. These users 
are issued TIS passwords and dial into the LLNL prototype via 
TYMNET or WATS lines. Users can choose the applications they wish 
to test. TIS orientations are provided at DTIC, or at the user's 
location through TIS linking technology. We also provide 
demonstrations of the system for interested members of the DoD 
community. 

During FY 1985, DTIC will procure equipment for the DoD 
gateway prototype. The TIS software will be ported to the DoD 
equipement. Our current plans call for the DoD gateway prototype 
system to be sited at the Pentagon. 

The DoD system will be run in test mode for 12 months. 
Selected members of the DoD user community will be invited to 
participate in the test and evaluation. The purpose of this 
period will be to demonstrate "proof-of- concept". If all goes 
well, the system will be moved to an operational status shortly 
thereafter. 

If you would like further information on this topic, you can 
contact: 

Defense Technical Information Center 

ATTN: Gladys Cotter 

DTIC-JA 

Cameron Station 

Alexandria, VA 22514 

(202) 274-7661 or AV 284-7661 







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