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NAVAIR 50-1C-554 


NAL CLIMATIC 
ORTHERM 
RATING AREA 




SEP, 198 8 50 ' 




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PREPARED BY 

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ASHEVILLE, N.C. 

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PREPARED U^:DER THE AUTHORITY OF 
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STENNIS S.'ACE CENT'^R, VIS 33529-5000 


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NAVAIR 50-1C-554 


U.S. NAVY REGIONAL CLIMATIC 
STUDY OF THE NORTHERN 
CALIFORNIA OPERATING AREA 


SEP, 1988 



PREPARED BY 

NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHY COMMAND DETACHMENT, 
ASHEVILLE, N.C. 

PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF 
COMMANDER, NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHY COMMAND 

STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MS 39529-5000 










TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Page 


Introduction.iv-xvil 

References.xvm-xix 

Element Index.1 

Monthly Elements (charts and tables).2-241 

Station Climatic Summaries. 242-253 


FIGURES 


FIGURE 1. Study Area Locator Map 


and Bathymetry Chart.V 

FIGURE 2. Topographic Chart.Vll 

FIGURE 3. Surface Currents 

(summer and winter).viii 

FIGURE 4. January and July Mean 

Sea-Level Pressure and 
Vector Mean Winds. X 


FIGURE 5. Mean Annual Precipitation. XI 

FIGURE 6. Mean Number of Annual 

Thunderstorms . XII 


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U. S. NAVY REGIONAL CLIMATIC STUDY OF THE NORTHERN 
CALIFORNIA OPERATING AREA 


The U.S. Navy Regional Climatic Study of the Northern California Operating Area was 
prepared by the Officer in Charge, Naval Oceanography Command Detachment, Asheville, 
North Carolina under authority of Commander, Naval Oceanography Command. The work was 
performed at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Specific acknowledgement of the 
NCDC staff is made to Messrs. J. D. Elms and W. A. Brower, co-project leaders; Messers. 
C. N. Williams, Jr., R. G. Baldwin and Ms. P. L. Franks for data processing and digital 
graphics; Mr. M. J. Changery and Dr. W. J. Koss for technical review; and Messrs. M. G. 
Burgin and S. J. Miller for their drafting skills. 


Geographical and Data Coverage 

This study, entitled the U.S. Navy Regional Climatic Study of the Northern 
California Operating Area, is for the region which encompasses most oT tfii contiguous 
U.S. Pacinc Loast and waters some 500 to 700 miles offshore (35‘^N to 50ON; 121°W to 
1360W). The selected limits allowed for a small overlap with the Southern California 
Operating Area study (Naval Oceanography Command, 1983) and enough northern extent to 
cover the coasts of Oregon, Washington, and the southern tip of Vancouver Island. The 
longitudinal limits allowed the inclusion of the Puget Sound area and, in conjunction 
with the northern limit, the Strait of Juan De Fuca. From the western limit it is 
obvious that the greatest interest, and therefore emphasis, was placed on the marine 
areas. Figure 1 outlines the study area and shows the location of the land station 
summaries, location of moored buoys and bathymetry information. 

Surface marine observation statistics are presented on monthly charts in the forms 
of graphs, tables and isopleth maps. Land station data appear graphically and in Station 
Climatic Summary tables. The marine data (mostly from ships of opportunity) were 
summarized and machine plotted by one-degree quadrangle. Data for the moored buoys were 
summarized independently and plotted at their locations so comparisons between the data 
sources could be made as the charts were being subjectively analyzed. The graphs and 
tables for the marine areas are also presented by one-degree quadrangles (for visibility, 
wave heights, and wind roses). The geographical area for the tables and wind roses had 
to be divided and presented on two pages for clarity. These graphs and tables represent 
the objective compilation of available ship data; the data were not adjusted for 
suspected bias (low observation count, heavy weighting of observations during a short 
time interval, biases in coding, etc.), and differences may be found when comparing the 
graphical data with isopleth analyses. The total number of observations for a given 
one-degree square should always be considered when interpreting the data, as there may be 
an insufficient number to permit representative statistics. 

Just over two million surface marine observations were used in computing the 
statistics. These data were collected by ships of various registry traveling in the 
area. Many of the ships observations are presently transmitted over the Global 
Telecommunications System, captured and archived. However, many are digitized from ship 
log forms by various participating members of the World Meteorological Organization, and 
exchanged under international agreement among the various maritime nations of the world. 
Data for this study date back to 1854 and run through 1985. The bulk of the observations 
are from the last 30 years, which is significant because more recent observations contain 
more elements than pre-1948 reports. The density of observations is greatest along the 
major shipping routes; in this area major ship traffic moves north-south just off the 
coast, and along the major Asian routes to and from San Francisco, Portland, Tacoma and 
Vancouver. With the amount of traffic in the study area, the data are fairly evenly 
distributed among the one-degree squares. Higher observation counts are found just off 
the coast of the major ports. 

The mean sea current charts were obtained from available ship's "set and drift" 
measurements that had been forwarded to the Naval Oceanographic Office from ships of 
various registry. The data were summarized to give the primary and secondary current 
directions and mean speeds. 


IV 



FIGURE 1. STUDY AREA LOCATOR MAP AND BATHYMETRY CHART 


V 


















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Physical Features 

The northern California operating area borders along most of the contiguous U.S. 
Pacific Coast as it extends from south-central California near Pismo Beach to near Cape 
Cook on Vancouver Island, Canada. The western U.S. Coast does not have an extensive 
coastal plain as does the Atlantic Coast, but is characterized by steep sea cliffs, rock 
terraces, and notched fjords. Mountains nearest the Pacific Coast are simply referred to 
as the Coast Range, and within the study area they run the full length of the Pacific 
Coast except for the break at San Francisco Bay. From Vancouver Island, which is mostly 
mountainous, the Coast Range extends southward into southern California where it joins up 
with the Sierra Nevada Mountains at the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. 

Although it is part of the Coast Range, Mt. Olympus in northwestern Washington state 
appears to stand alone as it towers over the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the north and the 
Willapa Hills (elevation 1000 to 3000 feet), which lie to the south between the Chehalis 
River valley and the Columbia River valley. While a few peaks in the Coast Range reach 
over 8000 feet, most have elevations between 4000 and 7000 feet. 

Farther inland, paralleling the Coast Range, is a significantly higher range made up 
of the Cascade Mountains in the north and the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the south. The 
increased height of these mountains make them a much more influential climate barrier 
because they separate the wetter western section from the drier, almost desert, region to 
the east. In fact, probably only in the Himalayas would a greater rainfall and 
temperature contrast be found between the windward and leeward side of the mountains 
(Miller, et al., 1954). The Cascade Mountains extend out of Canada into northern 
California to include Mt. Lassen on the northeastern edge of the Sacramento Valley. 
Although there is a break in the Cascade range in the vicinity of the Pitt River between 
Mt. Shasta and Mt. Lassen, the Cascade range includes Mt. Lassen because it is of 
volcanic origin as is most of the Cascade range, whereas the Sierra Nevada range is of 
monadnock formation. Basically, the eastern rim of the Central Valley, which is a 
combination of the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, is formed by the Sierra 
Nevada range. 

The higher volcanic peaks of the Cascades are: Mt. Baker (10,730 ft.) near the 
Canadian border; Mt. Rainer (14,408 ft.) the highest peak of the Cascades in central 
Washington; Mt. Adams (12,307 ft.) just north of the Columbia River basin; Mt. Hood 
(11,235 ft.) just south of the Columbia River basin; the Three Sisters (10,354 ft.) in 
central Oregon; Mt. Shasta (14,162 ft.) in northern California; and Mt. Lassen (10,457 
ft.) just south of the Pitt River, which is the most southern peak in the range. Few 
passes are found in the Sierra Nevada range and those are generally 7000 to 9000 feet 
above sea level. This gives the range a rather continuous ridge appearance with fewer 
prominent peaks than the Cascades. Mt. Whitney (14,494 ft.) at the southern end of the 
Sierras, however, is the highest peak in the contiguous United States. Of geological 
note, Mt. Whitney is also less than 85 miles from the lowest point in the country, 
located in Death Valley at 276 feet below sea level. For a visual perspective of the 
elevations within the study area see Figure 2 (Topographic Chart). 

The North American Pacific Continental Shelf is relatively narrow, especially when 
compared to those on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Because of the narrow shelf and the 
steep terrain along the Pacific Coast, storm surges are of little consequence to the 
general population. As the narrow continental shelf helps restrict the size of the storm 
surges, the sharp rise in elevation near the coast limits possible damage because the 
terrain height is generally greater than the potential height of the storm surge (U.S. 
Department of Commerce, 1980). 


Tsunamis are seismic sea waves generally produced by submarine earthquakes or 
volcanic eruptions, and can be of enormous size. Structurally they are long gravity 
waves capable of traversing an entire ocean, which upon reaching shallow water greatly 
increase in height. Near shore they often become breaking waves of great force causing 
significant damage, or cause rapidly rising water levels which flood low lying areas. 
Fortunately, for the study area, tsunamis are relatively rare. However, the Alaskan 
earthquake of March 1964 did affect the Pacific Northwest Coast where, in the vicinity of 
Crescent City, California, the water elevation rose approximately 6.3 meters above the 
mean lower low-water level (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1980) thereby causing extensive 
damage. Only two other tsunamis have caused major destruction in recent times; the Great 
Aleutian Tsunami of 1946, which killed 173 people in Hawaii when heights of 55 feet were 
reported, and the 1960 Chilean Tsunami which killed 61 people in Hawaii along with 330 in 
Chile and 199 in Japan (Houston and Garcia, 1978). 


VI 







FIGURE 2. TOPOGRAPHIC CHART 


VII 







VIII 





















The California Current, which is an extension of the Subarctic Current, is a cold 
current that runs froms north to south along the west coast of the United States. Being 
driven by wind stress, this current is mainly controlled by the interaction between the 
north Pacific subtropical high and the thermal low located over the southwestern United 
States. The circulation away from the coast in the near-surface layer causes upwelling 
of colder water from depths of 50 to 200 meters (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1980). The 
upwelling is strongest during the spring and summer, somewhat reduced in strength during 
the late summer and early fall, and weakest in the winter when a mean poleward flow known 
as the Oavidson Inshore Current is established near-shore. Reference Figure 3 for a 
schematic of the summer and winter surface currents. 

This upwelling is important to commercial fishing because it produces organic 
nutrients which support large stocks of commercially important fish. Changes in the 
large-scale atmospheric circulation offshore, in response to both thermal and wind 
forcing processes, may cause the near-shore current to alter its normal pattern and 
thereby affect commercial fishing, as well as the Pacific Coast climate (Nelson and 
Husby, 1983). 

Climate 


Climate variability is naturally much greater for the Continental region than for 
the marine area because of the diverse regional topography. 

A dominate controlling feature of the regional climate is the semi-permanent North 
Pacific Subtropical High. During summer, the high becomes more intense and moves farther 
north thereby restricting storm system movement into the region. With winter, the 
subtropical high is less intense and retreats somewhat southward, thereby allowing more 
extratropical storm systems to penetrate farther south into the study area. Figure 4 
shows the Jan"ary and July mean pressure patterns which illustrate this change in the 
large-scale synoptic features. Another important feature of the subtropical high, which 
is most prevalent during its summer peak, is the steady wind flow from the northwest. 
This not only helps drive the cold California Current, but is primarily responsible for 
the high frequency of coastal summer fog and for the sharp temperature gradient inland 
near the coast. Fog is formed as relatively warm Pacific air moves over the cold current 
and pushes inland. As this air moves farther inland, the fog begins to lift because of 
heating, thereby forming a deck of low clouds, which then dissipates rather quickly 
through evaporation as it continues to move farther inland. At night these low clouds 
characteristically move farther inland but then recede back to the coast during the day 
as the air warms up. In examining the historical station data (U.S. Department of 
Commerce, 1985) for the number of days with fog and visibilities of 1/4 mile or less, the 
higher frequencies for southern California, the Central Valley and inland stations occur 
during the winter and are mostly associated with radiation inversions; for the coastal 
stations of northern California the highest frequencies occur during the late summer and 
fall and are related to the advection fog associated with the steady northwest flow 
crossing the cold California Current. Because of the effect of this maritime air, the 
climate in such areas as the San Francisco Bay varies significantly in very short 
distances. For example, the July maximum temperature averages 64°F on the coast at Half 
Moon Bay, S/^F at Walnut Creek some 25 miles inland, and 95°F at Tracy some 50 miles 
inland (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1970). 

Along the Pacific Coast, precipitation patterns within short distances are affected 
more by topography than by distances from the sea. Precipitation in the Bay area falls 
mostly during the winter, averaging between 15 to 25 inches per year. Annual 
precipitation values (see Figure 5) for the Pacific Coast range from 16 to 32 inches in 
southern California, over 80 inches in northern California and southern Oregon, to over 
100 inches in northern Oregon and Washington, where the greatest amount of nearly 200 
inches is estimated to fall on the windward slopes of Mt. Olympus. On the lee side uf 
the Cascade and the Sierra Nevada ranges, annual precipitation amounts generally average 
less than 16 inches with portions of south-central Washington, western Nevada, and 
southeastern California receiving less than 8 inches. 

Although thunderstorms occur throughout the study area, they are rather infrequent 
and usually not severe. From Figure 6 the annual mean number of thunderstorms (Changery, 
1981) is less than 5 thunderstorms per year along the western and central portions of 
California, and less than 10 per year for western Oregon, northwestern California and 
western Washington (except for the Mt. Olympus area where frequencies exceed just over 10 
per year). The highest frequencies of thunderstorms occur over the Sierra Nevadas and 
the northern Cascade range where occurrences average over 20 per year. For the lower 
elevation regions and the coastal areas, the occurrences of thunderstorms are equally 


iX 



FIGURE 4. JANUARY AND JULY MEAN SEA-LEVEL 
PRESSURE AND VECTOR MEAN WINDS 


X 




















































likely in any month, whereas for the higher mountainous regions occurrences are more 
frequent in the summer (May through September). At higher elevations, thunderstorms are 
generally not severe and produce little rainfall; however, each year a considerable 
number of forest fires are started by accompanying lightning. Although rare, 
thunderstorms can produce flash flooding, and hail 1/4 to 1/2 inch in size. Flash 
flooding throughout the western United States generally results from one to three days of 
heavy precipitation, or a rapid snow melt, or a combination of the two. Often the 
problem is worsened by previous season forest fires which destroyed the vegetative land 
cover on the watersheds and thereby enhanced precipitation run-off. Damage from these 
floods can be severe, however, as larger dams and reservoirs are constructed on the 
larger streams and rivers, flooding is more controlled and less likely to occur. 



FIGURE 6. AAEAN NUMBER OF ANNUAL THUNDERSTORMS 


Tornadoes have been infrequently sighted within the study area. Generally they are 
not severe, and cause only minor damage to trees and light buildings. Most frequent 
sightings are waterspouts off the southern California coast. 

The 1982-83 winter season was one of the worst on record for severe weather along 
the Pacific Toast. It was most likely related to the 1982-83 El Nino/Southern 
Oscillation (ENSO). Ropelewski and Halpert (1986), using climate division precipitation 
data from the 1875-1980 period, showed that the Pacific Northwest weather appears to have 
a coherent ENSO response. The 1982-83 event also adversely affected southern California, 
and this is most likely related to the ENSO event being one of the strongest on record. 
From January 22nd through the 29th a series of storms pounded the U.S. Pacific coast, 
producing heavy rains, strong winds, heavy surf, and high tides which destroyed millions 
cf dollars of property and caused widespread shoreline damage (U.S. Department of 
Commerce, 1983). During this eight day period, the Storm Data (January, 1983) 
publication listed some of the unusual weather phenomena as follows: Del Norte County 
suffered its worst coastal flooding since a Tsunami struck Crescent City in 1964; Point 
Arena reported wind gusts to 69 mph; in Humbolt County rainfall amounts were from 2 to 10 
inches; northern California experienced high tides with waves 32 feet high, destroying 30 
homes and 4 businesses, and damaging an additional 1400 homes and 650 businesses. In 
Oregon a combination of high winds and waves pushed high tides up to 2.5 feet above 


XII 





predicted values which caused widespread flooding and beach erosion. During this period, 
high tides combined with brisk winds produced considerable flooding along the Washington 
coast and in Puget Sound. The following month (Februa'>, 1983) did not bring much relief 
to the region from the weather because an unusually large number of Pacific cyclones 
continued to lash the northern California coast with frequent high winds, heavy rains and 
high tides. 

Throughout much of the study area, summer consistently brings extended periods with 
no precipitation. These drought conditions are expected, and are dealt with rather 
effectively through the use of good irrigation systems, especially in southern California 
and the Central Valley. It is when an exceptionally dry winter occurs that the 
agricultural sector is hurt most. When several back-to-back dry winters occur, the 
reservoirs and water supplies are affected and the impact is felt in the heavily 
populated areas. This also has an adverse effect on energy production (hydroelectric 
power) in the Pacific Northwest, especially when the winter snowpack is rather light. 

At one time or another, nearly every section of the study area has observed 
snowfall, however, it is very infrequent in the lower elevations especially west of the 
Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains. In the higher elevations of the mountain ranges, 
snowfalls average between 250 and 500 inches. The greatest annual snowfall recorded in 
California was 884 inches at 8000 feet at Tamarack; in Oregon, 879 inches at Crater Lake 
National Park; and in Washington, 1122 inches at Rainier Paradise Ranger station (which 
is also the record seasonal snowfall for North America). 

Marine Climatological Elements 


Precipitation 


Of the elements recorded in the marine data base, precipitation is the one most 
subject to error in both the way it is observed and the way it is interpreted. For 
example, it is often inferred in the literature that ships often try to avoid foul 
weather and thereby bias the data towards fair weather with fewer precipitation 
observations. Elms (1986) compared the Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) observations to 
other sources of data such as Ocean Station Vessel (OSV) and buoys finding little 
evidence that "fair weather bias" is a serious problem for most applications of marine 
climatic data. With the introduction in 1982 of a present weather indicator (ix) to the 
international Ship Synoptic Code FM13-VI1, users have to be careful not to bias the data, 
especially that from between January 1982 and March 1985 when the (ix) indicator was 
inadvertently left out of the international data exchange format. 

In c'mparing the frequencies of the precipitation charts in this volume to those in 
the U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World, Volume II, North Pacific Ocean (Revised 
1977), one will generally see a smaller number of present weather observations reporting 
precipitation. The major reason for this is that in the earlier publication the weather 
codes 20-27 (precipitation in the past hour) were counted in the precipitation 
frequencies to help correct an apparent observation bias. For this regional climatic 
study it was decided to present the data as reported. The higher frequencies (20-27 code 
included) certainly seem to agree better with land stations and OSV data for most regions 
of the globe. The 1982 code change may also affect the frequencies. A more in-depth 
study is certainly needed to help decide which method best represents the climate. At 
this point however, it is possible only to bring the issue to the attention of the data 
users. Even without the coding problems, assessing oceanic rainfall data is a major 
problem because transit ships are unable to take quantitative precipitation measurements. 
A number of studies have been conducted in efforts to predict precipitation amounts, or 
rates of fall, based on estimates derived from the use of present weather observations 
from ships of opportunity (Goroch, et al., 1984) and readings from satellites (Rao, et 
al., 1976). 

Although a simple objective interpretation of the percent-of-time a present weather 
observation reports precipitation at the time of the observation is probably low, the 
results are estimated generally to be off by only one to two percent in the southern 
portion of the study area and by five percent at most in the northern sections. The 
precipitation pattern is greatly influenced by the strength and location of the permanent 
Pacific subtropical high. During the winter it is at its weakest and therefore 
precipitation frequencies increase. The precipitation pattern remains consistent through 
the annual cycle as higher frequencies generally increase with latitude. During the 
winter the pattern is relatively zonal, while during the summer the pattern changes from 
lower to higher frequencies from southeast to northwest within the study area. 
Summertime frequencies generally are less than 10 percent, ranging from two to three 


XIII 




percent off California to near 10 percent off northern Vancouver Island. Winter brings 
more occurrences with frequencies ranging from 5 to 7 percent off southern California to 
20 to 25 percenc off Vancouver Island. Marine observations even reflect the influence of 
the Olympic Mountains as is shown by the frequencies in mid-winter which are 20 percent 
or better off the Pacific Coast of Washington, the windward side, and less than 10 
percent in Puget Sound, the lee side. 

Air Temperature 


Air temperature is one of the elements most frequently observed by mariners. It 
should be noted that on many ships, the heating effect of the ship's structure has a 
tendency to produce higher than actual ambient air temperature readings because of 
instrument exposure (Folland et. al., 1984; Wright, 1986). This is especially true under 
calm, sunny conditions. Therefore some ship temperature observations have a warm bias, 
however, the aggregate is relatively representative after the erroneous outliers have 
been eliminated and the numerous nightime observations and unbiased daytime observations 
included. 

From November through March, the mean air temperature pattern is relatively zonal 
with the monthly mean temperatures ranging from the mid-40's(OF) in the north to the 
upper 50's(°F) and low 60's{°F) in the south. In April temperatures begin to cool off 
along the coast, and by July mean air temperatures along a large portion of the coast are 
below 57°F and about the same as those found in the extreme northwest corner of the study 
area, and over the Strait of Georgia. By August, coastal mean temperatures have risen a 
degree from those of July to just below 58°F, however, even with greater warming in other 
regions, the coastal section reports the lowest mean air temperatures. This general 
pattern of cool coastal temperatures remains through October, and the zonal temperature 
pattern re-establishes itself in November. 

Sea-Surface Temperature 


Sea-surface temperatures are recorded with a fairly high frequency in marine 
observations. The principle methods for sampling are water intake thermometers and 
buckets. Even though the two methods can produce slightly different results, (Barnett, 
1984) the data can be used with considerable confidence when looking at the long-term 
means. 

Little sign of cold-water upwelling off the coast of California appear on the mean 
sea-surface temperature charts for February and March. However by April as the 
subtropical high begins to re-establish its dominance, signs of upwelling begin to appear 
on the temperature charts. Indications of upwelling then remain into January although 
by that time the subtropical high has long ceased its dominance over the Aleutian Low. 
It is the influence of the sea-surface temperature that produces a similar pattern to the 
mean air temperature. Although upwelling is evidenced on some of the monthly charts 
between November and April, the mean sea-surface temperatures generally increase from 
north to south with mean values ranging from the mid to low 40's(OF) to near 65°F. The 
upwelling is well established from June through October with sea-surface temperatures 
holding in the 50's(OF) off the coast and in the northeast quadrant, while temperatures 
in the 60's(°F) are re-established in the southwest quadrant. 

Surface Winds 

Surface wind is one of the most commonly observed elements. Many of the 
observations from the NCOC data base are visual observations based on the roughness of 
the sea. In recent years more ships acquired anemometers and reported measured winds. 
Prior to 1963, many observed wind speeds were recorded in the Beaufort scale; such 
estimates have proven to be quite reliable and can be used with a high degree of 
confidence. Five sets of wind speed isopleths are presented: the scalar mean speed and 
the percent of frequency of winds less than 11 knots, from 11 to 21 knots, from 22 to 33 
knots, and greater than or equal to 34 knots. Also presented are wind roses, for 
one-degree squares. 

Seasonal variations in the Pacific subtropical high have the greatest influence on 
the northern California operating area wind regime. With the subtropical high weak and 
less influential during the winter, more low pressure systems are able to move out of the 
Gulf of Alaska and subsequently influence the west coast region from central California 
to Alaska. In the winter season wind direction varibility is greatest in the northern 
portion of the study area with resultant winds being generally southwesterly. In the 
southern regions the subtropical high still predominates although it is reduced in size 


XIV 






in comparison to that at its summer peak; here the prevailing winter winds remain out of 
the northwest near-shore and are more southerly in the open waters west of 130®W. Summer 
dominance by the subtropical high gives prevailing winds out of the north across most of 
the study area, except for the northernmost quarter where they are more west to 
northwesterly. 

Mean wind speeds during the winter range from near 10 to 15 knots along the coast to 
just over 20 knots in the northwest corner of the study area. Summer brings lighter 
winds to most regions with mean speeds generally 9 to 12 knots, except in an area off the 
California coast, to the west of Cape Mendocino and Point Arena, where mean speeds 
generally are over 15 knots and reach a maximum in July of over 19 knots. 

Gale force winds (>34 knots) are encountered rather infrequently even during the 
winter when frequenciestrange from 1 to 3 percent off southern California, and to near 10 
percent in the northwest corner of the study area. Summer occurrences are even less 
frequent due to the dominance of the subtropical high. Most areas during the summer 
experience gale force winds one percent of the time or less. However, west of Cape 
Mendocino, in the region of highest mean winds, gale force winds are observed 6 to 7 
percent of the time, the highest for any region during the summer. Wind speeds of 10 
knots or less are observed much more frequently near shore than over the open water. 
Frequencies range from less than 20 percent of the observations during winter in the 
northwest corner of the charts to 40 percent or more near the coast. In the Strait of 
Georgia, and from San Francisco south, wind speeds of 10 knots or less are observed as 
much as 60 to 80 percent of the time. Summer brings little change to the frequency 
values near shore, but brings generally slightly higher frequencies over the open water 
where frequencies of 30 to 40 percent are observed. 

Wind speeds from 11 to 21 knots are observed during the winter from 20 to 40 percent 
of the time near the coast and generally between 40 and 50 percent across open water. 
Summertime patterns are similar to those of winter for this wind speed interval with 
frequencies generally increasing by 5 to 10 percent for most regions. 

For wind speeds from 22 to 33 knots, the seasonal frequency pattern between winter 
and summer changes significantly. During the winter, frequencies range from 5 to 10 
percent along the coast to from 25 to 30 percent in the northwest quadrant of the study 
area. Summer brings a pattern similar to the mean speed pattern where frequencies are 
greatest some 100 to 300 miles off the coast of California, with frequencies reaching 25 
to 30 percent. For most other regions frequencies generally average from 5 to 10 
percent. 

Visibility 


Visibilities are difficult to measure at sea because of the lack of distance 
reference points. Climatically, many low visibility observations are probably missed 
because the observer is too busy with other duties (a form of fair weather bias). 
However, the coarseness of the visibility (code) intervals helps to minimize the problem, 
thereby permitting the summarized data to be relatively consistent. 

From the visibility tables presented by one-degree square, it is clear that 
visibilities are generally good throughout the Northern California Operating Area. 
Visibilities of 5 miles or better during the winter are observed nearly 80 percent of the 
time in the northern half and 90 percent of the time in the southern half. Summer brings 
slightly better visibility conditions; most regions within the study area observe 5 miles 
or better more than 90 percent of the time. Visibilities of 10 miles or better average 
from 40 to 50 percent of the time during the winter in the northern sections of the study 
area, and 60 to 80 percent in the southern sections. Although visibilities during the 
summer generally remain better than 5 miles, there is a significant decrease in the 
category of 10 miles or better along most of the coastal sections with percentages 
dropping 20 to 30 percent. There are visibilities of less than one mile generally 5 to 7 
percent of the time in the northern portions of the study area, and 3 to 5 percent in the 
more southern ones, regardless of the season. Higher frequencies, however, are reported 
in the northeast regions encompassing Vancouver Island and Puget Sound, especially during 
the warmer months. 


Cl ouds 

A survey of the cloud data (total and low cloud amount) from the surface marine 
observation data base shows that the number of total cloud reports are significantly 


XV 





greater than that of low cloud amount. This is because many of the early marine 
observations contain only total cloud amount. For the two presentations (total cloud 
amount < 2/8, and low cloud amount > 5/8), only those observations reporting both total 
and low cloud amount were summarized. This helps eliminate problems introduced as a 
result of different size data sets (N-count). The ute of satellite data helps bolster 
confidence in the total cloud analyses because they show fairly close agreement with 
those analyses (U.S. Department of Commerce and United States Air Force, 1971). 

The general cloud pattern changes little from season to season over most of the 
study area except for the near coastal waters of southwestern Canada and the northwestern 
United States. 

Percent frequencies of low cloud amount greater than or equal to 5/8 usually range 
from less than 30 percent off the California coast to 70 percent in the northwest 
sections of the study area. During June and July these frequencies increase by 10 
percent, but during October and November decrease over the northwestern section by 10 
percent. Over the waters around Vancouver Island, low cloud amount 5/8 is observed as 
much as 60 to 70 percent of the time during the winter, and as little as 10 to 40 percent 
during September. 

Total cloud amount of 2/8 or less reflect the opposite distribution of the low cloud 
conditions of 5/8 or more. Basically for 10 months of the year, frequencies range from 
under 10 to 20 percent over most regions except for the coastal waters of California and 
Vancouver Island where frequencies range from 30 to 50 percent. September and October 
are the two months that differ most as frequencies increase by nearly 10 percent in most 
regions. 

Ceiling and Visibility 


Aircraft-type ceilings are not available from marine observations. The ceilings are 
estimated from the height of the lowest cloud when low clouds cover more than half the 
sky. When the sky is totally obscured by rain, fog, dust, or other phenomena, the total 
obscuration is considered a ceiling with a height of zero. Mid-range ceiling and 
visibility charts (ceiling less than 1000 feet and/or visibility less than 5 nautical 
miles; celling less than 8000 feet and/or visibility less than 10 nautical miles) and 
low-range ceiling and visibility charts (ceilings less than 300 feet and/or visibility 
less than 1 nautical mile; ceiling less than 600 feet and/or visibility less than 2 
nautical miles) are presented. 

In examining the monthly frequencies of observations with ceilings less than 8000 
feet and/or visibilities less than 10 nautical miles, little change is noted from season 
to season, therefore it is difficult to relate the annual cycle to that of the mean 
synoptic pressure systems, as it was for the cloud pattern. In general the best 
conditions, i.e., lower frequencies, are found in the southeast quadrant off the 
California coast, an area most influenced throughout the year by the subtropical high. 
Winter frequencies average less than 60 percent in all regions off the California coast 
and, in some areas, less than 40 percent. Summer observations reflect the higher 
occurrences of fog, as warm moist Pacific air flows across the cold ocean current, 
forming fog banks that move on shore. During August and September frequencies increase 
to over 60 to 70 percent in some areas off southern California. The other three 
quadrants generally have frequencies in the range of 60 to 80 percent throughout the year 
with the higher frequencies occurring in the northwest quadrant. 

The percent frequencies of ceilings less than 1000 feet and/or visibilities less 
than 5 nautical miles produce a pattern similar to the higher threshold just discussed. 
Frequencies of over 35 percent are observed in the extreme northwest corner throughout 
each month with frequencies exceeding 45 percent in both the winter and summer. Along 
the southern California coast, frequencies are observed near 15 to 20 percent of the time 
from December through May, with increases to over 30 percent during July and August. Off 
the Washington and Oregon coasts, frequencies range from just over 40 percent during 
December and January to under 20 percent in May. In both the northeast corner (near 
Vancouver Island) and southwest corner, monthly frequencies consistently range from 15 to 
25 percent. 

As in past studies, the frequency patterns are very similar between the lower two 
threshold presentations of ceiling and visibility. Of observed cases for ceilings less 
than 600 feet and/or visibilities of less than 2 nautical miles, April has the smallest 
percent of occurrences. April has frequencies at this threshold of less than 10 percent 
along the coast and in the region south of 40°N with even a few locations within this 


XVI 



area reporting frequencies of less than 5 percent. Highest frequencies are observed in 
the northwest section where frequencies generally run in excess of 20 percent. The 
highest observed frequencies appeared in this region on the January chart, and off the 
northern California coast in August as frequencies exceeded 25 percent. 

The selected threshold of ceilings of less than 300 feet and/or visibilities of less 
than 1 nautical mile is significantly influenced by the summer coastal fog. Winter and 
spring frequencies range from lows of less than 2 to 4 percent in the southern sections 
and the Strait of Georgia to over 12 to 16 percent in the northwest sector. 

Summer and early fall reflect the marked increase in coastal fog as percentages 
along the California coast increase to over 22 percent by August. During these months 
slight increases appear near Vancouver Island and slight decreases across the central and 
northwestern sections. 

Wave-Heights 


Wave-heights have been recorded in a consistent quantitative code since the late 
1940's. The reluctance of many observers to take wave observations in the earlier years 
and the difficulty in estimating waves, especially in confused seas, make wave 
observations one of the least commonly observed elements. The observations are also 
subject to biases. Generally the heights are too low, the periods too short, and the 
sea-swell discrimination poor {Quayle, 1980). The data in this study have not been 
adjusted for the suspected biases but were processed through a quality control procedure 
wherein an internal check was made between wind speed and sea height. The data were also 
matrix-arrayed and apparent erroneous outlier data values were deleted from both the sea 
and swell data. Wave-height presentations include isopleth maps showing percent 
frequencies of wave-heights 2 3 feet and 2 8 feet. In addition, wave-height tables by 
one-degree square show frequencies by six wave-height categories. In these 
presentations, the higher of the sea or swell was selected for summarization. If heights 
were equal, the wave with the longer period was selected. 

Wave heights of 3 feet or more are observed better than 90 percent of the time from 
November through March for all but the coastal regions, and for a somewhat larger area 
off the coast of California south of Point Arena. The remaining months show similar 
patterns with frequencies remaining above 80 percent except during mid-summer (July and 
August) where a few areas, in open water, have frequencies below 80 percent. Lowest 
frequencies are observed in the Strait of Georgia where frequencies generally run 10 to 
30 percent. Frequencies off San Francisco Bay are much higher than those in the Strait 
of Georgia, but still less than those for most coastal regions where they usually average 
just under 60 percent. 

The percent frequency of wave heights of 8 feet or greater produce a pattern similar 
to that of the mean wind speeds. From October through March, the highest occurrences are 
observed in the northwest corner of the study area where frequencies reach better than 60 
percent. Much lower frequencies are observed along the coast with the lowest frequency 
of occurrences again falling within the Strait of Georgia at less than 5 percent. By 
April, the frequency pattern begins to change, although the highest and lowest 
frequencies are still observed in the same general regions as in winter. By June, 
however, the pattern transformation has been completed as 8 feet or higher waves are 
observed, most often, at 30 to 35 percent of the time, in an area centered some 200 to 
300 miles off the California coast. This pattern remains through August, then, by 
September, the shift to the wintertime pattern takes place. 

Ocean Currents 


The ocean current charts were compiled from ship drift reports that were forwarded 
by the various merchant marines to the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. From those drift 
observations, the prevailing and secondary current directions, mean current speed, 
percent of total observations used to compute the primary and secondary directions, and 
the total observation count are presented by one-degree square. This information is 
presented on monthly charts with the study area being divided into two sections (pages) 
to ensure readability. The density of the observations is greatest along the major 
shipping routes and the reliability of the current charts is best in those areas. The 
data are considered most useful when used collectively, such as in summaries where a 
large number of observations are available. 


XVII 



References 


Barnett, T.P.: Long-term Trends in Surface Temperature over the Oceans, Monthly 
Weather Review . Vol. 112, pp. 303-312, February 1984. 

Changery, M.O.: National Thunderstorm Frequencies for the Contiguous United States. 
National Climatic Data Center, NoAa, NUREG/CR-225Z, November 1981. 

Director, Naval Oceanography and Meteorology: U.S Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the 
World, Vol. II North Pacific Ocean (Revised), NAVAIR SO-lC-529, March 1977. 

Elms, J.D.: Climatology of the Oceans - Do Transient Ships Introduce A Fair Weather 
Bias? . National Climatic Data Center, prepared for tile World Meteorological 
Organization, (unpublished), 1986. 

Folland, C.K., D.E. Parker and F.E. Kates: Worldwide Marine Temperature 

Fluctuations 1856-1981, Nature , Vol. 310, pp. 670-673, August 23, 1984. 

Goroch, A.K., T. Brown and M.J. Vanderhill: Rain Rate Climatologies over Marine 
Regions. Naval Environmental Predict! olfs Research Faci 1 i ty, TT RT 84-04, 
Monterey, CA, May 1984. 

Houston, J.R. and A.W. Garcia: Type 16 Flood Insurance Study: Tsunami Predictions 
for the West Coast of the Continental United States . Technical Report H->8-26, 
Hydraulics Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, December 
1978. 

Miller, G.J., A.E. Parkins and 8. Hudgins: Geography of North America . John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc., 1954. 

Naval Oceanography Command: Near Coastal Zone Climatic Study of the Southern 
California Operating Area , October 1983. 

Nelson, C.S. and O.M. Husby; Climatology of Surface Heat Fluxes over the California 
Current Region . NOAA Technical Report NMFS 3381^-763, February 1$83. 

Quayle, R.G.: Climatic Comparisons of Estimated and Measured Winds from Ship, 
Journal of Applied Meteorology , Vol. 19, No. 2, 1980. 

Rao, M.S.V. Abbott, III, and J.S. Theon; Satellite-Derived Global Oceanic Rainfall 
Atlas (1973 and 1974), NASA SP-4W^ National Aeronaut! cs and Space 
Administration, Washington, DC, 1976. 

Ropelewski, C.F. and M.S. Halpert: North American Precipitation and Temperature 
Patterns Associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Monthly Weather 
Review , Vol. 114, No, 12, December 1986, 

U.S. Department of Commerce and United States Air Force: Global Atlas of Relative 
Cloud Cover 1967-70, Washington, D.C., 1971. 


U.S. Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

(NOAA), Climate of the States Volume II - Western States including Alaska and 
Hawaii. ''The Climate of California" by C. Robert Elford, pp. 538-546, June 1970. 
"The Climate of Oregon" by Gilbert L. Sternes, pp. 841-846, February 1960. "The 
Climate of Washington" by Earl L. Phillip, April 1972. 

U.S. Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

(NOAA), Center for Environmental Data and Information Service and Environmental 
Assessment Services. A Climatology and Oceanographic Analysis of the California 
Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Region , September 1980. 

U.S. Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 
and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Climatic Data Center 
(NCDC). Storm Data , Volume 25, Number 1, January 1983. 


xvm 


U.S, Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

(NOAA), National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS), 
National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Local Climatological Data Annual Summaries 
for 1985. 


Wright, P.B.: Problems in the use of Ship Observations for the Study of 

Interdecadal Climate Changes, Monthly Weather Review . Vol. 114, pp. 1028-1034, 
June 1986. 


XIX 







INDEX (page numbers) 

EXAMPLE: The ’MEAN SCALAR WIND SPEED' for July is found on page 129. 



1 






































































































































































































2 








































5 







































JANUARY 

CEILING-VISIBILITY (LOW RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. MILE 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 













JANUARY 

WIND-VISIBILITY.CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC), VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 

DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml.. WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 





















10 























13 







14 


























































































JANUARY 

WAVE HEIGHT ■ ISOPLETHS 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >3 FEET = >CODE 2 (2 HALF METERS) 
DASHED LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >8 FEET = >CODE 5 (5 HALF METERS) 


THE WAVE HEIGHT USED FOR THIS MAP IS THE HIGHER OF SEA OR SWELL FOR OBSERVA¬ 
TIONS CONTAINING BOTH WAVE TRAINS. SEA IS DEFINED AS WAVES GENERATED BY 
LOCAL WINDS. 



18 








19 




20 







21 











FEBRUARY 

CtOUD COVER 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - TOTAL CLOUD AMOUNT <2/8 
DASHED LINE ■ LOW CLOUD AMOUNT >5/8 




















* 

r 



24 


















































o.y 

9,9 



25 





































FEBRUARY 

CEILING-VISIBIIITV (MID RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOIID LINE - CEILING <1000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <5 N. MILES 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <8000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <10 N. MILES 

















FEBRUARY 

MEAN SCALAR WIND SPEED (Knots) 



29 









30 















32 


OBSERVATION COUNT. 







33 


























































38 













39 













40 




























43 




























































45 




































47 




MARCH 

WIND-VISIBILITV-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS; LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC|, VSBY. >5 N. Ml, AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 


DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS; LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml., WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 



48 










49 



























MARCH 

WIND SPEED 

PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - WIND SPEED 11-21 KNOTS 
DASHED LINE - WIND SPEED 22-33 KNOTS 










■PERCENT OF CALMS. 













53 









54 











55 



















































57 









MARCH 

WAVE HEIGHT - ISOPLETHS 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >3 FEET = >CODE 2 (2 HALF METERS) 

DASHED LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >8 FEET = >CODE 5 (5 HALF METERS) 

THE WAVE HEIGHT USED FOR THIS MAP IS THE HIGHER OF SEA OR SWELL FOR OBSERVA 
TIONS CONTAINING BOTH WAVE TRAINS. SEA IS DEFINED AS WAVES GENERATED BY 
LOCAL WINDS. 






MARCH 

MEAN MIXED LAYER DEPTH Ifeet) 

MIXED LAYER CRITERION-. VERTICAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE 
OF MORE THAN l-’C FROM SURFACE DEFINES THE BOTTOM 
OF THE MIXED LAYER. 


W 130° 125° 



180 










61 





CLOUD COVER 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - TOTAL CLOUD AMOUNT <2/8 
DASHED LINE - LOW CLOUD AMOUNT >5/8 





63 








64 


= OBSERVATION COUNT. 















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65 


38 3 , 


















































CEILING-VISIBILITY (LOW RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. MILE 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 





















69 










Ok] 


WIND SPEED 

PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 
SOLID LINE - WIND SPEED <11 KNOTS 
DASHED LINE - WIND SPEED >34 KNOTS 









71 

















73 














74 








75 








76 





































77 









WAVE HEIGHT - ISOPLETHS 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >3 FEET = >CODE 2 (2 HALF METERS] 

DASHED LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >8 FEET = >CODE 5 (5 HALF METERS) 

THE WAVE HEIGHT USED FOR THIS MAP IS THE HIGHER OF SEA OR SWELL FOR OBSERVA 
TIONS CONTAINING BOTH WAVE TRAINS. SEA IS DEFINED AS WAVES GENERATED BY 
LOCAL WINDS. 










MEAN MIXED LAYER DEPTH (feet) 

MIXED LAYER CRITERION: VERTICAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE 
OF MORE THAN .1®C FROM SURFACE DEFINES THE BOTTOM 


OF THE MIXED LAYER. 











80 







81 



















83 
















































85 






















































































CEILING-VISIBILITY (MID RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF. 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <1000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <5 N. MILES 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <8000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <10 N. MILES 






CEILING-VISIBIIITY (LOW RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF. 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. MILE 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 








WIND-VISIBILITY-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC|, VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11 21 KTS. 

DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml., WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 
















90 










WIND SPEED 

PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - WIND SPEED 11-21 KNOTS 
DASHED LINE - WIND SPEED 22-33 KNOTS 















92 


OBSERVATION COUNT. 













93 









INADEQUATE 

























































































97 





















































MEAN MIXED LAYER DEPTH (feet) 

MIXED LAYER CRITERION. VERTICAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE 
OF MORE THAN PC FROM SURFACE DEFINES THE BOTTOM 











1 













101 









102 







PRECIPITATION 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF 
OBSERVATIONS REPORTING PRECIPITATION 









104 


^OBSERVATION COUNT. 


























































105 




















































CEILING-VISIBILITY (MID RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <1000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <5 N. MILES 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <8000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <10 N. MILES 












107 









JUNE 

WIND-VISIBILITY-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: ICC >5000 FT., 
LINE (OR NO LCC), VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 

DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml., WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 

135° W 130° 125° 


o 




















WIND SPEED 

PERCENT FREQUENCY OF; 
SOLID LINE - WIND SPEED <11 KNOTS 
DASHED LINE - WIND SPEED >34 KNOTS 










JUNE 

WIND SPEED 

PERCENT FREQUENCY OF-. 

SOLID LINE - WIND SPEED 11-21 KNOTS 
DASHED LINE - WIND SPEED 22-33 KNOTS 



ni 






















J14 







115 






116 


BOTH WERE REPORTED. 























































117 



































121 













122 





ON 










124 


observation count. 


































































































































































126 







JULY 

CEILING-VISIBIIITY (LOW RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF. 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. MILE 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 






WIND-VISIBIIITY-CIOUDINESS 


SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT. 
line (OR NO LCC), VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 

DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOi lowing CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml,, WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 









129 








130 











131 









132 


OBSERVATION COUNT. 









133 








134 










JULY 

SURFACE TEMPERATURE (°F) 


o o 

10 125 



135 

























































137 





























JULY 

MEAN MIXED LAYER DEPTH (feet) 

MIXED LAYER CRITERION: VERTICAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE 
OF MORE THAN .t°C FROM SURFACE DEFINES THE BOTTOM 
OF THE MIXED LAYER. 



139 
























AUGUST 

PRECIPITATION 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF 

observations reporting precipitation 



3 









3i.2. 



144 




















































145 












.6 













AUGUST 

WIND-VISIBILITY-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC), VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 

DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT , 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml., wind <6 OR >34 KTS. 








o 














151 













152 















154 




















156 


WAVE DATA FOR THESE 
TABLES WERE SELECTED 
FROM THE HIGHER OF 
SEA OR SWELL WHEN 
BOTH WERE REPORTED. 



















































157 











































158 











159 








160 








161 













162 









SEPTEMBER 

PRECIPITATION 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF 
OBSERVATIONS REPORTING PRECIPITATION 







(/) UJ 



164 


r OBSERVATION COUNT, 





























165 












SEPTEMBER 

CEIIING-VISIBILITY (MID RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <1000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <5 N. MILES 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <8000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <10 N. MILES 







SEPTEMBER 

CEILING-VISIBILITY (LOW RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. mile 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 









SEPTEMBER 

WIND-VISIBILITY-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC), VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 


DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml., WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 



168 







































172 


observation count 
























SEPTEMBER 

MEAN AIR TEMPERATURE (<>F) 



1/4 


















































177 





















SEPTEMBER 

WAVE HEIGHT - ISOPLETHS 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >3 FEET = >CODE 2 (2 HALF METERS] 
DASHED LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >8 FEET = >CODE 5 (5 HALF METERS) 


THE WAVE HEIGHT USED FOR THIS MAP IS THE HIGHER OF SEA OR SWELL FOR OBSERVA 
TIONS CONTAINING BOTH WAVE TRAINS. SEA IS DEFINED AS WAVES GENERATED BY 
LOCAL WINDS. 
















180 







181 
























OCTOBER 

PRECIPITATION 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF 
OBSERVATIONS REPORTING PRECIPITATION 








184 



































185 















186 

























OCTOBER 

WIND-VISIBIIITY-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC), VSBY. >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 

DASHED • PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml., WIND <6 OR >34 KTS. 













189 























191 


















5 







+ 


^ r. 










+ 





»■' 



+ 







# 


*^-■4 *■ 




fi ®. 



+ 





^ - 




, i- 

••• : 







192 


OBSERVATION COUNT. 







193 











OCTOBER 

MEAN AIR TEMPERATURE |°F) 









195 








10-12 



BOTH WERE REPORTED. 
































































197 










































OCTOBER 

WAVE HEIGHT - ISOPLETHS 
PERCENT EREQUENCY OF; 

SOLID LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >3 FEET ^ >CODE 2 (2 HALF METERS) 

DASHED LINE - WAVE HEIGHT >8 FEET = >CODE 5 (5 HALF METERS] 

THE WAVE HEIGHT USED FOR THIS MAP IS THE HIGHER OF SEA OR SWELL FOR OBSERVA 
TIONS CONTAINING BOTH WAVE TRAINS. SEA IS DEFINED AS WAVES GENERATED BY 
LOCAL WINDS. 









199 









200 






135 W 130 125 








NOVEMBER 

CLOUD COVER 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF; 

SOLID LINE . TOTAL CLOUD AMOUNT <2/8 
DASHED LINE - LOW CLOUD AMOUNT >5/8 


























204 


^observation count. 



















































205 


























































NOVEMBER 

CEILING-VISIBILITY (MID RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF; 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <1000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <5 N. MILES 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <8000 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <10 N MILES 













NOVEMBER 

CEILING-VISIBILITY (LOW RANGE) 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. MILE 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 













NOVEMBER 

WIND-VISIBILITY-CLOUDINESS 

SOLID - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS: LCC >5000 FT 
LINE (OR NO LCC), VSBY, >5 N. Ml. AND WIND 11-21 KTS. 

DASHED - PERCENT FREQUENCY OF POOR CONDITIONS. ANY ONE OF THE 
LINE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTES POOR CONDITIONS: LCC <300 FT., 

VSBY. <1 N. Ml.. WIND <6 OR <34 KTS. 










209 






















211 










212 


observation count. 








213 




















215 









WAVE DATA FOR THESE 
TABLES WERE SELECTED 
FROM THE HIGHER OF 
SEA OR SWELL WHEN 
BOTH WERE REPORTED. 


































135 W 130 125 



217 











































218 





















220 


SPfEO (KNOTS) 
















222 











223 











224 


^OBSERVATION COUNT. 





















































225 


































226 













DECEMBER 

CEILING-VISIBlllTY {LOW RANGEl 
PERCENT FREQUENCY OF: 

SOLID LINE - CEILING <300 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <1 N. MILE 

DASHED LINE - CEILING <600 FEET AND/OR 
VISIBILITY <2 N. MILES 
















229 










DECEMBER 

WIND SPEED 

PERCENT FREQUENCY OF. 
SOLID LINE - WIND SPEED <11 KNOTS 
DASHED LINE . WIND SPEED >34 KNOTS 










231 





















233 













234 










235 

















































237 


























238 









DECEMBER 

MEAN MIXED LAYER DEPTH |leet| 

MIXED LAYER CRITERION-. VERTICAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE 
OF MORE THAN .l°C FROM SURFACE DEFINES THE BOTTOM 
OF THE MIXED LAYER. 















240 



















STATION CLIMATIC SUMMARIES 


The following Station Climatic Summaries for the U.S. 
stations are based on three-hourly observations and summary-of- 
the-day digital files which are archived at the National Climatic 
Data Center, Asheville, N.C. The period-of-record varies among 
stations, with most of the three-hourly data records beginning in 
1955. Coding differences prior to that date prevented the 
compilation of a consistant data set. Summary-of-the-day records 
start at the beginning of the stations period-of-record, which is 
generally in the mid-1940's for most stations. The records end 
for all stations in 1986. 

Data for the two Canadian stations were extracted from 
existing summaries which resulted in varying periods-of-record 
for the different elements for a single station. 

Because of the varying periods-of-record, and some minor 
station and instrument relocations, some inconsistencies may 
appear in the summaries. For example, at a station the maximum 
24-hour snowfall might be greater than the maximum monthly 
snowfall. 

Summaries for the following stations appear in alphabetical 
order; 


Alameda NAS, CA 
Astoria, OR 
Eugene, OR 
Medford, OR 
Moffett Field NAS, CA 
Portland, OR 
Quillayute, WA 
Seattle-Tacoraa, WA 
Vancouver, BC (Canada) 
Victoria, BC (Canada) 
Whidbey Island NAS, WA 


242 




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I 

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mm v^mi 


k''*3»: im 

23239 


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ll » jlVT-iv-i ‘ • i •• ~i ” 1 ■■ ~ 1 "ftji'i aKiN; ^ 

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i J3 4A; *0 i 

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> I «» I Vv 5 } fc’ 1({ 


97 i bO > 4^ •it :o j 
I 1 i : - 

84 SS \ 4jj ?9 j 

9 \ I S^l 2S I 

80 b2 j 4fj )« [ 

8) t8 : 43 ] )S i 


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JO i 4ti 1C J A J 

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35 

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42 

CLP 

55 

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• ^fSS 1H>H 0 5 0*7S. 0 5 OP 0 05 IPC**, OP 0 5 P£PC£>«T *5 iPetJCAStt 

JMt VALUt LlSTtD UW0IP PP£55WP! *l.TlTuOt TfcOlCATCS twA? ¥*io£ 1$ C^C'CSfO 0J4I.T 0.35 ^ Cf MwE 


, 74 -hOuP »Ai|Pun 1 $ rOP CAlC*>CIAR OAf 




1114 t«*H JCOO •’ECT *H0'3" ¥l5:8lttl» 1(55 S^AN 


MPU J ' • U 5S ’-AN 


5'!0 4(( ’ •>0»CP <■ t<;B tl 


,C Jl IPO lt55 IMAN 


!9U I I » l(5S ’“AH J74 PI 



ftim. CALIFPIA 

















TOD ASISVilli. 


SIAIlOK lie; ASIDsilA, KilINGION 
LflCAilOIJ: ADODN 1?3 D3W 


ILl'VAilON: SfIFI 
PERlO): 1%3-im 


m j: urn 

DBSN: 34224 



I LESS than O.S days. O.S QR 0 05 tKCH. on 0.5 RCRCCNt AS APRI.ICA&I.C 

1 HE Value listed under pressure altitude indicates ihai value is eiccedeo onlt o.os x or ime mme 

t MAIL RECORDED A$ SNOWFALL JULT T 54• DE C E NBE R 1555. 

SlECTMCE PCLEtlS RECORDEO EFFECTIVE April 1570. 

« ^4'NOUII NAyiHUH IS FOR CALENDAR DAt . 


FLYIKG m\m. - PERCENl OT HOURS 

NATT APR MAf JUN JUL AUO SEP QCI 

CEILIN& LESS Than soOC rCC« aIISyOR vISIftlll'T LESS than s n 


3? 

3J 

3? 


CEILINC LESS IMAH JOOO FEET AnO/CR viSlBUtft LESS Than j Ml 


t».A*. tUlili till AiilMUIl V|SlMlllt< lI'- 5 tllAN J 


CEILING ttSS IMAN 500 fftT Bf<D/OP VtSinUllY LESS THAN 1 N| 


CEILING LESS Than ?D 0 FEEI AhO'OR VtSIfilLlTT less Than 3/4 NI 


ASTORIA, WASHINGTON 


4 


2 ^ 
















pmm er ko fisf'niLL[ 


SIMION Hl«[: [LttNE, GRiGuN 
LOCAllON: M 07N 123 13N 


[LLVAIidi: 353 i [[i 
PtRtOO: 13A8-1385 


m »: ?2ra 

HBAN; 24221 



• ICSS lH*t» 0 S 0 ^ OB 0 0^ INCH. OB 0.% PCBCtHt »S APBlICASlC 

IHE VBLUt ItSTCO UNO(B BBCSSUBC <(.tHUOC '.NDICATCS tHAt vAlvC U t<CCCOCO OHLT 0 OS t Of I Kf IIHE. 

* HAK BCCOBDtO AS $HOHrAl.l. JULY I B4 OC C C neC R 
$l((l/ice BEILEIS RCCOflOtO CrrcCt(vE APBtl IB70. 

« hAMInOH M fOR CAVENOAR OAT 


mim. - PERCENT OF HOURS 

HoyB iLsn JAN rcfl har apa hav jun juu ACC sep ocj nov dec amn yus 

CEUINC, lEiS tHAK SOOO 'fCJ AM5?bB VISlBtlUl LESS »HAH S HI 

ot A4 S) 47 JJ ?7 }0 18 n n AS S4 bO 41 3? 

04 bS to *.7 4S *3 'Ai ?A ?s 3* SS b6 7; AS 3? 

0/ 10 (,S hi SJ A» 4h jl l> Af, fc9 7« 74 SS 5? 

10 I.S I..' M »,7 AS Ah ’H .'S 17 hO bh hS S7 37 

*J on SA 47 tl 3» w 70 72 44 ‘,0 *.7 4? 37 

M. S4 Ah 4.' M .’T ;3 II - IJ 17 JS A1 (, ? 34 32 

'■7 ‘ih AA IS .’•» 74 ,‘0 m M lb 10 S’ h? 37 32 

22 S/ Al, }/ .’,1 .•* • .♦ «S It 14 Sb bb JS 32 

All. MHS bH '.S ah i; lb ;IJ .^0 22 }/ 47 f,2 be 4 3 32 


CEIllNb lESS THAN 3000 fCCI AnQ/QH vlSieilllr iCSS 1»A*i 3 HI 

01 4fa 31 23 17 13 lb 10 S S 2S 4 3 48 2S 32 

04 SO AO 2S 22 22 2S lb «b 18 3S 4S 50 31 32 

07 SI AS 3S ?S 2b 28 23 2b 31 S7 S\ S3 38 32 

10 48 A3 3/ 3b 2‘J 28 21 20 23 43 48. 43 3S 32 

13 A2 V' 27 n 14 14 7 8 8 24 39 4 5 23 32 

M. 3A 2b .M 12 •) ; I 4 b 12 2S 43 I7 S.' 

1*1 31* /S .1/10 B s 2 S b U 30 43 17 32 

22 41 2/ iN 12 8 3 S i. 7 18 J7 4? 20 3? 

All M«‘. 44 :iS 27 2U W 1/ il 12 lA 2n 41 48 2b 32 


M tl lM(i I tIHAN 1(71)0 Mi! ANll/Ok V iSIMU I 11 MSS I>1A>I 3 HI 

0! 2b 13 4 1 I I I 1 2 * 8 2S 2* 10 32 

04 29 n 10 S 4 4 j 3 e 27 28 2b U 32 

07 2fc 22 1 7 10 6 8 b 10 20 4© 32 2S IS 32 

10 2b 23 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 7 28 28 29 14 '3? 

13 IS 1 1 3 * f »• 1 1 10 14 22 7 32 

1b 14 b 2 » 0 A * t I 8 1 1 18 5 33 

18 ■ IS b 2 I f f 4 t 1 S '2 IB S 32 

22 20 9 1 I •»»» I to '8 21 7 32 

ALl MRS 2? 14 b 3 2 1 2 S 1 6 21 24 10 32 


CniiNG LESS IMAM SOO <'t(l AND70H ViSinUltV LESS 'HAN 1 HI 

01 20 10 J I t A f f I 14 11 ,1 7 3^ 

04 * 21 14 I I I 2 I I •> 22 22 IS 10 32 

0» »'l 17 M t 4 J I ,1 12 30 2s 22 U .32 

10 17 12 4 I I 4 0 4 3 IS - 'A 21 8 32 

M S3IOOOOO»2 S12)32 

Ifa b210000Q»14l0 2 32 

IS S 3 I 0 I 0 (1 »# 2 7 1 2 3 32 

22 IS S » f 0 0 0 * • b 13 IS S 32 

ALL MBS 14 0 3 I I 1 •• 3 It 14 lb b 32 


CEILING LESS IMAM 200 FEE! AMD/OP VtStBiLMY LESS tHAN 3/4 HI 

01 14 7 2 I I 0 01 1 13 14 14 b 32 

04 IS I I S 2 I ! * 1 4 20 IS 1 3 8 52 

Ot 14 lA 8 4 I I » 1 S 2S 32 IT 10 32 

10 II 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 t 71114 4 32 

tj J10000000I1SI12 

1b 2IOOOOOOII1S132 

IS b2000000»l382 32 

22 11 3 r 0 0 0 0 0 » S 10 11 3 32 

ALL HRS S b 2 1 'a f • * 2 8 10 11 4 32 


EUGENE, OREGON 















< Less 1HAN O.S OATS. OS OR O.OS INCH. OR OS PCRCrNT AS ARPLtCA&lC. 

IH( VALUE LISIEO UNOtn PRESSURE ALtItUOC iNOiCAT.CS THAT vAlUC IS CXCCCDEO ONLY 0 OS X Of THE TinC. 


}4*HOUIT NAXinUH IS FOR CALCNOAR DAT. 


flying HEATHtR. - PERCENT OF HOURS 


CflUNG LESS Than SOOO FCFT AND/OR vtSIDILItT LESS Than S hI 


LESS iKAN jooo fctt ANO/OB visisriM/ 


THAN iOOII >11 I AHn/l’)' VI'-IIUlIlT L (S 


SOD TfET AND/OH VISIOItl'T LESS «MAN 


CC IL INCi LESS TmAA 


MEDFORD, OREGON 



















lililill'l in’: 'ab AbllVlLlL 


wiiti 

LOCfiliON: 3 ; dbU Xi>^ 




mK:' 2324^ 



* l(5S THUN 0.) DATS. 0 % Oft 0 05 INCH. OR 0.5 ftCftCCNt AS •CPi.lCAei.t 

(MC VAtuC tlSKQ UNOCft RftCSSOftE ALtlTuOt IKDICfttCS That VAIUC tS (>C(COCO ONLT 0 O' X 0' THE TJ^E 


t ?4 -hOUR RAItnUR IS rOR CAlCNOftR DAT 


PLttNG HtAlHCR. - PERCCNI OF HOURS 


Ci ti ISO Et S'> «KAN 5000 rci:! anL'OR V 1519111! 


SCR 

I ESS THAN 


ctiiiNi. LC-: t*»AN logo rcfT ano/o« visibilut itss >«»»« i «i 


cuiuf. if^', »o«o net ANO/oa wjsmrtt'T i.ci.s ih*n j nt 


CtlLIHC, uss I«AN 500 Tttr AND/OR ViSinilllT itss >«*?• « «! 


CCtLiNG LESS IHAN ?00 fCET AND/OR VISIBlLlTT L(SS IMAS )/4 HI 


liOFFEII FIELD, CftllFORNlA 


247 

















(liWHIJjj: I 

IlNiOD: vm-vm 





' mM ^ 




















































i LESS TwaN O S DATS. O.S Cfl 0 OS IMCm. 0« O.S ^ERCEn: as aoe-.IcaBtt 

Uif va\uE IfSIEO UNOCn PflfSSDRE ALtltUDC JMCIC»U5 inar va^ut tS C*C£CCCO ONLr 0. OS % Of thC TIME 

i HAIL RICORPEO as SNOMra^L .'Ul 1 1‘146-OtCrMfttB 'SSS 
SlEtr/Icr, I'ELLEIS HCCOBOED EfFUrivE APRU »S?C 

* .’A'HOOR RAKlHUM 1$ FOR CALtHPAA nA\ 


ruiMG WLftTHeR. ' PtRCCM or HCURS 

HOUfl ILSTt .»N rCH MBH *pp mat jijt. jul «gS SE^ OCT MOV DEC asM vsj 

ClIiiMf, iL'.S IMAN T.uoo rȣ' Asn.-r;n viSioiiitt ifs*^ mi 

0! Ill ».*) I.i’ S« hi' I'2 I-.? SJ '.'0 SM s’ S' Jl 

OA i.S (,A i.a I,/ It) li la I.I) SI, VM sa tl> SS ?i 

01 1.4 1.1. •..■• I>.1 I.S 'I <*• SM SS S‘l S4 (.S Jl 

10 II I St (, t 1.4 ».(| •./ 4 ) S3 S‘l SO S4 n 

n (i.l f. I l.i S.' SS >•.■ a-. « 41 41. S' SB 04 SS 

II. I.l t.ll l.it SS .1 4-1 IH ■».’ 4k, S’ O.l S2 .' 1 

I'l 1,1 Sl> 4'l 4‘) 4.' 41 1'. 41 4-t SM 1.4 51 M 

;>;» 1,4 III- OS '.g ‘-s so 4 t 4i. ',4 bO ss SS i' 

All IlH'i (.4 SI St S' ’.'t ‘j’' SI 4| S4 00 . OS S8 Jt 


cfuiMc, itss ti'aM 1000 ffe’ sn^.-op v.stPUiiT if,', imah s mi 

01 S’ SI -to 4S so S3 s; SS 49 4<l «s SS S' ?1 

04 S.' S2 S) •>? so 03 Ok. S) -ItJ 48 so S4 SS ?t 

o; s.' SS S 4 S 3 SS 1.3 03 s** 4 ’ 4*1 %: m ss ji 

to s:’ SI ‘>3 ss so ss SJ 4 ) 4 4 4 S ’ SS S? ?l 

I I ‘M SI. ss S3 '>0 41. 40 H 40 44 SO SO 49 21 

II, S4 1.3 S4 so 41. 4.’ JJ J4 JS 3M so ss 45 ?t 

l‘P S.‘ S 1 I so 4J 4.' .11 ly 3S 3S 40 47 SO 44 J1 

3f 01 SO 17 4 1 44 4S 4S 4 3 30 «4 4-) SO 40 21 

All Mir. S3 SI S»3 St S3 4'l 40 4.' 4S 43 SS SO 3' 


. MIllNI, II.SS IHAN lO'lO f»l' flSO'Oh MSIHILIH tCSS 'HAN .1 MI 

01 .'4 7? to 1.’ 18 * » 31 FS ?a ?S 19 JO 33 J1 

04 JS 3.1 t‘l 1S 73 2*1 30 40 J'l JO JO Jt 2 0 JI 

0/ 23 37 30 tS 33 31 30 40 20 J3 JO J' JS JI 

If, 34 IS 14 IS IB 21 JJ 13 JJ JO J3 JC 21 

11 27 30 20 1? 10 11 12 13 IJ 10 20 JS 1’ 21 

Ih 30 33 19 11 IJ 11 11 to 14 10 20 2S t7 . JI 

n ■ J3 33- 18 12 13 13 17 10 IS JO JO J5 '8 JI 

JJ J4 ,'1 IS 11 1.1 19 2S JS JO i'4 10 J4 30 JI 

All MBS JS JI 18 13 10 1-1 J4 JS 3» 33 JO 23 J' Jt 


CEILING llGG HiAH SOO ffli ANO/dP VlStflllltt LESS ImAn i MI 

0 T 10 7 I. S 7 7 11 17 ’ S 1 4 7 7 '0 JI 

04 * 10 H 7 0 •! M 1i. JJ '4 IS B a 11 Jt 

I) 7 11 'I fl », 'I M 10 .1.1 IS 10 7 1 11 2 1 

10 10 S I. 4 3 S S I, b S J 10 7 JI 

U It 0 S 2 • 3 J 3 0 0 a SJl 

lb 11 11 4 4 3 3 3 J S 0 7 a SJI 

1«I ') H 0 3 4 4 S b 7 B ’'0 OJI 

33 0 0 S 4 4 0 Nil T14 7 9 6 21 

»| I MBS 10 0 0 4 S 0 B 1! *111 7 9 B JI 


CEILING LESS I»AN JOO FEET ANO/DP VtSlBUHV ItSS IHAN 3/4 Ml 

01 0 4 4 3 S ? 8 12 10 10 S S 0 21 

04 0 4 S S 7 b n 10 *0 11 S S 8 M 

07 7bS4447 14 a7Sb0J1 

10 4 S 1 3 I 2 1 1 2 3 3 S 321 

13 S 3 1 I • « 1 • 1 2 J 3 J JI 

lb 4 3 2 J 1 1 » 1 1 3 2 4 2 21 

19 S 4 J ♦ J 1 1 1 J 4 4 S 3 JI 

22 I. 4 3 J . .■* J 4 7 S 9 4 0 S JI 

ALE MBS S 4 3 3 3 J 4 7 S 0 4 S 4 JI 


QUILLAYUTE, WASHIHGtON 

















PfIEPWD Br WD eCVilLE 


iimiaN NAN!; -ffllLE/IACONA, MA911NGI0N 
lOCAIlON; 4? 27N 122 leU 


EliVAilffi: MFEEl 
PERld): PM-m 


m«: ]2I‘J3 
H3AN'. 24233 


lENPlIIAIUfli III 


IWriPllAHON liNCIK! 



1AIIV(:~| ^ ^ J iRACE [ i 


SNflHFAlLt iPiOIIY 

r-T-' 


NIAN PBER 01 OAFS Willi 


MINO IKISl 


W| pBEV» lIWG 

S“i , 



PRiCIPHAIlON 


lENPERAIURE 



»■; .n. Ill I 


J 

11 j; tit [ 
I 


0 ? sj j jel S’ so 1 

rt4 I Sb 1 -to! SI bS j 

Hi. I LI I |l| 4<i ilO 


I 1 5? s:'! 32 I 

_L_L.__J_! L 


sf.o 47 . 

j IP j SJ t 



M j: >J mi 




s IP PVR 1 1 Bj •: 'i I 

s 1 C 4 d ovB I ?: 4 ?! 1 

s s s4 OVB "isi j: e| 3 

Z: I i? isi 3? 1 31 sol 34 31 



* LfSS TM*H O S OATS. O.S OR 0 OS !NCh. OR O S RC«<tm AS ARPtKA0!.t 

iHf kai'jC Ltsuo uROtR rr-cssuRr AL'Hwoi. iHOKAifi ti'At vAiii{ is i«triorf> »Hl T ft OS X or iPt llm 

i llRIl HlCftHRiO AX HNilHrAl.l .II'L > I'MP< l«K{ nH« H I1^^ 

*'tXLHS RUORDtD tMCCIIVt apnIl 'Ho 

« ?4>H0OR RAIIRun IS rOR CAUROAR 0*T 


FLYlfC HFAiP^R. • PfRCCNT OF HOURS 


CtlliNO USS I’lAl* soon '(ft ANP/OR VISIBUIM llSS ll'AH S H) 


cfritNf. it-.s fi'AH 1000 rtti ano/or vis: 8 Kift Lrss iham 


ctiuiRf*. Ltss ’MAN :ooo riri amo/or visiouht lcss 


Cl ll INO If SS (MAN 


ANp/OR VISIUIlMT liss (MAN 


CtIKNG less TMAK ?00 fltl ANC/On VISlHlK? 


SEAIILE/IACOHA, MASHINGION 


[•] 













WPSHiD St; fflfl rjOlLU SiAdW (WIf; VIWCIMR, BC, fJtfiOA [IWAIlOfJ: BfEFi 

LOCAilON: 49 lit) 123 ! 0 H 


'[STIIIIIF in PffClI'IIAHBJ lifCIO! REJillVE SyiiFACf | . !tl NUHIP OF 1)435 WIIH 

W HIIW EMAIL IWttilY HIM) IKI5I : I’lCflPIlAFlOH |[HP[F 

:r:r:'T: 't:i » vT-rtraiiiT' 








Sb ! f.0 . 4t- 


.4l{ 5^ j -lOd t i 






■ Less iHAN p.s 0*^5. 0 s OR 0. os iMCn. OR 0 s PCRCcm •>'> 4prlu;ablc 

tur VAIUC ir»T[0 UROtR PRCSSWRC ALYMUOI tHOlCATES lM*t vfilwE IS HCtCOCO ONL V 0.3S X Of t.tc WHEN 

lAOtUO RR 'ISX OllllRHlSC US fHt HE#** 

f>U IS (OUlVAlfN) tlAflS or RtCOhri It 1 IHC AE>UAl NUHOf.R Or UARS OllllECIi IN tHl CACUlAtlONS 


FLYir^ WFATHtR. - PlRCem OF HOURS 


tMi im. irss iMAtt 1000 nti and/or msiimn* iis 


crtllMO il'.S toAN SOO rtf* *^0/0R viSIOli.ll’r IIS 


»E£ » AND'OR Y ivtwui « • lESS 


II It INl« I I S'. YIIAH »l)0 H I I AMp/OM Y ISItlll | I ♦ U SS IMAN » f 4 «1 


30 





















wiiiAi!jfi[ in 

lAifi 


LLlriiiurt* 4d i. 

Pii[tiPI[fiI!Ofi i!NCi![5l 


PEPioo: iw-m ■ 




iSNOifALI.J 


Mi-"- WNOIKiSi 

- ■!: ..-r- 

S C5 p<>«:v a [HvI 

S ^ = “ , } 


PRKiPlIAIiCfi ! ! 


bl •44j 7S| ?C^)4| 


1/ 4 4[ 7.‘ 
4 1 4 nj 7 H 


f ji. 3*5 ; 

I 37 7 *. I 

*. 4f^ S'y ! 


* I 1.7 2U 4fi 

I 8t> t.? ac 44 4t; 

0 88 88 14 4R 30 

0 88 70 .39 51 ?5 

0 80 70 38 5r ?5 ; 

0 89 7» 3W aJ 48 ; 

T flB n 3C-; 48’ bO ! 

7 95 ! 74 • jj: Jpj Hi) I 

7 ; 0'. i 7> I <>t! 351; '-»o I 


; toi Cvfl J I ? 

i 8 H, 0.8 I 1 )( 

! 5 4' 0.8 ', ' 4| 

1 i ' 1 

' 5S OVM . 


5 : 44 ; 0 V 8 

5 j 44 ; OVR 
b 5 !' OVP 


17 I 12 I 3*^ 32 j 


I irss TwaN 0.5 0 * 75 , 0 5 OB 0.05 INCH, OB C 5 PEftCCNT 45 APPiICAOit. 

tHt yAn:C LISTED UNDEB BBESSUflC ALTITuCC INDICATES Th*! VALUE !5 CACCtOCO QNL 7 0 05 X 0 ? ThE TTHE 


-tlQuB NAIIHUN IS TOB CAIEnOAB OAT 


flying wCATHtR. - PCRCDv Of KH^RS 

HAP APB HAT JON JO'. »j; SE® OCI 

CCUINO less than 5000 PECT AnO/OB vlSieiUlTv less than 5 MS 


Ct IL SNf. I.tss Than 30C0 


Cl Jl !Nf, It 55 ■’lAN lUOO 


V IMfiTi I I • Lt St- Than 3 Ml 


CESt-INf. less 'HAN 


500 rt£t ANO/CB V( 5 !njL T * 


?C 0 fEE t ANO/OH VJSIOILIT 


;AyS RHH 
lEHPLRAIlK 


.5NCHrALU 1 

1 ' 1 


- 

2 

0 1 

5. 01 

0 ; 

0 

0 

c 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

0 

1 



Oj o| 29 

• b| 20T 

4 2 4 2 ^ 4 2 


WHIDBEy ISLAND, WASHINGTON