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us. Department of Transportation 

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DTIC 

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SEP19199U 


D 



Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation 










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Published annually by the Office of Civil Aviation Security, 
Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of 
Transportation. A dditional copies may be obtained from the 
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Technical Report Documentation Poge 


1. Report No. 

2. Government Accession No. 

3. Recipient's Catolog No. 

4. Title ond Subtitle 

Criminal acts against civil aviation, 1990 

5. Report Dote 

6. Performing Orgonizotion Code 

8. Performing Organization Report No. 

7. Author's) 

Office of Civil Aviation Security 

9. Performing Orgonizotion Name and Address 

i 

L 

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 

11. Contract or Grant No. 

13. Type of Report or d Period Covered 

Final, CY90 

12. Sponsoring Agency Nome and Address 

14. Sponsoring Agency Code 

15. Supplementary Notes 


16. Abstroct 


This report is an overview of criminal acts, including hijackings, bombings, 
[attempted bombings, and other assaults, that occurred against civil aviation 
interests worldwide during 1990. 


17. Key Words 

Civil Aviation, Criminal Acts, 

-1 

Hijacking 

18. Distribution Stotement 

This document is available to the public 
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20. Security Ciossif. (of this page) 

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Table of Contents 


Introduction . 1 

Highlights . 3 

Explosive Attacks Against 

Civil Aviation . 5 

Air Carrier Hijackings Worldwide . 8 

Appendix A . 19 

U.S.—Registered Air Carrier Hijacking Chronology 
1986-1990 

Appendix B . 21 

Foreign-Registered Air Carrier Hijacking Chronology 
1986-1990 

Appendix C . 27 

Elxplosions Aboard Aircraft Chronology 1986-1990 

Appendix D . 29 

Signijicant Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation 
1990 


1990 


Criminal Acta Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page I 














Introduction 


1990 


The FederalAviationAdmtnistration maintains records of aircraji hijackings, 
bombing attacks, and other significant criminal acts against civil aviation 
worldwide. These records include actual and attempted hyackings; explosions 
aboard aircraji at airports, and at airline offices: and other selected criminal 
acts against civil aviation. These offenses represent serious threats to the safety 
of civil aviation and, in those incidents Oivolving U.S. air carriers or facilities 
outside the United States, are often intended as symbolic attacks against the 
United States. 

Hyacktng incidents are viewed within the context of the Federal criminal 
statute (49 USC 1472 (b)) which defines air piracy as any seizure or exercise of 
control by force or violence or threat of force or violence, or by any form of 
intimidation, and with wrongful intent of any aircraft There is no attempt made 
in this report tc differentiate between an act of air piracy and an attempted act 
of air piracy. 

The information contained in this publication is derived from a variety of 
sources; however, in many cases specific details of a particular incident may 
not be available, especially those occurring outside the United States. WhUe the 
Federal Aviation Administration makes every effort to provide complete and 
accurate information, it is not always possible to verify accounts of some 
incidents cUed in this publication. 

This edition summarizes events which occurred during 1990 and places 



Page 1 







Crimlnol Act* Againat 
Civil Aviation 


1990 








Highlights 


Civil aviation in 1990, as in previous years, was an attractive target to 
persons motivated by terrorist or other criminal intentions. 

Significantly more hijackings occurred in 1990 than in 1989 or recent 
previous years. This is the result of a sizeable number of hijackings in the Soviet 
Union. There was also an increase in the number of attacks against civil aviation 
facilities, such as airports and ticket offices, during 1990, but fewer bomb 
threats against U.S. aircraft and airports were reported. A notable difference 
between 1990 and previous years is that in 1990 there were no explosions 
aboard civil aviation aircraft that were caused by improvised explosive devices 
(lED). An explosive device was discovered aboard a Japanese aircraft, however, 
and removed before the aircraft departed. 

Forty-three hijackings of scheduled air carrier aircraft worldwide were 
reported during 1990. Four of these involved U.S. registered aircraft and 39 
involved foreign registered aircraft, of which 27 were Soviet aircrafl As in 
previous years, most hijackings were committed by persons either seeking 
political asylum or Jleeing from criminal prosecution. None of the hijackings in 
1990, as in 1989, were terrorist related. 

Eight bombing attacks andfive other incidents involving civil aviation related 
facilities and assets occurred during 1990. Some of these were committed by 
terrorist groups. 

Despite threats against U.S. interests by Iraq during the military buildup 
which preceded the Gulf War, there were no successful attacks against civil 
aviation during 1990 by either Iraq or Iraqi-sponsored groups. Much of the credit 
for this successful anti-terrorist effort is due to the additional security measures 
taken by foreign governments to prevent known or suspected terrorist entities 
from attacking U.S. interests in their respective countries. These security 
measures continued to be enhanced through the end of 1990. 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Pages 



Page 4 


Criminal Acts Agaittst 
Civil Aviation 


J990 







Explosive Attacks Against 
Civil Aviation 


■ Overview 

As In previous years, attacks involving the 
use of explosives against civil aviation targets 
occurred in 1990. These Incidents included 
attacks against aviation related facilities, such 
as airports and ticket offices, and one failed 
attempted bombing of a civil aviation aircraft. 
Unlike previous years, there were no success¬ 
ful bombings of civil aviation aircraft in 1990. 


■ Attempted Aircraft Bombings 

The one attempted bombing of a civil avia¬ 
tion aircraft in 1990 Involved possible gang 
related violence. On October 3, a known 
Okinawan gangster attempted to place a 
home-made improvised explosive device (lED) 
aboard an All Nippon Airways flight from 
Naha, Okinawa, to Tol^o, Japan. The lED was 
discovered after the individual was arrested at 
the Naha Airport on an unrelated charge. The 
flight was completed without incident. 

■ Explosive Attacks Against Air¬ 
ports and Airline Ticket Offices 

Eight Incidents involving the use of ex¬ 
plosives against airline related facilities oc¬ 
curred in 1990. Five of the incidents occurred 
at airports in Pakistan. Peru, and Poland; 
airline offices were targeted in Poland, The 
Netherlands, and Turkey. 

Two of the airport attacks occurred on the 
same day, January 18, at the Peshawar and 
Islcunabad international airports. A low-yield 
device detonated in Peshawar, followed by the 
explosion of a car bomb in a parking area of 
the Islamabad airport. Two other attacks oc¬ 
curred during July at or near the Jorge Chavez 
International Airport in Lima, Peru. In one 
incident, a small dynamite charge exploded 
under an automobile in a parking area near 
the main terminal. The second Incident in¬ 
volved the use of dynamite charges to destroy 
a landing beacon located several kilometers 
from the airport. The fifth airport attack oc¬ 
curred in Poland. In November, an lED was 
found on the roof of a preboarding lounge at 
the Warsaw airport. 

An explosive device detonated next to the El 
A1 Ticket Office in Istanbul, Turkey, in May. 



1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 5 








The attack was claimed on behalf of the Armed 
People’s Unit. Two other attacks against avia¬ 
tion facilities occurred In June. An lED ex¬ 
ploded In Amsterdam. The Netherlands, 
outside of a budding housing the Iberian Air¬ 
lines Office, in an attack that was claimed by 
the Spanish terrorist group. Basque Father- 
land and Freedom (ETA), and a home-made 
explosive device was thrown near a Polish 
Airlines ticket counter In Gdansk. 

■ Bomb Threats 

Bomb threats are often Intended to disrupt 
civil aviation operations. The FAA receives and 
maintains records concerning bomb threats 
Involving U.S. air carriers and U.S. airports. 
Data is not received or maintained concerning 
incidents of this type outside the United 
States. 

In 1990. 786 bomb threats against civil 
aviation were reported to FAA. 


Bombing Attacks Against Airports 
and Airline Ticket Offices^ 

1990 


Airports 

Ticket 

Offices 

U.S. and Canada 

0 

0 

Latin Am/Ce.i.ibean 

2 

0 

Europe/Middle East 

1 

3 

Africa 

0 

0 

Asia 

2 

0 

Far East 

0 

0 

Totals 

5 

3 

’ Includes explosions as well as incidents in which a device was 
capable ol exploding was found but where no explosion occurred 


Page 0 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 




Casualties Caused By Explosions Aboard 
Air Carrier Aircraft 1986-1990 



1990 


O^mfnal Acts Agairxst 
Civil Aviation 


Page 7 

















Air Carrier Hijackings Worldwide 


During 1990, there were 43 aircraft hijack¬ 
ings worldwide. This is a dramatic increase 
over each of the previous years (15 in 1988 and 
16 in 1989) and nearly equals the combined 
number of aircraft hijackings (44) that oc¬ 
curred between 1987 and 1989. Four of the 
aircraft hijackings in 1990 Involved U.S. 
registered aircraft, and 39 were foreign- 
reglscered. More than half of the 1990 hijack- 


Air Carrier 

Hijackings-Worldwide 
U.S. Fore.gn 

Year Registered Registered Total 


1986 

4 

9 

13 

1987 

4 

9 

13 

1988 

2 

13 

15 

1989 

2 

14 

16 

1990 

4 

39 

43 

Totals 

16 

84 

mo 


Ing inclc 3nts (27) occurred in the Soviet Union 
and Involved Soviet commercial aircraft. There 
were 13 non-Soviet, forelgn-regL 3red aircraft 
hijackings in 1990. This figure compares 
favorably to previous years' statl'-tics of 11 in 
1988 and 10 in 1989. 

None of the hijackings in 1990 are known to 
have occurred for terrorist purposes; rather, 
they were committed by persons with either 
political or criminal intentions. Hijackers 
having such motivations have been extremely 
difficult to counter because they do not con¬ 
form to any established behavioral patterns. 


Them were 134 persons killed and more 
than 50 injured as a result of alrcral't hijack¬ 
ings worldwide during 1990. These casualty 
figures are significantly higher than during 
each of the past several years, and the number 
of fatalities in 1990 is greater than that of the 
past four years combined. The largest number 
of hijacking related casualties In 1990 oc¬ 
curred on October 2, when an airliner belong¬ 
ing to Xiamen Airlines, a subsidiary of the Cwd 
Aviation Administration of Chin-* was hijack¬ 
ed and crashed upon landing in Guangzhou, 
the People’s Republic of China. The hijacked 
plane veered out of control as it was landing 
and struck two other aircraft. One hundred 
and twenty-eight persons died and ap¬ 
proximately 53 others were Injured in this 
incident. The six other deaths resulting from 
hijackings in 1990 were those of hijackers 
killed by aircraft security forces. 

■ U.S. Air Carrier Hijackings 

There were four hijackings involving U.S. air 
carrier aircraft during 1990. None v ere com¬ 
mitted for terrorist purposes. The last U S. 
carrier to have been involved In a terrorist 
related hijacking incident was in 1986 when 
Pan Am Flight 73 was commandeered in 
Karachi, Pakistan. 

in one incident during 1990, an Americ . 
West Airlines flight with 34 passengers was 
hijacked by a man demanding to be flown to 
Cuba and claiming to have a bomb. The plane 
landed in Austin, Texas, and the hijacker was 
overpowered and arre::.ted by local authorities. 

On January 18, a male passenger caused 
United Airlines Flight 705, en route from San 
Francisco, California, to Seattle, Washington, 
to divert to Vancouver, British Columbia. 
Canada, by threatening to detonate a bomb. 
The flight had been delayed in landing at Seat- 
Ue-Tacoma International Airport because of 


Page 8 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 








inclement weather. The passenger apparently 
was upset at this delay. He claimed his cellular 
telephone was a bomb and demanded that the 
plane land. The pilot diverted to Vancouver, 
where the passenger was arrested by the Royal 
Canadian Mounted Police. 

On April 2. a gunman seized American Air¬ 
lines Flight 658 at Port-au-Prlnce Internation¬ 
al Airport In Haiti. At the time, the aircraft was 
being prepared for a flight to New York’s JFK 
International Airport, and no passengers were 
aboard. The gunman, who was a member of 
the Haitian airport security contingent, 
demanded to be flown to the United States. The 
incident continued until approximately 2 A.M. 
on April 5, when the hijacker, after Indicating 
a desire to negotiate, left the aircraft and dis¬ 
appeared Into the darkness. 


Weapon Types Used by Hijackers 
of U.S. Air Carriers Who Went Through 
Preboard Screening, 1986-1990 


Type of 
Weapon 

Actual 

Weapon 

Alleged 
(or fake) 

Total 

Explosives 

0 

4 

4 

Incendiaries 

0 

1 

1 

Firearms 

0 

2 

2 

Knives 

1 

0 

1 

Totals 

1 

7 

8 


that It be opened. As police approached, the 
pilot escaped and the man was arrested. 


On August 20, a man entered the terminal 
building at the Charleston, South Carolina. 
International Airport, stole a knife from the 
food service area, and ran into a sterile area 
via a passenger exit lane. At a gate counter, he 
forced the pilot of an American Airlines flight 
to the jetway door at knifepoint and demanded 


Weapons Used by Hijackers 
of U.S. Carriers 
1986-1990 

Type of Actual Alleged^ 

Weapon Weapon (or fake) Total 


Explosives 

Incendiaries 

Firearms 

Knives 

Totals 


1 

0 

6 

2 

9 


5 

2 

3 

0 

10 


6 

2 

9 

2 


19' 


’ Whon no weapon was actually seen, or Us authenticity could not 
be established, the weapon is catagoraedas "alleged.' 

* The total number of times each weapon was used does not 
correspond to the total number ol h^ackirtgs (IS) as multiple 
weapon types were claimed in some incidents. 


Two of these hijackings were committed by 
persons who went through preboard screening 
procedures: however, in neither incident did 
the hijacker cany an actual weapon. Between 
1986 and 1990, seven of 15 hijackings of U.S. 
air carriers were committed by persons who 
had gone through preboard screening proce¬ 
dures. In only one Instance was an actual 
weapon—a knife—used. 

Hijack-Related Casualties 
1986-1990 



1990 


Criminal Act* Again»t 
dull Aviation 


Page 9 






Motives of Hijackers of U.S. Air Carries 
1986-1990 


other Criminal 75% 
12 



Terrorist 6% 
1 


Mentally Incompetent 19% 
3 



PagelO 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


99i 








Locations of Hijackings of U.S. Air Carriers 
1986-1990 

within the United States and Its Territories (12) 



Puerto Rico—1 
St. Croix, U.S.V.I.—1 


Foreign Locations (4) 


Port-au-PrInce—(1988-1990) 
Karachi, Pakistan—(1986) 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 11 




■ Foreign Air Carrier Hijackings 

Of the 39 foreign-registered air carrier 
hijackings reported during 1990, 38 Involved 
cMl aviation aircraft. In addition, a Somali 
military aircraft, used for regional flights to 
supplement civil aviation aircraft, was hijack¬ 
ed with civilian and military passengers. These 
39 hijackings surpass the total number of 
foreign air carrier hij acklngs (36) that occurred 
between 1987 and 1989. Of the 39 hijackings 
in 1990, nearly 70% involved Soviet commer¬ 
cial aircraft. 

There were 27 Soviet aircraft hijacked in 
1990, eight of which diverted from Soviet 
airspace to nearby countries. Other foreign air 
carrier hijackings in 1990 occurred In the 
following geographical locations: South 
America and Latin America (4), Far East (2). 
Middle East (1), Southeast Asia (2), and Africa 
(3). 


■ General Aviation Hijackings 

There were three hijackings of general avia¬ 
tion aircraft during 1990. None of these in¬ 
volved U.S. based aircraft. Details of these 
incidents are provided in Appendix D. 

Five Year Summary^ 

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Total 

U.S. 1 2 0 2 0 5 

Foreign 6 4 2 1 3 16 

Totals 7 6 2 3 3 21 

1 Normally, general aviation operators and aircraft are not subjaa 
to the same security regulations as are scheduled air carriers. 
Under U.S. regulations no preboard passenger screening is re¬ 
quired unless the operator or passengers of a general aviation 
aircraft deplane into the sterile system of an airport servicing 
scheduled air carrier akcralL 


Foreign-Registered Air Carrier 
Hijackings 1969-1990 



Page 12 


Criminal Aetm Againet 
Civil Auiation 


1990 









Five Year Summary 


1986 

1987 

1988 

1989 

1990 

Total 

Eastern Europe 

2 

2 

2 

5 

27 

38 

Western Europe 

1 

2 

0 

1 

0 

4 

Middle East 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

9 

Latin America 

1 

1 

4 

2 

5 

13 

South and Southeast Asia 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

7 

Far East 

0 

0 

2 

2 

2 

6 

Africa 

0 

0 

1 

2 

3 

6 

North America 

1 

1 

0 

0 

3 

5 

Totals 

9 

9 

13 

14 

43 



1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 13 



■ Incidents Involving Civil Avia¬ 
tion Related Facilities And As¬ 
sets 

During 1990, as In previous years, a num¬ 
ber of criminal acts were committed Involving 
civil aviation related facilities and assets. 
These include several categories of incidents, 
such as attacks not utilizing explosives and 
acts in which the civil aviation interest was not 
the specific target. Five incidents of this type 
were reported in 1990. 

One of the 1990 incidents appears to have 
been terrorist related; the Colombian group. 
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia 
(FARC) committed an attack at a domestic 
airport in December, setting fire to and 
destroying a 19-seat airliner. 

Two other incidents also occurred in Colom¬ 
bia. when leftist Colombian presidential can¬ 
didates were assassinated in separate 
incidents in March and April. These appear to 
have been politically-motivated rather than 
terrorist-motivated crimes. In March, a leftist 
leader was killed in a machine gun attack at 
Bogota’s El Dorado Airport, and in April, a 


former guerrilla leader was assassinated 
aboard an Avlanca airliner during a domestic 
flight. Both assassinations were believed to 
have been committed by persons having ties to 
the Colombian drug cartel. 

Of the two remaining incidents in 1990, one 
appears to have been criminally inspired, 
while the motivation behind the other is un¬ 
known. In August, a former employee of an 
airport service company entered the 
company's facilities at Washington, D.C.’s Na¬ 
tional Airport and held several other 
employees at gunpoint. He commandeered a 
fuel truck and tried to seize an airport shuttle 
bus before he was arrested by authorities. In 
the other incident, a female was arrested 
aboard a bus at a police roadblock liear the 
Belfast. Ireland. International Airport. She had 
a bomb tied to her waist. The bus was bound 
for the airport: however, the intended target Is 
not known. 

These incidents are further described in 
Appendix D. 


Page 14 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 







Crash Of Xiamen Airlines Flight 


On October 2, 1990, Xiamen Airlines Flight 8301 was hyacked en route from Xiamen 
Fujian Province, to Ouangzhou, Guangdong Province, in the People’s Republic of China. 
Upon landing at the Batyun Airport in Guangzhou, the B-737 veered out of control. It first 
struck an empty China Southwest Airlines B-707 and then a loaded B-757 awaiting 
takeoff before bursting into flames. This crash resulted in the deaths of 128 persons, 
including 47 aboard the B-757, and approximately 53 others were hyured. Among those 
killed was one of two U.S. citizens aboard the hyacked aircraft. Xiamen Airlines Company 
is a subsidiary of the state-owned Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). 

There are ccnfUcttng reports regarding the number of hijackers aboard the fright. It 
appears, however, that there was only one—a young Chinese male. There are also 
coriflicting reports about an explosive device detonating aboard the fright Initial reports 
indicated that a bomb had exploded aboard the aircraft during or prior to its landing, but 
there is no evidence to support this. 

Shortly after the plane departed Xiamen, a hijacker forced his way into the cockpit He 
threatened the crew with an explosive device {fake), which he claimed was comprised of 
7 kilograms (15.4 pounds) of explosives, that u;as strapped to his waist He demanded 
that the fright be diverted to Taiwan but was told there was insufficient fuel. He then 
ordered everyone but the pilot to leave the fright deck. 

Chinese authorities granted the pilot permission to refuel at Hong Kong and continue 
on to Taiwan. The authorities also cleared the aircraft to land at any foreign or domestic 
airport, but the pilot decided to land at Baiyun Airport the flight's intended destinatiorL 

The pilot and the hijacker were alone in the cockpit during the hijacking. Shouting and 
sounds of a struggle were heard from the fright deck as the plane was larking. The 
hijacker, upon realizing where the plane was landing, may have attacked the pilot causing 
him to lose control c the aircraft allowing it to veer off the runway and strike the other 
planes. The bodies of both the hijacker and pilot werefound in the wreckage of the cockpit 
area 

The hyacked aircraft and the B-757 were both destroyed; the B-707 was severely 
damaged. 


1990 


Criminal Aetm Agnlnst 
Civil Aviation 


Pago 15 




Soviet Hijackings 


Between April 18, 1990, and December 24, 1990, Soviet civil aviation aircraft were 
involved in 27 in-flight hijacking incidents. These 27 hyackings compare to two hyackings 
of Soviet aircraft in 1988 and four in 1989. The motivation behind the 1990 hyackings, in 
most instances, was a desire to leave the Soviet Union. 

All of the 1990 hijacking incidents involved aircraft flying domestic routes. Eight of the 
hyackings resulted in flights being diverted out of the U.S.S.R.: four aircraft landed in 
Helsinki, Finland; three landed in Stockholm, Sweden; and one landed in Karachi, 
Pakistan. All of the other hyacked aircraft landed in the U.S.S.R. 

The destinations of those hyackers whose attempts to flee the U.S.S.R. failed were 
varied. Sweden was the intended destination seven times ondTurkeyfour times. Western 
European nations were the stated preferences three times, and the United States, South 
Africa, Iraq, and Afghanistan each was a choice once. One hyacker did not seek to leave 
the U.S.S.R.; he demanded that his flight be diverted to Lithuania. In some instances the 
crew and/or passengers overpowered the hyacker and in others the crew disregarded 
the hyacker’s demands. 

Many of the hyackings involved one individual usually a young adult Soviet male, who 
commandeered the aircraft by threatening to commit some action using a weapon or 
explosive. In most instances the hyacker was either bluffing or hadfake or non-functioning 
devices. Several hyackers, however, had knives, and in one incident a groiq) of prisoners 
overpowered their guards and took their weapons. 

All of the hyackers who landed in the U.S.S.R. were arrested by Soviet authorities. The 
hyackers who diverted aircraft out of Soviet airspace were also arrested by the authorities 
of the country in which they landed. By the end of 1990, Finland had returned three of 
the four hyackers to the U.S.S.R. following denials of their requests for political asylum. 
The fate of the fourth hyacker had nut been decided Sweden also returned two of three 
hyackers. The third individual was tried and convicted in a Swedish Court and sentenced 
to four years imprisonment. A Soviet request for his extradition following the completion 
of his sentence has been refused. 


Pageie 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 









Civil Aviation And The 
Terrorist Threat In Latin America 


In spite of the historically low level of activity against air facilities, atr carriers and 
passengers, civil aviation interests in Latin America remain vulnerable to terrorism, as 
evidenced by several aviation-related criminal incidents in 1990. In Colombia, for ex¬ 
ample, two political figures were assassinated, one at the international airport and the 
other aboard an Avianca flight departing from Bogota. A Colombian guerrilla group 
attacked an airport and set an airliner on fire during an insurgent campaign last 
December. In Peru, two bombings occurred at the Lima international airport causing 
structural and property damage, and in El Salvador, insurgent attacks against the mililary 
section of the international airport place the civil air section at increased risk. 

The overall high threat environment in certain Latin American countries, namely Ei 
Salvador, Honduras, Colombia, and Peru, increases the potential risk to civil aviation in 
these areas. Indigenous insurgent/terrorist groups have traditionally targeted domestic 
and U.S. (private, military, religious, business, diplomatic) interests. A recent upsurge in 
terrorist violence in Chile also warrants increased concernfor U.S. personnel andfacilities 
in that country. 

In El Salvador, insurgent capabilities include bombs, rockets, small arms, mortars, and 
surface-to-air missiles. Although not specifically directed against civilian targets, attacks 
using such weaponry have caused loss of life and property destruction, largely because 
of the indiscriminate nature of these attacks. Honduran terrorists have been responsible 
for drive-by shootings, bomb-throwings, and ambushes. In Colombia, major guerrUla 
groups are capable of conducting bombings, kidnappings, and assassinations; narcotics 
traffickers, who also use terrorist tactics, have demonstrated a high level of operational 
sophistication and deceptiveness. In Peru, insurgents have stand-off capabilities and are 
getting increasingly bold in both rural and urban areas. 

White a sudden reversal of a long-time trend of little terrorist activity directed against 
ctvO. aviation in Latin America is unlikely, the potential threat against airport facilities and 
atr carriers should not be discounted. Aircraft and airports remain attractive targets to 
both terrorists and criminals. 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
dvll Aviation 


Page 



Pagm19 


Criminal Acta Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 






Appendix A 


Appendix A 


U.S.—Registered Air Carrier Hijacking Chronology 

1986-1990 


Date Carrier 

Type 

Flight Plan 

No. Of 
Hi¬ 
jackers 

How 

Boarded 

Aircraft? 

Weapon 

Type 

Weapon Destination 
Status /Objective 

02-05-36 Delta 

L-1011 

Ft. 

Lauderdale, 
FUDallas, TX 

1 Male 

Screened 

Knife 

Rea! 

Police 

protection 

03-14-86 Delta 

DC-9 

Daytona 

Beach, FU 
Atlanta, GA 

1 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Gun 

Real 

Suicide 

05-02-66 Horizon 

SA-227 

Eugene/ 
Portland, OR 

1 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Incendiary 

Gun 

Alleged 

Phoenix 

09-05-86 Pan Am 

B-747 

Karachi, 
Pakistan/ 
Frankfurt, FRG 

4 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Explosive 

Gun 

Real 

Cyprus/ 

Prisoner 

release 

01-05-87 Delta 

N/A 

Dallas, TX 

1 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Gun 

Real 

Egypt 

01-10-87 New York 
Air 

DC-9 

Newark, NJ/ 
Wash., DC 

1 Male 

Screened 

Incendiary 

Alleged 

Speak with 
officials 

03~~07^3T Alssks 

B-727 

Seattle, WA/ 
Anchorage, AK 

1 Male 

Screened 

Gun 

Alleged 

Cuba 

06-05-87 Virgin 
Islands 
Seaplane 

Grumman 

St. Croix, V.U 
San Juan, PR 

1 Male 

Passengers 

not 

screened 

Explosive 

Real 

Cuba 

10-01-88 American 

A-300 

PoT-au-Prince, 3 Male 
Haiti/ 

New York, NY 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Gun 

Real 

United 

States/ 

Political 

asylum 

12-11-88 TWA 

B-727 

San Juan, PR/ 
Miami, FL 

1 Male 

Screened 

Explosive 

Alleged 

Cuba 

04-10-89 Mission 
Aviation 

Cessna 

402C 

Cap-Haitien, 

Haiti/ 

Ft. 

Lauderdale, FL 

2 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Guns 

Real 

Miami/ 

Speak with 
President 

05-27-89 American 

B-727 

Dallas, TX/ 
Miami, FL 

1 Male 

Screened 

Explosive 

Gun 

Fake 

Fake 

Cuba 


1990 


Criminat Acte Against 
dvll Aviation 


Page 19 













Appendix A 


Date Carrier 

Type 

Flight Plan 

No. of 
Hi¬ 
jackers 

How 

Boarded 

Aircraft? 

Weapon 

Type 

Weapon Destination 
Status /Objective 

01-16-90 America 
West 

B-737 

Houston, TX/ 
Las Vegas, NV 

1 Male 

Screened 

Explosive 

Fake 

Cuba 

01-16-90 United 

N/A 

San 

Francisco, CA/ 
Seattle, WA 

1 Male 

Screened 

Explosive 

Fake 

Vancouver 

Canada 

04-02-90 American 

A-300 

Port-au-Prince, 

Haiti/ 

New York. NY 

1 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Gun 

Explosive 

Real 

Fake 

New York 

Political 

Asylum 

08-20-90 American 

N/A 

Charleston. SC 

1 Male 

Assaulted 

Aircraft 

Knife 

Real 

Unknown 


Page 20 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 









Appendix B 


Appendix B 


Foreign-Registered Air Carrier Hijacking Chronology 

1986-1990 


Date 

Carrier 

Aircraft 

Type 

Flight Plan 

Destination/Objective 

05-03S6 

China Airlines 
(ROC) 

B-747 

Bangkok, Thailand/ 

Hong Kong 

People's Republic of 
China/Political asylum 

05-20-86 

Finn Air 

DC-9 

Oulu/Helsinki. Finland 

Public statement 

05-23-86 

Swiss Air 

DC-10 

Chicago, lU 

Zurich, Switzerland 

Switzerland/Produce movies 


Aeronica 

B-727 

Managua, Nicaragua/ 

San Salvador, El Salvador 

El Salvador/United States 

07-05-86 

Sudan Airways 

B-707 

Baghdad, Iraq/ 

Khartoum, Sudan 

Israel 

08-28-86 

LOT 

TU-134 

Wroclaw/Warsaw, Poland 

Unknown 

09-20-86 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Kiev/Jfa/ 

Nizhnevartovsk, USSR 

Escape police custody 

11-10-86 

Iran Air 

A-300 

Tehran/Tabriz, Iran 

Unknown 

12-25-86 

Iraqi Airways 

B-737 

Baghdad, Iraq/ 

Amman, Jordan 

' Inknown 

03-10-87 

Cubana Airlines 

AN-24 

Havana/ 

Nueva Gerona, Cuba 

United States 

05-05-87 

Iran Air 

Unknown 

Shiraz/Tehran, Iran 

Unknown 

05-15-87 

N/A 

N/A 

Warsaw. Poland 

West Berlin/Political asylum 

05-19-87 

Air New Zealand 

B-747 

Nadi. Fiji 

Libya 

07-24-87 

Air Afrique 

DC-10 

Brazzaville. Congo/ 

Paris, France 

Beirut/Prisoner release 

09-08-87 

LOT 

Unknown 

Warsaw, Poland/ 

Athens, Greece 

Unknown 

11-06-87 

Air Canada 

B-767 

San Francisco, CA/ 

Toronto, Ont. 

London/Ireland 

12-23-87 

KLM 

B-737 

Amsterdam, Noth./ 

Milan, Italy 

United States/Extortion 

12-25-87 

Iranian Airliner 

Unknown 

Tehran/Mashad, Iran 

Unknown 

1990 



Criminal Acta Against 

Page 21 


civil Aviation 
























Appendix B 


Date 

Carrier 

Aircraft 

Type 

Flight Plan 

Destination/Objective 

01-04S8 

Aeromexico 

DC-9 

Juarez/Mexico City, Mexico 

Brownsville, TX 

01-05-88 

Iran Air 

Unknown 

Tehran/MashaJ, Iran 

Unknown 

02-lJ 

Air Tanzania 

B-737 

Dar es Salaam/ 

Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 

London/Restoration of political 
figure 

02-22-88 

China Airlines 
(ROC) 

B-737 

Taipei/Kaohsiung, ROC 

People’s Republic of China 

03-08-88 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Irkutsk/Leningrad, USSR 

London 

03-12-88 

Pakistan 

International 

Airlines 

A-300 

Karachi/ 

Quetta, Pakistan 

India or Afghanistan 

04-05-88 

Kuwait Airways 

B-747 

Bangkok, Thailand/Kuwait 

Mashad, Iran/Prisoner release 

05-12-88 

CAAC (PRC) 

B-737 

Xiamen/Guangzhou, PRC 

Republic of China/Political 
asylum 

05-23-88 

Avianca 

B-727 

Medellin/Bogota, Colombia 

Cuba/Extortion 

08-01-88 

ACES (Colombia) 

DHC-6 

El Bagre/Medellin, Colombia 

Remote airstrip/Ri. obery 

09-29-88 

VASP (Brazil) 

B-737 

Belo Horizonte/ 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Brazilia 

10-22-88 

Iran Air 

B-747 

Tehran, Iran/Frankfurt, FRG 

Unknown 

12-02-88 

Aeroflot 

IL-76 

Mineralnyye Vody, USSR 

Israel 

01-20-89 

Aerofbt 

TU-134 

Arkhangelsk/ 

Oaessa, USSR 

Israel/Bucharest 

01-21-89 

Aeroflot 

AN-24 

Ivano-Frankovsk/ 

Kiev, USSR 

Unknown 

01-31-89 

ACES (Colombia) 

B-727 

San Andreas/ 

Medellin, Colombia 

Miami 

03-29-89 

Malev 

TU-154 

Prague, Czechoslovakia/ 
Frankfurt, FRG 

United States 

03-31-89 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Astrakhan/Baku, USSR 

Pak'tan 

04-24-89 

CAAC 

YUN-} 

Ningbo/Xiamen, PRC 

Taiwan 

05-18-89 

Aeroflot 

IL-62 

Angola/Tanzania 

Unknown 

05-26-89 

CSA 

YAK-40 

Prague/ 

Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia 

West 

05-31-89 

ALM Antilles 


Miami, FUHaiti/ 

Curacao 

Israel 



Page 22 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 


























Appendix B 


Date 

Carrier 

Aircraft 

Type 

Flight Plan 

Destination/Objective 

03-23-89 

Air France 

A-300 Airbus 

Paris, France/ 

Algiers. Algeria 

Tunisia 

09-19-89 

Air Maroc 

ATR-42 

Casablanca, Morocco/ 

El Aaiun/ 

Asmara, Western Sahara 

Las Palmas. Canary Islands/ 
Mentally unstable 

10-6-89 

Myanmar Airways 

Fokker28 

Mergui/ 

Rangoon. Burma 

Bangkok/Political demands 

12-16-89 

CAAC 

B-747 

Beijing/Shanghai/ 

San Francisco/New York 

Fukuoka, Japan/Political asylum 

12-31-89 

Saudia 

B-747 

Jeddah/ 

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 

Cyprus/Mentally unstable 

01-03-90 

LATN 

Cessna 402 

Asuncion/funknown), 

Paraguay 

Unknown 

01-26-90 

Iran Air 

B-727 

Shiraz/Bandar 

Abbas, Iran 

Iraq or Israel 

04-18-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Moscow/Leningrad, USSR 

Lithuania, USSR 

05-29-90 

Military 

AN-26 

Mogadishu/ 

Hargessa, Somalia 

Djibouti 

06-08-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Minsk/Murmansk, 

USSR 

Sweden 

06-19-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Riga/ 

Murmansk, USSR 

Finland 

06-24-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Tallinn/ 

Lvov. USSR 

Finland 

06-28-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Krasnodar/ 

Krasnoyarsk, USSR 

Turkey 

06-30-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Lvov/ 

Leningrad, USSR 

Sweden 

07-04-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Sochi/ 

Rostov, USSR 

Turkey 

07-05-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Leningrad/ 

Lvov. USSR 

Sweden 

07-05-90 

Aeroperlas 

Twin Otter 
300 

Colon/Panama City, 

Panama 

Colombia 

07-10-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Leningrad/ 

Murmansk. USSR 

France 

07-12-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Leningrad/ 

Murmansk, USSR 

Sweden 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 23 










Appendix B 


Date 

Carrier 

Aircraft 

Type 

Flight Plan 

Destination/Objective 

07-18-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Odessa/ 

Sukhumi, USSR 

Turkey 

07-23-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Riga/ 

Murmansk, USSR 

Sweden 

08-16-90 

Ethiopian Airlines 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Yemen 

08-19-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Neryungri/ 

Yakutsk, USSR 

Pakistan 

08-30-90 

Aeroflot 

AN-2 

Voronezh/ 

(Unknown), USSR 

Afghanistan 

08-30-90 

Aeroflot 

YAK-42 

Moscow/ 

Voronezh, USSR 

Germany 

09-02-90 

Aeroflot 

Unknown 

Przhevalsk/ 

Frunze, USSR 

South Africa 

09-13-90 

India Airlines 

B-737 

Coimbatore/ 

Madras, India 

Sri Lanka 

09-25-90 

Aeroflot 

Unknown 

Leningrad/ 

Archangelsk, USSR 

Sweden 

10-92-90 

Xiamen Airlines 

B-737 

Xiamen/ 

Guangzhou, PRC 

Taiwan 

10-05-90 

Aeroflot 

YAK-40 

Novgorod/ 

Petroskoi, USSR 

Finland 

10-05-90 

Aerotaxi Airlines 

Cessna-210 

San Fernando de Atabapo/ 
Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela 

Unknown 

10-05-90 

Aerotaxi Airlines 

Cessna-210 

San Fernando de Atabapo/ 
Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela 

Unknown 

10-07-90 

Aeroflot 

AN-24 

Perm/ 

Archangelsk, USSR 

Sweden 

11-10-90 

Thai International 
Airways 

A-320 

Rangoon, Burma/ 

Bangkok, Thailand 

India 

11-12-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Leningrad/ 

Lvov, USSR 

Sweden 

11-15-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Leningrad/ 

Moscow, USSR 

Finland 

11-16-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Tallinn/ 

Moscow, USSR 

Sweden 

11-29-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-134 

Moscow/ 

Sykyvkar, USSR 

Iraq 


Page 24 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 
























^pmdixB 


Date 

Carrier 

Aircraft 

Type 

Flight Plan 

Destination/Objective 

12-02-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Murmansk/ 

Leningrad 

USSR 

12-06-90 

CAAC 

Unknown 

Guangzhou/ 

Quingdao, PRC 

Unknown 

12-11-90 

Aeroflot 

YAK-40 

Baku/ 

Tbilisi. USSR 

Turkey 

12-21-90 

Aeroflot 

TU-154 

Rostov/ 

Nizhnevartovsk, USSR 

USA 

12-24-90 

Aeroflot 

IL-86 

Moscow/ 

Sochi, USSR 

England 

12-28-90 

AirAlgiere 

B-737 

Ghardaia/ 

Algiers, Algeria 

Unknown 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 25 












Pagttao 


Criminal Acta Atfatnst 
Civil Aviation 


1990 




Appendix C 


Appendix C 


Explosions Aboard Aircraft Chronology 1986-*!990 


Date 

Carrier 

Type 

Flight Plan 

Location on 
Aircraft 

Result 

04-02-86 

TWA 

B-727 

Rome, Italy/ 

Athens, Greece/ 

Cairo, Egypt 

Cabin area 

Near Athens/Landed 
safely; 4 killed 

9 injured 

05-03-86 

Air Lanka 

L-iOII 

Colombo, 

Sri Lanka 

Cargo hold 

On ground at 
Colombo; 16 killed, 

41 injured 

10-26-86 

Thai Airways 

A-300 

Bangkok, Thailand/ 
Mainia, Philippines/ 
Osaka, Japan 

Rear lavatory 

Landed in Osaka; 

62 injured 

11-29-87 

Korean Air 

B-707 

Baghdad, Iraq/Seoul, 
South Korea 

Cabin area 

Aircraft destroyed 
in-flight; 115 killed 

03-01-88 

BOP Air 

Bandeirante 

Phalaborwa/ 
Johannesburg, South 
Africa 

Cabin Area 

Aircraft destroyed 
in-flight; 17 killed 

12-21-88 

Pan Am 

B-747 

London/New York 

Baggage 

compartment 

Aircraft destroyed 
in-flight; 259 on 
aircraft, 11 on 
ground killed 

09-19-89 

Union Des 
Transport 

DC-10 

Brazzaville, Congo/ 
N'Djamena, Chad/ 
Paris, France 

Cargo hold 

Aircraft destroyed 
in-flight, 171 
passengers and 
crew killed 

11-27-89 

Avianca 

B-727 

Bogota/Cali, 

Colombia 

Cabin area 

Aircraft destroyed in 
flight, 107 
passengers and 
crew killed 

1990 

None 






1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 27 







Page 28 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 









Appendix D 



Significant Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation 

1990 

January 3, 1990 Hijacking—Paraguayan National Air Ttansport Aircrctft 

A twin-engine Cessna 402 C belonging to the Paraguayan National 
Air Transport Company (Lineas Aereas de Transporte Nacional - 
LATN) was hijacked by five armed men and a woman. The incident 
occurred approximately three hours after the plane had departed 
the LATN facilities at the Petttrossi International Airport in Asuncion 
on a domestic charter flight. The hijackers were identified as Colom¬ 
bian and Argentine citizens. The pilot and co-pilot of the aircraft 
were released at a remote airstrip in Paraguay, and the plane took 
off again headed In a northerly direction toward Bolivia. 


January 16, 1990 Hijacking—America West Airlines, Flight 727 

America West Airlines Flight 727, a B-737 300, with 34 passengers 
and five crew members, was hijacked during a flight from Houston, 
Texas to Las Vegas, Nevada, The hijacker, identified as Jose Manuel 
Gonzalez-Gonzalez, demanded to be flown to Cuba. During the 
incident, he held a flight attendant hostage and claimed to have an 
improvised explosive device. The flight was diverted to Austin, Texas, 
where Gonzalez was overpowered and taken into custody by local 
authorities. The “bomb” was a toothpaste container attached to a 
flashlight. In July, Gonzalez was found guilty in U.S. District Court 
of air piracy and assaulting a flight attendant: in October, he was 
ordered to serve at least 20 years of a 24-year prison sentence and 
to pay nearly $89,500 in restitution. 


January 18, 1990 Hijacking—United Airlines Flight 705 

A male passenger caused United Airlines Flight 705, a B-727, en 
route from San Francisco, California to Seattle, Washington, to 
divert to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, by threatening to 
detonate an explosive device. The flight had been delayed in landing 
at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport because of inclement 
weather. The passenger apparently was upset at this delay. He 
claimed his cellular telephone was an explosive and demanded that 
the plane land. The pilot diverted to Vancouver, and the passenger 
was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page 29 



Appendix D 


January 18, 1990 


January 26, 1990 


March 22, 1990 


April 2, 1990 


April 18, 1990 


Bombings—Peshawar and Islamabad International Airports 

A car bomb, described by local authorities as a “time bomb," 
exploded in a parking lot of the Islamabad International Airport in 
front of the mam terminal buUdmg. This occurred several hours 
after a low-yield explosive device detonated near the Peshawar 
International Airport. No one was mjured m either attack. The car 
m which the Islcimabad device was placed was destroyed and several 
nearby vehicles were damaged; damage was slight m the Peshawar 
incident. There were no claims of responsibility. 


Hijacking—Iran Air 

An attempt was made to hijack an Iran Air B-727 on a domestic 
flight from Shiraz to Bandar Abbas. Four passengers, displaying 
pistols and hand grenades, demanded that the flight be diverted to 
either Iraq or Israel: however, Iranian security forces aboard the 
flight killed the hijackers. No other passengers were mjured, and 
the aircraft returned to Shiraz. 


Assassination—El Dorado Airport; Bogota, Colombia 

Colombian Presidential candidate Bernardo JaramiUo was assas- 
smated in a machme gun attack at the El Dorado Airport. JaramiUo 
was the leader of the leftist Patriotic Union Party. The assassin was 
believed linked to Colombian drug traffickers. 


Hijacking—American Airlines Flight 658 

On April 2, a gunman seized American Alrlmes Flight 658 at 
Port-au-Prince International Airport m Haiti. At the time, the air¬ 
craft, an A-300 Airbus was bemg prepared for a flight to New York's 
JFK International Airport, and no passengers were aboard. The 
gunman, who was a member of the Haitian airport security contin¬ 
gent, demanded to be flown to the United States. The mcident 
continued until approximately 2 A.M. on April 5, when the hijacker, 
after indicating a desire to negotiate, left the aircraft and disap¬ 
peared mto the darkness. 


Hijacking—USSR 

A male passenger hijacked an Aeroflot Tupolev-134 (TU-134) on a 
domestic flight from Moscow to Lenmgrad and demanded that it be 
flown to Kaunas, Lithuanian S.S.R. The hijacker told the crew that 
he had biological weapons wrapped m cellophane and that he would 
use them f his demands were not met. He apparently wanted to 
meet the President of Lithuania. The hijacker allowed the plane to 
land at Vilnius, Lithuania, after bemg told it was technically impos- 


Page 30 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 







Appendix D 


April 26, 1990 


April 29, 1990 


May 5, 1990 


May 21, 1990 


sible to land at Kaunas. Upon landing, the hijacker surrendered. He 
had no weapons or explosives at the time of his arrest. 


Assassination—Avianca Flight 527 

Colombian presidential candidate and former M-19 leader Carlos 
Pizarro Leongomez was shot and killed by a lone assassin aboard 
Avianca Flight 527. The shooting occurred shortly after the plane’s 
departure from Bogota en route to Barranquilla. There were ap¬ 
proximately 12C passengers aboard the flight. The gunman had 
smuggled his weapon, a submachine gun. onto the plane and 
assembled It in the lavatory. He fired 15 rounds at Pizarro before 
being killed by a bodyguard. There were no Injuries to other pas¬ 
sengers. An anonymous telephone caller to a Colombian radio 
station claimed the attack on behalf of “The Extraditables." a name 
used by a group of cocaine traffickers associated v/lth the Medellin 
cocaine cartel, but the claim could not be verlfled. 


Seizure of Explosives—Belfast International Airport 

A teenage girl was arrested on a bus at a police roadblock outside 
of Belfast International Airport carrying an improvised explosive 
device comprised of a plastic high explosive. She was wearing a 
maternity smock and had the explosive and a detonator strapped 
to her waist. The bus was destined for the airport; however, the 
actual intended target is not known. 


General Aviation Hyacking—Somalia to Ethiopia 

An Italian-owned Rockwell Turbo-Commander aircraft was hijacked 
by a gunman armed with a pistol during a flight from Baardheere 
to Mogadishu, Somalia. The plane landed in Dolo, Ethiopia, near 
the Somali border. Ethiopian police arrested the hijacker and freed 
the pilot, who was being held hostage, the next day. The motive for 
this Incident is unknown. 


Bombing—El Al Ticket Office 

An Improvised explosive device detonated on a sidewalk next to the 
El Al Ticket Office in Istanbul, Turkey. There was minor damage to 
the office. Several neighboring buildings were reported to have 
received minor damage, and a few minor Injuries were reported. An 
unidentified individual called Turkish newspapers and claimed the 
bombing on behalf of the Armed People’s Unit, believed to be a 
sub-unit of the Turkish Revolutionary Communist Party/Unity. 


1990 


Criminal Actm Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page SI 



Appendix D 


May 29. 1990 


June 7, 1990 


June 8, 1990 


June 19, 1990 


June 24, 1990 


General Aviation Hijacking—Somalia to Djibouti 

A Somali Antonov-26 aircraft, on a domestic flight from Mogadishu 
to Hargessa, landed In Djibouti where two crew members, the pilot 
and flight engineer, requested political asylum. Both of these In¬ 
dividuals were military officers. Approximately 14 other Somali 
military personnel were among the 47 passengers and five crew on 
the flight. 


Bombing—Polish Airlines Ticket Office, Gdcaisk 

Three homemade improvised explosive devices exploded at different 
locations In Gdansk, Poland, within 45 minutes. Witnesses to two 
of the incidents reported seeing an Individual throwing glass con¬ 
tainers of iron fllings. One of the attacks was targeted against a 
Polish Airlines ticket office. An organization. The 13th December 
Resistance Group, reportedly claimed credit. 


Hijacking—USSR to Sweden 

An Aeroflot Tupolev-154 (TU-154) on a domestic flight from Minsk 
to Murmansk was hijacked to Stockholm, Sweden. The hijacker, 
17 -year old Dmitri Semyonov, threatened to explode a hand grenade 
If his demands were not met. The aircraft, with 114 passengers and 
7 crew members, landed safely at Stockholm’s Arlanda International 
Airport. Semyonov surrendered to Swedish authorities and re¬ 
quested political asylum. His hand grenade was determined to be a 
fake. On July 17, Semyonov was extradited to the USSR 


Hijacking—USSR to Finland 

An Aeroflot TU-134 passenger aircraft on a domestic flight from Riga 
to Murmansk was hijacked to Helsinki, Finland. The 54 passengers 
and five crew members were unharmed during the incident. The 
hijacker. 20-year old Oleg Kozlov, a Soviet citizen, surrendered 
peacefully to Finnish authorities and requested political asylum. 
Although he threatened to detonate an explosive device If his 
demands were not met. he was found to possess neither weapons 
nor explosives. In July, Kozlov’s request for asylum was denied, and 
he was extradited to the Soviet Union. 


Hijacking—USSR to Finland 

An Aeroflot TU-134, carrying approximately 70 passengers and six 
crew on a domestic flight from Tallinn to Lvov, was hijacked to 
Helsinki, Finland. The hijacker was Identified as a 20-year old Soviet 
citizen, Mikhail Vorfolomeyev. He Initially demanded to fly to Stock¬ 
holm. Sweden, claiming to have an improvised explosive device in a 
briefcase, but agreed to land in Finland when told there was not 


Page 92 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 








Appendix D 


June 28. 1990 


June 30, 1990 


June 30, 1990 


July 3. 1990 


enough fuel. Upon landing at the Helslnki-Vantaa International 
Airport. Vorfolomeyev surrendered to Finnish authorities and re¬ 
quested political asylum. No weapons or explosives were found. In 
August, Vorfolomeyev’s request for asylum was denied, and he was 
extradited to the USSR 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-154 passenger jet to Turkey was 
thwarted when the pilot landed the aircraft at Orenberg Airport in 
the USSR The aircraft was on a domestic flight from Krasnodar to 
Krasnoyarsk with 165 passengers. The hijacker had threatened to 
poison all on board with chemicals he claimed to possess unless his 
demand to fly to Turkey was met. Upon landing, he was arrested by 
Soviet authorities. No chemical or biological agents were found by 
the authorities. 


H\jac’'-ng—USSR to Sweden 

An Aeroflot TU-154 with 152 passengers on a domestic flight from 
Lvov to Leningrad was hijacked to Arlanda International Airport In 
Stockholm, Sweden. The hijacker, who was identified as 19-year old 
Anatoliy Mlkhailenko, claimed to have a hand grenade. He sur¬ 
rendered peacefully to Swedish authorities and requested political 
asylum. The hand grenade he carried was found to contain no 
explosive material, and It was not capable of detonating. Mikhai- 
lenko's request for a^lum was denied in July, and he was extradited 
to the Soviet Union. 


Bombing—Iberian Airlines Office, Amsterdam 

An improvised explosive device detonated in front of a building 
where an Iberia Airline Office is located. There were no Injuries, but 
considerable damage was caused to the building, parked cars, and 
nearby homes. Several days later, the attack was claimed in a 
communique Issued by the Spanish terrorist organization, Basque 
Fatherland and Freedom (ETA). 


General Aviation Hijacking / Suicide—Brazil 

A turboprop aircraft was seized at a mining area In Brazil’s Para 
State. Two armed men held the pilot hostage for approximately 24 
hours and demanded a ransom. The pilot managed to escape and, 
when police fired a tear gas grenade into the plane, the two men 
committed suicide. 


1990 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


Page S3 




Appendix D 


July 4 . 1990 


July 5, 1990 


July a. 1990 


July 10, 1990 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-134 passenger aircraft to Turkey 
failed when the 30-year old Soviet female hijacker was overpowered. 
The plane was on a domestic flight from Sochi to Rostov-on-Don. 
The hijacker, who was accompanied on the flight by her 2-year old 
daughter, threatened to detonate an explosive device. When the 
flight landed at Its original destination, the hijacker was over¬ 
powered and arrested by Soviet authorities. A knife and hammer 
reportedly were confiscated from her. 


Hijacking—USSR to Sweden 

An Aeroflot TU-154 with 171 passengers and seven crew members 
was hijacked to Sweden while on a domestic flight from Leningrad 
to Lvov. The hijacker was Identified as Mikhail Mokretsov, a teen¬ 
ager, who threatened to blow up the aircraft with an explosive device 
he claimed was hidden in his luggage. He surrendered to Swedish 
authorities upon landing at Stockholm’s Arlanda International Air¬ 
port. No weapons were found. On September 11. Mokretsov was 
tried and convicted in Sweden on a hijacking charge and sentenced 
to four years Imprisonment. He will not be extradited to the USSR. 


Hijacking—Panama to Colombia 

A Twin Otter 300 belonging to the Panamanian commuter airline. 
AeroPerlas. was hijacked on a domestic flight from Colon to Panama 
City. There were eight passengers and two crew members aboard 
the flight. Five of the passengers reportedly hijacked the aircraft and 
forced it to land at a remote airstrip in Colombia. The copilot _ .id 
three passengers were released and the plane again took off. The 
pilot, who was later released in Colombia, speculated that the plane 
was probably hijacked by members of the Peruvian group. Shining 
Path, and the Colombian group. Revolutionary Armed Forces of 
Colombia (FARC), who needed it “for the revolution." 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-154 failed when the aircraft's 
crew refused the hijacker’s instructions to fly to France. The flight, 
with 143 passengers, had just departed Leningrad en route to 
Murmansk when a man held up two cylindrical objects claiming 
they were explosive devices. Rather than accede to demands to fly 
to Paris, the crew returned the aircraft to Leningrad where the man 
was arrested. No explosives were found. 


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Criminal Act» Against 
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Appendix D 


July 12. 1990 


July IS, 1990 


July 18, 1990 


July 23. 1990 


July 28. 1990 


August 14, 1990 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-154 to Finland failed when one, 
and possibly two. teenaged hijackers were overpo 'ered on boeird 
the plane. The aircraft was enroute from Leningrad to Murmansk 
when the incident occurred. The hljackerfs) threatened to blow up 
the airplane: however, no explosives were found. The flight returned 
to Leningrad and the h*jacker(s) was arrested. 


Bombing—Jevice Explodes at Jorge Chavez International 
Airport, Lima 

A small dynamite charge exploded under an automoulle parked In 
the long-term parking area In front of <^he lUuln terminal at the 
airport. The vehicle was destroyed but there were no Injuries. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack a TU-134 to Turkey failed when the hijacker 
was overpowered. The aircraft, with 75 passengers, was on a 
domestic flight from Odessa to Sukhumi when a male passenger 
threatened to explode an improvised explosive device. He was 
overpowered, and the plane conf .'ted on to Its destination where 
the hijacker was arrested. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack a TU-\34 to Sweden failed when the crew did 
not accede to the two hijackers’ demands. The d''mestlc flight was 
en route from Riga to Murmansk with 74 passengers when the 
hljacKers threatened to detonate an explosive device unless the 
aircraft was diverted to Stockholm. The crew landed instead at 
Petrozavodsk, Russian S.F.S.R. 


Bombing—Jorge Chavez International Airport, Lima 

Unidentified masked attackers destroyed a landing beacon located 
m an isolated area several kilometers from the airport. Electrical 
equipment associated with the beacon's operation was also de¬ 
stroyed in the attack. A guard at the site was not injured and 
operations at the airport were unaffected. 


Gunman at Airport — Washington, D.C. 

A man armed with a .38 caliber revolver entered the Ogden Allied 
Services garage at Washington, D.O.’s National Airport, and held 
several employees at gunpoint. He was a former employee at Ogden 
and had voluntarily left his job. He commandeered a fuel truck and 
forced an Ogden employee to drive onto the air operations area 


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Appendix D 


(AOA). When the employee escaped, the gunman drove the vehicle 
onto the AOA and fired several shots at a second Ogden fuel truck 
wounding two persons. The gunman abandoned his truck and 
attempted to commandeer an airport shuttle bus but was ap¬ 
prehended by police. He was in possession of 30 to 40 rounds of 
ammunition when he was arrested. One molotov cocktail was 
recovered fmm the abandoned fuel truck, and several others were 
found in the gunman’s vehicle. 


August 16, 1990 Hijacking—Private Panamanian Plane 

Several men. described as being heavily armed, hijacked a private¬ 
ly owned Beechcraft 200 which had just landed at France Field 
Airport in Colon, Panama. The hijackers allowed tne passengers to 
deplane but forced the pilot to remain onboard. The plane then took 
off again, with only two and one-half hours of fuel, headed in a 
northeast direction toward Colombia. 


August 16, 1990 Hijacking—Ethiopia to Yemen 

An Ethiopian Airlines aircraft was hijacked to Aden Airport during 
a domestic flight. Two passengers aboard the plane were reportedly 
involved in the hijacking. Upon ’anding in Yemen, the hijackers were 
overpowered and arrested by the aircraft's security personnel, one 
of whom was Injured. 

August 19, 1990 Hijacking—USSR to Pakistan 

An Aeroflot TU-154 on « domestic flight from Neryungri to Yakutsk 
with 85 passengers and seven crew members was hijacked over 
Sibera. The hijackers were a group of 15 prisoners aboard the High*. 
They overpowered their three guards and confiscated their weapons. 
The plane relumed to Neryungri where six of the prisoners sur¬ 
rendered to authorities. The remaining hijackers were joined by two 
other prisoners; women and children aboard the flight were ex¬ 
changed for additional weapons and bullet-proof v 'sts. The pi one 
was refueled at Krasnoyarsk and landed at Tashkent, where ne¬ 
gotiations were carried on. The plane again took off and landed at 
Karachi, where the hijackers surrendered to Pakistani authorities 
and reque,«:tef' political asylum. 


August 20, 1990 Attempted Hijacking—American Airlines Flight 701, 

Charleston, SC 

An individual entered the termin il building at the Charleston, South 
Carolina. International Airport and stole a knife from the food 
service area. He then ran into a sterile area via an exit lane used by 
passengers departing the concourse toward a gate counter. At the 
counter, he forced the pilot of American Airlines , light 701 to the 


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Appe,idlx D 


August 30, 1990 


August 30, 1990 


September 2, 1990 


September 13, 1990 


September 25, 1990 


Jetway door at knifepoint, and demanded that It be unlocked. As 
police were arriving, the pilot managed to escape and the gunman 
was disarmed and arrested. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an AN-2 on a domestic flight failed when the 
hijacker was overpowered. The hijacker had entered the cockpit 
wielding a knife and demanded the flight be diverted to Afghanlstem. 
The alrcraift Instead landed at Livny, Russian S.F.S.R.. where the 
hijacker was arrested. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot Yakovlev-42 fyAK-42) failed when 
the crew landed the aircraft at Voronezh, Russian S.F.S.R The 
aircraft was on a domestic flight from Moscow to Voronezh and was 
preparing to land when a passenger stopped a flight attendant and 
demanded to be flown to West Germany. He was arrested upon 
landing. 


Hijacking—USSR 

Two men entered the cockpit of an Aeroflot aircraft, threatened the 
pilots with knives and explosives, and demanded to be flown to 
South Africa. The aircraft was on a domestic flight from Przhevalsk 
to Frunze when the incident occurred. The hijackers were over¬ 
powered and arrested. One of the hijackers stabbed himself during 
his arrest and required hospitalization. No explosives were found. 


Hijacking—India 

An attempt to hijack an Indian Airlines B-737 on a domestic flight 
failed when the pilot refused a demand to fly to Sri Lanka. The 
aircraft, with more than 90 passengers aboard, was en route from 
Coimbatore to Madras via Bangalore when the hijacking occurred. 
Shortly after takeoff from Coimbatore, a passenger forced his way 
into the cockpit, said that he had a hand grenade, and demanded 
to be flown to Colombo, Sri Lanka. The plane landed at Bangalore, 
and the hijacker was arrested. No weapons or explosives were found. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot passenger jet on a domestic flight 
from Leningrad to Arkhangelsk failed when the hijacker was ar¬ 
rested by authorities. The hijacker, who claimed to have an explosive 
device in his briefcase, demanded to be flown to Stockholm. Sweden. 


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Appendix D 


The crew convinced the hijacker that the plane needed to land at 
Arkhangelsk for refueling. Following negotiations, the 66 pas¬ 
sengers aboard the flight were released. The hijacker was then 
arrested. No explosives were found. 


October 2, 1990 Hijacking/crash—People's Republic of China 

A Xiamen Airline Company B-737 was hijacked in flight aiid crashed 
upon landing at Baiyun International Airport in Guangzhou, the 
People's Republic of China (PRC). The aircraft went out of control 
during landing, struck a fully loaded B-757 awaiting cleeirance for 
takeoff, and then collided with an empty B-707. An explosion and 
fire resulted. One hundred and twenty-eight persons were killed and 
approximately 53 others were injured. The hijacked aircraft was on 
a domestic flight from Xiamen to Guangzhou when the hijacking 
occurred. The hijacker, a Chinese male, reportedly demanded to be 
flown to Taiwan. 


Octobers, 1990 Explosive Device Found—ANA Flight, Okinawa 

An individual, a known Okinawan gangster who was arrested at the 
Naha, Okinawa, airport, attempted to place a home-made im¬ 
provised explosive device (lED) on board an All Nippon Airways flight 
from Naha, Okinawa, to Tokyo, Japan. The lED was In a wooden 
box and reportedly consisted of several hundred grams of highly 
explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT). Several dozen small steel balls were 
packed in the device to act as shrapnel when the lED exploded. The 
device was discovered when the gangster was arrested at the airport 
on an unrelated charge. This incident is thought to have been related 
to gang violence. 


October 5, 1990 Hijacking—USSR to Finland 

An Aeroflot YAK-40 aircraft with 25 passengers and three crew 
members, was hijacked to Helsinki, Finland. The aircraft was on a 
domestic flight from Novgorod to Petrozavodsk and landed at Hel- 
sinkl-Vantaa International Airport. The hijacker was identified as 
41-year old Nikolai Sellvanov, who threatened to detonate an im¬ 
provised explosive device if his demands were not met. Upon land¬ 
ing. he surrendered to authorities and requested political asylum. 
His request was refused and on December 5 he was extradited to 
the USSR. 


October 5, 1990 Two hijackings—Venezuela to Colombia 

Two Cessna 210s belonging to Aerotaxl Airlines were hijacked 
during domestic flights. Both planes departed the airport at San 
Fernando de Atabapo, near the Colombian border, approximately 
one hour apart en route to Puerto Ayacucho. Both aircraft were 


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1990 





Appendix D 


October 7, 1990 


November 10, 1990 


November 12, 1990 


November 15, 1990 


instead forced to land at locations in eastern Colombia, where the 
pilots and passengers were abandoned. The planes then took off 
again. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot Antonov-24 aircraft to Sweden 
failed when the crew and passengers overpowered the hijacker. The 
plane was on a domestic flight from the city of Perm to Arkhangelsk 
when the hijacker threatened to detonate an explosive device unless 
the aircraft was diverted to Stockholm. The hijacker was arrested 
when the plane landed in Kotlas, Russian S.F.S.R. No explosives 
were found. 


Hijacking—Thailand to India 

Two Burmese students hijacked a Thai International Airways Airbus 
A-320 to Calcutta, India, by threatening to detonate an Improvised 
explosive device. The aircraft, with 205 passengers and 16 crew 
members, was en route to Rangoon, Burma from Bangkok, 
Thailand, when the hijacking occurred. Upon landing, the hijackers 
peacefully surrendered after freeing all other passengers and crew. 
No explosives were found. The hijacking was committed for political 
reasons, as the students wanted to draw international attention to 
the military rule in their country. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-154 to Stockholm, Sweden, 
failed when the crew persuaded the hijacker to allow a stopover 
landing in Minsk, Byelorussian S.S.R The aircraft was on a domes¬ 
tic flight from Leningrad to Lvov when a male passenger Indicated 
that he would detonate an explosive device unless the aircraft was 
diverted to Stockholm. When the aircraft landed In Minsk, the 
passenger was eirrested. 


Hijacking—USSR to Finland 

An Aeroflot TU-134 with approximately 66 passengers and six crew 
members was hijacked to Helsinki, Finland. The aircraft was on a 
domestic flight from Leningrad to Moscow. The hijacker threatened 
to detonate an improvised explosive device containing plastic ex¬ 
plosives. He peacefully surrendered to Finnish authorities shortly 
after the plane landed at the Helsinkl-Vantaa International Airport. 
No explosives or weapons were found. 


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Appendix D 


November 16, 1990 


November 29, 1990 


November 29. 1990 


December 2, 1990 


December 6, 1990 


December H i Li'90 


Pape 40 


HUacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot domestic flight to Sweden failed 
when the ahaft Ijmded In Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R The TU-134 
with 64 passengers was on a flight between Tallinn and Moscow 
when a lone hijacker attempted to commandeer the plane. Upon 
landing, he was arrested by Soviet authorities. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-134 to Iraq failed when the crew 
continued on course and landed at Syktyvkar, Russian S.F.S.R The 
plane was en route from Moscow when a 62-year old invalid 
pensioner passed a note to a stewardess demanding that the plane 
change course. After receiving assurances from security personnel 
that aU luggage had been thoroughly screened, the crew continued 
to Syktyvkar, where the hijacker was arrested. No explosives were 
found. 


lED Found at Airport—Warsaw, Poland 

An airport janitor found a package containing an improvised ex¬ 
plosive device on the roof of a preboarding lounge at the Warsaw 
Airport. He moved the device to a waste container near the Polish 
Air facility and called the bomb squad. The device, which consisted 
of 1.5 kilos of dynamite and a timing device, was defused. There was 
no claim of responsibility. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-154 to Sweden failed when the 
pilot refused to accede to the demands of the hijacker. The aircraft, 
with 120 passengers and seven crew members, was cn a domestic 
flight from Murmansk to Leningrad. When the plane landed in 
Leningrad, the hijacker was arrested. 


Hijacking—People’s Republic of China 

An attempted hijacking reportedly occurred aboard a Chinese air¬ 
liner as it was taxiing for takeoff from Guangzhou’s Baiyun Airport 
to Qingdao. The hijacker was subdued by the aircraft’s crew. 


Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot YAK-40 airliner to Turkey failed 
when the aircraft landed at Tbilisi. Georgian S.S.R. ostensibly for 
refueling. The plane was on a domestic flight from Baku to Tbilisi. 
The hijacker threatened to detonate an explosive device if his 


Criminal Acts Against 
Civil Aviation 


1990 







^pendtx D 


demand was not met. He was arrested upon landing: no explosives 
were found. 


December 15, 1990 Attack at Airport—Colombia 

The Colombian guerrilla group, FARC, attacked the Villagarzon 
Airport In Mocoa, located In the southwest region of Putumayo. This 
attack was part of several incidents of violence that occurred in 
Colombia on the same day. FARC guerrillas destroyed a 19-seat 
airliner that had Just landed on a flight from Bogota by setting it on 
fire. The aircraft was owned by the private Colombian airline. Aires 
Airline. There were no injuries. 


December 21, 1990 Hijacking—USSR 

An attempt to hijack an Aeroflot TU-154 failed when the hijacker 
was arrested by Soviet security officials. The airc aft, on a domestic 
flight from Rostov to Nizhnevartovsk, was in Volgograd for a stopover 
when the incident occurred. Just before takeoff from Volgograd, a 
female passenger demanded that either the plane change course for 
any city in the United States or an explosive device would detonate. 
She was arrested by Soviet authorities. An investigation determined 
that the female was a stowaway on the flight. 


December 24, 1990 Hijacking—USSR 

A hijack attempt aboard an Ilyushln-86 on a domestic flight with 
351 passengers failed when the hijacker was arrested. The aircraft 
was en route from Moscow to Sochi when a passenger demanded 
that the plane refuel at Sochi and fly to London. England. Upon 
landing at Sochi, the hijacker was seized by a Soviet commando 
team. 


December 28, 1990 Hijacking—Air Algerie 

Air Algerie Flight 6201 was hijacked during a domestic flight from 
Ghardala to Algiers. The aircraft landed at Mellah International 
Airport in Annaba, Algiers, where the two hijackers demanded that 
the plane be refueled. There were 82 passengers aboard the flight 
but none were Americans. By December 30. all passengers had been 
released unharmed and the hijackers had surrendered to Algerian 
authorities. 


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