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JPRS 82795 
3 February 1983 


USSR Report 


AGRICULTURE 
No. 1370 


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JPRS 82795 


3 February 1983 


USSR Report 

AGRICULTURE 
No. 1370 



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JPRS 82795 


3 February 1983 


USSR REPORT 

Agriculture 

No. 1370 

Contents 


POST HARVEST CROP PROCESSING 

Increase in Production, Procurements of Durem Grain Urged 

(V. Kopchenov; ZAKUPKI SEL'SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH PRODUKTOV, 

No Tj JuI 82) . 1 

Increase in Grain Resources Seen as Key Task of Agro-Industrial 
Complex 

(I. Yakunin; PLANOVOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Nov 82) . 8 


LIVESTOCK 

Research in Livestock Pest Control at Zoological Institute 

(A. Viktorov; IZVESTIYA, 23 Aug 82) . 19 

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

Use of Scientific Achievements in Kazakhstan Agricultural Production 

(SEL'SKOYE KHOZYAYSTVO KAZAKHSTANA, Oct 82) . 21 

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION 

Strengthening Finances of Agricultural Enterprises 

(V. N. Semenov; FIMNSY SSSR, Dec 82) . 2? 

AGRO-ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION 

Coordination Within Georgian RAPO Network 

(G. Azaurashvili; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, Dec 82) .. 37 

TILLING AND CROPPING TECHNOLOGY 

Accelerated Development of New Crop Varieties Called For 

(R. Butenko; IZVESTIYA, ik Aug 82) . ^0 


[III - USSR - 7] 


\ 


- a 










Genetics, Selection Produce New Plant Varieties 

(Yu. Tadyanski; EKONOMTCHESKAYA GAZETA, Sep 82) . kh 

Future Use of Triticale Discussed 

(I. Petrovskiy, K.Grigorenko; SOVETSKAYA MOLDAVIYA, 30 Dec 82) .. 

Advantages of Raising Triticale Discussed 

(A. Avazov, B. Umarov; KOMMUNIST TADZHIKISTANA, 9 Oct 82) . 4? 


- b - 





POST HARVEST CROP PROCESSING 


INCREASE IN PRODUCTION, PROCUREMENTS OF DUREM GRAIN URGED 

Moscow ZAKUPKI SEL’SKOKHOZYAYSTVENNYKH PRODUKTOV in Russian No 7, Jul 82 
pp 8-9 

[Article by V. Kopchenov, head manager-inspector of the group of the Main 
Grain Administration of the USSR Ministry of Procurements: "Increasing Pro¬ 
duction and Procurements of Durem High-Grade Wheat"] 

[Text] The decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress and the May (1982) Plenum of 
the CPSU Central Committee emphasize the need to increase the production and 
procurements of grain in the established assortment of crops and to improve 
their quality. Under the current five-year plan it is necessary to increase 
grain production to 238-243 million tons and to provide for an increase in 
the gross yields and procurements of the main grain crops, including durem 
wheat—the best raw material for the pasta industry. The implementation of 
this task will be an important condition for meeting one of the requirements 
of the Food Program which points out the need to satisfy the demand of the 
population for pasta items in a broad assortment. 

At the present time there is a critical shortage of grain of durem wheats. 

But the pasta industry is experiencing a shortage not simply of durem wheat, 
but of the kind which meets all the requirements of GOST 9353-67 for wheat of 
classes I and II. High-quality pasta items are made from this grain. 

Good pasta is in great demand in our country, and so far it is far from being 
fully satisfied because of the shortage of grain of durem high-grade wheats 
in state resources. We annually procure several times less than the planned 
amount of these wheats. 

The high quality of semolina-flour necessary for producing pasta is provided 
if it is made from grain of durem wheat which has no less than 28 percent 
crude gluten and meets the corresponding requirements of quality group II. 
Then one obtains a dense dough which can be formed into macaroni and other 
items which retain their form in the process of stamping and drying. After 
drying these items have high durability and a yellow or li^t yellow color 
which the pasta acquires from carotine (vitamin A) which is found in the du¬ 
rem high-grade wheats. The consumer qualities of the pasta are also deter¬ 
mined from the color. This is precisely the kind of pasta which is in great 
demand among the population; in order to satisfy this demand it is necessary 


1 


to procure for state resources a minimum of 2,3 million tons of durem whsi.t 
x- 7 hich meets the requirements of classes I and IX of the State Standard. 

The GOST for grain of hard wheat of classes I and II also envisions high re¬ 
quirements for its moisture content, odor, color, physical weight, vitrious- 
ness, and grain and weed impurities. One frequently hears from managers and 
specialists of kolkhozes and sovkhozes and also agricultural administrations 
at GOST 9353-67 "Durem T^Theat. Requirements for procurements" is too high in 
terms of a whole number of indicators, and some of them, for example, the 
color, are not at all necessary. Yet the scientific data (All-Union Scienti¬ 
fic Research Institute of Grain Farming, candidate of biological sciences who 
especially studied this problem, B. Ye. Kravtsova) show that the color re¬ 
flects the vitriousness, the grain unit, and the density of grain, which de¬ 
crease as the color disappears from the grain. As a result of this, not only 
the commercial appearance and indicators of the physical properties of the 
grain suffer. In colorless grain there is intensive development of harmful 
microflora, primarily moldy fungi. During the process of loss of color the 
activity of ferment increases, the acidity of the grain increases and the in¬ 
tensiveness of respiration increases. Grain that has lost its color dis¬ 
charges 2-3 times more carbon dioxide than does grain which has not lost its 
color. These changes in the grain make it unsuitable for prolonged storage. 

Flour from grain that has lost its color it not as good as that which has re¬ 
tained its color in terms of the output and ash content of products of first 
quality milling, that is, in terms of the output of the large semolina neces¬ 
sary for producing pasta. Decolored wheat is not in demand on the foreign 
market and is regarded as not having full value. Obviously it is best not to 
change the GOST (although this can be done in terms of certain indicators), 
but to improve in all ways the quality of grain of hard wheats. 

What needs to be done for the state resources to receive the necessary quan¬ 
tity of high-quality high-class durem wheats? 

In our opinion, first of all it is necessary to unwaiveringly meet all re¬ 
quirements related to the distribution of the areas planted in durem wheats 
in zones that have the most favorable soil and climatic conditions for their 
production, which is frequently not taken into account when assigning pro¬ 
curement plans. For example, under the Tenth Five-Year Plan, with the exist¬ 
ing procurement plans, the state did not buy a single ton of grain of high- 
class durem wheat from the farms of Penza, Tambov, Lipetsk, Kursk or Voro¬ 
nezh oblasts. The failure on the part of these oblasts to fulfill the plans 
was brought about not only by the violations of the agrotechnology for culti¬ 
vation and the inadequate level of work related to preliminary evaluation of 
the quality and the formation of uniform batches of grain on the farms, but 
also by the planting of durem wheat in rayons with unsuitable soil and cli¬ 
matic conditions. The grain raised in these places is of poor quality and, 
as a rule, it has lost its color, has low vitriousness, and has an inadequate 
quantity of protein and gluten, that is, it does not meet the requirements 
even of class III of the standard. 


2 



At the same time the favorable natural conditions for raising high-quality 
grain of durem wheats are far from being fully utilized even in the main ray¬ 
ons where they are cultivated. Frequently in planning we do not take into 
account the fact that these wheats need more sun and are more sensitive to 
supplies of moisture and nutrition than soft wheats are, and they suffer more 
from weeds and root rot. All these factors must be taken into account even 
within one and the same oblast when planning the distribution of the planted 
areas and the procurements of high-class durem wheats. If one does not take 
these into account and plants durem vdieats on the basis of the fact that they 
are more productive in a given rayon than soft wheats are, and does not take 
into account the quality of the grain that is obtained, this means that the 
pasta industry is deliberately being left without raw material. 

For example, in Saratov Oblast the farms of 18 rayons of the Right Bank which 
have unfavorable natural conditions for producing high-quality grain of durem 
wheats, during the past ten years have not sold the state a single ton of 
high-class grain. And the favorable conditions of the Left Bank part of the 
oblast for increasing the gross yields of these wheats are inadequately uti¬ 
lized. Only in 1982 was this situation rectified, and the production and 
procurements of durem wheats are now concentrated in the Left Bank rayons. 

From the example of the eastern zone of Orenburg Oblast, where many kolkhozes 
and sovkhozes obtain high-quality grain of durem wheats and precisely fulfill 
their commitments to the state one can also see how important it is to dis¬ 
tribute plans for the production and procurements of these wheats on farms 
that have favorable soil and climate conditions for their cultivation. In 
Adamovskiy Rayon which is included in this zone the Anikhovskiy Sovkhoz, by 
applying correct technology for raising durem wheat and conducting a complex 
of work for preliminary evaluation of the quality and the formation of uni¬ 
form batches of grain, annually overfulfills the plans for its sale to the 
state. During the years of the Tenth FiverYear Plan this sovkhoz sent 11,686 
tons of grain of high-class durem wheat to the grain receiving enterprises, 
which is considerably more than the plan called for, including 9,285 tons or 
79.5 percent of class I, 1,905 tons or 16.3 percent of class II, and only 496 
tons of class III. This farm received 1,028,000 rubles in increments to the 
procurement price for this wheat, or almost 88 rubles per ton. 

During the unproductive year of 1981 this sovkhoz sent the state resources 
2,941 tons of high-quality durem wheat, a 3.5-fold increase over the estab¬ 
lished sales plan, and 90 percent of it was wheat of class I. Durem wheat is 
the most profitable crop on the farm. 

Last year the Mayskiy Sovkhoz sold the state 2,234 tons of durem \dieat, al¬ 
most a 3-fold increase over the plan^ and all of the wheat was of class I. 

For every ruble invested in the production of durem wheat the sovkhoz receiv¬ 
ed 1 ruble 52 kopecks from its sale. 

The fact that the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Adamovskiy Rayon have good 
yields of high-quality durem wheat shows that the eastern zone, of which it is 
a part, has favorable conditions for cultivating this wheat. These conditions 
should be utilized more fully in order to obtain more grain with high techno¬ 
logical properties. 


3 



The Orenburg Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture (director—I. I- 
Gridasov) also asserts that this zone is the most favorable one in Orenburg 
Oblast for producing high-quality grain of durem wheats. Yet in the procure¬ 
ment plan for wheat for 1982 durem wheat occupies only 3.1 percent for the 
farms of the zone, and in the plan for procurements of durem wheat in the ob¬ 
last as a whole—3.4 percent. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Gayskiy, Dombar- 
ovskiy, Novoorskiy, Yasnenskiy and Svetlinskiy rayons, which are also in the 
eastern zone, have no plans at all for the sale of grain of durem wheats to 
the state. This situation in the local areas is frequently explained by the 
fact that their productivity is less than that of soft strains of wheat. But 
testing at state strain testing stations located in the rayons of the eastern 
zones shows that durem wheats are close to strong wheats in productivity, and 
in individual cases surpass them. This also shows the potential capabilities 
of the farms in the eastern zone for increasing the production and sale to 
the state of high-class grain of durem wheats. For example, Khar’kovskaya-46 
and Orenburgskaya-2 durem wheats planted on clean fallow surpassed Saratov- 
skaya-29 strong wheat in terms of productivity at the Svetlinskiy state 
strain testing station in 1981 and were not far behind Saratovskaya-42. Un¬ 
der the Ninth and Tenth Five-Year Plans (annual average) on the area planted 
for commercial grain in all rayons of this zone the productivity of durem 
wheat was greater than that of soft wheat. 

Adamovskiy Rayon is not the only one in Orenburg Oblast which is fulfilling 
plans for procurements of high-class durem wheat. Under the Tenth Five-Year 
Plan the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Novosergiyevskiy, Grachevskiy, Krasnog- 
vardeyskiy and Sorochinskiy rayons, which are part of the western zone which 
is favorable for cultivating durem wheats also provided for fulfillment of 
state orders. For example, during the past five-year plan the farms of Novo¬ 
sergiyevskiy Rayon sold the state 60,000 tons of high-class durem wheat, 
which is 14,000 tons or 32 percent more than the amount established by the 
plan. For this they were paid 1,354,000 rubles in increments to the price. 

The Sovkhoz imeni Ekeltrozavod and the Ural Sovkhoz obtained large yields of 
these wheats, which made it possible for them to sell the state more than 
39,000 tons of high-class durem wheat and considerably overfulfilled the 
plans for its procurement. Unfortunately, in Novosergiyevskiy Rayon as in 
Adamovskiy, the proportion of durem wheats in the plan for procurements of 
grain is very small, amounting to an average of 6 percent during the Tenth 
Five-Year Plan. Many other rayons of this zone also have great possibilities 
of increasing the production and procurements of hi^-class durem wheat. 

The main plan for procurements (42.6 percent) of durem wheats in Orenburg 
Oblast was assigned to farms of the northern zone which is less favorable 
to the production of high-quality grain of these wheats, but their producti¬ 
vity there is higher than that of soft wheats. Under the Tenth Five-Year 
Plan not a single one of the eight rayons of this zone fulfilled the plans 
for procurements of high-class durem wheats, because of the poor quality of 
the grain. For example, the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Ponomarevskiy Rayon 
during this period sold the state only 17,600 tons of high-class grain, or 
24 percent of the procurement plan. At the same time the farms of this ray¬ 
on sent the grain receiving enterprises 120,000 tons of substandard wheat. 


4 



almost 1.7 times more than the plan called for. At the same time the farms 
of Matveyevskiy, Abdulinskiy and Buguruslanskiy rayons of this same rayon 
fulfilled the five-year plan for the sale of durem wheats to the state by 
95.8 and 74 percent, respectively. With more careful organization of their 
production and procurements on the farms of these rayons there is every pos¬ 
sibility 6f selling the state considerably more high-class grain and precise- 
ly fulfilling contractual commitments. This shows that even within a single 
zone of the oblast it is necessary to take a differentiated approach to the 
distribution of the planted areas and the plans for the procurements of durem 
wheats. 

The farms of Orenburg Oblast in the RSFSR sell the state the largest quantity 
of high-class durem wheats. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan they sold more 
than the farms of Saratov, Volgograd and Kuybyshev oblasts, Altay Kray and 
the Bashkir ASSR taken together. But the proportion of substandard wheat in 
the overall volume amounted to 64 percent, which made it impossible for the 
kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the oblast to fulfill the established procurement 
plans. 

Orenburg Oblast has now taken a course toward expansion of the fallow areas 
and has earmarked measures for improving seed growing. 

Attention must be devoted to seed growing not only in Orenburg Oblast, but 
everywhere. Many kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the RSFSR and the Kazakh SSR are 
experiencing a critical shortage of seeds of durem wheats, especially seeds 
of high reproductions and quality that meet classes I and II of the planting 
standard. For this reason they frequently do not fulfill the plans for plant¬ 
ing durem wheats, and the gross yields that are obtained do not provide for 
fulfillment of the state order. 

In Volgograd Oblast, for example, during the past five-year plan the plans 
for procurements of durem (high-class) wheats were fulfilled by only 30 of 
the 176 farms that had plans for these sales, and 96 kolkhozes and sovkhozes, 
or more than half of them, did not sell a single ton to the state. And the 
neglect of seed growing here was not the least important factor, which is 
clear from the work practice of Mikhaylovskiy Rayon in this oblast. Here 
many kolkhozes and sovkhozes'did not plant durem wheats, and the areas plant¬ 
ed in them decreased from 10,800 hectares in 1976 to 3,800 hectares in 1980. 
The Sebryakovskiy Sovkhoz in this rayon, a seed growing farm, did not produce 
durem wheat during the Tenth Five-Year Plan and let down many farms by not 
providing them with seeds. 

In Saratov Oblast in Novouzenskiy Rayon because of the shortage of seeds of 
durem wheat the Kolkhoz imeni XXII Parts"yezd, the Krasnyy Partizan Sovkhoz 
and the Sovkhoz imeni Kalinin in their production plans for 1982 planned to 
obtain a gross yield of grain of durem wheats which was a reduction of ten- 
seventeenths compared to the plan for their sale to the state. For this rea¬ 
son the Put^ k kommunizmu Kolkhoz, the Novaya zhizn* Kolkhoz and the Algay- 
skiy Sovkhoz in this rayon also planned to obtain gross yields of durem wheat 
that were ten-thirteenths—five-sevenths of the amount they were supposed to 
have sold to the state. 


While they have plans and contractual commitments for the sale of grain of 
durem wheats, the production of this wheat is not being planned at all by the 
Zavety Il^icha, Karasevskiy, Karatal^skiy, Kutuzovskiy and Lavrovskiy sov¬ 
khozes in Volodarskiy Rayon in Kokchetava Oblast. Managers of the farms ex¬ 
plain the situation by the shortage of seeds of this crop. But they do not 
choose seeds of durem wheats that have been allotted from state resources. 
Similar cases exist on the farms of Kustanay, Chelyabinsk and several other 
oblasts. 

In Kustanay Oblast only the Karabalyk experimental station delivers elite 
seeds to the seed growing farms of the oblast for propagation. But in 1982 
it was given a plan for the sale of elite seeds in the amount of 220 tons 
while the seed growing farms required 1,650 tons for planting. 

There are also shortcomings in seed growing in many other oblasts of the Rus¬ 
sian Federation and the Kazakh SSR. 

At the present time the list of indicators of the Central Statistical Admini¬ 
stration does not include the reports from the kolkhozes and sovkhozes con¬ 
cerning the availability of seed supplies of durem wheat and their quality. 
The production and financial plans of the kolkhozes and sovkhozes do not have 
a separate line for planted areas, productivity and gross yields of these 
wheats. Their production is planned along with other wheats. All this com¬ 
plicates effective control of state procurement inspections for the prepara¬ 
tion of seed supplies and the production of durem wheats and, of course, 
these shortcomings should be eliminated. 

These and a number of other measures will contribute to improving the organi¬ 
zation of the production and procurements of high-quality grain of durem 
wheats and to successful fulfillment of the planned procurements under the 
Eleventh Five-Year Plan. 

Shortcomings in the organization of the production and procurements of high- 
class durem wheats are common on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of many oblasts. 
Because of violations of agrotechnology and random distribution of planning 
assignments, which frequently are given to the farms because the productivity 
of durem wheats is higher than that of soft wheats, without taking into ac¬ 
count the quality of the grain that is obtained, the proportion of substan¬ 
dard durem wheat in procurements during the Tenth Five-Year Plan amounted to 
91 percent in Altay Kray, 81 percent in Volgograd Oblast, 80 percent in Kuy- 
byshev Oblast, 78 percent in the Bashkir ASSR, and 66 percent in Saratov Ob¬ 
last. 

In the Russian Federation as a whole during the Tenth Five-Year Plan 77 per¬ 
cent of the durem wheat received by the state was substandard. Had this been 
high-class grain the pasta industry could have manufactured approximately 3.5 
million tons of high-quality pasta from it. 

The existing situation with the production and procurements of high-class du¬ 
rem wheats cannot but arouse concern on the part of managers and specialists 
in agriculture and procurements in the oblasts and rayons of the RSFSR. The 


6 



ways to improve the organization of the production and procurements of these 
wheats with a considerable improvement in the quality of the grain were dis¬ 
cussed in Orenburg in April of this year at the All-Russian Conference of 
Managers and Specialists of Agriculture and Procurements, who deal directly 
with this problem. At the conference they analyzed the causes of the arrears 
and Indicated ways of surmounting them. They also criticized the kolkhozes, 
sovkhozes and agricultural and procurement agencies of the Tatar ASSR, Altay 
Kray, and Penza, Ulyanov, Chelyabinsk and a number of other oblasts which had 
reduced the gross yields and procurements of high-class grain of durem wheats 
and regularly failed to fulfill the plans for its procurement. The conference 
developed recommendations for increasing the production and procurements of 
high-class durem wheats. 

At the present time it is necessary to Utilize production reserves that exist 
on each farm and achieve hi^ final results: increased productivity of high- 
class durem wheats and increased gross yields, which will make a real contri¬ 
bution to each farm's fulfillment of its commitments for the sale of these 
vdieats to the state. 

COPYRIGHT: "Zakupkl Sel'skokhozyaystvennykh produktov", 1982 
11772 

CSO: 1824/105 


T 



POST HARVEST CROP PROCESSING 


INCREASE IN GRAIN RESOURCES SEEN AS KEY TASK OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 

Moscow PLANOVOYE KHOZYAYSTVO in Russian No 11, Nov 82 pp 62-70 

[Article by I. Yakunin, head specialist of USSR Gosplan; "Increasing Grain 
Resources—^A Key Task of the Agro-Industrial Complex"] 

[Text] The party, the Soviet state and all Soviet people always have and 
always will attach primary significance to increasing grain production—one 
of the main sources of satisfying the material needs of the society. 

The USSR Food Program for the period up to 1990 emphasizes that acceleration 
and stable growth of grain production constitute a key problem in agricul¬ 
ture. Increased production of food products and the greater independence of 
our state will depend primarily on its solution. 

A task has been set for the agro-industrial complex: in the next few years 
to satisfy the growing needs of the country for a high-quality food and for¬ 
age grain and to have the necessary state grain reserves and resources for 
exporting it. A decisive path to achieving this goal is to increase the pro¬ 
ductivity of grain crops everywhere with stable planted areas and preserva¬ 
tion of the crop that is raised. 

While during the years of the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1961-1965) which pre¬ 
ceded the March (1965) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, the country pro¬ 
duced an annual average of only 130.3 million tons of grain, after the March 
plenum which earmarked a radical changeover to intensive agriculture, the 
productivity of grain, the production and state procurements of grain began 
to increase constantly, which is clear from the following figures (Table 1). 


Table 1. (annual average) 



1961- 

1965 

1966- 

1970 

1971- 

1975 

1976- 

1980 

1976-1980 
in % of 
1961-1965 

Productivity of grain crops, 
quintals per hectare 

10.2 

13.7 

14.7 

16.0 

157 

Gross yield, millions of 
tons 

130.2 

167.6 

181.6 

205.0 

157 

State procurements, mil¬ 
lions of tons 

51.6 

66.0 

67.6 

77.7 

151 


8 



Under the Eleventh Five-Year Plan the development and improvement of the 
country's grain farming reached high levels* As compared to the Tenth Five- 
Year Plan grain production (annual average) should increase by 33-38 million 
tons, or by 16-19 percent, and state procurements—by 20 percent. There will 
also be an essential change in the structure of the grain purchased by the 
state from the kolkhozes and sovkhozes. The plan envisions a considerable in¬ 
crease in the volumes of its procurements for producing groats and for feed 
purposes (Table 2). 

Table 2. (annual average, millions of tons) 



1976- 

actual pro- 
curemtots 

■1980 

% of pro¬ 
curements 
of; all grain 

1981-1985 
itii % of 
1976-1980 

Wheat 

Including: 

47.9 

61.6 

110 

strong 

7.3 

— 

103 

durem (high-class) 

0.5 

— 

4.6-fold 

Rye 

3.6 

4.6 

169 

Millet 

1.1 

1.4 

173 

Buckwheat 

0.4 

0.5 

200 

Rice 

1.6 

2.1 

125 

Corn 

2.2 

2.8 

250 

Barley 

15.2 

19.6 

121 

Including for brewing 

1.6 

— 

144 

Pulse crops 

1.0 

1.3 

240 

Oats 

2.8 

3.6 

118 


As one can see, a special place in grain farming will be occupied by corn 
and pulse crops which are extremely necessary for increasing the production 
and improving the quality of mixed feeds. The volumes of their procurements 
should increase 2.5-fold and 2.4-fold, respectively, as compared to the ac¬ 
tual amounts under the Tenth Five-Year Plan. There will be a considerable 
increase in the procurements of durem wheat, groat crops and rye in order to 
improve the supply of semoliiia, pasta items and bread baked from rye flour. 

By 1990 appreciable changes will have taken place in grain farming: the pro¬ 
ductivity of grain crops will increase to 21-22 quintals per hectare, and 
their average annual production under the Twelfth Five-Year Plan—to 250-255 
million tons, including in the RSFSR—to 140-142 million tons, which will a- 
mount to 56 percent of the union-wide yield; in the Ukrainian SSR—53-54 mil¬ 
lion tons (51 percent) and the Kazakh SSR—30.5-31.5 million tons (12 per¬ 
cent). 

Under the Eleventh and Twelfth Five-Year Plans there will be more difficult 
assignments for increasing grain production. In order to fulfill them it will 
be necessary to radically improve the utilization of the main means of pro¬ 
duction—the land, and also the material and technical resources allotted to 
agriculture as well as to raise the level of specialization and concentration 
in grain farming. This is dictated by the growing demand for grain, especial¬ 
ly for feed purposes. 


9 



The July (1978) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee set the task of increas¬ 
ing grain production to an average of one ton per capita in the country by 
1990. The per capita grain production is the most important generalizing 
criterion both for the country as a whole and for the union republics. It 
characterizes most fully the degree of resolution of the important problem 
facing the agro-industrial complex and the participation in this solution by 
each union republic. 

Taking into account the fact that the May (1982) Plenum of the CPSU Central 
Committee set the task of accelerated and stable increase in grain produc¬ 
tion, it is expedient to plan the development of grain farming and to carry 
it out in practice at more rapid rates than this is done in other branches of 
agriculture. It should be considered to be the main part of the branch, on 
which reliable provision of the country with foodstuffs and agricultural raw 
material, progressive structural changes in the national economy and stable 
and balanced expanded reproduction depend. Such an approach to grain farming 
is also important because grain farming is located and will be based mainly 
on nonirrigated land with unstable and inadequate moisture supply. 

Apparently the redistribution of the material-technical and other resources 
in order to solve the grain problem should proceed primarily in three main 
directions, specifically through: 

conducting planned measures to improve the training of personnel and organi¬ 
zation in all commercial grain regions of small stable intrafarm autonomous¬ 
ly financed collectives that specialize in grain production, and the creation 
of conditions for their highly productive work, including domestic condi¬ 
tions, making them as similar as possible to urban conditions; 

radically improving work for comprehensively reducing and eliminating losses 
of grain both in the process of raising it and during harvesting, storage and 
delivering the crops that have been raised; 

increasing the deliveries of mineral fertilizers (especially phosphorus) to 
agriculture, primarily as a result of annually increasing their production. 

In this connection it should be noted that the average indicator for the 
country for applying mineral fertilizers per one hectare of area planted in 
grain crops (not counting corn) from 1976 through 1981 changed insignificant¬ 
ly—from 47 to 51 kilograms of nutritive substances. And in Kazakhstan it re¬ 
mained stable throughout the five years (in 1977—8 kilograms per hectare, 
and in 1981^-10) and in the Ukraine it even decreased from 81 kilograms per 
hectare in 1978 to 76 in 1981. Losses of grain are great in the process of 
raising, harvesting, transporting, processing, storing and selling it. They 
have been increasing especially sharply during the years of large harvests, 
when the weather conditions are favorable for the growth of grain crops, but 
considerable precipitation during the harvesting period makes this more dif¬ 
ficult. 

Under these conditions a special role in the agro-industrial complex should 
be assigned to the creation of highly reliable and highly productive grain 


10 



harvesting equipment (combinesj self-propelled reapers, specialized means of 
transportation and other equipment) which are capable of harvesting grain 
crops in almost any kind of weather in various zones of the country. 

In addition to this it is important to take measures to construct elevators 
that are close to the places where commercial grain is produced (both along 
the lines of the USSR Ministry of Procurements, and on a cooperative basis 
between the kolkhozes and sovkhozes and the USSR Ministry of Procurements) as 
well as a network of reliable roads and also the creation of drying capaci¬ 
ties and more extensive application of preservatives for preserving freshly 
harvested grain with increased moisture content. 

The combination of drying grain in the various stages of its path from the 
field to the grain storing house, if necessary with preservation of freshly 
harvested moist grain during the first hours of harvesting, will make it 
possible to utilize drying capacities more effectively and to sharply reduce 
or eliminate losses of grain as well as to preserve its quality. 

In the present stage in the development of the agro-industrial complex, 
along with productivity, gross yields, and per capita grain production, other 
criteria of the results of grain farming are becoming more important, inclu¬ 
ding the grain received from one hectare of the crop rotation area and per 
one machine operator of the intrafarm subdivision. 

The indicator of production (output) of grain per one hectare of crop rota¬ 
tion area is a criterion for grain farming. It is important both for the^ 
selection of the kind of crop rotation, the solution to problems of creating 
gxi intrafarm specialized production subdivision that is assigned to it and 
for establishing personal responsibility for the utilization of the main 
means of production, the land, on the one hand, and for subsequent evaluation 
of the effectiveness of the utilization of all factors in intensification of 
grain farming. 

Thus as a result of many years of research (1968-1980) the All-Union Scienti¬ 
fic Research Institute of Grain Farming (VNIIZKh) the greatest annual output 
of grain (13.7 quintals) per unit of crop rotation area was obtained in a 4- 
field crop rotation with two fields of wheat, one field of barley and one 
field of clean fallow. Thus the proportion of clean fallow in the crop rota¬ 
tion area amounted to 25 percent. Other kinds of crop rotations with a great¬ 
er or lesser degree of clean fallow or a complete absence of it produced 
worse results. 

In Stavropol Kray at the Prikumskaya experimental selection station the test¬ 
ing of six types of field crop rotations (1970-1975) with varying proportions 
of grain crops and clean fallow showed that the greatest yield of grain 17.8 
quintals per hectare of crop rotation area—was obtained with a two-field 
crop rotation (fallow—winter wheat). 

According to data of the Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture 
the greatest yield of grain from one hectare of arable land is provided by 
specialized crop rotation where 20-33 percent of the crop rotation area is 

clean fallow and 67-80 percent is planted in grain crops (Table 3). 


11 



Table 3. (1971-1975, annual average) 


In crop 

rotation, % 


Grain yield per 




Productivity 

1 hectare of arable 

clean fallow 

grain crops 

of grain crops, ^ 

5 land, minus seeds 

33.0 


67.0 

17.8 

11.2 

25.0 


75.0 

16.8 

11.8 

25.0 


50.0 

18.1 

8.5 

20.0 


60.0 

16.9 

9.4 

20.0 


80.0 

15.3 

11.3 

16.7 


66.6 

15.8 

9.8 

0.0 


100.0 

10.8 

9.7 

Even in crop 

rotations with greater productivity of 

grain crops (18.1 quin- 


tals per hectare) the yield of grain per unit of crop rotation area was less 
than in crop rotations with lower productivity but with more grain crops. 

As one can see, the yield of grain per one hectare of crop rotation area is 
the main indicator for selecting the crop rotation which, in the final analy¬ 
sis, is very important for the development of the country’s grain farming and 
a guaranteed increase in grain production. 

In Omsk Oblast, for example, the area planted in grain crops in 1976-1980 as 
compared to 1961-1965 decreased by 369,000 hectares or 13 percent, and the 
area of clean fallow increased from 144,000 to 580,000 hectares or four-fold. 
Thus the overall area of grain crops and clean fallow increased during these 
years from 2,896,000 to 2,970,000 hectares (3 percent) and the proportion of 
clean fallow increased from 5 to 20 percent. Under these conditions grain 
production per one hectare of areas planted in grain crops and clean fallow 
increased from 629 to 1,206 kilograms, or by 92 percent. 

Clean fallow plays an active role in the accumulation of moisture and nutri¬ 
tive substances, makes it possible to utilize the supplies of them more pro¬ 
ductively for forming the grain yield, contributes to economizing on feeds 
and clearing the soil of weeds, pests and diseases, reduces the need for 
costly technical equipment and labor force and therefore becomes an irre¬ 
placeable factor in intensification and an important means of increasing la¬ 
bor productivity. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes should devote special attention 
to promptly turning over the clean fallow and meeting the requirements for 
cultivating it. 

The indicator of grain production per one machine operator per intrafarm sub¬ 
division is necessary primarily for large grain producing farms where crop 
rotations are assigned to a relatively small number of machine operators in 
local production subdivisions. In these labor collectives, on an autonomous 
financing basis, one creates operational independence, and long-range motiva¬ 
tion to increase labor productivity, to accelerate the utilization of the 
achievements of science and advanced practice, and to improve the quality of 
work, and individuals become more responsible for the land and other fixed 
production capital. Labor organization in these collectives, as a rule, does 
not involve specific orders and the payment is piece-rate plus bonus. 


12 



During the course of many years of experiments conducted on the experimental 
farm of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Grain Farming (VNIIZKh) 
in brigade No 6 which consists of six machine operators and is specialized in 
the production of high-quality wheat, the following results were achieved 
(Table 4), 

Table 4. . Average for 1971-1975 _ 

VNIIZKh experi¬ 
mental farm (not 
including brigade Brigade 

Indicator _No 6)_No 6_ 


Area planted in grain crops, hectares 25,410 

Use of arable land for grain crops, % 53.9 

Number of machine operators 132 

Land assignment per machine operator, 

hectares 357 

Productivity of grain crops, quintals 

per hectare 16.4 

Production cost of one quintal of 

grain, rubles 5.36 

Labor expenditures per 1 quintal.of 

grain, minutes 33.7 

Grain produced by one machine operator, 

tons 316 

Cost of grain produced by one machine 
operator at state procurement prices 
in 1965, rubles 20,546 


*30% of the arable land was clean fallow 


3,627 

70.0* 

6 

863 

17.9 

3.67 

16.4 

1,026 

66,716 


It must be emphasized that before 1967 the brigade had 24 tractors of various 
makes, and after they were replaced with K-700 tractors they had only six. 

Moreover the experiment established that every K-700 tractor that replaced 
less productive tractors releases no less than 2-3 machine operators. And 
if one takes into account that each machine operator in virgin land regions 
has two family members and capital investments for each individual living in 
the region of the experiment amounted to 3,300 rubles, if is as though each 
K-700 tractor saved no less than 20,000 rubles in capital investments. 

On the Sovkhoz imeni Chekhov in Uritskiy Rayon in Kustanay Oblast, the team 
of the USSR State Prize Winner, V. Yermakov, consisting of 7 machine opera¬ 
tors, including the team leader, achieved considerable successes in grain 
production. 

The collective of the team which did not have a specific order and was paid 
piece-rate plus bonus, and was assigned a six-field crop rotation (2,817 hec¬ 
tares) produced about 17,000 tons of grain during four years (1977-1980) with 
an average annual productivity of 19 quintals per hectare, and this means 
that each machine operator raised and harvested an annual average of 600 tons 


13 


of grain. The production cost of one quintal of it was 4 rubles 58 kopecks 
while for the sovkhoz as a whole it was 1 ruble 60 kopecks greater, and the 
productivity of the grain crops was almost 3 quintals per hectare less. 

Farms of Kletskiy Rayon in Volgograd Oblast have accumulated positive experi¬ 
ence in the work of mechanized teams with piece-rate-plus-bonus wages and 
temporary advances. This is reflected in Table 5. 


Table 5. 


Indicator _ 1965 

Number of mechanized teams, units 1 

Average number of machine operators 

per team 10 

Arable land assigned to team, hectares 2,653 

Productivity of grain crops, quintals 
per hectare: 

in teams 10.8 

in brigades without teams 9.4 

Grain obtained per 1 machine operator, 
tons: 

in teams 235 

in brigades without teams 150 


1970 

28 

3.5 

42,012 


18.2 

16.6 


578 

205 


1973 

65 

4 

98,963 


24.7 

21.2 


636 

233 


In Kletskiy Rayon in Volgograd Oblast the mechanized teams produced almost 
three times more grain per one machine operator than did the brigades without 
teams. The nonchernozem zone, which has specific conditions for conducting 
grain farming, have also accumulated positive experience in the organization 
of grain production. Thus on the Leont’yevskiy Sovkhoz near Moscow a team 
consisting of four people which worked according to the system without a spe¬ 
cific order with a complete crop rotation achieved high yields. Each machine 
operator of the team produced more than 450 tons of grain and labor expendi¬ 
tures per one quintal of output did not exceed 15 minutes; even in years with 
the worst weather conditions the productivity of grain crops for the team ex¬ 
ceeded the average for the sovkhoz by 4-5 quintals. 


On the basis of the aforementioned experiment of the VNIIZKh, the work ex 
perience of the farms of Kletskiy Rayon and many other intrafarm subdivisions, 
kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the country, it is expedient, primarily in commer¬ 
cial grain regions, to organize the work of machine operators using special¬ 
ized grain crop rotations. These crop rotations should be worked out by sci¬ 
entific research institutions and studied along with specialized feed crop 
rotations with the greatest output of high-quality feeds (in feed units) and 
digestible protein (per feed unit) with the least possible expenditures on 
their production. 

In order to obtain large yields of grain more rapidly with minimum expendi¬ 
tures on its production, it would be expedient to carry out planned organiza¬ 
tion of autonomously financed primary production subdivisions in which each 
machine operator would strive to obtain 300—500 tons of grain and more. The 
experience that has been accumulated in this matter and the availability on 


Ih 



the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the necessary material and technical base con¬ 
firm that this task can he carried out. Under these conditions it will be 
necessary to solve the problem of harvesting the grain more intelligently and 
more efficiently. To do this additional machine operators are required dur¬ 
ing the harvest —combine operators and drivers of trucks and other means of 
transportation. With the development of various subsidiary enterprises on 
the kolkhozes and sovkhozes and also enterprises that operate on the basis of 
cooperation with industry, there is a constant reserve of labor force which 
can be utilized during especially busy periods of field work (planting and es¬ 
pecially harvesting the crop). 

In addition to this there is now a greater need to evaluate the crop rota¬ 
tions and the results of the work of brigades, teams, kolkhozes, sovkhozes, 
rayons and specialists by using the indicator of grain production minus the 
seeds that were planted. The fact is that in recent years there has been a 
considerable increase in the expenditure of grain for seed purposes. This is 
largely related to the fact that winter crops die and these areas need to be 
replanted. Moreover, the final area planted in spring grain crops turns out 
to be less the preliminary one for various reasons and therefore the seeds 
that are planted and other expenditures must be included among the losses, 
and in the majority of cases it is impossible to make up for them. 

Analysis shows that the dying out of planted areas is mainly because of fail¬ 
ing to fulfill agrotechnical measures and ignoring the achievements of sci¬ 
ence and advanced practice. Under these conditions the aforementioned indi¬ 
cator of the results of the work of brigades, teams, kolkhozes, sovkhozes and 
rayons will contribute to finding the most effective ways of conducting grain 
farming and increasing grain production. 

Many kolkhozes and sovkhozes have changed over to planting seeds of classes I 
and II of the planting standard, and certain ones plant seeds of class I ex¬ 
clusively. This makes it possible not only to save a large quantity of costly 
seeds, but also to increase productivity significantly. Even in seed materi¬ 
al of class II the germinative capacity of the seeds of grain and pulse crops 
is no less than 85-95 percent, and this means that more than 3 million tons 
of grain in the form of seeds can be planted in vain, without the necessary 
return. And if one takes into account that the field germinative capacity of 
seeds of class II is less than that of class I, and that the possible appear¬ 
ance of weed seeds in these seeds of grain crops of class II is from 25 to 50 
per 1 kilogram of the basic crop and the waste of the basic crop and impuri¬ 
ties is 1.5-2 percent, the losses of grain will be considerably greater. 

In addition to this, considerable losses are sustained by kolkhozes and sov¬ 
khozes that still plant a large quantity of hybrid corn seeds of the second 
generation and not the first, which is more productive, and also seeds of 
unregionalized strains and unclassified seeds. 

Thus grain losses can be reduced sharply and grain resources can be increas¬ 
ed if each kolkhoz and sovkhoz changes over as soon as possible to planting 
seeds of no less than class I of the planting standard, hybrid corn seeds 
only of the first generation, varietal seeds and regionalized strains. 


15 



Along with this it would be expedient to change over in the shortest possible 
period of time to accounting for and planning grain production in terms of 
the mass after the completion of processing (amber mass) and to refrain from 
accounting and planning in terms of the initial mass for temporary storage 
(bunker)* This will make it possible annually to take into account, distri¬ 
bute and compare the actual grain resources and also to take into account and 
compare the actual productivity of grain crops. The neecj for introducing 
such a policy is also dictated by the fact that from one five-year period to 
another in all of the union republics there is an increase not only in the 
absolute quantity of unutilized wastes, losses and rebates from prices, but 
also an increase in their proportion in the gross yield of grain, and this 
distorts the accounting and accountability in terms of one of the most impor¬ 
tant generalizing indicators. 

The strong dependency of grain farming on weather conditions and, as a re¬ 
sult of this, the considerable fluctuations in the productivity of grain 
crops, gross yields and state procurements of grain should be taken into ac¬ 
count in the plans and economic activity. 

The degree of fluctuation in grain production in the country can be judged 
from the figures presented in Table 6. 

Table 6. 

Grain Production, millions Amplitude of 


Five-Year Plan 

of tons 



fluctuations 


Annual 

average 

Maxi¬ 

mum 

Mini¬ 

mum 

Difference 
between maxi¬ 
mum and mini¬ 
mum, millions 
of tons 

% 

of 

average 

annual 

volume 

Seventh (1961-1965) 

130.3 

152.1 

107.5 

44.6 

34.2 

Eighth (1966-1970) 

167.6 

186.8 

147.9 

38.9 

23.2 

Ninth (1971-1975) 

181.6 

222.5 

140.1 

82.4 

45.4 

Tenth (1976-1980) 

205.0 

237.4 

179.3 

58.1 

28.3 


Can one expect that the fluctuation in the grain yield will cease in the 
future? Of course not, since it reflects a characteristic feature of our 
climate. Therefore predicting the productivity of grain crops and the pro¬ 
duction and state procurements of grain as a scientific and analytical stage 
of planning should become a compulsory constituent part of the preplanning 
and planning periods at all levels of agricultural administration. Only in 
this stage is it possible to reveal the patterns in the change in productivi¬ 
ty, correctly evaluate them and take the necessary measures. 

V. I. Lenin emphasized that recognition of objective economic laws and their 
conscious utilization is carried out "not only in the sense of an explanation 
of the past, but also in the sense of a fearless look into the future and 
bold practical activity directed toward its implementation 


*V. I. Lenin, "Poln. sobr. soch." [Collected Works], Vol 26, p 75. 


l6 



Data on the patterns of the fluctuations of the productivity of grain crops 
convince us of the need to take them into account both in calculations for 
the plan and in the plan^ on the basis of predictions of quantitative and 
qualitative characteristics of objective processes (uncontrollable weather 
factors), using these data when developing and implementing measures for in¬ 
creasing the production of grain and other agricultural products. 

Critically considering the fluctuation in productivity and production of 
grain in past years and on the basis of their possible fluctuation in the fu¬ 
ture, it would apparently be expedient to make all calculations—current and 
future-—with an orientation toward the minimum of resources which the coun¬ 
try can have. This will make it possible to guarantee the provision of grain 
and other products for the country. 

The consequences of any crop failure are surmounted most easily if one en¬ 
visions and creates reserves of grain, which was again emphasized at the May 
(1982) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. 

The creation and accumulation of reserves on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes 
should take place during years when the gross yield of grain crops exceeds 
the planned amount. As a rule, years with a sharp decline in productivity 
are preceded and followed by years with greater productivity. In Stavropol 
Kray, for example, in 1968 the productivity of grain crops was 14.7 quintals 
per hectare, in 1969—9.1, and in 1970—19.9 quintals per hectare. In the 
same kray in 1978 the productivity was 25.6 quintals per hectare and in 1979 
it dropped sharply to 10.7 quintals per hectare, but in 1980 it rose to 22.3 
quintals per hectare. The creation and utilization of reserves of grain on 
the kolkhozes and sovkhozes will require introducing accountability to the 
Central Statistical Administration in terms of this indicator. 

More than 800 kinds of bread and bakery items are produced in our country. 

We bake about 35 million tons of bread alone. Industry produces for the pop¬ 
ulation a large assortment of groats, pasta, confectionary items and other 
items. 

While in 1965 the per capita consumption was 156 kilograms of bread products 
(bread and pasta items translated into flour, flour, groats and pulse crops), 
in 1980 it was 139 kilograms, or 11 percent less. But during these years the 
population grew; from 232.2 to 266.6 million, that is, by almost 15 percent. 
Therefore the overall quantity of flour, groats and other grain products that 
was consumed in the country did not decrease, but increased. 

In the future, as the production and state procurements of animal husbandry 
products, vegetables, fruits and other agricultural products increase, the 
consumption of grain products will decrease and be at the effective norm—110 
kilograms per capita. But grain will always be the first and most important 
product. 

Implementation of the tasks set by the 26th CPSU Congress and the May (1982) 
Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee in the area of grain farming will re¬ 
quire hard and creative work on the part of millions of Soviet people, pri¬ 
marily those employed in the agro-industrial complex. 


IT 



Their labor, directed toward increasing the production of grain, its harvest¬ 
ing, cultivation, transportation, storage, processing and sale of grain pro¬ 
ducts will be an important contribution to raising the level of public well¬ 
being . 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Planovoye khozyaystvo", 1982 
11772 

CSO: 1824/105 


18 



LIVESTOCK 


RESEARCH IN LIVESTOCK PEST CONTROL AT ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 23 Aug 82 p 3 

/Article by A. Viktorov, Leningrad: "In Line With Practice// 

/Text/ The Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences 
is one of the country's oldest scientific institutes. This year 
it celebrates its 150th anniversary. A correspondent of IZVESTIYA 
asked the director of the institute, corresponding member of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences 0. Skarlato, to discuss the problems 
confronting the institute today. 

"Our basic studies" related the director of the Zoological Institute of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences 
0. Skarlato, "are being carried out in very diverse areas. Their results are 
being introduced into operational practice on an extensive scale. And this is 
occurring first of all in medicine, agriculture, in the forest and fishing 
industries and in the protection of nature. 

"The theory concerning the natural focal nature of so-called transmissible diseases 
of man and animals, developed by the eminent Soviet scientist Academician Ye. 
Pavlovskiy, has received general recognition. 

'bne dangerous animal husbandry pest on the territory of our country is the 
sub-cutaneous large-horned cattle fly. In animals containing its larvae, damage 
occurs to the skin and the milk yields decrease. Young stock lose in excess of 10 
percent of their weight increase. A senior scientific worker at the institute, 

K. Breyev, jointly with agricultural specialists, developed a system for protecting 
the cattle against this fly. 

"Among other works recently introduced into operational practice, mention should 
be made of the creation, jointly with workers of the All-Union Scientific Research 
Veterinary Institute for Poultry Raising, of preparations for actively combating 
the so-called coccldiosis of poultry. Other works deal with protecting 
agricultural crops, including cotton, against pests. 

"As is known, the food program approved during the May Plenum of the CPSU Central 
Committee has been placed in operation. The scientist-zoologists are making their 
contribution towards the fulfillment of this program. At the Belomorsk Biological 


19 



Station of the institute, which is located in the Gulf of Kandalaksha, experimental 
work concerned with the cultivation of industrial and edible mollusks -- sea mussels 
-- is nearing completion. It has been discovered that of all of the invertebrate 
animals inhabiting the White Sea, only sea mussels offer promise from the standpoint 
of breeding edible animals in a water medium. Their meat is rich in microelements 
which are beneficial to human health. There are many bays and gulfs in the White 
Sea which are suitable for the cultivation of sea mussels and the creation of 
underwater farms. We have proposed and tested a method for breeding them which 
involves the Installation of special floats in the coastal zone of the sea. In the 
future the scientists will work jointly with the production workers of the Sevryb 
Association." 


7026 

CSO: 1824/137 


20 



REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 


USE OF SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN KAZAKHSTAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 
Alma-Ata SEL'SKOYE KHOZYAYSTVO KAZAKHSTANA in Russian No 10, Oct 82 pp 2-3 
/Article: "High Obligation of Kazakhstan Scientists^/ 

/Tex^/ The food program approved during the May (1982) Plenum of the CPSU Central 
Committee is advancing specific tasks concerned with intensifying the role played 
by science. In particular, it tasks the scientific institutes, ministries and 
departments "with implementing during the 1982-1990 period, measures aimed at 
further developing scientific studies and accelerating the introduction of 
scientific achievements into production operations in branches of the agroindustrial 
complex." 

The May Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee pointed out that the food program is 
directed towards raising the efficiency of agriculture. And the key to accomplishing 
this is that of intensifying production operations. Hence, science is confronted 
by very important tasks. Science must participate actively in solving the 
increasing tasks of agriculture. 

In his report delivered before the May Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, 

Comrade L.I. Brezhnev emphasized: "...a chief concern today and even moreso 
tomorrow is that of raising cropping power. This places greater emphasis upon 
plant breeding and seed production. It assumes the effective use of all types of 
fertilizers. It demands the introduction of a scientifically sound and well 
thought out system of farming, one which fully takes into account the natural- 
economic conditions of each zone and oblast and each rayon and farm." 

The agricultural scientists of Kazakhstan have carried out a great amount of work 
in connection with improving agriculture throughout the republic. Moreover, special 
importance is being attached to raising the operational efficiency of the scientific 
institutes and expanding their contacts with the sovkhozes and kolkhozes. A 
principal trend in the studies being carried out by the agricultural scientific 
institutes is that of creating highly productive varieties and hybrids of 
agricultural crops and new strains of highly productive animals and developing 
progressive technologies for farming, animal husbandry and so forth. A considerable 
amount of work has been carried out throughout the republic in the area of 
scientific developments. A collective of scientists at the All-Union Scientific- 
Research Institute of the Grain Economy (settlement of Shortandy), under the 
direction of Academician A.I. Barayev, developed and introduced into operations a 


21 



soil-protective system of farming which played a decisive role in combating wind 
erosion, in stabilizing grain production and in further intensifying the production 
of grain. 

Non-mouldboard soil cultivation with stubble retention is being employed on farms 
throughout the republic on an area in excess of 20 million hectares. And the 
volumes of this type of soil cultivation are increasing annually. It is expected 
that by 1985 the area of non-mouldboard soil cultivation will have increased to 
24.4 million hectares. 

The soil-protective system of fanning is now being used not only in the steppe 
regions of Kazakhstan but also in the southern Urals, the Volga region, the regions 
of the north Caucasus and in a number of oblasts in the Ukraine -- in all, on an 
area of approximately 40 million hectares. This fundamental development, which came 
into being in Kazakhstan, is being introduced into operations in CEMA member 
countries. 

An important trend in studies being carried out continues to be that of further 
improving the soil-protective system of farming. During a study carried out on the 
two systems (sweep and mouldboard) in the northern oblasts of the republic, under 
last year's conditions, the advantage of autumn sweep cultivation of the soil in 
behalf of all crops, compared to the mouldboard system, was clearly manifested. 

The yield obtained from a second crop in a grain-fallow crop rotation plan, with use 
being made of sweep cultivation, amounted to 15.8 quintals per hectare compared to 
only 11.8 quintals for mouldboard cultivation. 

Studies were carried out on non-irrigated lands in southeastern Kazakhstan aimed at 
improving the agrotechnical methods for protecting lands against erosion. Under 
the arid conditions found in the southern part of the republic, light sweep 
cultivation of the soil to a depth of 10-12 cm appeared to have an advantage. 
Moreover, the cropping power of spring barley was raised by 1.3-2.5 quintals per 
hectare compared to mouldboard plowing (to 20-22 cm). 

Unfortunately, it must be confessed that individual sovkhozes and kolkhozes 
throughout the republic are still not attaching proper importance to the soil- 
protective system of farming. This applies in particular to certain farms in 
Semipalatinsk, Vostochno-Kazakhstan and Pavlodar Oblasts, where the personnel are 
stubbornly continuing to plow their land using plows and as a result they are 
obtaining low yields. The soil-protective system of farming is slowly being 
introduced into operations in Taldy-Kurgan, Chimkent, Dzhambul and Alma-Ata 
Oblasts. 

The time is at hand for drawing the appropriate conclusions and for putting an end 
to this abnormal phenomenon. The proper measures must be undertaken in all zones 
aimed at introducing into operations this progressive method of the soil-protective 
system of farming, with the peculiarities of the farms in a region being taken into 
account. 

An important element of the soil-protective system of farming, which is directed 
towards raising the cropping power of grain crops, is that of a scientifically 
sound development of grain-fallow crop rotation plans having brief rotations. 

Data supplied by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Grain Economy 
and agricultural stations of the republic's northern grain zone has shown that four 


22 




and five-field grain fallow crop rotation plans are the most effective. Their 
basis is a field of clean fallow in which the accumulation of moisture is ensured, 
elements of plant mineral nutrition accumulate and weeds are destroyed. The results 
realized from the introduction of scientific achievements into production operations 
are clearly apparent in the republic's indicators for grain production during the 
10th Five-Year Plan and the first year of the 11th Five-Year Plan. 

At the same time, on farms in some oblasts — Kustanay, Kokchetav and a number of 
others — the structure for the sowing areas as recommended by the scientific 
institutes is not being observed. In accordance with the crop rotation plans for 
1985, the area of fallow land must be increased to 5 million hectares. At the 
present time, crop rotation plans have been mastered throughout the republic on 68 
percent of the arable land made available. As a result, a considerable portion of 
the sowings of wheat and other grain crops is annually being planted following poor 
predecessor crops and this tends to lower both the yields and the quality of the 
grain. 

It bears mentioning that use of the progressive method of carrying out the sowing 
work using special anti-erosion sowing machines promotes improvements in the 
cropping power. The extent of their use is increasing with each passing year and 
has reached 21.5 million hectares, that is, the level planned for the current five- 
year plan. 

A great amount of work is being carried out in connection with improving the 
fertility of solonetz soils. Important measures must be undertaken aimed at 
gradually drawing these lands into economic use. In the process, it should be 
borne in mind that a high content of exchangeable sodium and the presence of toxic 
salts in the soil at a shallow depth adversely affect the vitally important 
processes of a plant organism and lower cropping power. Improvements in the 
productivity of solonetz soils are possible only on the basis of special land 
reclamation methods being carried out. Based upon land reclamation methods already 
developed in the republic, 1.1 million hectares of solonetz land were mastered. 

The experience of leading farms underscores the high effectiveness of the land 
reclamation measures carried out. During the current five-year plan, the plans call 
for 2.1 million hectares of solonetz soil to be mastered. And there are more than 
70 million hectares of such land in the republic. Thus there is an endless amovint 
of work remaining to be carried out. 

An important reserve for raising cropping power is the skilful use of mineral 
fertilizers, particularly phosphorus fertilizers. It has been established that an 
application of 1.5-2 quintals of phosphorus fertilizer per hectare serves to raise 
the yield by 3.5-4 quintals respectively. According to Academician A. Barayev, 
the annual production of grain in Kazakhstan could be raised to 50 million tons if 
the soil-protective system of farming was employed in an intelligent manner in all 
areas throughout the republic, if up to 3 quintals of superphosphate were applied 
per hectare and if less fertile soils were strengthened by applications of 
nitrogen. 

At the same time, the use of chemical processes in farming continues to remain 
extremely low -- the lowest level compared to the country's other republics. Thus, 
over the past few years and on the average for the country as a whole, 85 kg of 
fertilizer in a conversion for active agent were applied per hectare of arable land. 


23 



In Kasakhstan this indicator was only 17.8 kg. For the Ukrainian SSR, this figure 
excees 112, the Kirghiz SSR — 153, Lithuanian SSR — 241 and the Estonian SSR — 

247 kg. In Hungary this figure has been raised to 304 and in the GDR --to 350 kg 
per hectare. 

Taking into account the advantages offered by phosphorus fertilizers, the farm 
leaders and specialists and chemical services must display concern for ensuring that 
the mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection agents are utilized so as to 
produce the maximum effect. Better use must be made of local fertilizers. The 
agricultural scientists, jointly with the leaders of metallurgical enterprises 
throughout the republic, must find the possibility of utilizing phosphates for 
satisfying agricultural requirements. This applies in particular to applying a top 
dressing to clean fallow in the virgin land area. There is no limit to carrying 
out creative undertakings. It is a sacred task of the scientists to carry out and 
implement the results of such work. 

The farmers are quite justified in expecting to receive assistance from the 
scientists, moreover assistance of a large-scale nature. The collectives of 
scientific research institutes, experimental stations and other scientific 
institutes must give more direct attention to the kolkhozes and sovkhozes and 
render systematic and fruitful assistance in introducing scientific achievements 
and leading experience into production operations. 

In a report delivered before the 6th Plenum of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of Kazakhstan, member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee 
and 1st secretary of the Central Conmittee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan 
Comrade D.A. Kimayev stated: "At the present time there are 58 scientific research 
institutes and experimental stations in the republic. However, a number of them 
are not producing a proper return. Meanwhile, just as in the past, the republic 
is experiencing a sharp need for new and effective agricultural crop varieties and 
hybrids and livestock strains and for the development of new machine designs and 
technologies for the production, processing and storage of agricultural products. 

The time has come for the eastern bran£h of VASKhNIL /All-Union Academy of 
Agricultural Sciences imeni V.I. Lenin/ and all scientific institutes to raise the 
responsibility of their workers for reducing the periods and improving the quality 
of studies and for accelerating the introduction of scientific achievements into 
production operations, as specifically called for in the decisions handed down 
during the 26th CPSU Congress and the 10th Congress of the Communist Party of 
Kazakhstan." 

The scientific institutes and agricultural scientists are under a great obligation 
to the agricultural workers to obtain solutions for such important tasks as the 
breeding of new and highly productive varieties. 

It can be stated directly that our locally bred varieties are not adequate, despite 
the fact that a great amount of work is being carried out. Fine indicators are at 
hand for the Tselinnaya 26 and Tselinnaya 60 midseason maturing varieties of 
spring wheat. The newly regionalized Tselinnaya 21, Lyutestsens 54 and 
Karagandinskaya 2 varieties are being sown. The Alma-Ata Semi-dwarf variety of 
winter wheat has exceeded the cropping power of the standard by 12.3-16.6 quintals 
per hectare. However, it must be confessed that large areas of land are for the 


2h 



most part occupied by the Saratovskaya 29 and Bezenchukskaya 98 wheat varieties 
which were regionalized in other areas. The scientists must carry out thorough, 
well thought out and purposeful work aimed at breeding drought-resistant and 
non-lodging varieties, having a high protein content in the grain, a shorter 
ripening period and readily adaptable to local conditions. 

Such intensive crops as corn for grain, soybeans, sxmflowers, cotton and sugar beets 
are being grown at kolkhozes and sovkhozes using the leading industrial method. 
Throughout the republic as a whole, use of the industrial technology in the 
cultivation of sugar beets is producing 40 more quintals of roots per hectare than 
the usual technology. Measures are being undertaken to develop industrial 
technologies for the production of vegetables and potatoes and to introduce 
vegetable crop varieties into operations. However, it must not be forgotten that, 
just as in the past, the cultivation and harvesting of vegetables, tobacco and fruit 
and berry crops continue to be weakly mechanized in field crop husbandry operations. 

In recent years the republic's scientific institutes have carried out a considerable 
amount of work associated with improving breeding operations in animal husbandry. 
Measures are being xmdertaken to improve existing strains, pedigree groups, lines 
and types which are suitable for the production of livestock products on an 
industrial basis. The Kushumskaya strain of horses and the North Caucasus Merino 
and Degeresskaya strains of sheep have been approved in the republic. Nine highly 
productive lines of the Kazakh Belogolovaya strain of large-horned cattle have been 
approved. 

Nevertheless, some experimental stations are performing only weak work in this 
regard. Completeness is lacking in the carrying out of scientific research plans. 

At the Taldy-Kurgan, Pavlodar and Turgay Experimental Stations, proper importance is 
not being attached to the role being played by the scientific councils. At the 
Taldy-Kurgan Experimental Station, for example, the scientific council over a 
period of years has failed to examine the link between science and production. 

With regard to solving the tasks concerned with improving animal husbandry in 
Kazakhstan, special importance is being attached to those problems associated with 
strengthening the feed base both by means of field and meadow and pasture feed 
production. A specialized branch character is being attached to this work at the 
kolkhozes and sovkhozes. The attention of the farms has been drawn to radically 
improving the pasture lands in conformity with developed plans and the 
recommendations of the scientific institutes. 

There is one example that can be followed for iinproving the pasture lands. The 
Zadar'inskiy Gosplemzavod /State Breeding Plan^/ in Chimkent Oblast is achieving 
fine results in improving lands in the desert zone. Studies conducted by scientists 
of the Karakul' Scientific Production Association and the experience of the farm's 
sheep breeders have shown that sowings of drought-resistant prostrate summer 
cypress and winterfat grasses, with comparatively low capital investments, can 
convert low productivity lands into highly productive feed lands. These subshrubs 
can withstand drought conditions and heat, they have considerable forage bulk and 
they remain green from March to November. Approximately 10,000 hectares of 
prostrate summer cypress and winterfat grasslands have been created at the 
gosplemzavod. This is a clear result of the joint work carried out by the 
scientists and practical workers of the scientific-production association. 


25 



The republic's scientific institutes must display special concern for raising the 
level and effectiveness of applied scientific research work, the results of which 
have a direct bearing upon production. The agricultural experimental stations 
must ensvire a close link between science and production. 

The extensive dissemination of scientific achievements and leading experience is a 
matter of special importance. The party, soviet and professional trade union 
organizations must furnish assistance in establishing close contacts between science 
and production. Deserving of attention in this regard is the initiative displayed 
by the eastern branch of VASKhNIL which, jointly with the Alma-Ata Oblast Party 
Committee and the oblast executive committee, developed an all-round program for 
accelerating scientific-technical progress in agriculture throughout the oblast 
during the period up to 1990. Determinations have been made with regard to those 
completed scientific works which can now be introduced into production operations, 
their volume, place and periods and the responsible executive agents, both from the 
standpoint of the scientific institutes and the agricultural organs. A similar 
all-round program was also developed for farms in Turgay and Kokchetav Oblasts. 

It would be useful to adopt this valuable organizational form for use in other 
oblasts of our republic. Such an organizational form would promote more complete 
utilization of the potential of our institutes, design organizations and 
experimental stations. 

In the work of establishing creative contacts between the scientists and sovkhoz 
and kolkhoz specialists, the scientific institutes, oblast experimental stations 
and agricultural higher educational institutes must display more initiative and 
furnish maximum assistance in introducing new developments into production 
operations. 

Duplication and a lack of completeness have not yet been eliminated from scientific 
research work in agriculture. The work of introducing scientific achievements and 
leading experience into production operations has been organized to only a weak 
degree. Protective forestation, which occupies a special place in the complex of 
anti-erosion measures, instead of increasing at the present time has decreased. 

The plan for planting field-protective forest strips was fulfilled by only 86 
percent last year. Compared to 1980, the overall area of forest strips has 
decreased by 2,289 hectares. 

The work of correcting shortcomings requires maximvrai attention on the part of the 
scientific institutes, such that the entire arsenal of scientific achievements 
and leading experience will be employed in behalf of fulfilling the food program. 

The agricultural scientists and agricultural specialists must make a worthy 
contribution towards implementing the decisions handed down during the May Plenum 
of the CPSU Central Committee. 

There can be no doubt but that the agricultural scientists and all of the republic's 
agricultural workers will celebrate the 60th anniversary of the USSR with new 
achievements in science and production. 

A closer link must be achieved between science and production! 

COPYRIGHT; "Sel'skoye khozyaystvo Kazakhstana" — "Qazaqstan auyl sharuashylyghy", 
1982 

7026 

CSO; 1824/151 


26 



AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION 


STRENGTHENING FINANCES OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES 
Moscow FINANSY SSSR in Russian No 12, Dec 82 pp 40-48 

[Article by V. N. Semenov, director of the Administration for Agricultural 
Financing of the USSR Ministry of Finance, board member: "The Role of Finance 
in the Agrarian Policies of the Party"] 

[Text] The sixtieth anniversary of the USSR is a noteworthy event in the life 
of the Soviet people and an attestation of the historic achievements of 
socialism. Included among these is the social and economic transformation in 
agriculture. 

The victory of the Great October socialist revolution opened up great 
possibilities for the development of production forces in agriculture. The 
Marxist-Leninist teaching concerning the socialist transformation of agri¬ 
culture passed the test of history. Sixty years of existence for the USSR— 
this is the implementation of the Leninist plan for the cooperative village, 
for developing a large, socialist, highly-mechanized agricultural branch. In 
place of the 20 million small peasant farms existing in 1916 in czarist Russia, 
in 1980 the USSR had 25,900 kolkhozes, 1,700 interfarm agricultural enterprises 
and 21,100 sovkhozes which produced 88 percent of all agricultural commodity 
goods. 

In 1919 V. I.. Lenin dreamed about 100,000 first-class tractors to transform 
agriculture. As a result of the implementation of Leninist policies concerning 
the mechanization of agriculture our socialist industry supplied kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes with modem technology. Energy capacities in agriculture comprised 
606 million horsepower in 1981 as compared with 23.9 million horsepower in 1916. 
The power supply per worker in kolkhozes and sovkhozes increased fiftyfold 
during this time. In early 1981 the number of tractors in agriculture comprised 
2,562,000; of grain-harvesting combines—722,000; and of trucks—1,596,000. 

Basic production funds reached 227 billion rubles. 

During the years of Soviet power there has been a rapid rise in agricultural 
production output, as demonstrated by the following table. 

The growth in agricultural production output during the years of Soviet power 
was the result of Increased productivity, mechanization and chemicalization of 
production, of extensive land reclamation, of improved agrotechnology and of 
the realization of veterinary-sanitary measures in livestock farming. 


27 



Table 



1913 

1976-1980 

Growth pace, % 


millions 

(average per 



of tons 

year) millions 




of tons 


Grain 

86.0 

205.0 

238 

Sugar Beets 

11.3 

88.7 

785 

Potatoes 

31.9 

82.6 

259 

Raw cotton 

0.74 

8.9 

1,203 

Meat 

5.0 

14.8 

296 

Milk 

29.4 

92.7 

315 

Eggs, billions 

11.9 

63.1 

530 


Enormous success in socialist agriculture was achieved as a result of the 
constant concern of the party and government regarding strengthening the kolkhoz 
structure. The Soviet state is administered by V. I. Lenin's instructions 
concerning the fact that "every social structure takes shape only through the 
financial support of a certain class."1 From the first days that the proletariat 
took power financial policies have been directed toward creating the most 
favorable conditions for the development of production forces in agriculture. 

The victory of the Great October socialist revolution freed the peasantry from 
dependence due to taxes and great indebtedness• Peasants were freed 
from annual land rents amounting to 700 million rubles in gold. At the same 
time peasant debts of 1.3 billion rubles with the Peasant Land Bank are 
liquidated. According to the calculations of economists, the land laws passed 
during the first days of Soviet power benefited the peasant at a rate per house¬ 
hold of 80 rubles on a one-time basis and 140-150 rubles annually (pre-revolution 
ary currency). "In a country of peasants the dictatorship of the proletariat 
benefited the peasants first, most of all and immediately..,"2 wrote V. I. 

Lenin regarding the practical results of the October revolution of peasant masses 


Nevertheless, the agriculture of a young socialist republic was not in a 
condition to satisfy the growing needs of cities with regard to foodstuffs. 

Small peasant agriculture, free of huge land rents and taxes, began to acquire 
consumer characteristics. Economic contradictions began to appear between 
the highly concentrated, developing socialist industry and the small peasant, 
semi-barter features of agriculture. The only solution to this problem was the 
movement from small, separate enterprises to a large highly mechanized industry. 
V. I. Lenin provided the economic basis for this movement via cooperation in the 
village. 


^Lenin, V. I., "Polnoye sobraniye sochineniy," [Complete Works], Vol 45, p 371. 
2lbid., Vol 39, p 276. 


28 



The socialist transformation of agriculture was implemented according to a plan 
indicated by V. 1; Lenin—on the lines of creating sovkhozes and kolkhozes. 

The establishment of the kolkhoz structure resulted in the necessity to create 
machine-tractor stations, which were state enterprises of the socialist type 
having the purpose of technically transforming agriculture on the basis of 
machine technology. 

From the very beginning of their organization, kolkhozes have received all kinds 
of financial help from the state.. The communist party and the Soviet government 
constantly follow V. I. Lenin’s instructions regarding the fact that it is 
essential to ’’provide privileges of the economic, financial and bank type for 
cooperation.”3 The scale of this help was determined by those economic and 
political goals put before agriculture and the entire national economy at a 
particular stage of socialist building. During some periods of socialist 
building when aid to kolkhozes was insufficient this resulted in a decrease in 
the material interest of kolkhozes in the results of their labor and led to a 
slowed pace of agricultural production output. 

During the difficult years of the civil war the young Soviet republic provided 
help to the poor peasantry in the struggle against epizootic disease in live¬ 
stock, and in acquiring seed and agricultural machinery. As the country’s 
economy became stronger financial help for the peasants also increased. At 
the same time collective enterprises and sovkhozes were aided by means of 
grants from the budget. 

However, financial aid could not eradicate the great economic contradictions 
existing in the country. The agriculture of the young socialist republic was 
based on primitive technology. V. I. Lenin, noting the complexity of 
transforming not only agricultural production but the peasantry itself, 
pointed out,’’The problem with regard to the small farmer can be solved, his 
psychology can be improved only by means of a material base, technology, the use 
of tractors and machines in farming on a large scale, electrification on a large 
scale. This would transform the small farmer radically and swiftly.” 

Following Leninist precepts, the Soviet state spent large sums to import 
agricultural machinery and to build plants for tractor and agricultural machine 
building and for producing mineral fertilizers and chemicals to protect plants 
and animals against pests and diseases. The state also utilized currency 
reserves to import equipment for the plants that were being built. In the course 
of the first five-year plan alone some of the giants of modern machine building, 
such as the Stalingrad and Khar’kov tractor plants and the Rostov, Gomel’, 
Saratov, Zaporozh’ye and Tashkent agricultural machine plants were built and 
construction of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant was coming to an end. 


1 Ibid., Vol 45, p 373. 

2 Ibid., Vol 43, p 60. 


29 


The problem of agricultural mechanization was dealt with by means of the 
creation of machine-tractor stations, which contracted with kolkhozes to perform 
tractor and other operations involving soil cultivation, sowing and harvesting 
of agricultural crops and managed the production activities of kolkhozes. 

Barter was used primarily as a means of payment. At the same time the state 
financed from its budget all MTS [machine tractor station] expenditures, 
including capital investments. Thus, there was a barter relationship between 
kolkhozes and the state with regard to work done. 

In connection with the 1958 reorganization of the MTS material and financial 
expenditures rose sharply in kolkhozes. In order to make up for this procure¬ 
ment prices were temporarily increased. All of this resulted in an increase in 
the role of finance and the distribution of gross kolkhoz income. 

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is developing agrarian policy, supporting 
it with the most effective economic, material-technical and organizational 
measures. The entry of the Soviet society into a period of developed socialism 
has made the problem of agricultural production effectiveness even more acute. 

The party program to raise the standard of living of the Soviet people depends 
mainly on the growth of agricultural production. However, in developmental 
pace agriculture lags behind industrial development. All of this has required 
the party to elaborate an agrarian policy that would secure a steady improvement 
in agriculture, a transformation in the nature of farm labor and a change in 
the very image of the village. 

The fundamental principles for modern agrarian policy were elaborated at the 
March 1965 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. The ^policy line indicated by 
the plenum was further developed at subsequent plenums of the CPSU Central 
Committee and party conferences. The party developed an.orderly system of 
economic measures to further develop agricultural production, which is being 
enriched with new content in connection with the progressive movement of our 
society on the path toward communism. Agrarian policy is an integral part of 
the general political course of the CPSU. Agricultural development is examined 
as an organic whole with economic and social party policy at the modern stage 
of development of the communist society. Developed socialism is characterized 
by a fuller utilization of the advantages of planned economic management, by 
the coming together of two forms of socialist property—public and kolkhoz- 
cooperative—^which finds its concrete expression in the form of wages for labor, 
social security and social insurance and the financing and crediting of kolkhozes 
and sovkhozes. 

Modern agrarian policy arises from the necessity to create economic conditions 
that will stimulate the growth of agricultural production output, a sharp 
increase in capital investments, the realization of a long-term complex program 
of mechanization and chemicalization in agriculture and of land reclamation, 
the development of agrarian science and the perfection of forms of organization 
and management. This policy, developed during the March 1965 Plenum of the CPSU 
Central Committee and other plenums and party conferences, has become the basis 
for the practical activity of party, soviet and agricultural organs, kolkhozes 
and sovkhozes. 


30 



During the last three five-year plans the volume of capital investments in 
agriculture comprised about 400 billion rubles, which is four times more than 
during all of the preceding years of Soviet power. As a result of this 
fund supplies per 100 hectares of agricultural lands increased by a factor of 
3.4 as compared with 1965; the capital-labor ratio increased by a factor of 3.7. 

After the May 1966 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee a large volume of 
reclamation work was completed in the country. In 15 years over 15 million 
hectares were reclaimed. As of late 1980 the fund of drained lands in kolkhozes 
and sovkhozes reached 13.7 million hectares; of irrigated lands—17.3 million 
hectares. The proportion of gross farming output on irrigated lands comprised 
29 percent in 1980. 

The volume of chemicalization in agriculture has increased immeasureably. 

In 1980 82 million tons of mineral fertilizer were supplied to agriculture 
(standard units), which was triple the amount supplied in 1965. There has been 
a sharp rise in the use of mineral feeds and chemical and biological means 
for protecting plants. 

In addition to the strengthening of the material-technical base in agriculture 
extensive capital investments have been made in the branch of the agroindustrial 
complex, related to the processing of agricultural products and tb^' sup.plying of 
agriculture. Whereas in 1961-1965 16.5 billion rubles of capital investments 
were directed into this area, in 1966-1980 the average for the 5 year period 
was 42.6 billion rubles, or an increase by a factor of 2.6. 

The policies on strengthening the economies of kolkhozes and sovkhozes and on 
improving the material incentives of agricultural workers to take an interest 
in the results of their work have been followed consistently. Procurement 
prices were raised for kolkhozes and sovkhozes and there were 50-percent 
bonuses for above-quota sales of agricultural products. Direct bank credit 
for kolkhozes was introduced, there was a change to guaranteed wages for 
kolkhoz farmers according to sovkhoz norms and rates. Pensions were increased. 
Sovkhozes were changed to new management conditions and state property insurance 
was made to include them in the way kolkhozes were insured. The supplementary 
income to kolkhozes and sovkhozes due to increased procurement prices and to 
the realization of other measures comprised 240 billion rubles in 1965-1980. 

The realization of the agrarian policies developed by the March 1965 Plenum of 
the CESU Central Committee has secured a considerable growth in agricultural 
production output in the country. During this period gross production increased 
by a factor of 1.5, and all growth was achieved while curtailing the number of 
workers occupied in the public sector by 2.9 million persons. The growth of 
labor productivity by a factor of 1.8 was encouraged by the increased product¬ 
ivity of crops and animals and by the introduction of progressive forms of 
labor and production organization. 

The modern period of development of socialist society in the USSR has as one 
of its main goals an improvement in the standard of living of the population. 

The real income of the population doubled in 1980 as compared with 1965. 

The monetary income of the population is increasing. As of 1 January 1981 


31 



savings accounts alone held 156.6 billion rubles, which exceeds 1965 savings 
by a factor of 8.4. 

The decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress confirmed that during the 1980*s the 
communist party will consistently implement economic strategy, the highest aim 
of which is the steadfast improvement in the material and cultural level in 
the life of the people. The"Basic Directions of Economic and Social Develop¬ 
ment in the USSR in 1981-1985 and in the Period to 1990" call for a 13-16 per¬ 
cent increase in the average monthly wages of workers and employees to bring 
wages to 190—195 rubles per month by the end of the five-year plan, which will 
increase demand for consumer goods. 

With an increase in the population by over 35 million people during the last 
three five-year plans the demand for meat has increased by 21 percent, for milk-- 
by 28 percent, for eggs—by a factor of 1.9, for vegetables—by 35 percent, for 
vegetable oil—by 24 percent and for sugar—by 30 percent. However, the 
growth in the monetary income of the population in the face of stable state 
retail prices for basic food products resulted in increased demand for them. 
Increased demand for foodstuffs is also due to the growth in the urban popula¬ 
tion, and to increased purchases of foodstuffs by the rural population within 
the state trade network. With the insufficiently rapid growth in agricultural 
efficiency demand for foodstuffs is surpassing supply. In connection with this 
demand for meat and dairy products, vegetables and fruit cannot be fully met. 

Based on party resolutions concerning improvements in the standard of living 
of the population and on a realistic evaluation of the status of agriculture 
the May 1982 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee passed measures to radically 
alter the development of agricultural production. The plenum approved the 
Foodstuffs Program of the USSR for the period until 1990, which was developed 
in accordance with the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress, and confirmed the 
resolutions of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers 
concerning its realization. 

The Foodstuffs Program calls for the utilization of the increased economic 
potential of the country, supplying the population with all types of foodstuffs 
according to demand in the shortest possible time and improving considerably 
the structure of nutrition of the Soviet people by increasing the consumption 
of the most valuable products. 

During the 12th Five-Year Plan it is planned to increase average annual grain 
production to 250-255 million tons, meat production—to 20-20.5 million tons, 
milk production—to 104-106 million tons, vegetable production—to 37-39 million 
tons, and fruits and berries—to 14-15 million tons. During the 12th Five-Year 
Plan emphasis will be placed on increasing per. capitciicoiisumption of meat, 
vegetable oil, fruit and vegetables. 

The following per capita consumption of basic foodstuffs is planned for 
1990 (kg): 


32 





1980 


1990 


Meat and meat products 
Fish and fish products 
Milk and milk products 
Eggs, number of 
Sugar 

Vegetable oil 
Vegetables and melons 
Fruits and berries 


58 

17.6 

314 

239 

44.4 

8.8 

97 

38 


70 

19.0 

330-340 

260-266 

45.5 

13.2 

126-135 

66-70 


In order to achieve the volume of agricultural production output and consumption 
planned by the Foodstuffs Program an interrelated, more balanced development 
of all branches of the agroindustrial complex is planned. Of priority 
importance are material and technical supplies. 

During the decade agriculture is to be supplied with 3,740,000-3,780,000 
tractors, 1,170,000 grain harvesting combines. The supply of mineral fertilizers 
will increase by a factor of 1.7, and by 1990 the area of irrigated land will 
reach 23-25 million hectares, During the two five-year plans technological 
equipment worth 17-18 billion rubles will be allocated for the foodstuffs 
industry, state trade and consumer cooperatives. 

During the 11th Five-Year Plan 233 billion rubles of capital Investments are 
being directed into the branches of the agroindustrial complex, including 
189.6 billion rubles for agriculture; during the 12th Five-Year Plan the 
figures will be 33-35 percent and 27-28 percent respectively of the total 
volume of capital investments in the national economy. 

These funds must first be allocated for the development of capacities in order 
to increase food production in the shortest time possible, for technical 
reequipping, for the expansion and renovation of existing enterprises and 
production facilities and for the acceleration of the operational statts fof 
structures that are under construction. In agriculture capital investments 
will be utilized to increase soil fertility, to create a stable feed base for 
livestock raising and capacities for the primary processing of products, to 
build storehouses and storerooms and to renovate and expand livestock facilities. 
A great deal of attention will be given to the social development of the 
village and about 160 billion rubles will be allocated for this purpose in 
the course of the decade. 

At the same time the plenum recognized the necessity of implementing a complex 
of measures directed at strengthening economic self-financing in kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes and at strengthening material interest in increasing production and 
improving the quality of products. Within the system of these measures great 
significance is attached to improving the economies of low-profit kolkhozes 
and sovkhozes. Low profits and the losses incurred by many enterprises give 
rise to dependence and depress the stimulus to increase agricultural production 
output. Almost 40 percent of all long-term loans issued to kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes for capital investments and short-term credit for production 
expenditures were extended for long periods of time. 


33 



As a result of the plenum's decisions low-profit kolkhozes and sovkhozes 
have not had to repay debts to Gosbank valued at 9.7 billion rubles. The 
debts are reimbursed by means of resources remaining in the state budget 
of past years. In addition, such kolkhozes and sovkhozes will be able to 
defer debts to Gosbank for 10 years, and they will have to be repaid beginning 
in 1990. For loans that are deferred enterprises do not have to pay interest 
for the credit. 

With the goal of creating stable economic conditions for kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes as of 1 January 1983 procurement prices for agricultural products 
will be raised and bonuses will be given for products sold to the state 
by low-profit and losing kolkhozes and sovkhozes at a rate of 16 billion 
rubl^ annually. Of the total amount allocated 6 billion rubles have been 
dir ed at increasing procurement prices and 10 billion—at providing 
b- ..icses to prices for kolkhozes and sovkhozes operative at a low profit or at 
a loss. The resources earmarked for bonuses to prices have been allocated to 
the councils of ministers of union republics, which are to distribute them to 
oblasts and krays. Oblast executive committees,,upon receiving papers from 
rayon agroindustrial associations, confirm the lists of kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes operating at a low profit or a loss and the amount of the bonus 
added to the procurement price. The bonuses are paid to kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes by procurement organizations at the same time that the products sold 
to the state are paid for. 

With the realization of the decisions of the May Plenum of the CPSU Central 
Committee procurement prices were increased another 5 billion rubles by the 
cancellation of budget compensation of increased costs due to increased 
prices for gasoline as of 1 March 78 and increased wholesale prices and 
tariffs for industrial products and services as of 1 January 82. This measure 
did not increase the profit level of agricultural production, but it enabled 
us to more efficiently distribute among enterprises those extensive 
financial resources that are being directed by the party and state at the 
development of agriculture and at the realization of the USSR's Foodstuffs 
Program. 

As a result of increasing procurement prices and establishing bonuses for 
kolkhozes operating at a low profit level or at a loss, the subsidies for 
milk will increase by 5.1 billion rubles and those for meat by 8.9 billion 
rubles. These subsidies are based on party policy aimed at stabilizing 
retail prices for basic food and non-food commodities. In connection with this 
in 1983 meat and milk subsidies will reach 39 billion rubles. 

In dealing with the foodstuffs problem, the communist party is giving 
considerable attention to the social questions in the village and to strengthen¬ 
ing the economies of low-profit kolkhozes. In this regard the financing of 
entire programs in kolkhozes suffering from low profits or losses is a new 
approach both in theory and in practice. 

Kolkhozes with insufficient fixed capital and without their own resources to 
finance expanded production will be able to utilize the sovkhoz system of 
financing by means of resources from the state budget for the following planned 



expenditures: for the construction of residential dwellings, children’s 

pre-school enterprises, clubs and other structures used for cultural and 
communal purposes and for the construction of intraenterprise roads. 

Kolkhozes operating at a low profit or a loss can utilize the sovkhoz system 
of payments via budget insurance payments for property insurance. 

The financing of entire programs in low-profit kolkhozes is implemented 
according to a list confirmed by the council of ministers of the union republic. 
Included in this list are the enterprises, the total profits of which (ratio of 
clear income to cost of production) did not exceed 10 percent during the last 
3 years. Also financed from the budget are kolkhozes with profit levels above 
10 percent but that did not cover credit received earlier from Gosbank, the 
financing of capital investments and other plan measures and kolkhozes with 
small fixed capital funds, poor intraenterprise road networks and insufficient 
amounts of clear income. The lists of low-profit kolkhozes are confirmed for 
a number of years. The lists are adjusted according to the changes in profit 
levels and fixed capital supplies of kolkhozes. 

Allocations for the financing of entire programs in low-profit kolkhozes 
will equal 3.3 billion rubles from the budgets of union republics annually. 

These resources will be distributed in accordance with the limits on capital 
investments provided by material-technical resources for the building of 
objects earmarked for cultural-communal purposes and of intraenterprise roads, 
on expenditures for the upkeep of children’s and cultural-educational 
institutions as well as on the size of insurance payments. 

The financing of road building and the building of cultural-communal structures 
is realized within the limits of estimated costs of the structures and the 
limits of capital investments of low-profit kolkhozes supplied with material 
and technical resources. As for the upkeep of children’s preschool and 
cultural-educational institutions and pioneer camps, including expenditures 
to acquire inventory and equipment for cultural-communal purposes and the 
carrying out of mass cultural work, they are financed within the limits 
established for state agricultural enterprises. Financial organs make 
allocations to agroindustrial associations as repayment of expenses involving 
insurance payments made for kolkhozes operating at a low profit or at a loss. 

Allocations for the financing of entire programs in such kolkhozes are made to 
agroindustrial associations in accordance with quantities planned in the 
budgets of union republics with a consideration of their economic and financial 
condition. For this reason the proportion of the budget needed for financing 
may vary. 

In accordance with the decisions of the May 1982 Plenum of the CPSU Central 
Committee a whole series of measures have been taken to increase the interest 
of kolkhoz farmers and sovkhoz employees in increasing production and the 
sale of agricultural products. 

Extensive material and financial resources are required to put through the 
measures to increase foodstuffs as indicated by the Foodstuffs Program, resources 
that are available only to a socialist country with a developed economy. 


35 


state expenditures for the realization of the Foodstuffs Program and for 
increasing the material interest of workers in increasing agricultural 
production output comprise: 


(billions of rubles) 


Supplementary income of kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes due to increased procurement 

prices and other measures 21.6 

Cancellation of bank loans 9.7 

Deferred bank loans 11.1 

Measures to secure cadres and to stimulate 
workers to increase production output 1.8 


Total 44.2 

including for 1982 20.8 

For the realization of the USSR’s Foodstuffs Program 44.2 billion rubles have 
been allocated, as compared with the 8 billion rubles planned for agricultural 
development by the March 1965 and the 15.6 billion rubles planned for the 
same purpose by the July 1978 plenums of the CPSU Central Committee. 

The allocation of such large capital investments requires purposeful work to 
raise the level of management in kolkhozes and sovkhozes, rayon and oblast 
agroindustrial associations and in all links of the complex. In connection 
with this there should be a strengthening of the effect of the financial- 
credit mechanism on kolkhozes and sovkhozes with the aim of more efficiently 
utilizing land, machinery, fertilizer, feed and fuel and all production 
potential for increasing production output. 

A strong material and technical base has been developed and measures have been 
taken to strengthen the economies and financial status of kolkhozes and 
sovkhozes with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of agricultural 
production. There is a transition toward planning within the agroindustrial 
complex and toward its management as a unified whole at all levels . Surplus 
or repetitive links are being eliminated and there is an increase in the 
responsibility placed on each link for increasing production and improving 
the quality of foodstuffs for the population. Measures are being elaborated to 
increase economic independence and initiative in kolkhozes and sovkhozes as the 
main links in socialist agriculture, to create more favorable economic and 
social-organizational conditions for effective operations and to eliminate 
departmental isolation. The goals established by the 26th party congress and 
the May 1982 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee regarding increasing the 
effectiveness of agricultural production and the quantity of food require 
further improvements in economic relations between the branches of the agro¬ 
industrial complex. The financial-credit mechanism, a powerful instrument in 
implementing the party’s agrarian policies, must be improved constantly, 
acquiring qualitatively new forms in accordance with the building of the 
communist society. The 60th anniversary of the USSR demonstrates the dependability 
of the financial-credit mechanism in the social and economic transformation of 
agriculture. 

COPYRIGHT: ’’Finansy SSSR", 1982. 

8228 

CSO: 1824/181 


36 


AGRO-ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION 


COORDINATION WITHIN GEORGIAN RAPO NETWORK 

Moscow EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA in Russian No 52, Dec 82 p 10 

/Article by G. Azaurashvili, 1st deputy minister of procurements for Georgian SSR, 
Tbilisi: "Within the Framework of the RAPO// 

/Text7 Agroindustrial associations are increasing in force in a majority of the 
rural regions of Georgia. Today they are already uncovering reserves for the 
production of agricultural goods and they are accomplishing a great deal towards 
reducing those product losses which occur between the fields and the consumers and 
also towards supplying the dining tables of our workers with more abimdant and 
diverse food products. 

A decisive link in the implementation of the food program — the fields, farms, 
orchards and plantations. But growth in the production of food products is 
directly dependent upon rational and faultless organization of the work of the 
procurement, transport and processing enterprises. Deserving of priority attention 
are those problems concerned with comprehensive cooperation and efficient 
Interaction among all branches of the agroindustrial complex based upon a business¬ 
like partnership. It was by no means an accident that this task was viewed as a 
priority one dxiring the May (1982) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. 

It was precisely from this standpoint that the collectives of enterprises of the 
Ministry of Procurements for the Georgian SSR joined in the work of implementing 
the food program developed by the party. Our grain receiving, mixed feed and 
milling enterprises are now operating within the framework of agroindustrial 
associations. And although tmresolved problems still exist at the present time, 
their nimiber is less owing to the fact that there is but one policy line. This 
unity is ensured at the very levels where it must be ensured — in each association 
and ministry. 

We have one goal — achieving high profitability for each enterprise and for the 
RAPO /rayon agroindustrial association/ on the whole, carrying out all tasks 
planned, improving the quality of the final products and achieving more thrifty 
and objective utilization of the centralized funds of each association. Obviousl, 
this unity did not come of and by Itself. During the first stage, not everything 
was understood by everybody. We in the ministry foresaw this and thus during the 
first quarter of this year, after agroindustrial associations had been created in 
all of the rayons, we conducted our own seminar-conference for the branch, for the 


37 



leaders of enterprises associated with the RAPO. This measure was not carried out 
without leaving some record of note: a mechanism for administering the work of 
the collectives was worked out during it. 

We created a permanent committee, headed by a deputy minister, which is responsible 
for the status of the work being performed by the branch's enterprises within the 
framework of agroindustrial associations. 

The following innovation serves as an example of business-like partnership and the 
joint solving of problems that arise; a system was established this year in 
accordance with which the plans for producing mixed feed and flour and for accepting 
and distributing grain and problems concerned with the distribution of financial 
resources and improving the quality of products are examined in the ministry on a 
mandatory basis, with participation by the leaders of the agroindustrial associations. 

Under the new conditions of management, noticeable improvements have taken place 
in the work being performed by our enterprises, their logistical base has been 
strengthened and the kolkhozes, sovkhozes and inter-farm enterprises are being 
provided with practical assistance in the organization and construction of mixed 
feed preparation shops. Such shops have already been built and are in operation 
in Gurdzhaanskiy, Gardabanskiy, Goriyskiy, Abashskiy, Zestafonskiy, Akhalkalakskiy, 
Sukhumskiy, Kaspskiy and some other rayons throughout the republic. 

And both sides — the rayon associations and the enterprises of Minzag ^Ministry of 
Procurement^/ -- must be equally interested in the profits and profitability. This 
is why the leadership of the ministry is presently directing its enterprises to 
establish direct business-like relationships with the farms, enterprises and other 
branches included in the RAPO structure. 

The operational experience of the Kutaisi Grain Products Combine is deserving of 
attention. Here strong contacts have been established with poultry factories 
located within the combine's zone of services. The combine is now continuously 
supplying the poultry factory with high quality mixed feed and in this way it is 
making a contribution towards increasing the production of poultry meat and eggs. 

And when the monthly and quarterly results of the production-financial activities 
of the grain products combine are examined in the ministry, the work results of all 
of the poultry factories serviced by it must also necessarily be taken into account. 
It bears mentioning that the Kutaisi workers have turned out to be conscientious 
partners. 

The state inspections for procurements and the quality of agricultural products, of 
the Ministry of Procurements system, bear a great amount of responsibility for 
organizing coordinated work by the enterprises and organizations belonging to 
agroindustrial associations. Indeed, these inspections constitute an important 
link for ensuring fulfillment of the state procurement plans and contractual 
agreements for agricultural products and for coordinating and exercising state 
control over the activities of all enterprises and organizations engaged in the 
production, procurement, processing, sale and shipments to the all-union fund of 
agricultural products. 

Changes have taken place in the work being performed by the state inspections: 
they conduct inspections on the fulfillment of contractual agreements jointly with 


38 



RAPO specialists and all problems uncovered are reported to the management of the 
association and to our ministry. The decisions handed down based upon the results 
of inspections are developed jointly and this aids in correcting the shortcomings in 
an efficient manner. 


7026 

CSO: 1824/142 


39 



TILLING AND CROPPING TECHNOLOGY 


ACCELERATED DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CROP VARIETIES CALLED FOR 
Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 14 Aug 82 p 3 

/Article by R. Butenko, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences: 
^‘Selection Accelerator’V 

/Text/ The Food Program has set for selection workers an important and 
difficult task—to create new strains of agricultural plants that are distin¬ 
guished not only by high productivity, but also by resistance to diseases, 
pests and bad weather. In order to carry out this task it is necessary to 
intensify the selection process which is based on methods of hybridization 
and selection of the best descendants which have been proved throughout the 
years. 

But traditional methods alone are no longer adequate. It is necessary to take 
new approaches to the creation of diverse initial forms for selection and 
selective use of valuable genes in plants. Scientists and also selection 
workers in practice must manipulate the hereditary material of plants in such 
a way as to sharply increase their usefull potential in the shortest possible 
periods of time. 

The basis for carrying out this and other tasks can be the utilization of 
approaches and devices of cellular and genetic engineering. During the past 
decade there has been considerable improvement in the methods of cultivating 
plant tissues, cells and so-called isolated protoplasts (cells without their 
external covering) outside the organism in artificial nutritives. This has 
opened up quite realistic possibilities of manipulating the genes in an indi¬ 
vidual cell, separating them from the plant, and then regulating their repro¬ 
duction, their differentiation and their capability for producing a basis for 
a new plant. As a result of this work, even today fundamental science can 
offer practitioners a number of effective devices and methods. Some of them 
facilitate the traditional process of obtaining new strains of plants and 
others open up principally new possibilities. 

I shall give a couple of examples of cellular technologies which pertain to 
traditional selection practice. It has long been known that crop strains of 
plants can become hardier as a result of remote hybridization with related 
wild plants, which are more resistant to diseases and unfavorable factors in 
the environment. But on this path there have always been difficulties related 
to the physiological and genetic incompatability of the parent plants. Incom- 
patability can be manifested in the inability of the paternal pollen to grow 


ho 



on the stigma of the material plant, in the halting of the growth of the pollen 
tube which delivers the spermium to the ovicell, in the death of hybrid embryos 
in various stages of development and, finally, to the death of young shoots. 

These difficulties are overcome with pollenation and fertilization of isolated 
ovaries. It is possible to place the ovule in a test tube and place the 
fertilized pollen directly on it. Raising isolated embryos and ovules in 
artificial nutritive environments in many cases makes it possible to obtain 
adult hybrid plants. 

It is extremely promising to use callus tissues of the plant for these purposes. 
This requires a certain amount of explanation. The word "callus" in Latin 
means callous. Everyone has probably seen "callouses" on plants—those burls 
of cells which grow on the places where the plants have been cut. Callus 
tissue also begins to grow from an isolated cell when it is separated in a 
nutritive environment. Then it is as though the cells forget their specializa¬ 
tion and grow as some kind of unorganized mass and not as stalks, leaves and 
roots. 

But each cell retains all of the hereditary information inherent in a given 
plant. Under the influence of hormonal influences the cells of the callus 
tissue can produce a basis for a new plant. Thus it is possible to raise the 
necessary plant from the cells of hybrid embryos or shoots, whose development 
has been blocked because of the genetic incompatibility of the partners in the 
crossing. 

An extremely promising device which accelerates the selection process is 
experimental creation of haploid plants in a culture of isolated anthers. 

And here again it is necessary to give the reader a small explanation, A 
half set of chromosomes is called haploid. It is formed when the hereditary 
information is transferred to the offspring as a result of dividing the complete 
set that usually exits in the cells. The pollen cells contain an incomplete set 
of chromosomes. If they are isolated and grown in a nutritive environment they 
become mature pollen and begin to divide and form either a mass of callus or an 
embryonic structure. In either case it is possible to obtain an adult plant. 

It will be distinguished from the ordinary plant by the fact that it does not 
have a double set of various chromosomes from two parents, but only one. It 
can be doubled experimentally (which is necessary for any plant), but the 
chromosomes will be completely identical. 

This is a very important result for the work of geneticists and selection 
workers. For crossing pure lines they need plants which from generation to 
generation have the same useful quality (for example, a short, nonlodging 
stalk). With the ordinary method they need many years in order to isolate 
such a line. The culture of isolated anthers makes it possible to obtain it 
considerably more rapidly. 

It is important not only to isolate a new strain, but also to propagate it 
rapidly and reliabily. The method of microcloning helps here. 


hi 


The most actively growing parts are separated from the necessary or useful.plant 
—the buds, parts of the stalk and the roots. They are placed in a test tube 
in a nutritive environment. Plants which repeat the initial ones grow from 
each of the parts. These are so-called clones. Parts are separated from them, 
in turn, and again are propagated. Then the propagated plants are transferred 
to the soil. 

The method sharply accelerates the propagation of a new strain. For example, 
the time for propagating a grapevine is decreased to one-fifth of the usual 
amount of time. It is possible to obtain up to a million plants from one initial 
specimen during a year. And the planting material is resistant to bacterial and, 
in a number of cases, virule diseases. It is in no danger of infection during 
the time of propagation. The profitability of the new method of propagation is 
increased because of the reduced planted areas and the reduced labor force as 
compared to the ordinary method of propagation. 

An area which is new, but extremely promising for the immediate future of 
selection work is the utilization of cryobanks, or storehouses with a low 
temperature. The bank, where the pollen, cells and tissues of the plants are 
kept in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -196 degrees Celsius, retains the 
set of strains and species which the selection workers need. This facilitates 
the crossing among plants which are considerably different in terms of the 
blossoming time. Moreover, this way it is not necessary to raise the complete 
collection of species on the fields each year. The storage difficulties during 
the winter are also eliminated. 

Specialists in the culture of cells and tissues of plants have also developed 
more complicated methods which presuppose the introduction of principally new 
methods into plant selection. The utilization of isolated protoplasts is very 
important. Here again it is necessary to turn to a detailed explanation. 

Cells of various species and varieites of plants that are bare, which have lost 
their external covering, have an extremely useful capability of merging. From 
such a hybrid protoplast it is possible to obtain an entire plant with new 
properties. This method is applied when it is necessary to overcome the incom- 
patability of the parent forms, a barrier which cannot be crossed over with the 
ordinary crossing. 

It is very important for the isolated proplasts to be able to absorb large 
particles. This makes it possible to introduce into them molecules and parts 
of cells that bear new information. Here one can hope that on the basis of 
the new information the protoplasts, the cells and then the plant will acquire 
new characteristics. 

Far from all of these methods of genetic engineering can be utilized by prac¬ 
titioners today. They still need scientific development. One of the main 
obstacles is the fact that in far from all of the cases is it possible to 
obtain a complete plant from an individual cell. For a whole .number of important 
agricultural plants—rice, barley, potatoes, tomatoes, alfalfa, .clover, rape.and 
several others—this is possible, but for others, including wheat, rye and pulse 
crops, we are still unable to do this. 


U2 



Methods of cellular engineering have justified themselves, particularly for 
obtaining a new form of potatoes. This work was conducted by the Institute 
of Plant Physiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences in conjunction with the 
Ukrainian SSR Institute of the Potato Industry. They managed to obtain an 
interspecific somatic hybrid. It is distinguished by a number of valuable 
properties, including absolute field resistance to virus, which causes one of 
the most difficult diseases of potatoes. This valuable property made it possible 
to include the new hybrid in the selection programs for obtaining new strains. 

And, finally, a couple of words about the possibilities of transferring indi¬ 
vidual genes to plant cells. While up until recently this sounded fantastic 
and was not based on reliable facts, now the work of molecular geneticists and 
biologists has demonstrated this possibility. Bean genes which are capable of 
synthesizing protein were transferred to the cells of sunflowers. Thus they 
obtained a cell line where the genes synthesize the bean protein in the sun¬ 
flowers as well. 

Practice has already proved the prospects of cell technologies which have been 
suggested for assisting selection workers by fundamental science. Practical 
selection workers, as a rule, believe not words but deeds. This is why it is 
important to have in the leading selection institutions of the country special¬ 
ized groups who have mastered the methods of the culture of tissues and cells 
and create cell technologies for selection workers. Such groups—created in 
the All-Union Selection and Genetic Institute of VASKhNIL in Odessa, the 
Institute of Feeds imeni V. R. Vil'yaros, the institutes of potato raising of 
the RSFSR and Ukrainian SSR ministries of agriculture, the Institute of Rice, 
the Magarach scientific production association for grape growing, the Institute 
of Mountain Gardening and Flower Raising of the USSR Ministry of Agriculture 
and others—have already been recognized by practitioners. Under the current 
five-year plan these institutions, many of which are participants in a compre¬ 
hensive special-purpose scientific program for biotechnology, plan to obtain 
initial forms for selection and strains using methods of cellular technologies. 


11772 

CSO: 1824/167 



TILLING AND CROP TECHNOLOGY 


GENETICS, SELECTION PRODUCE NEW PLANT VARIETIES 

Moscow EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA in Russian No 39, Sep 82 p 19 

/Article by Yu. Tadyanski (Odessa): "Automation and Selection"? 

/Text^ More than 50 strains and hybrids of agriculture crops created by 
scientists of the All-Union Selection and Genetics Institute (Odessa) are 
being cultivated on the fields of the country. The harsh winter and the hot 
summer, the early spring and the bountiful autumn—these various seasons now 
contribute to the work in the greenhouses and rooms of the institute's 
artificial climate station. With the help of automation they maintain a 
given temperature, humidity and light supply. Scientists annually obtain up 
to five harvests here. 

"Our phytotron is the largest in Europe," says the institute's deputy director, 
Sergey Valentinovich Biryukov. "With it we were able not only to accelerate 
the creation of new strains, but also to raise all selection work to a quali¬ 
tatively new level." 

Until recently the isolation of strains of highly productive grain crops was 
a matter for individual imminent scientists. They relied on their own intui¬ 
tion and their rich personal experience. The situation has changed now. -The 
utilization of modern new laboratory equipment and the enlistment of specialists 
from various areas of natural science have made it possible to develop the 
theoretical problems of selection work in greater depth. 

This is precisely the way scientists have recently isolated principally new 
intensive strains of winter waeat—Odesskaya polukarlikovaya, Yuzhnaya zarya, 
Obriy and Parus; barley—Druzhba and Pervenets; hybrid corn—Odesskaya-80 
and Odesskaya-92; and sunflowers—Rassvet. 

The economic effect has also been calculated. It exceeded 177 million rubles. 
One ruble of expenditures on research produced 700 rubles in profit. 


11772 

CSO: 1824/167 




TILLING AND CROPPING TECHNOLOGY 


FUTURE USE OF TRITICALE DISCUSSED 

Kishinev SOVETSKAYA MOLDAVIYA in Russian 30 Dec 80 p 4 

Article by I. Petrovskiy, chief of the main farming administration of the 
Moldavian SSR Ministry of Agriculture, and K. Grigorenko, chief of the 
inspection team of the state committee for strain testing of the Moldavian 
SSR: "Triticale Has a Future*!/ 

/Text/ **We have read,*' write our readers, G. Voronets and 
G. Gorobko, "that stores in the Ukraine have bread that is 
baked from triticale grain. We would like to know more about 
the advantages of this crop. Is it cultivated in Moldavia?" 

Triticale is a hybrid of wheat and rye. It is not a product of natural evolu¬ 
tion of grasses, but the result of man's selection activity. Triticale is 
sometimes called the grain of the future. This might be a bit of an exaggera¬ 
tion, but the advantages of the crop are obvious. Triticale has combined the 
traits of soft and durum wheat and rye. It is highly productive and frost 
resistant, its protein content is higher and, finally, it is resistant to a 
number of diseases. 

Naturally, our republic has also displayed interest in this crop. In 1978 we 
imported seeds of the triticale strains Amfidiploid-1 and Odesskiy kormovoy, 
and a year later the Zhitnitsa-1 strain. The testing that has been conducted 
has produced contradictory results so far. In 1979 the yield of green mass 
from the Amfidiploid strain was 275-310 quintals per hectare. This year on 
the same strain testing sections it was considerably higher (280-456 quintals 
per hectare). But in terms of the grain yield per hectare at the Kutuzov 
strain testing station Amfidiploid did not exceed the standard and produced 
32.6 quintals. 

i 

It was decided to continue strain testing. At the same time it is necessary 
to develop the corresponding agrotechnology. The fact is that agrotechnical 
recommendations developed for rye are not completely suitable for triticale. 

In order to reveal the genetic potential of triticale more fully it is 
necessary to have help from scientists. They must determine the planting 
times, the norm and depth of placement of the seeds, and the doses of 
fertilizers that are to be applied for our conditions, in a word, they must 
develop agrotechnical devices specifically for this hybrid. 





Additionally, in order to conduct testing it is intended to expand the group 
of triticale strains, both from domestic and from foreign selection. 

Triticale is an interesting and promising crop. It deserves the efforts 
necessary to give it an entry into production. 


11772 

CSO: 1824/167 


46 



TILLING AND CROPPING TECHNOLOGY 


ADVANTAGES OF RAISING TRITICALE DISCUSSED 

Dushanbe KOMMUNIST TADZHIKISTANA in Russian 9 Oct 82 p 3 

/Article by A. Avazov, chairman of the Moskva Kolkhoz in Voseyskiy Rayon, 
and B. Umarov, head agronomist of the kolkhoz: "Triticale Has Advantages^V 

/Tes^t/ For the second year we are obtaining 140-150 quintals of grain per 
hectare. How does one explain such large yields? The fact is that the 
kolkhoz has arranged labor cooperation with scientists, particularly with 
workers of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Biophysics of the Tajik SSR 
Academy of Sciences. We are speaking about a new, highly productive grain 
forage and feed crop—triticale. 

The Vose-1 and Vose-2 strains of triticale that were created in the institute, 
with irrigation and on nonirrigated land and with winter plowing, produce 
large yields of grain and green mass. 

In 1981-1982 the productivity of Vose-1 and Vose-2 amounted to an average of 
60-65 quintals per hectare. After harvesting the triticale we planted the 
section in corn for grain. We obtained 85-90 quintals per hectare. And this 
amounted to 140-150 quintals of grain per hectare. 

Triticale also did well on good nonirrigated land, where we obtained 28-30 
quintals of grain per hecatre. This is a 3-4-fold increase over the produc¬ 
tivity of wheat under these conditions. 

In addition to the large yields, the grain of the Vose-1 and Vose-2 strains 
are rich in dry and crude biomass. In the middle of April we obtained 600- 
700 quintals of green mass from each hectare. Another advantage of these 
strains is that they do not lodge with irrigation. According to preliminary 
calculations by specialists of the kolkhoz, the economic effectiveness from 
the introduction of triticale amounts to about 4,000 rubles per hectare. 

Taking the experience of our kolkhoz and other farms into account, the oblast 
agricultural administration intends to increase the area planted in triticale 
to 3,000 hectares this year. Experimental production plantings of the Vose-1 
and Vose-2 strains will be carried out under various conditions of our oblast 
using new methods for cultivation which were developed by scientists of the 
republic Academy of Sciences. With the new methods the Vose-2 strain already 
produced 95 quintals of grain per hectare this year. 

The joint work of scientists and specialists open up new reserves for increasing 
the production of high-quality grain and they are a concrete contribution to the 
implementation of the Food Program. 

END 


11772 

CSO : I82U/167 


47