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JPRS Report — 

Science & 
T echnology 

USSR: Space 

19980127 116 





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Science & Technology 

USSR; Space 

JPRS-USP-89-010 CONTENTS 22 November 1989 

Manned Mission Highlights 

Progress-M Space Ferry Preparing for Launch [Moscow International 22 Aug 89] . 1 

‘Progress M’ Cargo Ship Launched 23 August [TASS, 23 Aug 89] . 1 

Cosmonaut Crews Arrive at Baykonur [TASS, 23 Aug 89] . 1 

‘Progress M’ Docks With ‘Mir’ Station [TASS, 25 Aug 89] . 1 

Mission Chief Describes ‘Progress M’ [Moscow TV, 25 Aug 89] . 2 

Capacities of ‘Progress M’ Cargo Craft Described [Moscow Radio, 25 Aug 89] . 2 

Outline of New Cosmonaut Mission to ‘Mir’ [TASS, 4 Sep 89] . 2 

Viktorenko, Serebrov Confirmed As Crew of ‘Soyuz TM-8’ [TASS, 4 Sep 89] . 3 

Launch of Soyuz TM-8 Announced [TASS, 5 Sep 89] . 3 

Cosmonauts’ Program Outlined [TASS, 6 Sep 89] . 3 

Docking Expected To Take 2 Days [TASS, 7 Sep 89] . 4 

TASS Reports Docking of Soyuz TM-8 [TASS, 8 Sep 89] . 4 

Cosmonauts Overcome Docking ‘Defect’ [Moscow International S Sep 89] . 4 

Further Details Given on Manual Docking [T ^5*^, 8 Sep 89] . 4 

Activities, Orbital Parameters Reported 10 Sep [TASS, 10 Sep 89] . 5 

Mission ‘Proceeding Normally’ [TASS, 12 Sep 89] . 5 

Cosmonauts Continue Tests on ‘Mir’ Complex [TASS, 15 Sep 89] . 5 

‘Mir’ Cosmonauts Begin Work With ‘Gallar’ Unit [TASS, 19 Sep 89] . 5 

Crew Begins New Astrophysical Experiments [Moscow Radio, 22 Sep 89] . 6 

Cosmonauts Continue Work Onboard Mir Complex [TASS, 29 Sep 89] . 6 

‘Mir’ Crew Continues Research Program [TASS, 3 Oct 89] . 6 

Viktorenko and Serebrov Complete First Month Aboard ‘Mir’ [TASS, 6 Oct 89] . 6 

Problems With ‘Kurs’ System Delay Launch of D Module [TASS, 10 Oct 89] . 7 

Module Delay Not to Change Planned Date of Crew Return [Moscow Radio, 10 Oct 89] . 7 

Delay of D Module Launch Ascribed to Poor Quality of Microcircuits [IZVESTIYA, 13 Oct 89] . 7 

Delay of D Module Launch Explained, Revised Flight Schedule Given 


Cosmonauts Finish Sixth Week Aboard ‘Mir’ Complex [Moscow Radio, 17 Oct 89] . 9 

Crew Performs Photography, Refueling Operation [TASS, 20 Oct 89] . 9 

‘Mir’ Cosmonauts Measure Ozone Layer, Work With Glazar Telescope [TASS, 24 Oct 89] . 10 

Countermeasures Against Solar Flare Radiation [TASS, 26 Oct 89] . 10 

Soviet-Cuban Ozone Experiment Completed [TASS, 25 Oct 89] . 10 

Space Sciences 

News Conference on ‘Aktivnyy’ Space Project [Moscow Radio, 22 Aug] . 11 

Satellite Launch Due in September [Moscow International 24 Aug 89] . 11 

‘IntercosmoS“24’ Satellite Launched in ‘Aktivnyy’ Project [TASS, 28 Sep 89] . 11 

‘Magion-2’ Satellite Separates From ‘Intercosmos-24’ [TASS, 3 Oct 89] . 11 

Advantages of Lunar Bases [V, V. Shevchenko; ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, 3 May-June 89] . 12 

Decrease in Flux of Hard X-Ray Emission of Supernova 1987A. Data From ‘Kvant’ Module 
[R, A. Syunyayev, A. S. Kaniovskiy, et al; PISMA V ASTRONOMICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Vol 15 No 4, 

Apr 89] . 17 

Observations ofSupemovae 1987B and 1987F 

[D. Yu. Tsvetkov; PISMA V ASTRONOMICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Vol 15 No 4, Apr 89] . 17 

Preliminary Results of Speckle Interferometry of Vesta at Opposition of 1988 
[V. G. Vakulik, V. N Dudinov, et al; PISMA V ASTRONOMICHESHY ZHURNAL, Vol 15 No 4, Apr 89] . 18 
Interpretation of Observations of Flares of Star EV Lac From Astron Space Observatory 
[M. M. Katsova, M. A. Livshits; ASTRONOMICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Vol 66 No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 18 

22 November 1989 


USSR: Space 

Line C IV X 1550 A in Spectrum of Flares of Red Dwarf Star EV Lac Observed From Astron Space 

[B. A, Burnasheva, R. Ye, Gershberg, et al; ASTRONOMICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Vol 66 No 2, Mar-Apr 89] , 18 
Constructing an Algorithm Allowing for Atmospheric Drag in Motion of Artificial Earth Satellite 
[Ye. P, Strezhenkova, V. A. Tamarov; ASTRONOMICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Vol 66 No 2, Mar-Apr 89] , 19 

Life Sciences 

Biological Satellite ‘Cosmos-2044’ Launched 15 Sep [TASS, 15 Sep 89] . 20 

Biological Experiments on ‘Cosmos-2044’ [TASS, 15 Sep 89] . 20 

‘Cosmos-2044’ Experimental Animals Returned to Earth [TASS, 29 Sep 89] . 20 

‘Cosmos-2044’ Research To Aid Cosmonaut Adaptation [TASS, 17 Oct 89] . 20 

Solar Flare of 29 Sep No Danger to ‘Mir’ Crew [Moscow Radio, 19 Oct 89] . 21 

Space Engineering 

‘BOR-4’ Orbital Plane Precursor of ‘Buran’ Shuttle 


New Orbital Modules for ‘Mir’ Being Developed [Moscow Radio, 14 Sep 89] . 22 

Optical Module for ‘Mir’ Complex Tested [Moscow International, 15 Sep 89] . 22 

Space Applications 

Deputy Minister Reutov on Applications of Buran Automatic Landing System 

[A, P.Reutov Interview: LENINGRADSKAYA PRAVDA, 16 Jun 89] . 24 

Applications for Magnetic Bearings Used in Mir Station’s Gyrodyne System 

[N. Sheremetyevskiy: PRA VDA, 20 Jun 89] . 25 

Deputy Minister of Communications on Utility of Energiya-Buran Launch System 

[IZVESTIYA, 25 Aug 89] . 27 

Launch of ‘Resurs-F’ Satellite [TASS, 7 Sep 89] . 28 

Gorizont Communications Satellite Launched 28 Sep [TASS, 29 Sep 89] . 28 

‘Meteor-3’ Meteorological Satellite Launched [TASS, 25 Oct] ... 28 

Remote Determination of Optical Parameters of Atmosphere-Surface System From ‘Salyut-7’ Station 

[M. S, Malkevich, G. Zimmermann: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLIIZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 29 

Determination of Optical Characteristics of Cloud Cover From Results of MKS-M Experiment 

[V, S. Maikova, L. G, Istomina: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 29 

Research on Propagation of Aerosol Pollutants From ‘Salyut’ Station 

[L. G. Istomina, M, S. Malkevich: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] .. 29 

Research on Vertical Distributions of Ozone in Middle Atmosphere and Aerosol Extinction Coefficient 
Using MKS-M and SFN-4 Apparatus on ‘Salyut-7’ Station 

[V. V Badayev, G, M. Grechko, et al: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] .. 30 
Experimental Scattering Indicatrix for Aerosol Atmosphere in Regions With Marine Influence 
[U. Leiterer, M, Schonermark, et al: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] .... 30 
Optical Properties of Aerosol During Experiments Over Black Sea in 1983-1985 
[M, Schonermark, G. Zimmermann, et al: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 

89] . 

Spectral-Angular Method for Determining Temperature of Earth’s Surface 

[A. K Gorodetskiy: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 31 

Spectrometer of ‘Salyut-7’ Orbital Station 

[V. N. Syachinov, G. Zimmermann: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] .. 31 

MKS-M Multichannel Spectrometer: Laboratory Research. Calibration and Checking of In-Flight 

Stability [K-H, Sumnich: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 32 

Measurements of Spectral Energy Brightness at Ocean Surface for Developing Remote Sensing Methods 

[D. Lommatzch: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 32 

Determination of Spectral Signatures for Remote Laser Sensing of Plants 
[D. V. Vlasov, D. M, Mirkamilov, et al: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ 

KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 32 

Correction of Absolute Calibrations of Satellite Microwave Radiometers Using A Priori Data 

[V. P, Savorskiy: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 33 

Special Software for Processing and Compressing MKS-M Data 
[V V Badayev, V N. Voronkov, et al: ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . 33 

22 November 1989 


USSR: Space 

Optimal Orbits and Structure of Systems of Artificial Earth Satellites for Periodic Scanning of Earth 

rv. K. Saulskiy; ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLIIZ KOSMOSA. No 2, Mar-Apr 89] . . . 

International Symposium ‘Remote Sensing. Use in Cartography’ (Graz, Austria, 7-9 September 1987) 

[L. N. Vasilyev. L. A. Vedeshin; ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2, Mar-Apr 89] .. 

Expanded Session of Section on Study of Atmosphere of the Commission on Study of Earth’s Natural 
Resources for Discussion of Scientific-Methodological Aspects of ‘Priroda’ International 

Multidisciplinary Project . om 

[B. Z. Petrenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy; ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLI IZ KOSMOSA, No 2. Mar-Apr 89] 




Space Policy, Administration 

Soviet Effort to Develop Rocket for Manned Lunar Mission Revealed 

[Sergey Leskov; IZVESTIYA, 19 Aug 89] .•••••. 

TASS Summary of Article on 1960’s Moon Race With U.S. [TASS, 18 Aug 89] . 

Academician Mishin Criticizes Past Space Policies [PRAVDA, 20 Oct 89] ... 

Space Production Facility at Fili Declassified [KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA. 14 Sep 89] . 

Civilian Production at Khrunichev Plant, Comment on ‘Mir’ Modules 


Kuybyshev Space Design Bureau Visited [SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA. 14 Sep 89] 
Defense Industry ‘Closed’ City Visited, Site of Space Design Bureau 


Ministry of General Machine Building Views Space Program, Mars Mission 

[Moscow Radio, 17 Aug 89] . 

News Conference Held at Ministry on Space Researeh Plans to 2005 

[Moscow International, 21 Aug 89] . . " .AA'. "'' 

‘Program 2005’ Proposes Space Projects To Year 2005 [KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 23 Aug 89] ... 
Manned Missions, Mars Program Proposed in Ministry’s ‘Program 2005’ 

[KRASNAYA ZVEZDA. 25 Aug 89] .•••••••••••.. 

Roundtable Discussion on Soviet Space Exploration [MOSCOW NEWS, No 33, 13 Aug 89J .. 
Barsukov Reports New Soviet Missions Planned To Phobos, Mercury 


Dunayev Says Mars Expedition Possible by 2015-2017 [Moscow^ Ifiternutionul, 21 Aug 89] — 
Phobos Mission Failure Said to Reveal Planning, Budget Problems 

[G, Avanesov, B, Zhukov; PRAVDA, 30 Aug 89] . 

Shatalov Answers Questions on Space Costs, Cosmonauts, Plans 

[V, A. Shatalov Interview; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 10 Jun 89] . 

1988 Space Program Cost Noted [NDombkovskiy; SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 5 Sep 89] . 

Correspondent Cites Space Program Total Cost [Moscow World Service, 7 Sep 89] ... 

The International Space Market [V, M. Postyshev; ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, 4 JuhAug 89] 

Soviet-FRG Commercial Space Project Praised [TASS, 23 Sep 89] . 

Use of ‘Resurs’ Satellite Data by UK Companies Discussed [TASS, 2 Oct 89] .. 

Two Austrian Cosmonaut Candidates Chosen for 1991 ‘Austromir’ Mission [TASS, 9 Oct 89] 
Meeting on Soviet-French Space Cooperation [TASS, 4 Nov 89] . 



















22 November 1989 

Manned Mission Highlights 


Progress-M Space Ferry Preparing for Launch 

LD2208093989 Moscow World Service in English 
0700 GMT 22 Aug 89 

[Text] Preparations for launching a space ferry of the 
Progress-M type are under way at the Baykonur space¬ 
port. In ferry is a modification of the well-known 
Progress frei^ter that supplied Soviet cosmonauts for 
years with all they needed during their orbital missions. 
Progress-M is to link up with the basic module of the 
orbigal complex Mir. It will deliver food and water 
supplies along with new equipment for the next Soviet 
manned mission that will soar into space on 6th Sep¬ 
tember. The mission is to stay in orbit till 19th February. 

‘Progress M’ Cargo Ship Launched 23 August 

LD2308064389 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Rtdssian 0611 GMT 23 Aug 89 

[Text] Moscow, 23 August (TASS)—At 0710 Moscow 
time today [0310 GMT], in accordance with the program 
to ensure the further functioning of the “Mir” orbital 
science-research complex, the “Progress M”, a new series 
automatic cargo ship, was launched in the Soviet Union. 

Perfected “Progress M” cargo ships are intended to carry 
out transport operations to ensure more effective use of 
orbital piloted stations. 

The program of the first flight of the new series cargo 
ship envisages testing of on-board systems in various 
modes and the delivery of expendable materials aboard 
the “Mir” complex. 

The “Progress M” ship has been put into orbit with the 

- maximum distance from the earth’s surface—235 km; 

- minimum distance from the earth’s surface—191 km; 

- period of revolution—88.5 minutes; 

- inclination—51.6 degrees. 

According to telemetry information, the ship’s onboard 
systems are working normally. The docking of the 
“Progress M” with the orbital complex is planned for 25 

Cosmonaut Crews Arrive at Baykonur 

LD2308201689 Moscow TASS in English 1423 GMT 
23 Aug 89 

[Text] Moscow August 23 TASS—By TASS correspon¬ 
dent Rena Kuznetsova: 

The crews of Soviet cosmonauts to be launched on 
September 6 on a flight to the long-term orbital station 
“Mir” arrived at Baykonur Cosmodrome by air today. 
Aleksandr Viktorenko, Aleksandr Serebrov (the first 
crew) and Anatoliy Solovoyov, Aleksandr Balandin (the 

second crew) will now be preparing for the forthcoming 
space expedition directly at Baykonur Cosmodrome. 

Upon arriving in Baykonur they radioed to the cosmo¬ 
nauts’ training centre that they are ready for the flight. 
The cosmonauts feel well. The weather at Baykonur is 
fine. They have been accommodated at the Kosmonavt 
hotel. By the existing tradition they will leave their 
autographs on the doors before the launching. For 
Aleksandr Balandin, it will be his first space flight. Other 
members of the crews have already worked in space. The 
blast-off of Soyuz TM-9 spaceship is planned for Sep¬ 
tember 6, zero hours 32 minutes Moscow time. 

The cosmonauts are to work on board the orbital com¬ 
plex for six months. This is the optimum period—the 
guaranteed resource of effective work of the Soyuz 
spaceship, Aleksey Leonov, deputy chief of the Cosmo¬ 
nauts’ training centre, told TASS. 

The crews will have a usual workday today. They are to 
continue getting accustomed to the ship. The commis¬ 
sion will decide before the launching which of the crews 
will go to space. 

The automatic cargo ship of the new series “Progress M” 
was launched today. It carries cargoes for further func¬ 
tioning of the orbital complex Mir and for the crew’s 

‘Progress M’ Docks With ‘Mir’ Station 

LD2508080289 Moscow TASS in English 0730 GMT 
25 Aug 89 

[Text] Moscow August 25 TASS—^The “Progress-M” 
automatic cargo spacecraft docked with the orbital com¬ 
plex “Mir” at 0919, Moscow time [0519 GMT], today. 

The mutual search, approach, rendezvous and docking 
were carried out by means of the onboard automatic 
equipment of the two spacecraft. 

The “Progress-M” spacecraft, docked with the “Mir” 
station from the side of the transfer compartment, 
brought fuel for the joint propulsion unit, food, water, 
equipment, and scientific instrumentation. 

The improved cargo spacecraft of a new series has 
greater maneuverability, carrying capacity and func¬ 
tioning endurance, which makes it possible to perform 
scientific experiments both in conjunction with the 
orbital complex and in an autonomous flight. 

The onboard systems of the “Soyuz-TM” spaceship were 
used in creating this cargo spacecraft: the radiotechnical 
approach and docking system “Course”, the movement 
control system, the propulsion unit, and solar-cell bat¬ 

New technical solutions make it possible to dock the 
“Progress-M” spacecraft with the orbital complex 
according to a scheme adopted for manned spaceships, 


Manned Mission Highlights 

22 November 1989 

which considerably cuts down the expenditure of fuel by 
the joint propulsion unit of the “Mir” station. 

The flight of the orbital complex “Mir” in an automatic 
mode is going on. 

Mission Chief Describes ‘Progress M’ 

LD2508182189 Moscow Television Service 
in Russian 1430 GMT 25 Aug 89 

[Interview with Pilot-Cosmonaut V.A. Solovyev, in 
charge of the “Progress M” space mission, by correspon¬ 
dent German Sedov; time and place not given; from the 
“Vremya” newscast—recorded] 

[Text] [Sedov] Vladimir Alekseyevich, the [“Progress 
M”] cargo ship is new. Perhaps you will tell us about it in 
a bit more detail? [video shows diagram of craft] 

[Solovyev] The approach system for docking is more 
modem and powerful. The system for orientating and 
controlling the movement of this ship is more modem. It 
is partly borrowed from the “Soyuz TM” ship. That ship 
is manned, this one isn’t. It has a more modem engine 
installation. On the “Progress” ships we traditionally 
carry fuel and take, on the whole, quite a large amount— 
in the order of 800 kilograms of fuel. And this system of 
refuelling supplies fuel to the “Mir” station so that it can 
then maneuver itself with its engines successfully. For¬ 
merly, the engine installation on the Progress cargo ship, 
let’s be frank, did not consume the fuel economically. 
Great reserves remained and these reserves were, on the 
whole, burned up uneconomically when the ship landed, 
or rather while it was descending. Now there is the 
possibility of putting all the fuel that has not been 
consumed onto the “Mir” station, so that, as it were, all 
this fuel is put to some use. Yes, so that it stays there. 

Capacities of ‘Progress M’ Cargo Craft Described 


[Editorial Report] Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
at 1530 GMT on 25 August broadcasts a report by 
special correspondent Vladimir Besyayev from the 
Right Control Center directing the docking of the 
“Progress M” automatic cargo spacecraft with the “Mir” 
orbital complex. He interviews Doctor of Technical 
Sciences (Leonid Alekseyevich Gorshkov), head of the 
Energy Department and one of the creators of the new 
“Progress M” spacecraft, (Gorshkov) notes that this is 
the first time a “Progress M” craft has arrived at the 
orbital station. The “Progress M” is in the same class as 
the “Progress” spacecraft, but with improvements, such 
as additional solar batteries. The main advantage of the 
new ship is that it can fly independently for up to 30 
days, or in conjunction with a space station for up to 108 
days. The advantage of the “Course” docking system is 
that the station does not have to expend fuel on maneu¬ 
vering. In addition, the new ship’s cargo area is approx¬ 
imately 1 cubic meter larger. 

[Bezyayev] Well, I think we should also discuss the 
returnable apparatus and other things because 
“Progress” begins with the order number six. “Progress 
M6” should already contribute its bit to the return of 
objects to Earth. Explain how that will happen. 

[Gorshkov] “Well, you are correct. This is, undoubtedly, 
a new characteristic, the advent of a returnable capsule. 
It is indeed, just this that has been introduced on these 
new machines. Until now, and at present while there are 
no capsules, we could only get the results of scientific 
investigations back from a station on crafts together with 
a crew. That represents limited opportunities, in terms of 
both volume and time. We can then only...[changes 
thought] when we get a crew back from orbit. 

“We can stow film, stow new materials in an automatic 
capsule which will be received by technological units, 
and it descends automatically, together with “Progress”, 
“Progress” brakes, and then, at a certain zone, the 
“Progress” capsule is jettisoned. “Progress” bums up 
(?in its dense atmosphere), while the capsule returns to 
Earth, to the testing ground where we extract these 

[Bezyayev] “Now the docking should take place. There it 
is. Fine. There is contact. I congratulate you. 

[Gorshkov] “Thank you.” 

Outline of New Cosmonaut Mission to ‘Mir’ 

LD0409130489 Moscow TASS in English 1243 GMT 
4 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 4 TASS—Preparations for 
launch of the manned Soyuz TM-8 spaceship are 
drawing to a close at the Baykonur cosmodrome. The 
carrier rocket and the spaceship are on the launch site 
and the final checks are under way. 

The spaceship, with its crew of Aleksandr Viktorenko 
and Aleksandr Serebrov, will be launched at 0138 
Moscow time, September 6 [2138 GMT, 5 September]. 
The cosmonauts are to work aboard the orbital “Mir” 
complex with two modules—“D” (additional equip¬ 
ment) and “T” (technological) and will for the first time 
ever use a new Soviet “space bicycle”—a vehicle for 
autonomous movement in outer space. The crew is 
expected to work aboard the “Mir” complex for sixth 

The Soviet durable orbital “Mir” station, which Soyuz 
TM-8 is to link-up with on September 8, has been in 
outer space since February 1986. The astrophysical 
“Kvant” module was added in April 1987. The two new 
modules are to link up with “Mir” in October 1989 and 
February 1990 respectively. 

The “D” module has an air lock and an exit into open 
space, and all the necessary equipment to work in it. The 
module will also have various additional equipment for 
the station and also fuel, water and food stocks. It is 
planned to have a biological “comer” to test bird 

22 November 1989 

Manned Mission Highlights 


growing technology in conditions of weightlessness. The 
experimental production of superpure semiconductors 
materials will be launched aboard the “T” module. 

Soviet cosmonauts completed the first stage of the use of 
the “Mir” station last April. Initially, the present expe¬ 
dition crew was to go to the station before they returned 
to earth. But a delay in the manufacture of the new 
modules prompted a change of plan. 

Viktorenko, Serebrov Confirmed As Crew of 
‘Soyuz TM-8’ 

LD0409164989 Moscow TASS in English 1625 GMT 
4 Sep 89 

[Text] Baykonur Launch Site, September 4 TASS—By 
TASS special correspondent Nikolay Zheleznov: 

Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov were 
endorsed as the crew for the fifth main expedition to the 
Soviet Mir orbiting station tonight. 

The state commission, which took the decision, con¬ 
firmed the launch date and readiness of all services for 
the six-month mission. 

The Soyuz TM-8 spaceship, which will carry the cosmo¬ 
nauts into orbit, is scheduled to be launched at 1:38 a.m. 
Moscow time on September 6. [2138 GMT 5 September] 

Immediately after the launch, preparations will begin for 
launching a Proton rocket, which will deliver a “re¬ 
equipment module” to Mir. This will be the second 
major block intended for assembling a multi-purpose 
research complex in orbit. 

Chief flight control officers told reporters that the 
delivery of the new module will begin a new, more 
efficient stage in the use of space equipment for scientific 
and economic purposes. 

The bulk of the module’s seven-ton cargo will include 
research equipment. 

Vladimir Shatalov, head of the Soviet cosmonauts’ 
training programme, said that the forthcoming mission 
will be much more intensive than the previous four. 

Research equipment, to be operated by the cosmonauts, 
will include a biotechnical complex and a set of various 
telescopes and test beds, to be placed on a special 
platform in outer space and controlled from the central 

The cosmonauts will also use telescopes of the astrophys- 
ical module. 

The cosmonauts will deploy a solar battery on the new 
module and replace some equipment on the station. 

The flight program will include much extravehicular 
work, during which the crew will also test a “flying 
seat-suit”, equipped with an autonomous extravehicular 
travel system. 

Launch of Soyuz TM-8 Announced 

LD0509233289 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 2219 GMT 5 Sep 89 

[“TASS Announcement”—TASS headline] 

[Text] [no dateline received] In accordance with the 
space research program, the spacecraft “Soyuz TM-8”, 
manned by a crew comprised of Colonel Aleksandr 
Stepanovich Viktorenko, the craft’s commander, a Hero 
of the Soviet Union, and USSR pilot-cosmonaut; and 
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Serebrov, the flight engineer, 
a Hero of the Soviet Union, and USSR pilot-cosmonaut; 
was launched in the Soviet Union at 0138 hours Moscow 
time on 6 September. 

The flight program envisages the docking of the “Soyuz 
TM-8” craft with the orbital complex “Mir” and 
planned research and experiments on board it. 

According to telemetric data, the craft’s flight systems 
are functioning normally. 

Cosmonauts Viktorenko and Serebrov are feeling fine. 

The docking of the “Soyuz TM-8” craft with the “Mir” 
complex is planned for 8 September. 

Cosmonauts^ Program Outlined 

LD0609093989 Moscow TASS in English 0645 GMT 
6 Sep 89 

[Excerpt] Moscow September 6 TASS—The cosmonauts 
aboard the Soyuz TM-8 spacecraft, launched today, are 
expected to spend six months on the Soviet Mir station 
conducting experiments. 

The cosmonauts, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr 
Serebrov, will work aboard the Mir complex with two 
modules—additional equipment (D) and technological 
(T) and ride a “space bicycle”, called “Ikar”, around the 
complex. The “bicycle” is provided with a safety line, 
though its autonomous energy system enables it to move 
in outer space independently. 

The cosmonauts are expected to work for six months 
aboard the Mir station which will be for them not only a 
space laboratory but also “a home”. 

The Soviet orbital Mir station, which the spaceship 
Soyuz TM-8 is to link up with on September 8, has been 
in outer space since Februaiy 1986. The astrophysical 
“Kvant” module was added in April 1987. 

The total weight of the Mir complex, together with the 
Soyuz-TM transport ship and the Progress freight auto¬ 
matic transport craft, exceeds 50 tons. It is 33 meters 
long. The “D” and “T” modules will be linked up with 
Mir in October 1989 and February 1990 respectively. 

The “D” module has an air lock, an exit to open space 
and all the necessary equipment to work in it, including 
“the space bicycle”. The module will have various addi¬ 
tional equipment for the complex and also fuel, water 


Manned Mission Highlights 

22 November 1989 

and food stocks. It also boasts of a biological complex to 
test bird growing technology in conditions of wei^tless- 
ness. Experiments on the production of super-pure semi¬ 
conductor materials will be carried out in the “T” 
module, [passage omitted] 

Docking Expected To Take 2 Days 

LD0709165989 Moscow TASS in English 1402 GMT 
7 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 7 TASS—The docking of the 
Soyuz TM-8 spacecraft, which carries Soviet cosmonauts 
Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov, with the 
Mir orbital complex is set for 2:20 Moscow time 
tomorrow September 8. 

The docking will take two days to complete, and experts 
believe that it will help save energy. In the two days that 
the spacecraft will be in orbit, ballistics specialists will 
calculate more precisely the force of an impulse required 
for the docking. 

The two-day scheme proved to be simpler for the cos¬ 
monauts as well. It is known that people have difficulty 
readjusting after a jet lag. The extreme conditions of 
space have even a greater impact on human body, 
especially on the first days of the flight. Medical special¬ 
ists believe that during the two days preceding the 
docking the crew will better adopt itself to zero-gravity 
and find it easier to fulfil the mission programme. 

At present, the Mission Control Center is busy preparing 
the crucial movement of docking. 

The “Soyuz TM-8” crew performed two maneuvers for 
the remote guidance of the spacecraft to the point of 
rendezvous with the orbital complex. Everything is in 
order on board, and the cosmonauts feel well. 

TASS Reports Docking of Soyuz TM-S 

LD0809022689 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 0115 GMT 8 Sep 89 

[“TASS Statement”] 

[Text] [no dateline as received] On 8 September 1989, the 
Soyuz TM-8 spacecraft docked on the Mir space station at 
0225 Moscow time. After checking the airtightness of the 
docking port, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Sere¬ 
brov transferred to a compartment of the station. 

The Mir station has been operating in near-earth orbit 
for over 3 and a half years; the station has been manned 
for 880 days of this time. During that time, four lengthy 
expeditions and four international crews, with the par¬ 
ticipation of cosmonauts from Syria, Bulgaria, Afghani¬ 
stan, and France, have worked on board. 

Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov will reacti¬ 
vate the station and unload the Progress-M automatic 
craft. The cosmonauts will continue the research and 
experiments program, started by previous crews, in the 

field of astrophysics, as well as investigation of the earth’s 
natural resources, space biology, medicine, and tech¬ 

The subsequent program provides for the docking with 
the Mir station of two specialized modules fitted with a 
new scientific apparatus and equipment, which will 
significantly boost the effectiveness of research for the 
benefit of science and the national economy. 

According to the telemetric information data, the on-board 
systems of the manned station are working normally. 
Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov feel fine. 

Cosmonauts Overcome Docking ‘Defect’ 

LD0809074389 Moscow World Service in English 
0700 GMT 8 Sep 89 

[Excerpt] Two Soviet cosmonauts, Aleksandr Vik¬ 
torenko and Aleksandr Serebrov, have begun research 
work on the orbital complex Mir. 

Today their spaceship, the Soyuz TM-8 itself located the 
station, flew around it and approached the docking port. 
There were only a few meters left when the automatic 
devices developed a defect and the commander of the 
crew, Aleksandr Viktorenko, had to use manual control 
to link up with the station. 

Vladimir Shatalov, who is in charge of the cosmonauts’ 
training center, told a Radio Moscow reporter that such 
things occasionally happen in orbit. He said the 
spacemen acted with great precision; they calmly com¬ 
pleted the linkup operation and went over on the Mir 
station, [passage omitted] 

Further Details Given on Manual Docking 

LD0809102789 Moscow TASS in English 0953 GMT 
8 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 8 TASS—TASS correspon¬ 
dent reporting from Mission Control Center: 

Cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Sere¬ 
brov got some sleep only at 9.00 Moscow time today 
after docking with the Mir space station two days after 
the launch. They will now grow accustomed to their new 
home where they will spend the next six months. 

At night, the automatically controlled Soyuz TM-8 
spacecraft slowly and smoothly approached the station. 
Everything appeared to be normal. But with less than 
four meters left to cover, the station suddenly shifted and 
went out of the spacecraft’s sight, 

Soyuz TM-8 immediately stopped in front of the massive 
orbital complex. The crew started checking the readings of 
instruments monitoring the work of on-board systems. The 
crew reversed the spacecraft to 20 metres from the station 
and stopped. There were 21 minutes left before reaching the 
end of the zone of contact with the earth, Soyuz TM-8 again 
began to approach Mir, this time illuminating it with the 
headlight. The docking took place at 2.25 Moscow time. 

22 November 1989 

Manned Mission Highlights 


After the orbital complex, Mir-Kvant-Progress M-Soyuz 
TM-8, left the zone of contact, a briefing was held for 
journalists at the Center. 

“In the two days that the manned spacecraft spent 
‘catching up’ with the station at a lower orbit, no changes 
were made to the program suggested by Mission Control 
Center,” mission head Vladimir Solovyev said. “But in 
the last few meters of automatic docking the planes of 
the spacecraft and the station became misaligned. 
Docking was completed manually. This was not an 
emergency, but only one of the available options, like 
automatic docking. Many cosmonauts think manual 
steering is more reliable.” 

From September 4 preparations have been under way for 
attaching a new reequipment module to the orbital com¬ 
plex. According to Solovyev, the module will most likely 
be launched on October 16 and docked with the complex 
on October 23 after a week maneuvering in space. 

Activities, Orbital Parameters Reported 10 Sep 

LD1009105589 Moscow TASS in English 1040 GMT 
10 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 10 TASS—By TASS corre¬ 
spondent reporting from the Mission Control Center: 

Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov have 
completed reactivating the on-board systems and equip¬ 
ment of the Mir orbital complex. 

They have also opened the hatch of the Progress-M 
automated ferry spacecraft and inspected the cargo. 
They plan to begin unloading the ferry next week. 

In accordance with the extra-atmospheric astronomy 
research program, several series of experiments using the 
x-ray telescopes of the Kvant module are being carried 
out from today. An x-ray Scorpion X-1 source has been 
chosen as the object of observation. The flight of the 
piloted Mir complex is proceeding normally. The param¬ 
eters of its orbit are at present as follows: 

—maximum distance from the earth’s surface—408 km, 
—minimum distance from the earth’s surface—380 km, 
—the period of revolution—92.2 minutes, 

—the inclination—51.6 degrees 

Cosmonauts Viktorenko and Serebrov are in good health 
and are feeling well. 

Mission ‘Proceeding Normally’ 

LD1209142289 Moscow TASS in English 1043 GMT 
12 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 12 TASS—By a TASS corre¬ 
spondent from Mission Control Center: 

Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov continue 
their work aboard the Mir orbital station, in keeping 
with the flight and maintenance schedule. 

Today, they will install and test new modules for the 
atmospheric water regeneration system, and will have 
training sessions on the exercise bike and track. 

The cosmonauts are continuing astronomical experi¬ 
ments, using the Roentgen international orbital observa¬ 
tory. Research is now focusing on building an image of 
our galaxy’s center in the Roentgen range. 

The flight is proceeding normally, reports and space data 
indicate. The temperature inside Mir’s living quarters is 
24 degrees centigrade, atmospheric pressure is 740 mil¬ 
limeters in the column of mercury. 

Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov are 
feeling well. 

Cosmonauts Continue Tests on ‘Mir’ Complex 

LD1509100389 Moscow TASS in English 0947 GMT 
15 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 15 TASS—By TASS corre¬ 
spondent reporting from Mission Control Center: 

The two Soviet cosmonauts, Aleksandr Viktorenko and 
Aleksandr Serebrov, were reactivating and assembling 
research equipment on board the orbital space complex 
Mir (Peace) over the past two days. 

They replaced individual elements in the on-board life- 
support system. 

On September 13, using the propulsion unit of the 
spaceship Progress-M, the crew changed the orbit of 
their space lab. 

The cosmonauts have completed preparations for using 
an installation, called Gallar, to produce high-quality 
semiconductor materials in conditions of microgravity. 

The Mir crew is continuing astrophysical observations 
with the use of the internationally developed orbital obser¬ 
vatory “Roentgen.” Today, they conducted four sessions 
of observations of an x-ray pulsar in the Perseus constel¬ 

Viktorenko and Serebrov will take time off on Saturday 
and Sunday. 

The cosmonauts are feeling fine. The flight is proceeding 

‘Mir’ Cosmonauts Begin Work With ‘Gallar’ Unit 

LD1909100389 Moscow TASS in English 0946 GMT 
19 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 19 TASS—By TASS corre¬ 
spondent at Mission Control Center: 

Soviet Cosmonauts Aleksander Viktorenko and 
Aleksander Serebrov, at the end of their second week in 
orbit, performed the first experiment in space materials 
studies, involving an installation codenamed Gallar, 


Manned Mission Highlights 

22 November 1989 

It aimed to produce a silicon-based semiconductor mate¬ 
rial in microgravity for use in microelectronics. 

In addition, the cosmonauts, manning the Mir orbital 
station, took readings of high-energy elementary charged 
particle flows in near-earth space, using the Maria mag¬ 
netic spectrometer, as part of their astrophysics research 

They are also to replace a storage battery in the power 
supply system in keeping with their maintenance 
schedule today. 

In the afternoon the cosmonauts will undergo a medical 
check, including a study of their cardiovascular systems 
with multifunctional recording equipment called 

According to the cosmonauts’ reports and telemetry 
data, Mir’s flight is proceeding as normal and Vik¬ 
torenko and Serebrov are in good health and feeling well. 

Crew Begins New Astrophysical Experiments 

LD2309045389 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
2130 GMT 22 Sep 89 

[Text] The Soviet crew on board the Mir orbital complex 
has started a new series of astrophysical experiments. 
With the aid of the Glazar telescope mounted on the 
Kvant module, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr 
Serebrov have been photographing the celestial sky in 
the ultraviolet spectrum. This research is being carried 
out as part of the international program drawn up by our 
scientists in conjunction with colleagues from the FRG, 
the Netherlands, Britain, Switzerland, and also the Euro¬ 
pean Space Agency. This is the third week of the crew’s 
flight. Soon the cosmonauts will receive a new scientific 
laboratory, an add-on equipment module. 

Cosmonauts Continue Work Onboard Mir 

LD2909143789 Moscow TASS in English 1350 GMT 
29 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 29 TASS—^By TASS special 
correspondent reporting from Mission Control Center: 

The crew of the orbital Mir (Peace) space station, 
Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov, were 
busy last week installing new equipment delivered by a 
freight spacecraft. 

The two cosmonauts also carried out a number of 
medico-biological and technical experiments. 

The flight program envisages the attachment of two 
more special modules to the space complex already in 

In preparation for the operation, the cosmonauts yes¬ 
terday installed and checked an additional electronic 
unit in the docking system. 

Today the crew plan to work with an electrical supply 
system, conduct experiments on assessing ionizing radi¬ 
ation in near-earth space and make a televised report. 

The cosmonauts will rest on Saturday and Sunday. Both 
are in good health. The flight of the Mir complex is 
proceeding normally. 

‘Mir’ Crew Continues Research Program 

LD0410034189 Moscow TASS in English 1220 GMT 
3 Oct 89 

[Text] Mission Control Center October 3 TASS—The 
Soviet cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr 
Serebrov are continuing their work on board the orbital 
Mir (peace) space station. 

In keeping with a program of geophysical studies, the 
crew today began a series of tests aimed at determining 
the spectral and optical properties of the earth’s atmo¬ 

The cosmonauts are using the KATE-140 camera, and 
MKS-M and Spektr-256 spectrometers. 

In experiments with the use of a highly accurate gauge, 
Lyulin, the crew are to assess the radiation situation in 
space around the complex. 

On Monday the cosmonauts carried out a number of 
medico- biological tests, serviced and repaired on-board 
systems and checked expendable materials stores. 

Medical check-ups show that Viktorenko and Serebrov 
are in good health. 

The mission is proceeding normally. 

Viktorenko and Serebrov Complete First Month 
Aboard ‘Mir’ 

LD0610090489 Moscow TASS in English 0727 GMT 
6 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 6 TASS—A month has passed 
since Soviet cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and 
Aleksandr Serebrov blasted off on a space mission. 

Aboard the Mir orbital station, they have completed the 
preparation for the service module, which is expected to 
dock with the station this autumn, sources at the Mission 
Control Center told TASS. 

The module will expand the range of activities of the 
space crew, who have already tested associated equip¬ 
ment and installed additional units. 

The module is equipped with a airlock chamber to enter 
outer space and many devices, including a “space bicy¬ 
cle” for cosmonauts’ independent movement in space. 
The module will also carry units to re-equip the station, 
fuel, water and food, as well as a biological system to 
practice breeding birds in zero gravity. 

22 November 1989 

Manned Mission Highlights 


Aleksandr Kotov, shift head of the flight, told TASS that 
today the crew conducted experiments on their cardio¬ 
vascular systems. They carried out similar research at the 
beginning of the mission, and now the cosmonauts will 
study the changes in their metabolisms. 

They are also to study the Earth’s natural resources, 
mainly for Soviet agencies and organisations, Kotov 

The radiation situation aboard the station is constantly 
monitored as well. Twice a day the crew takes samples 
with the “Lyulin” device in various parts of the station. 

The cosmonauts are carrying out experiments in space 
astronomy with the use of the international “Roentgen” 
orbital observatory. In particular, they will make a series 
of observations of the Scorpio X-1 x-ray source, using 
Roentgen telescopes of the Kvant (quantum) astrophys- 
ical module. 

Problems With ‘Kurs’ System Delay Launch of D 

LD1010145789 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1404 GMT 10 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow, 10 Oct—TASS special correspondent 
Aleksandr Romanov reports from the Flight Control 

“Substantial changes have occurred in the flight program 
for the fifth basic expedition on the Mir-Kvant orbital 
station. In particular, the second Module D, which is 
destined for Mir, was supposed to be put into space in 
the middle of September. However, its launch is being 
delayed by approximately 40 days.” That was what 
USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut Vladimir Solovyev, flight con¬ 
troller of the manned orbital complex, told journalists 

Explaining why the launch was delayed, Solovyev 
reported that certain elements of the Kurs system, which 
guarantees that the Module D is put into a given orbit 
and that it approaches the Mir station, proved to be 
unreliable during ground tests. Although the Kurs system 
has proved itself to be perfectly satisfactory in previous 
flights, the council of chief designers decided to delay the 
launch until 28 November, in view of the special scien¬ 
tific importance of Module D. 

During that time, the flight controller announced, 
module designers, specialists, and also related organiza¬ 
tions will work jointly on carrying out additional ground 
tests and, if necessary, will renew the Kurs system to a 
significant degree. 

Vladimir Solovyev also noted that the delay of the 
launch of Module D will not change the basic tasks of the 
crew, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov. In 
addition to scientific experiments there are also to be 
five walks in open space, and the first “motorcycle” for 
traveling short distances between installations in space 
will be tested. Academician Sergey Korolev, the chief 

designer of the first space rocket system, dreamed of this 
piece of space apparatus in his day. 

When asked by journalists if the solar flare of 29 Sep¬ 
tember affected the crew of the Mir-Kvant complex, 
specialists replied that analysis of all the data performed 
by various institutes indicates that the flare had not 
given rise to any changes in the station’s bioclimate and 
had no unpleasant effect on the crew. Cosmonauts 
Viktorenko and Serebrov are working normally and 
carrying out the flight program precisely. 

Module Delay Not to Change Planned Date of 
Crew Return 

LD1010221889 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
1600 GMT 10 Oct 89 

[Excerpts] The launch of space module D for the Mir 
station where Cosmonauts Viktorenko and Serebrov are 
working, which was previously planned for 16 October, 
is to be pushed back to 28 November, [passage omitted] 

Will the delay in the launch of Module D not lead to a 
serious reduction in work at the Mir station? After all, 
the crew of the fifth basic expedition has already started 
preparing to receive the module. Will the length of the 
space trip of Viktorenko and Serebrov be changed? 
Answering journalists’ questions, (Blagov), deputy flight 
leader, said that the flight program was reviewed with 
one stipulation: The previous date of the “Vityazi’s” 
landing would remain unchanged. They will return to 
earth as planned on 19 February. The start of the sixth 
basic expedition is planned for 11 February. During a 
week of joint flight Viktorenko and Serebrov will hand 
over the orbital complex to its members. 

Delay of D Module Launch Ascribed to Poor 
Quality of Microcircuits 

PM1710141589 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 
13 Oct 89 Morning Edition p 2 

[S. Leskov article under the “Fact and Commentary” 
rubric: “Launched Delayed 40 Days”] 

[Text] Flight Control Center has announced that the 
launch of the supply module (module D) for the Mir 
orbiting station planned for 16 October has been delayed 

One month ago journalists were invited for the first time 
to the recently declassified Khrunichev Machine 
Building Plant which, among other things, makes mod¬ 
ules for the orbiting complex. What of it, you will say, it 
is a good plant which produces unique equipment. It is 
just that there is always something happening with these 
space modules. It is hard to calculate just how many 
times a routine launch has been postponed. Of the five 
modules planned to dock with ‘Mir’ at the current 
moment only one has been launched—the astrophysics 
module Kvant. As a result, the ‘Mir’ complex, which was 
conceived as a docking station for a number of modules 


Manned Mission Highlights 

22 November 1989 

designed to carry out various pieces of scientific and 
technological research in orbit, has been dubbed the 
“cosmic construction schedule overrun.” 

So during the visit to the Khrunichev Plant journalists 
began by asking A. Dunayev, chief of the USSR Main 
Administration for the Creation and Utilization of Space 
Technology, and A. Kiselev, director of the enterprise, 
what was the reason for the endless delays and will there 
be more? The explanation was given that this is complex 
output but that now our launches are starting right on 
schedule. It must be admitted that few received this with 

Of course, launching an imperfect space craft on a 
stipulated day simply because that day was chosen in 
advance is no solution. It is better to delay and send a 
reliable craft into orbit. But the point is that these 
postponements have their impact on the complex space 
program with many interlinked stages. Crews and launch 
complexes carry out preparations all for nothing and the 
scientific program becomes compressed. Most important 
of all, the operational life of the orbiting central unit of 
the complex in question—the ‘Mir’ station—is getting 
close to the limit. For several years now it has been 
working below capacity and there is no guarantee that at 
the present rate of module preparation the complex will 
ever assume its planned form. 

What prevented the supply module launch this time? 
The fly in the ointment was the Voronezh “Elektronika” 
Production Association, which supplies microcircuits for 
the ‘Kurs’ approach and docking system. During the 
earth testing of other space facilities last month they 
malfunctioned seriously four times. By the way, the 
“Elektronika” Production Association produces micro- 
circuits for Soviet video recorders, too—their quality 
needs no commentary. 

There are a great many questions that one could put to 
the space module creators. Why was the consignment of 
microcircuits produced in 1985 according to an outdated 
technique not replaced promptly by a more up-to-date 
batch at the right time? Couldn’t the unreliability of the 
microcircuits have been detected sooner and not just one 
week before the launch? An answer can be given to each 
question, but the fact remains that the U.S. microcircuits 
on board Voyager have been working uninterruptedly for 
12 years now while ours break down even before the 

It is indicative that the leaders of the “Elektronika” 
Production Association are quite satisfied with the 
quality of their output. They gave an assurance that 
despite the malfunctions the microcircuits are reliable 
and there is absolutely no reason to delay the launch. But 
as flight leader V. Solovyev noted, a space craft needs to 
be more reliable than a video recorder. Incidentally, a 
new batch has been made in Voronezh. The economic 
mechanism of cooperation among the sector’s enter¬ 
prises gives no guarantee at the moment that the replace¬ 
ment microcircuits will be of high quality. 

So the replacement of the microcircuits will take a 
month and the module D launch date has been put back 
to 28 November. The docking with the orbital complex is 
set for 4 December. In an extremely tight schedule 
cosmonauts Viktorenko and Serebrov will have to go out 
into open space five times in January and early February 
to test, among other things, a space “motorcycle” 
brought by module D. But working with the next 
module, the technological module (module T), as this 
crew dreamed of doing and, furthermore, was preparing 
for so keenly, will no longer happen. On 19 February 
‘Vityazya’ will have to return to earth. The launch of 
module T, it emerges, has also been postponed—to some 
time next spring. 

Delay of D Module Launch Explained, Revised 
Flight Schedule Given 

INDUSTRIYA in Russian 26 Oct 89 p 4 

[Report by A. Filippov at the Flight Control Center: 
“The Insidious Microcircuit”] 

[Text] The launch of space module D (additional equip¬ 
ment) to the Mir station, on which cosmonauts A. 
Viktorenko and A. Serebrov are working, was postponed 
until 28 November. Why? 

As was noted by USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut V. Solovyev, 
the mission control director, specialists had doubts 
about the reliability of one of the microcircuits of the 
automatic docking system Kurs. Module D, which is 
completely ready for launch, will now wait until a 
suspect element is replaced at the manufacturing plant 
and the system is assembled and checked again. After¬ 
wards, Kurs will again be installed on the module, and 
the assembly will once again undergo a full cy cle of tests. 

Oh, this electronics, some reader will sigh, who is utterly 
tormented by endless repairs of plain everyday radio 
equipment. How long have we stood in line, awaiting 
improvements in the “health” of our Tempos, Yauzes, 
Rubins, and Mayaks. It seems that space equipment can 
also be unreliable? 

“This microcircuit, but, more specifically, this decoding 
matrix,” explains V. Susleynikov, deputy chief designer 
of the Kurs apparatus, “is supplied by the Voronezh 
‘Electronics’ production association.” The same associ¬ 
ation that produces the domestic video tape recorders 
that are in short supply. I will note that of nine dockings 
in which Kurs worked with the Voronezh microcircuits, 
eight went through the automatic procedure. Only one 
was manual. In a word, the results were good. Why were 
we on the alert? 

“Before a launch, all space equipment is carefully tested 
at the plant. With module D, which was already at 
Baykonur, everything was in order. Then we received the 
information: Plant tests were made on the Kurs system 
earmarked for installation on module T (technological), 
which is to be launched in the spring of next year, and on 

22 November 1989 

Manned Mission Highlights 


two Soyuz TM’s that are being readied. The result: The 
number of failures is higher than the design basis. The 
cause lies in an unreliable microcircuit. We had to 
remove the docking system apparatus from module D 
and send it to the manufacturing plant for a replacement 
of the suspected element.” 

[Filippov] This means that the defective microcircuit 
was for module T and not for D? Perhaps the launch 
should not have been postponed? 

[Susleynikov] The fact is that D has a microcircuit from 
the same suspected batch. No one will give a guarantee 
that destructive processes are not going on inside this 
element,which is in good condition today. And these 
processes can cause a Kurs failure in space. However, if 
a decoder matrix failed, we would switch to the standby 
system. But the standby apparatus also has an element 
from the suspected batch. And the failure of the standby 
means the loss of the module. 

[Filippov] What exactly is this suspected batch that you 
have been mentioning? 

[Susleynikov] About 10,000 microcircuits that were pro¬ 
duced in 1985. A check of them shows that on the order 
of .02 of a percent of the total number do not meet 
specified requirements. 

[Filippov] And is the replacement reliable? 

[Susleynikov] Completely. The new matrices are manu¬ 
factured according to a more advanced technology. 
Welding was used instead of soldering, which is fraught 
with the penetration of resin vapors under the lid. This is 
a quantum leap in quality. 

[Filippov] Well, the specialists are trying to anticipate 
everything and to ensure themselves against surprises. 
But will not the postponement of the launch of module D 
seriously reduce the program of work on the Mir station? 
Because the crew of the fifth main expedition has already 
started preparation to receive the additional equipment 
module. Will the space assignment period for A. Vik¬ 
torenko and A. Serebrov be changed? 

“The decision that was reached at the council of chief 
designers is correct,” believes V. Blagov, deputy mission 
control director,. “We are losing about 40 days; however, 
we are substantially reducing the risk of losing an orbital 
module. At the same time, the manufacturing plant will 
carry out an exchange of the suspected element of the 
docking apparatus that was earmarked for module T and 
the Soyuz TM spacecraft. 

“The flight program has not been changed fundamen¬ 
tally. It was revised on the condition that the former date 
for the landing of the “Vityazes” remains. They will 
return to earth, as was planned, on 19 February. The 
launch of the sixth main expedition is set for 11 Feb¬ 
ruary. A. Viktorenko and A. Serebrov after a week of 
joint flight will transfer the orbital complex to the 
members of the sixth expedition. But up until that 
moment, the work in orbit, whose volume is not 

decreased, will take place as follows: After launch, 
module D will dock with the orbital complex on 4 
December. On the next day, with the help of the manip¬ 
ulator, it will be moved to a lateral docking port. On 7 
December, Soyuz TM-8 will redock, after clearing the 
port on the side of the Kvant module for the cargo ship 
Progress M-2, which will be launched on 15 December, 
and within 2 days, on 17 December, it will dock at Mir. 
Then the cosmonauts will be occupied with the installa¬ 
tion on board of the new “Salyut” computer, delivered to 
orbit by module D. It is planned that after its testing and 
inclusion in the orbital complex network, the cosmo¬ 
nauts will take five space walks. During the freed [time] 
“window” the crew will be engaged in experiments on 
investigating the natural resources of the earth.” 

[Filippov] When will tests be conducted on the space 
“bicycle”—the device for moving in space? 

[Blagov] During one of the space walks, approximately 
before the very end of the fifth main expedition, 30 
January and 3 February. 

Cosmonauts Finish Sixth Week Aboard ‘Mir’ 

LD1710121489 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
0500 GMT 17 Oct 89 

[Text] Our cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and 
Aleksandr Serebrov are concluding their 6th week of 
orbital flight. Today, the crew will carry out a number of 
planned monthly maintenance jobs on the onboard 
systems and equipment of the station. According to the 
medical monitoring schedule, both cosmonauts will 
undergo another check. A medical experiment— 
Sport—is also planned. It is carried out with a view to 
determining the optimal regimes for the physical 
training sessions of the cosmonauts during extended 

The flight of the Mir scientific research complex is going 
according to program. The cosmonauts are healthy and 
feel well. 

Crew Performs Photography, Refueling Operation 

LD2010130689 Moscow TASS in English 1232 GMT 
20 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 20 TASS—^TASS Correspondent 
reporting from the Mission Control Center: 

The crew of the manned Mir complex continues to carry 
out the scheduled investigations and experiments. 

Under the program of geophysical experiments, 
Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov take 
daily pictures of the earth surface with photo- and 
TV-equipment. Over the past few days they have photo¬ 
graphed territories in the Ukraine, the Krasnodar and 
Stavropol regions, and Turkmenia. Still to come are 
Moldavia, the southern Ukraine and the Caspian depres¬ 
sion. Information from space is useful for specialists in 


Manned Mission Highlights 

22 November 1989 

various branches of science and the national economy. 
The experiments also involve transmitting photos from 
space directly to users in various regions of the Soviet 

Another cycle of astrophysical investigations studied the 
interaction of the space particle flow and the earth 
magnetosphere. It was completed early today with the 
help of “Mariya” spectrometer. 

According to the plan involving the automatic cargo 
spacecraft “Progress M”, tanks of the united propulsion 
unit and the station were refuelled with fuel components. 

Work on near-Earth orbit is continuing according to 
schedule. Both cosmonauts feel well. 

‘Mir’ Cosmonauts Measure Ozone Layer, Work 
With Glazar Telescope 

LD24 JO185589 Moscow TASS in English 1703 GMT 
24 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow, October 24 TASS—^TASS correspon¬ 
dent reports from the Mission Control Center: 

Cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Sere- 
brov started a working day on board the Mir orbital 
complex with medical checks. The cosmonauts mea¬ 
sured the mass of their bodies and made a number of 
experiments for appraisal of man’s psychophysiological 
reactions in conditions of space flight. 

Using the MKS-M and Spectrum-256 apparatus, the 
cosmonauts are carrying out a cycle of meaasurements of 
characteristics of the spectrum of the earth’s atmosphere, 
specifically of its ozone layer in the tropic zone. This 
work is part of the Atlantica-89 comprehensive interna¬ 
tional Soviet-Cuban project. 

Photography using the the Glazar ultraviolet telescope is 
planned for the afternoon. This photography is envis¬ 
aged by the program of research in space astronomy. 
[Moscow Domestic Service in Russian in a report at 
0500 GMT on 24 October adds: “For the first time in the 
flight of the fifth main expedition on the station, ultra- 
violent ray photographs will be taken of individual 
sectors of the celestial sky using the Glazar telescope. 
These experiments are being conducted for an interna¬ 
tional project; specialists from Switzerland are working 
with the Soviet scientists.”] 

Telemetric information and the cosmonauts’ reports 
show that the flight proceeds normally. The cosmonauts 
feel well. 

Countermeasures Against Solar Flare Radiation 

LD2710140889 Moscow TASS in English 2036 GMT 
26 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 26 TASS—^The Soviet Solar 
Physics Service and Land-Based Observatories of the 

Soviet Academy of Sciences registered four major proton 
solar flares between September 29 and October 24. 

The flares changed the level of radiation in near-earth 
space and inside the Soviet Mir orbiting station. 

The Soviet Health Ministry sector for radiation safety of 
piloted spacecraft told TASS that its recommendations 
enabled the cosmonauts to lower the radiation impact of 
the flares by two- or three-fold. 

Under these recommendations, the cosmonauts were to 
stay in the most protected zone of the Mir working 
section when crossing orbit sections with enhanced radi¬ 

According to the Institute of Medical and Biological 
Problems of the USSR Health Ministry and the Institute 
of Applied Geophysics, on the morning of October 26 
the radioactive exposure of the crew measured 3.9 REM, 
judging by individual and the station’s radiation moni¬ 

The index, which includes the 2.2 REM caused by solar 
flares, is four times lower than the permissible exposure 
for a flight of such duration. 

The Mission Control Center revised the schedule of the 
crew’s work in the areas of enhanced radiation in the 
orbit’s polar sections. 

The radiation safety and solar physics services intensi¬ 
fied the monitoring of the radiation situation in space 
and aboard the Mir station. 

Soviet-Cuban Ozone Experiment Completed 

LD2610104689 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1856 GMT 25 Oct 89 

[Text] Havana, 25 October (TASS)—The first Soviet- 
Cuban experiment for studying the ozone layer over 
Cuban territory has been completed. The “Mir” orbital 
complex, the “Tsiklon” aircraft-laboratory with the 
latest equipment, and a meteorological center set up in 
the town of Camaguey, took part in it. 

A variety of scientific material which will make it 
possible to determine the correlation between the state of 
the ozone layer and the formation of hurricanes was 
gathered during the experiment. In the view of special¬ 
ists, the results of the study will make it possible to solve 
a number of problems linked with predicting these 
terrifying natural phenomena. 

The scientific data obtained were registered by a com¬ 
puter onboard the Soviet orbital complex. In the future, 
they will be delivered to earth by the “Progress” cargo 
spacecraft for a thorough analysis. 

22 November 1989 

Space Sciences 


News Conference on ^Aktivnyy’ Space Project 

LD2208201489 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
1800 GMT 22 Aug 89 

[Text] At the Space Research Institute of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences today a press conference was held 
at which Soviet and foreign journalists were informed 
that at the end of September a craft would be launched 
from Plesetsk cosmodrome to operate in near-Earth 
space under the international Aktiynyy project. The 
project is being implemented by institutes of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences and organizations of the country’s 
Main Administration for the Development and Use of 
Space Technology for the National Economy and Scien¬ 
tific Research with the participation of experts from 
Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Romania, and 
Czechoslovakia. It was noted that the scientific results of 
the active experiments in space were of great importance 
for the development of space communications and fore¬ 
casting of earthquakes. Scientists from Brazil, Canada, 
Cuba, New Zealand, the United States, Finland, and 
Japan have been invited to take part in the project with 
the help of ground geophysical facilities. 

Satellite Launch Due in September 

LD2408201789 Moscow World Service in English 
1100 GMT 24 Aug 89 

[Text] A heavy satellite is to be launched from the 
Plesetsk cosmodrome in the north of the Soviet Union 
late next month to study powerful electromagnetic waves 
and their interaction with space plasma. The European 
socialist countries, participants in the Intercosmos pro¬ 
gram, as well as the United States, Canada, Brazil, 
Japan, New Zealand, and a number of other countries, 
are taking part in the project. The leader of the project, 
Valentin Shevchenko, of Moscow says that 8 days after 
the launch the satellite will release a 20-meter antenna 
and later a small space vehicle will separate from the 
satellite to move around it in a complicated orbit that 
will take it up to 100 km away from the satellite. The 
results of the experiment will have major applied signif¬ 
icance. For example, they will be used to develop space 
communications and predict earthquakes. 

‘Intercosmos-24’ Satellite Launched in ‘Aktivnyy’ 

LD2809120189 Moscow TASS in English 1152 GMT 
28 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 28 TASS—The Soviet Union 
today launched another satellite in the Intercosmos 
series, in keeping with the socialist countries’ program of 
cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for 
peaceful purposes. 

Intercosmos-24 was launched by a Cyclone rocket as part 
of the international Aktivnyy (Active) research project 
for the comprehensive study of low-frequency electro¬ 
magnetic waves in the magnetosphere and their interac¬ 
tion with charged radiation belts particles. 

A sizeable share of the research will be done by actively 
irradiating near-satellite plasma with low-frequency elec¬ 
tromagnetic emissions. 

Intercosmos-24 carries a Czechoslovak satellite called 
Magion-2. The satellites’ scientific and telemetry equip¬ 
ment has been developed and made in countries grouped 
in the Intercosmos program—Bulgaria, Hungaiy, the 
German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, the 
USSR and Czechoslovakia. 

The scientific part of the program will begin after 
Magion-2 separates from Intercosmos-24 in the next 
seven to nine days. 

Intercosmos-24 was placed in an orbit with the following 

Maximum distance from earth - 2,497 kilometers. 
Minimum distance - 511 kilometers. 

Initial period of revolution - 116 minutes, 

Inclination - 82.6 degrees. 

Foreign scientists and specialists, who had developed 
on-board equipment, took part in testing the satellites 
and preparing them for launch at the spaceport. 

The Intercosmos-24 satellite’s on-board systems are 
functioning normally. 

Ground stations of the command-and-control network 
in the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia’s telemetry 
receiving station are processing incoming information. 

‘Magion-2’ Satellite Separates From 

LD0310152989 Moscow TASS in English 1430 GMT 
3 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 3 TASS—The Czechoslovak 
satellite Magion-2 today separated from the Soviet arti¬ 
ficial earth satellite Intercosmos-24 launched on Sep¬ 
tember 28. 

Magion-2 carries scientific and service equipment pro¬ 
duced in Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic 
Republic, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union and 

The Magion-2 is equipped with the Soviet Pulsar engine 
installation meant for correcting the satellite’s orbit in 
accordance with the program of scientific research. 

After the satellite’s separation, scientific experiments 
involving two spacecraft were started as part of the 
Aktivnyy project. The use of two craft simultaneously 
makes it possible to conduct research on plasma pro¬ 
cesses in near space from different points. 

The research program also provides for coordinating the 
work of scientific complexes on both satellites with 


Space Sciences 

22 November 1989 

ground measurements conducted by the geophysical 
observatories of countries participating in the project. 

The parameters of Magion-2 are close to the parameters 
of the Intercosmos-24 satellite. 

The satellite’s systems and scientific equipment are 
working normally. 

The ground stations of the Soviet Union and other 
countries, participants in the Aktivnyy project, receive 
and process all scientific data transmitted by the satel¬ 

Advantages of Lunar Bases 

18660209 Moscow ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA in 
Russian 3 May-Jun 89 pp 57-63 

[Article by Doctor of Physicomathematical Sciences V. 
V. Shevchenko: “Return to the Moon”] 

[Text] A joint summit declaration made in Moscow in 
June 1988 by the leaders of the Soviet Union and the 
United States mentioned further exploration of the 
Moon and Mars as an area of possible bilateral and 
international cooperation. Recently, especially in con¬ 
nection with the Phobos mission, much is being said 
about a manned flight to Mars, and the possible scien¬ 
tific objectives and technical features of such an expedi¬ 
tion are being discussed. What might such a new expe¬ 
dition to the Moon be like? 

The Moon in the Infrastructure of Earth’s Civilization 

The active phase of space exploration of the Moon ended 
in the mid-1970s. The last craft from Earth that visited 
the Moon was the Soviet unmanned spacecraft Luna-24. 
In August 1976 the return module of this spacecraft 
delivered to Earth samples of lunar soil obtained as a 
result of drilling a 2-meter hole in one of the regions of 
the Sea of Crises (ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, No 1, 
1977, p 18.—Editor). 

Still earlier, in 1972, was the last manned expedition in 
the American Apollo program. Note that a geological 
scientist participated in it for the first time—H. Schmidt 
(ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, No 2, 1973, p 15.— 

The center of gravity of planetary exploration shifted in 
subsequent years. Exploration of the nearest and distant 
planets developed intensively, and a comet became an 
object of study at close range for the first time (ZEMLYA 
I VSELENNAYA, No 3, 1986, p 2.—Editor). Cosmo¬ 
nautics successively solved the problems of creating and 
operating permanent orbiting stations manned in space 
for long periods of time by replaceable crews. In this 
stage, the Moon was felt to be an object that had been 
sufficiently studied and well understood. 

But interest in the Moon is experiencing a resurgence in 
new directions of development of cosmonautics. The 
accomplishments of cosmonautics are bringing us closer 

to the point where manned spacecraft will venture 
beyond low near-Earth orbits. High orbits— 
geosynchronous and geostationary—and circumlunar 
space, including the lunar surface, will become acces¬ 
sible. A fundamental difference from the first lunar 
expeditions in this case would be the possibility for 
lengthy or permanent presence on the Moon. Such 
prospects would make solution of complex scientific 
problems requiring lengthy participation of highly 
skilled specialists in different fields of science and tech¬ 
nology in lunar expeditions a reality. On the other hand, 
the moon’s proximity to the Earth and its accessibility at 
a new, improved level of technology bring the Moon into 
the orbit of the Earth’s problems as well. Our natural 
satellite will begin to acquire its place in the infrastruc¬ 
ture of Earth’s civilization (ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, 
No 2, 1987, p 60.— Editor). 

There are many facets to utilizing the Moon to solve the 
Earth’s problems. Take for example the two extreme 
possibilities of those evident today—the simplest and 
the most complex. The Moon, which constantly faces the 
Earth with one hemisphere, is an advantageous observa¬ 
tion platform. Almost 50 percent of the Earth’s surface 
can be observed simultaneously from the Moon’s visible 
hemisphere. All of the Earth’s surface will pass by an 
operator on the Moon in a day’s time. The Earth will 
appear to him at times both as a narrow crescent and as 
a fully illuminated, huge bright disk. However, the 
technology of observing the “invisible” has now been 
well developed both in astronomy and in space explora¬ 
tion. The Earth, which is an active source of internal heat 
and of heat accumulated due to solar irradiation, would 
appear bright and diverse in the infrared spectrum. 

The dynamics of global processes in the atmosphere, the 
temperature cycle of our planet, changes in these param¬ 
eters over lengthy time intervals, constant surveillance of 
the condition of the Earth’s environment—these are 
problems that are so vitally important to earthlings that 
their solution justifies the expenses of creating an “Earth 
Service” on the lunar surface. And the contemporary 
level of space technology makes realization of such a 
project, especially in the automatic variant, feasible to 
the economies of the leading space powers. This is all the 
more justified if the efforts of science and technology are 
combined on an international basis. 

An as yet distant but nonetheless real goal appeared in 
recent years— studying extraterrestrial natural resources. 
Irrational use of many resources is leading to the deple¬ 
tion of the Earth’s natural wealth. Our descendants will 
inevitably collide with the problem of the disappearance 
of vitally necessary energy sources, of certain natural 
materials, of clean water reserves, and so forth. Ecolog¬ 
ical problems that already exist today compel mankind 
to change its consumer attitude toward nature. But in 
addition to conserving and using existing resources more 
carefully, we must seek alternative sources— that is, a 
natural replacement for that which is inevitably disap¬ 
pearing from our planet. Scientists are turning their eyes 
toward outer space. And the first object that falls within 

22 November 1989 

Space Sciences 


Diagram of the Future Infrastructure of Earth Civilization 

their field of vision is the Moon. But the problem as to the 
suitability of utilizing the Moon’s resources should not be 
considered in a linear and simplistic way. It does not at all 
mean that reserves of coal or oil disappearing from the 
Earth should be sought on the Moon. We know for certain 
that they are not to be found there. Nor are there any ore 
deposits of what can be categorized as minerals. Nonethe¬ 
less it does not follow from this that the Moon does not 
possess potential resources for mankind. 

Let’s go on to the promised example of “higher complex¬ 
ity.” Our atmosphere—what to man is ordinary air—is 
experiencing the unfavorable influence of modem soci¬ 
ety’s high level of industrialization more and more. With 
the passage of time, despite conservation measures in 
ecology, ordinary air is transforming into a valuable and 

limited resource. This problem affects not just indi¬ 
vidual regions, but it is becoming global. But what does 
the Moon have to do with this? How will our natural 
satellite help us solve the problem of clean air on Earth if 
the Moon is known to lack any atmosphere at all? 

Of course, no one is about to “haul air from the Moon.” 
But complex and ecologically harmful production oper¬ 
ations could be moved to the lunar surface. In this case 
the production procedures would not be encumbered by 
waste treatment facilities, which are expensive as we 
know, and which are not yet all that necessary on the 
lunar surface. Perhaps in the future such production 
might even turn out to be less expensive. Consequently 
moving industrial facilities in this way could become 
economically feasible. 


Space Sciences 

22 November 1989 

Plan of an Automatic Plant on the Moon Developed by Carbotek to Obtain Oxygen From Lunar Rock 

Obviously such grandiose restructuring of all Earth civ¬ 
ilization would require traveling a long and complex 
road. Production procedures of a higher level and greater 
emphasis on technical support in comparison with what 
mankind possesses today will be required. But we need 
to embark upon this road today. 

The first major phase that can now be foreseen in 
development of the Moon is creation of a permanent 
manned base on its surface. We will probably be able to 
accomplish such a project in the first decades of the 21st 
century. By that time large space stations, in which space 
production will be initiated on an industrial scale, will 
apparently appear in high near-Earth orbits. Gigantic 
solar devices in orbit will begin contributing to the 
Earth’s power production systems. Then the next logical 
step in the spread of mankind’s activity into space would 
be development of the Moon. The potentials of lunar 
industry will have a significant influence when space 
between Earth and the Moon is fully developed. That is, 
the Moon will become a part of the infrastructure of 
Earth civilization. 

What Are ‘‘Lunar Resources”? 

The very first task in creating a lunar base is to develop 
space launch vehicle systems suitable for delivering 
sizable amounts of cargo to the lunar surface at the least 
expense. In one of the engineering designs the first 
generation of a lunar base would require delivery of a 
125-ton payload to the Moon. The complex would 
include three living modules, a device for acquisition of 
gases (oxygen primarily) from lunar soil, a facility for 
excavating and transporting lunar material and, finally, a 
nuclear power production facility. The world’s most 
powerful launch vehicle today is the Soviet Energiya 
rocket system, capable of delivering several dozen tons 
of payload to the Moon in a single trip. Consequently 
several such trips could support all of the necessary 
transport operations between the Earth and the Moon in 
the initial phase of construction of the lunar base. 

The process of transporting the cargo and creating the 
lunar complex, and its subsequent operation as well, will 
be simplified to a considerable extent by making wide 
use of local lunar resources. Analysis shows that local 

22 November 1989 

Space Sciences 


A Lunar Base Complex as Perceived by the Sasakawa 
International Center for Space Architecture. Solar Bat¬ 
tery Panels of a Solar Power Plant Are Shown in the 

resources could be used effectively in all four directions 
which the creators of the lunar base will have to pursue— 
transportation, life support and power supply systems, 
and erection of structures. A power plant brought up 
from Earth will apparently have to support the work on 
the Moon initially. But then a natural energy source will 
have to be put to use as well. 

Each day our Earth receives around 64x10*^ kilowatt- 
hours of energy from the sun. In comparison with this 
value, the amount of energy supplied to spacecraft and to 
heating and sun-powered electric devices that convert 
solar energy is so insignificant that practical utilization 
of solar energy is almost equal to zero today. Of course, 
there are many restrictions on Earth associated with the 
atmosphere, the cloud cover, seasonal weather condi¬ 
tions and so on. But such limitations do not exist on the 
Moon. Solar devices can work with the greatest effect in 
the course of an entire two-week day. And in the polar 
regions it is fundamentally possible to install design 
variants supporting the work of such solar electric power 
plants continuously. 

As we know, mankind is pinning high hopes in solving 
the energy problem in the future on controllable thermo¬ 
nuclear reactions. These processes are based on nuclear 
fusion, which possesses the indisputable advantage of 
effective release of energy at low operating outlays and 
the practical absence of radioactive wastes, which com¬ 
pletely excludes the danger of radioactive contamination 
of the environment. One such reaction is fusion of 
deuterium nuclei and helium-3 isotope, which is very 
rare on Earth (there are around 500 kg of readily 
available reserves). 

But what about on the Moon? Over a period of 4 billion 
years the lunar soil has been absorbing helium-3 carried 
by solar wind like a sponge. Theoretical estimates and 
the results of analyzing lunar soil samples show that on 
the order of 1 million tons of helium-3 have accumulated 
in the first 5 meters of the pulverized layer—the regolith. 
This quantity of nuclear fuel would be enough to provide 
electric power not only to a lunar base but also to all 
mankind for a period of several tens of thousands of 
years, given its present level of consumption. 

The sun also saturates the lunar surface layer with 
another extremely valuable product. As a result of irra¬ 
diation by solar wind, regolith contains a sufficient 
quantity of hydrogen, which may be viewed as a poten¬ 
tial resource as a rocket propellant component, or for the 
acquisition of water. It is believed that there are around 
50 gm of hydrogen in every kilogram of loose matter on 
the surface of the Moon. 

Another component of regolith that can be subjected to 
industrial processing is oxygen. It is present in sufficient 
quantities on the Moon, inasmuch as lunar matter con¬ 
sists of the oxides of a number of elements. Therefore 
ordinary lunar soil may serve as a raw material for the 
acquisition of oxygen. 

Bombardment of the Moon over a period of hundreds of 
millions of years by meteorites has resulted in pulveri¬ 
zation of its surface layer to a depth averaging 10 m. This 
facilitates extraction and transportation of lunar soil to a 
place of processing, and the need for using special 
mining equipment is avoided. A 100x100x100 m “lunar 
quarry” contains enough matter for the acquisition of 
around 90,000 tons of oxygen. The extracted oxygen 
could be used in the base’s life support system, in various 
production processes and as one of the components of 
rocket propellant. The same quarry also contains around 
40,000 tons of silicon suitable for the manufacture of 
solar battery cells. This quantity is sufficient for silicon 
photoelectric converters with a total area of approxi¬ 
mately 12 km^. Given today’s characteristics of standard 
solar batteries, this area would provide power compa¬ 
rable to the output of the Novo-Voronezhskaya AES. 

A “lunar quarry” can also provide 9,000 tons of titanium 
for the manufacture of high-strength metallic structures, 
from 15,000 to 30,000 tons of aluminum and from 5,000 
to 25,000 tons of iron for the production of electric 
fittings or other components needed in space structures. 


Space Sciences 

22 November 1989 

And it turns out that the lunar soil itself is fully suitable 
for making the best brands of concrete. 

Lacking sufficiently complete information today on the 
nature of the lunar world and on all of its resources, what 
we seen today is only the tip of the iceberg, on the basis 
of which we can imagine the possibilities harbored in 
development and utilization of the body of the Solar 
System nearest to us. But we have to learn how to extract 
the Moon’s wealth. We do not as yet possess fully 
developed and practically tested procedures for 
extracting the products contained in lunar matter in 
bound state. These extremely specific production pro¬ 
cesses have yet to be created. 

On the Road to Lunar Industry 

In April 1988 the author of this article had the fortune of 
being the sole Soviet participant of an international 
scientific symposium held in the USA, “Lunar Bases and 
Space Activities in the 21st Century.” The more than 
300 scientific reports heard by the participants con¬ 
tained an enormous volume of information, and 
numerous new and surprising ideas. For example, a 
program of space exploration for the next 30 years was 

And so, geologists may find themselves on the Moon in 
the first five- year period of the new century with the job 
of beginning explorations on the basis of which to 
organize industrial production of oxygen out of lunar 
minerals. The procedures for obtaining oxygen have 
already been tested in terrestrial laboratories on ana¬ 
logues of lunar rock, and directly on lunar soil delivered 
to Earth by previous expeditions to the Moon. We know 
that lunar basalts having a heightened concentration of 
the mineral ilmenite are the best suited for this purpose. 
When rock enriched with ilmenites is heated to 700- 
LOOO^C and a pressure of 1-10 atm, oxygen is liberated, 
and reduced iron is a byproduct of this reaction. But if 
hydrogen is used as the reducing agent, then water is 
obtained as a result. Experiments showed that the 
oxygen yield is up to 10 percent of the initial mass of the 
processed matter. 

At the symposium, specialists of Carbotek (Houston, 
USA) reported completion of plans for an industrial 
oxygen production plant on the Moon. This plant will 
consist of several blocks operating automatically. Its 
productivity will be 1,000 tons of oxygen per year. Its 
construction would require delivery of 400 tons of var¬ 
ious materials to the Moon, with 45 tons of this cargo 
going for a power plant with a capacity of 5 megawatts. 
Its purpose will be to maintain the constant oxygen 
acquisition process. If a third of the extracted oxygen is 
to be used as a rocket propellant component in hydro- 
gen-oxygen engines, approximately another 40 tons of 
hydrogen would be required. Scientists from Washington 
University calculated the possibility of obtaining such a 
quantity of hydrogen from the thin surface fraction of 
lunar soil, and they proposed a plan for the corre¬ 
sponding facility. Production of the necessary quantity 

of gas would require processing 6,700 tons of lunar soil 
per day, assuming a solar power device is used. Calcula¬ 
tions show that each year there would be a total of 120 
such working “solar” days, each of course 24 hours long. 
The rest of the time would consist of night, morning and 
evening hours, when the output of the solar device would 
not be maximum. 

The principle of operation of the device is based on 
heating lunar matter by means of a solar collector to a 
temperature of 700°C. How are several thousand tons of 
soil to be processed daily? The plant, you see, will be 
mobile. Moving at a speed of 6 km/hr and working the 
surface layer to a depth of 1 m, its intake will gradually 
encompass the needed quantity of raw material. In this 
case other gases would also be released from the lunar 
matter. Their total pressure in the collecting vessel may 
attain 10 atm. In order to separate hydrogen out, the 
authors of the plan propose employing a procedure by 
which to “bum” this mixture in lunar oxygen. The water 
obtained as a result would conveniently be stored and 
transported in liquid form, and subjected to hydrolysis 
as hydrogen becomes necessary. 

Colleagues of the Center for Space Automation and 
Robot Technology of the University of Wisconsin at 
Madison developed a plan of yet another mobile auto¬ 
matic plant. It is intended for the acquisition of helium- 
3. A wheel with buckets (a “rotary excavator”) turns in 
the front part of this extracting unit, scooping up the 
loose soil and loading it into a special container in which 
processing occurs. Around 800 tons of soil are heated to 
650°C in half an hour by means of microwave technology 
in the plant’s main module. Helium-3 isotope is then 
separated out of the released gas mixture. According to a 
preliminary assessment the plant’s productivity would 
be 20 kg per year. After it is “wrung out,” the soil is 
returned to the surface, and the automatic plant con¬ 
tinues on its way. Hydrogen and some other gases 
necessary for the production and ecosystems of the lunar 
base are released from the heated soil simultaneously 
with helium-3. 

It is evident from these examples that in most cases the 
main production process is heating lunar surface rock to 
high temperatures. And although other methods have 
been proposed—electrolysis of fused rock for example, 
simple heating will apparently be the most economical 
and accessible procedure in the first stage of develop¬ 
ment of lunar industry. 

Nor should we forget the most accessible source of 
thermal energy—the Sun. After all, the surface is heated 
by the sun to 130-150°C on the equator at the middle of 
a lunar day. Therefore the processed material can be 
heated as necessary by means of relatively simple solar 

So far, lunar industrial facilities and plants have been 
planned to carry out individual tasks. Obviously, how¬ 
ever, in reality we will create a single combined complex 
based on a single technology—for example, heating soil 

22 November 1989 

Space Sciences 


to high temperatures. Such a project has already been 
developed in the Sasakawa International Center for 
Space Architecture at Houston University. It is called 
“Lunar Ecosystems and Architectural Prototypes.” 
Within the framework of this project, specialists are 
examining systems for trajectory and ballistic support of 
flights to the Moon, selection of the most sensible 
locations for the entire lunar base complex, the basic 
layout of the complex and its modules, and transporta¬ 
tion support, including rocket devices for local transpor¬ 
tation systems and lunar rovers for surface travel. 

Procedures for building and installing facilities of the 
base, for creating power supply and life support systems 
and for industrial processing of lunar matter and its 
utilization are being developed under the project. This 
project’s overall conception of the new stage of the 
Moon’s study additionally foresees construction of a 
space station in circumlunar orbit. 

The plan for the lunar manned base also concerns itself 
with problems pertaining to economics, politics, inter¬ 
national relations and sociology. Creation of a lunar base 
would require enormous assets. But if a new expedition 
to the Moon and subsequent stages of its development 
are carried out on an international basis, and according 
to a particular plan, the efforts and assets of none of the 
participants would be excessively taxed even by such 
laborious activity as this. Economists have estimated 
that given sensible planning, the amount that will be 
spent annually would not exceed the cost of the first 
lunar expeditions or the cost of creating reusable space¬ 

It stands to reason that international cooperation 
between the leading space powers—the USSR and the 
USA—presupposes further improvement of relations 
between our countries, and even more decisive steps in 
the area of disarmament and reduction of military 
expenditures in favor of peaceful development of space. 


UDC 324.352 

Decrease in Flux of Hard X-Ray Emission of 
Supernova 1987A. Data From ‘Kvanf Module 

ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 15 No 4, Apr 89 
(manuscript received 26 Dec 88) pp 291-300 

[Article by R. A. Syunyayev, A. S. Kaniovskiy, V. V. 
Yefremov, S. A. Grebenev, A. V, Kuznetsov, V. M. 
Loznikov, A. S. Melioranskiy, J. Englhauser, S. Doe- 
bereiner, W. Pietsch, C. Reppin, J. Truemper, E. Kendzi- 
orra, M. Maisack, B. Mony and R. Staubert, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 
Moscow; Exoatmospheric Physics Institute, Max Planck 
Society, Garshing, FRG; Astronomical Institute, Tub¬ 
ingen University, FRG] 

[Abstract] The HEXE telescope of the “Rentgen” obser¬ 
vatory in the “Kvant” module was used in the recording 
(April-December 1988) of a decrease in the flux of hard 
X-ray emission of SN 1987A in the range 15- 200 keV by 
a factor of 6. The observations also indicated a slight 
increase in the hardness of the X-ray emission spectrum 
of the supernova. The brightness curve of the emission of 
SN 1987A in this range agrees best with models based on 
the assumption of mixing of about 20 percent of the 
radioactive ^^Co almost uniformly through the entire 
volume of the envelope. According to data for October- 
December the relative abundance of in the 

envelope is 1.8+/-0.8 of the solar relative abundance of 
^^Fe/^^Fe. The following sequence of observational 
events is discussed. 1. Early appearance of flux of X- ray 
emission at a level which contradicts simple models of 
the envelope in which cobalt is concentrated at the inner 
boundary (but such early appearance can be explained 
within the framework of models with mixing of cobalt 
through the envelope). 2. Slow evolution of X-ray lumi¬ 
nosity. The real observational data place rather strong 
limitations on theoretical models describing the X-ray 
emission and require mixing of a small fraction of the 
cobalt through virtually the entire envelope. 3. A subse¬ 
quent decrease in the emission flux which agrees with 
theoretical predictions. The most important task in 
continuing observations from the “Kvant” is a search for 
the X-ray emission of a star remnant, a neutron star or 
black hole forming during the explosion of the super¬ 
nova. Figures 6; references 23: 6 Russian, 17 Western. 

UDC 524.35 

Observations of Supernovae 1987B and 1987F 

ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 15 No 4, Apr 89 
(manuscript received 23 December 88) pp 301-307 

[Article by D. Yu. Tsvetkov, State Astronomical Insti¬ 
tute imeni P. K. Shtemberg, Moscow] 

[Abstract] Photographic observations of SN 1987B and 
SN 1987F were made at the State Astronomical Institute 
during the period February-June 1987 using the 40- and 
50-cm telescopes at the Crimean Station and the 70-cm 
reflector in Moscow, supplemented by observations 
made with the 1-m reflector of the Physics Institute, 
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. Photographs of the 
neighborhoods of these supemovae are shown in a figure 
and the magnitudes of the comparison stars are given in 
a table. The results of these photometric observations are 
given. Some parameters of the brightness curves and 
absolute magnitudes of these supemovae at the max¬ 
imum are given. Available data on spectroscopic obser¬ 
vations show that both objects are peculiar supemovae 
(type II). For example, the brightness curve of SN 1987F 
was unique; no other known SNII exhibit such a slow 
brightness attenuation with a constant rate and such a 
high luminosity for almost a year after the maximum. 
Only brief communications on these two supemovae 
have been published. In some respects they are similar to 


Space Sciences 

22 November 1989 

SNII 1983K, although the brightness curves of all three 
differ sharply. Whereas SN 1983K has a brightness curve 
almost not differing from those typical for SNII P, the 
curves for SN 1987B and 1987F are unique. SN 1983K 
and 1987B are similar in their position in galaxies, 
whereas SN 1987F flared in a spiral arm and in the HII 
zone. This circumstance, as well as the very slow bright¬ 
ness dropoff, may be evidence of a great mass of the 
envelope ejected by this supernova. Figures 3; references 
22: 3 Russian, 19 Western. 

UDC 523.44:520.872 

Preliminary Results of Speckle Interferometry of 
Vesta at Opposition of 1988 

ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 15 No 4, Apr 89 
(manuscript received 9 Nov 88) pp 368-376 

[Article by V. G. Vakulik, V. N. Dudinov, A. P. Zhelezn- 
yak, S. B. Novikov, Ye. A. Pluzhnik and V. S. Tsvetkova, 
Astronomical Observatory, Kharkov State University; 
State Astronomical institute imeni P. K. Shtemberg, 

[Abstract] The results of speckle interferometry using the 
1-m telescope of the Physics Institute, Lithuanian 
Academy of Sciences, were used in estimating the effec¬ 
tive size of Vesta and in evaluating the retrieved images 
for three moments in time near the opposition of 1988. 
The speckle interferograms were processed using the 
coherent-optical processor at the Kharkov Astronomical 
Observatory. The principal sources of measurement 
errors are discussed. The discrepancy between the 
speckle interferometer estimates of size and the diffrac¬ 
tion images of the disk of Vesta synthesized from speckle 
interferograms by the “shift-and-add” method were 
caused by the noncorrespondence between the adopted 
model (homogeneous elliptical disk) and the true form of 
the object. However, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio 
the inhomogeneities in the retrieved images can be 
interpreted with an identical degree of uncertainty either 
as details on the disk or as limb irregularities. The results 
are preliminary in nature; series obtained in another 
spectral range near the brightness curve minimum are 
now being processed. Figures 5; references 6: 4 Russian, 
2 Western. 

UDC 524.338.6 

Interpretation of Observations of Flares of Star 
EV I^c From Astron Space Observatory 

18660183a Moscow ASTRONOMICHESKIY 
ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 66 No 2, Mar-Apr 89 
(manuscript received 19 Feb 88) pp 307-316 

[Article by M. M. Katsova and M. A. Livshits, State 
Astronomical Institute imeni P. K. Shtemberg] 

[Abstract] The results of observations of two flares (6 
and 24 February 1984) of the star EV Lac, made from the 

Astron space astronomical observatory, are given. These 
were the first observations in the UV region with a high 
time resolution. These observational data were com¬ 
pared with photometric observations with a 6-meter 
telescope. The characteristics of the burst in the C IV 
lines were ascertained on the basis of earlier numerical 
simulation for the initial moments of the elementary 
event, and an emission measure about 3 x 1cm‘^ was 
found. The minimal brightness increase times for such 
flares are close, but always exceed the characteristic 
gas-dynamical time, equal to the ratio of scale height in 
the chromosphere to the speed of sound, as theoretically 
predicted. The Astron data are consistent with a rela¬ 
tively low (less than 10"* K) temperature of a source of 
optical glow. The very brief emission bursts at 2430 
angstroms at the onset of the events are probably attrib¬ 
utable to the formation of short-lived, high-temperature 
regions. The intensity and duration of the burst in the C 
IV doublet, determined from the results of numerical 
simulation of the process, are close to the observational 
data. This is evidence that the Astron space observatory 
was observing for the first time ever the process of the 
formation of a downward-moving radiative shock wave, 
accompanying the explosive evaporation of the chromo¬ 
sphere. Figures 3; references 17: 7 Russian, 10 Western. 

UDC 524.338.6 

Line C IV X 1550 A in Spectrum of Flares of Red 
Dwarf Star EV Lac Observed From Astron Space 

18660183b Moscow ASTRONOMICHESKIY 
ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 66 No 2, Mar-Apr 89 
(manuscript received 27 Nov 87) pp 328-334 

[Article by B. A. Bumasheva, R. Ye. Gershberg, A. M. 
Zvereva, I. V. Ilin, N. I. Shakhovskaya and A. I. 
Sheykhet, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, USSR 
Academy of Sciences] 

[Abstract] Observations of the star EV Lac were made 
with a high time resolution (0.61 sec) from the Astron 
space astronomical observatory (whose program 
included study of fast variations of C IV X 1550 A line 
intensity in the spectra of flaring stars), accompanied by 
ground-based optical monitoring of the star’s brightness. 
A flare extremely powerful for the star occurred on 6 
February 1986, and that made it possible to define a 
number of characteristics of flare emissions in the UV 
resonance line C IV X 1550 A. The emissions began 7 s 
prior to onset of the flare in a continuum. It is postulated 
that the observed continuous emissions near the flare 
maximum were formed in the lower chromosphere or 
even in the region of the temperature minimum, whereas 
the burst of C IV emission in the flare must arise during 
evaporation of the upper layers of the chromosphere. On 
the star this burst could occupy an area 100 times greater 
than the area of fast brightness bursts in solar lines, 
observed primarily in and around active regions (in the 
lines of the chromosphere-corona transition zone). How¬ 
ever, the EV Lac burst exceeded solar bursts by several 

22 November 1989 

Space Sciences 


orders of magnitude in energy and proceeded an order of 
magnitude more rapidly. Figure 1; references 28: 6 
Russian, 22 Western. 

UDC 521.43 

Constructing an Algorithm Allowing for 
Atmospheric Drag in Motion of Artificial Earth 

18660183c Moscow ASTRONOMICHESKIY 
ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 66 No 2, Mar-Apr 89 
(manuscript received 1 Jul 87) pp 404-411 

[Article by Ye. P. Strezhenkova and V. A. Tamarov, 
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics Scientific 
Research Institute,-Tomsk State University] 

[Abstract] An analytical theory was developed for taking 
into account the influence of atmospheric drag on the 
motion of artificial earth satellites. The theory applies to 
an intermediate orbit for the generalized problem of two 
fixed centers (Euler orbit). The proposed theory differs 
from those published earlier with respect to the system of 
intermediate orbital elements, the differential equations 
for such a system of osculating elements, and also the use 
of an analog of the true anomaly rather than an analog of 
an eccentric anomaly in the expansions. Formulas are 
derived which in the most general form and as fully as 
possible take into account all the fundamental effects 
caused in satellite motion by atmospheric drag. Within 
the framework of a stationary atmospheric model this 
first stage in development of the theory defines the direct 
perturbations, perturbations caused by the joint influ¬ 
ence of atmospheric drag and the Earth’s oblateness, and 
perturbations caused by atmospheric rotation. Refer¬ 
ences 12: 11 Russian, 1 Western. 


Life Sciences 

22 November 1989 

Biological Satellite ^Cosmos-2044’ Launched 15 

LD1509132589 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1301 GMT 15 Sep 89 

[“A Biological Satellite Has Been Launched Into 
Space”—TASS headline] 

[Text] Moscow, 15 Sep (TASS)—Another artificial earth 
satellite, Cosmos-2044, was launched in the Soviet 
Union by a Soyuz launcher today. On board are two 
monkeys and other biological objects, as well as scientific 
apparatus for studying the influence of weightlessness 
and cosmic radiation on the processes of vital activities. 

Scientists from the Hungarian Peoples Republic, the 
GDR, Canada, the Polish People’s Republic, Socialist 
Republic of Romania, the United States, France, the 
CSSR, and the European Space Agency are participating 
in the program for the 14-day spaceflight. The satellite 
has been placed in the following orbit: initial period of 
revolution, 89.3 minutes; apogee, 294 kilometres; 
perigee, 216 km; orbital inclination, 82.3 degrees. 

The apparatus is functioning normally. After completion 
of all tests and fulfilment of the flight program, the 
biological objects and scientific apparatus will be 
brought back to earth for further study. 

Biological Experiments on ^Cosmos-2044’ 

LD1509162689 Moscow TASS in English 1541 GMT 
15 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 15 TASS—By TASS corre¬ 
spondent Rena Kuznetsova: 

Two monkeys were launched into space Friday on a 
14-day mission on board the biological satellite “Cos¬ 
mos-2044”. The capsule also carries rats, fishes, tritons, 
flies, ants and worms. 

A number of biological experiments will be carried out. 
Taking part in the experiments along with Soviet spe¬ 
cialists are scientists from Hungary, the GDR, Canada, 
Poland, Romania, the United States, France, Czechoslo¬ 
vakia and the European Space Agency. 

The purpose of the experiments is to study the effects of 
prolonged stay in space on living organisms. Scientists 
are looking for effective measures to prevent ill effects of 
zero gravity on man. They are interested particularly in 
establishing how a living organism is adjusted to zero 
gravity in the first days of the flight. 

Experiments with rats designed by staffers of the 
Moscow Institute of Medico-Biological Problems of the 
USSR Ministry of Health are of much interest. Scientists 
will trace how fractures and traumas heal in weightless¬ 

The effects of space radiation on living organisms will 
also be studied during the flight. This problem is partic¬ 
ularly acute as the duration of manned space flights 

Today’s launch of the biological satellite develops the 
international program that was started in 1973. This is 
the ninth such satellite. The previous three also carried 

‘Cosmos-2044’ Experimental Animals Returned to 

LD2909155189 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1445 GMT 29 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow, 29 Sep (TASS)—The “space travel¬ 
lers”—female monkeys Zhakonya and Zabiyaka— 
together with the other occupants of the “living comer” 
of the satellite ‘Cosmos-2044,’ returned safely to earth 
this morning. 

The descent module made a soft landing 165 km south of 
the town of Kustanay. A TASS correspondent at the 
Medico-Biological Institute of the USSR Health Min¬ 
istry was told that the macaques will be brought to the 
capital this evening for further study. The first medical 
examination at the cosmodrome has already shown that 
they endured the flight normally. 

The launch was on 15 Septmeber. Yevgeniy Ilyin, deputy 
director of the institute, told TASS that problems 
studied during the flight included the way the living 
processes of various organisms are affected by factors of 
space flight such as brief and long periods of weightless¬ 
ness, artificial gravitation, the combined effect of weight¬ 
lessness and ionizing radiation, and galactic cosmic 
radiation. Ultimately, the scientists said, this will help us 
to better understand the laws governing the adaptation 
of the organism in extreme conditions of space and to 
develop promising means of protecting the body during 
short and long manned space flights. 

Yevgeniy Ilyin reminded us that the Bion-3 research 
project is a joint effort by scientists from the countries 
participating in the Intercosmos program, and also from 
the United States, France, Canada, and the European 
Space Agency—some 20 states in all. 

During the 14-day flight, about 80 experiments and 
studies were carried out, using monkeys, rats, fish, 
insects, and plants. Further analysis and processing of 
the resultant data will be continued in the scientific 
laboratories of the Medico-Biological Institute, and of 
the member countries of the Bion-9 program. 

‘Cosmos-2044’ Research To Aid Cosmonaut 

LD1710162189 Moscow TASS in English 1550 GMT 
17 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 17 TASS—By TASS correspon¬ 
dent Rena Kuznetsova and Andrey Surzhanskiy: 

22 November 1989 

Life Sciences 


Research done on the Cosmos-2044 Soviet biological 
satellite will help reduce the adaptation time of crews 
during space flights, a leading Soviet space biologist told 
reporters here today. 

Experiments carried out on board the craft under the 
international Bion program will help crews stay fit in the 
first days of weightlessness, Yevgeniy Ilyin, second- 
in-command at the Soviet Institute of Medico-Biological 
Problems, said. 

Increased stays in space require new ways of combatting 
the adverse effects of weightlessness on man, he said. 

Reporters were shown a video film of Zhakonya and 
Zabiyaka, two macaque-monkeys who spent a couple of 
weeks looking down on our planet. 

They are doing fine, scientists say. 

“It even did them some good,” they said. 

The monkeys are completing the period of adaptation to 
earth conditions. 

The craft also carried insects, fish and plants. 

The experiment lasted from September 15 to 29. Scien¬ 
tists from some 20 countries including states taking part 
in the Intercosmos program, the United States, France, 
Canada and the European Space Agency participated. 

Research is continuing both in the Moscow Institute of 
Medico-Biological Problems and in laboratories of the 
countries involved in the Bion program. 

Solar Flare of 29 Sep No Danger to ‘Mir’ Crew 

LD2010155189 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
1400 GMT 19 Oct 89 

[Text] Cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko and 
Aleksandr Serebrov are continuing their flight. The other 
day they had a surprise. Here is what Vladislav Mikhay¬ 
lovich Petrov, Candidate of Sciences and head of the 
Radiation Safety Service of the flight, said. 

[Begin Petrov recording] As a rule, our work has not 
given us much trouble for a simple reason. The orbit of 
the ‘Mir’ station is situated in near-Earth space in such a 
way that the geomagnetic field protects the crew very 

efficiently. Cosmic rays, which consist of flows of 
charged particles—galactic, solar and those of the radi¬ 
ation belts of Earth—are the main sources. So, the first 
two deviate very considerably, deflected as they are by 
the geomagnetic field from the area occupied by the orbit 
of the ‘Mir’ station. Therefore, usually, low doses pene¬ 
trate the space craft. These doses are in the range of 
15-20 to 30-40 millirem per 24 hours. 

Normally we observe a fairly stable and quiet radiation 
situation, but on 29 September this year an event took 
place which changed matters essentially. Sun flares are 
such events today. These are processes which occur in 
the solar chromosphere and in certain situations they can 
be linked with the generation of large flows of heavy 
charged particles—protons, mainly. Such an event took 
place at 1420 on 29 September. 

To be able to forecast a change in the solar radiation 
situation, one has to see the sun. But, on the 29th, there 
was an unusual situation. In other words, the flare that 
generated a flow of protons, which caused a change in the 
radiation conditions along the flight route, occurred 
behind the western limb of the sun. Naturally, we could 
not see the flare in optic light and we discovered the solar 
limb only when the fastest particles, which naturally 
reach the Earth first, were registered by ground stations. 

Comparisons with the norms which exist for such an 
exotic occurrence as solar flare, were carried out right 
away. These norms say that the figure of 50 rem is a 
criterion for evaluating the level of hazard of a single 
powerful exposure to a solar flare. A millirem means 
one-thousandth of a rem. In other words, the evaluation 
within the first 24 hours after the flare was several tenths 
of a rem, while the criterion is 50 rem. As you see, the 
difference is 100-fold. 

A more specified estimation was carried out which gave 
the value of 0.6 rem as an evaluation for 48 hours. And 
later readings of the onboard radiometer confirmed 
fairly well the evaluations obtained. No, the intensity 
was not small but the geomagnetic field helped us greatly 
here. A non-disturbed geomagnetic field attenuates the 
dose by 300-400 times, and the dose directed at the crew 
during that flare amounted to approximately the same 
value that patients receive during an X-ray examination 
of the lungs. 


Space Engineering 

22 November 1989 

‘BOR-4’ Orbital Plane Precursor of ‘Buran’ 

INDUSTRIYA in Russian 26 Aug 89 p 2 

[Unsigned text accompanying photo: “Pages of History: 
First Was the ‘Lapot’”] 

[Text] In the working reports this winged craft was 
designated as “BOR-4”. But the fellow workers of G. 
Lx)zino-Lozinskiy named it the “Lapot” [“bast shoe”] 
because of its unique shape. These shapes were devel¬ 
oped for orbital aircraft as early as the 1960s in the 
design bureau of A. Mikoyan. They were to assist not 
only in overcoming the barrier of super-high tempera¬ 
tures during return from orbit, but also to provide 
stability in case of control failure. Essentially, the 
“Lapot” became a prologue to the “Buran”. On it the 
operation of the nose fairing made from super¬ 
heat-resistant material and the reliability of the tile 
thermal protection were tested and the magnitudes of the 
heat flows and other parameters of a reusable spacecraft 
were determined. In the years from 1982 to 1984 the 
“BOR-4” was in orbit several times under the designa¬ 
tion of a satellite of the “Cosmos” series. And it returned 

safely to its native land—more precisely, it splashed 
down in the Black Sea or in the ocean. 

New Orbital Modules for ‘Mir’ Being Developed 

LD1409050489 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
0104 GMT 14 Sep 89 

[Text] At Moscow’s Khrunichev Machine-Building 
Works, the manufacture of modules for the “Mir” 
orbital complex continues. 

Variants of a prospective orbital station, “Mir-2,” are 
being examined. Tests of the T, or technical, module 
have been completed. It has had practical works tests. Its 
launch is preliminarily fixed for 30 January next year. 

The O, or optical module, and the I module, the first 
element of an ecological patrol long-term orbital station, 
are in the manufacturing stage. The matter of when they 
are to be sent into space will be decided later. 

Optical Module for ‘Mir’ Complex Tested 

LD1509084989 Moscow World Service in English 
0700 GMT 15 Sep 89 

[Text] In the Soviet Union, the testing has been com¬ 
pleted of a new research module for the orbiting complex 

22 November 1989 

Space Engineering 


Mir on which two Soviet cosmonauts are continuing 
their flight. Specialist on space technology call it an 
optical module. Mainly television, film, and photo 
equipment will be installed on it. This will make it 
possible to study the natural resources of the country 

very effectively. The other laboratory which is being 
prepared for launching to the Mir complex is meant for 
large-scale ecological research. Together with the Soviet 
Union, a number of European countries will take part in 
equipping it. 


Space Applications 

22 November 1989 

Deputy Minister Reutov on Applications of Buran 
Automatic Landing System 

18660189 Leningrad LENINGRADSKA YA PRA VDA in 
Russian 16 Jun 89 p 2 

[Interview with Deputy Minister Aleksandr Pavlovich 
Reutov of the USSR Ministry of the Radio Industry by 
LENINGRADSKAYA PRAVDA correspondent T. Syr- 
chenko, under the rubric “Timely Interview”: “The 
Ground-Based Extension of Buran”; first two para¬ 
graphs are source introduction] 

[Text] A reduction in expenditures for space. This ques¬ 
tion is being debated incessantly at the most varied of 
levels and in the most diverse of groups. The country, they 
say, is lacking in the most basic necessities, yet we spend 
enormous sums of money for space programs whose 
returns are unknown to us or are promised for the remote 
future. So, could it be time, perhaps, to stop “not noticing” 
the fact that it is precisely space equipment and tech¬ 
nology which represent the very standard which all of our 
ground-based industries should be brought up to? And 
could it be that, perhaps, there^s been too much diffident 
silence about what space is already giving us earthlings? 

In this connection, we invite your attention to the inter¬ 
view with A. P. Reutov, deputy minister of the USSR 
Radio Industry, regarding the ground-based extension of 
the Buran space program. We would remind you that this 
ministry was responsible for that part of the program 
which ensured the orbital craft’s landing. In other words, 
for the development of the Vympel radio-navigation com¬ 
plex, which includes systems for navigation, landing, 
control of the craft’s trajectory of motion, and flight safety. 

[Syrchenko] Aleksandr Pavlovich, the realization of the 
Buran program required a considerable outlay of funds. 
That included funds for equipping the craft with an 
automated landing system. Is there today an actual 
benefit—a return—from this development? 

[Reutov] First of all, there is the invaluable experience in 
the organization of the joint work of the collectives from 
enterprises (and there were more than 150 of them) of 
the different ministries and departments. You know that 
people from Leningrad, the All-Union Radio Apparatus 
Scientific Research Institute [VNIIRA], headed up this 
work. From the very outset, the developers worked 
simultaneously on solving the problem of the use of such 
automatic systems for other types of aircraft, including 
civil aviation airplanes. 

[Syrchenko] Some ready-for-use equipment has actually 
come out of Vympel? 

[Reutov] Yes. There are now route radars for monitoring 
aircraft flight which are similar to the ones that have 
operated at Baykonur; they are now undergoing a stage 
of experimental operation jointly with the Spektr—a 
new, highly efficient, automated airfield air- 
traffic-control system. That was also developed by the 
VNIIRA collective and its first set has already been 

installed at Pulkovo Airport. Mass production has begun 
on a so-called short-range-navigation radio system— 
with a range of 300-400 kilometers. An application has 
been found also for the high-precision radio DME 
system, which is set up in the airport approach zone and 
which we and VNIIRA general designer G. N. Gromov 
wrote about in our article published in PRAVDA on 6 
December 1988. 

Note that the component parts of the Vympel system, 
which have been deployed at Baykonur and other alter¬ 
nate airfields, can provide control for aircraft of all 
departments within their coverage area. And the route 
radar systems, after they have been linked with the 
Ministry of Civil Aviation’s information network, will 
ensure flight along routes which pass through the cov¬ 
erage areas of these airfield complexes. 

Moreover, also extremely valuable is the experience 
accumulated in the pre-flight tests of the numerous 
automated landings of airborne laboratories and the 
prototype of the orbital craft. The experience has made it 
possible during the year of Buran’s flight to complete 
tests of a microwave landing system for our terrestrial 
aircraft that meets the requirements of the International 
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This landing 
system is now being put into mass production. 

[Syrchenko] It remains only to “teach” it to land aircraft 
under difficult conditions? 

[Reutov] Of course, but “teaching it to land them” is not 
simple—it involves an enormous amount of work on the 
development of the radio-navigation system and the 
large, complex on-board system, which includes the 
automatic control system and the systems for controlling 
the engines and the aircraft’s control surfaces... It is no 
less important to teach the crews to make use of such 
systems and to win their confidence. They have to fly in 
difficult conditions and at difficult airports. Imagine if 
the signal lights are not visible or the airfield is located in 
poor geographic conditions—in a lowland or in the 
mountains. The pilot can’t “get a sense” of the terrain, 
and here comes an artificial radio path to his aid. Does 
this increase the safety of flights? Absolutely. Moreover, 
there is an increase in the airport’s traffic and a decrease 
in delays. This is what we must transfer to civil aviation, 
and we are already transferring it now. 

[Syrchenko] So when will our aircraft be landing like 

[Reutov] With the radio-navigations systems, it could be 
today. Unfortunately, that is being held back for the time 
being by a “string” of attendant problems: the ensuring 
of uninterrupted refueling, the timely clearing of the 
airfield and the prompt disembarkation of the passen¬ 
gers. The new, automated Spektr system, which I have 
mentioned earlier, is superior to models available abroad 
and is capable of handling not only air traffic control, but 
also final approach control. So the other services need to 
catch up. Indeed, an analysis of the errors will show 
accurately who is inefficient. 

22 November 1989 

Space Applications 


Meanwhile, we know of a lot of countries that would like 
to collaborate with us in the work on the introduction of 
a highly accurate, all-weather landing system, including 
an automated one. International cooperation makes it 
possible for us, together with foreign partners, to engage 
also in the specific study of joint proposals. 

[Syrchenko] You know, in this somewhat grand defini¬ 
tion—“highly accurate, all-weather, automated”—it is 
the last word that catches our attention—automated. 
Let’s say straight out that flight safety is everyone’s 
primary concern, be it a space flight or a “terrestrial” 
one, if one can use that word about an aircraft. 

[Reutov] But you will agree, even for us, taking on the 
responsibility for the lives of the many people, pilots and 
passengers, is a heavy burden. Therefore, when the 
question arose about equipping Buran with the on-board 
equipment of the landing system, safety and reliability 
were the chief concerns for the developers, right along 
with the requirements for minimum weight and size. 
You may think that these three problems are not so 
closely related with one another, but in actual fact, only 
microelectronics, simultaneously effecting a sharp reduc¬ 
tion in the weight and size of the equipment, made it 
possible to increase the reliability. I will give a simple 
example: nature has provided us with some insurance in 
the form of extra organs—two kidneys, two lungs... The 
strong and reliable microelectronics industry that has 
been developed over these years has made it possible to 
put a multiple backup of orbiter “organs” into operation. 

Let us return to the ground, to our civil aviation. New 
types of aircraft are now being developed: TU-204, IL-96 
and IL-114. We are transferring to these aircraft many of 
the microelectronics-based technical and production 
solutions that have been used in the instruments and 
equipment developed for Buran. 

[Syrchenko] But what about the requirement that the 
pilot do everything himself? That he hold the control 
yoke of the aircraft himself and fly the space plane 
himself? That, after all, is his purpose in life, the purpose 
of his profession. Not to mention that the pilot is 
accustomed to having more faith in himself than in 
automatic equipment. That’s where “reasonable” fear 
and the instinct for self-preservation come into play... 

[Reutov] Of course, the psychology of pilots is under¬ 
standable. Moreover, even the cosmonauts were not all 
certain that Buran would land automatically. All kinds of 
things can happen. You are correct: the landing is the 
most difficult stage. But where are we coming from when 
we insist on automatic equipment? A pilot may experi¬ 
ence fatigue during the completion of a flight. And, 
during the twilight hours (this, as is well known, is the 
time of greatest fatigue and sluggishness), the situation is 
aggravated. Our opinion is that the automatic equipment 
should be a functional backup to the manual, now 
traditional, method of landing. We, of course, have to 
take some pains with both the system for monitoring the 

pilot’s activities and the system for automatic moni¬ 
toring of the operation of all the aircraft’s vitally impor¬ 
tant units and for prompting [vyrabotka podskazyvay- 
ushchiy rekomendatsiy]. So that, if need be, it will be 
possible to switch over to the automated landing mode. 
The fact that this is associated with enormous responsi¬ 
bility—^we do understand. 

[Syrchenko] Previously, it was not reported in the press 
where or at what enterprise this or that part of the most 
modem or advanced space equipment was developed. 
Nothing was connected by the uninitiated with a specific 
city, certainly not with Leningrad. There was the general 
impression that somewhere there exists some kind of 
nerve center, somewhere, but not among us. And the 
disclosure of the many addresses opened our eyes, as it 
were, to ourselves and to the people of Leningrad. 

[Reutov] I think that nothing but good will come of such 
openness. One more reason has appeared to be proud of 
our city. I say “our city,” because I am also from 
Leningrad, and, as both someone from Leningrad and a 
deputy minister, I can state that our city is at the leading 
edge in the field of new technology in instrument 
building. This is a historic city of instrument builders. 
And now, here, an integrated collective of the enterprises 
has been established, joined together by the most com¬ 
plicated task, it may be said, a national task. The entire 
world is working on this type of landing, and our 
achievement is the first of its kind. 

Still ahead is the research on establishing the point at 
which control is handed over to the automatic equip¬ 
ment. Buran’s flight gave us a new impetus for reflec¬ 
tions and for re-evaluation of already tested solutions. 
Not all at once, but gradually, what we have achieved 
will be implemented, and not just at individual airfields, 
but rather, in the provision of genuine all-weather oper¬ 
ation of the numerous workhorse aircraft: civil aviation’s 
airplanes and helicopters. 

I think we have long kept the public in the dark for 
nothing. As you see, the development of large-scale space 
programs has a substantial effect on our terrestrial 

Applications for Magnetic Bearings Used in Mir 
Station's Gyrodyne System 

18660190 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 20 Jun 89 p 2 

[Article by N. Sheremetyevskiy, general designer and 
academician: “From Space to Earth”; article includes 
callout “The Mir Complex: Our Achievements”; first 
paragraph is source introduction] 

[Text] For nearly 2 years, six powered gyroscopes with 
electromagnetic bearings [gyrodynes] have been in opera¬ 
tion on the Mir station as part of its attitude control 
system. They have already been written about in 
PRAVDA on 6 September 1987. We can now add that 
prolonged operation has confirmed the high reliability of 
the gyrodynes in providing attitude control for the Mir 


Space Applications 

22 November 1989 

station with a precision of within one minute of arc. Such 
high precision was, in particular, a decisive prerequisite 
for the successful conduct of integrated supernova 
research, which produced something of a sensation of its 
own in astrophysicist circles. Now, the question about the 
continuation of similar research on the station is being 

But I would like to talk not about the destiny of those 
devices in space (it is, in general, clear), but rather, about 
their applications here on Earth. More and more fre¬ 
quently now, the question arises about the return we get 
from space research. I would like to note that one aspect 
of the profitability of “space” is the use here for our 
needs on the ground of the technical achievements that 
are employed there. This pertains directly to the electro¬ 
magnetic bearings which have virtually no friction, heat¬ 
up, or wear and can operate at either high or low 
temperatures, in a vacuum, and in corrosive or 
extremely pure media without getting dirty; they are 
ecologically clean, and their use makes possible the 
automatic balancing of a machine rotor without stopping 
it, and so on. 

All these qualities, combined with the relatively low 
operating costs, make the use of electromagnetic bear¬ 
ings advisable in rotor-equipped machines with a wide 
range of rotational speeds and especially those whose 
bearing assemblies operated in difficult conditions. In 
particular, in compressor units, circulating pumps and 
synchronous capacitors. 

The electromagnetic bearing—or in the broader sense, 
the magnetic suspension system (MSP)—is a compli¬ 
cated automatic control system, the stability of which 
depends to a significant extent on the technical charac¬ 
teristics of the mechanical system of the machine or 

In designing an MSP for today’s needs, we worked out 
general principles for the construction of rotor systems 
with electromagnetic bearings as a whole and their 
individual components; we also developed mathematical 
models and software for implementing them. 

An important practical result of the research on the 
creation of the MSP was the development of an inte¬ 
grated computer-aided design system for magnetic sus¬ 
pension (CADS MS), which makes it possible to do the 
designing starting with the technical specifications and 
ending with the selection of the manufacturing process 
for producing the bearing and its controller. The math¬ 
ematical model of the control system and its software 
make up the central element of the CADS MS. That is 
because, on the one hand, the modeling of the MSP 
control system determines all the subsequent design 
stages and, on the other hand, it is that very stage that 
requires the involvement of a rather complicated body of 
mathematics. The special features of the MSP include 
the multiple connectivity [mnogosvyaznosf] of the con¬ 
trol system, the presence in the system of components 
with both distributed and lumped constants, and the 

system’s instability in the open-loop state [razomknu- 
toye sostoyaniye], and so on. In addition, the system’s 
basic characteristics depend on the large quantity of its 
parameters, which greatly hinders the optimization of 
the MSP according to one or another group of parame¬ 
ters. The enumerated features make the use of methods 
of separate analysis of the system’s mechanical and 
electric parts minimally effective. 

The CADS MS has already been used during the 
designing of an MSP for a whole series of large rotor 
mechanisms. As a result, the All-Union Electrome¬ 
chanics Scientific Research Institute has accumulated a 
rather expansive amount of material that makes it pos¬ 
sible to compare indices of the electromagnetic bearings 
such as service life, weight and cost with those of other 
types of bearings. The main conclusion which can be 
drawn here is that, in terms of system costs and annual 
operating expenses, the advantages of the use of a 
magnetic bearing are especially pronounced in large 

The fields of application in large machinery have been 
determined on the basis of the properties of the electro¬ 
magnetic bearings. The machines are, primarily, those 
whose bearing assemblies operate under extremely diffi¬ 
cult conditions, at high temperatures and pressures, and 
in corrosive media (for example, the circulation pumps 
for nuclear reactors^ as well as machines in which the 
lubrication system substantially increases the costs and 
complicates the operation—like, for example, the gas 
compressors for natural gas pumping stations. 

A separate group is made up of the electric machinery 
(turbine generators and mechanical transformers) and 
units (electrical mechanisms) for mobile objects, in 
which the use of electromagnetic bearings can reduce 
vibration levels. 

Thus, it is possible to talk about the fact that the 
development of magnetic suspension systems opens up a 
new area in machine building. However, their introduc¬ 
tion requires, in our opinion, specific organizational 
efforts to open up the possibility for the interaction of all 
participants interested in this matter. 

It seems to us that the most suitable form here mi^t be 
a joint-stock company. The fact is that rotor-equipped 
machines in which the use of electromagnetic bearings 
would be advisable are being produced by enterprises of 
various sectors of the machine building industry. Our 
experience shows that the introduction of MSP is highly 
successful when existing machines are being modern¬ 
ized. In individual instances, it may not affect the 
machine’s main unit at all, but be limited to machining 
of the bearing end plates and the rotor shaft and, 
naturally, the bearing support itself. At the same time, 
almost the entire process for the manufacture of the 
assemblies is retained, and, consequently, the modern¬ 
ized machines can be produced by the very same plant 
that is producing them now. 

22 November 1989 

Space Applications 


Our organization could distribute to the plant producing 
the machines the designs for the mechanical parts and 
the electromagnetic bearings. As for the electrical¬ 
engineering operations (winding, assembly, and adjust¬ 
ment of the MSP), they can be done either at the plant or 
at our site, or jointly. The controller will be delivered by 
our organization. If the scale of the introduction is 
expanded, then, under certain conditions, the enterprises 
manufacturing the machines with the MSP can acquire 
the necessary equipment and purchase from us the 
program software and—either independently or under 
our scientific and technical guidance—develop MSPs. 

I would like to make just one stipulation. With the 
transition of the enterprises to cost accounting, the 
capital for the establishment of a scientific and technical 
reserve should be allocated now from the enterprises’ 
social and technical development fund. It must be con¬ 
fessed that it’s not all that unusual during the distribu¬ 
tion of profits for most of the attention to be focused on 
the establishment of a material incentive fund, some on 
social development, but quite frequently a science and 
technology development fund is forgotten. It’s under¬ 
standable that, under such conditions, even the most 
advanced space technology has difficulty in overcoming 
the force of inertia. 

Deputy Minister of Communications on Utility of 
Energiya-Buran Launch System 

PM3008134189 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 
25 Aug 89 Morning Edition p 2 

[Interview with Yu. Zubarev, deputy minister of com¬ 
munications, by own correspondent I. Demchenko 
under the rubric “Problems and Arguments”: 
“‘Energiya’ and the Wait for Telephones. Will Space 
Technology Help Solve the Communications Prob¬ 
lem?”—date and place unspecified; first two paragraphs 
are editorial introduction] 

[Text] As is well known, the “Energiya-Buran” space 
system was launched at the end of last year. A powerful 
launcher capable of placing up to a 100-tonne payload in 
orbit had appeared. The unprecedented potential of 
“Energiya” has not yet found an application in the 
national economy. This potential could be utilized by the 
USSR Ministry of Communications. 

In particular, the possibility of bringing extensive tele¬ 
phone communications to the country is being pinned on 
this rocket. After all, the number of people with phones 
in our country today is entirely comparable with the 
number of car-owners. Our correspondent asked Yu. 
Zubarev, deputy minister of communications, to discuss 
the prospects offered by the new rocket in the sphere of 
space-based communications. 

[Demchenko] Yuriy Borisovich, as far as I am aware 
rocket launches are currently financed out of the state 
budget. But we are reaching the point where the market 
is becoming the main regulator of economic relations. 

Clearly, space programs will be no exception. Will the 
expenditure on the utilization of “Energiya” be 

[Zubarev] For us this is the main question. Starting from 
the next 5-year plan, the USSR Ministry of Communi¬ 
cations itself will pay for the each communications 
satellite launch. For us too it is not yet obvious that the 
advantages of the new rocket will be equal to the expen¬ 
diture on it. “Energiya” has flown just once, conse¬ 
quently it is still hard to estimate the expenditure on its 
series utilization. 

I recall that a waveguide line of communications was 
once developed. It had a huge throughput capacity at 
relatively low cost. Where was the line to be installed? 
Between Moscow and Leningrad, of course. But when 
the sums were done it turned out that the traffic between 
the two cities would be meager compared with the 
capabilities of the waveguide. The capital expenditure on 
the line has not been recouped during its operation. 

I do not want to draw an analogy with “Energiya.” I hope 
that its great potential will be required, particularly by 
our sector. Specialists are looking for ways to use the 
rocket effectively. Their conclusions should be ready by 
the second quarter of next year. 

[Demchenko] The problem, clearly, is that we are having 
to adapt an existing rocket to the needs of the sector. I 
think that many “civilian” participants in conversion, 
having become customers for output from defense sector 
enterprises, are encountering the same kind of difficul¬ 

[Zubarev] And these difficulties are sometimes very 
serious. For instance, “Energiya” is really a very pow¬ 
erful rocket, but it is designed to place a spacecraft in a 
300-km orbit around the earth. Communications satel¬ 
lites orbit at 36,000 km. This means that “Energiya” will 
need another power unit [blok] to “boost” our equip¬ 
ment to the necessary altitude. But the actual satellite 
will weigh just 17-18 tonnes rather than 100 tonnes. The 
useful payload is correspondingly halved. 

Admittedly, even this capacity considerably exceeds the 
capabilities of current satellites. According to prelimi¬ 
nary calculations, each satellite launched by “Energiya” 
will make it possible to increase tenfold the number of 
space-based telephone communications channels. Large 
antennas could be fitted to the satellites, which would 
have a positive impact on communications quality. 

Such a satellite—or, as it is sometimes called, a space 
platform—opens up wide-ranging prospects for TV 
broadcasting. Currently we broadcast two channels via 
satellite, and we could also transmit local television. 
People would only need a small device to be able to 
receive 10 channels from a space-based retransmitter. 

[Demchenko] Let’s not forget that two tasks are set 
during conversion: to curb the arms race and to organize 
production of products that are in short supply. We have 


Space Applications 

22 November 1989 

a shortage of telephone communications. And if a heavy 
satellite will make it possible to increase the number of 
lines tenfold, perhaps it would be an idea to solve this 
problem with its help? 

[Zubarev] Unfortunately, the potential of even a heavy 
satellite is quite limited in this respect. One space 
platform could provide around 100,000 communica¬ 
tions channels. After that, it’s simply a question of 
arithmetic. We currently have more than 15 million 
people in our country waiting for phones to be installed. 
And we cannot increase the number of satellites ad 
infinitum. The point is that a spacecraft is only sta¬ 
tionary with regard to the earth’s surface in one orbit. 
This orbit is used by communications people worldwide, 
and space in it is also at a premium. So we should not 
count just yet on getting out of the telephone crisis 
exclusively by using the “Energiya” rocket. 

At the same time, we will be solving the problem with 
ground-based equipment: We are laying more modem 
communications cables and building new automatic 
telephone exchanges. We will be commissioning 12.5 
million communications lines in the current 5-year plan, 
and we plan to make a jump to 22 million lines in the 
next 5-year plan. This should ease the pressure to some 
extent. By the year 2000 I hope that almost every urban 
family and one in every two rural families will have a 

[Demchenko] It is no secret that a strategy for the further 
utilization of “Energiya-Buran” was not worked out 
during the development of this space system. You are 
probably among the first people who wanted to look at 
all the pros and cons of the project from the outset and 
then give a final response. And yet I would like you to be 
more definite: Are you happy about the emergence of 
“Energiya” or is it a burden to you? 

[Zubarev] Of course we’re happy. But everything has to 
be calculated properly. We will not incur losses through 
our use of equipment—that will predetermine our final 

Launch of ‘Resurs-F’ Satellite 

LD0709071289 Moscow TASS in English 0706 GMT 
7 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 7 TASS—The Soviet Union 
launched another satellite into orbit which blasted into 
space atop the Soyuz booster rocket on Wednesday. 

The Resurs-F (Resource) satellite is equipped to conduct 
widescale multi-zone and spectre-zone photography and 
continue the research of earth’s natural resources for 
Soviet economy and international cooperation. 

The satellite was launched into orbit with the following 

—initial orbital period: 88.7 minutes, 

—maximum distance from the earth’s surface in the 
apogee: 261 kilometers. 

—minimum distance from the surface in the perigee: 
189 kilometers, 

—inclination of the orbit: 82.3 degrees. 

The satellite’s equipment is functioning normally. 

Information from the Resurs-F is forwarded for analysis 
to the State Research and Industrial Center, Priroda 
(nature), of the Soviet Department of Geodesy and 
Cartography under the Soviet Council of Ministers. 

Under a commercial agreement, Resurs-F is also car¬ 
rying West German equipment for biotechnological 
experiments in low-gravity conditions. 

Gorizont Communications Satellite Launched 28 

LD2909130389 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1245 GMT 29 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow, 29 Sep (TASS)—In accordance with the 
program to further develop systems of communication 
and television broadcasting using artificial earth satel¬ 
lites, a routine “Gorizont” communications satellite was 
launched by a “Proton” carrier-rocket in the USSR on 
Thursday [28 September]. It was put into a near¬ 
stationary orbit with the following initial parameters: 
distance from the surface of the earth—35,753 km; 
period of revolution—23 hours 54 minutes; inclination 
of orbit—1.3 degrees. The equipment is working nor¬ 

‘Meteor-3’ Meteorological Satellite Launched 

LD2510094689 Moscow TASS in English 0936 GMT 
25 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 25 TASS—A Meteor-3 meteo¬ 
rological satellite was orbited in the USSR today by a 
Tsiklon carrier-rocket. It is designed to improve the 
meteorological service and to check information and 
measuring instruments, methods of remote-sounding the 
atmosphere and the earth’s surface for economic and 
scientific purposes. 

The satellite has an initial rotation period of 109.5 
minutes, maximum distance from the earth’s surface of 
1,228 kilometres, minimum distance of 1,191 kilome¬ 
tres, and an orbital inclination of 82.6 degrees. 

It carries optical-mechanical scanning television and 
radio-metrical equipment and geophysical instrumenta¬ 

The satellite’s equipment is functioning normally. 

The gathered data is transmitted for processing and use 
to the Hydrometeorological Center of the USSR, to the 
State Natural Resources Research Center and to auton¬ 
omous data receiving [stations] of the State Hydromete¬ 
orological Committee. 

22 November 1989 

Space Applications 


UDC 528.813 

Remote Determination of Optical Parameters of 
Atmosphere-Surface System From ‘Salyut-7’ 


KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 17 Nov 87) pp 3- 11 

[Article by M. S. Malkevich and G. Zimmermann, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 

[Abstract] The objectives of the MKS-M - MKF-6M 
experiment for investigating the physical parameters of 
the atmosphere-surface system in the visible spectral 
range, carried out under the “Intercosmos” program, are 
reviewed. The methods for solving the pertinent prob¬ 
lems are summarized. Physicomathematical methods 
were developed for remote determination of a wide 
range of optical parameters of the atmosphere and 
Earth’s surface on the basis of measurements of bright¬ 
ness of the atmosphere-surface system in selected parts 
of the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. These 
methods were used in developing the MKS-M multi¬ 
channel spectrometer, ensuring measurements of the 
brightness characteristics of the system, which are nec¬ 
essary for determining the mentioned parameters. The 
methods and MKS-M apparatus were successfully tested 
in experiments on the “Salyut-7” in combination with 
subsatellite and shipboard experiments. These experi¬ 
ments under cloudless conditions ensured determination 
of surface brightness coefficients and optical thickness 
and brightness indicatrix of the atmosphere with an error 
20 percent in the range of changes of these parameters by 
an order of magnitude. Under cloudy conditions it was 
possible to determine the altitudes, brightness coeffi¬ 
cients and optical thicknesses of clouds and the coeffi¬ 
cients of specific absorption of solar radiation by cloud 
particles. The latter exceed the similar values for water 
droplets and ice particles by 2-3 orders of magnitude, 
which may have some relation to acid rain. The MKS-M 
spectrometer and MKF-6M camera were used in abso¬ 
lute calibration of photoimages, ensuring determination 
of brightness of the atmosphere-surface system with a 
high spatial resolution and a great photometric accuracy. 
Simultaneous solar occultation observations using the 
MKS-M and SFN-4 photoattachment yielded informa¬ 
tion on the vertical distributions of the content of ozone 
and aerosol in the lower stratosphere. These measure¬ 
ments revealed an anticorrelation between these compo¬ 
nents, which may be related to the formation of “ozone 
holes.” Images and spectral brightness measurements for 
industrial regions were used in studying the spatial 
distribution of anthropogenic aerosol at different dis¬ 
tances from a smoke source. These data make it possible 
to determine the spatial structure of optical thickness of 
aerosol, which is related to the content of anthropogenic 
pollutants. The results of aerial and shipboard measure¬ 
ments of brightness of the sea surface and aerosol were of 
great importance in interpreting experimental data from 

the “Salyut-7.” These data indicate great variations in 
the optical parameters of the atmosphere and water 
surface. The results will make it possible to develop new 
methods for collecting and processing space informa¬ 
tion. Figures 3; references 21: 16 Russian, 5 Western. 

UDC 551.46.062.3:551.463.5 

Determination of Optical Characteristics of Cloud 
Cover From Results of MKS-M Experiment 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 21 Oct 87) pp 12- 16 

[Article by V. S. Maikova and L. G. Istomina, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 

[Abstract] A study was made of the problem of remote 
determination of cloud cover parameters on the basis of 
the radiation field characteristics of the surface- 
atmosphere system. The basis for solution of this 
problem was the results of spectral measurements of 
brightness of this system using the MKS-M spectrometer 
carried aboard the “Salyut- 7” station. The parameters 
to be determined were optical thickness and specific 
absorption. The observed objects were cloud sectors 
situated at subsatellite points along the investigated 
segment of the trajectory. The following criteria were 
used for identifying cloud segments on the basis of 
radiation measurements: 1) extended homogeneous sec¬ 
tors were selected in which the absolute brightness in the 
visible region exceeded a stipulated value (the clouds 
were more or less dense); 2) the altitude of the reflecting 
surface was determined from measurements in three 
parts of the O 2 band; 3) data from simultaneous mea¬ 
surements of the water vapor transmission function 
(over clouds this value is close to unity) were regarded as 
indirect confirmation of the presence of clouds. A study 
was made only of those sectors where these three factors 
varied little along an extended segment of the trajectory. 
The experiment is described in detail. The results indi¬ 
cate the need for allowance for the characteristics of solar 
radiation absorption by cloud particles because cloud 
cover and aerosol play an important role in the forma¬ 
tion of anomalies of other atmospheric and oceanic 
parameters necessary in studying variations of climate 
and environmental monitoring. Figures 3; references 7: 5 
Russian, 2 Western. 

UDC 528.873+502.55:628.5 

Research on Propagation of Aerosol Pollutants 
From ‘Salyuf Station 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 1 Mar 88) pp 17- 25 

[Article by L. G. Istomina and M. S. Malkevich, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 


Space Applications 

22 November 1989 

[Abstract] The research on anthropogenic pollutants 
carried out from the “Salyut-7” was directed to collec¬ 
tion of data needed for determining spatial (horizontal 
and vertical) distributions of aerosols on the basis of 
determinations of the optical parameters of the atmo¬ 
sphere and Earth’s surface, for checking existing and 
developing improved models of local and large-scale 
propagation of pollutants developed on the basis of 
solution of the equations for the diffusion and transport 
of matter (with allowance for the dynamic characteristics 
of the atmosphere and local relief) and for developing 
methods for combining remote sensing of the surface- 
atmosphere system and the theory of diffusion of matter 
(for determining the quantitative characteristics of the 
spatial and temporal distributions of pollutants). Mea¬ 
surements of the spectral brightness of the surface- 
atmosphere system were made using the MKS-M multi¬ 
channel spectrometer and photographs of the Earth’s 
surface in different parts of the visible and near-IR 
ranges obtained with the MKF-6M multichannel 
camera. It was found that the spatial distribution of the 
intensity of reflected solar radiation obtained by the 
spectrometer and camera in different parts of the visible 
spectral range makes it possible to determine the hori¬ 
zontal scales of aerosol pollutants at different distances 
from their source. The vertical profiles of optical thick¬ 
ness clearly revealed a layered altitudinal distribution of 
aerosol over a large city and over the Sea of Azov, 
evidence of closeness of the conditions for the formation 
and distribution of pollutants. A slight spectral depen¬ 
dence was found for the optical thickness of aerosol 
which may be related to the great contribution of large 
particles to the scattering of solar radiation. The pro¬ 
posed method makes it possible to obtain quite reliable 
estimates of the total content of aerosol pollutants in the 
atmosphere at different distances from a source. Figures 
6; references 11: 10 Russian, 1 Western. 

UDC 528.813 

Research on Vertical Distributions of Ozone in 
Middle Atmosphere and Aerosol Extinction 
Coefficient Using MKS-M and SFN-4 Apparatus 
on ‘Salyut-7’ Station 

18660179d Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLl IZ 
KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 17 Nov 87) pp 26-36 

[Article by V. V. Badayev, G. M. Grechko, N. F. Yelan- 
skiy, V. Kan, M. Ye. Plotkin, S. A. Savchenko, S. A. 
Sitnov, A. P. Fadeyev and G. Zimmermann, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 
Moscow; Atmospheric Physics Institute, USSR 
Academy of Sciences, Moscow] 

[Abstract] The “Salyut-7” program provided for study of 
the vertical and spectral structure of solar radiation 
transmission by the atmosphere during sunrise and 
sunset relative to the station for determining the content 
of aerosol, ozone and water vapor in the upper atmo¬ 
sphere. A combination of spectral and photographic 

apparatus made it possible to ascertain the physical 
causes of color phenomena observed visually on color 
photographs taken at different levels in the atmosphere. 
The results of occultation measurements made using the 
MKS-M multichannel spectrometer and a camera with 
the SFN-4 spectrophotoattachment on the “Salyut-7” 
station are given. The MKS-M consists of an atmo¬ 
spheric spectrometer and a biospectrometer. Atmo¬ 
spheric transparency measurements were made in four 
parts of the visible spectral range. During the occultation 
measurements the instrument registers the solar radia¬ 
tion scattered by a white disk introduced into the MKS- 
M spectrometer and situated perpendicular to the sun’s 
rays. The ozone concentration and aerosol attenuation 
profiles obtained using the MKS-M reveal a detailed 
structure of layers of optically active substances in the 
upper atmosphere. An anticorrelation between ozone 
and aerosol content in the ozonosphere was observed. 
The processing method and altitudinal referencing 
method employed make it possible to use simple tech¬ 
nical devices for determining the vertical distributions of 
ozone and the aerosol extinction coefficient in the lower 
stratosphere and to use them for a quantitative analysis 
of the layered structure of these distributions. Figures 5; 
references 15; 10 Russian, 5 Western. 

UDC 551.521.3:535.3 

Experimental Scattering Indicatrix for Aerosol 
Atmosphere in Regions With Marine Influence 

18660179e Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLl IZ 
KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 26 Mar 86, after revision 18 May 87) pp 37-46 

[Article by U. Leiterer, M. Schonermark and M. Weller, 
Main Meteorological Observatory, GDR Meteorological 
Service, Lindenberg; Space Research Institute, GDR 
Academy of Sciences, Berlin] 

[Abstract] Numerous measurements of atmospheric 
optical parameters were made at sea (in the Baltic Sea) 
and also on shore (in the Crimea) during the “Black 
Sea-1983” experiment under a bilateral cooperation 
agreement between the USSR and the GDR. The BAS 
spectrometer was used in measuring both luminosity and 
energy brightnesses, such as the sky energy brightness. 
Measurements were made in the cloudless sky at wave¬ 
lengths 400, 444, 553, 787 and 1020 nm with a band 
width 10-15 nm. Considerable data on the aerosol indi¬ 
catrix were collected and analyzed. It was found that 
there is an interrelationship between the experimentally 
determined aerosol scattering indicatrix and the optical 
thickness of aerosol in a narrow forward scattering range. 
During horizontal movement of continental air masses 
the aerosol indicatrix in the forward scattering range 
decreases with increasing optical thickness. The absolute 
decrease is determined by the change in the fraction of 
large aerosol particles relative to the total quantity of 
particles. The values of the aerosol scattering indicatrix 
in the forward scattering range increase with increasing 
optical thickness if this increase in optical thickness is 

22 November 1989 

Space Applications 


caused for the most part by enrichment of the lower 
layers of the atmosphere with large particles, as with an 
increase in wind speed over the sea. In the backscattering 
range the aerosol indicatrix is essentially dependent on 
soil albedo and single-scattering albedo. Figures 6; refer¬ 
ences 15: 6 Russian, 9 Western. 

UDC 528.813:551.46.0 

Optical Properties of Aerosol During Experiments 
Over Black Sea in 1983-198S 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 23 Jun 87) pp 47~ 53 

[Article by M. Schonermark, G. Zimmermann, B. Piesik, 
T. Walzel and R. Bischoff, Space Research Institute, 
GDR Academy of Sciences, Berlin] 

[Abstract] The accuracy of measurements made using 
the MKS-M spectrometer on the “Salyut-7” was evalu¬ 
ated by measurements of the optical parameters of the 
atmosphere in a subsatellite test range. The optical 
properties of aerosol were determined using data from 
surface measurements made during experiments in the 
Black Sea area. The measurements made on shipboard 
were with a BAS-4 field spectrometer and on land with a 
BAS-13 photometer in 1983. The field spectrometer 
used had 39 channels in the range from 370 to 1108 nm. 
Particular attention was given to determination of the 
optical thickness of the aerosol and the scattering indic¬ 
atrix. A correlation was found between aerosol optical 
thickness and some meteorological parameters, such as 
equivalent temperature and relative humidity, and pro¬ 
posals are made for their parametrization. The aerosol 
component scattering indicatrices obtained on the basis 
of experimental data and model computations are com¬ 
pared. The research revealed that sky radiation is highly 
anisotropic. This strong anisotropy determines the accu¬ 
racy in making allowance for atmospheric influence and 
must be taken into account. Figures 5; references 10: 4 
Russian, 6 Western. 

UDC 551.525+551.526:629.7 

Spectral-Angular Method for Determining 
Temperature of Earth’s Surface 

18660179g Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLl IZ 
KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 26 Aug 87) pp 54- 64 

[Article by A. K. Gorodetskiy, Space Research Institute, 
USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow] 

[Abstract] The spectral-angular method (SAM) was used 
in analyzing the results of surface temperature measure¬ 
ments on the “Cosmos-1151” and these data were used 
in finding a test for discriminating records meeting the 
requirement less than or equal to 8x*, where T is 
surface temperature and is the admissible error. The 
SAM may be either a combination of measurements of 

the angular distribution in one transparency window of 
the IR range and measurements in two or more spectral 
intervals in one sighting direction (variant 1) or the use 
of synchronous angular distributions of radiation inten¬ 
sity for the discriminated surface sector in several trans¬ 
parency windows (variant 2). The physical premises of 
the method are discussed and formulas are derived for 
representing the atmospheric transmission function 
using finite differences. These two variants of the spec¬ 
tral-angular method for determining surface temperature 
combine the advantages of the angular and spectral 
methods and ensure discrimination of records with 
errors not exceeding the stipulated values in the range 
0.3-1 K. These variants of the method make it possible to 
take variations in optical thickness of the atmosphere 
into account for both the Bouguer component, deter¬ 
mined by molecular continuum absorption and attenu¬ 
ation, and for the selective component. An examination 
of the principal errors in determining surface tempera¬ 
ture by the angular method shows that three or four 
measurements of radiation intensity in the air mass 
range 1-2 make it is possible to attain an accuracy 0.3-0.5 
K. Figures 3; references 32: 20 Russian, 12 Western. 

UDC 551.521:629.78 

Spectrometer of ‘Salyut-7’ Orbital Station 

18660179h Moscow ISSLEDOVANIYE ZEMLl IZ 
KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 5 Feb 88) pp 65- 70 

[Article by V. I. Syachinov and G. Zimmermann, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 

[Abstract] The scientific research program on “Salyut-7” 
provided for synchronous measurements of the spec¬ 
trum in the visible and near-IR ranges for determining 
various parameters of the Earth’s surface, ocean and 
atmosphere using the MKS-M spectrometer and joint 
operation of the MKS-M and the MKF-6M multichannel 
camera for a joint analysis of scientific information with 
referencing of photoimages to absolute brightness 
values. The MKS-M is an optoelectronic-mechanical 
instrument for measuring reflected solar radiation in 18 
spectral intervals in the range 415-880 nm. The volume 
of transmitted telemetric information is very great and 
provision is made for the return of information regis¬ 
tered on magnetic tape to the Earth. The structure of the 
instrument has been simplified by assignment of a 
number of functions to a surface processing station, 
thereby reducing instrument size, weight and power 
consumption (a series of photographs illustrates the 
MKS-M and its two component spectrometers: BS for 
determining the brightness coefficients of the Earth’s 
surface with a spectral resolution 10 nm, and AS, for 
determining the optical parameters of the atmosphere 
with a spectral resolution 1.5 nm. Other components 
include: a mirror- scattering optical unit, rotating by 
180°, for measurements of direct solar radiation or 
radiation reflected by the Earth; observation sight for 


Space Applications 

22 November 1989 

visual choice of the measurement region; devices for 
assembly and adjustment; “Praktika B-200” camera. 
The installed MKS-M measures 975 x 350 x 660 mm and 
weighs 58 kg; working voltage is 27 V, maximal power 
consumption during calibration is 43 W, but during 
measurements is 27 W. Details are given concerning 
MKS-M operating principles. Figures 3; references: 5 

UDC 551.521:629.78 

MKS-M Multichannel Spectrometer: Laboratory 
Research. Calibration and Checking of In-Flight 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 23 Jun 87) pp 71- 77 

[Article by K.-H. Sumnich, Space Research Institute, 
GDR Academy of Sciences, Berlin] 

[Abstract] The MKS-M multichannel spectrometer was 
designed for synchronous measurement of the spectral 
energy brightness of the atmosphere-Earth’s surface 
system, determining the spectral brightness coefficients 
of the ocean. Earth’s surface and also the optical param¬ 
eters of the atmosphere and clouds. Laboratory tests of 
instrument parameters and their stability were a guar¬ 
antee of measurement accuracy. The calibration method 
is described in detail and calibration errors are evalu¬ 
ated. The monitoring of the most important spectrom¬ 
eter parameters in the course of operation is ensured by 
an internal control system using stable miniaturized 
radiation sources. Absolute calibration is carried out in 
the laboratory using standard sources whose radiation 
characteristics are additionally compared with solar 
radiation determined in aircraft experiments. During 
flight in space the spectrometer can be directly calibrated 
using solar radiation. The following metrological param¬ 
eters of the measurement channels can be checked: 
response and stability of calibration coefficient of mea¬ 
surement channels; maintenance of spectral characteris¬ 
tics of channels; proportionality between brightness and 
input voltages; zero level of measurement channels. A 
diagram illustrates the on-board monitoring system. Fig¬ 
ures 6; references 4; 1 Russian, 3 Western. 

UDC 551.521.3:535.3 

Measurements of Spectral Energy Brightness at 
Ocean Surface for Developing Remote Sensing 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 23 Jun 87) pp 78- 83 

[Article by D. Lommatzch, Space Research Institute, 
GDR Academy of Sciences, Berlin] 

[Abstract] The sun can be used as a radiation source 
when investigating the content of phytoplankton in the 

ocean by remote sensing methods. In the visible spectral 
range water has a clearly expressed absorption min¬ 
imum; radiation can penetrate into the water and 
interact with suspended or dissolved matter. The indi¬ 
cation of phytoplankton is possible using the absorption 
of chlorophyll in the range 443 nm. The radiation 
emanating from the water at this wavelength is attenu¬ 
ated as a function of chlorophyll concentration. The 
MKS-BS spectrometer was used in measurements from 
shipboard. A great advantage of the MKS-BS spectrom¬ 
eter is a high time resolution: the time required for 
measuring one spectrum is 24 ms. With a gap of 42 ms 
between two successive spectra, 15 spectra are registered 
in one second. Spectral characteristics of the ocean 
surface were registered under different conditions in the 
autumn of 1979 from a German research ship in the 
southeastern Atlantic. Measurements were made of irra- 
diance at the water surface and the energy brightness 
emanating from the water. Observations were made at 
three stations. In the case of a calm water surface the 
qualitative characteristics of the spectra registered at a 
single station during maximal and minimal reflectivity 
are identical. The situation is completely different for a 
wave-covered sea. The relationship between ascending 
radiation and ocean waves is defined and on this basis an 
algorithm is given for the dependence between ascending 
radiation and the chlorophyll content in the water for 
different illumination and surface state conditions. Pro¬ 
cedures are given for determining the chlorophyll con¬ 
centration in water from the energy brightness of water. 
No comparison between these surface observations and 
space observations was possible. Figures 6; references 5: 
2 Russian, 3 Western. 

UDC 528.85:681.3 

Determination of Spectral Signatures for Remote 
Laser Sensing of Plants 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 1 Sep 87) pp 84- 88 

[Article by D. V. Vlasov, D. M. Mirkamilov, A. A. 
Mukhamedov, M. M. Mansurov and K. A. Nabiyev, 
Tashkent Polytechnic Institute imeni A. R. Beruni] 

[Abstract] Various aspects of application of image rec¬ 
ognition methods in solution of problems in laser remote 
sensing of green plants are discussed. The results of 
statistical processing of data from laboratory measure¬ 
ments of laser-induced fluorescence of plant leaves are 
given. Leaves of different types of plants were investi¬ 
gated: cotton, com and wheat. The spectral curves of 
cotton in normal and pathological states were also 
studied. Fluorescence measurements were made using a 
special optical apparatus based on a multichannel scan¬ 
ning spectrum analyzer. The fluorescence of leaves was 
induced from the upper side by a nitrogen laser with a 
radiation wavelength 337 nm in a dark room. The most 
informative spectral signatures were ascertained. These 
made it possible to construct an adequate database for 

22 November 1989 

Space Applications 


remote sensing of agricultural fields. The choice of signal 
intensities at definite wavelengths as signatures does not 
always ensure the reliable identification of plants as a 
result of considerable overlapping of fluorescence bands. 
The best separability can evidently be attained by using 
the derivatives of spectra characterizing the shape of the 
spectral curves and also the time parameters of fluores¬ 
cence, Figures 3; references 7: 6 Russian, 1 Western. 

UDC 528,042.8 

Correction of Absolute Calibrations of Satellite 
Microwave Radiometers Using A Priori Data 


KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 

received 24 Aug 87) pp 89- 94 sb 

[Article by K P. Savorskiy, Radio Engineering and 

Electronics Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 


[Abstract] The accuracy in computing radiobrightness 
temperatures on the basis of data from satellite micro- 
wave radiometer measurements is determined in large 
part by errors in absolute calibration of the instruments. 
Due to the high level of error in determining radiobright¬ 
ness temperatures in many cases the geophysical param¬ 
eters retrieved from microwave radiometer measure¬ 
ments assume values without physical meaning. 
Attempts have already been made to solve the latter 
problem by solution of the inverse problem using a 
limited set of parameters with stipulation of optimal 
admissible limits, but there is still a need for a correction 
of experimental data ensuring retention of the constancy 
of calibration relations within the limits of the moni¬ 
tored region. A new method is proposed which not only 
makes it possible to avoid the appearance of meaningless 
values of geophysical parameters, but also ensures a 
uniform correction of the calibration relations within the 
investigated area. The developed method is also appli¬ 
cable for other geophysical systems for which radiation- 
geophysical models and the ranges of change of the 
determining parameters of these models are known. 
Figure 1; references: 7 Russian. 

UDC 528.7:629.78 

Special Software for Processing and Compressing 
MKS-M Data 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 27 Oct 87) pp 95- 103 

[Article by V. V. Badayev, V. N. Voronkov, Ye. A, 
Gavrilova, I. M. Mansurov and V. D. Maslov, Space 
Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 

[Abstract] The software used in conjunction with geo¬ 
physical experiments with the MKS-M multiband spec¬ 
trometer on the “Salyut-7” station is briefly described. 

Materials are given illustrating the possibility of spectral¬ 
time compression of the received data using the orthog¬ 
onal transforms method with the discrimination of the 
informative part of the data without a loss in the 
accuracy of their retrieval with a stipulated error 5 
percent. The attainable compression factor is 8-10. The 
method for use of a system of Chebyshev functions, 
applicable under certain conditions, is also discussed. 
Examples are presented indicating the possibilities of 
compressed representation of a substantial part of the 
real spectrometric information on the fleld of terrestrial 
radiation. The effectiveness of the algorithm written for 
the construction of base functions most informative with 
respect to the structure of the registered signals and the 
feasibility of its use in planned space experiments are 
discussed. Figures 6; references: 6 Russian. 

UDC 629.19:551 

Optimal Orbits and Structure of Systems of 
Artificial Earth Satellites for Periodic Scanning of 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 (manuscript 
received 11 Nov 87)pp 104-115 

[Article by V. K. Saulskiy] 

[Abstract] This is the third part of a three-part study (for 
preceding parts see V. K. Saulskiy, ISSLED. ZEMLI IZ 
KOSMOSA, No5,pp 103-112, 1986; No l,pp U1-121, 
1987) on the optimization of orbits of artificial earth 
satellites (AES) and structure of space systems for the 
study of natural resources with periodic scanning of a 
stipulated zone on the Earth’s surface. The first part 
presented the initial mathematical approach (including 
concepts, terms and definitions) and the first direction in 
its use was illustrated; a precise analytical algorithm was 
given for computing the time required by the system of 
AES for continuous coverage of a particular region with 
scanning bands. The algorithm is easily applied using a 
computer and is suitable for space systems with as many 
AES as desired and with an arbitrary structure (relative 
positioning of satellities) and is characterized by a high 
speed. The second part gives a second direction in use of 
the mathematical approach outlined in the first part and 
gives a formal exposition of a method for computing the 
parameters of so-called “limiting space systems” optimal 
for an around-the-clock scanning of the Earth. This third 
and final part of the study gives a graphic interpretation 
and validation of the contents of part 2, completes the 
exposition of general methods for computing optimal 
orbits and structure of space systems for around- 
the-clock and non-around-the-clock scanning and out¬ 
lines the limits of applicability of these methods. Figures 
7; references: 6 Russian. 


Space Applications 

22 November 1989 

UDC 629.78:528.9 

International Symposium ^Remote Sensing. Use in 
Cartography^ (Graz, Austria, 7-9 September 1987) 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 pp 119-121 

[Article by L. N. Vasilyev and L. A. Vedeshin] 

[Abstract] A symposium on remote sensing as applicable 
to cartography was held with 110 specialists in atten¬ 
dance from a wide range of countries. The program was 
devoted to a discussion of advances in thematic cartog¬ 
raphy using existing commercial and experimental space 
systems, such as SPOT, Landsat-TM and NOAA, and 
various promising approaches for systemic observations 
of the Earth from space. For example, representatives of 
the United States, France and the FRG presented com¬ 
munications on national projects for remote sensing 
based on new optical apparatus with very high spatial 
resolution ensuring the registry of stereoscopic images, 
and also radars on the space shuttle. Work is being 
carried out on projects for evaluating global processes 
and mapping their consequences at 1:5 000 000 for the 
period up to 1995. Among the problems discussed were: 
instrumentation and methodology for space surveys, 
processing of images and geoinformation systems, infor¬ 
mation systems for investigating the Earth, environ¬ 
mental studies, revision of topographic maps and others: 
a total of 45 reports and 13 exhibits. Remote sensing is 
developing in two main directions: commercial and 
scientific. In the first there is extensive commercializa¬ 
tion of space vehicles, clearly manifested in such systems 
as SPOT and Landsat-TM. The second direction is 
characterized by the development of large integral space 
systems for sounding in the entire band of electromag¬ 
netic radiation from different satellites and orbital sta¬ 
tions for systemic study of the Earth. The developers of 
the SPOT system, for example, illustrated the practical 
use of space images for thematic mapping at 1:50 000 
and 1:200 000 for solving problems of local and subre¬ 
gional character, followed by a discussion of the SPOT 
program to 1996. Applications of SPOT materials for 
mapping purposes, space triangulation, map revision 
and territorial planning were examined. Despite many 
individual national reports, attention was focused on 
international projects. Much attention was given to 

American projects. The symposium gave a clear idea 
concerning the strategy for space investigations of the 
Earth up to 1995 and concerning new technologies for 
preparing space images with use of geoinformation sys¬ 

UDC 525.7:629.78 

Expanded Session of Section on Study of 
Atmosphere of the Commission on Study of 
Earth^s Natural Resources for Discussion of 
Scientific-Methodoiogical Aspects of Triroda’ 
International Multidisciplinary Project 

KOSMOSA in Russian No 2, Mar-Apr 89 p 123 

[Article by B. Z. Petrenko and S. V. Sokolovskiy] 

[Abstract] The session was held on 19 May 1988 in 
Moscow at the Atmospheric Physics Institute, with 45 
specialists in attendance, to discuss work under the 
“Priroda” project. A report by Professor V. G. Kutuza 
dealt with the scientific instruments to be carried in the 
“Priroda” module for the Mir orbital station and out¬ 
lined the main scientific objectives of the experiment. 
The instrumentation includes the Ikar-1 microwave- 
radiometer complex for soundings at wavelengths 0.3, 
0.8, 1.35, 2.25 and 6 cm and scanning and panoramic 
radiometers for sounding at two polarizations at an angle 
40° to nadir; the Istok-1 IR-spectroradiometric system 
with 64 channels in the 3.6-to 16 ^im interval, scanning 
from 0 to 90° in the orbital plane or the plane perpen¬ 
dicular to it; the “Obzor” scanning system operating in 
the visible and near-IR ranges with 17 channels in the 
0.415-1.03 pm window; a side-looking radar with syn¬ 
thetic aperture operating at wavelengths of 10 and 20 
cm; a precision radioaltimeter with a working wave¬ 
length 2.25 cm; and a TV camera. This instrument 
package will make possible global monitoring of ocean 
surface temperature, ice cover parameters, wind speed at 
the ocean surface, atmospheric concentration of aerosol 
and trace gas components and will help in solving other 
remote sensing problems. Among the other reports pre¬ 
sented at the session were those devoted to improved 
methods for determining trace gas and aerosol compo¬ 
nents on the basis of optical sounding data (M. S. 
Malkevich) and to the need for a professional geophysi¬ 
cist to be among the crew members on the Mir station 
(G. M. Grechko). 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


Soviet Effort to Develop Rocket for Manned Lunar 
Mission Revealed 

18660205 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 19 Aug 89 p 

[Article by Sergey Leskov: “Hew We Didn’t Fly to the 

[Text] A couple of years ago K. Gatland’s “Space Tech¬ 
nology” encyclopedia was offered in a Moscow book fair. 
The encyclopedia created a sensation in scientific circles. 
Many scientists, and precisely the most qualified and 
knowledgeable at that, came specially to the fair in order 
to leaf through the encyclopedia. 

It would of course be naive to suggest that Soviet 
specialists in space technology must supplement their 
store of knowledge by such an undependable means. 
Interest in the copy at the exhibition was elicited for 
entirely different reasons. Besides the huge American 
Satum-5 launch vehicle that took the Apollo spacecraft 
into Lunar orbit, the ecyclopedia contained information 
on a similar Soviet rocket, the N1, development of which 
was treated as one of the deepest secrets of our space 
sector, and which was naturally never mentioned in our 
literature. However, in the century of spy satellites, 
many secrets, no matter how hard you try to keep them, 
still surface. And so it was with the NI: Hiding it from 
foreign eyes was not any easier than, let us say, hiding a 
giraffe in a chicken coop. Several times in the 1960s- 
1970s the giant cigar-shaped N1 was conveyed to the 
launch pads of Baykonur, where it was photographed by 
all-seeing space vehicles. 

By the way, “Space Technology” was republished with 
the “necessary” abridgements in the USSR, and all 
mention of the N1 was banished from the text. Why such 
a cautious attitude toward the Nl? Why the desire to 
lower a curtain of secrecy over its history, when it is clear 
from a single glance at the parameters of the rocket to 
even the least knowledgeable specialists what its purpose 
might be? Could it be that the N1 was guilty of some¬ 
thing, and they decided to punish it with oblivion, 
striking it from the history of cosmonautics? That guess 
is right in part. According to official propaganda cosmo¬ 
nautics developed in our country to the sound of kettle 
drums, to the tune of victory marches. The N1 rocket 
just didn’t fit into this glorious chronicle. 

The Nl is called Korolev’s “last love.” From the many 
biographies on the chief designer of space systems, we 
know that he dreamed not only of mankind’s emergence 
into space, but also flight to other planets. We also know 
that in contrast to the multitudes of science fiction 
writers, Korolev was able to bring his plans to life. He 
was able to accomplish the former. But what about the 
latter? Could Sergey Pavlovich really have overlooked 
the planet closest to Earth, modestly limiting himself to 
the launching of unmanned spacecraft? 

Moreover the creator of the world’s first spacecraft was 
doubtlessly ambitious. His ambition consisted not of 

acquiring titles and awards. The circumstances them¬ 
selves would not allow this: Being strictly “classified” all 
his life, even in Kremlin receptions Korolev was com¬ 
pelled to remove his Hero of Socialist Labor decorations, 
and in the newspapers he signed his articles with a 
pseudonym. Korolev’s vanity took the form of a pas¬ 
sionate desire to be indisputably the first to create a 
unique machine, and to accomplish an unprecedented 
project before anyone else. Once Sergey Pavlovich was 
shown a schedule bearing the optimum dates for 
launches to the Moon, Venus, Mars and other planets. 
Korolev said: “It would be nice to traverse this entire 
front, and be first everywhere.” But the Americans did 
not make a secret of their preparations for a Lunar 
landing. That meant that.... 

That didn’t mean anything yet. Because space accom¬ 
plishments are achieved not in laboratories. Success 
requires money, and a great deal at that. This is not an 
appropriate moment to return to today’s favorite topic 
of discussion—conversion, the turnover of money 
invested into cosmonautics. All of this is valid, but the 
money still has to come from somewhere initially. And 
the military is a primary source. It is an evil irony that all 
significant scientific and technical projects of the 20th 
century—from Popov’s inoffensive radio to utilization 
of the energy of fission of the atomic nucleus—received 
support and the right of practical realization only in the 
event that they were “betrothed” to the military indus¬ 
trial complex. Nor was this fate to be avoided by rocket 
technology creator Korolev, whose interests were far 
removed from all military applications. One of the first 
major assignments received by Korolev was associated 
namely with military technology—he was sent to Ger¬ 
many together with a group of specialists in 1945 to 
study German developments of the V-2. 

Sergey Pavlovich lived in Bleicherode, in the villa aban¬ 
doned by SS Sturmbanfuhrer Werner von Braun, a 
talented German engineer, the creator of the first long- 
range military missiles, and simultaneously the organizer 
of the extermination of concentration camp captives 
servicing his secret proving ground. Making his way 
across the ocean, von Braun took charge of many Amer¬ 
ican space projects. He and Korolev never met, but it 
was apparent that they perpetually maintained invisible 
competition. I would hardly be trampling the truth if I 
were to say that prior to Saturn and Apollo, Korolev’s 
vehicles were invariably superior to von Braun’s in their 
technical characteristics. 

So where was Korolev to get his money? Calculations 
showed that a manned flight to the Moon would require 
a launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of 100 
tons into a near-Earth reference orbit. But the capacity 
that had already been attained was fully sufficient to 
maintain parity in weaponry in the foreseeable future. 
Various modifications of Korolev’s legendary “No 7” 
are still the principal means of transportation in cosmo¬ 
nautics, inserting from 5 to 7 tons of payload into orbit. 
But even then it was clear to Korolev that the future of 
cosmonautics lay in vehicles of even greater power. This 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

was obviously not an easy thing to prove. Korolev was 
forced to work a step at a time toward his cherished 100 
tons, cautiously increasing the rocket’s power. But he 
kept constant sight of his goal. That the intentions were 
serious is revealed by the fact that a special group of 
cosmonauts under the leadership of A. Leonov was 
preparing for a flight to the Moon. 

On 25 May 1961 U.S. President J. Kennedy sent an 
historic message to Congress posing the high goal of a 
Moon landing before the “American nation.” The USA, 
which had yielded its primacy to the Soviet Union in 
initiating the space age, thirsted for persuasive revenge, 
and in the minds of Americans it was associated with 
conquering Earth’s satellite. Hundreds of companies and 
private and state-run corporations worked harmoniously 
on the Apollo project, tens of billions of dollars were 
allocated, and all of the work was coordinated by a single 
brain center—^NASA. 

No, we had absolutely no desire to lose our priority in 
space. But we had nothing like a real analysis of the 
situation, or the ability to create a single work plan for 
dozens of enterprises and institutes, to concentrate the 
necessary efforts on the most important task, and to 
provide precise economic justifications. On the contrary 
each space design office sweated over its own project. It 
took a long time to get going on a lunar expedition, and 
to make a final decision, as a result of which Korolev had 
to revise the plan of his rocket on several occasions. We 
know how exasperated Sergey Pavlovich became in his 
last years with unavoidable dealings with bureaucratic 
officials who were becoming more powerful. 

And so, the chronicle of events. In 1960 a decree on 
creating the N1 launch vehicle with a payload of 40-50 
tons in 1963 appeared. Subsequently, the plan was 
reviewed on almost an annual basis, the capacity of the 
rocket increased, deadlines were postponed, until finally 
in November 1966 an expert commission under the 
chairmanship of Academician M. V. Keldysh issued a 
positive conclusion on the draft plan [eskiznyy proyekt] 
for a Lunar expedition using a 95-ton launch vehicle, 
which would make it possible to land one cosmonaut on 
the Moon, leaving a second crewmember in orbit. A 
decree on the work schedule that even indicated a 
deadline for the beginning of flight tests—the third 
quarter of 1967—^was adopted in February 1967. It was 
already known that the Americans were to launch in 
1969. But fully in keeping with the spirit of the times, 
our specialists were charged with the responsibility of 
ensuring the USSR’s priority in exploration of the Moon. 

A pressure-cooker style became the favorite and sole 
possible method of leadership. But there was hardly any 
need to force anyone—enthusiasm was abounding. I had 
occasions to talk about the N1 with many engineers—for 
all of us this was one of the happiest periods of life. If any 
one of the leading designers left work on time, he felt 
himself to be something of a moral deviant, a person 
avoiding the responsibilities of his work. Korolev never 
demanded overtime work, but everyone was engrossed 

in the timely, difficult and obsessively interesting effort. 
M. S. Florianskiy, who was still a quite young engineer, 
related the eagerness with which his colleagues grabbed 
at each assignment from the Chief: “Give me a rough 
estimate of this variant in a week’s time.” Literally all 
components of the powerful spacecraft had to be created 
anew. There was no room for haste in such a matter. But 
the work on the NI was whipped on by an unnecessary 
race with the Americans. 

Academician V. P. Mishin, who was appointed the chief 
designer of space systems after S. P. Korolev’s death in 
January 1966, still has the shorthand record of one of the 
conferences conducted by D. F. Ustinov: 

“The holiday is 2 months away, and the USA will launch 
once again, but what about us? What have we accom¬ 
plished? And consider what October 1967 would be like. 
If there is one thing I want you to understand, it is this! 
All personal concerns and passions must be suppressed!” 

Ostentation and the desire to publicize success, to hasten 
an effort even at the expense of the effort itself are 
impermissible in any sector of the national economy, but 
especially in cosmonautics, which is associated with 
great risk and with large material investments. However, 
in those days this mania for reporting accomplishments 
consumed ever more strongly our cosmonautics as well, 
a field in which a spirit of high professionalism had 
previously reigned, and in which pressure to achieve a 
launch on an anniversary date would have been impos¬ 

All of this eloquently characterizes the atmosphere in 
which preparations for a Lunar expedition and construc¬ 
tion of the N1 rocket proceeded. But subjective complex¬ 
ities achieved no less importance as well. While America 
was racing full speed toward success, Korolev found 
himself without an engine for the N1. The engine is the 
heart of the rocket. If it is good, well-tuned, the 
numerous other rocket systems “breathe” easy. If it is 
uncooperative, hundreds of blocks and units complain of 
“ill health.” A new engine that would be about fifteen 
times more powerful than any previously available could 
have been created at this moment in only one design 
office in the entire country—the one led by Academician 
V. P. Glushko. As with S. P. Korolev, he did a great deal 
for Soviet cosmonautics, but the moment we decide to 
portray the triumphant history of its development 
without touch-ups, and recreate a truthful picture, we 
cannot avoid the confrontations and disputes which are 
unavoidable between prominent characters seeking new 
roads. Every scientist capable of expressing his own, 
fundamentally new ideas in science and technology inev¬ 
itably collides with the misunderstanding and opposition 
of other scientists, who may include not only reaction¬ 
aries but also outstanding specialists. 

The greatness of a scientist is not at all determined by 
how few mistakes he makes. On the contrary the mis¬ 
takes a scientist makes are what characterize his great¬ 
ness. And so, Korolev and Glushko adhered to opposite 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


views on the prospects of rocket engines in that period. It 
was clear to both that the kerosene and liquefied oxygen 
used at that time would not be able to satisfy the growing 
demands of cosmonautics. But it seemed to Glushko that 
fluorine, nitric acid, dimethylhydrazine and other 
extremely toxic substances would be the best propellant 
components. He emphasized on several occasions in the 
1960s that hydrogen and oxygen were unpromising in 
rocket technology. There was a logic to these assertions: 
Low density requires large tanks, and the weight charac¬ 
teristics of the rocket worsen. At that time Glushko was 
unable to foresee the revolution in cryogenic technology. 
On the other hand, Korolev had faith in hydrogen- 
oxygen engines. While he admitted to the difficulties of 
storing liquefied components, he also pointed out the 
impermissibility of utilizing toxic fuel in manned space¬ 
craft. The death of Marshal Nedelin during tests on one 
of Yangel’s rockets confirmed these apprehensions. 

Moreover, Korolev’s design office arrived at the convic¬ 
tion that because time was short, it would be simpler to 
build the first stage of the N1 out of a large number of 
synchronously operating midsized engines. Glushko’s 
proponents insisted on a grouping of large engines—it 
was their understanding that it would be too complicated 
to attain the required synchrony in an armada of small 
engines. There is an interesting comparison to be made 
here: The Americans equipped the first stage of Satum-5 
with five traditional liquid oxygen and kerosene engines, 
and it was in the subsequent stages of the rocket that they 
used liquid hydrogen for the first time. A few years later, 
life itself compelled V. P. Glushko to drop his prejudice 
against hydrogen engines, which are now working suc¬ 
cessfully in the Energiya launch vehicle. In a word, it 
would have been worthwhile for our scientists to work 
toward mutual compromises at that time. But neither 
would yield—this was a collision between two rigid 
characters. Glushko boycotted the N1 system, placing 
not only Korolev but also the plan for a Lunar expedition 
in a difficult position. 

This forced Korolev to seek other engine designers on 
short notice. As we know, aviation experienced a 
retrenchment in the early 1960s, such that many plants 
were unable to get contracts. Thus, as a way to help each 
other out, S. P. Korolev’s design office and N. D. 
Kuznetsov’s Kuybyshev design office, which developed 
engines for TU airplanes, began cooperating. In many 
ways owing to the efforts of Kuybyshev national eco¬ 
nomic council chairman V. Ya. Litvinov and oblast 
party committee secretary V. I. Vorotnikov, in short 
time the necessary production capacities were allocated 
and 28 enterprises were put to work on space contracts. 

What was the new launch vehicle like? In many ways it 
was essentially an embodiment of an idea, suggested 
some time earlier by S. P. Korolev, of assembling “rocket 
trains” in orbit for a flight to distant planets. Except in 
this case the train was assembled right in the plant shop. 

The N1 launch vehicle was designed a quarter of century 
ago, but even today, many designers who planned it told 

me, they are not embarrassed with their creation. There 
were the control systems, the measuring equipment, the 
numerous design concepts, and especially the possibility, 
discovered for the first time in rocket technology, for 
manufacturing light but strong, spherical fuel cells, as 
well as abandonment, for the first time, of many load- 
bearing members. Brilliant engineering discoveries com¬ 
pensated for low engine thrust. Yes, despite all of the 
efforts, the propulsion unit of the first stage remained the 
most uncertain part of the rocket. It was difficult, and 
practically impossible for Kuznetsov’s design office, 
which lacked the experience, to create, right off the start 
and without mistakes, synchronously operating engines 
of a design previously unknown in Soviet rocket con¬ 
struction. Nonetheless, while it was inferior to the Sat- 
um-5 in regard to its engine, the N1 made up for this 
shortfall by means of other systems. The ultimate result 
is that the weight characteristics— the most important 
indicator of the “viability” of a design—remain for the 
N1 among the highest in rocket construction even today. 

But there were also innovations that were nothing to 
boast about. Captive tests on the first stage were rejected 
in order to economize on time and money (once again 
this argument! How much damage was done by haste, by 
the desire to “be first in the world” at all costs!). “If the 
rocket does fly, and the second and third stages have 
been substituted by iron mock-ups, when I leave the 
observation bunker, what will I have gained?” said 
Korolev. In a word, a decision was made to test the 
entire system all at once. 

Flight tests on the N1 rocket began on 21 February 1969. 
The flight was terminated 70 seconds after launch due to 
a fire in the tail section of the first stage. On 3 July 1970, 
during an attempt at a second launch, a powerful explo¬ 
sion occurred due to malfunction of an oxygen pump, 
destroying the launch complex. It took a great deal of 
time to repair it and to prepare a new rocket, such that a 
new attempt was not made until 27 July 1971. The 
rocket had barely gotten off the ground when the flight 
was broken off due to loss of rotation control, and once 
again the launch complex was damaged. As B. A. Dor- 
ofeyev, one of the testing supervisors, told it, such major 
accidents had an oppressive effect upon all personnel. 
But on the other hand no one felt that the N1 was 
doomed, that its defects were chronic. The people 
worked hard, many asked for extensions on their time of 
work at the proving grounds, everyone felt that the 
rocket was “maturing,” and that success was not far 

Finally, the fourth launch, on 23 November 1972. All 
systems of the bewitched first stage and all the engines 
worked normally, the flight lasted 107 seconds, but at the 
end of the active phase a malfunction arose in the tail 
section, and the flight was terminated. Nonetheless the 
designers and services of the cosmodrome were joyful 
beyond words. It was now clear, after all, that victory was 
but a half-step away. 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

“Even after attending a dozen launches of our Soyuz, it 
is still an emotional experience,” recalls USSR Academy 
of Sciences Corresponding Member B. Ye. Chertok, one 
of Korolev’s oldest assistants, who was appointed tech¬ 
nical director of the last launch. “There is nothing with 
which to compare the spectacle of the launch of the N1. 
The Earth shakes as far as the eye could see, and a 
hurricane of fire is whipped up—only an unfeeling and a 
dissolute person could remain calm in such moments. 
All thoughts and feelings are strained. You have this 
desire to urge the rocket on: ‘Go, go, higher, take off.” 

Four or five trial launches during testing of space rocket 
technology is the way things usually go. Even the “No 7,” 
which was incomparably less complex than the Nl, did 
not fly until the fourth time. The next two craft were 
already ready in the assembly and testing building at 
Baykonur. A fifth launch was to occur in August 1974, 
and a sixth at the end of the year—the sixth and, the 
designers felt, the last prior to acceptance of the Nl 
launch vehicle for operation. Even the most cautious 
minds named 1976 as the latest that the new craft would 
be completely debugged. 

It was a complete surprise to everyone when work on the 
Nl was first frozen, and later altogether terminated, 
following replacement of the chief designer in May 1974: 
V. P. Glushko was appointed in place of V. P. Mishin. 
On the very first day the new director of Korolev’s design 
office declared the Nl to be a mistake; he said that he 
had arrived “not with an empty portfolio,” and he 
proposed a new conception, which led in a little over 10 
years to the creation of the reusable Buran plane and the 
Energiya launch vehicle of practically the same power as 
the rejected Nl. There can be no doubt at all that we 
should be proud of both the Buran and the Energiya, but 
isn’t it disappointing to write an almost finished craft off 
to the scrap heap? Designers who had visited Baykonur 
in the late 1970s still find the cyclopean mountain of Nl 
launch and assembly and testing structures, once 
teeming with people and now abandoned, to be a painful 
memory. As I understood from their stories, the picture 
recalled in some ways Tarkovskiy’s “zone.” 

Anyway, emotions are unreliable. Is it true that perhaps 
the N1 could not have been perfected, and that the work 
had reached a dead end? Here is just one fact: Obviously 
troubled by the prestige of his design office, in 1976 N. 
D. Kuznetsov conducted bench tests on the NTs engine. 
The engine worked for as much as 14,000 seconds, while 
it would only have needed to work 114-140 seconds to 
insert a rocket into orbit. 

This ends the story of the Nl launch vehicle. The last 
“swan song” of Korolev was thus left unsung. Of course, 
it would be unjust to write off the Nl as a loss entirely. 
The plant equipment, the assembly and testing and the 
launch complexes were subsequently used for the 
Energiya. The experience of designing and “perfecting” 
the powerful rocket was also doubtlessly useful: Energiya 

essentially took off the first time. Moreover some stages 
of the “rocket train” are still traveling successfully as 
individual “cars.” 

Nonetheless I am not about to sugar-coat the pill. Ter¬ 
mination of the work on the N1 deprived our cosmonau¬ 
tics of its natural, progressive development, and knocked 
us off of the general line of forward movement charted 
by Korolev. Some specialists feel that it was precisely 
since then that the space sector has been living without a 
long-range program, satisfying itself with isolated 
projects. Was this perhaps the time when the first 
foundations of the broad critical campaign that has 
recently developed against cosmonautics were laid? In 
technology, as in living nature, there are inviolable laws 
of evolution, ones which no one may violate without 
consequences. After all, it has now already been 30 years 
that we have essentially been limited to a payload of 20 
tons; given such a limit, how can we talk about achieving 
a substantial payoff from orbiting stations? The powerful 
launch vehicle, the need for which was brilliantly fore¬ 
seen by Korolev, opened up the widest prospects before 
cosmonautics from the creation of large orbiting com¬ 
plexes, serious discussion of which began in our country 
only recently, to the launching of unmanned spacecraft 
toward other planets. 

There were also specialists even in the early 1970s who 
understood that closing the book on the Nl would have 
an unfavorable effect on our cosmonautics. V. P. Mishin 
haunted the high-level offices, B. A. Dorofeyev wrote 
letters to the 25th Congress, and a number of specialists 
asked for “just a little”—^permission to test at least the 
two finished rockets over the ocean. 

It was all for naught; differing opinions sank without a 
trace in the silence of the high-level offices. The destiny 
of the Nl was decided not by specialists—the logic of 
scientific development was dictated by political leaders. 
Not a single session of the scientific council, not one 
conference with specialists, not one meeting of the 
council of chief designers.... What was it that influenced 
the destiny of the Nl? In any case, there were consider¬ 
ations far removed from the interests of science and the 
true interests of the country. In the absence of an official 
version, let me suggest my own. For a number of reasons 
the work schedule on the Nl was dragged out and 
persons responsible for cosmonautics (chiefly D. F. 
Ustinov and Minister of General Machine Building S. A. 
Afanasyev) had been making promises for such a long 
time, first to N. S. Khrushchev and then L. I. Brezhnev, 
that they were beginning to feel anxious about their 
positions. It was safer to transfer the responsibility to the 
shoulders of others, and to declare the Nl to be a 
mistake. And second, the Americans had already landed 
successfully on the Moon six times by then. It was clear 
that we were behind them. Political and scientific leaders 
creating the appearance that they were defending the 
interests of the state and the prestige of Soviet science 
came up with a face- saving idea: would it not be better 
to declare manned exploration of the Moon an unneces¬ 
sary venture, and to drop a curtain of secrecy over the 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


fact that we ourselves had been traveling in the same 
direction for a long time? It is curious in this connection 
that the first landing of man on the Moon was not 
televised only in the USSR and China. And no one gave 
any thought at all to a “small thing” such as the honest 
labor of thousands of people who devoted the best years 
of their lives to the Nl. They not only took no consid¬ 
eration of the people, they did not even offer any 
explanations. Thus it turns out that together with the 
“offending” Nl they relegated to the scrap heap its 
builders as well, many of whom certainly experienced 
such a psychological blow that they could never create 
anything of equal value again. And these were the best 
personnel of Korolev’s design office. 

There is possibly a third reason as well. Having com¬ 
pleted the Apollo program and having used the Satum-5 
to launch the Skylab orbiting station for the last time, the 
USA went on to developing reusable systems. We also 
completed our lunar program—^with a different result, of 
course,—and once again sped off in an effort to catch up. 
This time we caught up, having created the Buran. But is 
it in any way to our advantage that the strategy for 
cosmonautics is now being dictated by someone other 
than the USSR, which gave the world its space pioneers? 
Voices that should have been raised long ago are just 
now being raised: do we really need reusable systems, 
which are so extremely expensive and operationally 
complex? But if to keep the peace we assume that they 
are useful, then as V. P. Mishin, B. Ye. Chertok, R. F. 
Apazov and many other specialists are convinced, it was 
fully possible to adapt the Nl to inserting a Soviet 
Shuttle into orbit. Thus we would have saved the enor¬ 
mous amounts of money that have been spent on the 
development of Energiya. 

But let’s talk about the outlays on the Nl. I have no 
official data, but V. P. Mishin and B. Ye. Chertok said 
that close to 4.5 billion were spent on it during all the 
years of the program. If we make a comparison with the 
USA’s outlays on Apollo—25 billion, then the winner in 
the “Lunar” debate could have been predicted. This 
makes the ability of Korolev and his colleagues for 
creating a powerful, competitive craft out of nothing all 
the more remarkable. 

History is oblivious of the subjunctive mood. What was, 
was. Nonetheless it is hard to avoid the question: Had 
Korolev lived a few more years, would he have been able 
to make the Nl operational? But such a question might 
not be altogether precise. There were mistakes embodied 
in the plan of the heavy launch vehicle that were in many 
ways responsible for the four unsuccessful launches. But 
the mistakes were gradually corrected, such that it would 
be more proper to ask: Would Korolev have been able to 
persuade the country’s leadership that continuing the 
work on the Nl was necessary? Sergey Pavlovich pos¬ 
sessed a hypnotic gift of persuasion, and his authority 
was enormous, but it would be wrong to think that the 
chief designer was invulnerable. We know how enthusi¬ 
astic he was with Khrushchev, in whom he obviously 
sensed a kindred spirit, and how cautious he was of his 

successor, who was noted for his indifference to the 
problems of cosmonautics and who acceded to the whis¬ 
pers of his confidants. By the way, Leonid Ilich wept at 
Korolev’s funeral, and permitted the obituaries to refer 
to him for the first time as the creator of Soviet rocket 

The destiny of the Lunar expedition that never was, and 
of the Nl rocket that never flew, as is true for the destiny 
of any project of such grandiose scale, reflects the painful 
problems of the entire society. Included among them are 
excessive politicization of science, substitution of true 
goals by imaginary ones, voluntarism, the lack of colle- 
giality in the adoption of important decisions, impermis¬ 
sibly great significance attached to personal relations 
with sector executives, and an indifference to the fate of 
the “cogs in the wheels”—that is, of the people who 
multiply the power of the state with their hands. But 
perhaps the main thing is the inability to foresee the 
prospects of technological development, to peer into the 
future, blind faith in foreign experience at the expense of 
common sense. 

We could add to the latter that we might still perhaps see 
the Nl in the sky. Having had their fill of flying the 
Shuttle, the Americans have come to the conviction that 
cosmonautics would nonetheless be unable to carry on 
without heavy expendable rockets. Recently NASA 
examined 12 alternative variants for the development of 
rocket technology: One of them foresees transformation 
of the Shuttle into an analogue of the NI. 

In my visits to Baykonur I often turned my attention to 
the strange shape of the roof raised over the dance floor 
in the park. I recently found out that this roof was unique 
in the world. It was made by the famous Academician 
Paton using argon-arc welding and X-ray control. A 
unique thing! Except that the roof was not initially 
intended to shelter musicians: It is part of a high-strength 
fuel tank for the N1 launch vehicle. It is said that they 
didn’t know what to do with it for a long time—the 
material it’s made from is everlasting. 

TASS Summary of Article on 1960’s Moon Race 
With U.S. 

LD1808180389 Moscow TASS in English 1744 GMT 
18 Aug 89 

[Text] Moscow August 18 TASS—The Soviet Union in 
the 1960’s adopted a manned lunar landing program but 
the moon race with the Americans proved a hindrance 
rather than a catalyst and the death of one chief designer 
and the change of another stopped the project altogether, 
a Soviet daily reported today. 

The newspaper IZVESTIYA said that outstanding 
Soviet rocketry designer Sergey Korolev counted on 
landing compatriots on the moon and worked vigorously 
to provide a required booster rocket. 

A 1960 government decision called for developing such a 
rocket, codenamed N1, for a payload of 40 to 50 tons by 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

1964, but the project was then reviewed almost every 
year until an expert commission in November 1966 
approved a plan for a lunar mission using a booster 
capable of lifting 95 tons. 

The plan provided for landing one cosmonaut on the 
moon, while the other was to remain in lunar orbit. 

The unwarranted moon race with the Americans, who 
were in the midst of a comparable program, unsteadied 
the Soviet effort which was also hit by problems of a 
subjective nature, IZVESTIYA said. 

While Korolev wanted N1 to have an oxygen- 
and-hydrogen motor, academician Valentin Glushko, 
the main developer of rocket motors, believed that 
fluorine, nitric acid, dimethylhydrazine and other 
extremely toxic chemicals would make better fuel com¬ 

Respective motors were eventually devised and four trial 
launches had been carried out by the autumn of 1972. 

So it came as a complete surprise for all when work on 
N1 was first frozen and then abandoned altogether 
following the replacement of chief designer Vasiliy 
Mishin, who succeeded Korolev after the latter died in 
1966, with Glushko. 

Glushko suggested a new concept which has led to the 
Soviet shuttle Buran and the Energiya booster of practi¬ 
cally the same thrust as the rejected Nl. 

IZVESTIYA commented that the fate of the aborted 
lunar expedition and N1 reflected the painful problems 
of the entire Soviet society, including excessive politisa- 
tion of science, substitution of sham goals for worthy 
ones, voluntarism, and lack of collective decision¬ 
making on crucial issues. 

Academician Mishin Criticizes Past Space 

907Q0012 Moscow PRA VDA in Russian 
20 Oct 89 Second Edition p 4 

[Interview with Academician V. Mishin by A. Tarasov: 
“Missions In Dream and In Reality”; date and place not 
given; first paragraph is PRA VDA introduction] 

[Text] Chief designer Korolev-general designer 
Glushko.... This is the succession usually accepted in the 
leadership of the space rocket firm now known as the 
Energiya Scientific-Production Association. But there is 
one other name that was for many years hidden in the 
shadows: S.P. Korolev’s first deputy and, after his death, 
leader of the design bureau from 1966 to 1974.... Now, 
for example, a certain photograph has come to light of 
the now dead Academician Kurchatov. Next to him we 
see Academician Korolev, and now the scene expands a 
little: Kurchatov, Korolev, Keldysh. But in fact there are 
five people in the photograph: Kurchatov, Korolev, 
Keldysh, Mishin, and corresponding member of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences V.M. lyevlev. I saw that 

photograph for the first time in the home of Vasiliy 
Pavlovich Mishin, academician. Hero of Socialist Labor, 
Lenin Prize laureate, State Prize laureate, deputy and 
successor to Korolev in the post of leader of the firm, 
now a professor at the Moscow Aviation Institute. 
Vasiliy Pavlovich gave me permission to ask questions, 
and I ventured to do so.... 

[Tarasov] It probably does not surprise you that at the 
ordinary everyday level the following divergent idea 
enjoys currency: When Korolev died so suddenly that 
was when we started to fall behind in space research. 
There were tragedies: The deaths of Komarov, Dobro¬ 
volskiy, Volkov, Patsayev.,.. We lost the moon to the 
Americans.... And the new chief designer, who had 
surrendered up “space”, was removed for this, after 
which the successes again started to come.... 

[Mishin] Nothing surprises me after the fact that up until 
today my name has not been mentioned in the history of 
space exploration.... The names of many fine designers 
still working today were also not mentioned. Sergey 
Pavlovich Korolev himself became known only after his 
death, but it is not up to us to judge the correctness or 
incorrectness of personal assessments. Korolev’s obit¬ 
uary, subsequently signed by the leadership, was written 
by me and sent to Brezhnev at his request. I saw that 
even then not everyone was willing to have his name 
made known as the major organizer of our space rocket 

So let us leave the purely personal feelings about 
appointments and dismissals. We are not here indulging 
in idle talk. If we talk about the main subject, then I 
would like to share some serious thoughts. First, if 
Korolev had lived longer we would undoubtedly have 
gone into space incomparably further. It was not just a 
question of his energy, persistence, and authority. First 
and foremost, under him we went our own way and 
sought out and found our own solutions. Then we started 
to look at the Americans, were depressed by their 
example, and started to attempt some immediate suc¬ 
cesses and were distracted by propaganda advantages. 

Second, accidents also happened when Korolev was 
there. It is most unfortunate that the degree of risk in this 
field is in general great. It happens that accidents are also 
associated with professional inaccuracies or carelessness; 
for example, the explosion in the silo of an oxygen rocket 
that incinerated six people. The reason? A soldier was 
unscrewing a light bulb, and there was a short circuit and 
an explosion. This was a year after Marshal Nedelin and 
several dozen people had been burned. 

If we talk about the two accidents involving the Soyuz 
vehicle that shook us all, then we would bring up the two 
systems that flew successfully in Korolev’s time. He had 
a rule: Do not change something that has already flown. 
If you are doing something new look both ways, seek out 
different versions, make improvements. The parachute 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


system for Komarov’s vehicle was tested repeatedly, but 
during the mission the braking parachute failed to 

[Tarasov] They used to say that his launch was brought 
forward artificially for the sake of a holiday.... 

[Mishin] No, that is not true. It was purely the equip¬ 
ment here. Those kinds of trends did creep into the top 
leadership—for example, D.F. Ustinov—but there was 
no direct pressure. Indeed, the equipment would not 
allow it. I remember only once when near the 23d Party 
Congress a lunar satellite was launched and played the 
national anthem. We merely put the idea to the chief 
designer in the design bureau, G.N. Babakin, but they 
forced him to do it. And well, there was a second 
satellite—the one launched on the 40th anniversary of 
the Great October Socialist Revolution in 1957.... 

But how were things in general? We did not expect such 
a worldwide response to the first satellite. The idea, 
incidentally, was Sergey Pavlovich’s personally. If it was 
possible to launch a “chunk of iron” on such a rocket 
then why not the world’s first sputnik? He proposed that 
it be done on the fifth launch of the “number seven” 
rocket—immediately after the fourth, successful launch. 
It is common knowledge that the first three were failures. 
By early October 1957 we had made the sphere in a 
month, and it flew. After that we disbanded for a break. 
Korolev, Voskresenskiy, and I with our two deputies, 
and a group of the main workers from the special design 
bureau obtained travel authorization. We stayed at Bul¬ 
ganin’s big dacha in Sochi. 

We rested for exactly 5 days. I was suffering from 
tonsilitis because of the change in climate, and then we 
got a telephone call on the VCh [high frequency short 
wave]. “Fly back urgently. We have been tasked to make 
a new satellite.” So we did. It turned out that Khrush¬ 
chev had been pleased with the political effect of the first 
sputnik and he ordered another on a priority basis, and 
we made it on a priority basis and launched it. Only after 
that did we go off for a real rest. That was the way in 
which ideas were sometimes born, and from them it was 
necessary to embark on the strategy of the exploration of 
deep space. 

[Tarasov] So that means politics did start to dictate its 
conditions and limitations on the space program, does it 

[Mishin] Here, let me return to the third thought that we 
started with Korolev. This could also have been taken up 
earlier. Because, as in everything else, in astronautics 
things started to stagnate and the most superficial and 
contradictory decisions were dictated. With his decisive¬ 
ness, independence, and far-sightedness, Korolev tried 
to oppose them. For this he came into personal conflict 
with the top leaders. In the final days his hands were 

[Tarasov] Vasiliy Pavlovich, we have barely touched on 
the question. So at that time you were first deputy to 

Sergey Pavlovich. This was no happenstance. Please tell 
us about your work with Korolev. 

[Mishin] It should not be thought that just because I was 
Korolev’s first deputy, this meant that I was both a very 
close friend and counselor. With us, everything was with 
Korolev; we would not speak for weeks because of some 
technical disagreement. Particularly with his character. 
But in the main thing, in the desire to create a well- 
considered strategy for space exploration, we were, I 
hope, fellow thinkers. No, I probably did not possess the 
kind of will and sharp tongue that distinguished Korolev. 
I am prepared to admit that. But in our space situation, 
the replacement of one character for another and the 
replacement of leading personalities did not play any 
decisive role. 

What can I say about myself? Up to 1935 I studied in the 
factory training school at the Central Institute of Aero- 
hydrodynamics and mastered the specialty of fine 
mechanics fitter. I worked there in the shop on special 
tasks. Then came paid courses to prepare for the institute 
and authorization from the Baumanskiy Komsomol 
rayon committee to enroll in the Moscow Aviation 
Institute. The authorization required two sponsors with 
at least 5 years party seniority. It was competitive: five 
for one place. I graduated as an engineer-mechanic for 
aircraft munitions. I did my pre-diploma practical work 
in the special design bureau of the chief aircraft designer, 
the great designer and innovator and great scientist and 
teacher Viktor Fedorovich Bolkhovitinov. I was invited 
to work there. This special design bureau was known for 
its really pioneering developments—the world’s first 
fighter powered by a “BI-1” liquid rocket engine, which 
flew for the first time on 15 May 1942 with pilot G. 
Bakhchivandzhi at the controls. This was the birth of the 
new rocket era in aviation. At that time we were working 
under conditions of evacuation not far from Sverdlovsk 
at a small half-ruined tube-casting plant that was totally 
unsuitable for aviation production.... I was also a witness 
to Grigoriy Bakhchivandzhi’s seventh and fatal flight in 
the “BI-1” on 27 March 1943 when he attained a 
maximum speed of 970 kilometers per hour (80 percent 
of the speed of sound) and when the aircraft quite 
unexpectedly went into a dive and crashed into the 
ground at the edge of the airfield.... 

But let us return to rockets. At the end of the war, as is 
known, when we had already returned to Moscow, the 
army of General Kurochkin captured a testing ground in 
Debica near Warsaw with launch facilities for the V-2. 
The Germans had cleaned up their traces, but in places 
where they had fallen, bits of the rockets nevertheless 
remained, some parts of the structures destroyed in the 
dense layers of the atmosphere. They were delivered to 
our NII-1. A group was organized that included Isayev, 
Bereznyak, Pilyugin, Chertok, Voskresenskiy, Tikhon- 
ravov and others, and myself. We quickly traced out 
from the pieces the layout of the rockets and the pneu¬ 
matic systems, and calculated trajectories; our mathema¬ 
tician, Yuriy Konovalov, was outstanding in this task. 
Unfortunately, both he and a large part of our group. 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

including the NII-1 director, Lieutenant General 
Fedorov, died on their way to the site: Their aircraft 
crashed near Kiev.... It was pure chance that I was not 
aboard. They would not give me clearance because at 
that time my father was in prison. True, he was not living 
with us. I was brought up in my childhood by my 

[Tarasov] So why was he in prison? 

[Mishin] Because he was a worker.... He listened to 
anecdotes. But somehow or other I moved in with the 
rocket people, and after the war in Germany, when 
studying German rocket technology and the archives, I 
met Korolev. Actually I was studying in the archives in 
Prague, and when I had already written my report and 
was about to return home I finished up in Berlin instead 
of Moscow—at Korolev’s request. I got to know him late 
in November 1945. 

He suggested that I work with him but I wanted to go 
home to my wife and two daughters, but I gave in and 
agreed. This was the task: To restore a full set of 
documentation from the blueprints found in Prague. 
Then to work on trajectory questions, organize observa¬ 
tions, take pictures with a cine- theodolite.... We 
returned, and from that time until Korolev’s death we 
worked in the special design bureau. Well, you know that 
there was a protracted struggle between the aviation 
people and the “gunners,” each trying to push the other 
away from rocket technology. We started at the remains 
of a gun factory and we really wondered “can we really 
make rockets here?” Then we got our own Ministry of 
General Machine Building. 

[Tarasov] How did you take your leave of Korolev? 

[Mishin] In a very ordinary way, by telephone. For no 
one was expecting the outcome. On 5 January Sergey 
Pavlovich was to have his operation and I had remained 
behind to cover for him. On 7 January after the account¬ 
ability report in the ministry collegium, the minister, 
Afanasayev, gave our firm a good dressing down. After 
the collegium meeting, Korolev telephoned: 

“What are you doing?” 

“Writing the report. It is hard enough to work with you, 
but with him there is no way.” 

“Tear up the report,” he responded, “ministers come 
and ministers go, but we stay in our own business.” 

He made another, quite ordinary, everyday call before 
the operation. And then... it was a shock for all of us.... 

[Tarasov] At what level were you appointed chief? 

[Mishin] At the same level at which I was removed. With 
this difference: When I was appointed Brezhnev received 
me and listened to me, but when I was fired he did not. 
In general, I was not too eager for the post. A group of 

Korolev’s co-workers sent a letter to the Central Com¬ 
mittee at that time asking that I be appointed. That is 
what they told me. True, there were later other letters but 
that is how it is here. 

[Tarasov] Forgive me, Vasiliy Pavlovich, was your dis¬ 
missal in fact connected with the run of accidents? What 
was your own attitude here? 

[Mishin] What can one’s attitude be toward misfortune, 
the loss of remarkable and brave people, to the great pain 
of their nearest and dearest? I still have a vivid memory 
of how Yuriy Gagarin wept in the aircraft after 
Komarov’s death. It was a real blow, for when we were 
flying to the landing site we were convinced that Volodya 
was sitting comfortably because they had reported from 
the helicopter that they had seen the parachute deploy, 
and the soft landing. 

It was even more painful when tragedy could have been 
prevented. The only time that the valve failed to operate 
normally—the explosive bolts used for the separation 
produced an overload and the ball joint was displaced 
from its seating. The cosmonauts heard the air whistling 
in and Patsayev unbuckled and tried to block it with his 
finger, but he failed. But there was a manual drive—they 
could have protected the capsule. But they forgot, or did 
not know, or it had been omitted during training.... 

The mission was very complex. I had complicated con¬ 
versations with Volkov and he said that he was the crew 
commander. A cable caught fire and the lads lost their 
heads and wanted to land, and I calmed them down. 
They made it through to the end of that program... and 
then in those terrible minutes.... 

[Tarasov] But was not the main mistake that the cosmo¬ 
nauts had removed their pressure suits? 

[Mishin] I believe now that even if they had donned their 
suits it would have done no good. It was not even a 
question of reliability. Before the pressure suits were 
removed there had been about a thousand successful 
landings of recovery vehicles, up to the time that the 
soft-landing motor appeared, and crews had become 
accustomed to landing inside the vehicle. I think that 
this decision of Korolev was right, and afterward there 
was no need to think about improving personal survival 
aids but rather about the entire apparatus, and collective 
means. We did have ideas—creating another pressuriza¬ 
tion loop, having a backup for every gap—everyone 
knew about them. 

[Tarasov] So why was the decision otherwise if you, the 
chief designer, did not think that way? 

[Mishin] A government commission headed by Ustinov 
decided. In principle the recommendations were right, 
and further work was done on the design of the valves 
and separation mechanism. It is common knowledge 
that on passenger aircraft there are no personal survival 
aids for either crew or passengers. Here another path is 
chosen—collective aids and backup systems. 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


[Tarasov] Vasiliy Pavlovich, it was precisely during 
“your” years that the Soviet press remained silent about 
two far-reaching lunar epics—ours and the Americans. 
Whereas the flow of information about the landing of the 
astronauts on the moon nevertheless with time did 
somehow break through, our “lunar people” were right 
out of luck except for the successes of the automatic 
Lunokhod. Even last year, a mention of our unsuccessful 
lunar program was struck out of my articles. Is it really a 
state secret or a military secret? To the point, did you 
have a certain attitude toward the printed word in those 
years? For it later “was at your expense” personally. 
How were those filtered reports prepared whose essential 
nature became clear years later? 

[Mishin] I do not know, I had no part in that. A special 
apparatus was set up for that which carried out Ustinov’s 
instructions. True, as one moved around one could hear 
disputes about the formulations about which some of the 
technical leaders who were too involved in politics were 
getting excited. For example, depending on the success 
of the launch, a space vehicle was said to have been sent 
“to the moon” or “toward the moon.” 

[Tarasov] Well for all that, we wanted to fly “to the 
moon” or “toward the moon.” What was the program 
and how did it come about and disappear? 

[Mishin) Well, you know, how is it always in such cases? 
There is one main reason and thousands of small rea¬ 
sons. Let me begin with the main reason. First of all, we 
had to know about and have a long-term scientific 
program for space exploration. Unfortunately we had a 
mess of separate, individual assignments that pursued 
either political or prestige goals. This had started even 
under Khrushchev. “Catch up,” “Overtake,” “Go, Go.” 

It was the same with the moon. Neither Mishin alone nor 
Korolev alone could initiate such a program. We needed 
the scope of scientific goals and national economic goals. 
We needed careful work with the involvement of the 
Academy of Sciences and many departments, and with 
sector science; we needed national debate. Then later 
there was the choice of means to reach the goals. 

After the landing of the first lunar and interplanetary 
automatic vehicles interest fell off for some years. Then 
when the Americans started talking with greater insis¬ 
tence about the moon and when their national program 
was proclaimed by President Kennedy and came to life, 
then we also began to stir ourselves, but somewhere from 
about 1964, whereas they had started in 1961. But then 
we were behind not only in time, as everyone now 
acknowledges, but there was also a shortage of funding. 
The first successes with sputnik and Gagarin’s flight 
were based largely on a colossal self-sacrifice from people 
and on the personal qualities of a leader like S.P. 
Korolev. The Americans with their air bases had no need 
of missiles, for that kind of race could go on endlessly. 
We were tired. There were the accidents that we have 
talked about. 

Strictly speaking, the lunar program was made up, as it 
were, of two independent parts. The first was a circum- 
lunar flyby with a manned vehicle launched by a Proton 
rocket. The second was the landing of a lunar module 
with one cosmonaut, then a launch from the moon and a 
docking with a vehicle where a comrade would be. 

We can say that the first part was accomplished. Four 
automatic probes did circle the moon. Apart from the 
first, which was a miss. In fact, there were successful 
returns of recovery vehicles for a two-man crew. Their 
leading designer was the present leader of the Energiya 
Scientific-Production Association, Yu.P. Semenov. Two 
landed in the target area, two splashed down in the 
Indian Ocean. It would have been possible to switch to 
manned missions but it lost all propaganda meaning 
after July 1969 when Neil Armstrong set foot on the 

Now about the landing. It was possible only by using a 
heavy launch vehicle capable of lifting at least 100 tons. 
That is, equal to today’s Energiya. Korolev had been 
thinking about this kind of launch vehicle since the early 
1960’s. This was the recently announced N-1 rocket. A 
universal, modular, multirole rocket that, depending on 
the choice of modules, could be used for injection of 
circumterrestrial or interplanetary vehicles. 

It had an original and reliable configuration: 30 thruster 
nozzles in a module, and it could fly if two pairs of 
motors in the first stage failed and with the failure of one 
pair in the second stage. The fuel was inexpensive and 
ecologically clean—^kerosene and oxygen^—and there 
were no toxic components. 

This launch vehicle held great promise. But here our lack 
of organization and, unfortunately, our general technical 
level, were seen. The N-1 was being made by 500 
organizations in 26 departments. Of these, only nine fell 
within the competence of the military-industrial com¬ 
mission. The rest had to be begged. Resolutions from the 
Council of Ministers did not help at all: The tasks were 
just outside their competence and delivery schedules 
were not met. Under Korolev, for example, on 10 points; 
under me, by an order of magnitude more. Ministers 
couldn’t come to agreement with each other. I would 
make the rounds to see them and often ran up against 
foul language. 

But even under these conditions the Kuybyshev people 
did make the “number seven” - the Vostok for Korolev 
and were working on the N-1. 

But this was not all. The designer, V.P. Glushko, had a 
jealous and hostile attitude toward the engine developed 
by the Kuybyshev aviation designer N.D. Kuznetsov, 
who was cooperating with Korolev. Advancing his own 
liquid-propellant rocket engine for the Proton, Glushko 
spoke out against oxygen and kerosene. I still have his 
monograph in which it is written in black and white: 
“Liquid oxygen is far from the best oxidizing agent, but 
liquid hydrogen will never find any practical applica¬ 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

[Tarasov] How does this relate to Energiya, which under 
the leadership of that same V.P. Glushko has been 
developed to fly on oxygen and hydrogen? 

[Mishin] This is how. Of course, the error of the future 
general designer was obvious, and it was not his only 
one, and it had a bad effect on the fate of the Kuznetsov 
engine. Each failure resulted in a strong response, but 
without failures you can get nowhere in this business. 
The more so under our conditions. Construction of the 
production base was delayed 2 years. It was skimpy. The 
Americans were able to test an entire assembled engine 
module on their test stands and install it on the launch 
vehicle and fly it without a takedown inspection. But we 
tested in pieces and did not even dare to think of firing 
all 30 motors in the first stage as a full assembly. Then 
the pieces were assembled, without guarantees, of 
course, that they were properly run in. 

Schedules were mercilessly squeezed. In February 1967 
flight testing in space was scheduled for the launch 
vehicle during the second quarter of the same year. 

[Tarasov] And the landing itself? 

[Mishin] For the third quarter of 1968. These were the 
schedules laid down in a government decree. Well, in the 
extreme case, during the last quarter. But we tested the 
N-1 for the first time only on 21 February 1969. A fire in 
the after compartment switched off the engine after 70 
seconds. I came out of the bunker—it was still flying.... 
The second launch was on 3 July 1970. Again an acci¬ 
dent—an explosion in the oxygen pump when it reached 
nominal regime. The launch complex was destroyed. The 
third launch was on 27 July 1971. Because of an uncon¬ 
sidered gas-dynamic factor it started to spin.... But all the 
engines worked for the first time. But only for 7 seconds. 
The fourth launch was on 23 November 1972. I was in 
the hospital and the launch was led by B.Ye. Chertok. He 
was more successful; the engines ran for 107 seconds. An 
explosion in the after compartment occurred after the 
transfer to the final stage of thrust, at the end of the 
active part of the first stage.... Just a little bit more.... 

But we never got it. We found omissions and errors, we 
eliminated them, we moved ahead. But the Americans 
had invested 25 billion in the program and they reached 
the moon. But we had almost 10 times less, and we had 
to extract each million one by one. 

[Tarasov] A competition between Ellochka-lyudoyedka 
[fictional character] and an American millionairess? 

[Mishin] Something along those lines. But it ended there. 
After 1972 we worked on two rockets under a new 
technical task but they were not launched. The program 
was halted. Six rockets went under the pile driver, two 
already assembled. People who had given the best years 
of their lives to their development and to work on them 
did this with tears in their eyes. I had already been 

[Tarasov] But how would things have developed if you 
had had your way? 

[Mishin] First, the very birth of the lunar program 
should have been not as a race, but for well-considered 
goals. The USSR Academy of Sciences Lunar Commis¬ 
sion did not in any way set those goals. Incidentally, if 
you noticed, U.S. President Bush recently announced the 
intention to move on to the development of an industrial 
and interplanetary lunar base. There you have it: If we 
had not halted the program we could have had this base 
already without any anguish or haste. First of all, we 
would not have lost a heavy launch vehicle that had what 
I reckon is the best engine in the world, superior to the 
Satum-5. Yes, I make no reservations. In those years, 
Kuznetsov, in his own interests and at his own risk, 
developed the engine in Kuybyshev and had it running 
on a test stand for 14,000 seconds. It takes only 150 
seconds for injection of the rocket. Thus, there was no 
need to start Energiya from scratch, where Glushko’s 
strap-on engine, which is oxygen-propelled, costs more 
than gold does in comparison with Kuznetsov’s. 

So, while continuing the work on the rocket it was 
necessary to think about a new lunar expedition. To 
investigate various scenarios: A one-shot project, two 
phases (with an orbit of the earth), the use of circumter¬ 
restrial and circumlunar orbits for maneuvering, 
docking, building up the vehicles. For example, the earth 
stage of a vehicle could be left in a “home” orbit and 
used to fly to the moon and back. There were many 
scenarios and we did work on all of them. Then there was 
the landing and the takeoff of automatic vehicles, then a 
manned vehicle.... 

But all of this was divorced from the general concept of 
space exploration, its real industrialization. In 1974 
Kuznetsov and I compiled and sent to L.I. Brezhnev a 
detailed memorandum about our lagging in the field of 
space rocket technology and about ways to develop an 
industrial complex in earth orbit, and we asked for a 
meeting. But D.F. Ustinov soon informed us that I had 
been relieved of my duties and that Brezhnev had 
thanked me for the work that I had done. 

Just look at the groundwork that had already been done 
at that time: Six space vehicles for the Soyuz-Apollo 
program ready to go, with the latest docking assembly, 
for which, incidentally, I hold a certificate of authorship. 
The Salyut-6 was in the factory with its two docking 
assemblies, a base for international cooperation in 

[Tarasov] Incidentally, why was the station not launched 
immediately with two docking assemblies? Why did we 
make do with only one for such a long time? 

[Mishin] I had immediately proposed that it have both, 
but again Ustinov insisted on a single assembly—in 
order to hasten our success. Before the Salyut-6 the line 
stretched into 1977. In addition, work had already 
started on the Soyuz-T, which made its debut in 1980. 
When I was there eight such vehicles had been prepared 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


to various stages, and the unmanned version was ready. 
This was not pure chance: We wanted to gain experience 
in various kinds of docking arrangements, assembly and 
installation of vehicles for the most diverse purposes— 
from rescue operations to production. And so.... 

[Tarasov] Vasiliy Pavlovich, is it true that when you 
came out of the hospital, on the following day V.P. 
Glushko ordered your pass to the enterprise to be with¬ 

[Mishin] Yes, that is true. 

[Tarasov] Can you tell us how you assess today’s devel¬ 
opments in space exploration? 

[Mishin] Very little has been done about what we 
thought about and dreamed about 20 years ago, even 30 
years ago with Korolev. It is simply vexing that so few 
useful and efficient space vehicles are in earth orbit. On 
the one hand there has been an attraction for a variety of 
launch vehicles that absorb enormous investments. But 
the various modules of our standard N- 1 could have 
served Soyuz and Proton and Energiya to inject payloads 
of 7 to 100 tons. How economically and ecologically 
better this would have been, particularly when you 
consider the Proton fuel. 

On the other hand, we have become addicted to the 
same, monotonous long-period manned missions in the 
tight Salyut-Mir, which repeat each other. It is very 
wasteful; it is necessary to develop automatic production 
in space by training top-class operators to assemble and 
service installations, repair them, and remove output, 
and save it.... Science can also work on automatic 
vehicles without the absolute need for man to be present. 
I do not understand the expediency of it in this light. The 
Cosmonaut Training Center with its enormous staff 
handles only a small group.... 

[Tarasov] Vasiliy Pavlovich, surely you are not taking 
umbrage with Zvezdnyy? 

[Mishin] I am taking umbrage with no one, but it would 
be more practical to train crews in the firm on the actual 
vehicles that will be used on a mission. Why maintain a 
special, expensive facility just for test stands and simu¬ 
lators and have it subordinate to a different department? 

Finally, our latest system—the Energiya-Buran. It is 
undoubtedly a great achievement for aviation and space 
rocket technology. But I do not see any real application 
for it for the next several decades. 

[Tarasov] Will there not be things to bring back from 
space? What a pity. 

[Mishin] It is and it isn’t. Much less would have been 
gained by returning possible valuable objects from orbit, 
but a reusable vehicle launched by a reusable carrier is 
more effective. All the rest—repairs, inspections, resup¬ 
plying large projects—can be done in working orbits in 
special modules. I can assure you that because of this 
some things are costing three times as much. It is much 

more practical to allocate funding to improve the space 
vehicle itself Our communications satellites still operate 
for periods of time two or three times less than the 
American satellites. If their service life could be 
extended to 5 or 10 years our communications would be 

Do not think this is simply talk. Way back in 1970 we 
were thinking about a project for a multirole orbital 
complex—the MOK. It was a broad program for space 
exploration in circumterrestrial space within the earth- 
moon radius, including participation in solving food, 
energy, and ecology problems. Using a minimum 
number of fully equipped, standard space facilities in 
ground and orbital bases, the plan was to saturate local 
space with numerous useful vehicles. They would even 
have been able to influence the climate and lighting for 
cities, using a system of mirrors and solar light. It was a 
quite realistic project. For communications is not only 
radio and telephones and television, it is remote control 
of automated factories that may be harmful or dan¬ 
gerous, and of nuclear power stations located in an 
unpopulated safety zone. Not to mention the removal of 
harmful production facilities into space and making full 
use of the opportunities in space—high and low temper¬ 
atures, high vacuum, conditions close to weightless. And 
90 percent of all these operations can be carried on 
without man. But the idea of industry in space is still 

[Tarasov] How can this process be accelerated? 

[Mishin] We need more projects, more proposals, and 
the broadest involvement of science, particularly VUZ 
[higher educational institutions] science. Space explora¬ 
tion has been hampered by monopoly and secrecy, and 
by nepotism and political dealing in the allocation of 
assignments and subsidies. We need broad, open com¬ 
petition in projects for a unified technical task. And 
discussion of tasks, ideas, and proposals, and indepen¬ 
dent expert evaluations, and open selection of the win¬ 
ners. Only after this, in full view of everyone, should 
there be implementation of projects in which the whole 
of society is convinced of their need and soundness. 

[Tarasov] Thank you for the interview, Vasiliy Pavlov¬ 
ich. I congratulate you on the 32nd anniversary of the 
launch of the first artificial earth satellite. 

Space Production Facility at Fili Declassified 

in Russian 14 Sep 89 p 1 

[Article by V. Umnov: “The Secret at Fili”] 

[Text] Moscow—Even though I lived there I never 
thought that they would make space vehicles so close to 
my home. And in Moscow, just a 20 minute drive from 
the Kremlin! 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

But according to the legends of Fill, the ferris wheel in 
the nearby amusement never worked precisely for this 
reason: Who knows what one might see from the top! 

“Well, evidently someone decided to cover his own 
shortcomings by using us,” asserts the director of the 
“secret project,” Anatoliy Ivanovich Kiselev. “If you 
want to, you can see rather more from the top of the 
high-rise building next door. And today we aren’t going 
to hide anything: Please, come on in and take a look....” 

And there are certainly things to see. I would organize 
excursions here. And I would first of all show not what 
they have built here, but how they have built it. Accu¬ 
rately. Cleanly. Exactly.... 

In 1916 at a price of 10 million gold rubles, the widow of 
the merchant Shalaputin gave up this plot of land in Fili 
to the well-known “Russo-Balt” Society—the very same 
that in Riga was producing an automobile of the same 
name. In 1920 the plan produced the first Soviet auto¬ 
mobiles—five of them. 

In 1927 the plant was given as a concession to the 
Junkers aircraft firm. It started to produce Soviet planes 
before the war. 

Since the 1960’s the plant has been operated mainly for 
the Ministry of Defense, producing rockets [rakety]. And 
also space vehicles and satellites. 

Several months ago the Machine Building Plant imeni 
M.V. Khrunichev of the Ministry of General Machine 
Building was declassified. 

“If only you knew how difficult it was: You come home 
from work and you cannot tell your children or your wife 
why you were delayed; you could not boast about the 
new orbital station, for example,” Anatoliy Ivanovich 
acknowledged. “It was a pity that no one even knew the 
people who were developing the equipment.” 

In the first section they make the frames, while in the 
second they assemble them, and in the third section test 
them. In some places the metal is machined down to an 
accuracy of a minute of arc. 

When you hear these stories and see the people in their 
white coveralls today, working on the space modules 
(everything round about is as clean as if just freshly 
washed), you involuntarily compare it to what you have 
encountered in regular factories (and a whole newspaper 
column would not be long enough to list all the faults). 
And you begin to think: This means that we can do it this 

And again the question inevitably arises: But they prob¬ 
ably never had any needs with regard to money, did 
they? Not for the routes from Earth and out into the 
distances of space. 

“Yes, just wait a moment,” argues L. Borisov, chief of 
the test-monitoring station. “Take, for example, the 
technological module—it is already prepared and early 

next year will be sent off to dock with the ‘Mir.’ We shall 
be able to produce three kilograms of insulin on it each 
year. But we need ten kilograms a year to help all the 
Soviet children suffering from diabetes mellitus.” 

“And then they tell us that one-fourth of plant capacity 
has been given over to the production of consumer goods 
and civilian output, bicycles and sledges for children, 
and ski poles and saucepans and garden sheds and 
kitchen cabinets.” 

“But, you understand, with our facilities and experience 
it is simply wasteful to be involved in making small 
items,” director Kiselev interposes. “We have selected 
two main directions for conversion, namely ecology and 

“Nevertheless, no matter what we may say about reori¬ 
entation, space is still space. And without being involved 
in the latest discoveries we shall not be able to keep up to 
speed. Now, for example, the plant imeni Khrunichev is 
ready to engage in Martian problems and develop a 
vehicle for an interplanetary expedition.” 

“This is how things stand with Mars at present,” Chief of 
the USSR Main Space Administration Aleksandr 
Ivanovich Dunayev told us. “We are asking for money to 
conduct a preliminary substantiation of the principles 
for such a mission. There are several possible scenarios. 
There are proposals for automatic missions: Launches 
are possible in 1994, 1998 and 2001. Other countries are 
also interested in this. But the question of funding for 
unmanned, let alone manned programs has not been 
decided. Perhaps a decision will be made at the 
upcoming session of the USSR Supreme Soviet.” 

“Nevertheless, how did you manage to hide such bulky 
things,” I try to find out. For it seems to me that it would 
be impossible not to notice them when they were being 
moved out. 

It turns out that it was very simple. After half a year of 
testing, on average, on a “Proton” launch vehicle it was 
again dismantled, loaded onto railroad trains and sent 
away to the cosmodrome. So that it could be assembled 
again there and again scrupulously tested. 

“Why such waste? Was it for secrecy?” 

“For reliability.” 

P.S. If you have any questions for the leaders of the 
“secret project” they are ready to provide answers. They 
assured us that today there are no secrets at the plant. 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


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Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

Civilian Production at Khrunichev Plant, 

Comment on ‘Mir’ Modules 

INDUSTRIYA in Russian 22 Sep 89 p 2 

[Report on interview with Director of the M.V. Khru¬ 
nichev Machine Building Plant Anatoliy Ivanovich Kise¬ 
lev, by G, Lomanov: “Bicycles for Children and Orbiting 
Modules’’; date not given] 

[Text] Bicycles for children and orbiting modules are 
produced by the same plant. This is symbolic. However, 
is this symbol in line with the tasks of conversion in 
aerospace production? 

“We are now standing on the runway,” said Anatoliy 
Ivanovich Kiselev, director of the Machine Building 
Plant imeni M. V. KJirunichev. 

Actually, we assembled in a small, cozy conference hall. 
However, a long time ago there indeed used to be an 
airfield at the present location of the building for the 
assembly of space vehicles. For many years, this plant 
sort of did not exist. There was a “post office box” 
number, and that was it. This was a secret enterprise. 
This summer, its secret status was revoked; specialists 
from China and Japan had already visited here. Finally, 
they invited Soviet journalists as well. Well, it is better 
late... At any rate, the desire of the plant director, who 
has been working at the plant for 34 years, since age 17, 
to tell us about the history of the enterprise is quite 

So, here is some history. In 1918, they repaired here, in 
Fili, the armored cars and tanks which were sent to the 
vicinity of Tula to meet the White Guard troops. One of 

the first five Soviet passenger cars rolled out of the plant 
gates 2 years later. It was presented to the “all-union 
elder” M.I. Kalinin. Later, Junkers received the facility 
in the form of a concession which produced 100 Ju-lO 
planes. Beginning in 1927, the plant embarked on pro¬ 
ducing heavy aircraft: before the war, they made 
Tupolev’s TB-Ts and TB-3’s; during the war, the PE-2 
dive bomber, and the TU-2 and IL-4 bombers. In the 
1950s, strategic bombers designed by Myasishchev were 
produced which are still in service. One of those craft 
was adapted for carrying the Buran (our newspaper has 
reported on this operation). 

Work on the Proton rocket, designed by V.N. Chelomey, 
is yet another milestone in the history of the plant. For 
almost a quarter of a century, since 1965, the Protons 
have been putting into orbit heavy satellites and orbiting 
stations, and have been launching interplanetary vehi¬ 
cles to the Moon, Mars, and Venus. There have been 180 
launches; the old workhorse knows his job. This is a 
reliable machine, and our space exploration owes many 
brilliant successes to it. All permanent orbiting stations 
beginning with the first Salyut and through the Mir 
which is now in orbit have been built at the M.V. 
Khrunichev Plant. The collective is also proud of the 
Cosmos-1443 craft—at the time when everything was 
classified whether it was necessary or not it was called “a 
satellite,” despite it actually being an excellent spaceship 
which the cosmonauts who were looking forward to 
flying it also told me with enthusiasm. Alas, it did not 
come to pass. This is one more “blank spot” in our space 
exploration, but this is a separate topic. For now, let me 
observe that by docking with Salyut-7, Cosmos-1443 
demonstrated the possibility for large masses to dock 
successfully in orbit. The creation of research modules 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


for the Mir station could hardly have been initiated 
without this “reconnaissance in force.” 

Anatoliy Ivanovich says: “Now there is a new turn in the 
history of the plant. The production of Protons has been 
cut back approximately one-third. The conversion of 
rocket-space production is beginning.” 

[Lomanov] What are you going to do? 

[Kiselev] Even now we produce a wide range of con¬ 
sumer goods. Many people certainly know the 
“Druzhok” bicycles for children; it is just that they did 
not know before that we were the producer. Here we 
have a plant within the plant; we produce 220,000 of 
them a year. We make ski poles, pressure cookers, 
kitchen furniture, garden sheds, sleighs, hoops for gym¬ 
nastics, what have you. The share of consumer goods and 
civilian output in the total volume of our production is 
approximately 25 percent. 

[Lomanov] You know, Anatoliy Ivanovich, I am not 
enthralled by this enumeration. Moreover, it brings up 
the biting retort by the economist A. Kireyev: “Of 
course, the enterprises which have created Buran and 
Energiya are capable of riveting together metal beds in 
which we can sleep as soon as the coming night. How¬ 
ever, when we wake up tomorrow, we will find out that, 
to our amazement, not only the developed world but also 
many of the countries which are traditionally called 
developing have, as far as technology, gone into the third 
millennium before the appointed time, while we have 
been left behind in the old squeaky bed.” 

[Kiselev] We are likewise reluctant to engage in primi¬ 
tive production and waste the high technical potential of 
the plant for trifles, says A. Kiselev. This is why we have 
now planned two main avenues for ourselves, health care 
and ecology. A quarter of a century ago, high-quality 
ozonizers were invented in our country. They do a 
marvelous job cleaning up organic compounds in waste 
waters; they are patented in several countries, but thus 
far nobody has been producing them. We have embarked 
on this. And we will produce the Superterm installation 
for the treatment of oncological diseases by local heating. 
Together with the Moscow Association of the Handi¬ 
capped, we are setting up the PRINKO cooperative. We 
have already embarked on manufacturing a trial batch of 
knee joints for artificial limbs. Taking the experience of 
Chernobyl into account, we will produce robots capable 
of working in the course of accident clean-up. 

[Lomanov] What will you get into while cutting back the 
production of the Protons? 

[Kiselev] We are planning to manufacture equipment for 
converting passenger cars to gas on the premises freed 

We stood together with Chief Engineer of the plant Yu. 
Gorodnichev in front of a huge vacuum chamber, 5 
meters in diameter. Sealing is the forte of the enterprise. 
Yuriy Petrovich told us how carefully space vehicles are 

checked out before being shipped to the test area [poli- 
gon]. Quite recently, one of the modules for the Mir was 
tested. Incidentally, there were several modules at dif¬ 
ferent stages of completion sitting in the shop—they 
immediately caught your eye. 

Yuriy Petrovich observed: “Three of them are ready, 
and two have been tested.” Naturally, the conversation 
immediately switched to another topic and another 
emotional tone. The plant personnel were even taken 
aback by the question on the reasons why the launch of 
the research modules was being delayed. 

“What do you mean it is delayed?” asked back A. 
Kiselev. “We sent the additional equipment module to 
the test area right on schedule, to the day, as long ago as 
July of last year.” 

[Lomanov] Why has it been sitting idle so long? 

“The plant has got nothing to do with this,” Deputy 
Minister of General Machine Building and Chief of 
USSR Glavkosmos [Main Space Administration] A.I. 
Dunayev came to the rescue. “The enterprise was given 
the deadline and assigned the task, and the collective 
handled it excellently. The delay is due to other reasons. 
First, the contractor enterprises which were making the 
‘filling’ for the modules had very many orders for the 
Buran program. Preparations for launching the space 
‘shuttle’ caused a major diversion of both scientific and 
production resources. Second, after the docking of the 
new modification of the Progress cargo ship it turned out 
that even a comparatively small change in the configu¬ 
ration of the orbiting complex makes controlling it much 
more difficult. As far as the module, after it is docked the 
space combination will resemble a high boot. Dynamic 
operations will be rendered extremely difficult. You see, 
we have to fully equip the second module and get it 
docked on the opposite side in order to balance the 
assembly. The ‘high boot’ configuration can fly for about 
3 months and no longer. This means that modules have 
to be launched almost one after the other. This is why we 
delayed the first one deliberately.” 

...Well, research and technical modules manufactured at 
the Khrunichev Machine Building Plant will soon reach 
the Mir. However, space exploration is not the only 
customer of the enterprise anymore. We would like to 
believe that, while developing the manufacturing of 
products which are not associated with space, the collec¬ 
tive will go toward its future on something more modem 
than the Druzhok bicycle. 

The director is right: We cannot waste the experience 
which has been accumulated in one of the most progres¬ 
sive industries. 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

Kuybyshev Space Design Bureau Visited 

INDUSTRIYA in Russian 14 Sep 89 p 3 

[Article by A. Vorobyev, SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA 
INDUSTRIYA correspondent: ‘“Photons’ Are Born 

[Text] Kuybyshev—Journalists have not passed through 
this entrance checkpoint, not yet designated by an offi¬ 
cial sign, for 30 years. That is exactly how old the Central 
Specialized Design Bureau is where launch vehicles of 
the “Vostok” and “Soyuz” type are developed. 

A titanium model of one of these vehicles stands in the 
office of twice Hero of Socialist Labor Dmitriy Ilyich 
Kozlov, who is the chief designer of the TsSKB [Central 
Specialized Design Bureau], scientific manager of the 
KB [Design Bureau] “Photon,” and a corresponding 
member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 

“This is the yesterday of our collective,” he explains. 
“The theme of design of launch vehicles has been 
removed from the plans. Conversion authoritatively 
dictates new directions in design thinking. We really did 
not have to rack our brains for a long time over what to 
produce for civilian use [“grazhdanka”]. The logic of life 
suggested: The theme is the same—outer space, and the 
designation of goals—peaceful.... 

Let us digress for a time from the main subject and 
introduce Kozlov for the first time to our wide circle of 

The editorial staff of the plant’s newspaper POISK 
[SEARCH] showed me a copy of an interesting docu¬ 
ment, written with the clear handwriting of an engineer. 
It is called “Recommendation for candidacy to CPSU 
membership of Comrade Korolev, S.P.” D. Kozlov, the 
chief designer of NII-88 [Scientific Research Institute] 
and the secretary of the party organization, recommends 
that Sergey Pavlovich Korolev be accepted as a member 
of the CPSU. “I have known Comrade Korolev, S.P. 
from our joint work since June of 1946. He showed 
himself capable of managing complicated design projects 
in a new field of technology.” The document was dated 
12 June 1953. 

The path of the referrer to the famous design bureau was 
not easy. A student of the Leningrad Military Mechan¬ 
ical Institute in July 1941, he left to volunteer for the 
front, he was wounded three times in battles at Lenin¬ 
grad, and he lost his hand. He again returned to the 
institute, and he defended his candidate’s dissertation. 

And when a branch of “Korolev’s OKB” [Experimental 
Design Bureau] was organized in Kuybyshev in 1959, D. 
Kozlov was appointed its manager and chief designer. 
Series production of launch vehicles was set up under his 
management at the base plant. After Yu. Gagarin’s 
successful flight in 1961, Dmitriy Ilyich was awarded the 
title of Hero of Socialist Labor. 

Eight different modifications of launch vehicles were 
developed with the direct participation of D. Kozlov. 
While the first placed a one-and-a-half ton payload into 
orbit and had two stages, those that followed had three or 
four stages and carried a substantially greater payload. 

“The creation of research satellites is our present task,” 
Dmitriy Ilyich continues. “They serve a number of 
scientific directions: The ‘Resurs-F’ executes the pro¬ 
gram ‘IPRZ’ (exploration of the Earth’s natural 
resources) with the help of photography; the ‘Photons’ 
are intended for the implementation of technological 
operations under conditions of weightlessness; the 
‘Bions’ help scientists investigate the effect of weightless¬ 
ness on the vital activity of the human organism.” 

A strong and cohesive collective has been set up in the 
TsSKB. Sixty doctors and candidates of technical sci¬ 
ences and nine Lenin prize laureates work here. Conver¬ 
sion did not make them unemployed. The lights are not 
turned off evenings in modest rooms with the signs 
“Control Systems Department,” “Navigation Depart¬ 
ment,” “Orientation Department,” “Thermal Systems 
Department,” “Correction Thrusters Department,” and 
others. The workday here is a very relative concept. 

Doctor of Technical Sciences and Hero of Socialist 
Labor Gennadiy Petrovich Anshakov, the first deputy 
manager of the TsSKB and deputy scientific manager of 
the “Photon” KB, shuffles through diagrams of the space 
laboratories that are on the table: 

“You have before you an unmanned space apparatus 
‘Resurs-F.’ Its main equipment is a wide-format camera 
for taking multizonal and spectrozonal images of 
1:200,000 and with a resolution capability on the ground 
of about 5-6 meters. In addition, a special device—a 
sidereal camera—performs a coordinate referencing of 
the apparatus in outer space at the moment of picture¬ 
taking. In 10 minutes of operation the space apparatus 
furnishes a survey of a million square kilometers of the 
surface of the planet. After the completion of an orbital 
flight the film is returned to Earth in a descent appara¬ 

Space vehicles are needed by almost all branches of the 
national economy. Applications for experiments are sub¬ 
mitted not only by electronics specialists, but also by the 
USSR Minzdrav [Ministry of Health], and by metallurgy 
and other sectors. The designers have their own solid 
experimental base, where various systems of outer space 
vehicles are preliminarily worked on. 

...Scrupulously clean, a brightly lit building with high 
ceilings. Engineer-Designer B. Bespalov shows us around 
his shop: 

“This is ‘Photon.’ So to say, in its normal setup. Only its 
solar batteries are not deployed. We create artificial 
conditions of weightlessness on this test stand: The 
apparatus ‘sits’ on an air bearing, not touching the 
ground structure. Here we study system behavior.... And 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


here is the stand for checking control systems for correc¬ 
tion thrusters. There is a vibrostand in this ‘compart¬ 
ment.’ Preliminary testing reduces the cost of our arti¬ 

The expressions “prime cost,” “price,” and “cost 
accounting” are heard time and again now in the con¬ 
versations of the designers. The TsSKJB is going over to 
cost accounting. And it has for the first time concluded 
contracts with firms in the FRG and in France. Some of 
the articles of these firms have already been in outer 
space. The comments of the foreign partners and the 
press have been enthusiastic. 

“Our possibilities are enormous,” D. Kozlov shares his 
thoughts with us. “Together with geodesists we can make 
map plans of any city and sector of the ground. An 
association of executors is already being set up. Algeria, 
Egypt, and Brazil have become interested in our propos¬ 

There is one more aspect of the activity of the TsSKB 
about which, unfortunately, few talk about. Dozens of 
excellent specialists have gone to work in other organi¬ 
zations in Kuybyshev Oblast. Among them is the rector 
of an institute, the managers of large departments of 
enterprises, etc. 

Prominent specialists of the TsSKB give lectures in the 
aviation institute. Dmitriy Ilyich Kozlov is a professor, 
an outstanding lecturer, an active public man, and one of 
the managers of the scientific-technical council at the 
Kuybyshev CPSU obkom [oblast party committee]. 

The designers have large and realistic plans. The chief 
one of these is to make outer space matters profitable, 
and to debunk the opinion that space programs only suck 
money from the country and the people. 

Defense Industry ‘Closed’ City Visited, Site of 
Space Design Bureau 

INDUSTRIYA in Russian 9 Aug 89 p 2 

INDUSTRIYA correspondent, Krasnoyarskiy Kray; 
“The City Behind Steel Gates”] 

[Text] One gets uncomfortable when documents are 
checked so carefully. Like at the border. 

But the strict procedures are over, and the bus drives 
through the open gates. Structures of a city concealed from 
outside eyes can be seen in the distance under the cover of 
the Siberian taiga. The people still call it a “closed zone.” 

They say that at one time people who worked here were 
not encouraged to leave the environs of the zone. To the 
point that if you took our rest leave in the zone, you 
would get additional money. Now, of course, the mea¬ 
sures are not as strict. But up to the present time this city 
is not open to everyone. 

In the decontamination station, I don sterile white 
special purpose clothing and, after placing my individual 
dosimeter in my pocket, I try not to fall behind the 
guides. Seeing an approaching group, V. Yershov, the 
chief of the shop, ordered: 

“Kovalenko, let’s go!” 

An all-metal vehicle, and to be more exact, a transport 
packing unit, that was standing below opened up, and I 
saw a brilliant cigar-shaped object. A dosimetrist imme¬ 
diately rushed to it. Containers with spent nuclear fuel— 
so-called waste by-products—are brought here from 
atomic power stations of the country. They are put in 
storage in this shop in a special water reservoir. 

The quiet voices of people, the familiar sound of the 
traveling overhead crane... The usual daily work. 
Including that of the dosimetrist. I am particularly 
interested in his manipulations. The radioactivity of the 
waste by-products is 10 roentgens per second. But invis¬ 
ible death is put away reliably. I open the lid of the water 
reservoir, where one can see metallic capsules at a 
10-meter depth. I observe with satisfaction that the 
arrow of the dosimeter is practically on zero. But, 
nonetheless, it is somewhat discomforting. 

Seeing my concern, the understanding specialists smile: 
The radioactive background of the closed city, where 
they are located—and, of course, these are not chocolate 
factories—is much lower than, let us say, in Krasnoy¬ 
arsk. And as for the ecology here and the danger for 
people, then it is not the local production but the smoke 
from the aluminum plant and the increasingly more 
frequent acid rains from other enterprises of the kray’s 
center that constitute the real threat. 

But just mention “closed zones” in a conversation, and 
the people then and there knowingly nod their heads: Of 
course, we know, we know... They do not pay money for 
no reason. And the provisions there, you understand, are 

Yes, there was a time when more and more stories were 
spreading about the closed settlements. The city I am in 
now arose in response to an American monopoly in the 
years of the cold war. That is the reason it was sur¬ 
rounded by an atmosphere of secrecy, which was fully 
justified at that time. You go through the halls of the city 
museum, get acquainted with the exhibits of the chem¬ 
ical mining combine—the main local enterprise—and 
are amazed in what a short time we were able to create 
modem industry in the middle of the taiga. And it also 
helped the country to achieve nuclear parity. And not 
only it. 

For example, the world’s first national distribution sat¬ 
ellite television system and all of the “Molniya” satellite 
series were created here in the “closed zone.” Almost 
100 “Orbita” ground stations that are operating in the 
country started out here. As, by the way, the “Gorizont” 
satellite, with whose help more than 1.5 billion inhabit¬ 
ants of the planet watched Olympiad-80. It is on the 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

basis of “Molniya” and “Gorizont” that a single satellite 
communication system was created in our country, and 
this is telephone, telegraph and facsimile communica¬ 
tions, and radiobroadcasting and television. Just in the 
past year, according to data of the USSR Ministry of 
Communications, the economic effect from the opera¬ 
tion of the satellite communications system amounted to 
more than a half billion rubles. 

Today, one can now talk about the person who 30 years 
ago came here on the instructions of Sergey Pavlovich 
Korolev, chief designer of space equipment, and orga¬ 
nized the test-design bureau. This is Mikhail Fedorovich 
Reshetnev, permanent general designer and general 
director of the NPO [scientific production association] 
of Applied Mechanics, academician, and Hero of 
Socialist Labor. Much in the work of his association was 
a forewarning of first in the world—which, unfortu¬ 
nately, is a phrase that is not characteristic of our 
country now. But it is here that the world’s first space 
communications system “Ekran” was developed, and 
now about 6,000 stations make it possible for inhabit¬ 
ants of the most remote and distant areas to receive 
telecast programs. The last creation of “celestial mechan¬ 
ics” is the “Glonass” space system, which enables sea¬ 
going ships to orient themselves on the oceans with 
extreme accuracy. 

But, while “taking care of space,” terrestrial concerns are 
not ignored. That is why the NPO assembly lines here 
put out the children’s sports trainers “Kuznechik,” 
motorized hang gliders, vacuum meat grinders, and 
other products. Next year, it is planned to produce these 
products in the sum of almost R6 million. 

Incidentally, concerning the consumption about which 
so much is said when the talk turns to “closed zones.” 
Indeed, actually the standard of living here is high. 
Excellent schools, kindergartens, sports facilities... 

But almost 6,000 persons are in line for an improvement 
in living conditions. Each city resident purchases food 
and industrial commodities in the amount of 1,800 
rubles per year. However, I dropped into a store, and 
there were the same ration tickets for sausage, meat, 
soap, sugar, and tea. 

One can hide from an outsider’s eyes. But it is not 
possible to conceal the problems with which the country 

And rumors have become hot with super earnings. The 
dosimetrist receives 240-300 rubles per month. 

Times have changed. And money is no longer paid for 
leave taken in the zone. The system for inviting close 
relatives has also been simplified. It is rumored that even 
visits of acquaintances will be permitted. The previously 
highly secret city will raise its curtain. 

But this process is still agonizing and painful. Especially 
for those who have lived here for dozens of years. 

“The question arose recently about whether to open or 
not to open the ‘closed zone’,” explains I. Vlasenko, 
chairman of the gorispolkom [city soviet executive com¬ 
mittee]. “Thus, all of the pensioners protested: It is 
better that we give our own money for its protection...” 

It is not difficult to understand the people. It is not a 
matter of material advantages. What kinds of benefits 
are there here, if everything in the stores is by coupons? 
Rather they are in the years of psychological comfort, in 
the stability, and in the additional legal protection itself 
that the high fence provides them. 

...On departing the city, no one checked our bus, 
although it was not long ago that a dual check was 
obligatory. The metallic gates slammed shut safely. But I 
am confident that they will open up for everyone without 
fail. Sooner or later. 

Ministry of General Machine Building Views 
Space Program, Mars Mission 

LD1808060389 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 
1500 GMT 17 Aug 89 

[Text] [Announcer Yevgeniy Leonov] The Collegium of 
the Ministry of General Machine Building today dis¬ 
cussed in Moscow the Soviet Space program up to the 
year 2005. Taking part in its work was our special 
correspondent Leonid Lazarevich, who has just taken his 
seat next to me at the microphone. Go ahead, Leonid. 

[Lazarevich] This is the first time, I think, that journal¬ 
ists have attended a collegium of this ministry, the work 
of which, as you know, has been shrouded in secrecy, and 
very serious secrecy at that. Well, even if journalists did 
attend, they kept silent about it on the air and in the 

[Leonov] Well, as it can now be told, tell us about it. 

[Lazarevich] We [journalists] were invited; and they had 
also invited representatives of the departments they 
work with, and representatives of the research institutes. 
They discussed long-term, vep^ long-term, prospects. 
Minister Oleg Nikolayevich Shishkin told his colleagues 
at once that he was asking them to criticize the proposed 
program, and to seriously criticize it. It was not the aim 
of this meeting to make any final decisions. 

[Leonov] What was its aim, then? 

[Lazarevich] The aim was to discuss, to give each other 
food for thought. It is very nice that they decided to do 
that in the presence of the press, and with its help to 
involve the broadest scientific public in the work that 
has begun. 

[Leonov] That, it seems to me, is real glasnost. 

[Lazarevich] Yes, I think it really does signify a new 
approach. I am sure that this program, which is only just 
being born, will not be subjected to the sort of criticism 
that has been levelled at the one that is now being 

JPRS-USP-89 010 
22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


implemented. Well, you know, a great many projects are 
being proposed, though the allocations for space research 
are being somewhat reduced. There are many interesting 
studies planned for the next 15 years. I would divide 
them into three main groups, as was done, indeed, at the 
collegium: Space research in the interests of the national 
economy; research in the interests of science; and 
manned flights, which, as you realize, will serve both 
science and the economy at once. I want to draw your 
attention to the fact that in these 15 years it is planned to 
carry out a consistent study of Mars with several 
manned, rather, several unmanned expeditions, 
including an attempt to take a rock sample and bring it 
back, and to send a Mars vehicle [marsokhod] to Mars. 

[Leonov] Well, is there a need for such an expedition to 
be mounted at the present time? 

[Lazarevich] Well, yes, of course there is a need. We 
must study Mars, because in studying Mars we study the 
Earth. We study the planets, and we can then predict the 
future of our Earth, once we know the whole solar 
system. Well, the remote aim of all these fights is, as has 
been said, a manned flight to Mars itself. It is planned to 
carry out such a flight in the years 2015-2017.1 do have 
to say, however, that the very idea of that flight was 
criticized by some people at the collegium, who asked 
what the manned flight to the moon actually gave to 
science, what results did it achieve? Yes, man set foot. 
Yes, the political effect was of the highest order; the 
interest was enormous. What did pure science get out of 
it? Pure science got nothing, as it turns out. Well, that is 
a long-range prospect, so we will not talk about it. 
Speaking more generally, you know, the collegium was 
marked by a constructive approach. I liked the fact that 
it was bluntly stated that the only projects that will go 
ahead are those that are socially valuable and have 
public support. The Ministry of General Machine 
Building expressed willingness to renounce, voluntarily, 
the diktat of the producer and give up its own monopoly. 
Its leaders said they will carry out the commissions of the 
institutes of the Academy of Sciences, and of the 
academy itself, but that the allocations for those projects 
must be obtained by the academy. 

[Leonov] Well, that seems right, does it not? 

[Lazarevich] Yes, of course. That is as it should be, now. 
No decisions were made by the collegium today, but it 
seems to me that a very important step has been taken in 
the quest for new paths that will enable our space science 
to enter a new spiral of development. 

[Leonov] Thank you, Leonid. Thank you for an inter¬ 
esting discussion. 

News Conference Held at Ministry on Space 
Research Plans to 2005 

LD2108141589 Moscow World Service in English 
1110 GMT 21 Aug 89 

[Text] Soviet scientists and specialists have mapped out 
a program of space research for the period until 2005. 

Newsmen have been invited to the Ministry of General 
Machine Building, which monitors the development of 
rockets and other space apparatus, to learn some details 
about the large-scale program. Earlier press conferences 
of this kind were not organized. Our correspondent has 
supplied these details. 

Space research problems have been drawing consider¬ 
able interest in this country. It’s understandable, too, 
since they require large investments today, and 
tomorrow they are likely to claim still larger funds. The 
draft program of space research is to be submitted to the 
Supreme Soviet for the highest national legislature to 
decide how much can be allocated to finance the sug¬ 
gested projects. Newsmen were told the space commu¬ 
nication systems, Orbita, Ekran, and Moskva, had 
yielded more than half a billion rubles in profit last year. 
Natural resources prospecting from orbit brings R350 
million a year and meteorological satellites add an 
annual R500-700 million to the national budget. 

Besides these concrete figures there are more approxi¬ 
mate estimates. Although materials processing in space 
has been experimental by and large it may bring consid¬ 
erable profits. Experts predict semiconductor, drug, and 
unique materials manufacture in orbit may yield 15 
billion to 20 billion for the national economy in the next 
10 years. The head of the National Space Agency, 
Glavkosmos, Aleksandr Dunayev, had this to say about 
the long-term space program: 

The program, Aleksandr Dunayev said, would provide 
for work in many important directions. Studies of other 
planets, particularly Mars, would go on together with 
astrophysical observations and studies of the Sun. Under 
the new program, space equipment would be used in 
prospecting natural resources, weather forecasting, and 
perfecting the system of communications, as well as in 
the work to resolve the ecological problem. Manned 
flights to space would continue and a new generation 
orbiting station, Mir-2, was to be designed as a longer 
term project. The station, which would have a mass of 
300 tonnes, would cater to teams of 9-12 spacemen 
working in orbit on a permanent basis. 

Replying to a question dominating the minds of many 
people today, namely when a human foot would tread on 
Martian soil, Aleksandr Dunayev said the government 
had approved a program of preparations for a manned 
mission to Mars which would require a considerable 
degree of international cooperation. A flight to Mars, 
Aleksandr Dunayev emphasized, was a grand problem 
that should be solved by combined efforts. (?I0 technical 
aspects being fairly clear one could expect such a mission 
to take place in 2015 or 2017. 

‘Program 2005’ Proposes Space Projects To Year 

18660203 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 
23 Aug 89 p 4 

[Article by Colonel M. Rebrov, editor of KRASNAYA 
ZVEZDA Science, Technology and Cosmonautics 
Department: “Cosmonautics, Year 2005”] 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

[Text]They, or rather “Project 2005,” were discussed at 
the expanded meeting of the collegium of the Ministry of 
General Machine Building. Scientists, builders, econo¬ 
mists, Gosplan workers, industrial managers, military 
officios, and journalists met in the hall. Seversd hours of 
lively conversation, arguments, unexpected questions, and 
alternative judgments led to getting a feel for the future, 
gaining an understanding of “a program to create a cosmic 
technology for purposes of science and peoples’ economy 
for the period up to the year 2005,” balancing expectations 
and realities, pondering the purposefulness, and becoming 
convinced of the necessity. 

One can talk on two levels about cosmonautics in the 
third millennium: the level of dreams and the level of 
optimistic expectations. Dreams do not live in shackles. 
But today they are formed along the lines of contempo¬ 
rary realities and economic purpose. And therefore in 
cosmic matters one cannot do without naturalized words 
like “balances” and “imbalances,” “debit” and “credit,” 
“active” and “passive.” The importance of the calcu¬ 
lating approach (in the widest sense of the word) is 
emphasized by the fact that very significant scientific 
and financial assets are concentrated in the field of 

We live surrounded by an enormous number of prob¬ 
lems which constantly remind us of themselves. Thus 
there is a large socio-economic demand for cheap sources 
of energy, cheap production of synthetic materials with 
previously-determined characteristics, an adequate 
supply of nitrate-free products and effective means to 
combat disease. 

As an example, let us take the problem of controlling a 
nuclear reaction. Until now there has been no clear idea 
when, and most importantly, how this most complicated 
problem will be solved. Nevertheless the prognosis 
dealing with perspectives in the field is that following the 
present trend of research, it becomes a likelihood of the 
highest degree of certainty that practically unlimited 
quantities of energy will become available at fabulously 
low cost. It has come to where one cannot retreat. The 
expenditures will pay for themselves. Cosmonautics has 
its own attractive prospects. It promises us energy, new 
unique materials, and superclean drugs... 

A peek into the future is helped by the project “Pro¬ 
grams—2005.” It is being developed by the Central 
Scientific Research Institute for Machine-Building after 
considering opinions, remarks, and proposals of design 
bureaus and scientific centers in the space branch, inter¬ 
ests of the USSR Academy of Sciences, ministries and 
organizations of the national economy—in a word, all 
who are interested in the utilization of cosmic tech¬ 
nology for daily life on earth. 

And thus, what kind of technology will come to replace 
the present? What tasks— scientific and economic—^will 
it be able to undertake? How much will we have spent for 
its creation and what will we get for it? 

Communications. In the course of the 13th, I4th and 15th 
five-year plans, planned satellites for communications 
and television will begin working in orbit. They will be 
“Granit,” “Gelicon,” “Granit-M,” “Granit-2,” “Geli- 
con-2” and “Informator” with enhanced use character¬ 
istics, increased range of fixed and mobile communica¬ 
tions, and a working life of 5 to 6 years. From 1992 the 
transmission of all television programs will be by time 
zone, covering the entire country. Satellites will start 
direct transmissions to individual antennas. 

Geodesy. The satellites “Etalon” and “GEO-IK”, which 
are being prepared for launching, are intended to build 
highly accurate global and regional geodesic networks 
and to determine parameters of the earth’s gravitational 
field. In the future we will have the capability of deter¬ 
mining the coordinates of points on the geodesic net¬ 
works with an accuracy to decimeter-size units. 

Cartography. Today, more than 3,000,000 photographs, 
made from outer space, are used to assemble highly 
accurate maps for most varied uses. Every ruble spent 
here brings a five ruble profit. To survey inaccessible 
areas the gain becomes still larger. (Soviet satellites were 
the first to get photographs of the Antarctic massif). To 
compare the effectiveness of aerial and outer-space sur¬ 
veys, they favor outer space— 1.7 rubles to 1.00. 

Navigation. To navigate precisely at sea, in the air or on 
land, to determine one’s coordinates, to evade typhoons 
and violent storms of the elements, and those who suffer 
natural calamities will be helped by satellites of the 
system “Glonass.” It will consist of 24 satellites (8 of 
them in reserve) deployed in 3 orbital planes with 7-8 
satellites in each. The precision of transmitting coordi¬ 
nates will be in meters, speeds—in centimeters per 
second. The satellite system of search and rescue, 
“Nadezhda-M,” will acquire new capabilities. 

Meteorology. Stationary orbit satellites of the type “Elec¬ 
tro” with television capabilities of receiving images in the 
visible and infrared portions of the spectrum will be added 
to the technical devices which are already functional. They 
will permit collecting data on the distribution of the cloud 
cover over equatorial and temperate latitudes on the light 
and dark sides of the earth, and speed and direction of the 
wind on 2-3 levels. 

Investigation of Natural Resources. Today we have all 
become aware of how alarming the condition of people 
on the planet has become with respect to food and energy 
supply and ecology. (There are 155,000 enterprises 
uncontrollably polluting the environment). Meanwhile, 
information obtained from outer space facilitates more 
intensive development of production capabilities, con¬ 
trol and conservation of the natural environment. It is 
used to satisfy needs in geology, farming, forestry, 
fishing, water management, oceanography, land devel¬ 
opment, urban location, and construction. Big hopes in 
this field are placed in satellites of the types “Resurs” 
and “Okean,” which are being created by the cosmic 
industry of the country. 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


Technology. The passage from experimental investiga¬ 
tions to semi-production is now discussed. That will be 
followed by industrial production in outer space of 
various inorganic and organic materials and substances 
with improved characteristics by utilizing improved 
conductivity of physical processes under conditions of 
weightlessness. I will not give all examples—there are too 
many. I shall name only gallium arsenite. Its structure is 
such, that it permits electrons to travel 5 times as fast as 
in silicon. But silicon is the foundation of all contempo¬ 
rary electronics. Gallium arsenite— a compound of 
gallium and arsenic are two elements, which, by them¬ 
selves, do not belong to the category of precious metals. 
However, its crystals are approximately 70 times as 
expensive as gold. They will be able to increase the speed 
of computers, and to act as precursors of a new era of use 
of solar energy.(Continuation to follow). 

Manned Missions, Mars Program Proposed in 
Ministry’s ‘Program 2005’ 

18660204 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA 
in Russian 25 Aug 89 p 4 

[Article by Colonel M. Rebrov, editor of the department 
of science, technology, and aeronautics: “Aeronautics, 
the Year 2005”] 

[Text] Today, we are continuing our discussion of the 
Soviet space program. As the philosophers are saying, 
the space age of humanity promises to be a long one; let 
us hope that it will be endless. Let us not only hope, but 
create this age. Scientists, designers, and engineers pro¬ 
pose what is to be created and how, and how to generate 
more profit from space endeavors. 

Science. A new generation of scientific instruments will 
appear in space for obtaining priority results in the 
sphere of extra-atmospheric astronomy, the study of the 
Solar System, cosmic plasma, the interplanetary space 
and that around Earth (projects Relikt-2, Radioastron, 
Koronas, and others). Astrophysical research will be 
carried out with the use of new Spektr automatic devices, 
developed by the Lavochkin Research and Production 
Association. It is expected to carry out the exploration of 
space immediately adjacent to the Sun and gravitation 
experiments with the help of the automatic laboratory of 
the new generation “Solar Probe.” A great number of 
scientific programs for the research of solar and terres¬ 
trial links, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere of 
Earth will be carried out by using NIKA space vehicles (I 
will note that the scientists have established a quite 
significant regularity: The ionosphere responds to earth¬ 
quakes ahead of time; “the warning signs” appear in the 
time span between 2 hours and 30 minutes before the 
beginning of the event). 

Manned Space Flight. The Mir-2 modular station of the 
new generation will appear in orbit. In the course of its 
flight, it is envisaged to solve a set of experimental and 
design problems in perfecting new methods of explora¬ 
tion and observation from space and the means for the 

technical servicing of flight vehicles of the new genera¬ 
tion created on the basis of large-scale assemblies. The 
Soyuz manned space vehicles and the Progress cargo 
vehicles will become different. Regular flights of the 
Buran will begin. International crews will work aboard 
our complexes together with Soviet cosmonauts. 

In May and November of 1991, joint flights of Soviet 
cosmonauts with their colleagues from Great Britain and 
Austria will take place. It is planned to conduct as many 
as three international expeditions in 1992: In March, a 
cosmonaut from the FRG will fly; the flight by a French 
cosmonaut is scheduled for August, and in December, a 
representative of Spain will visit the Mir orbital com¬ 

The Mars Expedition. Program-2005 proposes the 
sequence of work on studying the “Red Planet,” the 
ultimate objective of which is to send a manned expedi¬ 
tion between 2015 and 2017. Prior to this, it is expected 
to study the surface and the atmosphere of Mars by 
means of artificial satellites, balloon probes, penetrators, 
small lander laboratories, and “Marsokhod” vehicles 
(1994). It is planned to gather samples of Martian ground 
and deliver them to Earth for a detailed biochemical and 
geochemical analysis (1998). 

In short, such is the draft of the Soviet space program for 
the three 5-year periods to come. If we sum up what has 
been said, we may come to a conclusion. The concept of 
scientists, designers, and leaders of the space industry 
provides for the development of space resources for 
economic and scientific purposes in stages, a gradual 
reduction and elimination of the current gap between the 
technical standard of Soviet space resources and of the 
best foreign analogs, the creation of prerequisites for the 
implementation of large-scale space projects in the 
future, and the expansion of international cooperation 
and commercial use of domestic products of the space 

Here is something for the skeptics, for those who like to 
refer to the fact that, supposedly, no man is a prophet in 
his own land. In June of this year. President of the 
United States Bush outlined the fundamentals of the 
American space research program for the 10 years to 
come. It includes the creation of an orbiting station (in 
the image and after the likeness of our concept of durable 
stations) in the space adjacent to Earth, resumption of 
flights to the Moon, construction of a research base there 
by the beginning of the next century, and preparations 
for the Martian expedition. The outlays for this program 
are estimated to be between $800 and $900 billion. 

Our expected outlays are considerably more modest (just 
over a billion at the first stage of Martian research). As 
far as the return on space programs and their economic 
efficiency are concerned, the following numbers were 
quoted at the expanded collegium of the MOM [Ministry 
of General Machine Building]. Profits generated by 
meteorological and ecological satellites between 1986 
and 1990 will amount to 3.9, in 1991 through 1995 to 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

5.8, and in 1996 through 2000, to R9.6 billion . It will be 
respectively R2.2, 4.8, and 5.8 billion for satellites 
exploring the natural resources of Earth; R2.6, 4.1, and 
5.6 billion for communications satellites; R0.2, 0.8, and 
3.8 billion for navigation satellites... Space industries 
also promise to be profitable. Here is one more statistic. 
Since 1966, the economic effect from using space tech¬ 
nology for the needs of science and the national economy 
has come to more than R20 billion 

I will not render the content of the keynote report (made 
by Director of the TsNIIMash [Central Research Insti¬ 
tute of Machine Building and Metal Treatment] Doctor 
of Technical Sciences Professor Yu.A. Mozzhorin) and 
the statements made at the collegium meeting by 
Designer General G.A. Yefremov, Academicians N.N. 
Sheremetyevskiy and B.L. Barsukov, corresponding 
member of the USSR Academy of Sciences N.S. Karda- 
shev. Colonel General A. A. Maksimov, leading function¬ 
aries of the USSR Ministry of Communications, the 
“Nature” State Center, and research and production 
associations. In the speeches, principled evaluations of 
the new projects were given, concern about our ground 
facilities falling behind the standard of space technology 
was voiced, and suggestions were made on improving the 
commercial utilization of space technology. 

Minister of General Machine Building O.N. Shishkin 
summed up the discussion. Among other things, he said 
that all programs should be adopted in the environment 
of glasnost and taking the opinion of the public into 
account. It is necessary to resolutely give up the imposi¬ 
tion of any projects by the producers interested in this. 
The customer should have priority. Social needs of the 
country determine what science and the national 
economy need from space. It is important for us to 
consider judiciously what the main point is at a given 
stage and what needs to be emphasized. It is not essential 
who is faster and who is ahead; cooperation and the 
division of labor in space are necessary. 

Of course, “Program-2005” will be made more precise. 
Perhaps, the fact that our life is not entirely predictable 
is exactly what makes it good. Time makes its correc¬ 
tions in life, and what is remote becomes close consid¬ 
erably faster. 

Roundtable Discussion on Soviet Space 

PM1608163089 Moscow MOSCOW NEWS in English 
No ii, 13 Aug 89 pp 8-9 

[Roundtable feature: “What Stars Are We Bound For? 
Some Controversial Reflections on Space Exploration”] 

[Text] Ever since the times of the first Sputnik we have 
become used to believing that our country is in the 
vanguard of space exploration. We have always taken 
pride in our achievements in this field, and cosmonauts 
have invariably been honoured as national heroes. 

And all of a sudden critical voices are heard. “We don’t 
need space, there are enough earthly worries here”—this 
idea started being asserted in public awareness. “Non- 
acceptance” of space research entered many electoral 
programmes; nor was there a shortage of such pro¬ 
nouncements at the recent Congress of People’s Depu¬ 

The challenging problems of modem cosmonautics are 
discussed at an MN [MOSCOW NEWS] roundtable by 
Academician Roald Sagdeyev, people’s deputy of the 
USSR, Konstantin Feoktistov, pilot-cosmonaut of the 
USSR, D. Sc. (Engineering), and Yaroslav Golovanov, a 
writer and “space” journalist. The anchorman is 
Leonard Nikishin, editor of the MN science department. 

Diagnosis: Space Allergy 

L.N.: Where do these extreme views come from—the 
total, angry denial of the need for “useless” spending on 
space? I believe that, not least of all, this is a consequence 
of well-nigh universal irritation over the hullabaloo of 
many years about our “space victories.” But people lived 
in a different world. They were short of too many good 
things of life to take these victories close to heart. 

Today parades of cosmonautics, like many other solemn 
rituals meant to glorify “developed socialism”, are 
things of the past. What, then, is our strategy for the 
mastering of space? 

K.F.: Opinions can vary on this score. Personally I am 
convinced, for instance, that we do not have, and never 
had, a strategic line; although nothing is being done in 
this country without plans and programmes, the general 
principles of state policy in this sphere have never been 
clearly designated. Wherever the possibility to derive 
some benefit appeared, it was taken. Numerous practical 
space systems were set up—for instance, communica¬ 
tion, navigational, meteorological, etc. But penetration 
into space gives us a unique possibility to obtain new 
information about the universe, to somehow “glue 
together” the scattered notions about the nature of the 
world we live in. For the time being it has remained 
fantastically incomprehensible for us. As I see it, this 
should become the main strategic line of research. Yet 
the efforts made here are totally insignificant. 

R.S.: In general, I agree with the aforesaid that, speaking 
seriously, we have no strategic line in the exploration of 
space. We merely claimed to have a line. 

Now that we say that the market should be the main 
regulator of the economy, the same is also essential for 
the space programme. There are, for example, many 
organizations with a stake in expanding the services of 
space communication, the use of TV and telephone 
channels or digital channels for computer networks. The 
pace of progress must be dictated by requirements. 

The same applies to research programmes. But science 
has already long since been sacrificed to the same claim 
to the existence of a strategic line. Each time scientists 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


say: “We need a specialized satellite which will take us to 
the forefront of astrophysical research,” they are told in 
reply: “Strategy now calls for the development of certain 
unique space technology. Wait a little, it will be created 
and you will fly on it.” As a result, our hopes are dashed. 
And I agree that society has been gripped with irritation, 
a kind of “allergy” to the endless flow of space launches 
from Soviet launching sites. Their number is at least five 
times that in the rest of the world. This cannot be said 
about the results of space exploration—they are most 
modest than in the U.S.A. 

I believe that during the years that have elapsed, the 
“Korolev pleiad” of designers and theoreticians has been 
replaced with people who were mainly promoted along 
party, trade union and administrative lines. Now it’s up 
to them to adopt cardinal decisions. What strategic line 
do you want from them? 

Ya.G.: Quite correct. May no one take offence, but 
Sergey Korolev himself and the general designer’s closest 
advisers, known as the “Korolev guard”, were space 
fanatics. Their attitude towards work, incidentally, was 
determined not by their age—there were people in their 
sixties and 25-year-olds among them—but by creative 
fervour. Today, regretfully, there aren’t many of them; 
our esteemed co-participant in this exchange, Kon¬ 
stantin Feoktistov, is one of them. It is hard for them to 
shape the direction of space research, because creative 
endeavour poorly “survives” in a bureaucratic atmo¬ 

Buran in the Budget 

L.N.: Today experts have to prove space travel’s right to 
existence. Of course, no one doubts the need for space 
communication, for one. What is at issue is different— 
the programme’s being balanced and consistent with the 
country’s capabilities and requirements. After all, even 
here we are carried away by ambitious projects. Why, for 
example, has the bulky and costly Energiya-Buran 
system been developed? So as not to “lag behind” the 
Americans who, incidentally, have already realized their 
miscalculations with the shuttles? 

K.F.: In this context I wold like to return to what Roald 
Sagdeyev has just said. I agree with what he said about 
the “Korolev pleiad” having been replaced. But officials’ 
ambitions are mainly aimed at getting another position, 
and a higher one at that. This is where we come to the 
question: Why was it necessary to develop the Energiya- 
Buran system? At first glance, it is a perfect riddle. Did 
we want to imitate the American shuttle? But, let us 
recall why the shuttle was developed: in order to have a 
cheap carrier vehicle to orbit the earth. As we all know, 
the Americans failed to achieve this. Now let us take a 
look at Buran. According to my estimates, it will be from 
20 to 40 times more expensive to lift cargoes into orbit 
with its help than with the use of the existing Soyuz and 
Proton one-launch carrier rockets, which are dependable 
and have long been in operation. Even delivering cargoes 

to orbital stations will be from 10 to 40 times more 
expensive than with the help of the existing Progress 

The Proton rocket puts 20 tons into orbit. Buran will lift 
the same class of cargoes. Have we developed it to make 
their delivery to space even more costly? You may object 
that with the help of Buran it is possible to return cargoes 
from orbit. For instance, a very expensive space module 
has been disabled, so we approach it in Buran, put it in 
the cargo compartment and—^back to Earth for mainte¬ 
nance and repairs. The whole point is, however, that any, 
even the most sophisticated space craft is far cheaper 
than one flight of Buran. 

R.S.: Let me carry on your thought. At the moment when 
the decision was taken (at the highest level) on devel¬ 
oping the Energiya-Buran system, it was assumed that 
there was no real advantage, but that the crafty Ameri¬ 
cans surely had something up their sleeve in developing 
their shuttles. In short, we followed the path of the long 
established stereotype—a symmetrical reply. Inciden¬ 
tally, when the question of SDI was being decided, some 
of the people who passed a decision on Buran even in 
this case favoured a symmetrical reply. Fortunately, the 
times have changed and, thanks to the new political 
leadership and the stronger voice of scientists and tech¬ 
nologists, our country for the first time refused to follow 
the path of this cut and dried stereotype. 

Even today Buran consumes the lion’s share of expenses 
in the space budget. True, this is the latest word in 
technology, a mass of solutions on the brink of fantasy— 
I think that Kontantin Feoktistov will agree with me... 

K.F.: Of course, I won’t. 

R.S.: I shan’t insist, but it seems to me that even the 
crudest economic estimates of necessary missions give 
an unambiguous answer. I am all in favour of disposable 
syringes and against reusable Buran. 

K. F.: Who would be opposed to a reusable system if it 
were cheaper? But it has been impossible to solve the 
problem of developing a cheap vehicle for delivering 
cargoes to space with those unfortunate technical solu¬ 
tions which were made in the shuttle and Buran. Never¬ 
theless, we have stubbornly continued spending money 
on this hopeless affair. 

L. N.: However, the Energiya rocket can also be used 
without Buran—as a means of delivering cargoes of up to 
100 tons to orbit. True, I can’t imagine what kind of 
cargoes it will have to lift. 

K.F.: It is not in doubt that Energiya is a definite 
technical breakthrough. But, indeed, there is no project 
that would really fit it. 

R.S.: It appeared too early for today and too late—that’s 
the paradox—for the mission which was on the agenda 
two decades ago—manned flight to the moon. In effect, 
it is a carrier of the same class as the American Saturn 5, 
developed in those years. Upon completing the Apollo 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

programme, the Americans discontinued the production 
of these rockets since they had found no corresponding 
payloads for them. 


Ya. G.: I believe that the participants in this exchange 
are agreed that we have no strategic line in the explora¬ 
tion of outer space. It seems to me that there is not even 
any tactical line either. From time to time, the engineers 
developing space equipment, space medics, astrophysi¬ 
cists, and so on, have some very sound and interesting 
proposals to make, which are usually implemented in 
accordance with their authors’ level of activity and 
prestige. Only by stretching one’s imagination can we 
attribute the formulation of the tactics of space research 
to them. As I see it, space travel today is in no way 
different from other sectors of the economy in the sense 
of having very low returns. Now they say that nearly a 
half of our crops rot before they reach the consumer. 
Such is also the case with the “space harvest”—for the 
most part it doesn’t reach the consumer. 

L.N.: A. Pokrovskiy recently wrote in PRAVDA about 
“mountains” of unused space information. 

Ya.G.: I remember cosmonaut Georgiy Grechko telling 
me: He brought a whole pile of photos back from orbit, 
and then they lay for three years without being analyzed. 
I agree with Roald Sagdeyev that the efficiency of the 
space programme is the most important thing today. A 
lot of money has been spent on Buran—so let’s start 
“milking” it, so to speak. But this is something we can’t 
do. The crisis-like situation has already reached a point 
where our excellent orbital station Mir—this is already 
the third generation—is flying empty. Isn’t this a fact of 
glaring mismanagement? 

L.N.: Incidentally, the programme for the use of orbital 
stations was loudly announced by Brezhnev in 1969. At 
that time he had to “save face”, so to speak: The myth 
cultivated about our superiority in space had been 
shaken after the Americans’ landing on the moon. But 
what did the country’s economy get as a result of this 
programme? In general, as the Ministry of Land 
Improvement and Water Conservation was recently 
asked: Where had the people’s money gone? 

K.F.: Let us take a look. During the 30 years of manned 
flights—from Gagarin’s Vostok to Mir—we have spent 
about six billion roubles on them. This is roughly one 
rouble a year for each Soviet man and woman. Of course, 
the spending is big, but it stands no comparison with that 
of the Ministry of Land Improvement and Water Con¬ 
servation. And the second distinction from this ministry 
is that no direct harm has been done—on the contrail, 
we have achieved something. There is still the possibility 
that space production may prove to be expedient. But 
doubtlessly, the efficiency in utilizing orbital stations is 
very low. What is the matter here? You know, I would 
put it this way: The whole point is in the “squiggle”. In 
a very ordinary “squiggle” that we put in the book of 
accounts. After all, how do we understand the task of 

creating an orbital station? Naturally, we must build and 
launch it. All the rest is no more than trifles. This is 
where problems start “splashing out”. The station must 
be fitted out with research equipment—diverse and of 
high quality. But, as a rule, it is created on the “residual 
principle”, with little time left for polishing it, as dead¬ 
lines make it a crash programme. A station has been 
launched, cosmonauts have arrived at it, and everyone is 
very pleased, while hardly anyone is concerned over the 
way the apparatus functions there. But this, in effect, is 
the most important thing. 

R.S.: This is generally one of the sorest issues. When 
space equipment is controlled by bureaucrats, the most 
important thing for them is yet another “historic” launc- 
ing. Hence the public’s negative reaction. The point of 
view, raised by Boris Yeltsin, for example, is that all 
these works must be urgently discontinued. In many 
respects Yeltsin is right, and yet I am happy that his 
proposal to freeze the space programme for five to seven 
years has not been accepted. 

Ya.G.: Pay attention to this—at the Congress of People’s 
Deputies the space programme was not at all defended 
by space specialists. It was Gavriil Popov, an economist. 

R.S.: The very first statement at the congress in defence 
of space travel was by A. Neumyvakin, chairman of the 
All-Russia Society of the Blind. Better than anyone with 
eyes to see, he saw that the space programme must not be 
closed down, that other approaches had to be found. An 
imperative of the time is the expansion of international 
space cooperation. But this mustn’t develop into activi¬ 
ties of the “Hey, let me give you a lift” type—on a 
Russian “space troika” and for hard cash. Incidentally, 
Brezhnev did this gratis: Big-hearted, as he was, he was 
fond of making generous gifts. But now the same “guest” 
sports are sold. But what does this kind of commerce 
give our space programme? 

Will a Japanese Journalist Become a Hero of the Soviet 

Ya.G.: I believe that what once happened to Alaska is 
now happening to the agreement on sending a Japanese 
journalist to space. Last century Russia sold Alaska to 
the Americans for a mere song. The latter more than 
made back their money. I am all for the flight of a Soviet, 
not a Japanese journalist. We could give broad adver¬ 
tising to Soviet space travel and show what it gives our 
country and the rest of the world. It is ridiculous if this 
is done by a Japanese first. 

K. F.: I can’t agree. After all, until now it is propaganda 
that has been Soviet cosmonauts’ main occupation. I see 
no reasons why the situation should not be capitalized 
upon for commercial activities. This implies no infringe¬ 
ment either on our national feeling or on those of 

L. N.: Is it true that various newspapers are already 
receiving letters with a question: Will the Japanese be 
honoured with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union? 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


R.S.: To this I can reply that many cosmonauts, Heroes 
of the Soviet Union, have subsequently become nearly 
professional journalists. And once we have started 
speaking about mass media, let me say that negative, 
“anti-space” feelings have arisen also because the public 
at large knew too little about the space programme. On 
every satellite launched in our country—of the Cosmos 
series, for example—was this label: for continuing the 
exploration of outer space. How many times was I asked 
to explain why another Cosmos, the total number of 
which has topped 2,000, had been launched. Now that 
the space budget has been made public and we know that 
about seven billion roubles are annually spent for these 
purposes, I can say that a mere 1 percent of this sum goes 
for “strictly” scientific research. But after all, literally 
everything—R & D, national economic and defence 
programmes—used to be written off to science. In the 
eyes of ordinary people it has turned into a devourer of 
incalculable sums. One percent—just think of it. 

Now I would also like to mention the following. Of 
course, in space travel there have been mistakes and 
major breakdowns, though not on the scale of Cherno¬ 
byl. But the people still know practically nothing about 
them, and who was punished and how. Moreover, people 
who were guilty of these failures were later promoted in 
their line of service. 

L.N.: One percent is an amazing figure. Maybe this is the 
reason why scientists sought primarily to implement the 
most prestigious projects, to study Venus and Mars? 
Although, it must be said, the Americans have outstripped 
us here—their interplanetary stations have explored nearly 
all the planets in the solar system. But the most dramatic is 
our lag in space research from the near-Earth orbit in the 
infrared, ultraviolet. X-ray and gamma wave band. Maybe 
it’s about time to shift the emphasis? 

R.S.: You are mistaken. Much is being done today in this 
respect. By way of example, I can mention the interna¬ 
tional astrophysical observatory on the Mir orbital station. 
Among other things, it has the most sophisticated tele¬ 
scope requiring extremely delicate treatment, turning the 
station and maintaining accurate orientation. This is a 
matter of pride both for scientists from the Institute of 
Space Research and for the creators of the station from the 
Energiya scientific production association. Scientists gen¬ 
erally pin great hopes on the Mir station: Much could be 
done on it—much more than is being done now. But for 
this there is a need to define its strategic objectives in 
league with consumers. 

Research studies have also been carried out with the use of 
apparatus working in the millimetre band. One project was 
to compile a temperature chart of the universe. Today we 
are preparing for work with infrared equipment. 

SDI-Mad Wisdom 

L.N.: Well, if we estimate how much the Americans spend 
on SDI and how much on strictly scientific space research, 
the picture probably will be equally unattractive. 

K. F.: Once we touched upon SDI, I want to say that this 
is a dangerous situation, of course. Billions upon billions 
are being spent in the U.S.A. on goodness knows what. 
Some weaponry will certainly appear as a result—but 
definitely not of the kind they hope to get. Yet I am sure 
that the overall effectiveness of the spending on this 
program will prove to be very low. 

L. N.: Today much noise has been raised in the U.S.A. 
around small interceptor satellites developed in the SDI 
framework—the “brilliant pebbles”, as they have come 
to be known. They say that with them, SDI allegedly 
passes from fantasy to reality. 

K.F.: This is the mouse which has been bom of the SDI 
elephant. We see that irrational decisions are possible in 
the U.S.A. as well. When the decision on SDI was taken, 
they failed to carry out elementary calculations which 
could clearly show that this was a monstrously absurd 
project that could not be carried into effect. Everything 
ended up with a primitive system of orbit-based rocket 
projectiles, which cannot secure 100 percent intercep¬ 
tion of ballistic missiles. And these projectiles certainly 
do not justify the immense expenditures. 

R.S.: I think that the architects of SDI are now putting a 
good face on a patently bad matter. 

K.F.: It may be that the Americans received some 
distorted information that we were going to do some¬ 
thing similar, that they took someone’s irresponsible talk 
at face value... 

Ya.G.: I think that the SDI ideologues have a poor 
understanding about human history. For every defensive 
weapon there has always been found an offensive 
weapon which rendered the former meaningless. 

But we must be realists. Thousands of people are 
employed in the military industry, both in the U.S.A. 
and in the USSR. To bring military production suddenly 
to a halt means to make them unemployed. In the Soviet 
Union we have proclaimed the idea of conversion, which 
can fulfill two tasks: arrest the arms race and speed up 
the production of goods in short supply. People in this 
country and in the U.S.A. have criticized the project of a 
joint Soviet-American flight to Mars. And yet the orders 
on such a challenging project could well serve as a 
substitute for military orders. And again two problems 
would be tackled: lessening arms production and giving 
a powerful impetus to scientific research. Moreover: 
Both personnel and the advanced industrial organization 
will be kept intact. 

From State Secrecy to State Discussion 

R.S.: I can’t express any optimism over the prospects of 
our space programme because the choice of objectives, 
as we have said, is in the hands of bureaucrats. But they 
are primarily interested in victory and glory. This, inci¬ 
dentally, is happening not only in space travel. I am not 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

at all surprised when reports appear to the effect that we 
have nearly mastered the mass production of supercom¬ 
puters and the like. 

Ya.G.: Along the same lines are stories of the so-called 
side effects. It has been alleged that we have already 
received a lot, that a river of gold is flowing thanks to the 
application of the space programme’s technological 
breakthroughs in the national economy. 

K.F.: Yes, that river is really flooding us... I don’t 
remember a single rouble obtained through the applica¬ 
tion, say, of Buran technology in the economy. I think no 
one has received anything. 

R.S.: The last refuge of windowdressers. The propagan¬ 
dists of SDI in America employ the same device: a lot of 
applications, a dentist’s laser drill, and so on. 

K. F.: I think that when there is no direct effect, they start 
speaking about something indirect. It is the litmus paper 

L. N.: It is obvious that we need a reasonable and 
balanced space programme. The participants in today’s 
talk at the MN roundtable are unanimous on this ques¬ 
tion, as in their belief that the programme we have today 
is a far cry from this. But it can be modified in the right 
direction only by passing through the crucible of public 
discussion, its examination and approval by the USSR 
Supreme Soviet. And it needs no secrecy, with the 
exception of spheres where this is dictated by obvious 
necessity. But even for this eventuality the Supreme 
Soviet can make provision for the procedure of closed 

Editors’ Note. In publishing the materials of this meeting 
we understand that the views of its participants voiced in 
the course of the discussion may give rise to objections. 
But hardly anyone will deny that a heart-to-heart talk 
like this has long been overdue. We hope to return to the 
space theme and look forward to concerned responses 
from scientists, experts and the public generally. 

Barsukov Reports New Soviet Missions Planned 
To Phobos, Mercury 

INDUSTRIYA in Russian 25 Aug 89 p 3 

[TASS Report: “Expedition To A Satellite of Mars”] 

[Text] New York, 24 September. Current problems in 
the study of the solar system are on the agenda at an 
international conference that has opened in Pasadena, 
California. Great interest at the conference was 
prompted by the appearance of Professor V. L. Bar¬ 
sukov, director of the Institute of Geochemistry and 
Analytical Chemistry, who reported that the USSR will 
once again send an automatic station to Phobos, the 
satellite of Mars, toward the end of the present century. 
In the same time frame Soviet scientists are planning to 
carry out a similar mission to Mecury. 

Dunayev Says Mars Expedition Possible by 

LD2108101589 Moscow World Service in English 
0700 GMT 21 Aug 89 

[Text] With large-scale international cooperation a 
manned expedition to Mars could take place already by 
the year 2015 or by 2017. Such is the opinion of 
Aleksandr Dunayev, in charge of the Soviet space 
agency. In an interview for Radio Moscow he said Soviet 
specialists are now exchanging views on ways of imple¬ 
menting that stupendous project with their counterparts 
in the United States, Japan, the European Space Agency, 
and in other countries and organizations. Aleksandr 
Dunayev said the Soviet Union could alone organize a 
manned flight to Mars, but that would require more time 
and more funds. 

Pbobos Mission Failure Said to Reveal Planning, 
Budget Problems 

18660208 Moscow PRA VDA in Russian 30 Aug 89 p 3 

[Article by Professor G. Avanesov, department head, 
Space Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, 
doctor of technical sciences, Lenin Prize winner; B. 
Zhukov, senior scientific associate, candidate of physi¬ 
cal-mathematical sciences: “The Lessons of ‘Phobos’”] 

[Text] When it was near Mars the automatic interplan¬ 
etary station “Phobos” transmitted to Earth pictures of 
the Martian moon Phobos. In spite of the disruption of 
the planned program, for many years these photographs 
will be the objects of detailed study by specialists from 
several countries. Undoubtedly they will not lose their 
importance even in the future, with flights to Mars and 
more photographs. 

The photographic survey system built for the “Phobos” 
is a set of instruments consisting of three television 
cameras, a spectrometer, a control system and and a 
videorecorder system. Its technical designation is “Vid¬ 
eospectrometry complex” (VSK) and its name is “Fre- 

A whole series of Soviet and foreign scientific collectives 
participated in creating the “Fregat.” Specialists from 
the Space Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sci¬ 
ences developed the concepts for the system, selected 
and worked out its main characteristics and technical 
goals for components and subsystems and did the inter¬ 
mediate and final testing. Important components of the 
system were developed and made in the USSR. The 
optical unit was developed at the Leningrad Institute of 
Precision Mechanics and Optics. Modern television 
radiation detectors—CCD matrices—were created at the 
“Elektron” VNIII [All-Union Scientific Research Insti¬ 
tute]. The system’s visual axis is positioned by a device 
created at the “Granit” SKB [Special Design Bureau]. 

The Central Cybernetics Institute and the Space 
Research Institute of the GDR Academy of Sciences 
made a great contribution in creating the system. They 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


built digital video storage devices for subsequent trans¬ 
mission of more than 1,000 television pictures. 

The Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy 
of Sciences developed the electronic and microprocessor 
components and worked on the final assembly of the 
complex and its functional testing. 

It should be noted that at various stages of design, the 
creators of the VSK were helped by scientists and spe¬ 
cialists from France, the United States and Finland. This 
help was absolutely unconditional and grew out of 
common interest in success. 

The VSK is intended to solve two very different tasks in 
the project. The first is the gathering of navigational 
information necessary to precisely determine the posi¬ 
tion of the AMS [Automatic Interplanetary Station] 
“Phobos.” The other is to collect data on the shape, 
structure, microstructure and composition of the Mar¬ 
tian moon. 

During the flight about 40 images, covering more than 
80 percent of the planet’s surface were made at distances 
of 1,100 to 200 kilometers. The pictures at the minimal 
distances have resolution down to 40 meters. A compar¬ 
ison of the images from the VSK with photographs from 
Mariner-9 and Viking show that they supplement one 
another well in covering that moon’s surface and with 
regard to spectral zones and observation conditions. 

The television and all other remaining experiments by 
the “Phobos” were terminated by the untimely loss of 
the spacecraft. Those who worked on the AMS “Phobos” 
experienced this as a deep personal trauma. Designers 
and engineers with various specialities, mathematicians 
and workers labored selflessly and exerted all their 
efforts, trying to get things done within pressing dead¬ 

But why, once again must the words “pressing dead¬ 
lines” be used? There was the astronomical window for 
the launch, it could not be changed. Perhaps one of our 
troubles is that initially there was an unjustified long 
delay and later—rush work. 

This is the way we have learned to do things. We are 
ready to give our all in the attack. But must this be done 
in working on complicated scientific and technical tasks? 
Isn’t it at this stage that errors creep in that we not only 
cannot correct but cannot even recognize? Isn’t it more 
important to more fundamentally work out the project at 
a systems level, at the level of long- term planning in 
order to get away from continual rush jobs and to begin 
work on time and observe plan discipline? Unfortu¬ 
nately, such a situation threatens to repeat itself in the 
next large project—the Mars-94, work on which is intol¬ 
erably slow. 

Some discussions mention published data on the cost of 
“Phobos.” Even if one considers that its development 
took 5 years (and, in fact, probably longer), then, in view 
of the size of the population this means that each 

inhabitant annually provided about 20 kopecks to it. In 
they United States such projects cost considerably more. 
Are we sufficiently rich to make such projects seem low 
cost? A miser pays twice—this folk wisdom makes no 
exception even for the cosmos. 

“Phobos” was a difficult lesson for all of us, however life 
demands forward movement to the future and this 
future should contain new space projects. They must be 
mentioned simply because voices in the press are calling 
for limitations on space activities. They mention space 
in general, without going into detail. However, to reject 
space communications, navigation, meteorology and 
many other things provided by cosmonautics is equiva¬ 
lent to trying to get along without electricity simply for 
the sake of economy. “Phobos” is one of those large 
scientific space projects carried out in the country once 
every 3-4 years. We conduct smaller and considerably 
less expensive space experiments once or twice a year, 
something one can see by reading the newspapers. Total 
annual expenditures for scientific experiments in space 
are hardly more than 100-150 million rubles. This, of 
course, is a lot of money, but is not comparable with, for 
example, expenditures for importing grain, which we 
ought to be exporting. Such money will not fill the holes 
in our economy, but the harm from reducing expendi¬ 
tures for science in space can be huge. 

Without exaggeration one can say that fundamental 
scientific research in space, such as space based 
astronomy, astrophysics, plasma physics and planetary 
research are on starvation rations which are actually 
declining year after year. There are practically no funds 
to order important scientific instruments from industry. 
Part of this is sometimes attributed to the not completely 
justified expansion of foreign cooperation in building 
scientific instruments for which it is not necessary to pay 
today. One cannot agree with this position. It must be 
understood that there are no serious prospects for the 
self-financing of fundamental scientific research in 
space. In all cases resources can and should come mainly 
from the state budget. 

Economies in science have always turned out to be 
mistakes. Our generation can remember when cyber¬ 
netics and genetics were called bourgeois pseudo¬ 
sciences, but were later rehabilitated. They were rehabil¬ 
itated after very valuable people were squandered and 
irreplacable experience wasted. These demand conti¬ 
nuity in research and between generations. Perhaps this 
one reason we are now importing computers and food 
and exporting natural resources. 

It is not always easy to popularly explain the importance 
of various directions in space research, their urgency 
today and tomorrow. We are not promising that in the 
immediate future we will be mining the moon or Phobos 
or planting wheat on Mars. However even in research on 
Mars and Venus there are problems which are important 
for Earth today. These planets appear lifeless to us. Isn’t 
this the sad future for Earth? The ecological problems we 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

are facing on our own planet require rapid solution. 
Many of them might have occurred on other planets and 
left traces of their history. 

The halo of fame which has been around our space 
program for many years has dimmed somewhat. There is 
nothing surprising in this. It would be naive to assume 
that the very deep economic social and political prob¬ 
lems in our society would not leave their mark on this 
area. It is interesting to note that, judging from the press, 
both the loss of “Phobos” and the success of “Energiya” 
and “Buran” played a roughly equal role in this dim¬ 
ming. Enough has already been said about the first. 
Successes—and the flights of the “Energiya” and the 
“Buran” are undoubtedly successes for science and tech¬ 
nology and an example of fruitful cooperation between 
many enterprises and the overcoming of departmental 
barriers—are often described by the words “untimely”, 
“economically unsound”, “unprofitable” and “unneces¬ 
sary.” This is not only unjustified with respect to the 
systems’ developers, but also shows ignorance about 
economics and technology. It is due to society not being 
sufficiently informed. 

The contest of ideas and designs, extensive glasnost, 
parliamentary discussion, strict planning of work stages, 
and reliable material and technical supply are compo¬ 
nents of success in any matter and especially in studying 
and conquering space. Space does not forgive errors. 

Shatalov Answers Questions on Space Costs, 
Cosmonauts, Plans 

18660188 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 
10 Jun 89 p 5 

[Interview with Lieutenant General of Aviation 
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, Twice Hero of the 
Soviet Union, by KRASNAYA ZVEZDA correspondent 
Colonel M. Rebrov: “Keeping Pace with Your Own Era: 
Lieutenent General of Aviation V. Shatalov, Twice Hero 
of the Soviet Union, responds to questions from KRA¬ 
SNAYA ZVEZDA readers”] 

[Text] [Rebrov] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, in the mail to 
the editorial staff, there has been a noticeable increase in 
the stream of letters in which our readers indicate their 
interest in the problems of the space program of the 
present and the future. Through the newspaper, they are 
addressing the scientists, designers, economists and cos¬ 
monauts. Inasmuch as you are a member of the State 
Commission, head up the Cosmonaut Training Center, 
have earned a candidate of technical sciences degree for 
research in the field of control systems, and have partic¬ 
ipated three times in manned flights, the editorial staff is 
addressing these questions to you. There are a lot of 
them and they are so varied that it is difficult to decide 
which one we should begin our interview with... 

[Shatalov] With the most complicated. 

[Rebrov] Fine. When will the country’s space budget 
cease to be a secret? Who controls the expenditures for 

space?—ask comrades I. Lebedev, N. Petrenko, Ye. 
Vorobyev and Ye. Koltovoy. And they add: The countp^ 
is in a difficult economic situation, a lot of things are in 
short supply, and we are pursuing dubious prestige and 
empty glory. By the way, the people’s deputies are also 
concerned about these questions. 

[Shatalov] That kind of talk is nothing new. The first 
time I ever heard something like that was even before I 
had any thoughts about tying my future to the space 
program. I recall when the first satellite was launched, 
one of my fellow pilots said: “But what’s it needed for?” 
That was not a question. This was a judgment: there are 
problems, he says, even more important. I retorted that 
it’s needed for science and the future. But he waved his 
hand: keep quiet if you don’t know how much all this 

Now a lot of people think it’s like this: all you have to do 
is stop all space research, mothball the launch facilities 
of our three cosmodromes, suspend the production of 
satellites and spacecraft and launch vehicles, disband the 
science centers, and sausages, meat, laundry soap pow¬ 
ders and so on will suddenly appear on the stores’ 
shelves. I assure you that taking such measures will not 
solve the shortage problem. 

[Rebrov] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, the readers are 
clamoring for complete financial glasnost, 

[Shatalov] The state allocated 1.5 billion rubles for the 
manned-flight program for the years 1986-1989. 

[Rebrov] But that is only part of the expenditures. In 
addition to the manned-flights program, there are other 
programs, too. 

[Shatalov] Yes, they include the launches of satellites to 
meet the needs of communications, meteorology and 
navigation... You could also include the Resurs-F satel¬ 
lite, launched on 25 May [1989] and intended for inves¬ 
tigation of the earth’s natural resources, and the Phobos 
Project... N. I. Ryzhkov, in his report to the Congress, 
gave a figure of 1.7 billion rubles. Is that a lot, or a little? 
It is less than a third of a percent of the state budget. The 
expenditures of the Ministry of Land Reclamation and 
Water Resources are ten times hi^er than that figure. 

[Rebrov] Is it to be assumed that the military also has its 
own interests in the space program? Comrades V. 
German and F. Virak ask about this in particular. 

[Shatalov] It’s completely natural. However, it must not 
be thought that such expenditures are exorbitant. Why, 
they increase the combat effectiveness of our Armed 
Forces by a factor of 1.5 to 2. 

[Rebrov] The average annual expenditures for space are 
clear. Readers S. Pukhov, I. Vaklykov and S. Yelishkin 
are interested in equally specific figures for the “return.” 
What are they? 

[Shatalov] A brief answer will hardly suit these com¬ 
rades. Let’s count: the return from the expenditures 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


we’ve named amounted to 2 billion rubles. They are 
made up of many things. The economic impact from the 
operation of the Orbita, Ekran and Moskva communi¬ 
cations systems last year amounted to more than 1.5 
billion rubles. The integrated study of natural resources 
amounts to 350 million rubies? The weather satellites are 
capable of contributing 500-700 million rubles to the 
general coffers... Those are just some of the figures, I 
dare say, quite specific ones. There are also others, 
approximate ones. For example, today, we still can’t get 
a complete picture of the profitability of space-based 
industries. Now they are of an experimental nature on a 
laboratory scale. But the specialists, in evaluating the 
results of these experiments, have also estimated the 
long-term prospects. According to their estimates, the 
revenues from the production in space of semiconduc¬ 
tors, medicinal preparations, and needed unique mate¬ 
rials will amount to 15-20 billion rubles in the coming 

[Rebrov] Those figures indicate that the rocket- 
and-space sector of the national economy is entering the 
era of commercial affairs. But that was talked about 
before. Certainly, the words “prestige” and “first in the 
world” have rang out more frequently and more loudly. 

[Shatalov] If there hadn’t been that “first in the world,” 
then there would’ve been something else: “second in the 
world,” or “third,” and so on. Then the questions would 
have been: Why are we second? Why are we being 

[Rebrov] You have come closer to an answer to the 
question about prestige. It is not so simple. 

[Shatalov] I agree. But this is what I would like to 
especially emphasize. By no means can just any one of 
the developed countries of this planet that possess a 
rather high scientific and technical potential begin to 
storm space. A lot is required for that: the scientific 
concepts, actual developments (projects, technologies, 
and so on), the necessary materials, the appropriate 
plants, and many, many other things. I take pride in the 
fact that my country and my people were able to pave the 
way into space for mankind. And I see behind the words 
“for the first time” and “the first ones” a profound 
political meaning and the nation’s power. Using a great 
deal of our experience and sometimes copying us, others 
followed us. 

[Rebrov] Newspaper readers A. Ivanov and G. Osadchev 
note that, abroad, money is not thrown down the drain 
and costly space experiments are not being engaged in. 

[Shatalov] What does “they note” mean? If they are 
certain, then we need some proof. If they “heard” it or 
whatever, then the discussion loses its objectivity and 
seriousness. The budget for NASA (the National Aero¬ 
nautics and Space Administration— M. Rebrov) for 1988 
amounted to 9 billion dollars. The Americans have 
declared, for example, that they intend to construct a 
large orbital station, the development of which will cost 
25 billion dollars. The Hermes reusable craft is being 

developed by France, the FRG and a number of other 
European countries within the framework of the Euro¬ 
pean Space Agency. Their expenditures are large, but 
well-thought-out. Great Britain, India Japan, China and 
Brazil have their own plans... I could name foreign 
projects whose realization will require nearly 200 billion 
dollars... It is really possible to assert that all this money 
is being thrown down the drain? 

[Rebrov] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, readers N. 
Kuznetsova and A. Pavlov ask: Why, as a rule, are 
military pilots appointed commanders of the crews? And 
their second question: For what services do cosmonauts 
receive the rank of general? 

[Shatalov] If I may ask a counter question? 

[Rebrov] Please. 

[Shatalov] What kind of people make up, for example, a 
symphony orchestra, an academy choir or an ensemble 
like the “Moscow Virtuosos”? 

[Rebrov] The most gifted professionals and people with 
an excellent ear for music, vocal qualities and perfor¬ 
mance technique... 

[Shatalov] Space flights and prolonged work in orbit 
involve weightlessness, g-loads and special psychological 
conditions... In weightlessness, a person is deprived of 
the usual earth gravity, and, regardless of will-power or 
strong musculature, the individual’s body begins to 
adapt itself painfully to the new conditions. There are 
people whose vestibular apparatus cannot get used to 
weightlessness. Just as there are people who simply have 
no ear for music. Military pilots are highly skilled 
professionals. They have flying skills, a familiarity with 
the most complicated equipment, the ability to analyze a 
situation quickly and make the correct decisions; they’re 
used to extreme conditions (that same weightlessness, 
g-loads, pressure gradients), they maintain efficient com¬ 
munications while performing the most complicated, 
high-speed tasks... It’s more logical to select cosmonaut 
candidates from that group than from among represen¬ 
tatives of other professions. I would add: it is a question 
not of theory, but of practice. A practice which has 
proven itself. 

By the way, here, too, not everything is as simple as it 
may appear. There are known cases when, out of 50 
pilots who are unquestionably fit to fly modem, high¬ 
speed jet aircraft, only one passes the cosmonaut test. 

The main responsibility during the performance of 
dynamic operations falls on the crew commanders. I 
can’t begin to list the large number of serious situations 
which have taken place during flights and which were 
successfully overcome thanks to the precision of action, 
the composure and the high level of professionalism of 
the crew commanders. People with a military back¬ 
ground make for new professional qualities. 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

The work of the flight engineer, the cosmonaut 
researcher and the cosmonaut doctor also requires pro¬ 
fessionalism. The selection is made from the associates 
of the design bureaus and science centers... And, since 
there are people who love to allude to foreign countries, 

I would remind you: in the USA, more than half of the 
astronauts are military people and among them are a lot 
of military pilots. NASA is headed up by Admiral 
Richard Truly, a former astronaut. A number of space 
programs in the USA are supervised by military people. 

[Rebrov] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, I will venture to 
continue. When space equipment began to be used for 
the solution of purely military questions, the milita^ 
agencies of the USA began to be interested also both in 
the development of pertinent hardware and in the per¬ 
sonnel for using it. I have in mind things like informa¬ 
tion processing. It has been reported in the press that 
compliance with various types of arms reduction agree¬ 
ments can be monitored with spacecraft. The SDI pro¬ 
gram is also “tied” to the military. 

[Shatalov] That’s logical. You raised the question and 
almost answered it yourself. We are for a peaceful space 
and for using it in the interests of the people of earth. 
But, if we begin to be threatened from space, we can’t not 
respond. After all, we are talking about the country s 

As for the rank of general, it is not conferred for flights, 
but rather, according to the position held, which is 
associated with the scope of the work. That is the general 
position for the Ministry of Defense. It pertains to the 
work at the Cosmonaut Training Center as well as at 
other sites—at headquarters, at scientific research insti¬ 
tutes, and in the armed forces. 

[Rebrov] Now and then, you hear: a cosmonaut should 
be a broad-range specialist. What’s behind that? 

[Shatalov] Primarily the fact that the commander is not 
just a pilot who is responsible for control and other 
dynamic operations. In orbit, together with the other 
crew members, he carries out research and experiments: 
astronomical, geophysical, medical and biological, pro¬ 
duction-related... This applies to everyone who is on 
board a ship or station. 

[Rebrov] How much time is required for training such a 
specialist at the center? That is also of interest to our 

[Shatalov] All told—from 3 to 5 years. I want to empha¬ 
size that any member of a crew launched into space must 
also be prepared to take over the role of pilot. 

[Rebrov] Some more clarifications regarding the eco¬ 
nomics of space travel. A. Burlov and Yu. Morozov ask: 
What is the pay of the pilot cosmonauts? What kind of 
compensation do they receive for a flight? 

[Shatalov] A cosmonaut’s salary is 300 rubles. For a 
completed flight, a 10-percent supplement is added to 
this salary. For three flights—15 percent, for five—20... 

For testing space equipment—and each flight right now 
is still a test flight—the crew members may receive a 
one-time award, a prize ranging from 2,000 to 15,000 
rubles. The military astronauts in NASA’s service retain 
their military ranks and receive $40,000 a year. 

Let’s be frank: ther is, at times, a large risk associated 
with the launch, the work in orbit and the return to 
Earth. That is confirmed by the failure statistics. The 
cosmonauts have to deal with the most complicated 
equipment, and the more complicated it is, the more 
difficult it is to solve the problem of reliability... 

I have heard that the journalist profession is among the 
leaders in tragic outcomes. And that’s also the conclu¬ 
sion of the statistics. There are not that many cosmo¬ 
nauts. If we add up all the representatives of all the 
countries and peoples, we come up with 215 people. 
Over the span of the space era, 19 people have died: in 
the course of training and during the testing of space 
equipment. Of those, 12 were in the USA and 7 in our 
country. Nineteen out of 215 is an alarming ratio. 

[Rebrov] The danger associated with space work is 
indisputable. The instances of tragic outcomes are, 
unfortunately, numerous. That probably explains the 
fact that the voices in favor of automatic equipment in 
space are growing ever louder. 

[Shatalov] The debates about this question have already 
stopped. The work itself, the experience of the manned 
flights and the comparisons of the one and the other have 
shown convincingly that opposing the two here is wrong. 
Man has his functions, and the automatic equipment has 
its functions. Without automatic instruments and sys¬ 
tems, units and so on, the multiproject missions of the 
space program cannot be solved. But let us recall the 
instance with Salyut-7, when the station, operating in the 
automatic mode, stopped obeying signals from the 
ground, and control was lost, and the station was no good 
to anyone. It took people to save it, to restore and 
preserve the expensive equipment: V. Dzhanibekov and 
V. Savinykh. 

That’s not the only example. Repair and maintenance 
operations in orbit are by no means a rarity. Let’s recall 
the flights of L. Kizim, V. Solovyev, V. Lyakhov and 

[Rebrov] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, it has been reported 
in the press that the space program for this year has 
undergone changes. What is ahead, and will women be 
part of the crews? 

[Shatalov] The next mission to the Mir station has been 
postponed until the end of August. Plans are being made 
to launch two specialized modules and to attach them to 
the orbital station. The designers intend to do that this 
year. Flights of women are not planned. At least, not for 
the time being. 

[Rebrov] How are you handling the ethnic question? 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


[Shatalov] That problem does not exist at the Cosmo¬ 
naut Training Center. Representatives of various of the 
USSR’s peoples have worked in orbit. The highest 
quality of training gave them the right to a flight. 

[Rebrov] Readers V. Shubin and N. Guzenko are con¬ 
cerned about the fate of Buran. When is the next flight? 

[Shatalov] Right now, the enormous amount of informa¬ 
tion produced by the first tests is being processed. 
Naturally, it takes time. I have already mentioned that 
space equipment is extraordinarily complicated. I think 
the designers will want to improve some things and, 
perhaps, re-do some things as well. That is also a quite 
natural and logical process. After all, in the future, Buran 
must make up to 100 flights—such is the useful life of its 
reusability. At the same time, work is being done on the 
development of simulators, and methods and the neces¬ 
sary hardware are being tested. People are also being 
readied. It is difficult to name a precise date today. It will 
be ready by the start of operations with the new genera¬ 
tion of modules on the Mir station. The development of 
Buran is not an end in itself, but rather, a step toward the 
solution of many long-term problems. I would like the 
flights to begin sooner, but funds are needed for that, and 
they are limited. 

[Rebrov] You have stated that people are also being 
readied. How many cosmonauts are there today who are 
capable of participating in the flights? This question was 
asked by P. Sablin and V. Sisakyan. 

[Shatalov] If you count those who are at our center, who 
are attached to the Ministry of the Aviation Industy and 
who are working in the design bureau and other organi¬ 
zations, then you come up with a figure of approximately 
60 people. Let me clarify that: they are those who still 
have prospects for a flight and can be part of the 
missions to the Mir station and of the crews for Buran. 

[Rebrov] And the last question. How do you see the 
future of the space program? 

[Shatalov] First of all, I believe that we will succeed in 
beating back the sceptics’ attacks on the space programs 
and that we will keep pace with our own era. The 
development of space is of enormous importance for the 
growth of science and the acceleration of scientific and 
technical progress, without which, economic progress is 
also impossible. The latest space equipment, technology 
and materials developed in the course of the production 
of the Soyuzes, the Mir station, Energiya, Buran, etc., are 
a landmark for all of industry. The fault lies not in the 
space program, but in our general inability to take from 
it that which it holds out in its hands. We have not 
learned to extract fully the profit from the space pro¬ 
gram. M. S. Gorbachev mentioned that at the Congress. 
Meanwhile, that also pertains to other sectors. 

I am certain that that most valuable information that we 
are obtaining from space with space equipment will 
make it possible to advance basic research, enrich our 
work and strengthen international solidarity. 

If we renounce the dubious value of projects involving 
the “restructuring” of nature, if we keep down the 
military standoffs not only in Europe, but also 
throughout the entire world, if we create an atmosphere 
of trust on the planet and renounce military encroach¬ 
ment into near-earth space and the madcap idea of “star 
wars” (by “we,” I mean mankind), then the funds that 
are freed up will suffice for housing, for food, for the 
struggle against illnesses and for the most daring space 
programs. And there will still be something left over... 

The industrialization of space, the development of high- 
capacity orbital electric-power stations, the establishe- 
ment of production bases on the moon and of interplan¬ 
etary missions—these are not a flight of fantasy, nor are 
they daring projects. Herein lies, if you want, is the logic 
of the development of our civilization... 

1988 Space Program Cost Noted 

in Russian 5 Sep 89 Second Edition p 4 

[N. Dombkovskiy article under the general heading: 
“New Orbit for Space Home”] 

[Text] Baykonur—At exactly 0700 local time the doors 
of the installation and testing building opened and the 
off-white launcher was reversed out. A small diesel 
locomotive slowly edged its unusual load forward at 
walking pace. By tradition it was driven by Yuriy Fedor¬ 
ovich Grintsov. 

However, scarcely had the rocket left the building than 
something unlikely happened. We know from old news¬ 
reels that rockets used to be accompanied to the launch 
pad by Korolev and other chief designers. But this time.... 
The more than 100 Soviet and foreign journalists 
attending the launch literally surrounded the locomotive 
and the platform in front of the launcher. One of them— 
the most daring—clambered onto the roof of the locomo¬ 
tive to get a picture of the apricot glow of sunrise framing 
the outline of “Soyuz.” What can we say—interest in the 
Soviet space program, which has switched to the path of 
openness, is now unusually high worldwide. I took the 
opportunity on behalf of SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA 
readers to put a question to Hero of Socialist Labor K.A. 
Kerimov, chairman of a state commission, and Yu.P. 
Semenov, general designer of space systems: 

[Dombkovskiy] What is the cost of Soviet space pro¬ 

[Answer] Our country spent R1.3 billion on space explo¬ 
ration in 1988. The money went on developing and 
launching communications, television, and navigation 
satellites, the Energiya and Buran complexes, and 
manned flights. 

I asked Lieutenant General V.A. Shatalov, chief of the 
Cosmonaut Training Center, another question of 
interest to readers—the question of cosmonauts’ pay. 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

“One often hears completely absurd fabrications about 
cosmonauts’ pay,” he said. “I can state the following for 
the record: A pilot-cosmonaut’s monthly salary varies 
between R300 and R400 depending on experience. 
Serving members of the Armed Forces receive the rele¬ 
vant military pay. Those who have made five space- 
flights and have qualified as cosmonaut first class earn a 
20-percent bonus.” 

After the rocket was in place systems checks began along 
with other preparations and fueling. 

K.A. Kerimov: “This expedition is intended to last 6 
months. During this period the crew (by all accounts it 
will comprise Pilot-Cosmonauts of the USSR Aleksandr 
Viktorenko and Aleksandr Serebrov) will have to pre¬ 
pare the station to receive a transporter and two mod¬ 
ules, which will substantially enlarge the possibilities 
afforded by the ‘home in orbit.’” 

G.V. Sergeyev, USSR deputy minister of health: “I 
would like to note that the 6-month duration of the flight 
is dictated not by concern about the crew’s health but by 
their work schedule.” 

So flight preparations have entered their final phase. 

Correspondent Cites Space Program Total Cost 

LD0709I81189 Moscow World Service in English 0310 
GMT 7 Sep 89 

[Editorial Report] Moscow World Service in English at 
0310 GMT 7 September broadcasts a 5-minute inter¬ 
view on the Soviet space program with science corre¬ 
spondent Boris Belitskiy, by an unidentified presenter. 

The presenter begins the interview by asking Belitskiy to 
state “bluntly how much money has gone into funding 
the Soviet nonmilitary space program?” 

Belitskiy gives the following answer: “The total spent on 
this work is less than R20 billion—that is, in all the 33 
years since the space age began. Current expenditure 
stands at R 1.7 billion a year, which, by the way, is less 
than 1 percent of the national budget and is probably 
one-tenth of America’s expenditure in this field. This 
R20 billion investment has yielded economic benefits 
totalling R12 billion and the benefits are slated to 
increase very rapidly for several reasons.” Belitskiy goes 
on to say that these reasons include the commerically 
profitable aspects of the space program “such as the 
leasing of Soviet launchers and other hardware to users 
in other countries.” He further explains that the more 
expensive aspects of the program, such as the number of 
planned flights by the space shuttle “Buran,” are being 
reduced. He ends his explanation by saying the spin-off 
technologies from the space program are now being 
given more attention. He does not give any specific 

The International Space Market 

18660220 Moscow ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA in 
Russian4 Jul-Aug 89 pp 2T27 

[Article by V. M. Postyshev, Candidate of Juridical 
Sciences, Institute of Government and Law of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences; first paragraph is introductory 
paragraph in source.] 

[Text] The pre-election platforms of many USSR Peo¬ 
ple’s Deputies contained a point on the considerble 
reduction of expenditures for the space program. Before 
we resolve this problem, however, we should carefully 
analyze the development trends of world cosmonautics 
and clarify whether cosmonautics can have a positive 
economic impact and, specifically, serve as a source of 
foreign currency income. 

The making of the Space Market 

Cosmonautics has become an integral part of the infra¬ 
structures of many nations. Without it, it would be 
impossible to imagine today’s global network of commu¬ 
nications, mass information, meteorology, or marine 
and aviation navigation. Before our very eyes a transi¬ 
tion is taking place, a transition to the use of fast 
satellite-based systems for remote sensing of the Earth. 
And on the horizon is the production in specific space 
conditions of new materials for electronics, medicine, 
and other sectors of the national economy (ZEMLYA I 
VSELENNAYA, 1986, No 2, p 2—Ed.). 

The use of space technology promises great advantages 
in many instances. It has been calculated, for example, 
that satellite communications are less expensive than 
common methods of communication by a factor of 5-6. 
Great amounts of resources can be saved through the 
introduction of satellite television. After all, 2-3 satellites 
can replace hundreds of Earth-based relay and ampli¬ 
fying stations. According to some data, observation from 
special satellites of the condition of agricultural areas in 
the US has lead to an economic impact in the hundreds 
of millions of dollars annually. Even these reference 
figures show the possible commercial demand for space 
equipment and technology. As a result, economic prin¬ 
ciples are being strengthened in cosmonautics. Between 
enterprises producing space equipment and providing 
corresponding services, on the one hand, and the orga¬ 
nizations that are the consumers of the “space product,” 
on the other, economic ties have been established based 
on a strict accounting of expenditures, profits, and the 
state of the market. The course of development of 
cosmonautics itself is being determined to an ever 
greater extent, not by considerations of political prestige, 
as frequently occurred earlier, but by economic factors 
and a sobering economic analysis. 

And it should be noted that the transition of cosmonau¬ 
tics to an economic path is a completely natural phenom¬ 
enon. Expensive space research cannot endlessly burden 
the state budget. It should yield a return, or even a direct 
profit. If one looks at the current space policy of the US, 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


France, West Germany, Japan, and other such nations, 
one sees the drive to have space programs pay their own 
way as quickly as possible. To do this, drastic measures 
are being taken to develop optimal directions and forms 
of organization for space research, to choose of the most 
economically expedient space projects, and to attract 
private capital to the conquest of space. 

However, the productivity of today’s special-purpose 
satellites greatly exceeds the needs of individual coun¬ 
tries, especially those with relatively small territories. 
Moreover, space systems are very expensive. According 
to the roughest estimates, the simplest remote sensing 
system, consisting of one satellite and one Earth-based 
station to receive data, would cost no less than $ 1 billion 
at global market prices. If one then adds services to 
launch the satellites, to control them, to train engi¬ 
neering and technical personnel, as well as the cost of the 
materials used, the cost of such a hypothetical system 
could clearly reach $1.5 billion. 

All of this creates, on the one hand, the possibility, and 
on the other hand, the urgent need to use space tech¬ 
nology on the basis of international cooperation, which, 
if economic goals are given top priority, can be organized 
on the basis of mutually beneficial commercial princi¬ 
ples. The expansion and deepening of such a coopera¬ 
tion, as well as international trade of space technology 
and services, is absolutely necessary for the full discovery 
of the potential of cosmonautics, and, in the final anal¬ 
ysis, its progress. 

But on the whole, the international space market can be 
characterized as a market in the making, its dynamics 
characterized by constant and at times rather drastic 
changes. There are not yet any stable prices or any 
generally accepted criteria to compare the costs of indi¬ 
vidual types of space technology, equipment, or accom¬ 
panying goods and services with each other or with 
prices on the international market in general. We have a 
long way to go before we achieve stable links between 
suppliers and consumers and steady flows of goods. 

The Advantages of the Market and the Growth of 

The international market has a number of advantages 
which make it an irreplaceable means of solving many 
economic problems associated with the conquest of 
space. It has a substantially larger capacity than the 
national market of any country. Only on the world 
market can one find stable and solvent demand for 
expensive space technology, which also has an enormous 
impact on the resolution of large regional and planetary 
problems. The sale on the international market of 
unused capacities of, say, communications satellites or 
remote sensing satellites makes it possible for nations to 
regain part of the funds spent on basic space research, 
design work, and the testing of rockets and other space 
equipment. The international market, finally, makes it 
possible to attract, through the mechanism of foreign 

trade, additional funds for the needs of a nation’s space 
program, which makes it much more economical. 

The advantages of the international space market have 
been used for a long time and very actively by the United 
States. Today, American space industry is geared to a 
great extent toward the foreign market. The creation of a 
global commercial communications system was the main 
goal of the first private space company Comsat, created 
in the United States back in 1962. To this day, that 
company retains key positions in the international orga¬ 
nization of satellite communications Intelsat, which 
unites more than 100 nations, and makes no small profit 
from this. The United States is trying to control the 
market forming in the area of remote sensing of Earth. 
Dozens of countries have built or are building Earth- 
based stations to receive data from the American 
LANDSAT system on the basis of direct contracts with 
NASA and through the Food and Agriculture Organiza¬ 
tion of the UN (FAO). Some American companies have 
been successfully occupied with the development of 
space equipment for more than ten years, including 
satellites with a variety of purposes built to meet foreign 
orders. Such an active foreign trade space policy has had 
good results. According to some estimates, a number of 
American space programs are financed at levels of 70% 
or more by foreign revenue, that is, at the expense of 
other countries. 

Other governments have recently provided serious com¬ 
petition for the United States on the international space 
market. The most noteworthy of these are the French 
firms Arianespace and Spotimage, which specialize in 
the production of space transport vehicles and remote 
Earth sensing, respectively. The foreign trade total of 
Arianespace, for example, amounted to about 743 mil¬ 
lion francs by 1984, and the net profit was more than 30 
million francs. Spotimage is today the largest supplier of 
satellite information. There is a demand for its high- 
quality photographs in the United States, Japan, and 
several western and socialist countries. 

The People’s Republic of China is to be noted for its 
exceptional activity in the services market for the launch 
of payloads into near-Earth orbits. Recently, the Min¬ 
istry of Space Industry signed agreements with Australia, 
Great Britain, Indonesia, Canada, the Netherlands, and 

In 1985, a special corporation was created in West 
Germany created for the production and sale on the 
international market of special-purpose satellites. 
Italian, Swedish, and Japanese companies have an 
increasing interest in commercial cosmonautics. The 
first international joint ventures for the development 
and sale of different types of space equipment, consul¬ 
tation and intermediary services have been formed: 
Intospace (West Germany-Italy), Eurosatellite (France- 
West Germany-Belgium), Japan Comsat (Japan-United 
States), Astro Pacific (Canada-Australia). These firms 
are trying to capture a place in the international space 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

market and to use its newness and relative lack of 
development to obtain additional profits. 

Supply and Demand in the Space Market 

What can be bought on the space industry market today? 
Indoor antennas for direct reception of television trans¬ 
missions from the satellites of the Intelsat system, at a 
cost of $300-600 (a joint product of the United States 
and Japan); compact shipboard stations for the interna¬ 
tional system of marine satellite communications, 
Inmarsat (United States); analogous devices for air¬ 
planes (United States) and the accompanying radio 
equipment (France). Services are also offered for the 
preparation of equipment for launch into space, the 
training of personnel for work on board spacecraft and 
stations (United States), and testing of experimental 
models of space equipment on the ground and on special 
flying laboratories (Great Britain, France). There is a 
demand for services to develop advanced technology to 
be used in space research, new models of space equip¬ 
ment (NASA is the largest customer; the suppliers are 
private firms in the United States, Austria, Great 
Britain, Luxembourg, France, Japan, and other western 

The assortment is rather varied, but the key commodi¬ 
ties on the international space market remain satellites 
themselves, ground equipment, and services for the 
launch of spacecraft into near-Earth orbits. The presence 
or absence of these commodities and their quality deter¬ 
mine the dynamics of supply and demand on the space 
market and the structure of the market. 

Rocket-and-space equipment is closely linked to the 
defense capabilities of nations. Trade in rocket- 
and-space equipment encounters different types of 
restrictions whose purpose is to preserve state secrets, 
which affects the conditions of trade contracts and the 
turnover of goods on the space market as a whole. Up 
until now, for example, there has not even been any talk 
about the sale of rockets, and each interested govern¬ 
ment has had to probe space on its own, traveling again 
and again the path already taken by mankind. Substan¬ 
tial stipulations surround the sale of special-purpose 
satellites abroad. According to U.S. legislation, this 
equipment is considered strategic, and cannot in any 
form or for any purpose be imported into the USSR or 
other socialist countries. This ban extends not only to 
American companies, but also to firms in western coun¬ 
tries that are in one way or another involved with U.S. 
space technology. 

Satellites as goods have yet another characteristic. They 
can last a fairly long time (five years and up) and may 
exceed the needs of individual countries. Thus, it diffi¬ 
cult to produce a steady, uniform demand for satellites 
which would justify their mass-production. And indi¬ 
vidual manufacturing according to special orders, which 
is what actually happens, slows down the trade process, 
breaking it up into a number of large, but weakly-linked 

transactions, with a completion time of 1.5 to 2 years, 
thereby increasing the expenses and cost of the satellites 

The way out of this situation is not to sell the satellites, 
but to put them out on the market for temporary use on 
a commercial basis. Renting is the most widespread form 
of transaction in relation to satellites in the international 
space market. The number of countries who use space 
communications on a rental basis has long exceeded 100, 
while the number of countries which can acquire satel¬ 
lites does not exceed 10 (Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, and 
several others). This is completely understandable: a 
communications satellite costs over $50 million. Annual 
rental runs about a third less, and the cost of renting one 
channel, which can provide several telephone communi¬ 
cations links, is a completely acceptable cost at about 5 
million dollars. It’s easy to calculate the profit of states 
that own satellites, if one considers that each satellite can 
have 8 to 35 communications channels. 

Another feature of the international market consists of 
services involving the organization of space launches. 
Here the supply still lags considerably behind demand, 
which undoubtedly has an effect on the price level. Up 
until recently, the main competitors on the market for 
space launches were the United States and France. The 
cost of launching one satellite from a space shuttle has 
been held at $25 million, and a launch with a French 
Ariane booster costs $25-30 million. Actually these fig¬ 
ures are not a good indicator, since prices were estab¬ 
lished, to a great extent, artificially, after official and 
unofficial discussions in government circles in the 
United States and France and mutual accusations of 
dumping, etc. It is known, for example, that in the 
United States, to support the ability of the American 
aerospace industry to compete, a considerable portion of 
the expenditures for each space mission of the space 
shuttle is covered by the federal budget. In the final 
analysis, however, the French Ariane system is more 
economical. The cost of putting a 1-kg payload in orbit 
by Ariane is $2,000; on the space shuttle, this would cost 
more than $3,500. 

The Challenger disaster in January 1986 and the subse¬ 
quent decision of the American administration to not 
use the shuttle for commercial purposes strengthened 
France’s position. At present, the Arianespace portfolio 
contains orders for the launch of 43 satellites for a sum of 
$2.4 billion. But this clearly does not correspond to the 
demand. To fully satisfy the demand for launches only to 
1992 would require the launch of 120 satellites for 
various purposes, at a total cost of $6 billion. Thus, the 
capacity of the international market of services for the 
launch of spacecraft is rather large. Entering this market 
are the People’s Republic of China with their Long 
March booster (ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, 1988, No 
4 ^ p 95 —Ed.), the American private corporations 
McDonnell Douglas and Martin Marietta, who offer 
relatively expensive single-use Delta and Titan booster 
rockets ($50 million and $250 million, respectively), and 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


General Dynamics, which offers an Atlas-Centaur rocket 
booster (ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, 1989, No 3, p 

Yet another feature of the international market of space 
launch services is the close association with the interna¬ 
tional insurance market. The well-known insurance com¬ 
panies INTECH, Lloyds, and Inspace began operations 
as far back as in the 1970s to insure the lives of 
cosmonauts, to protect space equipment at the launch 
stage and in the event of the failure of a satellite in space, 
as well as to insure against damages to a third party 
caused by space facilities. Moreover, in a number of 
cases, insurance companies have borne the function of 
advertising space transport systems and finalizing con¬ 
tracts for putting the appropriate services on the inter¬ 
national market. Profits from these types of operations 
are rather large, up to 30% of the cost of the insured 
property. But the risk associated with the extreme com¬ 
plexity of space activity is also large. A series of failures 
in putting satellites into orbit befell the United States 
and France in the mid 80s, putting the international 
space insurance market literally on the edge of catas¬ 
trophe. As a result, the rates increased sharply, and the 
number of companies insuring space launches decreased. 

Overall, the prospects for the development of the inter¬ 
national space market are very positive. According to 
specialists at the U.S. Center for Space Policy, by the 
year 2000 the market will be at the $50-65 billion level. 
According to other data presented at a Moscow forum 
dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the first artificial 
satellite (ZEMLYA I VSELENNAYA, 1988, No 2, p 
46—Ed.), the volume of the international space market 
will reach $200 billion by the end of the century, and the 
number of countries that will be consumers of space 
products will reach 160. In any case, this is reason 
enough for rethinking the development of the national 
space policy of each government. 

Is the USSR Ready for the Challenge of the 
International Space Market? 

The Soviet Union, which opened the road into space has, 
without a doubt, the means to enter the international 
space market. According to western specialists, the 
Proton rocket booster, with a payload capacity of 20 tons 
is completely competitive. USSR Glavkosmos also offers 
services to place various experiments on the Kvant 
orbital module and to launch into space the scientific 
instruments of other countries. More than 30 American 
firms have expressed an interest in signing contracts for 
the acquisition of satellite photographs from the foreign 
trade association Soyuzkarta (ZEMLYA I VSELEN¬ 
NAYA, 1989, No 1, p 96—Ed). As the journal SPACE 
MARKETS indicates, a sphere of common interests has 
been noted in the area of space medicine, where the 
USSR has undisputed preeminence. 

Among the largest commercial transactions made by 
competing Soviet organizations, one could name, for 

example, the agreement with Kaiser-Threde (West Ger¬ 
many) and Payloads Systems Incorporated (United 
States) to conduct experiments in materials science in 
space; the launch of the Indian IRS-IA satellite with a 
Vostok booster rocket in March 1988; the agreement to 
fly an Austrian cosmonaut on board the Soyuz spacecraft 
and orbital station Mir; or the agreement to launch a 
Japanese journalist into space. 

All of this shows the commercial potential of the Soviet 
space program and has already yielded a large profit. 
Nonetheless, it seems that the Soviet Union can expect 
significant problems in the international space market. 
Why is this? Primarily, because we are entering the 
market very late, and the time factor is one of the most 
important factors in international trade. It wasn’t until 
1985 that the USSR decided to enter the international 
space market, Glavkosmos was created, and the appro¬ 
priate regulations were drawn up for certain other orga¬ 
nizations. For the American space program, the attrac¬ 
tion of foreign trade receipts was established in 1958 in 
the Law on Aeronautics and Space Research . At a time 
when we are making just our first steps into the interna¬ 
tional space market, in the United States NASA alone 
has more than 10,000 commercial contracts with foreign 
scientific institutions and firms. As a result, the main 
areas of space commerce, which yield the greatest profit 
with the lowest expenditures, are monopolized by Amer¬ 
ican aerospace corporations: the production and delivery 
of equipment for the ground stations of satellite commu¬ 
nications; the reception and processing of data from 
remote Earth sensing; the materials used and the accom¬ 
panying services; the equipment of space navigation 
systems for spacecraft, airplanes, and other means of 
transportation; and consumer goods that are spinoffs of 
space technology. 

We must note the absence of adequate legal support for 
commercial space activity in the USSR. We don’t have a 
single legislative act on the investigation and use of space 
(not counting the decrees of the Presidium of the 
Supreme Soviet during 1961 and 1962 on the establish¬ 
ment of the title “Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR,” the 
corresponding medal, and Aviation and Cosmonautics 

Meanwhile, trade is impossible without laws. Any com¬ 
mercial contract or agreement is a legal document which 
must meet all the requirements of the laws of each 
government. If this is not so, the contract or agreement is 
invalid, and the interests of the participating organiza¬ 
tions are without any guarantees. And it is no accident 
that in the 80s, a period of rapid development of 
commercial cosmonautics, one western country after 
another passed laws regulating space activity. Some of 
them are Sweden’s Law and Decree on Space (1982), the 
U.S. Law on Commercial Space Launches and Law on 
the Commercialization of Remote Earth Sensing (1984), 
and Great Britain’s Law on Space (1986). 

It should be emphasized that this situation is fraught 
with very serious consequences. Soviet foreign trade 


Space Policy, Administration 

22 November 1989 

organizations entering into contracts with foreign firnis 
may be defenseless in the courts and in arbitration if 
disputes arise, contract conditions are not met, or com¬ 
mercial damage is suffered. 

What is the solution? The development of an interna¬ 
tional space market is an objective phenomenon. The 
USSR cannot remain on the sidelines and must form a 
goal-oriented active commercial policy in the area of 
cosmonautics. In our opinion, the first and foremost step 
in this direction—and an urgent one—should be the 
creation of a specialized space marketing se^ice, a 
cost-accounting center where interested scientific and 
industrial organizations can receive trade mediation and 
legal consultation services. 


Soviet-FRG Commercial Space Project Praised 

LD2309155589 Moscow TASS in English 1522 GMT 
23 Sep 89 

[Text] Moscow September 23 TASS—The descent cap¬ 
sule of the space vehicle ‘Resource-F’ landed 105 km 
south-west of Aktyubinsk, Kazakhstan, at 11 hours ten 
minutes a.m. Moscow time, September 22. It brought to 
Earth a unique cargo: 104 samples containing over a 
thousand crystals of different substances which will be 
used in pharmacology. The Soviet-West German 
Cosima-2 project has been a success. It was held within 
a very brief time: A few months passed since the begin¬ 
ning of the negotiations about the flight. 

A news conference for Soviet and foreign journalists, 
held at the Glavkosmos civilian space program admin¬ 
istration today, was devoted to the results of the space 

Journalists have been told that the first commercial deal 
between the West German Intospace company and Glav¬ 
kosmos of the USSR was concluded on easy terms: Such 
is the advantage granted by the Soviet side to its business 
partners. The September flight to outer space aboard a 
Soviet space vehicle of a unit designed under the 
Cosima-2 project, cost West German scientists and busi¬ 
nessmen cheaper than any of the four flights will cost in 
1990. An agreement on that was signed at the Glavko¬ 
smos of the USSR today. Intospace representatives 
noted the high professional skill of Soviet specialists and 
reliability of space facilities. Both sides plan to develop 
cooperation also after 1990. 

“The “hold-up” in the American space shuttle flight 
queue does not suit us”, J Lippe, Intospace company 
president, said. “Besides, the American side provides 
only up to 10 days to work in orbit, while the Russians 
give as much time as needed for research to be done. In 
this case, the flight that began on September 6, was 
optimal in time. We have done all that was envisaged by 
the program. Eighteen different substances, obtained in 

weightlessness conditions and the crystals grown, are an 
important contribution to pharmacology, a major step in 
medical research,” he said. 

“Cooperation with the Soviet side has a number of 
advantages the main of which have been repeatedly 
noted: Fastness and reliability in attaining results,” 
Lippe stressed. 

Use of ‘Resurs’ Satellite Data by UK Companies 

LD0410110889 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1840 GMT 2 Oct 89 

[Excerpts] London, 2 Oct—TASS Correspondent 
Aleksandr Sisnev reports: 

“At present, interest in information about the earth, its 
atmosphere, its natural resources, and about climatic 
and ecological changes are greater than ever before. For 
this reason the information transmitted from space is of 
particular significance under these conditions,” 
Vladimir Aksenov, pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR, 
director of the State Scientific Research Center for the 
Study of Natural Resources, who is heading a delegation 
to Great Britain from the USSR Main Space Adminis¬ 
tration, told a TASS correspondent in a conversation. 

“We are here,” he said, “to work on the dissemination of 
information obtained from a satellite of the ‘Resurs’ type 
on the territory of Great Britain. These discussions are 
being conducted with such well-known companies as 
Marconi and British Aerospace.” [passage omitted] 

“It can be said,” V. Aksenov continued, “That the 
growth rate of interest in such information will outstrip 
the development rate of space systems themselves. In 
this respect it is hardly possible to speak now about 
complications arising in the space information market 
because of competition with the traditional systems 
which are already in operation.” 

“As far as the direct acquisition of our information by 
consumers is concerned,” the head of the delegation 
from the USSR Main Space Administration continued, 
“there are two options here: Either they will receive it on 
their own territory directly from the satellite, or it will be 
transmitted from already existing reception centers 
within the USSR. In each specific case the option that is 
more rational and advantageous for the sides will be 

“Although we are working on interaction in the use of 
information obtained from space apparatus with the 
Marconi and British Aerospace companies, it should be 
understood that we do not intend to link up with these 
firms alone,” V. Aksenov stressed in conclusion. “The 
interest in such data is too great for the range of possible 
consumers to be restricted. 

22 November 1989 

Space Policy, Administration 


Two Austrian Cosmonaut Candidates Chosen for 
1991 ^Austromir* Mission 

LD0910141189 Moscow TASS in English 1358 GMT 
9 Oct 89 

[Text] Moscow October 9 TASS—The selection of two 
Austrian candidates for a space flight has been com¬ 
pleted in the Soviet Union. The chosen candidates are 
Clemens Lothaller and Franz Fibeck. 

The selection was made under a commercial agreement 
on a joint Soviet-Austrian manned space flight (the 
Austromir project). A Soyuz spaceship with a Soviet- 
Austrian crew on board is to be launched in 1991. 

The Austrian candidates are to begin studies and 
training at the Yuriy Gagarin Cosmonaut Training 
Center in January 1990. 

The Energiya scientific and production association of 
the USSR Ministry of General Machine Building is the 
enterprise contributing the most to the realization of the 
forthcoming Soviet-Austrian manned space flight. 

Lothaller, an anesthesiologist by profession, was bom in 
Vienna in 1963. Following studies at a medical institute 
he served in the army. He now works in the surgey 
department of a Vienna clinic. 

Franz Fibeck, an electrical engineer by education, was 
bom in Vienna in 1960. Upon graduating from an 

institute he worked with the Siemens company and is 
now assistant at the measuring equipment department of 
the Vienna Technical University. 

Meeting on Soviet-French Space Cooperation 

LD0511030289 Moscow TASS International Service 
in Russian 1023 GMT 4 Nov 89 

[Summary] Paris, 4 Nov (TASS)—Correspondent 
Aleksandr Krivykh reports: 

A Soviet delegation headed by Academician V.A. Kotel- 
nikov, chairman of Interkosmos, met a French delega¬ 
tion headed by Jacques Louis Lions, president of the 
National Center for Space Research, in the French town 
of Saint Jean de Luce to discuss further Soviet-French 
cooperation in space. The 1992 Soviet-French space 
flight was discussed, and it is proposed that a French 
cosmonaut will spend 14 days aboard the Soviet orbital 
station. Other joint measures concerning space were 
discussed, as well, including the launch of the Soviet 
satellite ‘Granaf at the beginning of December, on board 
which will be the French ‘Sigma’ telescope. The aim of 
the program will be the study of cosmic gamma radia¬ 
tion. The French also expressed an interest in partici¬ 
pating in the planned 1994 Soviet launch of a scientific 
research station to Mars. The possibility of a manned 
flight to Mars, which according to experts could not take 
place earlier than 2015-2020, also was discussed. 

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to P.O. Box 2604, Washington, D.C. 20013. 
Department of Defense consumers are required to 
submit requests through appropriate command val¬ 
idation channels to DIA, RTS-2C, Washington, D.C. 
20301. (Telephone: (202) 373-3771, Autovon: 

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