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JPRS-UMM-84-0 1 7 
25 September 1984 

USSR Report 


®TIC quality msPEGJJSD a, 

1 185 





SPRINGflElD, VA. 22161 


JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, 
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from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the 
original phrasing and other characteristics retained. 

Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [] are 
supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in 
the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, 
indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing 
indicator is given, the information was summarized or extracted. 

Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in 
parentheses. Words or names preceded by a question mark and enclosed in 
parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as 
appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the 
body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as 
given by source. 

The contents of this publication in no way represent the policies, views 
or attitudes of the U,S. Government. 


JPRS publications may be ordered from the National Technical Information 
Service (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161, In ordering, it is recom¬ 
mended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of 
publication be cited. 

Current JPRS publications are announced in Government Reports Announcements 
issued semimonthly by the NTIS, and are listed in the Monthly Catalog of 
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Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 20402. 

Correspondence pertaining to matters other than procurement may be addressed 
to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, 
Virginia 22201. 

Soviet books and journal articles displaying a copyright 
notice are reproduced and sold by NTIS with permission of 
the copyright agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for 
further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. 

JPRS-UMM-84-0 1 7 
25 September 1984 

USSR Report 








<JPRS publications cbntsln Infommilon pirlinsrlly from foreign n&wspspers, 
periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broad¬ 
casts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those • 
from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the 
original phrasing and other characteristics retained. 

Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets (] are 
supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or (Excerpt] in 
the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief. 
Indicate how the original Information was processed. Where no processing 
indicator is given, the information was summarized or extracted. 

Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in 
parentheses. Words or names preceded by a question mark and enclosed in 
parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as 
appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the 
body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as 
given by source. 

The contents of this publication in no way represent the policies, views 
or attitudes of the U. S. Government. 


JPRS publications may be ordered from the National Technical Information 
Service (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161. In ordering, it is recom¬ 
mended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of 
publication be cited. 

C^rrsnt JPRS publications are announced in Government Reports Announcements 
issued semimonthly by the NTIS, and are listed in the Monthly Catalog of 
U.S. Government Publications issued by the Superintendent of Documents, U,S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

Correspondence pertaining to matters other than procurement may be addressed 
to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, 
Virginia 22201. 

Soviet books and journal articles displaying a copyright 
notice are reproduced and sold by NTIS with permission of 
the copyright agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for 
further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. 



25 September 1984 


PIachine Tools and Metalworking Equipment 



Success of Brigade System at Kirov Plant Lauded 

(S. Filipenko; PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSII, No 3, Mar 84)... 1 

Mismanagement in Latvian Machine Tool Plants Noted 



Technical Conference on Non-Traditional Machining Reviewed 


No 2, Feb 84). 6 

Laser Impulse Drilling Machine Discussed 

(L. G. Shafranskiy, et al.; MASHINOSTROITEL', No 5, 

May 84). 8 

Automated Press-Bending Unit Explained 


No 6 , Jun 84). H 

Small Orifice Laser Cutting Machine Viewed 

(V. S. Kovalenko; V. P, Dyatel'; MASHINOSTROITEL' 

No 4, Apr 84). 14 

Technical Specifications of Four-Spindle Drilling Head 

(V. N. Rudnitskiy, et al.; MASHINOSTROITEL', No 4, Apr 84). 16 

Operation of Press-Forming Machine Explained 

(D. I. Gulyarenko; MASHINOSTROITEL', No 4, Apr 84). 17 

- a - 

[III - USSR - 36b] 


Components, Integration of FMS Viewed 

(R. L. Satanovskiy, M. S. Elent; MASHINOSTROITEL' No 4, 

Apr 84). 19 

Layout of Ifodular, Flexible Assembly Bays Viewed 

(V. P. Popov; MASHINOSTROITEL', No 3, Mar 84). 23 


Technical Features of Robotized Machining System Viewed 

(V. I. Kokin, et al.; MASHINOSTROITEL',- No 4, Apr 84). 26 


Decision-Making Process in Management Automation 

(Ye. I. Vorob'yev; MASHINOSTROITEL', No 3, Mar 84). 29 

- b - 



Minsk PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSII in Russian No 3, Mar 84 pp 16-17 

[Article by S. Filipenko, head of the Laboratory NOT (for the scientific organ¬ 
ization of labor), Gomel' Machine Tool Plant imeni S.M, Kirov: "Under a 
Single Order"] 

[Text] Next year the Gomel’ Machine Tool Plant imeni S.M. 

Kirov marks its lOOth anniversary. From mortar mixers, 
friction hoists, pumps and scalding units to shaping machines, 
slotting machines, cutting-off lathes and special and multi¬ 
position machine tools with programmed operation of the "pro¬ 
cessing center" type- such is the plant's path over the years 
of Soviet rule. Two-thirds of the products produced are 
marked with the quality seal of the state. 

In the collective’s success a large share belongs to the bri¬ 
gade form of labor organizations. 

At the Gomel' Machine Tool Plant imeni S.M. Kirov there are 85 brigades that 
unite more 1,320 workers. All of them work according to a single order. Among 
the basic planned indices are the volxmie of production in standard hours, nomen¬ 
clature, quantity, production per worker, wages fund and the average wages per 
worker. The brigade unit (listing of parts and operations assigned to the 
collective) is the plan-accounting unit. The brigade unit is part of the plan¬ 
accounting unit of the shop, that is to say of the machine unit. 

Before the first of each month a monthly assignment calculated in standard 
hours and with a number of workers accounted for is issued to the brigades. 

Time deadlines and estimates for each part (operation) are also included in 
the assignment. The sum of the latter, according to the planned parts indicated 
in the monthly assignment, are the basic earnings. 

Having received the assignment for the month the brigade .chief undertakes to 
verify that he will be provided with necessary technical documentation, tools, 
equipment, materials in the mechanical shops and parts and unitized parts in 
the assembly shops. 

On the basis of the monthly assignment the brigade collective is issued a shift 
assignment. The brigade chief must keep close track that only those operations 


for which there are materials, tools, technical documentation and equipment 
are Included In It. The dispatcher control department produces the shift 

In addition, the brigade chief Is obligated: 

In necessary cases In agreement with the shift foreman to produce a more ef¬ 
fective redistribution of operations among brigade members (with due regard 
to their qualifications and practical skills); 

to control conditions during the course of the shift for the carrying out of the 
brigade assignment; 

to conduct an accounting of the Implementation of shift assignments by each 
brigade member and with the brigade member's participation to analyze the Im¬ 
plementation of these assignments at the end of the shift; 

to conclude agreements with brigades that are cooperating In the technological 

Public minded safeguarding of obligations and personal plans has become a tra¬ 
dition In all brigade collectives. This has created the possibility of bringing 
forth additional reserves to raise the effectiveness of production. Special 
attention also has been given to the development of multi-machine capability. 
Thus, members of A. Sellkh's Integrated brigade (24 machine tool operators, 

4 trouble shooters and 2 crane operators) operate 2-3 machine tools with pro¬ 
grammed operation. 

The joining of workers Into brigades has permitted the raising of labor pro¬ 
ductivity and the Improving of product quality. We will say that the product 
yield, counting from the beginning of the process, has reached 87 percent. 

For example. In the Integrated brigades of Shop no 5 labor productivity has 
grown by 15.8 percent, the average wages- by 11.9 percent, and worker turnover 
has been reduced substantially. 

COPYRIGHT: "Prorayshlennost’ Belorussii", No 3, 1984. 


CSO: 1823/244 



Riga SOVETSKAYA LATVIYA in Russian 17 May 84 p 1 
[Article: "Ftill Utilization for Every Machine Tool”] 

[Text] Who among plant managers and even line workers isn't gladdened by the 
sttival of new equipment! It promises, as a rule, an increase in labor pro¬ 
ductivity, an Imporvement in work conditions and more successful fulfillment 
of plans and socialist obligations. 

Quite a bit of modem and high productivity technology arrives in the shops 
of republic plants and factories. Last year alone more than 1,800 vinits of new 
equipment were Installed at machine building and metal working enterprises. 
However, the acquisition and installation of new machine tools is only half the 
job. It is necessary that not one of them tiselessly stands idle and that each 
one of them operates at capacity. As was stressed at the December 1983 Plenum . 
of the CPSU Central Committee, it is necessary everyvdiere to promote more 
broadly the movement to improve the shift system of equipment operations which 
will activate huge potentials for growth of production efficiency and labor 
productivity. In addition, the decisions of the February and April 1984 plenums 
of the CPSU Central Committee demand this approach to the matter. 

In the majority of the republic's work collectives the solution of the problems 
posed by the party was approached in an interested and businesslike manner; 
care about the utilization of equipment was increased. For example, the 
workers of the Riga Kompressor plant deserve words of praise. Questions about 
raising equipment operations efficiency are being decided here in systematic 
manner: antiquated machine tools are being replaced by new more productive and 
automated ones, their service areas expanded and second shifts organized for the 
workers freed as a result of this. 

At the Rigakhimmash plant a progressive method for managing the effectiveness 
of production capacities has been successfully applied based on the experience 
of the machine builders of the city Sumy. As a result, the plant freed a whole 
series of machine tools which were transferred to branch plants for the output 
of additional production. 

The certification of worker positions in accordance with the requirements of 
the scientific orgaiiization of labor has greatly helped the workers of. the VEF 
Production Association imeni V.I. Lenin to improve the utilization of 


equipment. In conjunction with the reconstruction of plant sections and the 
creation of new ones, the presence of excess equipment has come to light, the 
niimber of worker positions has been reduced as a result of the introduction of 
new equipment and work has been organized more efficiently. 

The collectives of the Daugavpils Transmission Plant, the Avtoelectropribor 
Plant, the Liyepaysel’mash Plant, the Ventspils Ventilator Plant and a number 
of other enterprises were able to achieve a high coefficient of shift utili¬ 
zation of equipment. This indicates that in the republic there are many 
examples of outstanding, first rate experience, and of an econmical and public 
minded approach to the utilization of the machine tool inventory. 

At the same time, if one passes through the shops of other enterprises, one can 
see the other side of the picture. Expensive, unique equipment stands idle at 
times for whole days or is utilized very vew minutes during the course of a 
shift. Several managers cannot get out of the habit of acquiring as many 
machine tools and machinery as possible—the saying goes that what one has in 
reserve is not a drain on the pocketbook. Of course, it's easier to put on 
line another one or two pieces of new equipment than to figure out how to raise 
the output of what one already has. 

Isn't it true that operations at the Daugavpils Autorepair Plant, RAF, the 
Spetsstal'konstruktsy Plant, the Talsi metal products plant, and several other 
enterprises are conducted according to this principle? Last year at these 
plants the responsible officials did not forget to augment their equipment 
inventory, but they did lose sight of the need of raising its coefficient of 
shift utilization. In fact at these enterprises this coefficient is lower than 
the average for the republic. 

Such mismanagement engenders significant losses and is a serious obstacle in 
the intensification of production. It is very important for our economy to 
eliminate as quickly as possible this shortcoming and to ensure maximum utili¬ 
zation for each machine tool. It is especially important to achieve this today 
when the battle to fulfill obligations concerning an over-plan rise of labor 
productivity by one percent and a reduction of the cost of production by an 
additional half percent is going on. 

First of all it is necessary everywhere to improve the shift system operations 
of the equipment. It's not a secret that at many enterprises the second shift 
is not as busy as the first. Usually, their managers explain the situation as 
one caused by worker shortage. There is some truth in this. However, often 
masked by such an argument is the unwillingness to take on additional cares. 

This is not a public minded approach. The party organizations of the enter¬ 
prises must intensify the demands on managers to improve the shift system 
operations of machine tools and machinery and to more actively promote the or¬ 
ganization of evening shifts in plant shops and sections. 

It is necessary in any way possible to support the multi-machine worker movement. 
The broader it gets, the more possible it is to organize a second shift without 
increasing the number of workers. It is the duty of Communists to set the tone 
in socialist competition to augment equipment service areas, and by their 


example to attract the interest of their comrades. Enterprise managers are 
called upon to provide the movement with good engineering support—to more 
effectively deploy the equipment, to equip it with convenient accessories and 
devices and to improve the system of moral and material encouragement of the 
multi-machine worker. 

The improvement of the composition of the machine tool Inventory requires more 
attention. Under conditions of large-series production, practice shows that it 
is more expedient to utilize specialized machine tools than general purpose 
ones; the specialized equipment is tooled to produce specific parts and to carry 
out a specific operation. More energetic Introduction of machine tools with 
digital progr amme d control and unitized machine tools is called for as is the 
creation of automated equipment sections. The introduction of robotics which 
will help free many workers and raise the productivity of labor must be 
approached more boldly. 

Enterprise managers and party and trade union committees are urged to strengthen 
educational work in the collectives and more sternly to demand answers about 
idle time and equipment breakage as well as for a careless attitude toward 
equipment. At tiie same time it is necessary to introduce the work team form 
of organization and payment for machine tool operators. Work by team or detail 
will raise the workers sense of responsibility for the effective utilization 
of equipment. The introduction of a work team requirement of economic self 
support will promote this further. 

It is necessary to introduce more broadly the experience of leading machine 
tool operators, to react effectively to critical comments of workers who 
operate equipment and to study attentively all proposals for the improvement 
of machine tool and machinery operation. 

Other ways of raising, the effectiveness of equipment operation should be more 
actively sought and more rapid assimilation of new productive capacity fought 


CSO: 1823/232 





[Article by V.D, Rivchak: "The Wider Implementation of Advanced Structural 
Material Machining Technology"] 

[Text] A republic research applications conference called "State of the Art 
Manufacturing Processes and Increasing the Effectiveness of the Machining 
of Hard-to-Machine and Non-Metallic Structural Materials" was held in 
Dnepropetrovsk, The conference featured more than 180 participants. It was 
comprised of four sections; techniques and technology for machining high 
temperature and hard-to-machine materials by cutting tools; the electrophysical 
machining of materials; mechanization and automatization of factory machining 
operations; machining of non-metallic materials. 

Representatives of the Kiev Institute for Super-Hard Materials of the Ukrainian 
SSR Academy of Sciences presented some interesting reports of the results 
obtained in their research at the sessions of the first section. The 
Institute developed new two-layer cutting inserts with a cubic boron nitride 
cutting layer, which features a durability that exceeds that of series-produced 
Hexanite-R inserts by five-tenfold. Studies in increasing the life span of 
guillotine and disc blades through the use of carbide alloy cutting edges 
have also been accomplished here, and hobs and gear cutters with carbide cut¬ 
ting elements have been designed and implemented at the factory. 

Increasing the life of cutting tools through the application of wearproof 
coatings, laser beam hardening, and the application of magnetic hardening 
received considerable attention. 

The Dneprodzerzhinsk Industrial Institute imeni M. I. Arsenichev presented 
reports on the applied problems of turning titanium alloys with diamond 
cutters, and the effectiveness of utilizing cooling and lubricating fluid 
in metal machining. Guest from Tashkent shared their experience in the 
utilization of a preliminary break-in of the cutting tool as a method of 
increasing its service life. 

Conference participants were interested by a report on hard-facing materials 
as high-speed steel replacements (Kharkov Polytechnic Institute imeni V. I. 
Lenin). Candidate of technical sciences V. S. Kovalenko of Kiev addressed 


the conference with a survey report on the prospective utilization of 
electrophysical machining methods. 

Colleagues of the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute imeni L, I. Brezhnev 
presented the reports "Optimization of the Parameters of Electric Spark 
Machining Equipment" and "Prospects for the Utilization of Electric Spark 
Alloying of Machine, Instrument and Tool Parts." 

Representatives of the VNUmekhchermet Institute (Dnepropetrovsk) reported 
on the results of their studies in the electrical resistance machining 
of hard-to«machinematerials. The developments of the Institute have been 
successfully utilized at a number of enterprises. 

Workers at the Dneprovskiy Machine Construction Plant shared their experience 
in cutting hard-to-machine steels through the heating of the removed layer by 
an external highly-concentrated heat source. 

Representatives of the Sumskiy Manufacturing Association imeni Frunze 
described the electro-diamond polishing of structural steels and super-fine 
surface finishing through the application of low-frequency vibration. 

An interesting discussion developed at the mechanization and automatization 
of factory machining operations section of the conference on the utilization 
of computer-aided design of manufacturing processes. Industrial engineers 
have achieved significant successes in this area at the Odessa Scientific 
Production Association, where more than 80 percent of all the manufacturing 
documentation is produced by computer. Communications regarding the results 
of the implementation and the prospects of developing computer-aided manu¬ 
facturing process design systems were'given by representatives of the 
Dnepropetrovsk State University, the "Southern Machine Construction Plant" 
Production Association imeni L. I. Brezhnev and by speakers from Minsk, 
Leningrad, Kharkov, Donetsk, Makhachkala, Voroshilovgrad and Kaunas. 

The introduction of versatile robot-equipped systems, and the means for 
increasing the effectiveness of programmable machine tools is also described 
in several reports and communications. 

A new high-productivity technology for cutting polymer materials with a high 
pressure fluid jet (hydrocutting) was discussed at sessions of the 
non-metallic material machining section of the conference. Representatives 
from Kiev and Kherson offered some interesting reports on this process. 

The utilization of diamond and boron-impregnated tools for machining cast 
and ceramic structural polymers also attracted much attention. 

The recommendations made at the conference were aimed at the wider enlistment 
of research developments and state-of-the-art manufacturing technique in the 
electrophysical and mechanical machining of hard-to-machine materials, and in 
the automatization of the design of manufacturing processes, elevating the 
efficiency of machine tools with numerical program control, and in the 
hydraulic and diamond tool machining of pol 3 nners. 


CSO: 1823/240 



UDC 621.7.044.2 


Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL' in Russian No 5, May 84 pp 26-27 

[Article by L. G. Shafranskiy, M. R. Nikolayenko, candidates of technical 
sciences, A. A. Krivonogov, A. M. Mironov, engineers, "Hole Drilling with 

[Text] At the Bryansk Tractor Machinebuilding Plant, the possibility was 
investigated of drilling holes 0.8 to l.OOmm in diameter and 3nnn deep for 
bearings of magnetic relay armatures by laser impulses with an energy of up to 
30 joules. 

Existing blind holes in relay base plates were replaced by through holes. This 
change was made by two reference holes 1 and 2 produced along with other holes 
when punching the intermediate product of the base plate from sheet metal. 

The depth of the holes drilled by the lasers was determined by the distance 
between the reference holes from the front edge of the relay base plate. It 
was adopted as equal to 3mm. 


The beam was focused on the front surface of the base plate and, to simplify 
the experiments, the position of the focus with respect to the part was not 
changed as the hole channel was being formed; therefore, a large part of the 
holes was formed by the action of a defocussed beam* Consequently, the channel 
was formed not as a result of metal evaporation, but due to its melting by a 
concentrated heat source and a spatter of overheated metal in the form of vapors 
and microscopic sprays. This spatter leads, on one hand, to nonuniform melting 
of the walls of the hole channel as a result of which its entering part acquires 
the shape of an irregular circle and, on the other hand, to particles of molten 
metal being ejected and its vapors destroy the surface layer of the protective 
glass of the lens. 

Gas protection is one of the most efficient possible ways to protect the laser 
optics. Coaxial blowing of oxygen or air under pressure of not less than 0.4 
megaPa at a minimum diameter of the nozzle that provides free access of the 
beam to the machined surface, guarantees 100 percent protection of the optics. 
The hole, 3mm deep, is produced by four laser impulses. The shape of the hole 
channel is more nearly cylindrical and is produced by using air as a protective 

Experimental data shows (see Table) that the diameters of the inlets and exits 
of the holes are larger than the average diameter of the hole channel, independ¬ 
ently of laser radiation power. Apparently, this is due, on one hand, to the 
action of a conical shape of the beam and, on the other hand, to the intensive 
ejection of a liquid layer of metal from the lower part of the channel when the 
finishing (fourth) radiation impulse is fed after the through hole was formed. 



(2) (3) 








jlMaMCTpw ovae 

(4) ( 

j H«ro 

aw. (| 
xoa- ' 












1 — Battery voltage, volts; 2 — Radiation energy, joules; 3 — Hole diameters; 
mm; -4 -- inlet; 5 — middle; 6 — exit. 

The armature bearings are inserted in the holes produced by the laser until 
stopped by the cylindrical surface, of the reference holes and press-fitted 
by prick punching. The strength of fixing the armature bearings in such holes 
in a basic version was compared by the force required to pull them out of the 
base plate of the relay. Tests indicated that the armature bearings are pulled 


out of experimental and series produced relay plates at forces of 119,5 newtons 
and 122 newtons respectively, i.e., they are practically the same. 

Investigations of channel holes cross sections of the diameter parallel and 
perpendicular to the vertical plane of the relay base plate, after the armature 
bearings were tom out, indicated that the plastic deformation of metal due to 
the press-fit eliminates all deviations in the shape of the channel from the 

Lasers can be introduced efficiently for drilling holes in relay base plates 
only when they are operated in the continuous radiation mode and are equipped 
with lenses with electromagnetic shutters. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye*’, "Mashinostroitel"*, 1984 

CSO: 1823/310 



UDC 621.961.2.06-52:658.527:629.113.012.853 


Moscow AVTOMOBIL'NAYA PROMYSHLENNOST' in Russian No 6, Jun 84 p 36 

[Article by V. A. Nedorezov, L. I. Zhinov, Yu. V, Gerzhidovich, A, F. Bichevoy 
and V. V. Shcherbina, "Automated Line for Manufacturing Sheet Springs"] 

[Text] Pressing operations of cutting, punching, bending, etc, are of great 
importance in manufacturing springs. One, cutting the initial strip into 
measured intermediate products, is done on lines consisting of a roller conveyor 
and a crankshaft press equipped with a cutting die and a movable stop. Then 
the measured intermediate products are transported to the finishing stamping 
lines consisting of a heating device and a crankshaft press with a die that has 
several operating positions. When it is considered that the production program 
envisions the manufacture of several kinds of springs and that each spring con¬ 
sists of many (up to 15) sheets, it becomes obvious that the traditional 
technological process has very intense freight flows, requires frequent equip¬ 
ment readjustments and, therefore, large labor expenditures and large*service 
personnel. To avoid this, a new improved technological process for manufactur¬ 
ing sheet springs for the GAZ [Gor'kovsk Automobile Plant] automobile was 
developed at the Sinel'nikovsk Spring Plant imeni Komintem. It is based on 
a automated line (see Figure). 


Feeder 1 is shaped like a hinged platform on which a batch of measured inter¬ 
mediate product strips is placed. A pneumatic cylinder rod turns the platform 
on its bearings and the strip falls into the receiver of device 2 for piece-by- 
piece feeding. The receiver capacity is up to 20 strips. (All other strips 
remain on the platform which is loaded by a single-rail overhead crane without 
the line being stopped). 

The device for piece-by-piece feeding of the strips is a scraper-chain conveyor. 
The height of the scrapers depends upon the thickness of the strips in order to 
eliminate the possibility of engaging two strips simultaneously. When the 
conveyor moves, the scrapers grab a strip from the receiver and move it to a 
slide over which it drops to sloped storage device 3 with devices for leveling 
and orientation. 

The slide is equipped with two rollers: the lower is a driving roller and the 
upper is a clamping roller. The strip falling on the rollers is moved to the 
stop. Electrical sensors fix its position on the slide and issue the instruction 
for beveling or passing to the storage device without beveling. From the stor¬ 
age device, the strip drops onto step-shaped guide-bars that are moved to and 
fro by a pneumatic drive and feed the strip to the first position of the dies 
of the model K3133 two-crankshaft press 4 with a nominal force of 2 meganewtons. 
There are four die positions on the press table on which cutting and punching 
holes operations are done. 

In the first position, the strip is cut into two intermediate products — left 
and right. The left part is transported by feed device 14 to heater 13 and 
then to finishing press 12, while the right part, equal in length to the sum of 
the lengths of two sheets, passes through the remaining positions of press 4 by 
a feed device consisting of a grab bar-guides with driven guide blocks. In the 
last position, the intermediate product is cut into two sheets, the short one 
of which is sent by device 5 and conveyor 9 to a box on table 10 to be crated, 
while the other (long one) is sent by device 6 to reaming machine tools 7. 

The device for moving the long sheets consists of two rocking levers driven by 
guide blocks. The levers assume the initial position under the sheet in the 
down stroke of the slide bar of the press and on the up stroke they turn and 
drop the sheet onto the sloped slide from where it gets to the chain conveyor 
and then to the reaming machine tools. 

The reaming machine tools are equipped with a beveling device, a device for 
feeding the sheet to various positions and two reaming heads. The beveling 
device consists of two disks with radial slots into which the sheet is fed by 
a conveyor. The disks are rotated around a horizontal axis by a ratchet device 
driven by a pneumatic cylinder and lay the sheet on the feed device, consisting 
of stepping grab-bar guides, in the various positions. 

After reaming the previously punched holes, the sheet is fed to the sloped 
slide and over it to packing boxes on rotary table 8. 


Heater 13 is a stepping chain conveyor with two rows of radiating units. The 
intermediate products are transported by the conveyor between the radiating 
units to the model K3133 finishing press 12 and are heated at given places. 

Four die positions are installed on the table of press 12. They execute the 
operations of bending, cutting the sheet to dimensions and punching holes. 

The device for moving the sheet to various die positions is made in the form 
of grab-guides driven by a pneumatic cylinder. 

The finished sheet is fed to packing boxes mounted on power-driven cart 11 
by the chain conveyor. 

Rotary tables and power-driven carts make it possible to change packing boxes 
without stopping the line. 

The operating sequence of all units and devices of the line is determined by 
control and limit switches. 

The introduction of the automated line in production made it possible to increase 
the productivity of labor 2.9-fold, reduce service personnel from 9 to 4 and 
increase the metal utilization coefficient from 0.94 to 0.97. 

The economic effect of the introduction of the line was 105,000 rubles per 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo •’Mashinostroyeniye”, "Avtomobil'naya promyshlennost 


CSO: 1823/322 



UDC 621.9.048.7:621.373.826 


Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL' in Russian No 4, Apr 84 pp 24-25 

^Article by V. S. Kovalenko, doctor of technical sciences, V. P. Dyatel', 
candidate of technical sciences; "Laser Machining of Holes"] 

rcext] In a number of industrial sectors, it is necessary to provide the 
highly efficient drilling of holes 0.8 to l.Otnm in diameter in pipes with wall 
thickness within 1.0mm (material of Khl8N10T steel) that have a spatial curvi¬ 
linear shape. Drilling holes in such pipes is difficult due to the complexity 
of basing the holes. Difficulties also arise which are related to removing 
burrs around the holes from the inner surface of the pipe. Moreover, after - 
drilling, it is necessary to ream the upper part of the orifice. Manual labor 
is used principally in such a technology. Drilling l.Omm and less in diameter 
in hard steels is not a simple technological problem because of the frequent 
breakage of drills (since the pipe must be based manually). 

It was proposed to drill such holes by a laser installation designed for this 
purpose in the Laser Technology Laboratory of the Kiev Polytechnical Institute 
in order to improve the technological process of making holes in curvilinear 
pipe parts. The "Kvant-16" series manufactured laser installation was recom¬ 
mended as the basic one to use. To achieve multi-impulse hole-making, the 
spherical mirrors of the optical resonator of the basic installation were re¬ 
placed by flat ones and the charge-discharge circuit to feed the incandescent 
lamp for pumping the active element is changed so that the radiation impulse 
does not exceed 1 millisecond. 


Type L9-78 laser 1 is installed in the rear part of the laser installation on 
a special bracket coaxially with the optical axis of the oscillator. This is 
done so that the focusing zone (the drilling zone) may be observed visually 
and to reduce the labor-intensiveness of adjusting the optical system of the 
laser installation. Its radiation is combined with the optical axis of the 
oscillator and is focused on visible red point 6 which is the focus of the lens. 
The part to be drilled is based according to two regulated prisms 2. To in¬ 
crease the basing precision 2inm wide prisms are used with a 30mm distance 
between them. The part is secured by lower prism 3, connected to the plunger 
of pneumatic cylinder 4 which is actuated by depressing a pedal. 

The gas laser begins to operate when the laser installation is connected. The 
operator supporting the pipe whose surface was previously marked with the loca¬ 
tions of the holes, places it between the prisms. When the gas laser is con¬ 
nected, the operator sees a red point on the pipe. The pipe is oriented then 
so that the marked axis of the hole coincides with the visible red point. After 
that the operator depresses the pedal that controls the pneumatic cylinder, 
whose plunger moves out and the lower prism forces the pipe to the upper prism, 
keeping it in the oriented position. The laser oscillator is connected and the 
holes are treated with a certain number of impulses. After that, the operator 
disconnects the oscillator and connects the pneumatic cylinder. The lower 
prism is lowered, the pipe is freed and the operator orients the pipe again for 
drilling the next hole. 

The holes are drilled in the following modes: radiation energy in an impulse 
20 to 25 joules; focal distance of lens 70mm; number of impulses, directed into 
the treatment zone, 2 to 4; frequency of impulse sequence 0.75 to 1.00 Hz. The 
diameter of the holes 0.6 to 1.0mm, depth of holes 0.5 to 2.0mm and treatment 
time is 4 to 8 seconds. The dimensions of the holes are changed by varying the 
radiation energy, the number of impulses and the location of the treated surface 
with respect to focus of the lens. Since^ in laser processing, the orifices 
have an inlet cone, reaming is eliminated entirely from the technological process. 

The use of laser technology to drill holes in pipe that has a spatial curvi- 
linear shape, makes it possible to eliminate manual drilling of the given holes, 
as well as to eliminate the necessity of reaming and removing burrs 

from the inner surface of the pipe. The production cost of one hole is reduced 

due to saving wages and costs of tools. The effect is obtained by reducing 
machining time, as well as the auxiliary time''since, unlike the machine drilling 
operation, on the laser equipment, the complicated shape of the intermediate 

product is oriented and clamped with respect to the tool — the laser beam 

with partial automation. Although the proposed version of orienting and secur¬ 
ing the pipe appears to be simple, nevertheless it requires a certain amount of 
manual labor. Therefore, the search continues at present for an optimal version 
of an automatic process for laser drilling of holes in pipes of complicated 
spatial shapes. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", "Mashinostroitel"', 1984 

CSO: 1823/314 



UDC 621.952-229.24 

Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL' in Russian No 4, Apr 84 p 47 

[Article by V. N. Rudnitskiy, A. Z. Dolgintsev, Yu. P Pankov, candidate of 
technical sciences, V. M. Mikhaylichenko, engineer: ^'Four-Spindle Drilling 
Head" ] 

[Text 1 A four-spindle drilling head was developed in the Bryansk Technological 
Institute for drilling holes in the wheel unit in the ventilating assembly 
of the TAV-1.5 heat generator. 

Sections 3, 4 and 5 of the head are connected by four screws 11, two of which 
pass through bushings designed to center the sections. Coupling 9 is secured 
on the stationary part of the machine—tool spindle and is clamped by tapered 
bolts.10. Pinion-shaft 7 enters the hole of coupling 8 installed on the 
machine tool spindle. Thrust bearings 6 are installed in section 5 to receive 
the axial loads originating in spindles 1 and 2 when drilling holes. Each 
spindle has the shape of a stepped shaft with a pinion cut in the middle 
section (m = 1.5mm). 

The machine tool spindle rotation is transmitted to the pinion-shaft which is 
engaged with the spindle pinions, displaced in height from each other. 

The introduction of the drilling head will triple the productivity of. labor. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye", "Mashinostroitel"', 1984 


CSO: 1823/316 



UDC 621,981.12.073 


Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL* in Russian No 4, Apr 84 p 14 

[Article by D. I* Gulyarenko, engineer; ’’Press-Forming Machine”J 

[Text] The Donetsk Planning Design and Technological Institute designed and 
introduced at the Sverdlovsk Ore Repair Plant a press-forming machine for 
making chutes for mounting on the SP202V, scraper conveyors. 

The machine operates on the principle of edge-bending presses, i.e., the part 
is made by the free-bending principle. The spring-loading angle is regulated 
by interchangeable spacers located on stops, which makes it possible to bend 
parts of Various thicknesses and at various angles. The angle of punch die 
2 is 81®. The die is mounted on a hydraulic press. 

A flat intermediate product is laid on sectional die 4 and moved to rear stops 
1. The spring-loaded beveled front supports 3 are pushed down by its weight. 

On the down stroke of the press slide block, the rear ledge of the part is bent 
by sectional die 2, after which the part is fixed according to front stops 3 
and the front ledge of the part is bent. Since the distance from the axis of 
the die to the front and rear stops is the same, the height of the chute ledges 
is also equal within given tolerances. 


The die design is considerably simpler for fl- type bending and is universal. 
Its use makes it possible to reduce the number of stamping equipment and raise 
the quality of the stamped parts due to the ability to regulate the spring¬ 
loading angle by Interchangeable spacers. The maximum lengths of the bend is 
1.5 meters. 

COP'XRIGHT; Izdatel'stvo "Mashinostroyeniye”, "Mashinostroitel*”, 1984 

CSO: 1823/311 



DDC 658.512.2:658.5 


Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL' in Russian No 4, Apr 84 pp 15-16 

[^Article by R. L. Satanovskiy, doctor of economic sciences, professor; 

M. S. Elent, engineer; "Design and Organization of GAP and GPS"]] 

^Text]] One of the most complicated concepts in the total conception of design¬ 
ing and organizing automated flexible productions (GAP) is related at present 
to the flexibility of production. This conception, in its totality, takes 
into account the technical, technological and organizational aspects of modem 
production. Only by considering them together is it possible to evaluate 
flexibility from the position of achieving its most efficient magnitude. The 
technical and technological possibilities of flexible production are manifested 
in the process of the joint work of all production subdivisions (section, 
complex and line), i.e., they are realized through the organization of 

Among the most Important definitions of the flexibility concept is adaptivity, 
i.e., the variety of conditions to which the system can adapt. It is character¬ 
ized by the number of various products that can be manufactured and by the 
degree of the design-technological similarity of the manufactured products 
(type-sizes, types, kinds and classes). The determination of the efficiency 
of flexible production systems (GPS) consists of finding parameters of an 
optimal product list and the degree of product similarity that would provide 
manufactured products at minimum cost. 

Thus, for example, designing sections with universal equipment is based on the 
optimality of the production structure. In this case, a version of the dis¬ 
tribution of the products list and the level of their similarity would provide 
for the manufacturing of the product with minimum expenditures of live and 
reified labor. Such an approach was approved by the methodological instructions 
of the USSR Gosstandart and is used in machinebuilding and instrument making 

In equipping subdivisions with NC machine tools and industrial robots, the 
evaluation of flexibility is preserved through adaptivity indicators taking 
into account the specifics of a given production facility. As an example, we 
will consider a robotized complex for compression molding of plastics, 
established and functioning at the Leningrad "Elektrosila" Electrical Machine- 
building PO [Production Association] imeni S, M, Kirov, The complex includes 


the following: a semiautomatic hydraulic press, an industrial robot, a dis¬ 
penser device and a control system. The robot is equipped with an inter¬ 
changeable grip in which the number of loading cavities is in strict relation¬ 
ship with the number of parts being extrusion molded in the press. Loading 
cavities, heating the molding compound and moving the grip in the plane of the 
press for the next loading of the molding compound into the compression mold 
are implemented according to a given program. After the extrusion cycle is 
completed, a second arm of the robot removes the finished products for their 
following monitoring. 

The design-technological classification of 30 kinds of plastic parts, handled 
in the robotized complex, established that they belong to three types, two 
kinds and one classification. The sizes and weights of the parts within each 
type make it possible to use an interchangeable grip of one kind with a uniform 
arrangement of cavities along a coordinate grid. Changing over from one type 
(kind) of parts to another requires additional expenditures for the installation 
of interchangeable grips and a number of technical devices to insure the given 
dynamic and accuracy characteristics. 

Changing over from an individual grip designed for one type-size to a grip 
designed for several type-sizes is a considerable reserve for raising the pro¬ 
ductivity of labor. Taking into account the fact that under conditions of 
small series production, basic time losses in the operation of the complex are 
related to the change in the compression molds, they can be reduced by changing 
over to group compression molds. This is solved by providing software for the 
robotized complex. Thus, flexibility is increased, current costs for manufactur 
ing compression molds, on the one hand, while on the other hand, one-time 
(capital) costs of expensive group compression molds and multicavity interchange 
able grips increase. To evaluate flexibility, the following formula is used 
to determine the reduced annual costs: 

where C — production cost (as compared to the expenditure items); Ejj -- norm 
coefficient of economic efficiency; K — capital investments. 

Knowing how C and K change in manufacturing extruded parts of one type and when 
changing over from one type to another, particular values were obtained for 
3„p and for evaluating the optimal flexibility when the number of positions 
in the product list increased on the boundary of each type of part. The Figure 
shows that for the parts of one type, the optimal flexibility of the robotized 
complex is equal to 5 items, of the second type (13-10) = 3 and of the third 
type (24-20) =4. As a whole, for the 30 positions planned when the complex 
was built, the curve of reduced annual costs, plotted according to approximated 
curves C and is represented by the envelope curve 3np , whose minimal 

value corresponds to the optimal value of product list R equal to 16 positions. 



1 ~ 3d type; 2 — 2nd kind; 3 -- optimal. 

Deviation from optimal flexibility 0^ , that determines the strategy for GAP 

and GPS development, is evaluated by formula 

. 0? = ( Rfact ■ ^pt ) 100- 


For example, for the given robotized complex, which assimilated only 10 posi¬ 
tions of various types in production, the duration from the optimal flexibility 



. 10—16 


1100=37,5 %. Thus, reaching oirfclmal R, flexibility is increased by 




100 = 60% 


Such a system of indicators makes it possible to evaluate the flexibility level 
of GAP and GPS because, at its basis, lies a comparison with an optimal value 
measured in accordance with . 

As shown by the calculation of the flexibility and operation of the robotized 
complexes built at the "Elektrosila" PO, the initial moment is the substantia¬ 
tion of the possibility of achieving the functional-operational GAP characteris¬ 
tics for manufacturing an entire range of products from a fixed assigned product 
list. By knowing the dynamics of C and K, it is possible to evaluate the advis¬ 
ability of expanding flexibility further. In this case, it is necessary to 
differentiate among the strategic, tactical and operational flexibility. 


Strategic flexibility, whose sequence of establishing we just considered, is 
characterized by the degree of similarity of the products and the number of 
items in the fixed product list for a specific GAP or GPS for a fairly long 
period of time (a year or more). In series production for which GAP and GPS 
are primarily created, this product list, during the year, can be manufactured 
in different amounts and differents periods of repetition, which would involve 
frequency of equipment readjustment. The optimal frequency of such readjust¬ 
ment, evaluated according to GOST 14,004-83 ESTPP [[Single System for Technolo¬ 
gical Preparation for Production] by a so-called coefficient of operations 
assignment that characterizes the optimal tactical flexibility of production. 

The sequence of alternating specific lots during the planned period (month, 
ten day periods), calculated by taking into account achieving optimal tactical 
flexibility for the entire assigned product list, may vary. Therefore, the 
operational flexibility determined for a short period must also be optimal, 
i,e,, oriented to achieving annual production costs calculated for the stages 
of previously substantiated flexibility. 

Thus, the optimization of the flexibility of production systems is a multilevel 
problem in which the results of solving the upper level (strategy) are the 
entrance to the second level (tactics) and are directly related to the solutions 
for the initial dynamic level of GAP and GPS functioning. As confirmed by the 
experience of industrial enterprises, precisely such a systematic approach makes 
it possible to solve the complicated problem of finding the optimal flexibility 
of production systems. Changing over to the evaluation of the flexibility and 
the magnitude of deviations from the most efficient, i.e,, to the characteristic 
of the flexibility level, is an important direction of the further development 
of design and organization of GAP in machinebuilding and instrument making. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel*stvo ^Mashinostroyeniye”, "Mashinstroitel'1984 


CSO: 1823/312 



UDC 658.527,011.56:621.757.06-52 


Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL* in Russian No 3, Mar 84 pp 16-17 

[Article by V. P. Popov, engineer : "Flexible Assembly Production Systems"^ 

[Text] The trend in developing flexible assembly production systems (GSSP) 
for mass production was caused by an increase in the productivity of labor 
(up to 50-60 percent as compared to synchronized direct-flow assembly lines) 
as a result of taking into account more fully their psycholphysical factors, 
more comfortable working conditions for assembly workers, optimal utilization 
of the brigade form of labor organization, and mechanization facilities and 

For small series production, it is most efficient to reequip assembly produc¬ 
tion facilities on the basis of the GSSP with their optimal saturation with 
mechanization facilities, assembly and other equipment (including portable), 
the creation of comprehensively mechanized work positions, modular assembly, 
bay sections (with efficient, technological and object specialization) and 
shops with technological complexes according to the entire *Varehouse-assembly- 
test" cycle. 

In recent years, the GPTIkuzmash developed technological projects for assembly 
shops and sections on the basis of the GSSP. As an example, Fig. 1 shows a 
section with a production area of 300m^ for assembling planetary reducers 
serviced by 12 workers. 

The section consists of two modular assembly bays connected to the shop ware¬ 
house with a stacker, — a modular bay for preparing assembly units, and a 
modular bay for assembling and testing products. The following is done in the 
bay to prepare assembly units: gears are assembled with bronze bushings; 
reducer covers are assembled; gaskets are installed; holes are drilled; detents 
are installed, etc. 

Model P6328 hydraulic press 9 is used with device 10 on an air pillow to feed 
parts for pressing. Drilling and thread cutting work is done on the vertical¬ 
drilling NC machine tool and group equipment (without readjustment for a series 
of products). Tables 7 and 8 serve as assembling and storing parts and assembly 
units. Portable pedestals 12 for tools and electromechanical manipulator-16 
are used in the section. 


Fig. 1. a — bay for preparing assembly units; b — bay for assembling and 
testing products. 

The bay for assembling and testing products is located under overhead crane 14. 
Here are organized three comprehensively mechanized work positions 13 for 
assembling and one work position for testing (test stand 5 and oil-filling 
station 6). Assembling work positions are equipped with two-position rotary 
assembling tables 1, group tune-up stations 17, 18 and 19 respectively for 
assembling covers with bearings; assembling camshafts and crankshafts; assembling 
reducers. While one half (position) of the table is loaded by the automatic 
crane with crated parts and assembling units, brought from the warehouse on a 
cart, an assembly worker assembles parts brought in earlier on the second half 
of the table, using overhead mechanization facilites 15 and manual tools. 

Thermal-radiation cabinet 2 is located beside the assembly table. Having com¬ 
pleted the assembly, the worker turns the table by 180o. The assembled unit is 
moved under the automatic crane for unloading into storage devices 3 and 4, or 
to the warehouse, while the freed places are loaded with a new lot of parts and 
units. The cycle is repeated. The assembly worker is not tied to a rigid 
assembly rhythm (the manufacturing time for one set is 20 to 30 minutes), since 
he is doing a technologically completed volume of work. The arrangement of the 
section is universal for series or small group series assembly. 

For smaller series production and single unit production, a shop (bay) was 
designed for assembling hydraulic turbogenerator units. Here every work position 
of as assembler (there are seven in the shop) is organized as a technologically 
closed loop assembly module consisting of several rotary (elevating and 


traversing) assembly stands, places to store parts and assembly units, mechaniza¬ 
tion facilities (including places for installing and connecting manual mechanr- 
ized tools). The wide front and high rate of the assembler's work is provided 
by the simultaneous, multiposition assembly of several products and the possi¬ 
bility of changing the work density (for example, increase the number of workers 
per module to two or three) with a sharp change in the planned volumes of out¬ 
put of one or another hydraulic turbogenerator. The product assembly is done 
basically of complete assembly units (assembled and tested hydraulic units in 
a set, with valve apparatus is assembled)and are sent from the hydraulic units 
machines assembly shop to the shop for assembling hydraulic turbogenerators, 
while pumps, couplings, etc. are sent from the preparatory assembly units of 
the given shop. 



Fig. 2. a —• assembly bay for hydraulic turbogenerator units; b — bay for 
preparation of assembly units. 

The hydraulic turbogenerator shop has an area of llOOm^ (with a test and 
correction section) and is serviced by 26 workers; the annual output is 16 
models of 7700 products. 

Fig. 2 shows a part of the hydraulic turbogenerator shop — the section (module) 
of assembly units and the module (work position) to assemble hydraulic turbo¬ 
generators of the open (built-in type models 93P32V and 21P31V, where 1, 7, 

10 and 11 are storage places (racks, special stands, vertical elevator ware¬ 
house); 2, 12 and 20 are fitter work benches; 3 is shelving; 4, 5 and 6 rotary 
assembly stands; 8 and 13 are mechanized equipment; a portable stand for tools; 
14, 15 and 16 are drilling and grinding machine tools and press; 17 — industrial 
vacuum cleaner; 18 -- machine tool for cutting, bending and rolling copper 
tubes; 19 — heater. The assembled products are sent to a storage device and 
from there by a transport conveyor to the test section. 

The creation of the GSSP provides high productivity of the assembly workers 
and flexibility of production, i.e., either none or a small volume of readjust¬ 
ments of production when the quantity and product list change. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel* s tvo ”Mashionstroyeniye", ”Mashinostroitel *”, 1984 


CSO: 1823/318 



DDC 621.9.06-236.58 

Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL' in Russian No 4, Apr 84 p 17 

^Article by V. I. Kokin, 0, V. Chalov, V. V, Balaburdln, engineersi "Robot 
Technical Complex"]] 

[Text] A technical robot complex (RTK) was introduced using a model 16K20F355 
NC turning machine tool and model "Brig-lOB" industrial robot. Additionally, 
were designed and manufactured: storage—loader device to store the 
intermediate products and a storage-unloader device to receive and store 
finished parts, a grip device; and the operation of the electrical circuits of 
the robot, machine tool and the NC system was coordinated. 

The RTK was organized to manufacture fastening studs up to 200mm long with an 
up to M36 diameter threads. The design of the storage-loader device makes it 
possible to readjust the RTK rapidly from one size of stud to another. 

Moreover, the possibility is envisioned of regulating the slope angle of the 
chute and the height of the storage devices. 

The gripping of the intermediate product in the storage-loader device is done 
as follows; the gripping device in the open position enters the slot in the 
lower part of the chute and clamps the intermediate product. When the robot 
actuator rises, the intermediate product leaves the retaining tabs on the chute 
and the actuator moves away smoothly; the intermediate products remaining in 
the chute slide down to the freed position. The storage-loader device is ready 
to repeat the following cycle. 

To improve the operation of the three-cam self-centering mechanized chuck with 
an electromechanical drive, a regulated stop is installed in it and the cams 
have a 5 millimeter layer of bronze fused to their surfaces in order to prevent 
the crushing of the thread on the machined studs when clamped in the chuck. 

The design and principle of operation of the storage-unloading device is similar 
to that of the storage-loading device 


1 — Robot; 2 — storage-unloader device; 3 — enclosure; 4 — storage-loader 
device; 5 — door; 6 — machine tool; 7 — hydraulic station; 8 — NC; 9 — 

RTK arrangement. 

A three-cutter tool setup is used to increase the time of continuous operation 
of the RTK and reduce loss of time on readjustment. An additional set of 
tools or a device for the active monitoring of the geometrical parameters of 
the part being machined may be installed in the free positions on the six- 
position turret head of the machine tool. One set of cutters provides a two- 
shift continuous operation of the RTK. When the first set of cutters is out 
of action (broken or blunted tool), it is sufficient to change the program and 
the second set of tools will be used to machine parts. Moreover, cutters are 
used with non-regrindable, rapidly changed plates of cutting material that is 
highly durable at high machining modes. Along with a reduction in idle strokes 
of the tools and higher speeds, it was found possible to increase essentially 
the intensity of machining the parts. 

The full operating cycle of the RTK is as follows. After preparing the indus- 
trial robot (PR), the machine tool and the NC system for operation (the robot 
is installed in the initial position, actuators of the machine tool in posi¬ 
tion "0"), the operator presses the "start" pushbutton on the PR control panel. 
The execution of the control program of the robot begins. The grip of the 
robot takes the intermediate' product from the storage-loader device and places 
it in the chuck of the machine tool. An instruction is issued to move the tail 
spindle. This movement stops when the tail spindle touches the part. An in¬ 
struction follows to clamp the part in the chuck. The robot returns to the 
initial position; "Start NC" instruction follows. The machine tool machines 
the part according to the control program in the first position. After machin¬ 
ing is completed, the robot starts working again. Its grip clamps the part, 
the chuck opens and the tail spindle is moved away. The actuator turns the 
part 180° and the process of securing it is repeated. 

The robot returns to its initial position and an instruction is sent to the NC 
system. Execution of the control program begins to machine the part in the 


second position. After the part is machined and the actuators of the machine 
tool return to position the robot carries the part to the storage-unloader 

device, from where it is dropped into packing. Then, the robot grips another 
intermediate product in the storage-loader part and puts it in the chuck. An 
instruction follows to the NC system. When the punched tape with the program 
reaches symbol "End program," it is reversed and set in its initial condition. 
The cycle is repeated. 

The RTK control system fixes the following states of the complex: "tool in 
initial position;" "spindle stopped;" "back spindle moved up;" "back spindle 
moved away;" " part clamped;" "part undamped." The absence of even one of 
these states in the process of the execution of the control program stops the 
entire complex. These states are selected for the safety of service personnel 
and to prevent accidents that may occur when the robot makes contact with the 
moving parts of the machine tool. The operating space of the RTK is enclosed 
by a fence. 

The RTK introduction triples or quadruples the productivity of labor and im¬ 
proves the standard of production. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo ’’Mashinostroyeniye", "Mashinostroitel'", 1984 

CSO: 1823/313 



UDC 621. 
Moscow MASHINOSTROITEL' in Russian No 3, Mar 84 pp 38-40 

[Article by Ye. I. Vorob'yev, director of the Moscow "Frezer” imeni Kalinin 
Cutting Tool Plant: "The Role of Management Decisions in Automatic Production 
Control Systems3 

[Text] All problems, such as improving the management of production-economic 
activity, raising operating standards in all economic links, orienting toward 
the achievement of the best production results by creating the most efficient 
management forms, are solved, to a certain degree, by increasing the validity 
of the decisions made by management. 

Management, as a part of the total process of social production, is a special 
kind of activity, whose purpose is to pose clear statements of problems before 
each production collective and individual worker, to develop programs for solv¬ 
ing these problems and to provide conditions for their implementation. Manage¬ 
ment processes lead, accompany and close production processes. 

Components (resources, technology, output, etc.) originate in the management 
system in an ideal informational form which then materialize in production, 
i,e., the management processes lead the material production processes. It may 
be said that management accompanies material production, coordinating, regulat¬ 
ing and stimulating the labor of the collective and completes the process of 
material production by monitoring and accounting for its results. The direct 
material process of manufacturing industrial products in combination with the 
management information process form the total production system. 

At present, management is an independent, very complex and developed area of 
activity (a considerable number of workers in the national economy work in the 
management system); the cost of computers, organizational, peripheral and other 
types of management equipment has increased considerably and specialized indus¬ 
trial and interindustrial technical-economic information institutes were 
created, as well as specialized subdivisions at enterprises and in production 


The development of the management system was accompanied by the further 
specialization of subdivisions and individual workers in management, and the 
intensified communications between management subdivisions in one system and 
between high-level systems. Under these conditions, one of the deciding 
factors in developing the management system is its organization which consists 
of the systematic combination of all system components (labor, information 
which is the object and product of the management work and the technical means 
for management). 

Management organization envisions the regulation of processes for making 
(reasons, preparation and adoption) and implementing management decisions; 
forming the structure of management bodies; determining the hierarchy and 
functional distribution of labor; regulating the working time of managers and 
specialists; and organizing their work. In this case, the leading role is 
played by the processes of making and implementing management decisions because 
to a considerable extent, they determine all remaining directions of organizing 
management work. 

The organization of management is directed to producing the most favorable 
conditions for raising the prospects, validity and efficiency in the operation 
of the management body by achieving proportionality, continuity and regularity 
in all its links. Under modem conditions, work on organizing management has 
a multiplan nature and provides real comprehensive measures to develop and 
improve it. 

The organization of managements includes a set of measures on tying management 
processes in with time, i.e., setting times for the processes of making and 
implementing decisions, planning, record keeping, monitoring, analyzing and 
regulating production. For this purpose, the activity of subdivisions and 
workers of the management body is regulated; a typical technology is developed 
and times are set for executing various kinds of work; time norms are determined 
for preparing documents and getting them to the executors, etc. Changes of 
purpose, in the conditions in the controlled object, methods of control in the 
environment of the controlled object and in the control technique make it 
necessary to develop the organization of management. Therefore, the problem 
of management organizers and production supervisers is to determine the time 
when quantitative changes in the conditions of production call for qualitative 
shifts that determine the requirements for these or other management decisions. 

In individual production organizations and, particularly, at tool industry 
enterprises, the very content of management organization which, in some cases, 
is reduced to the management body structure, is treated in a very narrow 
manner. Actually, it includes the following: the processes of making and 
implementing management decision; the content, volume, methods and times for 
forming, transmitting and processing data; furnishing management bodies with 
modem equipment and insuring its efficient utilization; selection and place¬ 
ment of supervising cadres, specialists and service personnel; organization of 
management work. 

The successful solution of these most important components of a comprehensive 
management organization can be achieved only by producing, functioning and 


continuously developing automated systems for enterprise control (ASUP). The 
introduction of ASUP produces the necessary premises for making and implementing 
the most efficient management decisions; it increases the efficiency and quality 
of the operation of the management body; eases and accelerates the processes 
of forming, transmitting and processing of data, reducing thereby the labor- 
intensiveness of management work. 

Frequently, in the practice of industrial enterprise activity in general and 
in the tool industry enterprises in particular, all work on organizing the ASUP 
is reduced basically to producing and utilizing computing and information 
centers (IVTs). Without doubt, the IVTs are an important link in the ASUP. 
However, it would be wrong to treat the ASUP only from the viewpoint of design¬ 
ing and operating the IVTs. 

In our opinion, ASUP, functioning under a comprehensive management organization, 
must be directed toward establishing dynamic proportions between components and 
various links of the management body, and on maintaining correspondence between 
the structure and activity of the management body and the object of management. 
ASUP functioning also assumes an establishment of proportions between various 
subdivisions of the management body and the management system for a given object 
and its environment (higher ranking and related organizations, financial and 
credit organizations, procurement and marketing bodies, etc.). 

Investigations which have been carried out indicate that taking into account 
the hierarchic level, the ASUP functioning, from the standpoint of a comprehen¬ 
sive management organization, should provide the following to the production 
collective manager: 

qualitative correspondence and quantitative proportionality between workers of 
various categories, management personnel, trades and qualification levels, 
which must be met by the methods and management processes being designed; 

proportionality between qualitative and quantitative composition of workers, 
information service and management techniques; correspondence between management 
system parameters and the condition and development trends and goals of the 
management object; correspondence between the hierarchic division of labor in 
the management body and the area of competence of workers at respective levels, 
i.e,, their having the proper skills, knowledge, competence, interest and 

correspondence between functional division of labor and the content of the 
functions, subfunctions and work envisioned by the management process; 

correspondence between the time of process management and the speed of execution 
of the production processes regulated and monitored in the management process; 

correspondence between the productivity of various subdivisions of the manage¬ 
ment body and the objective proportions that determine the content and labor- 
intensiveness of various operations in the management cycle; 

proportionality of interaction among all interrelated management subdivisions. 


These directions of ASUP, functioning in a comprehensive management organiza¬ 
tion, are basic from the viewpoint of a production collective manager. 

However, there are also particular ones that must be implemented in designing 
processes of a comprehensive management organization, because the lack of 
their proper record may violate the system of organizational-economic and social 

The achievement of these directions can be provided only by timely and high- 
grade decision-making and implementing processes. 

As is well known, functional interrelated subsystems are singled out in the 
ASUP structure. There are different viewpoints on the question of the place of 
management decisions in the ASUP: some people consider management decisions a 
component part of the functional ASUP subsystems, while others — of the soft¬ 
ware subsystems; still others do not refer to them either as functional or soft¬ 
ware subsystems which to us appears not entirely valid. 

In our opinion, management decisions are formed and utilized on the boundary 
between fimctional and software subsystems. This is related to the fact that, 
first, they are directed to decisions on specific production problems along 
various functional subsystems; secondly, to make and implement them, output 
data is necessary, especially an information software subsystem. Thus, the 
process of making and implementing management decisions, functional and soft¬ 
ware ASUP subsystems are required. Their arrangement in the ASUP is shown in 
the Figure. As shown in the arrangement, management decisions are made in 
management bodies and are implemented in the controlled objects. In this case, 
they appear as direct communications while, as a result of implementation, they 
will appear as feedback by management bodies and controlled objects. 


1 -- Management decisions; 2 -- Management body (making management decisions): 

3 — Functional ASUP subsystems; 4 — Controlled object; 5 -- Software ASUP sub¬ 
systems; 6 — Results of implementation of management decisions. 


The essential role of management decisions in the ASUP is that It spans all 
areas of enterprise functioning: scientific-technological, production, 
economic and social. Along the scientific-technological line, management 
decisions are directed toward accelerating the scientific-technological pro¬ 
gress and toward constant improvement and renovation of the output; along the 
production line -- to satisfy quantitatively and qualitatively the requirements 
of the national economy in the finished products; along the economic line — 
to Insure national economic efficiency of enterprise activity; along the social 
— to satisfy most fully the material and spiritual requirements of the 
enterprise collective. Thus, it spans all components of the production manage¬ 
ment system — goal and structure, methods, functions, technical facilities 
and technology, as well as the training of management personnel. 

The role and content of management decisions are determined primarily at the 
management level. The Moscow ’’Frezer" Plant has three production management 
levels: highest, medium and lowest. 

The highest management level (director, deputy director, chief engineer) is 
oriented toward making decisions on strategic, social-economic and scientific- 
technological problems; the middle level (managers of functional services) is 
oriented toward making decisions on current problems of preparation, organiza¬ 
tion and coordination of the production-economic activity and on insuring its 

quality; the lowest level (chiefs of shops and sections, brigade 
foremen) are oriented toward making operational decisions on problems related 
to the organization of production and monitoring its implementation. Quantita¬ 
tive and qualitative indicators of reaching goals at the foundation of the 
economic management mechanism are determined on the basis of the hierarchic 
system. . 

Management is implemented by making and realizing diverse decisions that have 
considerable effect on the efficiency of production. The decision process 
assumes its validity, proper preparation, adoption and implementation. 

With all the avenues of approach to investigating the processes of making and 
implementing management decisions in the ASUP, three basic aspects may be 
separated out: the cybernetic, based on the concept of decision making as 
data processing; organizational, consisting of identifying the interrelated 
sequence of individual and group actions; psychological, consisting of con¬ 
sidering the decision making process as one of the thinking and psychological 
activity of people. 

The following basic phases are characteristic for making and implementing 
management decisions: determination of goals; identification and analysis of 
problems; generation and analysis of alternatives; selection and implementation 
of decision; evaluation of execution. It should be noted that for the sequential 
realization of these phases, it is necessary to have, first of all, analytical 
data processed and combined in a certain manner. Management personnel spend 
considerable time on this work. Thus, investigations show that upper level manage 
ment spends about 80 percent of its time processing data, the middle level — 
over 92 percent and the lowest level — about 65 percent of their time. 



Strengthening the role of management decisions in the ASUP, the high scienti¬ 
fic level of management and validity of the decisions being made assume a 
comprehensive development and expansion of analytical work at enterprises. The 
importance of the economic analysis of production activity as a basis for 
making management decisions consists in that it makes it possible to identify 
reserves for increasing the efficiency of production; improving socialist pro¬ 
duction relationships; controlling the production mechanism, planning and.moni¬ 
toring. It is also a means for cummunist training of workers, inculcating a 
thrifty attitude toward public property and attracting a wide mass to production 

Analysis should occupy a special place in management control as a stage preced¬ 
ing the making of decisions. This is due to the fact that analytical data must 
be fairly complete and used soundly for all other management functions. The 
greatest efficiency of analytical work may be achieved only when managers and 
economic services can utilize, at any management level, economic analysis 
methods for the following: preparing scientifically valid plans; monitoring 
their implementation and efficient regulation of production; eliminating bottle¬ 
necks in developing production; identifying and mobilizing internal reserves; ob¬ 
jectively evaluating cost accounting activity and results of socialist competi¬ 
tion; and substantiating economic incentives for production collectives. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo ”Mashinostroyeniye", "Mashinostroitel1984 


CSO: 1823/319