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172023 

JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 
CORRECTED COPY 


USSR Report 

CONSTRUCTION AND RELATED INDUSTRIES 


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FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE 


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NATIONAL TECHNICAL 
INFORMATION SERVICE 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
SPRINGFIEIO. VA. 22ISI 





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JPRS-UCR-85-009 


23 May 1985 


USSR REPORT 

Construction and Related Industries 


Contents 

CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 

Gosstroy Official on New Guidelines for Cost Estimation 

(V. Stolyarov; SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 1 Feb 85). 1 

Gosstroy Official on Capital Construction Plan 

(PRAVDA, 2 Jan 85). 3 

Main Construction Goals for 1985 Presented 

(BYULLETEN' STROITEL'NOY TEKHNIKI, No 1, Jan 85). 7 

Computerization of Capital Construction Planning Viewed 

(R. Zh. Arays, et al.; EKONOMIKA STROITEL’STVA, No 11, 

Nov 84). 13 

New Cost Accounting Method for Construction Labor 

(V. Vitkauskas; SOVETSKAYA LITVA, 13 Nov 84). 18 

Recommendations To Raise Technical Level of Construction 

(PROMYSHLENNOYE STROITEL ’STVO, No 1, Jan 85). 21 

Greater Use of Computers Urged in Construction Planning 

(L. S. Shkodenko; BYULLETEN' STROITEL'NOY TEKHNIKI, 

No 1, Jan 85). 30 

Update on New Trends in Belorussian Construction 

(M. P. Pavlova; BYULLETEN' STROITEL'NOY TEKHNIKI, No 11, 

Nov 84). 32 

Consequences of Materials, Labor Shortages Decried 

(R. Kardanova, N. Sosnina; TURKMENSKAYA ISKRA, 11 Jan 85).. 38 

INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION 

Gosplan Official on Industrial Construction Goals 

(L. Bibin; SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA, 3 Jan 85). 42 

- a - 













Capacity, Equipment of New Brick-Making Plant Viewed 

(V. Perzashkevich; STROITEL'NAYA GAZETA, 9 Dec 84). 46 

HOUSING CONSTRUCTION < 

Retrospective Residential Housing Construction Data Viewed 

(VESTNIK STATISTIKI, No 9, Sep 84). 49 w 

Switch to Single Family Rural Homes Discussed 

(V. M. Stern; ZHILISHCHNOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 10, Oct 84).,. 58 

CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 

Technical Level of Available Construction Machinery 

(V. M. Kazarinov, V. I. Polyakov; MEKHANIZATSIYA STROITEL- 
'STVA, No 9, Sep 84). 65 

Modernized Manufacturing Technology at Zlatoust 

(V. Rozhkov; STROITEL’NAYA GAZETA, 27 Feb 85). 69 

Low Plant Capacity Utilization in Construction Sector Noted 

(BYULLETEN' STROITEL'NOY TEKHNIKI, No 1, Jan 85). 71 

Building Brick Shortage in Leningrad 

(STROITEL'NAYA GAZETA, 27 Jan 85). 73 

CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND MATERIALS 

Innovations in Concrete Production Techniques Viewed 

(N. Dolgopolov; PRAVDA, 20 Jan 85).. 74 

Polymer Helps Cement 

(EKONOMIKA I ZHIZN', No 11, Nov 84). 78 


- b - 











CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


GOSSTROY OFFICIAL ON NEW GUIDELINES FOR COST ESTIMATION 
Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 1 Feb 85 p 1 
[Article by V. Stolyarov: "Design Authority"] 

[Text] As has already been reported, at a recent session the Politburo of the 
CPSU Central Conunittee reviewed and approved proposals by the USSR Council of 
Ministers concerning the further improvement of design and estimate affairs 
and increasing the role of expert advice and author oversight in construction. 
I. Ishchenko, deputy chairman of USSR Gosstroy, comments on the proposed 
measures at the request of the editorial board. 

"As is generally known, construction begins with the design. A high-quality 
design that is issued to the contractor organization in a timely fashion sets 
the tempo and determines the quality of the projects under construction. But 
applying the most advanced developments in the design that correspond to the 
newest achievements in domestic and foreign science and technology is 
especially important. Frankly speaking, not everything is satisfactory with 
us in this area. Now, the use of outmoded technological processes and 
equipment is prohibited. The all-union and departmental norms for 
technological and structural design work will be reviewed this year 

which will make it possible to improve the technical standard of design work. 
Measures are being taken that will more closely tie in the plans of designers 
Tjith the plans of clients and machine builders in order to accelerate the 
adoption of advanced technology and equipment that have a long manufacturing 
cycle. We intend to increase the incentive for design organizations to 
reconstruct and technically retool enterprises. Designers will now be able to 
obtain a bonus of up to 50 percent of the cost for the difficult nature of 
design and research work under operating production conditions. Allocations 
to economic incentive funds and the size of worker bonuses will be 
correspondingly increased. 

"At the same time measures are being outlined to increase the incentive for • 
designers to reduce the estimated cost of construction. The conditions for 
forming a material incentive fund are being changed. Additional allocations 
in the amount of up to 15 percent of the cost of the work will be made for 
high-quality work in developing a technical and economic foundation for 
construction as well as for the design itself. It will also become 
advantageous to economize on resources during the developmental stage of the 
working documentation. If the stim in the working docvunents proves to be less 


1 



than in the approved design then the client will be obliged to transfer up to 
20 percent of the savings obtained to the design organization. 

"The methodology for determining the value of the design work is being 
revised. The existing system of determining it based on the cost of the 
construction and installation work is clearly outmoded. Therefore, beginning 
next year, a new method will be adopted that will make it possible to tie the 
cost of the design and research work more closely to such technical indicators 
as the power, duration, capacity and area of the future project. 

"Increasing the role of the chief engineers (chief architects) for the design, 
who will bear a large responsibility for the technical and economic level and 
the architectural approach to the projects under construction, has Lmportant 
significance for regulating design and estimate affairs. During design work 
for the most important projects it is permissible to set up the position of 
deputy chief engineer for the design, thanks to whom greater possibilities for 
creative work will become available for the supervisor. The incentive for 
design organization collectives to complete assignments with the least number 
of workers is increasing. The wages that are saved in this manner will become 
the source for bonuses above the official salaries in sums amounting to 30 to 
50 percent. In addition, bonuses will be paid from the economizing fund for 
combining professions and positions. With the aim of increasing the number of 
qualified personnel, one-time bonus payments will be made based on the number 
of years of service to workers in design and research organizations beginning 
in 1986. 

"The measures being taken that are intended to improve work efficiency in the 
design experts' agencies as well as to increasing author oversight of the 
fulfillment ot the design requirements has important significance. The USSR 
Coxincil of Ministers has committed union ministries and departments and union 
republic councils of ministers to upgrade their expert subdivisions with 
qualified personnel after having placed them directly under jurisdiction of 
department supervisors or their first deputies. Author oversight imparts the 
right to stop construction and installation work at projects if violations of 
design requirements and standards are discovered." 


9495 

CSO; 1821/113 


2 




CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


f' 




GOSSTROY OFFICIAL ON CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION PLAN 

Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 2 Jan 85 p 2 

[Article: "USSR in Construction"] 

[Text] At the request of a PRAVDA correspondent, USSR 
Gosstroy Chairman S. V, Bashilov tells of the current 
program of capital construction and of ways for better 
implementing it. 

First of all, I would like to draw the attention of the readers to the followin 
Positive shifts have been noted in construction in the past 2 years. The 
operational introduction of fixed capital is growing at an increased rate as 
compared with the growth of capital investments, the level of unfinished work 
has been reduced, and the volumes of technical retooling and reconstruction of 
existing enterprises have been increased. Labor productivity has started to 
increase at a faster rate. These and other positive tendencies have been 
fixed and developed in the program for the coming year. 

Particular attention has been given to accelerated returns on capital invest¬ 
ments, whose volume from all sources of financing is planned in the sum of 
175.1 billion rubles. State capital investments, including those for 
installation operations, are increasing by 5-5 percent, while the operational 
introduction of fixed capital is increasing by 7.6 percent. This means that 
facilities will be submitted for operation sooner and that the invested funds 
and resources will be pay.for themselves faster. The pre-schedule operational 
introduction of fixed capital will make it possible to reduce mfinished 
construction even more and to bring it down to values close to the standard. 

The scope of reconstruction and technical retooling of existing enterprises 
is growing significantly. There have been 30.5 billion rubles in capital 
investments allocated for these purposes, which is 9.3 percent greater than 
last year. Renovation of work stations is the most effective means of utilizin 
capital investments and reducing the times for return on capital, as well as 
accelerating scientific-technical progress. 

Previously the contracting organizations were not sufficiently interested in 
performing this work. After all, it is more complicated to work under the 
cramped conditions of existing production than to erect new buildings on an 


3 



open site. Yet the payments received were about equal. Now the managers of 
the customer enterprises, construction and project planning organizations have 
been given the right to perform work associated with reconstruction and teclmical 
retooling in accordance with coordinated estimates and V7ith consideration of 
the real conditions and the character of the work. 

The sectors within the fuel-energy complex will develop at a leading pace. This 
complex has been and remains the motivating force of the economy. The overall 
increase in electrical power in the current year will comprise 55 billion kilo¬ 
watt-hours. Over one—half of this will be obtained at atomic power stations. 

In the current year, energy units with capacity of a million kilowatts each 
will go into operation at the Smolensk, Balakovo, Kursk, and Zaporozhye AES 
[atomic power stations]. 

The beginning of energy assimilation of the unique coal deposits in the Kansko- 
Achinsk Territorial Production Complex will be the start-up of the power unit 
at the Berezovo GRES-1 [State Regional Electrical Power Station], which will 
become the first in a family of such giants.The first stage in the formulation 
of the South Yakutsk TPK [territorial production complex] will be basically 
completed, where the Neryungri Open Pit Coal Mine and GRES will become opera¬ 
tional to their full capacity. 

The hydraulic resources of rivers are being actively involved in the cause. 

New turbines at the Sayano-Shushensk, Maynskiy, Baypazi, Tashkumyr and Zhinvali 
GES [aydroelectrical power stations] will produce power. The Ekibastuz- 
Chelyatjinsk alternating current 1.150 kV electrical transmission lines and a 
number of others will be introduced into operation. 

The country will realize its entire growth in the extraction of petroleum and 
gas by increasing their extraction in Western Siberia. Therefore, the accelera¬ 
ted construction of large pipelines is primarily envisioned for transporting 
oil and gas from these regions. The second phase of the Urengoy-Tsentr gas 
pipeline will go into operation, as well as the Urengoy—Surgut condensate 
pipeline. 

The volumes of capital operations in the coal industry will increase. The 
Vostochnyy Open Pit Mine will go into operation in Pavlodar Oblast, with a 
capacity of 15 million tons of coal a year. The first phase of the Berezov- 
skiy Open Pit Mine in Krasnoyarskiy Kray and the Pavlovskiy Open Pit Mine No 1 
in Primorskiy Kray will also become operations. Many enterprises will be re¬ 
constructed. 

Metallurgists have been called upon to expand the production of effective types 
of rolled stock. The capacities for output of sheet metal will be increased 
at the Novolipetsk Combine and at the Zhdanov Plant imeni Il’yich, as will 
capacities for the production of tin plate for the canning industry in Kara¬ 
ganda. The Far Eastern Conversion Plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur will become 
operational. Machines for continuous ingot casting will be installed at a 
number of the presently operating shops. 

The decisive role in technical retooling of the sectors belongs to machine 
building. There are plans to develop capacities for the manufacture of 1,000 


4 



metal-cutting machine tools in Alma-Ata, I’Sibiryalc" grain harvesting combines 
in Krasnoyarsk, automobiles with trailers for agricultural use in Kutaisi, 

1,300 industrial robots at the Moscow "Krasnyy Proletariy” [Red Proletariat] 
Plant, and facilities in many other cities. The successful resolution of 
these tasks requires the creative cooperation of builders, installers, designers, 
customers, and manufacturers of equipment, structures and materials. 

The introduction of new capacities and the reconstruction of existing ones in 
the chemical and petrochemical industries will facilitate the acceleration of 
scientific-technical progress. The contribution of chemists to the resolution 
of the Food Program is also important. The production of the mineral fertilizers 
industry will iacrease by more than 5 million tons annually. 

On the whole, almost one-third of all capital investments has been allocated 
for the development of sectors within the agro-industrial complex. The overall 
area of reclaimed crbp lands will comprise around 35 million hectares by the 
end of the year. All this, with consideration of construction of facilities 
for storing and processing agricultural products, animal raising complexes and 
farms, poultry factories, and hothouse combines, will make it possible to 
improve the provision of food products to the workers. 

The intensification of social division of labor and the expansion of economic 
ties make the development and improvement of the country's transport system, 
especially its railroads, a most important task. The railroad network will 
undergo further development thanks to the operational introduction of around 
700 kilometers of secondary lines and the electrification of 1,500 kilometers 
of lines. There will be 1,300 kilometers of new railroads submitted for opera¬ 
tion. 

Of course, it is impossible to characterize the development of all the sectors 
of the economy in a short report. I would like to particularly note, however, 
that the center of the plan for economic and social development of the country 
for 1985, as before, is the concern for the Soviet man and for his well-being. 
Fere is but one figure. Residential housing with total area of 114 million 
square meters will be built at the expense of all sources of financing. This 
is almost 11 million square meters more than outlined in the five-year plan. 
However, it is not only the quantity that is important. Particular attention 
must also be given to improving the quality of residential-civil facilities. 

For this purpose, it will be necessary to renovate at a faster rate the enter¬ 
prises for large-panel house building, to accelerate the transition of housing 
construction to progressive series of houses, and to eliminate those shortcomings 
about which workers rightfully complained in their letter entitled ’'A Word 
About the Honor of the Builder,” published in PRAVDA on 8 September 1984. 

The tasks for the final year of the five-year plan are based on a sound economic 
foundation. They are intensive, but realistic. The party is presenting the 
following task: the plan must be unconditionally fulfilled, and overfulfilled 
wherever possible and necessary. 

In order for the labor collectives to take on a fast rhythm from the very first 
days, the construction ministries must concentrate the necessary material- 


5 



technical and labor resources at the construction sites. Comprehensive schedules 
for work fulfillment and supply of equipment and materials must be ratified for 
each start-up facility. It is necessary to increase the importance of projects 
for organization of construction and work production and to provide in them 
industrial and highly productive methods of fulfilling the operations. Con¬ 
struction work cannot be conducted without such well thought-out documents. 

The improvement of matters will undoubtedly be facilitated by the implementation 
of the full volume nf measures outlined in the resolution by the CPSU Central 
Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers entitled ”0n Improving Planning, 
Organization and Management of Capital Construction,” as well as by the reali¬ 
zation of the proposals submitted by comrade K. U. Chernenko on questions as¬ 
sociated with strengthening the material-technical base and continued industrial¬ 
ization of construction. 

It is necessary to more quickly develop and ratify general and departmental 
schemes of construction man-agement, to liquidate multi-stage organization 
and parallelism, and to bring the entire system of managelnent closer to pro¬ 
duction. We also cannot put off intensifying the role of the trusts, who are 
called upon in deed to become the main segment in management of building pro¬ 
duction. This will have a positive effect on the entire formulation of the 
matter, including the introduction of an open brigade order, will accelerate 
the introduction of capacities, and will improve work quality. 

The current stage of development of the country's economy requires great attention 
to questions of accele'rating scientific-technical progress and of the fastest 
possible practical introduction of all leading methods. Much depends on the 
planners in this regard. As of this year, the development of technical- 
economic justifications for building large and complex enterprises, and if ^ •; 
necessary other facilities as well, is once again being introduced. Measures 
are being developed for the continued improvement of project planning work. 

Success in the fulfillment of the construction program for this year depends 
on millions of workers. To make the final year of the five-year plan a shock 
year, to ensure the operational introduction of all planned facilities—this 
means to answer in deed the call of the CPSU Central Committee for a fitting 
reception to the 27th CPSU Congress. 


12322 

CSO: 1821/100 


6 


COjTSTRUCTION PLA.^RTING AND ECONOMICS 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


MAIN CONSTRUCTION GOALS FOR 1985 PRESENTED 

Moscow BYULLETEN’ STROITEL’NOY TEKIMIKI in Russian No 1, Jan 85 pp 2-4 

[Article: "Plans for the Final Year of the Five-Year Plan"] 

[Text] Our Homeland has entered into the last, completion year of the 11th 
Five-Year Plan, a year of active preparation for the 27th CPSU Congress. The 
Soviet people are selflessly working on the successful completion of the five- 
year tasks and the creation of a good, reliable stockpile for an assured start 
to the 12th Five-Year Plan. Massive socialist competition is being expanded 
for a fitting celebration of the 40th Anniversary of the Victory in the Great 
Ik:riotic War and the 50th anniversary of the Stakhanov movement. 

The state plan for USSR economic and social development for 1985 was examined 
in detail in November of 1984 at a meeting of the CPSU Central Committee Polit¬ 
buro, and then unanimously ratified by the second session of the USSR Supreme 
Soviet 11th Convocation. The intensive but realistic plans of the party and 
the people for 1985 are based on a firm economic foundation, are presented on 
a large scale, and are extremely specific. New boundaries have been defined 
in all sectors of the national economy, which are aimed at the effective return 
on the country’s strong production and scientific-technical potential and at 
the achievement of high end results. 

In the past year, there was a continuation of the development of positive 
tendencies in the economy which had been outlined in 1983. These \<feve due to 
the extensive organizational and political-education work of the Communist 
Party, the increased labor activity of the masses, and to measures for strengthen¬ 
ing responsibility, order and discipline in the national economy. Machine 
building, the chemical, gas, microbiological and certain other sectors which 
defined'.scientific-technical progress developed at an unprecedented rate. The 
volume of industrial production increased by 4.4 percent, as compared with 3.8 
percent envisioned in the plan. This result is an indication of the growing 
influence of intensive factors in the development of our economy on the basis 
of improving the structure, engineering and technology of production, organizing 
labor and management, and a broader practical introduction of scientific- 
technical innovations. 

In 1984, as in past years, an extensive program of capital construction was 
implemented. The operational introduction of fixed capital at the expense of 


7 



state capital investments comprised 136 billion rubles, which was a significant 
addition to the production potential of our country. By the end of the year, 
the cost of fixed production capital comprised around 1.5 trillion rubles. 


Many important facilities at new and reconstructed enterprises v/ithin various 
sectors of the national economy were placed into operation. Among these we 
must note especially the ahead-of-schedule completion of construction of the 
main railroad line and the opening of train traffic along the entire extent of 
the BAM [Baykal-Amur Main Line]. Counting all the sources of financing, 113.7 
million square meters of overall residential housing area was built, which 
made it possible to improve the housing conditions for approximately 10 million 
people. There were more pre-school institutions, general education schools, 
hospitals and polyclinics built than were envisioned by the five-year plan for 


However, as the USSR Supreme Soviet session noted, even though a certain im¬ 
provement was noted in capital construction, the state of affairs on the whole 
cannot be considered satisfactory. The tasks for operational introduction of 
fixed capital and production capacities were underfulfilled. The shortcomings 
in the organization of building production were slow in being corrected. As° 
before, large sums were dispersed over numerous facilities, cost estimate 
discipline was disrupted, and there were cases of poor work quality. 


The plan for 1985, which is the base period for the 12th Five-Year Plan, is 
oriented toward increasing intensification and raising the technical level of 
production, toward the dynamic and proportional development of the economy, and 
toward the maximal utilization of the production and scientific-technical 
potential and intra-economic reserves. High tasks have been set for indicators 
of social production effectiveness, and primarily for the growth of labor 
productivity and application of fixed capital and production capacities. The 
realization of the program for capital construction is of great importance in 
the successful fulfillment of the plan assignments. 


For the current year the plan outlines the further development of sectors 
within the fuel-energy complex. The production of electrical power will reach 
1,540 billion kW-hr, and its overall growth will comprise 55 billion kU*hr. 
ver two-thirds of this growth will be obtained at atomic and hydraulic power 
stations. Provision has been made for the introduction of capacities at the 
Kursk, Balakov and Smolensk AES [Atomic Power Station] and for a power unit 
at the Zporozhye AES. New units will be placed into operation at the Savano- 
Shushensk, Ma^sk and Baypazinsk GES [Hydroelectrical Station], and four turbines 
at the Zhinyali GES. The Neryungrinsk GRES [State Regional Electric Power 
Station] will be introduced to its full operating capacity, as will be the 
new capacities at the Berezovskiy GRES-1. Work will continue on primary 
^ructures of the Boruchanskiy GES and on the construction of the Rogunskaiv 
S. Preliminary work will be conducted on expanding the Armenian AES and the 
development of a regional production base for the construction of the Central 
Yenisey GES will be undertaken. 


The extraction of oil and gas condensate is planned in the amount of 628 million 
ons, and of gas in excess of 632 billion cubic meters. The entire growth in 


8 



extraction of oil and gas throughout the country will be obtained due to the 
increase in their extraction in West Siberia, As before, the primary fuel- 
energy base of the country will be the West Siberian territorial-production 

^ complex, which will yield two-thirds of the all-union extraction of oil and 

over half the gas, 

♦ Coal extraction in the current year will comprise 726.2 million tons. In the 
Kuzbass, the operational introduction of new capacities for open pit coal 
mining is planned, as well as the reconstruction of a number of existing mine 
shafts. New capacities for coal extraction will be placed into operation at 

the Berezovskiy Open Pit Coal Mine No 1 and at the Pavlodar-Ekibastuz territorial- 
production complex and the South Donbass Shaft, The Neryungrinskiy Open Pit 
Coal Mine and a number of other facilities will be introduced to their full 
operating capacity. 

The planned levels of production of electrical energy and extraction of all 
types of fuels with consideration for the increased export of fuel-energy 
resources require their thrifty application. Particular attention must be 
focused on the economy of motor fuel. For this purpose, the changeover of the 
automobile pool to diesel fuel will continue, as well as the transition of 
motor vehicles to compressed and liquefied gas- 

Within the complex of sectors producing construction materials, an increase 
in the volumes and improvement in production structure has been planned due 
to the ahead-of-schedule growth in the output of highly effective types of 
production. The growth in production of progressive construction materials 
will comprise 6.5 percent, while the output of traditional types will increase 
by only 1.6 percent. There will be 109.4 million tons of rolled ferrous metal 
stock produced, and 19.7 million tons of steel pipes. The leading rate of 
growth in the production of economical types of metal products makes it possible 
to save 1.3 million tons of rolled ferrous metal stock in the national economy 
as compared with 1984. 

There are plans to perform a significant volume of work on strengthening the 
mining base and on technical retooling of the Norilsk ilining-Metallurgical 
Combine, and to place into operation the capacities for ore production at the 
Krivorozhskiy Mining-Concentrating Combine and the capacities for rolling 
ferrous metals at the Zhdanov Plant imeni Il’yich, In Belorussia, the con¬ 
struction of a plant for the production of products made of metallic powders 
will continue, as will the assimilation of capacities at the Belorussian 
Metallurgical Plant. In Kazakhstan the capacities of the Karaganda Metallurgical 
Combine will be increased. In Moldavia a metallurgical plant will be placed 
into operation. 

In non-ferrous metallurgy, the production of many important types of products will 
increase. Particular attention will be given to the development of secondary 
non-ferrous metallurgy, to the expansion of capacities for processing scrap and 
non-ferrous metal by-products, and for improving the quality of metals and alloys 
made from them. Among the most important construction sites in this sector we 

* may note the operational introduction of capacities for the extraction and 
processing of non-ferrous metal ores at the Dzhezkazgan Mining-Metallurgical 
Combine and at the Zhayrem and Zhezkent Mining-Concentrating Combines. 


9 




In the lumber, wood processing and paper-cellulose industry, a growth in pro¬ 
duction of lumber materials is envisioned due to the more effective application 
of raw material resources and the increased output of progressive materials. 

The production of splint slabs, laminate plywood, industrial wood chips, cellulose, 
paper and cardboard will develop at a leading pace, 

The output of cement in the current year will comprise 132 million tons, and 8.54 
billion standard sheets of slate. The production of building materials is 
planned with consideration for the needs of capital construction, repair work, 
and for the expanded sale of these products to the population. 

Considering the decisive role of machine building in the technical retooling 
of all sectors of the national economy and in accelerating scientific-technical 
progress, the plan for the current year provides for the leading growth of 
production in machine building and metal processing, whose output will increase 
by 6.5 percent. Ilachines and equipment will be directed primarily toward ful¬ 
filling the tasks of the Food and Energy Programs and toward the introduction 
of resource-saving technology, provision of start-up construction sites for 
1985, and technical retooling and reconstruction of existing enterprises. 

In the current year, 57 billion rubles in capital investments have been allocated 
through all sources of financing for the development of sectors of the agro¬ 
industrial complex. This is somewhat higher than the figure envisioned by the 
five-year plan for this year. At the same time, there is a significant increase 
in the investments intended for safekeeping of the manufactured product, and 
in the processing sectors—for the creation of additional capacities which would 
make it possible to accelerate the processing of raw materials. Considering 
the need for accelerated development of the microbiological industry for the 
intensification of agriculture, 200 million rubles more in capital investments 
have been allocated for the development of this sector as compared with the 
figure envisioned in the five-year plan. 

At the present time, thanks to land reclamation, the problem of satisfying the 
country’s needs for cotton and rice has generally been solved. The portion of 
irrigated lands accounts for a significant part of the growth in production 
of fodder, vegetables, fruits and grapes. Large capital investments are being 
directed this year toward land reclamation—over 9 billion rubles. At the 
expense of these funds, 663,000 hectares of irrigated land and 695,000 hectares 
of reclaimed land will be introduced. By the end of the five-year plan, the 
overall area of reclaimed land will comprise around 35 million hectares, as 
compared with 29.8 million hectares in 1980. 

The network of railroad lines will also undergo further development in the 
current year. The plan calls for the operational introduction of over 1,300 
kilometers of new railroad lines and around 700 kilometers of secondary lines. 

There will be 1,500 kilometers of railroad lines supplied with electrical power 
and 2,200 kilometers equipped with automatic blocking. The network of general 
use automobile roads will increase by more than 12,000 kilometers, including 
8,000 kilometers of roads of oblast and local significance. Thanks to this, 
the auto transport communications of kilkhozes and sovkhozes with the regional 
centers will be strengthened. 


10 


The plan for capital construction for the current year has been developed with 
consideration for the requirements of the resolution by the CPSU Central Com¬ 
mittee and the USSR Council of liinisters entitled ”0n Improving Planning, 
Organization and Management of Capital Construction,” as well as with considera¬ 
tion for the need for ensuring the fulfillment of the Food and Energy Programs, 
increasing the effectiveness of social production, accelerating scientific- 
technical progress, and continually developing residential and social-domestic 
construction. On the whole throughout the national economy, the capital invest¬ 
ments from all sources of financing were defined in the sum of 175.1 billion 
rubles, and state capital investments—154 billion rubles. Here, leading 
growth rates in capital investments are envisioned in the sector of the fuel- 
energy complex, in the raw material sector, and in machine building. 

The limits of state capital investments for the development of agriculture 
for the entire complex of operations are taken within the amounts established 
by the five-year plan for this year. Part of them is directed toward the growth 
in production of equipment and machines for agriculture and toward the micro¬ 
biological industry. The capital investments for such sectors of the agro¬ 
industrial complex as the fish, food, flour milling-cereal and microbiological 
industries have been envisioned slightly higher than those provided in the 
five-year plan for 1985. 

Much attention in the plan for capital construction has been given to the 
technical retooling and reconstruction of existing enterprises. The capital 
investments directed toward these purposes will comprise 30.5 billion rubles, 
which is 4.3 billion rubles greater than the five-year plan assignments. 

The tasks for the operational introduction of production capacities have been 
established based on the need for concentrating capital investments, material 
resources and capacities of contracting organizations at start-up construction 
sites. Fixed capital in the amount of 146.4 billion rubles will be introduced 
into operation at the expense of state capital investments. This figure is 
7.6 percent greater than in 1984, with a 5.5 percent growth in state capital 
investments. This will make it possible to reduce the volumes of unfinished 
construction to values close to the normative values by the end of the five- 
year plan. On the whole throughout the national economy, including capital 
repair, work in a volume of 90.6 billion rubles will be performed through the 
efforts of state contracting organizations. This is 3.8 percent over the plan 
for 1984. 

The plan provides for a significant volume of residential construction. Through 
all the sources of financing, residential houses with overall area of 114 million 
square meters will be built, which is 10.7 million square meters more than the 
figure envisioned by the five-year plan for this year. The scope of cooperative 
and individual construction will also increase. The operational introduction 
of cooperative houses will increase by almost 19 percent, and of individual— 
by 10 percent. On the whole during the five-year plan, counting all the sources 
of financing, residential houses with overall area of around 555 million square 
meters will be built in the cities and rural areas. This is 25 million square 
meters more than the task set in the five-year plan. This will make it possible 
to improve the housing conditions of over 50 million people. 


11 



The plan for 1985 provides for a significant expansion in the netvjork of public 
education, public health and cultural Institutions, and an improvement in the 
social-cultural services to the population. Pre-school institutions for 630,000 
pupils will be placed into operation, general education schools for 951,000 
students and hospitals for 60,000 beds, etc. will be built. 

A task of great economic and social significance is the intensification of 
environmental protection. The plan for the current year provides for the 
fulfillment of a series of measures in this sphere. Around 2.5 billion rubles 
in state capital investments have been allocated for the implementation of 
environmental protection measures. 

As CPSU Central Committee Secretary General and Chairman of the USSR 
Supreme Soviet Presidium, comrade K. U. Chernenko, stressed, capital construction 
is one of the key problems. Here, a high rate of growth, a high concentration 
of resources, and better provision with materials, machines and mechanisms 
are anticipated. This gives a basis for hoping that builders will be able to 
put an end to rush work, will improve their work quality, and will fulfill 
the plan assignments. 

An intensive construction program is to be fulfilled in 1985. Precise and 
goal-oriented work is needed in order to bring to life all that has been 
outlined and to introduce start-up facilities into operation on schedule. 

The plan must be unconditionally fulfilled, and wherever possible and necessary— 
overfulfilled. To successfully implement the construction program of the 
current year and the five-year plan as a whole and to create a reliable stock¬ 
pile for an assured start to the 12th Five-Year Plan—this is the patriotic 
duty of Soviet builders. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroylzdat, 1985 


12322 

CSO: 1821/090 


12 


CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


JPPS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


UDC 69.003.658.012.2 

COMPUTERIZATION OF CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION PLANNING VIENED 

Moscow EKONOMIKA STROITEL'STVA in Russian No 11, Nov 84 pp 29-31 

[Article by R. Zh. Arays, candidate of technical sciences, chief of the NIIP 
section, Latvian SSR Gosplan; P. P. Blau, deputy head of the Capital Construction 
Section, Latvian SSR Council of Ministers; and U. I. Osis, senior NIIP scientific 
worker, Latvian SSR Gosplan: "Program-Target Planning and Management of Capital 
Construction in the Union Republic"] 

[Text] Beginning with the 9th Five-Year Plan, work has been conducted in the 
Latvian SSR on the introduction of the program-target method in solving various 
national economic problems. Among the basic socio-economic problems in the 
republic whose solution was implemented on the basis of this method was the 
development of capital construction and its material-technical base. 

The initial basis for program-target planning and management in the Latvian SSR 
is the result of an analysis of the state of the economy. The analysis makes 
it possible to define the key questions, the disruption of proportions, and the 
"bottlenecks" in the development of sectors of the national economy. As a 
result, the priority directions for economic development are formulated, as well 
as the republic target integrated programs (RTsKP) which correspond to them. 

The simultaneous development of a group of such programs by various priorities 
makes it possible to define the construction objects whose timely operational 
introduction is of particularly great significance for the successful develop¬ 
ment of the national economy. 

The development and realization of target integrated programs presupposes the 
development and functioning of a corresponding program-target organizational 
structure. In the Latvian SSR this structure is built according to the hierarchical 
principle and consists of several levels—the higher, the middle, and the executive 
level. 

The Central Coordinating Commission is formulated for overall management of the 
development and realization of target integrated programs. Its working organ 
is a structural subsection of intersectorial or sectorial management. As a 
rule, the commission is headed by the deputy chairman of the republic Council 
of Ministers or a minister—the director of a ministry or department—who is 
the head program coordinator. The make-up of the Central Coordinating Commission 
includes the directors of ministries, departments and organizations, the chief 


13 



executives of subprograms, as well as scientists and specialists on the given 
problem, 

A lead organization (ministry or department), which serves as the head coordinator 
of the program, is named for the direct development and realization of the 
RTsKP. For example, the head coordinator of the Integrated Program entitled 
"Priority Directions for Further Increasing the Effectiveness and Quality of 
Capital Construction in the Latvian SSR" is the republic Gosstroy [State Com¬ 
mittee on Construction Affairs], The Central Coordinating Commission and the 
head coordinator of the program form the highest level of the program-target 
organizational structure, which implements management and long-term (prospective) 
decision making and defines the end results of the program as a whole, the 
volume of resources necessary for its realization, and the overall coordination 
plan for implementing the program. 

Effective management of the activity of subprogram executors and its coordina¬ 
tion and on-going control are implemented at the middle level of the program- 
target organizational structure. Related to this level are the ministries and 
departments—the head subprogram coordinators, the program-target management 
group, and other subdivisions. 

Direct realization of the integrated target program of measures, tasks and 
operations, and fulfillment of decisions made at the higher and middle organi¬ 
zational levels is done at the executive level of the program-target structure. 
This level includes enterprises, organizations, and rayon effective managem.ent 
groups. 

The most important prerequisite for the effective functioning of the program- 
target organizational structure in capital construction is the widespread ap¬ 
plication of economic-mathematical methods and electronic computers. In this 
connection, the Scientific-Research Institute on Planning of the Latvian SSR 
Gosplan, with participation of managers and specialists from the program-target 
construction management group (PTsUS) of the Latvian SSR Council of Ministers, 
the republic TsSU [Central Statistical Administration], the Latvian SSR Ministry 
of Construction, the republic Latvkolkhozstroy Association, customer organiza¬ 
tions in construction and other interested organizations, has developed an 
automated system of program-target construction management (ASPTsUS). 

The functioning of the ASPTsUS is ensured by plan, standard and operational 
information collected in an automated data bank of the main computer center 
for collective use by the NiIP*of the Latvian SSR Gosplan. The automated data 
bank stores information on each construction facility, and, with the aid of a 
dialog informational deviation control system (DISKO), the program-target 
construction management group has the ability, within the limits of its juris¬ 
diction, to implement operational intervention for the purpose of eliminating 
reasons for lagging behind in cases where any deviations arise in the performance 
of program work. 

Operational information on the course of work performance at priority construction 
sites, as well as on their provision with building materials, is presented by 
the rayon program-target construction management groups. 


14 


The development of the method and procedures of program-target management of 
construction, the introduction of ASPTsUS, and a number of other integrated 
measures are yielding positive results. As early as 1979, a short-term program 
for the construction of lightweight hog raising facilities was successfully 
implemented in the republic on the basis of program-target management. In 1982 
the plan assignments for residential construction at the expense of state funds 
were overfulfilled by 103 percent in the republic, and starting in 1983 the 
fulfillment of established quarterly plan assignments for residential construction 
on the whole had stabilized. 

The obtained results testify to the high effectiveness of measures for the 
development of program-target management of capital construction. At the same 
time, the potential possibilities of the program-target method are still far 
from being fully utilized. At the present time there are a number of unresolved 
methodological and organizational problems v/hich make it impossible to utilize 
this method more effectively and to ensure on its basis the necessary rates of 
scientific-technical progress and growth of labor productivity in construction. 

The Integrated Program for Scientific-Technical Progress in the Construction 
Complex and the republic’s Target Integrated Program for Development of Con¬ 
struction have been called upon to solve the problems of scientific-technical 
progress and intensification of building production. However, at the present 
time these programs are insufficiently tied in with the republic’s target 
integrated programs in which the lists of priority facilities are formulated 
(food production, residential construction, etc.). As a result, the programs 
for scientific-technical progress and development of construction still have 
a weak effect on the actual indicators for effectiveness of capital construction. 

An analysis of these programs shows that many of the economic, scientific- 
technical and organizational measures included in them which were proposed by 
the ministries and departments have low indicators of realization effectiveness, 
including also the indicators on economy of labor. At the same time, a number 
of highly effective measures are not included in the integrated programs due to 
the lack of confidence by the executors of their resource provision. As a 
result, the integrated programs which are developed are for the most part 
reminiscent of a summary of various departmental plans for organizational- 
technical measures rather than an integrated plan document oriented toward 
achieving a single end goal or group of goals. 

One of the main advantages of the program-target method, in our opinion, is the 
fact that the selection of measures for inclusion in the appropriate integrated 
target programs is done from the standpoint of achieving the established 
ultimate national economic goals, and is not based on the ’’convenience” of 
realization of these measures by one economic segment or another. 

V. S, Kulibanov examines certain decisions which are correct in our opinion^ 
regarding the utilization of these advantages of the program-target method. 


^ EKONOMIKA STROITEL'STVA, 1983, No 11. 


15 




Supporting the opinion expressed by V, S. Kulibanov regarding the prediction 
of strategic goals and limitations as the first step and the initial basis for 
development of an integrated program of scientific-technical progress, we 
nevertheless believe that the order of giving assignments to ministries, 
departments, enterprises and organizations on the economy of resources and 
growth of certain indicators in their operation, though tied in with the goals 
of the program, still.essentially differ little from the existing methods of 
planning analogous indicators in traditional plans for assimilation of new 
technology. Therefore, there is hardly a sufficient basis for anticipating a 
significant increase in the effectiveness of the programs as compared with 
the noted plans. 

We believe that the following approach to program-target planning and management 
of scientific-technical progress in capital construction is more effective. 

At the first stage, in the development of the Integrated Program af Scientific- 
Technical Progress in the Construction Complex, the changes in the basic target 
indicators are predicted and coordinated with the needs for development of the 
national economy. These are the rates of changes in capital investments, in 
volumes of construction-installation work, in labor productivity, in material 
consumption, in capital—labor ratio, in estimated cost of construction, etc. 

Then the main factors influencing the dynamics of these target indicators are 
defined and the degree of this influence is evaluated. Then, a set of technical, 
economic, organizational and other innovations is formulated for each of the 
factors, with the introduction of these innovations necessary for ensuring 
the required rates of change in the target indicators. These are new progressive 
machine systems, production technology, building materials, architectural- 
planning and design decisions, etc. All the innovations included in the integrated 
program must have a unified list of indicators and parameters which make it 
possible to evaluate not only the different innovations by their effect on 
change in the target indicators, but also to compare them with each other. 

It is specifically innovations with pre-given parameters and requirements for 
their scientific—technical level which, in our opinion must primarily serve 
as the basis for making specific assignments to sectors, enterprises and organi¬ 
zations, and not the abstracted indicators of dynamics of labor productivity 
and economy of resources which are often posited. The participation of enter¬ 
prises and organizations in the realization of program tasks and measures for 
the development and assimilation of innovations does not always need to be 
tied in with the requirements for improving certain operational indicators. 

It is much more important——and this is the basic concept of the program—target 
method in construction to see that the development and introduction of in¬ 
novations ensuring the ’’output” of ultimate target indicators of the integrated 
program is guaranteed as a result of implementation of the measures envisioned 
in the program. 

The questions of providing the development and assimilation of innovations with 
the necessary labor, material and financial resources are resolved in the 
program based on the technical-economic indicators of these innovations, 
which are determined in the formulation of the initial requirements for them. 


16 


In connection with the increased role of the program-target method in planning 
and management, it would be expedient to expand the experimental verification 
of the efficiency of various economic, financial and other levers in capital 
construction which facilitate increased interest on the part of the builders, 
planners, and manufacturers of building materials and structures in the 
development and assimilation of innovations which have a higher economic and 
social effect. 

COPYRIGTTT: Stroyizdat, 1984 


12322 

CSO: 1821/102 


17 



CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


NEIv COST ACCOUI^TING METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTION LABOR 
Vilnus SOVETSKAYA LITVA in Russian 13 Nov 84 p 2 

[Article by V. Vitkauskas, candidate of economic sciences: "The Test Has Been 
Passed. The Search Continues. On Certain Results of the Application of a 
Measurement Device for Standard Specific-Net Production in Construction"] 

[Text] In the interrelations between builders and customers there are sometimes 
cases when the former receive money seemingly for nothing. Kow does this 
happen? We Imow that finished structures and materials comprise an average of 
no less than 60 percent of the Overall estimated cost of the facility. In order 
to assimilate these funds, builders need only, figuratively speaking, to "lift 
their finger. After all, as an example, structures are installed with the 
aid of mechanisms. Computations show that, having given installation work a 
total of 7 percent of the labor expenditures, builders assimilate up to 40 
percent of the estimated allocations. Thus, if we judge by the volume of 
assimilated funds, this volume must be almost half finished. 

At the start-up facility, nox^ever, the picture is entirely different. There, 
in performing finishing work 30 percent of the labor expenditures make it 
possible to assimilate only 5 percent of the funds provided in the estimate 
for the facility as a whole. This too is understandable, llanual labor is 
prevalent in finishing operations, and the output is only half of that of a 
project which is underway, and the wage fund is insufficient. 


These simple truths for a long time determined to a significant degree the 
strategy and tactics of the work of builders, who tried by every means possible 
to begin construction on more and more facilities and to fulfill expensive 
constructions, even at the expense of disrupting the teclinological work sequence. 
All this was done to reduce the relative share of the wage fund in the overall 
sum of^expenditures. As a result, a paradoxical situation arose. It would 
seem tnat the relative share, of the wages was reduced. Consequently, the 
money is spent more effectively. The volumes of assimilated funds are increasing, 
and this means that builders are working better from year to year. Yet at 
the same time, on this bright background—the number of facilities introduced 
into operation did not increase and unfinished production x^as continuouslv ex¬ 
panding. 


18 



in order to overcome this negative tendency, effective 1 January 1980 a new 
measurement device was introduced into the practical application of builders 
in our republic—the standard specific-net production (MUChP), whose make-up 
does not include the cost of materials and structures. The NUChP has made it 
possible to more objectively evaluate the real labor expenditures and, by 
equating the "profitability" or work at semi-finished and start-up facilities, 
has thereby ensured a more uniform influx of money from the customer for pay- 
m.ent of builders* labor wages. 

Any innovation which is introduced into practical application gains not only 
proponents, but also opponents. Even now, when almost 5 years have elapsed 
since the introduction of NUCIiP, there are some contradictory opinions ex¬ 
pressed. These range from full acceptance to com^plete rejection. The truth 
is, as is often the case, somewhere in between. And we must attempt to find 
it by soberly evaluating the situation. 

However, first of all, we would like to point out one detail. Many economists 
call the NUChP a new indicaicr. This cannot be considered correct. Builders 
have not added any new indicators. Their activity, as before, is evaluated by 
the growth in lal^or productivity and volumes of fulfilled work. However, while 
before these indicators were measured by estimated cost of construction-installa¬ 
tion work, now they are m.easured by standard specific-net production. There¬ 
fore the NUChP is more correctly considered a measuring device for work volume 
and labor productivity. 

Nhat does the application of this new measuring device give us? 

First of all, the results of work of the Lithuanian SSR Ministry of Construction 
on introduction of facilities speak in favor of it. Thus, in 1980-1983, all 
the vital facilities of production and social-domestic function were submitted 
for operation and the plan for operational introduction of housing was signifi¬ 
cantly overfulfilled. The volume of unfinished production dropped from 63.2 
percent (in 1979) to 47 percent (in 1983). 

The question of effectiveness of utilizing funds going toward wages requires 
closer examination. We must note that the introduction of NUChP has facilita¬ 
ted a reduction in the rate of wage increase per ruble of performed work. Thus, 
in the 4 years preceding the introduction of the new measurement device, the 
expenditures of the wage fund per ruble of work increased by 13,5 percent. 

However, in the next 4 years (when the new measurement device was already 
being used), these expenditures increased by only 9.1 percent. 

Among the circumstances which have led to this positive shift we may name the 
following. In recent, years, cases of transferring people and technology from 
start-up facilities to semi-finished ones have practically been eliminated within 
the Hinstroy system, cases of damaged goods and work to be done.over have been 
reduced to one-half the previous amount, work technology is being better observed, 
and the time for building facilities has been reduced by approximately 12 per¬ 
cent (1982). To this we may add the more effective application of means of 
mechanization. Deserving of particular attention is the fact that within the 
overall wage expenditures per ruble of construction-installation work, the 


19 




relative share of payments from the material incentive fund has increased 
(up to 5 percent in 1983). This has become possible thanks to the fact that 
the introduction of NllChP has practically equated the output at semi-finished 
facilities and at those being completed. 

One of the conditions for the successful implementation of the nev: measuring 
device is the clear definition of NUChP in the project-estimate documentation. 
Prior to 1981 this labor consumptive work was performed through the efforts 
of the builders themselves. In 1981-1982 part of the load was gradually taken 
on by the project planning organizations. However, at present, due to the 
transition to new estimate prices and valuations, work on planning and account¬ 
ing for the NUChP must be begun at the initial level. Builders are already 
for the third time assimilating the new standards and methodology of accounting. 
In many cases they are forced to isolate the NUChP from the estimate documenta¬ 
tion by their own efforts, working ahead of the project planning institutes. 
Naturally, frequent changes in methodology rob the new measurement device of 
prestige in the eyes of the economic managers. 

Computations show that for normal functioning of building production, the 
standard volume of unfinished production must comprise an average of no less 
than half the volume of production performed through their own efforts. Con¬ 
sequently, by systematically reducing unfinished production, the organizations 
of the republic Minstroy have not only approached, but have even overstepped 
this boundary. Further progress in this direction is fraught with rather 
negative consequences. In connection with this, a series of measures have 
been taken which, we hope, will facilitate the renovation of growth in the 
volumes (to standard dimensions) of unfinished production. However, here we 
must note that a strictly applicational interpretation of NUChP removes the 
basic goal of introducing the new measuring device into the background. This 
goal is the improvement of planning in construction. In this connection, the 
question arises: isn't it simpler to regulate the level of unfinished pro¬ 
duction by means of including the indicator on creation of stockpiles in con- 
structure in the number of basic indicators for evaluating the work of the 
organization? 

At the present time, interesting proposals are appearing in the press as well 
as in scientific circles on improving the measurement of the production volume 
and labor productivity in construction. However, the new ideas, which are at 
times theoretically sound, have still not passed the test of practical applica¬ 
tion, while builders have already felt the advantages of the NUChP method in 
their work. 

However, no matter how convincing all we have said above regarding the new 
measurement device may sound, it is in itself no panacea which is capable of 
ridding one building organization or another of serious errors in planning and 
organization of the production process. The NUChP may be used with a high 
economic return only on the basis of a well-adjusted operation, when all the 
segments of the construction conveyer work not only with precision, but x^ 7 ith a 
full load. Otherwise the new measuring device will be discredited. 


12322 

CSO: 1821/101 


20 


CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


JPi^-UCR-85-009 

" May 1985 


RECOMMENDATIONS TO RAISE TECHNICAL LEVEL OF CONSTRUCTION 

Moscow PROMYSHLENNOYE STROITEL’STVO in Russian No 1, Jan 85 pp 15-18 

[Article: "Recommendations of the All-Union Conference, ’Scientific and Tech¬ 
nical Progress in the Organization and Technology of Construction Performance 
in Industrial Construction,’ Which Was Held by the Construction-Industry NTO 
[Scientific and Technical Society] and USSR Gosstroy 14-15 September 1984 
in Donetsk*’] 

[Text] The 26th CPSU Congress and later CPSU Central Committee Plenums as¬ 
signed the builders the tasks of further building up the country’s production 
potential, raising the engineering level and quality of the construction prod¬ 
uct, increasing capital-investment effectiveness and intensifying construc¬ 
tion-work performance. 

In recent years the builders have made a considerable contribution to the 
further development and improvement of the deployment of productive forces 
and to a steady rise in the people’s, living conditions. Thus, during the 
Ninth, 10th and the first 3 years of the 11th Five-Year Plan, more than 3,200 
new industrial enterprises and more than 1.3 billion m^ of apartment-house 
space were built and put to use. Construction and installing work volume 
increased 1.9-fold. The technical level of construction rose greatly. Thus, 
in 1983 the share of fully prefabricated construction in the total volume 
of contracting operations that were performed by the main construction mini¬ 
stries was 40 percent, 64 percent of which consisted of large-panel and box- 
module housing construction. During the last decade the amount of mechanized 
equipment per worker increased 2.2-fold. Labor productivity growth was 3.1 
percent in 1983 versus 2.1 percent in 1982. 

During the current five-year plan such effective organizational forms and 
methods as the component method of organizing the construction of industrial 
complexes, the outfitted-module method of erecting facilities, the rotating- 
duty method of organizing the construction of facilities, the erection of 
industrial equipment in large modules, and the brigade contract have been 
developed and introduced more widely. Operating processes that use efficient 
sets of machinery and standardized sets of mechanized implements, tooling 
and attachments are being introduced. The volume of use of new and highly 
effective building materials and of progressive constructional structure high¬ 
ly finished at the factory,which reduces labor expenditure at construction 
sites and raises work quality, has grown. A directive has started the estab¬ 
lishment, and further development is being made, of the "Catalog of Standard 
Solutions for Components of Large Industrial Complexes." 


21 



Construction and installing organizations are executing model construction 
of 10 large industrial complexes and enterprises and of one experimental hous¬ 
ing rayon for 25,000 residents. At these projects, the technical level has 
been raised appreciably and the pace of labor productivity growth that has 
been achieved is, as a rule, above the average. The construction and install¬ 
ing work volume performed by the brigade-contract method, including start-to- 
finish contracts, has risen. In 1983, 15 items of production capacity called 
for by the State Plan for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR, 
including a ”3000” rolling mill for the Zhdanov Metallurgical Combine, the 
metallization department of the Oskol Electrical-Metallurgy Combine, capacity 
at the Gomsel’mash and Izhorsk plants and other facilities, have been put 
into operation. 

At the same time, the level of scientific and technical progress achieved 
in the organization and technology of construction performance, the scale 
of introduction of advanced methods,and the degree of their influence on con¬ 
struction effectiveness still do not support the prescribed pace for increas¬ 
ing labor productivity, reducing the time taken to erect enterprises, build¬ 
ings and structures, and cutting construction costs. 

Many enterprises and facilities are being erected without observance of the 
solutions adopted in the designs for organizing construction [POS’s] and work 
plans (PPR’s), At the same time, many of them are being developed at a low 
level, without consideration of actual conditions and construction—time norms, 
do not call for the use of modern methods of doing the work, and do not exert 
proper influence on raising the technical level of organizing construction 
work. The Unified System of Preparing for Construction Work (YeSPSP) has 
still not become strictly mandatory. 

At some construction projects technological and production discipline are 
not observed, work quality is low, and the specific expenditure and share 
of manual labor are high. New equipment is not used in adequate amounts, 
and scientific developments are being introduced slowly. Nonproductive expen¬ 
ditures of labor and equipment time occur. Material losses still are great. 
Certain model construction projects still do not meet modern demands for the 
organization and technology of doing construction work, and the tasks pre¬ 
scribed for construction and installing work volume and labor—productivity 
growth are not being coped with. There are instances of late provisioning 
of model construction projects with design and budget-estimating documentation 
and with labor> material and equipment resources. 

The activity of scientific-research institutes and technological-planning 
organizations—orgtekhstroys [state trusts for industrializing construction 
work]——is not sufficiently oriented to working out problems of the organiza¬ 
tion and technology of construction that relate to maximal reduction of 
labor and materials intensiveness of construction, to reduction of re¬ 

search and development time and to speeding up introduction of the results 
thereof into construction. The job consists in raising the level of organiz¬ 
ing construction work, improving its technology, raising considerably the 
level of mechanizing the work and, on that basis, of raising labor productiv¬ 
ity, and improving the quality and reducing the prime costs of construction 
and installing work. 

In order to provide for fulfillment of the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress 
and of later CPSU Central Committee Plenums and to perform the tasks that 


22 


ensue from the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers Decrees 
of 18 August 1983, "Measures for Accelerating Scientific and Technical 
Progress in the National Economy," and of 29 April 1984, "Improvement of the 
Planning, Organization and Management of Capital Construction," particularlly 
a further rise in the technical level of organizing construction work and 
of introducing effective operating processes for the performance of con¬ 
struction and installing work tasks, the All-Union conference recommends: 

1. That ministries and agencies and contractors and clients focus attention 
on improving construction-work performance, developing more effective trends 
in scientific and technical progress in the organization and technology of 
construction and installing work, and introducing widely into construction 
the following organizational and technological solutions: 

1.1. In the area of organizing construction-work performance: 

1.1.1. In order to provide for wide introduction of the component method 
for designing, preparing for, and organizing and managing the construction 
of complicated facilities and large industrial complexes, design organiza¬ 
tions should develop engineering documentation that takes into account the 
indicated method, calling for the breakdown therein of complexes into com¬ 
ponents, with calculations of the physical amounts of work, the labor inten¬ 
siveness and the requirements for equipment, materials anu constructional 
structure by component and by performing entity. 

1.1.2. Expand use of the outfitted-module method of erecting enterprises, 
buildings and structures, for which purpose: 

coordinate and approve a list of jobs for which use of the outfitted-module 
construction is mandatory; and 

develop schemes for deploying outfitting and fabricating bases which pre¬ 
pare the box modules and the design and budget-estimating documentation for 
their construction. 

1.1.3. Provide for the further development of the rotating-duty method of 
construction and a further increase in the mobility of construction and 
installing organizations for the purpose of building industrial enter¬ 
prises in regions that are underdeveloped, difficult of access or far from 
construction-industry bases, for which purpose: 

establish regions for the activity of mobile construction and installing or¬ 
ganizations, giving consideration to the expansion, rebuilding and reequip¬ 
ping of existing and the establishment of new support bases for the con¬ 
struction industry and for the supply and equipment provisioning of con¬ 
struction; and 

accelerate the rebuilding of manufacturing enterprises and provide for the 
production of off-the-shelf buildings and structures that are made of effec¬ 
tive materials and constructional structure which meet modern requirements. 

1.1.4. Provide for the further development of progressive forms of the bri¬ 
gade contract, for which purpose: 

expand the introduction of the start-to-finish flowline brigade contract at 
construction projects; 


23 



systematically raise the qualification level of brigade leaders and introduce 
brigade and project NOT [scientific work organization] plans, and principal 
and long-range work plans with a schedule of the workload and the movement 
of brigades, after having provided for timely outfitting with the industrial 
production equipment in accordance with the schedules; and 

equipping brigades with the sets of small-scale mechanized equipment specified 
by the norms, effective construction and installing tools, and operating 
rigging. 


1.1.5. Raise the responsibility of construction organizations for strictly 
observing the solutions adopted in the POS’s and PPR’s and for achieving 
the final results of their activity. 

1.1.6. Provide for further expansion and improvement of model construction, 
for which purpose see to it that model projects are actually models in the 
use of new equipment and advanced technology, in the comprehensive mechaniza¬ 
tion of construction, in savings of materials, fuel and power resources, in 
providing for high productivity and sophistication of the work and high qual¬ 
ity of operations, and in introducing advanced domestic and foreign construc¬ 
tion experience, bearing in mind that they should become, beginning in 1985, 
the standard (or model) for the organization of construction performance 
and of the work and for the achievement of high TEP’s [technical and eco¬ 
nomic indicators] by all the country’s construction organizations. 

1.2. In the area of construction-work technology: 

1.2.1. Provide for a considerable rise in the quality and organizational 
and technological level of documentation by introducing more rational solu¬ 
tions for the technology of erecting buildings and structures and for per¬ 
forming various types of operations, and also by expanding the use of con¬ 
structional structure of increased readiness for erection, introducing oper¬ 
ating processes that are comprehensively mechanized with the use of progres¬ 
sive types of tooling and mechanized tools and effective means for mechaniza¬ 
tion and automation, and by the introduction of modern methods for monitoring 
quality and insuring safety in construction and installing work. 

1.2.2. Provide for a further rise in the technical level of performing 
earthmoving work by using effective earthmoving and transporting machinery 
and integrated mechanization of production processes, by introducing equip¬ 
ment for monitoring and controlling the operation of machines, and by inten¬ 
sifying the specialization thereof by the use of interchangeable equipment 
for earthmoving machines, and also by the creation of specialized organiza¬ 
tions for doing earthmoving work. 

1.2.3. Raise the technical level and quality of the production of monolithic 
concrete and reinforced-concrete structure by expanding the use of unified 
off-the-shelf formwork and raising its turnaround factor, by using effi¬ 
cient means for mechanizing and automating reinforcement operations and pre¬ 
paring, transporting and placing concrete mixes, and by the use of chemical 
additives, for which purpose: 

organize plants for the central manufacture of reinforcement articles by spe¬ 
cializing, consolidating and retooling existing departments and shops; 


24 



create specialized production facilities for manufacturing unified off-the- 
shelf formwork; 

convert to the wide use of unified reinforcements and off-the-shelf formwork 
systems, specialized means for transporting and placing the concrete mix, 
and effective chemical additives, primarily superplasticizers; 

furnish concrete-mixing facilities effective equipment for preparing and moni¬ 
toring the quality of the concrete mix, and also for batching and preparing 
chemical additives; 

introduce more widely progressive technology for doing concreting with the 
use of concrete-placing sets that are based on concrete pumps and automotive 
concrete mixers; 

provide for mastering the output at subordinate enterprises of superplasti¬ 
cizers, including those made in the form of dry products; and 

use more widely lightweight concretes that are based on porous aggregates 
obtained primarily from industrial waste (slag pumice, porous agglomerate, 
ash gravel, and so on), 

1.2.4. Organize, within construction trusts, associations and regional main 
administrations that build in areas of concentrated construction, administra¬ 
tions and sections specialized in concreting; supply specialized subunits with 
the equipment and machinery for preparing, transporting, placing and working 
and curing concrete, and also with in-house operating rigging and formwork, 
provide them with repair bases and spare parts, and pave the way for the 
technical servicing of machinery. 

1.2.5. Provide for further improvement and introduction of industrialized, 
more durable and less labor-intensive constructional structure for roofs, 

by expanding the output of efficient roofing materials of increased toughness 
and elasticity, with the maximum use of polymers and secondary raw-material 
resources and with comprehensive mechanization of roofing operations. 

1.2.6. When installing waterproofing for the underground portions of buildings 
and structures, use more widely the experience of the PSMO’s [industrial con¬ 
struction and installing organizations] of Gomel’promstroy [Gomel Industrial- 
Construction Trust] of BSSR Minpromstroy [Ministry of Industrial Construc¬ 
tion] in the use of chemically resistant paste and chopped fiberglass, ap¬ 
plied by means of a gun instead of by the traditional methods of putty and 
glue insulation, and their experience in waterproofing large-capacity 
structures by guniting a previously prepared aerated mix. 

1.2.7. Provide for the further development and introduction of progressive 
methods for erecting constructional structure for buildings and structures 
and for installing the industrial equipment, after expanding large-module 
erection considerably, for which purpose: 

use effective erecting methods that are based on the use of mechanized equip¬ 
ment with rigid implements for delivering and guiding the members being 
erected, which will provide for positive erection and disassembly of con¬ 
structional structure, even in areas difficult of access; and 


25 




use the outfitted-module method for installing industrial equipment which 
is unitized with pipelines, auxiliary constructional structure, and monitoring 
and control instruments, and use also modular erection of metal structure 
for roofs with the consolidated assembly thereof, 

1.2,8. Provide for the further improvement and introduction of effective 
structure for industrial floors, based on the use of polymers and the central¬ 
ized manufacture of wall-to-wall linoleum floor, using effective measures for 
mechanization and methods for laying floors and for polishing and vacuuming 
them. 


1.2.9, Raise the level of industrialization of finishing work by expanding 
the use of effective mechanized equipment and methods for doing finishing 
work, by decreasing the volume of ”wet” processes, and by the use of dry mix¬ 
tures, including those based on gypsum. 

1.2.10, Provide for the further development of the automation of construction 
processes, for which purpose develop and introduce measures for the conversion 
of existing concrete-and-mortar units, departments and installations to auto¬ 
mated modes with the use of serially produced batchers, control stations 

and pneumatic-control apparatus and for the conversion of earthmoving and trans¬ 
porting machines (scrapers, bulldozers and automotive graders) to automated 
control systems, which call for appropriate chapters in the plans for 
comprehensive mechanization and automation. 

1.2.11, Provide for further improvement in the organization of work and of 
domestic services for the builders, for which purpose: 

expand the network of schools of advanced construction-work methods, 
providing them with the necessary supply and equipment base; and 

improve the housing and domestic-services conditions of the builders, primari¬ 
ly in poorly developed regions of Siberia, the Far North and the Far East, 
and at model construction projects, and also in the collectives of mobile 
construction and installing organizations. 

2. Request USSR Gosstroy: 

2.1. To complete in 1985 a review of existing standardizing documents that 
govern questions of organizing the performance of construction, including 
preparation therefor, and of developing designs for organizing construction 
(POS's) and work plans (PPR’s), taking into consideration the wide introduc¬ 
tion into practice of the achievements of science, technology and advanced 
domestic and foreign experience. 

2.2. To prepare the necessary supplements and changes to the norms for 
constructional and industrial-production design (SN 202-81 and others), which 
establish the procedure for designing complicated industrial enterprises and 
large industrial complexes, with the mandatory use of the component and out- 
fitted-module methods. 

2.3. To review the chapter in the SNiP, "Organizational and Technical Prepa¬ 
ration for Construction," which is being prepared for issuance and tightens 
up the requirements for observing the rules of the "Unified System for Prepar¬ 
ing for Construction (YeSPSP)," in regard to the mandatory fulfillment of 


26 



decisions on organizing construction work and the technology of construction 
and installing work that are adopted in the POS’s, PPR’s and standard flow 
sheets. 

2.4. To work out in 1985, jointly with Minmontazhspetsstroy [Ministry of 
Installation and Special Construction Work] and other concerned USSR Mini¬ 
stries and agencies that are clients and contractors, and with the involve¬ 
ment of the appropriate scientific-research institutes, tasks for developing 
the outfitted-module method within the All-Union scientific and technical 
program for construction during the 12th Five-Year Plan, which requires that 
these tasks and steps cover the whole complex of questions about introducing 
this method, including design, development of the necessary standardizing 
documents, and the creation of bases and outfitting enterprises. 

2.5. To develop and confirm in 1984 a statute about model construction 
and installing organizations, model construction-industry enterprises and 
model construction sites. 

3. Request USSR Gosplan: 

3.1. In coordination with USSR GKNT [State Committee for Science and Tech¬ 
nology], to incorporate in the list of the most important All-Union scientif¬ 
ic and technical programs for the 12th Five-Year Plan a specific-purpose pro¬ 
gram, "Master the Production and Execute the Delivery by Machinebuilding Min¬ 
istries of Outfitted-Module Equipment for Industrial Production That is Highly 
Finished at the Factory." 

3.2. To prepare jointly with USSR Gosstroy and concerned USSR ministries 
and agencies a recommendation on incentives for work by design and construc¬ 
tion organizations for the rebuilding and reequipping of existing enterprises. 

3.3. To develop jointly with USSR Gosstroy and other concerned organizations 
proposals for improving cost estimates for the execution of concreting when 
erecting monolithic structure. 

3.4. To call for, in the production plans of USSR machinebuilding ministries 
and Minstroymaterialov [Ministry of Construction Materials Industry] for the 
12th Five-Year Plan period, the manufacture of modular installations for 
new and rebuilt facilities (including boilerhouses, compressor stations, ele¬ 
vators and pump stations) for various branches of the national economy. 

3.5. To examine, jointly with USSR Gossnab and USSR Gosstroy, the questions 
of establishing a procedure under which capital-investment allocations, ceil¬ 
ings on contracting work and on supply and equipment resources, and the issu¬ 
ance of technical documentation should be effected in strict accordance (as 
to quantity, variety and deadlines) with the approved POS’s, in which the 
corresponding schedules are developed. 

4. Request Minavtoprom [Ministry of Automotive Industry] to develop and or¬ 
ganize the production of transport equipment for hauling large-size modules 
for industrial equipment, and also self-unloading equipment for transporting 
serially produced containers to facilities under construction. 

5. Request USSR Minstroydormash [Ministry of Construction, Road and Municipal 
Machine Building]: 


27 



to speed up development of a construction-industry base in areas of the Far 
East, Siberia and the Far North; 

to expand, in accordance with climatic regionalization, the use and 
the production of polymer-bituminous pastes for laying paste-on, nonroll 
roofs; 

to increase the production of effective rolled built-up materials that weigh 
2 kg per 1 m^ of roofing layer and bring output volume thereof up to 150 
million m^ per year; 

to expand the production of new, effective roofing materials, roll-type poly¬ 
mer film, and *’krovelit”-type pastes; 

to master the production of finished bituminous pastes in briquettes, in 
polyethylene packaging of 2-5 kg weight, for roofing and finishing work; 

to increase the output of extrusion slabs, sheet materials and sheet products 
made of gypsum for the installation of partitions, hanging ceilings and wall 
facing; and 

to organize the serial production of plastic pipe outfitted with shaped parts 
for sewerage, heating and water-supply systems. 

6. Request Minpribor [Ministry of Instrument Making, Automation Equipment 
and Control Systems] to speed up the organization of serial production of 
automated batching-control systems, stations for controlling the preparation 
of concrete and mortar mixes, systems of increased information content about 
the operation of cranes, and systems for controlling earthmoving and trans¬ 
porting machinery that also enable control of the implements and engines. 

7. Request Minstroydormash: 

to take steps to expand volume and variety in the production of progressive 
equipment for small-scale mechanization and of effective hand tools for con¬ 
struction and installing organizations; 

using Giprostrommash [All-Union State Design Institute for Building Machinery 
for Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete] and Gosstrommashina (as appropriate), 
to revise standard designs in order to provide for the reconstruction of 
currently existing concrete and mortar mixing installations, departments and 
plants, with reference to automated control systems and batching equipment 
now being produced serially; and 

to speed up the mastery and serial manufacture of manipulators and robots 
for construction, installing and finishing work. 

8. Request USSR Minvuz [Ministry of Higher Education] and the USSR State 
Committee for Vocational and Technical Education to provide for the training 
of specialists in PTU’s[vocational and technical schools], tekhnikums and vuzes 
in the automation of construction work and the use of manipulators and robots. 

9. Administrations and soviets of primary organizations of construction- 
industry NTO’s should concentrate the efforts of scientists, engineers and 
technicians on: 


28 



the extension of practical assistance in raising the organizational and tech¬ 
nical level of construction, including the realization of scientific and tech¬ 
nical achievements and advanced domestic and foreign experience in design, 
the improvement of design solutions, a reduction in design time, and a rise 
in design to the world level; and the provisioning of good quality of devel¬ 
opment of construction-organization designs (POS’s) and work plans (PPR’s); 

the fulfillment by construction organizations of plan tasks for putting pro¬ 
duction capacity and facilities, and also apartment houses, preschoolers’ 
institutions, and facilities for public health and municipal services, into 
operation; 

a reduction in the number of facilities being built simultaneously, with a 
view to bringing the volume of uncompleted construction down to the standard 
in the next few years; and 

the completion in 1985 of the conversion to continuous two-year planning for 
the construction of apartment houses and facilities' for social and personal- 
services purposes. 

10. Request that Stroyizdat [Publishing House for Literature about Construc¬ 
tion and Architecture], through periodic and special editions, publish annu¬ 
ally a collection of information that illustrates advanced experience in the 
construction and rebuilding of industrial facilities and also achievements 
in the areas of the organization, technology and mechanization of construc¬ 
tion and installing operations, in the light of fulfillment of this 
conference’s recommendations. 


The conference expresses confidence that, for purposes of a worthy greeting 
to the 27th CPSU Congress, the collectives of construction organizations, 
construction-industry enterprises and scientific-research and design organi¬ 
zations, based upon the wide development of socialist competition, will ful¬ 
fill Uth Five-Year Plan tasks, provide for successful implementation of the 
party’s and government’s decisions to speed up scientific and technical 
progress and the decisions of the CPSU Central Committee Politburo to 
strengthen the supply and equipment base, to further industrialize con¬ 
struction, and to extend assistance to its development. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1985 

11409 

CSO: 1821/099 


29 



CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


^3 May 2985 


GREATER USE OF COMPUTERS URGED IN CONSTRUCTION PLANNING 

Moscow BYULLETEN' STROITEL'NOY TEKHNIKI in Russian No 1, Jan 85 p 16 

[Article by L. S. Shkodenko, senior consultant of USSR Gosstroy's Scientific 
and Technical Council: "In USSR Gosstroy's Scientific and Technical Council"] 

[Text] The Section for Improving the Technology and Automation of Design and 
the Section for the Economics and Organization of Construction Management of 
USSR Gosstroy's Scientific and Technical Council, and the Section for Cyber¬ 
netics in Construction of the Central Administration of the NTO [Scientific 
and Technical Society] for the Construction Industry examined at a joint 
meeting the question of the problem of coordinating the composition, struc¬ 
ture and form of presentation of design and budget—estimating documents 
produced by SAPR [automated design system] with the requirements of the ASU's 
[automated control systems] of the construction ministries, construction- 
industry plants and construction organizations, because of the reports of 
TsNIIproyektstal'konstruktsiya [Central Scientific-Research and Design Insti¬ 
tute for Metal Constructional Structure] imeni Mel'nikov, USSR Gosstroy's 
NIIES [Scientific-Research Institute for Construction Economics], USSR Min- 
stroy [Ministry of Construction], Lithuanian SSR Minstroy, and the PTO [Pro¬ 
duction Equipment Section] of Promstroysistema [Industrial Construction Sys¬ 
tem] of Belorussian SSR Minpromstroy [Ministry of Industrial Construction]. 

The sections noted the urgency of the question and the necessity for improv¬ 
ing the composition and the structure of design and budget—estimating docu¬ 
mentation, taking into account the requirements of SAPR, the automation of 
documentation processing in'construction organizations, the necessity to adopt 
a unified computer-carrier based budget-estimating standards base and to 
adopt a juridical status for it, and the necessity to unify the software for 
automating the output of budget-estimating documentation. 

The Scientific and Technical Council recommended that work be done in 1985 to 
improve design and budget-estimating documentation, keeping in mind a meeting 
of the demands that arise from the need to automate its processing in the con¬ 
struction-organization environment when preparing for the performance of con¬ 
struction and installing work, to establish a single products list of supply 
and equipment resources, and to organize the coordination of problems of mu¬ 
tual coordination in creating the methods, standard—instructional and other 
papers that determine the composition and content of design, budget¬ 
estimating, and organizational and management documentation. 


30 



The sections reconmiended that USSR Gosstroy's NIIES draw up measures for the 
creation and automated implementation of a budget-estimating standards base 
and of production norms for building-materials consumption; and that Minmon- 
tazhspetsstroy [Ministry of Installation and Special Construction Work] verify 
experimentally coordination of the composition and forms for presenting infor¬ 
mation to the SAPR and ASU’s. 

It was recommended that ministries prepare proposals on the composition, 
structure and form of design and budget-estimating documentation prepared by 
SAPR for use in systems designed for organizational-economics purposes, in¬ 
cluding SAPR. 

The Section for Improving the Technology and Automation of Design, after exam¬ 
ining the matter of the problem of automating preparation of the complete set 
of design and budget-estimating documentation in accordance with the report 
of KievZNIIEP [Kiev Zonal Scientific-Research and Design Institute for Stand¬ 
ard and Experimental Design] of Gosgrazhdanstroy approved proposals for 
improving the structure and reducing design and budget-estimating document 
volume in accordance with the requirements worked out for the SAPR and the 
ASU’s of metal-structure producing plants, taking maximum account of the 
peculiarities of the production process, questions of programing and technical 
support for SAPR, questions of training engineer personnel for operating with 
SAPR, and improvement of the organizational structure of the subunits of de¬ 
sign institutes, taking into account the specifics of automating design. 

The section recommended that KievZNIIEP develop recommendations on the compo¬ 
sition and form of presentation of design and budget-estimating documents 
in the case of the automated design of nonindustrial buildings. 

With the creation of integrated data banks for SAPR, it was proposed that 
TsNIIproyekt call for plan chapters that will provide support for the output 
of design and budget-estimating documentation by the automated method. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1985 

11409 

CSO: 1821/067 


31 



CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND ECONOMICS 


^i?^“UCR-85-009 
23 May 1935 


UPDATE ON NEW TRENDS IN BELORUSSIAN CONSTRUCTION 

Moscow BYULLETEN* STROITEL'NOY TEKHNIKI in Russian No 11, Nov 84 pp 22-24 

[Article by M, P, Pavlova, chief of the Standards and Specifications Section 
of BSSR Gosstroy: "In Belorussian SSR Gosstroy"] 

[Text] Intensification of the Role of Expert Review of Designs and Budget 
Estimates 

The republic’s Gosstroy, on reviewing the state of expert review of design 
and budget-estimating documentation in Vitebsk and Mogilev Oblasts, noted 
that the oblast ispolkoms are taking definite steps to eliminate deficiencies 
in the organization and performance of the expert review of designs and bud¬ 
get estimates. Design-work and expert-review groups have been created within 
the Agricultural Administration, which in 1983 reviewed jointly with the 
Expert-Review Sections of the Vitebsk and Mogilev Construction and Architec¬ 
tural Administrations 179 designs which had a total budget-estimated cost 
of about 80 million rubles. As a result of this review, the budget—estimated 
cost for construction was reduced by 290,000 rubles and 26 of all the designs 
examined were returned for refinement. The Vitebsk Oblast Ispolkom took ap¬ 
propriate measures to enlist the services of highly qualified specialists 
for the expert review of designs. 

At the same time, the expert-review organs of the Vitebsk and Mogilev Ispol¬ 
koms did not insure effective monitoring over design and budget-estimating 
documentation quality. They did not attach the proper significance to 
completeness of their critical study of design solutions and to quality of 
the constructional portion of the designs. The conclusions of these organs 
lacked an analysis of the completeness and correctness of the technical and 
economic indicators and did not compare them with similar jobs or with the 
standards for specific capital investment; and not enough attention was paid 
to the three-dimensional layout solutions, the plumbing and electrical-equip¬ 
ment chapters of the designs, firefighting, nature conservation and measures 
for saving the principal building materials and heat-engineering resources. 
The BSSR Gosstroy Administration for State Expert Review of Designs and 
Budget Estimates found cases where positive conclusions were issued for de¬ 
signs that had been developed with crude violations. For example, the de¬ 
tailed design for the rebuilding and expansion of the boilerhouse in Lepel 
(Vitebsk Oblast) was returned for further work because of serious errors in 
determining the budget-estimted cost of construction. 


32 


These and other deficiencies indicate that the Construction and Architectural 
Administrations and Agricultural Administrations of the Vitebsk and Mogilev 
Oblast Ispolkoms had not taken exhaustive measures to improve design and 
budget-estimating papers. 

The republic’s Gosstroy called the attention of BSSR Minsel’khoz [Ministry of 
Agriculture] to its failure to monitor the work of subordinate expert review 
subunits, recommended that steps be taken to man the expert-review subunits 
with highly qualified specialists, and extended the necessary informational 
and methodics assistance. 

Also examined was the expert-review work of Belkoopsoyuz [Belorussian Union 
of Cooperative Artels] and its influence on raising the technical level and 
quality of designs. In considering the fact that substantial deficiencies 
were found in the operation of Belkoopsoyuz’s Expert-Review Service by the 
BSSR Gosstroy Administration for State Expert Review of Designs and Budget 
Estimates, Gosstroy noted that it had not provided completely for a rise in 
economic effectiveness and quality of design and budget-estimating documenta¬ 
tion in accordance with the requirements of the CPSU Central Committee and 
USSR Council of Ministers Decree, "Measures for Further Improving Design and 
Budget-Estimating Matters," and of the corresponding decree of the Tsentroso- 
yuz [USSR Central Union of Consumer Societies] Administration. The attention 
of the Belkoopsoyuz Administration was called to the lack of active monitoring 
over the work of the subordinate Expert-Review Section and Belkoopproyekt 
[Belorussian Institute for the Design of Consumers’ Cooperative Facilities] 
in the matter of raising the quality of design and budget-estimating papers. 
Simultaneously, the republic’s Gosstroy required the Belkoopproyekt Insti¬ 
tute’s management to eliminate the existing deficiencies in the work, to raise 
the technical and economic levels and quality of the design and estimating 
papers being developed, and to take part more actively in the experiment being 
conducted in the republic to reduce material and labor expenditure and to 
cut the budget-estimated cost of construction. 

With a view to further raising design and budget-estimating documentation 
quality, the results of the check by the BSSR Gosstroy’s Administration for 
State Expert Review of Designs and Budget Estimates on the status of the ex¬ 
pert review of design and budget-estimating papers in Vitebsk and Mogilev 
oblasts, as well as in Belkoopsoyuz, were sent to the republic organizations 
concerned for review and for the adoption by them of the measures required 
for eliminating the noted deficiencies. 


Seminar on Introducing the Brigade Contract. 

A republic science and practice seminar, "Introduction of the Brigade Contract 
and the System for Two-Year Continuous Planning for Housing and Nonindustrial 
and Cultural and Domestic-Affairs Facility Construction," was based on con¬ 
struction projects, building-materials industry and construction-industry 
enterprises and construction organizations of Minsk Oblast and Minsk. 
Supervisors and responsible workers of the republic’s construction and other 
interested ministries and agencies and their subordinate enterprises, design 
and scientific-research organizations, and party and soviet organs took part 
in its work. 


33 




Seminar participants were familiarized with introduction of the start-to- 
finish brigade contract in the example of the construction of single-apart¬ 
ment, large-panel farmstead-type houses at Sovkhoz 50 Let BSSR, which is be¬ 
ing erected by the Soligorsk DSK [Housing-Construction Combine], and of a 
number of Slutskiy Rayon jobs that are being erected by contracting brigades 
of Slutsksel'stroy [Slutskiy Rayon Agricultural Construction Trust] of BSSR 
Minsel'stroy [Ministry of Rural Construction], particularly at the Leninskiy 
Put' Kolkhoz. Flowline construction in combination with the brigade contract 
was represented by the Minsk Oblast Mezhkolkhozstroy [Interkolkhoz Construction 
Trust] in the constiuction of monolithic keramzlt-concrete single-apartment 
houses at Kolkhoz imeni Lenin. The start—to—finish flowline brigade contract, 
based upon the introduction of two-year continuous planning of the construc¬ 
tion of facilities for housing, cultural and domestic-amenity purposes, was 
widely represented at facilities being erected by Minskstroy [Minsk Construc¬ 
tion Combine] in Minsk. 


The results of the work of the republic's Minpromstroy [Ministry of Industrial 
Construction], Minsel'stroy, Minmontazhspetsstroy [Ministry of Installation 
and Special Construction Work], Mindorstroy (Ministry of Road Construction], 
^^'^^o^^hoz [Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources], Minavtotrans 
[Ministry of Automotive Transport], Minstroymaterialov [Ministry of Construc¬ 
tion Materials Industry] and Minlesprom [Ministry of Timber, Pulp and Paper, 
and Wood Processing Industry], Belmezhkolkhozstroy, and other organizations on 
iiit^oducing the brigade contract and the system for two-year continuous plan— 
^i'^S fov the construction of housing, nonindustrial, cultural and domestic- 
amenity facilities were cited at a plenary session. 

The seminar's papers noted that the universal introduction of the brigade con¬ 
tract, including its highest form~start-to-finish flowline construction—was 
an important factor in raising construction-work effectiveness. More than 
5,800 brigades, or 68 percent of the total number, were already working under 
the brigade-contract method in the Belorussian SSR in 1983. They did a total 
of 1,234 million rubles' worth of construction and installing work, which was 
63 percent of all the work accomplished by their own forces; the figures were 
67.9 percent for BSSR Minpromstroy, 66.1 percent for Belmezhkolkhozstroy, 61.9 
percent for BSSR Minsel'stroy, and 61 percent for BSSR Minvodkhoz. The cost¬ 
accounting brigades saved 12 million rubles of planned expenditures, for which 
they were awarded bonuses in the amount'of more than 2 million rubles. By 
working under the brigade-contract method, it was possible to cut construction 
time by 29,000 days, to turn over for operation more than 8,000 facilities and 
operating complexes, 88 percent of them on time or ahead of schedule, and to 
put most of the facilities into operation with evaluations of "good" or 
"excellent." 

The data cited in the report of the Deputy BSSR Minister of Industrial Con¬ 
struction about the output per worker of contracting brigades, which was 
14,250 rubles in 1983, almost 20 percent more than for the ministry as a whole, 
testify to effective work by the cost-accounting brigades. This enabled 
about 7,600 workers to be released provisionally for the amount of construc¬ 
tion and installing work volume performed in 1983. 

The seminar's papers also noted that wide introduction of the brigade contract, 
together with the economic benefit, provides for social effectiveness which 
is expressed in a rise in the activeness and conscientiousness of workers, 


34 


expansion of their participation in managing production, a strengthening of 
work and production discipline, and a reduction in personnel turnover. 

As follows from the work experience of BSSR Minmontazhspetsstroy, wide intro¬ 
duction of the brigade contract has required a radical restructuring of the 
whole system for preparing for construction, namely: prior to the start of 
installing work, the design and budget-estimating papers are analyzed thor¬ 
oughly; the work plans, as a rule, are developed or coordinated to take ac¬ 
count of the most rational technology and advanced experience for the opera¬ 
tions; annual planning for the brigade's activity, which creates an important 
prerequisite for regularity of the work, based upon use of the flowline method 
method and continuity of the installing work, is executed; plans for engi¬ 
neering and technological preparation are developed; the centralized con¬ 
tainerized delivery of materials and articles in the prescribed amounts is 
called for; and questions of supplying cost-accountable brigades with progres¬ 
sive small-scale mechanized equipment and rational tools and attachments are 
decided. Total provisioning of standard sets of tools in this ministry is 
now 89-5 percent. 

With a view to further dissemination and improving the brigade contract in 
BSSR Mindorstroy organizations, the level of current planning, engineering 
preparation, and the furnishing of complete sets of industrial-production 
equipment directly to the contracting brigade is being raised and cooperative 
brigades are being established. 

Practical work experience of Belmezhkolkhozstroy indicated that the brigade 
contract gives appreciable results where it is used in most of a construction 
organization's brigades. Nesvizh MPMK-95 [Interkolkhoz Mobile Mechanized 
Column No 95], where practically all construction brigades have been convert¬ 
ed to the brigade contract, has been cited as an example. While 77 percent 
of all construction and installing work (SMR) was performed by this method 
in 1980, the figure was almost 90 percent for 1983. This organization ful¬ 
filled the SMR plan for 1983 by 108.2 percent. Last year it was the winner 
each quarter in the oblast and republic socialist competition, and during 
the fourth quarter it was awarded the challenge Red Banner of USSR Minsel'- 
stroy and the Central Committee of the industry's trade union. 

The seminar paid great attention to the start-to-finish flowline contract, 
which was used widely in the republic in 1983. Joining the forces of the 
cost-accounting brigades of construction and installing organizations and 
construction-industry, outfitting, and automotive-transport enterprises, this 
method orients collectives to achieving a single goal—the introduction of 
facilities into operation with the greatest rapidity and with least expendi¬ 
ture of material and labor resources. Collectives of the Minsk Production 
Association for Industrialized Housing Construction (MPOID), the Grodno, 

Brest, Mogilev and Gomel DSK's and Slutsk SSK [Rural Construction Combine] 
have achieved appreciable successes by using this method. 

The start-to-finish flowline method is being used most effectively in the 
MPOID system. Its high work indicators have been achieved to a great extent 
as a result of introduction of the brigade contract in all elements of the 
construction assembly line. In the first three years of the 11th Five-Year 
Plan it provided for a growth of 3.5 million rubles in construction and in¬ 
stalling work volume; in 1983 productivity reached 101 percent of the plan, 
which was 103.3 percent of the 1982 level. An analysis of the work of MPOID's 


35 




cost-accounting brigades indicated that effectiveness in use of the start-to- 
finish brigade contract depends upon better engineering preparation of the 
facilities for construction and better factory preparation of KPD [large-panel 
housing construction] articles; improvement of design solutions; the correct 
use of various systems of material and moral incentives; the execution of 
operations by specialized brigades of optimal composition; the use of two- 
year schedules for flowline construction that are linked with the capacity of 
the KPD plants and of transport; the solution of administrative, planning 
and accounting problems directly in the brigade; deliveries of KPD materials 
and articles according to transport and erection schedules; and the organiza¬ 
tion of active socialist competition. 

At a plenary session of the seminar, the participants adopted recommenda¬ 
tions aimed at wide introduction of the brigade contract and of the system 
for two-year continuous planning for the construction of housing, nonin¬ 
dustrial, cultural and domestic-services facilities in the republic, pro¬ 
viding for a substantial rise in capital-investment effectiveness, an in¬ 
crease in labor productivity, and improvement in construction quality. 


In the Scientific and Technical Council 

In accordance with a task of the Comprehensive Program for Automating Design 
Work in the Belorussian SSR During 1981-1985, Brestgrazhdanproyekt [Brest 
Institute for the Design of Nonindustrial Facilities] for the first time 
developed, introduced and is efficiently operating a technological line for 
automated design on a most massive scale of housing and nonindustrial build¬ 
ings that are erected on continuous prefabricated footings, providing for 
continuity of the design process and the issuance of completed engineering 
documentation. 

After examining the work experience of this institute in regard to automated 
design of the below-grade cycle for housing and social buildings erected on 
prefabricated continuous footings by using the ARM-S computer complex, the 
Presidium of BSSR Gosstroy’s Scientific and Technical Council approved it 
and recommended the said technological line for wide introduction in design 
organizations of ministries and agencies of the republic, oblast ispolkoms 
and Mingorispolkom [Minsk City Ispolkom], which develop design and budget¬ 
estimating documentation for housing and nonindustrial facilities that are 
to be built. 

The technological line for automated design (TLP) permits not only the compu¬ 
tation but, what is especially important, the contriving and issuance of an 
optimally finished drawing of the footings plan with greatly reduced 
design time, high quality and much greater economy in cost and materials 
consumption than that of the design work performed by a design engineer. 

It realizes a set of tasks that characterize a continuous technological 
scheme—basic information, analysis of conditions, calculation, design and 
the drawings. 

The TLP allows optimal prefabricated continuous footings of the 1.112-5 ser¬ 
ies to be designed on the basis of the building’s constructional plan, the 
building loads, the construction site's geological conditions, and the local 
relief. The result of the work is a drawing that is complete in regard to 
construction-information volume and layout of the footing slabs, with 


36 




plotting of the axes and the dimensions and with the specifications and anno¬ 
tations. The line is oriented to the effective use of standard computer 
equipment and an interactive schedule, the foundation of which is the 
ARM-S(M) computer design complex, which is based on an SM EVM [International 
System of Small Computers). The system calls for the possibility of an active 
dialog of designer and computer, and its operation does not require lengthy 
special training, since the system was oriented to operating with a design 
engineer when the TLP software was developed. 

Brestgrazhdanproyekt created a group of designers to work on the TLP who had 
been engaged prior to this in the traditional type of design. As experience 
indicates, the organizational and technical restructuring took place in one 
month, and a group of five people produces designs for prefabricated continu¬ 
ous footings for the institute’s entire workload. 

Experience on the part of Brestgrazhdanproyekt and a number of the country's 
other institutes in introducing TLP for continuous prefabricated footings 
lays the basis for considering that the system will enable design-work tech-, 
nology and organization to be moved to a qualitatively new level. In so do¬ 
ing, along with the high quality obtained, design time will be cut 3-fold 
to 4-fold, and large amounts (at least 20 percent) of prefabricated rein¬ 
forced concrete will be saved. In the Belorussian experiment environment 
for saving material, labor and fuel and power resources, design of the below- 
grade cycle, based upon TLP, with issuance of an optimal variant, is especially 
urgent and is aimed at reducing the budget-estimated cost of construction. 

The Presidium of the BSSR Gosstroy Scientific and Technical Council recommend¬ 
ed that Brestgrazhdanproyekt Institute continue its work of raising the level 
of automated design of the below-grade cycle for housing and social buildings, 
and also spread the indicated method of design work to other constructional 
elements of buildings, such as wall panels, straight arches, ceiling-floor 
panels, and so on. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1984 

11409 

CSO: 1821/111 


37 



COInTSTRUCTION planning AlTD ECONOMICS 


JPKS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


CONSEQUENCES OF MATERIALS, LALOR SHORTAGES DECRIED 
Ashkhabad TURICllENSICAYA ISKP^A in Russian 11 Jan 85 p 2 

[Article by R. Kardanova, economist, and N. Sosnina, TURKMENSKAYA ISKRA cor¬ 
respondent: *’In a Crooked Mirror; 1, Plan and Construction Site”] 

[Text] In May of 1984 the CPSU Central Committee and the 
USSR Council of Ministers adopted the resolution entitled 
”0n Improving Planning, Organization'and Management of 
Capital Construction*” Do all of the measures implemented 
in the sector meet the requirements of this docviment? How 
well substantiated are they? Are they giving the anticipated 
result? These are the questions on which the authors of 
this economic overview express their opinions. 

UTNE\rEN COSTS. We can probably apply this term to the consequences of non- 
uniform financing of major facilities in the chemical industry and of the 
mineral fertilizers sector by customers. VTiat is happening here? At the end 
of the 10th and beginning of the 11th Five-Year Plans, the Chardzhoukhimstroy 
Trust, which was created in the region especially for building new capacities 
at the Chemical Plant imeni V. I. Lenin, built at a shock-work pace and sub¬ 
mitted for operation units for the manufacture of sulfuric acid, and then of 
extracted phosphoric acid and ammophos. It would seem that the consolidated 
collective which had accumulated so much positive experience should continue 
to grow, particularly since there were considerable prospects for this. How- 
even, the union organs changed their initial plans. The development of the 
plant slowed doiTn. The contract program ”Chardzhoustoy” no longer corresponded 
to the trust’s status. 

Now it was no longer the trust, but the 5MU [construction-installation admini¬ 
stration] of Chardzhoukhimstroy , which had been lagging behind for a number 
of years, that slowly worked at the enterprise site, assimilating small sums. 

The irregular delivery of technological equipment also made it difficult to 
increase the work pace. Last summer there was a shortage of this equipment 
in the sum of 3.5 million rubles. 

However, the start-up time of the new SK-49 sulfuric acid production is steadily 
draxvring near. In order to submit this facility for operation, it is necessary 
to make a jump from assimilation of 7.9 million rubles per year to 21 million 


38 



rubles. In essence, it is necessary to again form the trust. Such are the 
"johes” of planning. The specialists who have learned from bitter experience 
are concerned that the fate of another subdivision—Turkmenvostokneftestroy— 
will befall the Chardzhou builders. TJaiting for the capital investments in 
the Chardzhou Petroleum Processing Plant to be increased, manager I. A. Aganov 
is taking on any kind of work just to give his people something to do and to 
keep the collective together until better times. 

The Gaurdakkhimstroy and Marykhimstroy Trusts are undergoing similar difficulties. 
The construction of major facilities at construction sites at the Gaurdak 
Sulphur Plant imeni 50th Anniversary of the TiiSSR and the Turlcmen Nitrogen 
Fertilizer Plant is being completed, and both collectives are unsure about 
their immediate future. 

In the current year, the chemical facility builders of Mari x-jIII concentrate 
their efforts on the social and industrial construction sites in Mari. Eut 
what is Gaurdakkhimstroy engaged in? After all, there is no sense in dissolving 
a trust if 12 months later it is to be reformed... • 

The resolution on capital construction calls for customers to provide contractors 
with clear assignments with uniform distribution of the capital investment 
limits by years. This is justified. 

WHY TRUSTS ARE BROKEN UP. Such negative phenomena as liquidation of some and 
creation of other trusts and personnel reshuffling are often determined by 
miscalculations in the management of capital construction. The TtiSSR Minstroy, 
of course, changes things from time to time in its structural management schemes. 
However, the transformations which are undertaken bear a notably expedient 
character. 

They started talking, for example, about the Bezmein Carpet Combine. The 
thought of a Turkmenzapstroy trust-site was suggested, It became necessary to 
submit the TZAU [not further expanded], and the decision was made to create 
Marykhimstroy. And so forth. Usually, however, the groundwork is laid for 
successful activity of the new collectives. They are supplied with resources, 
a production base, etc. 

The truth is so banal that it is almost embarrassing to talk about it. But 
evidently it must be repeated. Without a base, the organized Turkmenzapstroy 
and certain other subdivisions will not fulfill their plans from the very first 
day of their creation. The Monolitstroy Administration will evidently have to 
be returned to the fold of Turkmentsentrostroy. It is therefore no accident 
that Marykhimstroy is merged with Marystroy. 

Practical experience refutes the version that it is easier to manage small 
organizations than large ones. Many lessons have been learned in this regard. 

Let us recall, for example, how in Ashkhabad _the Turkmenspetsstroy, 
Spetsstroymekhanizatsiya and Turkmenstroytrans Trusts arose under the standard 
of specialization and concentration. There were plans to collect earth digging 
and lifting technology and transport under a single management for the purpose 
of better utilizing them. However, in order to accomplish this it was first 


39 



necessary to de~cons.olidate and take mechanisins and machines away from general 
construction trusts. These found themselves in a difficult position. Secondly, 
due to the weakness of their repair bases, the SUMRs [specialized administration 
on mechanized work] and PiIK [mobile mechanized columns] were unable to improve 
the efficiency factor of their technology. Thus, ^’concentration** turned out 
to be a dispersion of efforts and resources. 

In accordance with the resolution by the party and the government which states 
that the trust must be provided with the necessary means of mechanization and 
transport,** the ministry has added detachments of mechanics to the Tashauzstrov 
and Turkmenvostokneftestroy Trusts. However, it is still a bit early to main-* 
tain that everything possible has already been done in improving the management 
of capital construction. 

EMERGENCY BEFORE START-UP, Let us imagine the following situation. The annual 
plan has not been fulfilled. The SMU chief shrugs his shoulders and blames it 
on objective reasons. They believe him. But an experiment was performed at 
one trust. A contractor who did not meet, his tasks was given everything he 
asked for. Nevertheless, the plan was still not fulfilled, and obviously, the 
un-businesslike qualities of the unfortunate manager became clear to all. It 
is specifically building production which has not been properly organized along 
its entire chain that hinders defining the true value of the economic manager. 

However, there is also another point of view, in which the criterion for evalua¬ 
tion of a worker is hxs ability to overcome difficulties. They think that 
if he has everything he needs, even a weak manager will be able to handle his 
assignment, but just try to "make” the plan without materials or personnel... 

Nevertheless, the essence of the infamous "ability” is well known. Often it 
is expressed in disruptions of funds discipline and development of capital. 

At the same time, the emergency work by all hands declared at the construction 
sites is^ presented as a concentration of resources at start-up facilities. 


In order to bring the first phase of TZAU on line, subdivisions of all the 
trusts within the TuSSR Ministry of Construction without exception were gathered 
at the construction site and aid was requested from tens of installation brigades 
within the USSR Minmontazhspetsstroy [Ministry of Installation and Special 
Construction Work], The same story was repeated at the Bezmein Rug Plant and 
the Ashkhabad Circus. . • 

The argument is the same: the capacities must be introduced into operation, 
but there are not enough forces. The analysis usually goes no farther than 
this. However, let us clarify this. The official figure for the shortage of 
workers almost 1,500 people—would correspond to the actual situation if the 
Minstroy collectives fulfilled their task on growth of labor productivity. 
However, since it is chronically underfulfilled, this figure should be doubled. 

Thousands of m.an-days, which turn into months and years, are lost due to dis¬ 
ruption of labor discipline and idle times at construction sites in the republic. 
This time is lost due to non-uniform assimilation of capital investment. All 
this is what the brigades and construction-installation administrations who 


40 


are called in to attack, the "bearded" facilities are trying to overcome. What 
does concentratioiR have to do with all this? It is reasonable to call this a ^ 
consequence of not knowing how to organize rhythmic and stable work at the sites . 


IMPRISONED BY HABIT. Emergency all-hands work is hardly acceptable as the 
only method for submitting plants and factories, housing and schools for opera¬ 
tion. The cost of the imaginary concentration is too great. The facilities 
grow more expenseive before our very eyes. In 1984 the TuSSR Minstroy exceedea 
the cost of construction-installation work, allowed losses, and the growth in 
wages significantly outstripped the growth in labor productivity. Obviously, 
extensive factors had to be used, but even these were unable to ensure timely 
submission of numerous facilities. 


Isn't it time to create such conditions at the construction sites which would 
eliminate the need for overcoming these difficulties: to strengthen discipline, 
to introduce scientific organization of labor, and to reject voluntarism in 
management! 

Within Minstroy, Turkmenorgtekhstroy, which numbers 90 people, is working toward 
a well-founded engineering preparation and normal organization of production. 

Ten other major trusts have special groups and sections with an mnual wage fund 
of 540,000 rubles. However, they do not always justify their daily bread. Tne 
efficiency of work production projects and organization of construction and 
grid schedules is weak. They are either not used at all or are corrected. 

What has happened, for example, at the construction sites of the Turkmen Nitrogen 
Fertilizer Plant? Yaroslav engineers and organizational-technical building 
specialists proposed a work production project to Marykhimstroy which was aimed 
at the operational introduction of TZAU in 1982. The actual start-up date was 
in 1984, and this not even to full capacity. The project was altered and re¬ 
figured, but it still did not give the desired effect. 

The schedules proposed by the Turkmenorgtekhstroy Trust to the builders of the 
Bezmein Carpet Combine and the Ashkhabad Circus remained on paper in just the 
same way. Their ultimate goal—to introduce the facilities into operation on 
schedule—was not achieved. Is the problem here one of conservatism alone? 

Xt is true that some have still not rejected the habit of working in the old 
manner and in relying on outside help. This, after all, is easier than exerting 
one's own efforts and skills. However, the main reason, in our opinion, is 
hidden in the unsatisfactory management of the construction sites, which is 
being performed by the "Trishka’s caftan" method. The obvious lack of considera¬ 
tion for the ruble is also evident. 


I'Therever the people's money is considered, wherever they understand that 
expensive emergency all-hands work dips primarily into the staters pocket, there 
innovations are readily introduced, as for example the installation of houses 
by hourly schedule, schedules of labor and material expenditures, and the open 
contract order were introduced at the Cliardzhou Large-Panel House Building 
Trust. 

12322 

CSO: 1821/117 


41 



INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


GOSPLAN OFFICIAL ON INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION GOALS 

Moscow SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA in Russian 3 Jan 85 p 2 

[Article by L. Bibin, assistant chairman of Gosplan: "Starting Objectives—into 
Operation"] 

[Text] The multimillion-strong army of builders has received a new program of 
operations for the concluding year of the 11th Five-Year Plan. The collectives 
of construction and assembly organizations must make greater gains than in the 
past year. The commissioning of basic production funds is increasing by over 
seven percent and will reach a volume of more than 146 billion rubles. An 
important position in the plan is set aside for the solution of social problems, 
and first of all for the further improvement of housing and living conditions 
and medical service for workers. Housing should be constructed with a total area 
of 114 million square meters—11 million more than was stipulated in the five- 
year plan quota for the last year. 

The new program of construction-assembly operations has been put together with 
regard for the well-known resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR 
Council of Ministers "On improving the planning, organization and control of 
capital construction", as well as for the necessity of ensuring the fulfillment 
of the food and energy programs, increasing the efficiency of social production 
and accelerating scientific and technical progress. 

How are these requirements realized in the plan? First of all it has been stipu¬ 
lated that a high concentration of efforts and means—84 percent of the total 
volume of construction-assembly operations—be put toward 1985-86 starting ob¬ 
jectives. The volumes in retooling and reconstruction of operational enter¬ 
prises are significantly increasing. More than 30 billion rubles are being 
directed toward these goals, which significantly exceeds the five-year plan quota. 

High rates of development have been planned for the base industries. With a 5.5 
percent increase over last year in capital investments in industry as a whole, 
they will grow by 14 percent in the fuel-energy complex, by 16 percent in ferrous 
and non-ferrous metallurgy, and by 15 percent in machine building. 

Consequently, the Energy Program is being realized. A 12.7 million kilowatt 
total increase capabilities is planned. In this, as in previous years, a great 
deal of attention is devoted to the development of atomic energy; the commissio¬ 
ning of the next power units is projected at the Smolensk, Balakovskiy, Zaporo¬ 
zhye and Kurskiy AES [Atomic Power Station]. The first units will be commissioned 
at the Perm and Berezovskiy GRES [State Rayon Power Station]. 


42 



Great tasks stand before builders in realizing the starting program in the oil 
and gas industry. They must put into operation more than 3,000 kilometers of 
xnainline pipline for oil and petroleum products. Among them are the 963 kilometer 
Kholmogory~Klin (first) and 333 kilometer Saratov—Kuzmichin oil pipelines and 
the 285 kilometer Voronezh—Belgorod, 187 kilometer Petropavlovsk Kokchetav 
Tselinograd and 158 kilometer Travniki—Kustanay—Amankaragay petroleum products 
pipelines. The length of mainline gas piplines and taps from them should increase 
by more than 9,000 kilometers. It remains to complete the construction of the 
second phase of the Urengoy—Tsentr gas pipeline, with a length of 3,112 kilometers, 
the 512 kilometer Kursk—Kiev gas pipeline, the 755 kilometer Urengoy—Surgut 
condensate pipeline and others. The commissioning of large gas-processing capa¬ 
bilities at the Orenburgskiy helium and Mubarekskiy gas-processing plants is also 
stipulated. 

The construction and commissioning of capabilities in the coal industry will be 
carried out at accelerated rates. The commissioning of mines and pits with a 
total capability of over 35 million tons is projected, including almost 7 million 
tons resulting from reconstruction and retooling. In this, almost 80 percent of 
the growth'of capabilities is planned for pits, which guarantees a reduction in 
the specific cost estimate per ton of production of more than two-fold. Capa¬ 
bilities should be put into operation at the following pits: Vostochnyy in the 
Pavlodar Oblast, Pavlovskiy No 1 in the Maritime Kray, Berezovskiy in the Kras¬ 
noyarsk Kray and Neryungrinskiy in the Yakut ASSR. Reconstruction should be 
carried out and growth of capabilities ensured at the Angrenskiy and Tal—Oryakh 
pits in the Tashkent and Magadansk oblasts respectively, and at the Komsomolets 
mine in the Kemerovo Oblast, the Aktasskaya mine in the Karagandin Oblast and 
others- 

Virtually all industries are being reinforced with new capabilities: ferrous and 
non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building and the machine-tool industry, the 
chemistry and production of mineral fertilizers, cellulose—paper and woodworking 
industry, light industry and the food industry, and transport and communications. 

In all the builders must commission more than 1,500 industrial capabilities accor¬ 
ding to the quotas of the state plan for economic and social development. In this, 
as in previous years, for various reasons, among which the primary ones are an 
insufficient construction back-log and difficulties with the assembly of equip- 
nient, it was not possible to plan a uniform turning over of objectives in the 
course of the year. The second half of the year, when more than two thirds of 
the new capabilities will have to be commissioned, remains intense. 

This obliges the development, ahead of time, in each contracting organization of 
corresponding measures that would guarantee the successful completion of the 
construction five-year plan. This is precisely where the.efforts of builders are 
directed by the proposals of comrade K. U. Chernenko, concerned with strengthening 
the material-techhicalbase, futher industrializing construction and giving aid 
in its development. 

Additional material resources, machines and mechanisms are directed to construction 
sites. A great deal of attention is being devoted to building up the capabilities 
of construction organizations and their production base, and to re-equipping 


43 


construction industry enterprises. In the plan 4.4 billion rubles are stipulated 
for these goals. In the next year construction-assembly organizations will re¬ 
ceive 8,800 single-bucket excavators, 6,600 bulldozers, 6,000 truck cranes, 1,700 
tower cranes and 21,000 other assembly cranes. 

All this establishes favorable preconditions for the fundamental improvement of 
operations at construction sites. However, it should be noted that the means 
being given to the construction ministries are not being used efficiently enough. 
Construction times for objectives of their own production base are delayed and 
in a number of cases the cost is raised considerably; newly commissioned capa¬ 
bilities are assimilated slowly. The utilization factor for production equip¬ 
ment remains low at construction industry enterprises. Large reserves are also 
hidden in improving the utilization of equipment existing on site. Now the 
average daily operation of machines does not exceed 10-12 hours. Thus, besides 
renovating the fleet of construction equipment, the contracting ministries must 
take active measures to increase shift work, reduce whole-shift and partial-shift 
idle time and improve repairs and the organization of operation for construction 
machines. 

One of the most important problems in the workability of capital construction 
plans is the balance of volumes of work and material-technical resources. Con¬ 
struction organizations and construction industry enterprises should sharply 
activize work on developing and carrying out complexes of measures that ensure 
a reduction in the consumption of sheet metal, cement, lumber, pipe, and other 
types of resources. 

Growth in the volume of construction-assembly operations should come about primarily 
as a result of increased labor productivity. For 1985, the task in terms of this 
indicator has been set at 3.5 for construction as a whole, and for the basic 
construction ministries it is at the level of 4.2-4.5 percent. Higher rates of 
reducing the cost of construction-assembly operations are stipulated. 

In compliance with the tasks for the development of science and technology, in 
the next year production volumes and the introduction in construction of advanced 
types of construction and materials are sharply increasing, and leading methods 
of organization and technology of construction production will be widely used. 

The utilization of such advanced methods of organization and technology of con¬ 
struction production as the unit-block and assembly method, the watch method 
of introducing operations, conveyor assembly and large-block assembly of the 
roofs of industrial buildings and others will be expanded. 

In the concluding year of the five-year plan construction will begin on 35 experi¬ 
mental objectives, at which will be checked the new volume-planning and construc¬ 
tive resolutions, which ensure the application of efficient engineering and 
production equipment for the various industries of the national economy. Accor¬ 
ding to the calculations of USSR Gosstroy, the realization of the tasks set by 
the plan in the development of construction science and technology will ensure a 
significant economic effect and a reduction in the number of workers. 

In compliance with the resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR 
Council of Ministers "On improving planning, organization and control of capital 
construction", construction-assembly trusts should be consolidated as a basic 


44 



self-supporting link, and their responsibility for the timely completion and 
commissioning of construction objectives should be increased. At the same time 
general, authority and territorial schemes of control will be developed. 

'jjie realization of such a wide range of advanced technical and organizational 
measures, covering all sides of the operation of construction organizations, and 
the additional distribution to them of material resources and equipment inspire 
confidence that the starting program of the last year of the five-year plan will 
be successfully carried out. 


12461 

CSO: 1821/053 


45 




INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


CAPACITY, EQUIPMENT OF NEW BRICK-MAKING PLANT VIEWED 
Moscow STROITEL’NAYA GAZETA in Russian 9 Dec 84 p 1 

[Article by V. Perzashkevich, Minsk Oblast, in the column "Underway Today—Sites 
of the Construction Industry": "The Gayduk Clay-Brick Plant"] 

[Text] The construction project's description: 

Designation: the first line of a highly mechanized clay-brick 

plant. 

Capacity: 75 million bricks per year. 

General contractor: the Order of Lenin Production Construction 

and Installing Association, Minskpromstroy [Minsk Industrial 

Construction Association] imeni 60-letiya Velikogo Oktyabrya. 

The start of construction: May 1982. 

Period of introduction: the fourth quarter of 1984. 

The first department, which should yield output at the end of the year, is the 
fi^st line of the brick plant. Installation of the equipment is being com¬ 
pleted here. It is difficult to blend even the appearance of the installed 
units in with ordinary notions about brick production. For example, the high- 
capacity tunnel kiln, which is almost 150 meters long, 8 meters wide and about 
5 meters high, reminds one of a factory building. Dozens of finished kiln carts 
of 10,000-brick capacity each are inside it. This is almost 4-fold the 
number of units that are ordinarily used at existing enterprises. In all, 360 
such carts will be used for drying and baking bricks. 

it is, of course, not just a matter of size. The main feature of the fu¬ 
ture plant (to be put completely into operation in 1985) is that automation 
will control the whole production cycle. Beginning with the receiving depart¬ 
ment, where the raw material arrives, to dispatch of the finished product to the 
warehouse in palleted form—250 bricks per pallet. 

Small-size bricks of special strength-grades 250-300, with 40-percent hollow¬ 
ness will be produced at the plant. In other words, a high-quality building 
^^^®^ial, from which high-rise housing with footings less thick than current 
ones can be erected. And this is a saving of concrete, metal and, of course, 
labor. 


46 




A Word by Plant Director V. Bagretsov: 

"The place for the enterprise was chosen successfully, in our opinion: 10 km 
to a quarry with an adequate reserve of high-quality clay. A special route 
has been laid out here that bypasses communities, so that the dense flow of 
high-capacity trucks will not create excessive noise and will not pollute the 
air. A convenient microrayon has been laid out and is under construction. 

"The builders took up a good pace from the first days of the plant’s erec¬ 
tion. At the end of 1982 they had assimilated 1.3 million rubles of capital 
investment instead of the planned 700,000 rubles. The task was also overful¬ 
filled the next year. Nowadays the pace is somewhat slower, since the erec¬ 
tion of the most complicated equipment is in process, work that requires spe¬ 
cial precision. The builders and installers have not encountered this 
before. But, judging by the people’s spirit, they will cope with the job." 


A Word by Deputy Minskpromstroy Association Chief A. Yermak: 

"The facility is, of course, unique. And time and again problems have arisen 
before us that we had not solved before. 

"The main work, which was to be done in the main building, was that of la 5 ring 
concrete footings and foundations under the various items of equipment, the 
conduits for the cables and transporters, and so on. And all this is to be . 
made of poured concrete. In considering the specifics, they counted on 
truck-borne concrete pumps. And, so they would not be idle, a concrete plant 
was established at the site. Nowadays the lag behind the schedule is not con¬ 
nected with the start of erection of the equipment by chance. We have never 
had to do anything like this before, especially in erecting the baking kilns. 
But the essence of the matter is not just this and not so much this. On 
arriving at the job, neither we nor the subcontractor had a complete idea of 
what awaited us: there was not enough design and budget-estimating documen¬ 
tation for 3 million rubles. The chief harm came from this," 

A Word by Chief Engineer of the SU [Construction Administration] of Teplomon- 
tazh [Heat-Engineering Equipment Installing Trust] N. Kalugin: 

"Complexities also arose with lining the carts. Or, to say it more simply, 
with lining them from the inside with refractories. According to the tech¬ 
nology, these refractories (the capital’s porcelain-ware plant and Minskstroy- 
materialy [Minsk Building-Materials Association] delivered them to us) should 
be of strictly defined sizes, deviations from the dimension to be no more 
than 2 mm. As a matter of fact, the articles turned out to be 2.5-fold to 
5-fold less in both diameter and height. Why? Because achieving the needed 
precision was extremely complicated, given the technology that existed at 
both enterprises. Instead of seeking a way out of the situation that had 
been created, USSR Minstroymaterialov [Ministry of Construction Materials 
Industry] and the industry’s scientific-research institutes sanctioned the 
output of poor-quality products. It was too late to refuse them: deadlines 
were passing. And so we ourselves had to bring the suppliers’ product up 
to the required dimensions manually: to smooth out the surface, to grind and 
to grade. During these difficult days, people helped us, both the client and 
the general contractor. The assistance made it possible to organize work 
around the clock, and we began to overcome the lag.** 


47 



Our Correspondent's Commentary: 

And so today the main difficulties of this most important construction pro¬ 
ject are behind. True, the epic work of installing the kilns and the cart 
linings led to a delay at the auxiliary facilities—the purification struc¬ 
tures, the utility and service lines, and so on. But here it is far easier to 
rectify the situation: the construction project's management has a good poten¬ 
tial for shifting people's workplaces and for manipulating material resources. 

In particular, building up the land's amenities is going on ahead of sched¬ 
ule. The receiving, preparation and drying departments and the charging- 
materials yard have been turned over for putting into shape. The way has been 
completely paved for the plant to be able to start production in the next few 
days. 

In general, timely startup of the enterprise's first line no longer provokes 
doubts. Right now the raw material for the bricks has been obtained here. 

But still, the serious confusion about installation of the equipment that 
arose when the first line was erected should serve as a clear lesson for the 
future, for clients and all construction participants. For next year the 
enterprise's second line, which is to have the same capacity, should be turned 
over for operation. 


11409 

CSO: 1821/070 


48 


HOUSING CONSTRUCTION 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


RETROSPECTIVE RESIDENTIAL HOUSING CONSTRUCTION DATA VIEWED 
Moscow VESTNIK STATISTIKI in Russian No 9, Sep 84 pp 58-62 

[Article and statistical tables under the rubric "In Aid of the Agitator and 
Propagandist": "I. The Right to Housing"] 

[Text] Citizens of the USSR have the right to housing. This right is ensured 
by developing and safeguarding the state and public housing supply, assistance 
to cooperative and individual housing construction, the just distribution of 
housing floor space under public control which is granted in the degree to 
which the program for building comfortable housing is implemented, and also by 
low payments for apartments and communal services. Citizens of the USSR 
should treat the housing that is given to them with care. 

The USSR Constitution, Article 44, 


The general (usable) floor space in housing units put into use during 

all the years of Soviet power (1918-1983) amounts to 3,834.8 million square 
meters, including 2,311.5 million square meters by state and cooperative 
enterprises and organizations and housing cooperatives, 1,447.6 million square 
meters inhabited by the people at their own expense or with the aid of 
government credit, and 75.7 million square meters by kolkhozes. 

Now, in less than a month, new housing is built that would be sufficient for a 
city with a population of 500,000 people. On the average more housing is put 
into use in two years than in all the pre-war five-year plans put together. 

The primary portion of housing construction is built by means of state capital 
investments. 


49 



Housing Units Put Into Use 

(Millions of Square Meters of Total (Usable) Floor Space) 



Total 

Built 

By State and 
Cooperative 
Enterprises 
and Organ¬ 
izations 
and Housing 
Cooperatives 

Of those. 
Housing 
Coop¬ 
eratives 

By the 
Population 
at Their Own 
Expense and 
With the Aid 
Of State 
Credit 

By 

Kolkhozes 

1918-1940 including 
the 1st half of 1941. 

408.9 

127.9 

— 

i 

281.0 

1 

In particular, 1940) 

24.5 

9.6 

— 

14.9 ■ 

— 

The 6th Five-Year Plan 
(1956-1960). 

474.1 

224.0 

— 

•250.1 

. 

— 

In particular, 1960. 

109.6 

55.8 

— 

53.8 

— 

The 7th Five-Year Plan 
(1961-1965). 

490.6 

300.4 

13.4 

184.9 

5.3 

In particular, 1965. 

97.6 

63.2 

6.5 

33.0 

1.4 •; 

The 8th Five-tYear Pleui 
(1966-1970). 

518.5 

352.5 

33.6 

153.8 

i 

12.2 i 

In particular, 1970. 

106.0 

76.6 

7.7 

26.7 

2.7 

The 9th Five-Year Plan 
(1971-1975) 

544.8 

407.3 

32.6 

120.8 

16.7 

In particular, 1975. 

109.9 

83.3 

5.8 

22.6 

4.0 

The 10th Five-Year Plan 
(1976-1980). 

527.3 

413.8 

27.4 

91.4 

22.1 

In particular, 1980. 

105.0 

84.0 

5.1 

16.1 

4.9 

The three years of the 
11th Five-Year Plan 
(1981-1983). 

326.7 

258.9 1 

17.7 

48.4 

19.4 

1981. 

106.4 

84.5 

5.3 

16.2 

5.7 

1982. 

107.9 

85.6 

5.5 

16.0 

6.3 

1983. 

112.4 

88.8 

6.7 

16.2 

7.4 


50 

















Housing Constmction Built By Means of State Capital ! 

Investments 


Total Housing 

Capital 


Units Built, 

Investments 


Million Square 

In Housing 


Meters of 

Constmction 


General 

(In Comparison 


(Usable) 

Prices), 


Floor Space 

in Billions 
of Rubles 

The 6th Five-Year Plan.. 

222.7 

27.3 

In particular, 1960. 

55.4 

6.6 

The 7th Five-Year Plan... 

284.5 

33.4 

In particular, 1965... 

56.2 

7.0 

The 8th Five-Year Flan. 

313.5 

45.0 

In particular, 1970. 

67.8 

10.2 

The 9th Five-Year Plan.. 

368.7 

58.6 

In particular, 1975. 

76.2 

12.7 

The 10th Five-Year Flan. 

380.5 

68.0 

In particular, 1980. 

77.7 

14.2 

The three years of the 11th Five-Year Plan 

237.9 

47.6 

1981. 

78.2 

15.1 ! 

1982. 

79.0 

15.9 ! 

1983. 

80.7 

16.6 


Housing construction requires huge capital investments, material resources and 
technical means from the Soviet State. Expenditures to build a three-room 
apartment in modem housing units in the center of the country amount to 9,000 
to 10,000 rubles. In cities in the Far North and other remote regions they 
are higher by a factor of two to three. 

During the modem phase special attention is being given to housing, cultural 
and everyday constmction in the village which will serve as one of the most 
important trends in solving the largest social problem—overcoming the 
existing differences between the city md the country. 

During the years from 1971 to 1983, 413.1 million square meters of general 
(usable) floor space were put into use in mral locations which is almost 
equal to the entire urban housing supply in the country in 1940. 

During the 11th Five-Year Plan housing units with a total floor space of no 
less than 176 million square meters should be built in the village and during 
the 12th Five-Year Plan it will be 15 to 18 percent greater. 

Almost two-thirds of individual housing units are built in mral locations. 
After joining a mral housing constmction cooperative a future owner of a 
house pays 30 percent of its cost (often with the aid of the 
kolkhoz.) The State bank gives credit for the remaining sum. Often the state 
takes more than a third of the cost of the house upon itself. 


51 

























52 


















The years of the 11th Five-Year Plan were characterized by an annual increase 
in the housing floor space that was put into use. In 1983 more apartments 
were built than in any of the last five years. Together with accomplishing 
the large scale of housing construction its quality is improving. More than 
one half of the housing units that were put into use by means of state capital 
investments were built according to new typical designs that specify an 
improved layout for the apartments and much comfort. The average size of 
apartments is increasing. As a result of unabated attention by the party and 
government the goals for the 11th Five-Year Flan for putting housing units 
into use are not only being met but are being exceeded. Over the four years 
of the five-year plan an additional 9 billion rubles of capital ^vestments 
were procured above the five-year plan and allocated toward housing and 
communal construction. 

The role of housing construction cooperatives in further improving the living 
conditions of the population is increasing. The possibilities for building 
individual housing units, especially in small cities, urban-type settlements 
and in rural locations are expanding. Workers are rendered assistance in 
cooperative and individual housing construction by means of incentive funds at 
associations and enterprises. The initial payment is reduced from 30 to 40 
percent down to 20 to 30 percent of the cost of the apartment for members of 
housing construction cooperatives. The timeframe for retiring the state 
credit that has been granted was increased to 25 years while other privileges 
have been established for certain groups of the population. 

In 1983, 21 percent more housing was put into use by housing construction 
cooperations than in 1982. It is intended that the amount of coooperative 
housing units that are put into use in 1984 increase to 8.4 million square 
meters which exceeds the goal for the current year of the five-year plan by 20 
percent. 

In 1983, 16.2 million square meters of housing were built by the population at 
their own expense and with the aid of state credit including 5.7 million 
square meters in urban settlements and 10.5 million square meters in rural 
locations. In 1984 it is intended that individual housing constzruction 
increase to 17.5 million square meters which is 11.5 percent greater than in 
comparison with the five-year plan for this year. 


53 




Number of People Who Improved Their Living Conditions 
(Millions of People) 




Of Those 


Number of People 
Who Obtained 
Housing Floor 
Space or Built 
Their Own 
Apartments 

Obtained Housing 
Floor Space Or 
Built Their Own 
Apartments in New 
Housing Units 

Obtained or 
Expanded Their 
Housing Floor 
Space in 

Previously Built 
Housing Units 

The 6th Five-Year Plan.. 

54.0 

41.7 

12.3 

In particular, 1960... 

12.0 

9.6 

2.4 

The 7th Five-Year Plan.. 

54.6 

42.7 

11.9 

In particular, 1965... 

10.8 

8.2 

2.6 

The 8th Five-Year Plan.. 

54.9 

42.1 

12.8 

In particular, 1970... 

11.2 

8.4 

2.8 

The 9th Five-Year Plan.. 

56.1 

41.5 

14.6 

In particular, 1975... 

11.0 

8.2 

2.8 

The 10th Five-Year Plan. 

, 51.0 

37.2 

13.8 

In particular, 1980... 

9.9 

7.1 

2.8 

The three years of the 
11th Five-Year Plan. 

29.9 

21.4 

8.5 

1981. 

9.9 

7.1 

2.8 

1982. 

9.9 

7.1 

2.8 

1983. 

10.1 

7.2 

2.9 


54 












Total (Usable) Floor Space in the Urban Housing Supply 
(At the End of the Year) 

L___-.— -____ - _ ■ . . ■ -___■ ______ 


1940 

I960 

1970 

1975 

1980 

1983 

General (usable) floor space 
in the urban housing supply; 






1 

tot. in million sq. meters 

421 

958 

1,542 

1,875 

2,202 

2,417 ! 

average per urban resident 

TnetQ*rs« 

6.5 

8.9 

11.2 

12.2 

1 

13.1 

j 

13.7 




At present about 80 percent of the urban population lives in individual 
apartments• 


Improvements in the Collectivized Urban Housing Supply 



1970 

1975 

1980 

1981 

1982 

1983 

The number of cities having: 

A water supply. . ... • 

1,787 

1,938 

2,041 

2,070 

2,084 

2,101 

A sewer system.. 

1,283 

1,491 

1,647 

1,681 

1,717 

1,746 

The relative weight of 
housing floor space in 
the collectivized urban 
housing supply that are 
equipped with (in percent): 

A water system... 

78.9 

85.0 

89.9 

90.3 

1 1 

90.4 

i 

90.8 

A sewer system.. 

75.8 

82.3 

87.9 

i 

88.4 

88.1 

88.7 

Central heating... 

73.6 

80.9 

86.6 ! 

87.3 

87.1 

87.9 

Gas. 

64.6 

74.7 

79.4 

79.4 

78.6 

78.5 

Hot water supply. 

33.8 

45.7 

57.2 

58.7 

64.9 

67.8 

Bathrooms .. 

60.7 

71.7 

80.8 

80.9 

80.7 

81.7 


55 
































USSR Housing Supply 

(At the End of the Year; Millions of Square Meters 

Of General (Usable) Housing Floor Space) 


1980 

1981 

1982 

1983 

The entire housing supply... 

3,572 

3,666 

3,776 

3,878 

In particular: 





Collectivized. 

1,969 

2,050 

2,158 

2,246 

The personal property of a citizen. 

1,603 

1,616 

1,618 

1,632 

Of the Slim total of the housing supply; 





The urban housing supply. 

2,202 

2,272 

2,343 

2,417 

In particular; 





Collectivized... 

1,655 

1,717 

1,783 

1,850 

The personal property of a citizen. 

547 

555 

560 

567 

The rural housing supply,... 

1,370 

1,394 

1,433 

1,461 

In particular; 


. 

i 

i 


Collectivized. 

314 

333 

1 

375 

396 

the personal property of a citizen. 

1,056 

1,061 

1,058 

1,065 


I 


56 




















About 2 million new and well-equipped apartments have been built in the 
Soviet Union each year for quarter of a century—almost double 
the number in the FRG, France, Great Britain and Italy combined. Free 
apartments and extraordinarily low rents for them really gives each family, 
irrespective of their social standing and the income of its members, the right 
to use comfortable housing. Apartment rents have remained unchanged in the 
USSR since 1928 and amount to 3 percent, on the average, of all the expenses 
of blue and white collar worker families including municipal services. 

The proportion of apartment rent, including municipal services, of the total 
expenses of families in capitalist countries is substantially higher. For 
example, in the USA and Great Britain it amounts to approximately one-fifth of 
the total family expenses. 

In capitalist countries apartment rents are continually increasing. During 
1981 to 1983 alone they increased by 36 percent in Great Britain, 60 percent 
in Italy, 33 percent in Canada, 24 percent in the USA, 15 percent in the FRG 
and 36 percent in France. 

In the USA the high cost of new housing makes it practically unattainable for 
six out of seven of Americans. More than 2 million people in the country are 
without homes. Due to their high cost more than 6 million apartments remained 
unoccupied in 1979. 

More than one half of the housing supply in Great Britain was built before 
1944. More than 2 million inhabitcints of worker apartments are deprived of 
basic conveniences. 

Based on official data, more than a quarter of a million people are x/ithout 
homes in the FRG. The number who are living in shanties and huts is 
approaching 2 million. 


COPYRIGHT; Jzdatel'stvo "Finansy i statistika", 1984 


9495 

CSO: 1821/109 


57 



HOUSING CONSTRUCTION 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


UDC 711.437.728.61 


SWITCH TO SINGLE FAMILY RURAL HOMES DISCUSSED 

Moscow ZHILISHCHNOYE STROITEL^STVO in Russian No 10, Oct 84 pp 4-6 

[Article by V. M. Stern, candidate of economic sciences in Moscow,;"Methods 
for Forming a Living Environment in Rural Settlements; After the Example of 
the Moscow Oblast", under the rubric "Rural Construction"] 

[Text] The socio-economic development of the village has acquired new 
impetus in connection with the maintenance and drawing into the area of produc¬ 
tion and servicing of the small settlements and villages (which were previously 
referred to as "unpromising"), of orientations toward the development of a 
farmstead-type housing development, with plots of land hard by the flats, and 
a substantial increase in the volumes of capital investments into the village's 
social sector. These measures are being carried out as a component part of 
the USSR's Food Program, and are conducive to the formation of stable labor 
collectives in the sovkhozes and kolkhozes. Moreover, this transition to 
the farmstead-type development allows for broadening in the volume of produc¬ 
tion of the LPKh's [personal subsidiary plots] of the kolkhoz workers, laborers 
and office workers. 

The program planned by the party for further economic and social development 
of villages also predetermines the planning tasks. In particular, the plans 
for rebuilding these rural population centers should reflect the dynamics 
of population growth and the increase of housing (using small villages), 
progressive methods of organizing the living environment, taking the matter 
of the population's social aspirations into consideration, as well as 
the most favorable conditions for tending personal subsidiary plots and the 
expansion of cooperative and individual residential construction. 

A considerable amount of experience has been gained in the Moscow Oblast, 
where rural population centers are being comprehensively rebuilt under the 
guidance of local party and soviet agencies. The established material and 
technical base for rural construction is being reoriented toward production 
of farmstead-type housing developments within the Glavmosoblstroy [Main Moscow 
Oblast Construction Administration] and Glavmosoblstroymaterialov [Main Moscox ^7 
Oblast Construction Materials Administration] system. Along with the brick 
and wood which are traditional for rural residential construction, a number 
of DSK's [house-building combines] and plants will be producing structures 
using cellular concrete, arbolite and other effective materials. 


58 



A great deal of attention in the oblast is being focussed on the development 
of rural ZhSK's [housing cooperatives]. This is all the more important if 
we take into consideration that during the 10th Five-Year Plan period, individ¬ 
ual construction accounted for only 4 percent of the overall volume of housing 
which was built, whereas this indicator amounted to 46 percent during the 
7th Five-Year Plan period. 

Indicators of the economical nature of planning decisions depend on the siting 
and organization of production, on its concentration, on the on-farm dispersal 
of the people, and on the extent to which the interrelated problems of locating 
the construction projects on the selected territory, and the organization 
of the territory's layout are economically resolved. In the final analysis, 
economic effectiveness is determined by the minimal outlay of resources and 
their rational distribution in time so as to meet the normative towTx-planning 
requirements (social standards). 

Practically all the centralized farming communities and the majority of the 
settlements which comprise their productive subdivisions have been provided 
with planning and layout documents which have been corrected in one way or 
another. The latter is caused by alterations in productive factors, new 
sitings and normative planning requirements. 

We have selected certain projects which reflect the development of rural hous¬ 
ing cooperatives for^analysing economic efficiency in architectural and plan¬ 
ning resolutions: the central settlements of the "Nara" sovkhoz in the Naro- 
Forainskiy Rayon, of the "Borets" sovkhoz, in the Dmitrovskiy Rayon, of the 
"Dory" sovkhoz and the imeni Kirov Lotoshinskiy, the Chekhovskiy Rayon's 
"Leninskoye Znamya" kolkhoz, and the "Ptichnoye" GPPZ [State Poultry Breeding 
Farm] in the Naro-Fominskiy Rayon etc. 

A full-scale inspection has been conducted in the settlements of the "Nara" 
and "Borets" sovkhozes, and planning data recommendations are being made for 
the remainder of the settlements. 

The analysis revealed definite omissions in the organization of the layout 
of the settlements' structures, and has revealed reserves for increasing the 
economic effectiveness in laying out the housing tracts (development areas) 
for farmstead-type housing developments for the rural housing cooperatives. 

The latter are also characteristic of the planning designs used for the 
Petelinskiy PTF [Poultry Marketing Farm], located in the Odintsovskiy Rayon, 
and, to a lesser degree, of the settlements of the Kashirskiy Rayon's "Novo- 
selki" sovkhoz and the "Zarya Kommunizma" sovkhoz, in the Domodedovskiy Rayon. 

In all the plans which were considered, block layouts were used, with unilateral 
or bilateral building up of the subdivided blocks. This gives the construction 
in progress a low linear density and, consequently, extends the length of 
the street and service line networks. The traditional method of construction 
zoning, wherein separate building zones are set apart for siting farmstead- 
type developments, is not completely convincing. 


59 




The uneconomic one-sided building up of blocks is used in the plans of the 
"Novoselki", "Dory", imeni Kirova and "Borets" sovkhozes, the Petelinskiy 
Poultry Marketing Farm, and in part in the "Nara" sovkhoz. In the latter 
plan, the rear sides of the plots next to the farmstead houses face the main 
entrance. In the plan for the Petelinskiy Poultry Marketing Farm settlement, 
a lined-up row of one-sided development is set faciiig the rear side of the plots 
on the other side of the street. 

The streets have been widened in the settlements of the "Novoselki" sovkhoz 
(the boulevard within the red lines is 60 m wide, and about 100 m between 
the lines marking the building up), the "Borets" sovkhoz (40 and 60 m, respect¬ 
ively). and the "Nara" sovkhoz (50 and 100 m, respectively), the 
”Leninskoye znamya” kolkhoz (40 and 60 m, respectively). As a result, 
the area occupied by the street has been considerably enlarged. In a block- 
type plan, the in-line" method of development is found to be less economically 
effective than one or another of the "cluster" methods. 



Figure 1. Various methods of closing up farmstead-type and block-type 
housing developments. 


The suggested layout resolutions (Figure 1) illustrate the potential for 
increasing the linear density of a residential build-up and the opportunity 
to seek an architectural look for the street through residential development 
with a low building profile. Among these methods are the consolidation of 
residential developments through the use of loop streets and cul-de-sacs in 
the layouts, cluster arrangements, and the juxtaposition of houses of varying 
dimensions, volumes and plastics for the facades. In order to increase the 
density of these developments, a determination must be made of the most favor¬ 
able correlation of the direction faced by the plots and their distance-from 
the street, and a reduction of the width of the streets along the front. This 
permits a 1.4-1.6-fold reduction in the length of the street network and the 
area to be paved, as well as the utility networks, calculated for a single 
dwelling. 


60 






The justification for construction zoning methods has critical importance 
when farmstead-type housing (housing cooperatives) is being sited within 
the plan of ongoing settlement reconstruction which has already taken place. 

The separation of these construction developments into "independent’* isolated 
blocks is not always economically or functionally justifiable. The fact of 
the limited juridical validity of housing cooperatives (for example, the 
"Druzhba" housing cooperative on the "Nara" sovkhoz, and the "Podosinki 
housing cooperative on the "Borets" sovkhoz is no justification for setting 
these ongoing construction projects apart in independent fashion. It is more 
economical to carry out the zoning within the boundaries of established 
residential groups of sectional houses which have already been provided with 
all the utilities and services. 

As regards function, the proposed "mixed" construction zoning (within the 
residential groups) has the advantages that housing developments which make 
different use of the territory, i.e., which have divided their subsidiary 
plots up with livestock sheds, are being developed adjacent to the existing 
sectional houses. This permits grouped sheds for the livestock, which are 
cared for in the LPKh’s [wooded areas] by the people who live in the sectional 
houses, to be placed in the gaps between the sectors (purposely-left access 
corridors), and also allows the non-farmstead area enclosed by the sectional 
housing groups to be used for communal get-togethers and leisure and children’s 
games. 

With respect to composition, the mixed . construction project does not always 
achieve organic coordination: on the one hand, one perceives a front of 
sectional construction, and on the other—farmstead houses. What is the just¬ 
ification for this contrast? Indeed, skillful renovation consists in the 
fact that it allows a combining of forms, the discovery of transitions and 
stylistic unity through the application of appropriate solutions in the process 
of construction, by a well-kept external appearance and with greenery. One 
of the ways by which harmony is achieved is apparently a fluid transition 
from one of the house types to another, for example by inserting interconnected 
two-story apartment houses with bi-level apartments (or with one apartment 
per floor) between the sectional and farmstead-type houses. 

The proposals set forth above concerning the architectural merits of mixed 
groups of houses might be construed as subjective, but it is obviously 
impossible to deny the fact that the straight-line layout and monotonous plan¬ 
ning approaches of construction zoning appear unconvincing in the construction 
plans. 

An analysis of the planning proposals for developing farmstead-type construc¬ 
tion in the settlements has led to a number of fundamental proposals for 
improving the settlements’ planning structure under the conditions of their 
reconstruction. The case in point is one of putting the so-called flexible 
planning resolutions into practice. At the foundation of these resolutions 
rests the stipulation that the settlement is in effect a developing system, 
the parameters of which can undergo one alteration or another. 


61 


The norm for an adequate supply of housing is being raised, the number of 
people belonging to housing cooperatives is growing, the attitude of these 
or other groups of families toward tending personal subsidiary plots is chang¬ 
ing, and the number of people moving to settlements is increasing—and all 
this must be made to fit organically into the structural frameworks of the 
village under reconstruction. It is quite important that growth factors cause 
no excessive changes in the planning structure, in the primary planning reso¬ 
lutions, or give rise to additional capital investments during the reconstruc¬ 
tion process. It is precisely the "flexible” planning solutions which are 
called upon to provide the system's adaptivity to possible ensuing changes. 


Adaptivity is not brought about by reserving territory "just in case", but 
by using appropriate methods for developing and transforming the planning 
structure of the settlement and its elements. This is brought about, specific¬ 
ally through the formation of a functional belt zone, the development of linear 
structures, and structures which are developed frontally, radially or focally 
[ochagovyy] (Figure 2). 



r-: 

M M (addition) 

. * I AOnOAHEHME 


6 ) 

(frontal) 

<t>PO HTAAbHOE 

(formation 
enlargement) 

yKpynHEHME 
06PA30BAHMn 



Figure 2. Variations in the formation of "flexible" planning structures 


In conditions where the directions for development are limited (by the contour 
of a wooded area, a main transport route, a river), "windows" should be used, 
which are made along other unimpeded directions, and are based on the "gap" 
structure, which allows for development of structural elements and for construc¬ 
tion to progress in these directions, said construction to be effectively 
coordinated with the overall composition of the settlement's planning reso¬ 
lution. It should be mentioned that in a number of settlements (the "Borets", 
imeni Kirov, the Petelinskiy Poultry Marketing Farm etc.), the "plot-addition" 
blocks of farmstead-type houses are poorly coordinated with the general 
composition of these housing projects. These structures have limited potential 
for further development. Planning proposals and variations are shown in Fig^ 
ure 3. 


62 





(C) 

A OAhOKBAPTHPHWC 
1-2 3T. AOMA 

(D) A AaVKKaAPTMPhUC 

1-2 3T.A0MA 


Figure 3. Variations for development of a settlement planning structure, 
after the "Borets" sovkhoz (Dmitrovskiy Rayon). 

Key: a—planning proposal; b—alternatives for development; 

(A)—existing structures; (B)—projected structures; (C)—single¬ 
unit, 1-2-story houses; (D)—double-unit 1-2-story houses; 

1—club; 2—trade center; 3—main office; 4—school; 5—kinder¬ 
garten; 6—sports complex; 7—sectional houses; 8—production 
area; 9—new residential developments, including house-building 
cooperatives; 10—addition 


Settlement reconstruction stipulates that the plan be carried out taking the 
demand for the housing which has been developed into consideration. For 
example, the daily maintenance enterprises: children's day nurseries and kinder¬ 
gartens, food stores etc. are not arranged under a single roof, but one after 
the other, in booths and sectional modular construction. And residential 
construction itself is handled not as completed clusters of houses, but as 
a growing development. 

In the comprehensive planning of the plots alongside the houses, it is 
important to provide for (and accordingly, to orient the individual house¬ 
building cooperative members and builders) to the opportunity to make use 
of the so-called "growing” house. Subsequently, the rooms of the house can 
be expanded in accordance' with the plan, as the family grows. 

The above also relates to the settlement’s engineering utilities and services 
and the external appearance of the territory, which is planned in coordination 
with the rates and workload of construction. It relates primarily to the 
installation of the main heat supply and sewage lines. Thus, in the boiler 


63 





rooms, the number of heating appliances increases at about the time loads 
are Introduced, and the sewage purification units are installed as the number 
of sections increases. 

Provision can be made in the plan for the use of simplified (local) engineering 
utilities systems for single-story houses. These systems can be connected 
later on to the central settlement networks. 

One of the directions for the "diachronic unfolding" could be the planning, 
at the first stage, of multifunctional use of the service enterprises (the 
coffee-shop/canteen, the sports hall-movie hall etc.). 

The technical and economic indicators should also undergo certain changes. 

Thus, during the planning of farmstead-type housing developments, each house 
(apartment) is inseparably linked to its plot, as to a planning module. Here, 
all importance is lost for the indicator for housing density, which relates 
to the area where the housing is sited (especially to the net density). In 
its place, we bring in an indicator for the linear density of the housing 
development: the amount of houses or apartments falling on each 100 m of the 
street network. It is upon this very indicator that the proportionate length 
of the engineering utility supply lines, which are laid along the streets, 
depends, as well as the area of pavement for the public streets and sidewalks, 
and the area planted with greenery. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1984 
12659 

CSO: 1821/032 


64 




CONSTRUCTION >1ACIIINERY AND EQUIP'IENT 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


UDC 69.003:658.011.8.002.5 


TECHNICAL LEVEL OF AVAILABLE CONSTRUCTION MCHINERY 

Moscow ^EKKANIZATSIYA STROITEL'STVA in Russian No 9, Sep 84 pp 5-7 

[Excerpts from article by V. M. Kazarinov and V. I. Polyakov, candidates of 
technical sciences (TsNIIOMTP) [Central Scientific-Research and Design-Experimental 
Institute on" Organization, Mechanization and Technical Aid to Construction]. 
"Technical Level of Building Technology and Effectiveness of Work Mechanization ] 


[Excerpts] The current technology of construction work, presenting definite 
requirements for the newly developed and improved engineering, has a decisive 
influence on the formulation of machine pools. Every year around 50,000 basic^ 
construction machines are supplied to construction. The quality and technological 
level of these machines determine to a significant degree the cost of the work, 
the labor productivity, the expenditure of energy resources, the working condi¬ 
tions of the service personnel, and consequently also the overall effectiveness 
of building production. 

The industrialization of construction which is associated with an increase in 
the volume of installed structures and the intensification of work production on 
the one hand, as well as the increased portion of capital investments for tae 
reconstruction of industrial facilities under cramped conditions and the need 
for mechanization of small and dispersed jobs on the other determine the need 
for machines of both large and small unit capacity. 

The system of machines for comprehensive mechanization of construction for the 
period 1981-1985 ratified by the USSR Gosstroy [State Committee on Construction 
Affairs] and the Minstroydormash [Ministry of Construction, Road and Municipal 
Machine Building] provides for the proportional development of machines of small 
and large unit capacity- However, the portion of powerful machines in the 
overall output is insufficient, and its growth rate is rather low. Thus, the 
production of high-power excavators is 9 percent, scrapers—4.3 percent, bull¬ 
dozers—1.3 percent, motor graders—8 percent, boom cranes—1 percent, and tower 
cranes—7 percent of the overall volume of production for each group of machines. 
The average capacity of the machines which are being manufactured is increasing 
insignificantly. For the period of 1980—1985 it increased by approximately 5 
percent for excavators, auto and tower cranes, and by 19-25 percent for single¬ 
bucket loaders, motor graders, bulldozers and scrapers. By absolute value, the 
average capacity is still only 10/13 to 5/9 of that required by the machine 
System. 


65 



At the present time there is a need for bulldozers and motor graders with 
nominal capacity of 800 and 250 horsepower respectively, for pipe layers with 
load capacity of 80 tons, for caterpillar tread cranes and cranes on special 
chasses with load capacity of 250-400 tons, for tower cranes with load capacity 
of 100 tons, and for scrapers with bucket capacity of 25 cubic meters. 

In connection with expanded construction under specific regional conditions, 
machines manufactured in special variants—KhL [not further expanded] and 
southern—must be developed. As yet the output of special technology is still 
rather limited and comprises: excavators and bulldozers—2.4 percent each, 
tower cranes—8 percent instead of the required 12-15 percent of the overall 
output. There are no plans for modifications of machines adapted to work at 
high temperatures and a dust-filled environment. The development of KhL 
machines is inhibited by the insufficient output of complement products. 

At small and dispersed cbnstruction-installation work sites, including at sites 
with cramped working conditions, low capacity machines are irreplaceable. These 
effectively facilitate the elimination of manual labor. The development of 
such machines as microbulldozers of tow class 0.6-1 ton force, motorized carts 
and earth digging-transport machines with bucket capacity of 0.1-0.17 cubic 
meters, handler cranes with load capacity of 1-3 tons, mini-rollers weighing 
0.5-2 tons and others will make it possible to more rationally formulate the 
technological complements of mechanization means and to improve the structure 
of the machine pool. 

Over 30 percent of the wheeled construction machines (cranes, loaders, excava¬ 
tors, bulldozers, drilling machines) are manufactured on the basis of all¬ 
purpose trucks, tow trucks and agricultural tractors, and only 1 percent of 
the self-propelled boom cranes and 7 percent of the overall output of single¬ 
bucket loaders are manufactured on a special automobile type chassis with a 
hinge-articulated frame. 

The special chasses, aside from their high speed indicators, ensure an increase 
in the load and height characteristics, maneuverability, passability, and trans¬ 
portability of the machines which are mounted on them. Additional tow vehicles 
and trailers (for caterpillar tread cranes) are needed for transporting 
pneumatic wheel and caterpillar cranes with a speed of 15-20 km/hr. Cranes 
on special automobile type chasses are self-propelled at speeds of up to 
50 km/hr, and with consideration of telescoping boom equipment they provide 
an overall 6-10-time reduction in repositioning time and a reduction of' 

124 man-hours as applied to a crane with load capacity of 100 tons. The 
indicated technological qualities of special chasses may also be realized for 
excavators, concrete pump trucks with distributing booms, and means of technical 
servicing. This suggests the economic expediency of organizing the series 
manufacture of multi-purpose special wheeled chasses, as well as industrial 
type caterpillar tractors by the automobile industry, tractor and agricultural 
machine building. 

Rubber caterpillar treads are used in small capacity construction machines 
(bulldozers, transport machines, excavators with bucket capacity of up to 
0.25 cubic meters, self-propelled scaffolds, etc.). They have a number of 


6e 



advantages over steel treads: the weight of the machine is reduced, and con¬ 
sequently the pressure which it exerts on the foundation; jolts and noises 
are less felt, and the surface is preserved, which is particularly important 
in work on a technological floor of facilities undergoing reconstruction. 

The ergonomic indicators, which significantly affect the technical level of 
the machines, depend on the characteristics of the base chassis. The noise 
and vibration levels and gases emitted by new construction machines generally 
meet health standards. However, there are still a number of machines, which 
are primarily mounted on tractors, whose ergonomic indicators exceed the 
health norms. 


An important direction in technical progress is the application of automatics 
in construction machines. Each machine is equipped with the appropriate set 
of automatic control-measurement and protective devices and apparatus. The 
technical level of means of automatics is rather high in world practical 
application. Continuous information supplied to the operator on the degree 
of load on the machine, automatic all-mode limiting devices for marginal 
states of operational movement with application of microprocessors and elements 
of computer technology, and remote and radio control characterize the designs 
of modern construction machines. 

In domestic machines, control systems for technological modes of operation of 
road machines are being developed (plane stabilizer, layer stabilizer), the 
laser beam is used for controlling bulldozers and scrapers, electronic techno¬ 
logy is used in the preparation of concrete and mortar mixtures, etc. The 
scientific search continues in the sphere of systems for protecting boom 
cranes against overloads. Work on preparations for series production of load 
capacity governing devices for telescopic boom cranes has not yet been completed. 
Joint efforts of specialists in the sphere of production and operation are 
required to ensure the reliability of the systems. 

The insufficient participation of Minpribor [Ministry of Instrument Making, 
Automation Equipment and Control Systems] in the development and assimilation 
of instrument technology in construction machines makes it impossible to 
improve their technical level in this regard. It is necessary to create 
special services for maintaining instruments and safety systems in working 
condition within the building mechanization subsections. 

The ministries manufacturing complement products bear almost no responsibility 
for their reliability and durability on the construction machine, and do not 
tie in their service life with the service life of the machine as a whole. 

The technical level of construction machines must be formulated at the primary 
stage during development of initial (technical) requirements (TT) for the 
creation of the given machine model dimension by the primary consumer (customer). 
The active role of the primary consumer is retained also at the other stages 
of development and introduction of new building technology. However, this 
role of the consumer is not sufficiently specified in GOST 15.001-73, in which 
the list of initial TT is placed in the appendix, and not in the main text. 

Also, the technical requirements are not regulated as a basic document in the 
technical documentation for development of the machines. 


67 


In a number of cases, new machines are developed not on the basis of the 
initial TT, but on the basis of those developed by the consumer. 

For the purpose of increasing the influence of the consumer in the development 
of new means of mechanization and in preparation of TT according to a unified 
example, the USSR Gosstroy has ratified the "Methodological Positions on the 
Development of Initial Technical Requirements for the Creation of Construction 
and Road Machines, Mechanized Instruments and Special Motor Transport Means" 
developed by TsNIIOMTP. 

The necessary information on the reliability, durability and repairability of 
construction machines must be obtained primarily as a result of testing machines 
of series production under operational conditions. At the present time, ac¬ 
cording to the plan for comprehensive mechanization and automation of con¬ 
struction-installation work ratified by the USSR Gosstroy, testing of initial 
batches of new machines is done primarily by TsNIIOMTP with the participation 
of Dal ’Nils [Far Eastern Scientific-Research Institute on Construction] and’ 
SoyuzdorNII [State All-Union Road Scientific-Research Institute]. Due to 
the limited circle of participants in this work, the number of machines tested 
does not exceed 20-25 percent of their overall output. It is necessary to 
involve the scientific-research institutes on construction, the VUZ territorial 
laboratories, and the "Orgtekhstroy" Trusts in this work. 

It would be expedient to organize departmental or interdepartmental machine¬ 
testing stations such as those at the Moldavian SSR Minavtodor [Ministry of 
Highways] and the USSR Mlnsel'khoz [Ministry of Agriculture] under the USSR 
Gosstroy. 

To a large degree, the system of evaluation and certification of construction 
machines which is headed by representatives of the primary consumer determines 
the quality of the manufactured product. The methodological standard document 
used for evaluating the technical level and quality of construction machines 
is RD 22-2-78, which was developed by the VNIIstroydormash and the TsNIIOMTP 
in 1978. However, the effective statute, nomenclature of indicators and 
selection of machine-analogs does not fully correspond to current increased 
requirements for certification to the highest category of quality. 

The expanded application of machines with high unit capacity, cranes on special 
automobile t37pe chasses, specialized transport means, concrete mixing trucks, 
etc. requires the organization of their operation according to a dispatch 
schedule ensuring a high degree of utilization. It is expedient to concentrate 
heavy machines within special mechanization subsections and associations such 
as Soyuztyazhtrans. Increasing the number’of special machines and equipment 
(pneumatic punches, hydro-vacuuming installations, concrete pump trucks, etc.), 
as well as expanding the application of the automatics system requires the 
development of specialized subsections for the application of these systems. 

Further improvements in building technology will facilitate the increased 
effectiveness of mechanization and scientific—technical progress in the 
sphere of building production. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1984 


12322 

CSO: 1821/097 


68 


CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


MODERNIZED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY AT ZLATOUST 
Moscow STROITEL’NAYA GAZETA in Russian 27 Feb 85 p 3 

[Article by V. Rozhkov, engineer of Orgtekhstroy [State Trust for the Indus¬ 
trialization of Construction] of Glavyuzhuralstroy [Main Administration for 
Construction in the South Urals Region] (Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk Oblast); 
"Nonstandard Rebuilding"] 

[Text] A facility for producing wall and skylight window case¬ 
ments of a new series for industrial buildings is being read¬ 
ied at the Zlatoust Metal-Structure Plant for 
operation. The former PR-05-50/73 series was cumbersome and 
inconvenient for manufacture and for installing. 

The new industrial constructional structure is more than twice as light as the 
old structure. The Zlatoust plant alone will now save 27,000-28,000 tons of 
rolled metal per year because of this- And if it is considered that produc¬ 
tivity at the construction site will increase 1%-fold through the installa¬ 
tion of this structure, then it becomes clear what a major step forward the 
factory workers have taken, jointly with scientists and designers. 

Here in the vast well-lighted buildings there is none of the usual thunder of 
iron. Everything here is subordinated to the strict rhythm of the conveyor, 
and the machines control the operating process. 

The plant’s engineers had been searching for some years for more rational ways 
of making the product. Different variants were tried, but one that was eco¬ 
nomical enough was not found. So an appeal for help was made to TsNIIPro- 
yektstal’konstruktsiya [Central Scientific-Research and Design Institute for 
Metal Constructional Structure], Laboratory chief V, Kolbatskiy was in 
charge of the work in this area in the institute. 

The structure developed by the institute consisted of rectangular pipes 28x25 
mm in size in the form of a figure-eight. They were joined by means of resis¬ 
tance welding. The design was simple to manufacture, but the scientists had 
to show no little inventiveness to assure that the new casements would be not 
only strong but lightweight and easy to install. 

Introduction of the new technology enabled the production of casement glaz¬ 
ing with a rubber seal, like the standard for bus windows. Thanks to this, 
heat losses in industrial buildings will be reduced. 


69 



Assimilating the new series has not gone smoothly by far. The conveyor and 
flow lines had to be adjusted while work was under way. But this was not the 
only complexity. There was a constant shortage of tubing of the required di¬ 
ameter at the plant. Foreign companies supplied them. Moreover, the tubing 
and the joining belts had to be welded manually from the start. 

The rebuilding was nonstandard to a great extent. Builders of Zlatoustmetal- 
lurgstroy [Zlatoust Trust for the Construction of Metallurgical Facilities] 
and installers of the Startup and Setting-Up Administration of Vostokmetal- 
lurgmontazh [Trust for the Installation of Metallurgical Equipment in the 
Eastern Economic Region] were themselves often both the developers and the 
designers. Thus the new production facility became the joint offspring 
of South Urals builders, installers and factory workers. They obtained the 
first domestic output of this profile on the new equipment at the end of 
1984. 

At the start of this year, the enterprise converted completely to the output 
of the product made from its own section. During the rebuilding a rolling 
and pipe-welding mill, a unit for the longitudinal cutting of sheet, an 
unwinding machine and other machinery were installed in the casement-window 
department. Most of the facilities operate in an automated mode. Now the 
metalworkers themselves are rolling the rectangular tubes, and, with the help 
of high-frequency current welding machines, are making the necessary shapes. 
This year the plant should manufacture 15,000 tons of window casements of the 
new series. But the collective plans to do more. Reserves have been found 
already. 

A group of specialists and scientists under V. Suvorov, candidate of engineer¬ 
ing sciences and chief of the laboratory of the Urals Nil [Scientific- 
Research Institute] for the Pipe Industry, has developed a technology for roll¬ 
ing finished section in the form of a figure eight all at once, omitting the 
intermediate operations for welding. 

As you have noted, we have had to use the future tenses of verbs several 
times. The fact is that the new production facility has till now been forced to 
operate in the startup mode—the state commission still has not accepted 
it because of construction deficiencies at other facilities. They are wait¬ 
ing for the Zlatoustmetallurgstroy Trust builders to erect the mechanical- 
repair department, the warehouses for GSM’s [fuels and lubricants] and petro¬ 
leum product, the purification structures, and the fire department’s reser¬ 
voirs. In all, this year, another 800,000 rubles’ worth of construction and 
installing operations are to be assimilated. The lack of haste is strange, 
for the contractors themselves are interested in obtaining new and effective 
window modules. 


11409 

CSO: 1821/074 


70 



CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


LOW PLANT CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN CONSTRUCTION SECTOR NOTED 

Moscow BYULLETEN’ STROITEL’NOY TEKHNIKI in Russian No 1, Jan 85 p 17 

[Article: "Further Increasing the Proportion of Large-Panel Housing Construc¬ 

tion"] 

[Text] Gosgrazhdanstroy [State Committee for Nonindustrial Construction and 
Architecture], after examining the question of further increasing the propor¬ 
tion of large-panel housing construction by improving utilization of the capa¬ 
city of enterprises that assemble fully prefabricated housing and by restrict¬ 

ing the share of urban construction of brick apartment houses, noted that, in 
1983, by using 79 percent of the productive capacity of enterprises that build 
fully prefabricated housing, the share of construction of fully prefabricated 
apartment houses in the total construction volume through state appropria¬ 
tions and ZhSK [housing-construction combine] resources was 54,4 percent. By 
using 85-90 percent of the enterprises’ capacity, the share of construction of 

fully prefabricated apartment houses in the total volume of state and coopera¬ 

tive construction could be on the order of 58 percent. 

The main causes of unsatisfactory use of the productive capacity of housing- 
construction enterprises was slow solution by ministries and agencies of some 
organizational and technical questions, including those of providing enter¬ 
prises with supply and equipment resources, manning production activities and 
eliminating personnel turnover. 

The large amount of obsolete and worn operating equipment, molds and rigging at 
operating enterprises affects negatively the quality of the output produced. 

The low level of unification of the products list of reinforced-concrete 
products in some series of standard designs that were developed by Gosgrazh¬ 
danstroy and Union-republic gosstroy institutes complicates the enterprises’ 
work and reduces utilization of their capacity. In so doing, output of the 
range of interlocking sectional units necessary for good-quality housing de¬ 
velopment has not been provided for. This, in turn, compels the use of brick 
housing. 

The volume of contracting work in housing construction by ministries and 
departments, which is lower than the capacity of the enterprises for fully 
prefabricated housing construction that are subordinate to them, affects nega¬ 
tively utilization of the capacity in some regions. At the same time, solu¬ 
tion of the problems of bringing the enterprises up to a full workload by the 


71 



output of reinforced-concrete structure for other ministries and departments 
that do not have large-panel housing-construction enterprises in these regions 
is attended by great difficulties. This question is complicated also by the 
impossibility of planning commodity output for enterprises that are on the 
construction roster. 

Ministries and agencies are not satisfactorily realizing the programs for 
rebuilding and reequipping large-panel housing enterprises that were worked 
out for the 1983-1985 period. Certain Union-republic gosstroys, including 
RSFSR Gosstroy and the Kazakh SSR and Kirghiz SSR Gosstroys, have not taken 
adequate steps to reduce the amount of brick construction where there is 
underutilized large-panel housing-construction capacity. 

It is recommended that ministries and agencies: 

examine at board meetings the problems of utilizing the production capacity of 
enterprises that build fully prefabricated housing and of increasing the share 
of large-panel housing construction in the total amount of state and coopera¬ 
tive construction, as well as the problems of increasing the factory fabri¬ 
cation and raising the quality of the articles produced and of housing con¬ 
struction; 

require that the plans for housing—construction combines call for erecting 
buildings for cultural and personal-services purposes with 1.090 construction¬ 
al structure series, which is produced through the cooperation of housing- 
construction combine enterprises and ZhBI [reinforced-concrete products] 
plants; and 

intensify monitoring over progress in realizing programs for the restructuring 
and operational reequipping of large-panel housing-construction enterprises 
and for developing such programs during the 12th Five-Year Plan. 


It is recommended that Union—republic gosstroys intensify monitoring over the 
observance of the structure of housing construction and prohibit the con¬ 
struction of brick housing where the capacity of large-panel housing-construc¬ 
tion enterprises is underutilized. 

COPYRIGHT: Stroyizdat, 1985 

11409 

CSO: 1821/066 


72 


4 


CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


BUILDING BRICK SHORTAGE IN LENINGRAD 

Moscow STROITEL^NAYA GAZETA in Russian 27 Jan 85 p 2 

VORONOV, V., Correspondent 

[Abstract] The building brick shortage for Leningrad, estimated at 100 million, 
is expected to be offset by the soon-to-be completed automated enterprise at 
Nikol^skoye, a settlement near Leningrad. Annual output is expected to be 
658,000 standard bricks per person (as against 250,000 industry average). The 
plant will employ only 152 people to provide an annual profit of 2.15 million 
rubles which is expected to return to the state its investment in less than 
eight years. Thirty percent of the entire production will be devoted to pro¬ 
duction of the facing brick now in short supply. However, current information 
shows that only one production association is producing the brick at barely 
26-28 million pieces annually. Glavleningradstroy, meant to be the main cus¬ 
tomer, gets only 14 percent and Glavzapstroy gets 10 percent. The remaining 75 
percent is distributed among minor consumers and is used mainly in building 
partitions and annexes. Losses due to poor handling qualities of the brick 
also result in lower output. Many problems were to have been solved in an ex¬ 
perimental construction project in 1984 for a kindergarten, but this got no 
further than the excavation for the foundation. Output could be increased by 
mechanized assembly of pre-fabricated brick panels, but neither Glavlenstroy- 
material nor Glavleningradstroy are willing to take the initiative. It appears 
that Lensovet should act as arbitrator. 


12725 

CSO: 1821/072 




CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND tlATERIALS 


JPHS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


4 


INNOVATIONS IN CONCRETE PRODUCTION TECIRTIQUES VIEWED 
IIoscow PPvAVDA in Russian 20 Jan 85 p 2 

[Article by N. Dolgopolov, doctor of technical sciences: ^’Powerful 
Additives - New Technology Activated"] 

[Text] It would seem that nothing could be simpler than the production 
of concrete and reinforced concrete. Specific quantities of gravel, 
sand, cement and water are mixed, the obtained mix is delivered to 
forms, and it usually is compressed with vibrators. A waiting period 
ensues while the products reach a required solidity. If these are 
turned out at factories, hardening is speeded—up by heating and curing 
at 80 degrees in a steam heat atmosphere. Following this scheme we 
produce over 250 million cubic meters of concrete mixes per year, a 
good half of it at precast reinforced concrete plants. 

In this manner production of concrete and reinforced concrete has reached 
phenomenal scales. It utilizes nearly all the cement produced in the 
country and many million tons of sand and gravel. About 20 million tons 
of steel per year are used for reinforcement and metallic forms, and 
about 12 million tons of coal for heat treatment of precast reinforced 
concrete. In construction, concrete and reinforced concrete consume 
about one half of overall expenditures. 

The question arises: Does today*s level of technical production using 
these materials correspond to the role designated for them? Technical 
and economic indicators testify to the facts. During the last three 
five-year plans, monetary returns have steadily declined. Work pro¬ 
ductivity is not very high—even at large-scale factories, there are 
less than two cubic meters of production per worker per day. The quality 
of productivity is also alarming. Highx>7ay reinforced concrete slabs in 
regions of Western Siberia begin to fall apart after one or tx 7 o years, 
although their service life should be 20 years. Losses from low 
longevity of reinforced concrete products many times exceed their cost. 


It is hardly necessary to have more obvious indicators than the existing 
"simple" technology has become obsolete and demands replacement. vJhat 
kind specifically? First of all in our viex^, it is necessary to reject 


74 



the use of ”hard** concrete mixes, "high-powered" methods of curing and 
lengthy heat treatment of products. To replace these, intensive 
concrete production methods should be based on new applications of 
chemistry. 

Concrete production is, after all, essentially one of the divisions of 
chemical technology. Here are also chemical reactions between water and 
cement, physical-chemical processes, which determine the structure of 
concrete and itw strength. By utilizing chemical methods it is possible 
to substantially accelerate production, increase volume, and raise labor 
productivity and product quality with a minimum expenditure of cement 
and energy. And this has already been proven not only by scientific 
research but by production practice, overseas as well as in our country. 
Naturally, mechanization, automation and "robotization" of production 
are also needed, but on the basis of new technological processes which 
require the introduction of surface-acting substances, the so-called 
superplasticizers. 

Various "additives" to concrete mixes have been known for some time. 

Among them the waste products of collulose-paper and vodka industries, 
as well as their various modifications. These are all useful, but they 
do not bring about new qualitative results as do the synthetic super¬ 
plasticizers . 

The point is that a lot of water is usually introduced in concrete mixes 
to make them plastic and insure ease of placement. During concrete 
hardening, water leaves pores and microcracks, greatly reducing its 
strength. Loss of strength is compensated by adding additional cement 
to the mix, which increases the product’s net cost without always 
increasing the quality. Superplasticizers eliminate these deficiencies. 

Ti7o- thirds of interior walls for housing construction are made in vertical 
molds. To fill the relatively narrow space in the mold, a fluid con¬ 
crete mix is prepared, consisting of 450 kilograms of cement and 220 
liters of water per cubic meter. By reducing the water content by 50 
liters and cement by 110 kilograms, the superplasticizers provide a 
"fluid" concrete mix, which when used in product forming requires three 
times less effort and eliminates the need for intense vibration. 

In industrial construction, superplasticizers resolve essential questions 
in the production of high-strength concrete marks 600-800, made with 
ordinary cements mark 500. At the No. 11 factory of Glavmospromstroy- 
materialov (Glavnoye upravleniye promyshlennosti stroitel’nykh materialov; 
Main Administration of the Building I^terials Industry) production of 
columns mark 500 has started using these cements. About 4 kilograms of 
superplasticizer for a concrete mass of 2,400 kilograms will insure 
product longevity and decrease to two-thirds times the cost of rein¬ 
forcing steel. 



4 


Reinforced concrete blocks of tunnel lining obtained with the use of 
superplasticizers at the Ochakov Reinforced Concrete Components Factory 
of Hosmetrostroy (Upravlenuye strotel'stva Moskovskogo metropolitena; 
Moscow Metro Construction Administration) indicated a high degree of 
water proofness, in many instances eliminating the need of cast iron 
tubings. This will permit an economy of cost per linear meter of tunnel 
of 1000 rubles, and a saving of five tons of cast iron. 

For the construction of first-category roads, everywhere we use asphalt. 

Fluid" concrete mixes with superplasticizers insure a long-lasting, 
nonfreezing road cover, simultaneously decreasing labor from 34 to 7 
working days for each 1,000 square meters with a saving of petroleum 
bitumen and reduction in construction cost. 


Over two million cubic meters of reinforced concrete products and 
components have been produced at many plants and construction sites in 
recent years utilizing new native superplasticizers. This large-scale 
experiment has verified fully the possibility of speeding-up concrete 
work and achieving a simultaneous average saving of over 20 percent in 
cement, energy and labor resources. There is a substantial increase ^ 
in the quality of reinforced concrete and its longevity. 

In our country, three types of superplasticizers have been developed, 
tested and produced experimentally on an industrial scale. The Scientific 
Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete of USSR Gosstroy 
has developed mth the participation of chemists the superplasticizer 
C-3 , which is produced by enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Chemical 
Industry. As far back as 1977, the All-Union Scientific Research 
Institute of Reinforced Concrete of the USSR Ministry of Construction 
Materials had developed and tested at the factories a superplasticizer 
designated "10-03" and, then, together with scientists of the Azebaiian 
Academy of Sciences, "40-03." Testing installations have been created 
at enterprises of construction industries. These native products 
correspond to and in some respects surpass the best world samples. 

However, mass production of these products has not been established 

^ installation for 60,000 tons of superplasticizer 

C 3 has been delyaed. An experimental industrial plant for 15,000 
tons of superplasticizer "40-03" is underway. Raw materials are available 
and real possibilities to increase its production by 10-15 times, these 
possibilities must be exploited since the demand for these materials 
exceeds 300,000 tons per year. 


rue, certain ministries are also building a number of installations 
with the capacity of 4,000-6,000 tons. Providing the means of 
chemicalization" regionally also has its positive aspects. With 

. installations, earmarked 

for 100,000-200,000 cubic meters of reinforced concrete per year, the 
construction industry enterprises and workers will have the possibility 
of engaging in a wider intensification of its production. Presently the 




» 


76 


All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Reinforced Concrete is 
developing a "50-03" superplasticizer, distinguished by simplicity of 
preparation and availability of raw materials, which xjill more adeouatelv 
4 than others suit the requirementsof small installations. 


9 


The chemicalization of concrete has reached a period when serious care 
IS required for its practical exploitation. It is believed that it V 70 ul 
e advisable for^USSR Gosstroy to consider the question of establishing^ 
territorial chemicalization centers at existing institutes and tech- 
nolopcal bureaus. It is desirable to establish leading enterprises 
an institutes for the task, determine the direction of their activities 
and range of responsibility. It would also be profitable to organize 
a systematic training of factory specialists and construction workers 
in the optimal use of the materials of chemicalization. This t^iH 
permit a faster attainment of the immense technical and economic benefits 
tnat tne new technology has to offer. 


12778 

CSO: 1821/116 




77 



CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND MATERIALS 


JPRS-UCR-85-009 
23 May 1985 


t 


POLYMER HELPS CEMENT 

Tashkent EKONOMIKA I ZHIZN' in Russian No 11, Nov 84 pp 66-69 
KHIDOYATOV, K., Candidate of TechnicaL Sciences 

[Abstract] A polymeric concrete additive called VRP-31 was developed at 
Tashkent Polytechnical Institute under the leadership of Academician K.S. 
Akhmedov. Initial tests at the Central Laboratory, Glavstroyindustria, UzSSR 
Ministry of Building and at the Fergana Home Building Combine showed that the 
additive improves the properties of finished prefab forms and monolithic con¬ 
crete. The concrete mixture is more uniform, does not separate, and pours 
easily, while the finished products have high water and frost resistance. 

Adding VRP-31 to plugging mixtures and drilling muds improves their properties. 
The additive accelerates hardening of concrete in road construction. VRP-31 
contains phenol and is simple to make. Cost per ton is 500 rubles as compared 
to 4200 for GKZh-94 and 1200 for VRP-1. A product costing only 60 ruble per 
ton does exist, but it must be used in 10 times greater amounts than ArRP-31 to 
get the same effect. The polymer's capability to hasten the hydration process 
results in a 5-7 percent saving in cement. This will save the republic 
6,779,000 rubles annually. 


12765 

CSO: 1821/073 


78