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243083 


JPRS 83697 
16 June 1983 


China Report 

POLITICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 

No. 431 

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JPRS 83697 


16 June 1983 


CHINA REPORT 

Political, Sociological and Military Affairs 

No. 431 

Contents 

PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 

Western Europe's Relations With USSR, Eastern Europe Examined 

(Yan Mu; SHIJIE ZHISHI, 16 Feb 83). 1 

PARTY AND STATE 

Liaoning's Administrative System of Counties Under Cities 
Reviewed 

(Xu Jiatun; QUNZHONG, 5 Feb 83). 8 

Jiangsu's City Jurisdictions Summarized 

(QUNZHONG, 5 Feb 83). 14 

Fujian Sixth People's Congress Election Concludes 

(FUJIAN RIBAO, 9 Apr 83). 16 

Party Urged To Improve Party Work Style 

(FUJIAN RIBAO, 5 Apr 83). 18 

Conference Held on Consolidation of Party Organizations 

(HEILONGJIANG RIBAO, 4 Apr 83)... . 20 

Rights of Party Members in Decisionmaking Reaffirmed 

(Tan Yiyan, Li Shuguo; HEILONGJIANG RIBAO, 1 Apr 83). 22 

Congratulations Relayed to Heilongjiang People's Congress 

(HEILONGJIANG RIBAO, 14 Apr 83).. 23 


- a - 


[III - CC - 80] 










Role of Party Schools in Cadre Development Stressed 

(GUANGZHOU RIBAO, 3 Apr 83). 25 

Eliminating Prejudice Against Intellectuals Urged 

(Wu Jianli; RENMIN RIBAO, 4 Apr 83). 29 

Shaanxi Holds Cadre Training Classes 

(He Ping; RENMIN RIBAO, 4 Apr 83). 32 

Harbin Court Official Discusses People's Courts' Independence 

(Liu Guang Yan; HARBIN RIBAO, 18 Feb 83). 33 

Shandong Standing Committee Sets Regulations To Improve 
Working Style 

(DAZHONG RIBAO, 6 Apr 83). 35 

Need for Utilizing Old Cadres Declaimed 

(Zheng Yue; QUNZHONG, 5 Feb 83 ). 38 

On Developing Able Personnel 

(Fan Ren; QUNZHONG, 5 Feb 83). 41 


SOCIOLOGICAL, EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


'GUANGMING RIBAO' on Training of Professional Managerial 
Personnel 

(Xia Shuzhang; GUANGMING RIBAO, 9 Apr 83). 45 

Xinjiang Convenes Meeting To Cite Advanced Workers in 
Mediation Work 

(ZHONGGUO FAZHI BAO, 11 Feb 83). 48 

Cadres Training, Education in Ningxia Discussed 

(Ming Xuan; NINGXIA RIBAO, 3 Feb 83). 49 

Hebei Bureau of Higher Education Studies To Improve Higher 
Education 

(Zhang Qiuyang; HEBEI RIBAO, 3 Mar 83 ). 52 

'RENMIN RIBAO' Calls for Strengthening of Technical Education 

(Liu Daoyu; RENMIN RIBAO, 10 Apr 83). 54 


- b - 

















INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 


WESTERN EUROPE’S RELATIONS WITH USSR, EASTERN EUROPE EXAMINED 

Beijing SHIJIE ZHISHI [WORLD KNOWLEDGE] in Chinese No 4, 16 Feb 83 p 2-4 

[Article by Yan Mu [3508 2606]: M The Relations of Western Europe to the 
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 11 ] 

[Text] Just now new developments are appearing in the relations between 
Western Europe and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Most recently 
the Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko visited West Germany, and the French 
Foreign Minister Cheysson decided to visit the Soviet Union in February. 

When Poland announced lifting of military controls and the release of 
Walesa, the leader of the former trade union Solidarity, Western Europe 
assumed a calmer attitude toward the situation in Poland. Simultaneously, 
the new Soviet leadership launched repeated peace offensives against Western 
Europe; when the Warsaw Pact bloc proposed to NATO a "Treaty on Refraining 
From the Use of Military Force and for the Maintenance of Peaceful Relations," 
one after the other of the West European countries declared that they would 
"carefully" study the matter. In view of this situation, the French news¬ 
paper FIGARO wrote: "An optimistic breeze of good prospects blows in the 
problem of the East-West dialog." Is this indeed the true situation? What 
is the policy of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Europe toward Western 
Europe? And what is then the policy of Western Europe toward the Soviet 
Union and Eastern Europe? What can the developments be this year in the 
relations between Western Europe and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe? 

Let us answer these questions by looking at the facts of the past year. 

A Year in Review 

The year 1982 with its general background of an intensified Soviet-U.S. 
struggle over Europe, shows three major problems that influenced the 
relations between Western Europe and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 
namely the negotiations about medium-range nuclear weapons, the situation 
in Poland and the question of economic sanctions against the Soviet Union 
and Poland. To put it briefly, last year the relationship between Western 
Europe and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe was characterized by three 
distinct features: 


1 


First, The State of Apathy in Political Relations. Outstanding indication 
of this: Apart from attendances at the funeral of Brezhnev, no important 
statesmen from either side, now from the majority of West European countries, 
especially ont from the NATO member states, nor from the Soviet Union, 
have visited each other, nor have any substantial government to government 
agreements been signed. The Madrid Conference on Security in Europe is in 
a long-standing deadlock. The Vienna negotiations for proportionate 
disarmament are not showing the slightest progress. The West European 
countries were adamant in thier demand that the Soviet Union withdraw its 
troops from Afghanistan. Some countries tried for a time to bring about 
a political solution, but the Soviet Union paid no heed to such suggestions. 
The West European countries held the Soviet Union responsible for the 
situation in Poland and pressured the Soviet Union to have the Polish 
military authorities lift their military control, release the political 
prisoners and restore the trade union Solidarity, but all such moves 
were resisted by the Soviet Union. Conditioned by the worsened relations 
between the Soviet Union and Western Europe, further aggrevated by the 
common accusation by the East European countries that the West is interfering 
in Poland’s internal politics, the political relations between Western 
Europe and Eastern Europe were also adversely affected. 

Second, Unyielding Attitudes on Both Sides. "Peace proposals" by the 
Soviet Union followed one after the other. In March last year, Brezhnev 
proclaimed that the Soviet Union would unilaterally "temporarily stop" 
any further deployment of SS-20 missiles and "freeze" the number and 
capabilities of those already deployed; in June he declared the Soviet 
Union would refrain from first use of nuclear weapons; in October he 
proclaimed the Soviet Union will not deploy any further intermediate 
missiles east of the Ural that could hit European targets. However, the 
West European countries pointed out again and again that the Soviet "freeze" 
resolution was a fraudulent propaganda show, that in reality the Soviet 
Union was not stopping the further deployment of intermediate missiles 
and was continuously increasing the SS-20 missiles targeted on West 
European objectives. The NATO members therefore again stated as their 
resolution: if the 1983 Geneva talks between the Soviet Union and the 

United States reach no agreement, the West will proceed with its predetermined 
plan and begin deploying the American intermediate missiles in Western 
Europe. To counter the Soivet Union’s increase of standing military forces 
in the German Democratic Republic and the stepped up military activities on 
the northern and southern flanks of Europe, Western Europe increased its 
defensive efforts. To differing degrees, England and France increased 
military expenditure and strengthened nuclear armaments, the West European 
members agreed to strengthen the northern and southern flanks, and West 
Germany and the United States agreed that in case of war, the United States 
would increase its troops strength and West Germany would provide all 
logistic support, etc. 

Third, In the Economy, Business as Usual. The fact that demonstrates this 
most conspicuously is that West Germany, France, England and Italy withstood 
pressures from the United States and disregarded U.S. sanctions, in their 
persistance to fulfill their contracts to deliver the natural gas pipeline. 


2 



and their combined struggle compelled the United States to yield in this 
matter. Regarding America’s demands to impose strict conditions for credits 
to the Soviet Union and not to supply sophisticated technology to the 
Soviet Union and to East European countries, the West European countries 
adopted a perfunctory and evasive attitude and have so far not yet stated 
their definitive undertaking to comply. The trade between Western Europe 
and the Soviet Union during last year has therefore not been severely 
affected by political factors. On the contrary, some countries registered 
large increases in this trade. For instance, in the first 7 months of last 
year, West Germany imported from the Soviet Union 51 percent more than in 
the corresponding period in 1981, exported 16 percent more, and the 
proportion of Soviet trade in West Germany’s foreign trade increased from 
2.2 percent in 1981 to 216 percent. Furthermore, France, for instance, 
eagerly urges the European Economic Co-munity to export butter to the 
Soviet Union at cheap prices, and the French minister for agriculture made 
a special trip to the Soviet Union to hawk wheat, and to help the sale 
granted the Soviet Union most favorable credit terms. To pressure the 
Polish authorities into political concessions, but also in consideration 
of Poland’s inability to pay its debts, the West European countries 
stopped further credits and concluded no new contracts, but they did 
not—as the United States had demanded—impose stricter sanctions and 
never stopped their "humanitarian aid" to Poland. 

Old Tricks 

We see from the events of last year, that the Soviet Union’s practices in 
its dealings with Western Europe are basically the same old customary tricks, 
merely continuously adapting the patterns to the changed conditions of the 
time. Providing itself with backup force by continuously increasing its 
military strength, exercising political coercion and blackmail, these are 
the most basic elements of Soviet Policy toward Western Europe. From all 
that the Soviets have done and are doing one can derive a rule: no matter 
how loud they sing their tunes of detente, they never relax their efforts 
at rearmanent and thereby also continue their intimidation of Western 
Europe by military activities. No matter what tricky new patterns their 
"disarmament" proposals assume, the core of all of them is to weaken the 
opponent’s strength while maintaining the superiority they have already 
gained. Certain politicians in Western Europe have made the statement: 
the Soviet Union shows Western Europe two faces, the desire for detente 
and a wanton desire for military aggression, and the latter is their true 
face. Their purpose is to achieve a psychological effect and to force 
Western Europe into submission. 

The set strategy of the Soviet Union is to encircle Western Europe on both 
its flanks and cut off its energy and raw material supply bases and lines 
of communications. Its unrelenting grip on Afghanistan is dictated by the 
needs of this strategy. However, it must be pointed out that pursuing this 
strategy if not all smooth sailing. Especially in Afghanistan the Soviets 
met with a severe rebuff, in the Middle East they suffered repeated defeats, 
and in Africa they are encountering increasing difficulties. Compared with 
a few years ago, there have therefore been no new developments in the 
struggle between Western Europe and the Soviet Union. 


3 



At present the Soviet Union puts great energy into its particular ability 
of launching frequent "peace offensives," encouraging the antinuclear 
movement in Western Europe and directing its spearhead against America, 
thereby also pinning down the freedom of action of the West European 
governments, broadening themutual distrust between Western Europe and the 
United States, so as to prevent or delay the deployment of American 
intermediate missiles in Western Europe. For this purpose the Soviets also 
do their utmost to whip up a war psychosis and paint an exaggerated picture 
of American plans to start a partial nuclear war which would safeguard 
America’s own territory, but sacrifice Western Europe as the nuclear 
battlefield. With promises of not attacking countries that have no 
nuclear weapons, the Soviets try to entice West European countries to refuse 
the deployment of American nuclear weapons. They also use the threat that 
the Soviet Union is prepared to keep up the arms race at all costs, to 
pressure those in power in Western Europe to accept the Soviet proposals. 

We must admit that the Soviet methods of restraining those in power in 
Western Europe by utilizing the antinuclear movement and the general desire 
for peace, and of sowing discord in the European-American alliance by their 
influence on the ruling circles in Western Europe, have been effective to 
a certain extent. 

For a long time already the Soviet Union has followed a basic policy toward 
Western Europe of using raw materials, energy and markets as bait, using 
economics and trade to win Western Europe over to its side and made 
Western Europe’s technology and capital serve the increase and strengthening 
of its economic and military undertakings. At present the deep crisis that 
has overtaken the West European economy makes Western Europe seek markets 
like a hungry man who is not choosy about his food, and in this context 
the Soviet Union has become additionally attractive. The Soviet propaganda 
machine therefore frequently warns and reminds Western Europe: the 
development of mutual relations with the Soviet Union must not be affected 
by influences from any third party; the Soviet market solves the employment 
problem for 500,000 Germans and provides sustenance for 200,000 French 
employees and workers. 

The closeness and historical evolution of relations with Western Europe 
is not the same for the various countries of Eastern Europe. All want to 
develop relations with Western Europe, especially trade and economic 
cooperation. They are moreover all, to a larger or smaller extent, 
indebted to Western Europe, especially Poland, Romania and the German 
Democratic Republic, but for the time being unable to repay their debts. 
However, with the exception of Romania, which pursues a policy of 
independence and self-determination, the members of the Warsaw Pact are 
more or less controlled by the Soviet Union in their relations with 
Western Europe. 

A Dual Strategy 

What policy is Western Europe pursuing toward the Soviet Union and toward 
Eastern Europe? Leaving aisde certain special peculiarities of different 
countries. Western Europe as an entity, starting out from the position it 


4 




is occupying, the measures at its disposal and the immediate and long-term 
interests, is in reality pursuing a "dual strategy" of defense and detente. 
At present this strategy mainly entails the following: 

First, Striving for a Military Balance Between East and West. Western 
Europe opposes a military superiority of the Soviet bloc because it would 
expose Western Europe to extortion and balckmail. However, Western Europe 
is also not in favor of U.S. efforts to gain military superiority because 
this would lead to a limitless escalation of the arms race, which would 
burden Western Europe with increased military expenditure and intensify 
and danger of war. In the matter of defense, Western Europe therefore, 
apart from its own efforts, is, on the one hand, most eager to be able 
to rely on the American nuclear strength to balance out Soviet superiority. 
This is the reason why West Germany, England and Italy uphold the NATO 
resolution to augment military preparedness and why France firmly supports 
the deployment of American intermediate missiles in Europe. On the other 
hand. Western Europe also strongly urges the United States to negotiate 
"earnestly" with the Soviet Union to arrive at a balance at a comparatively 
low level of East-West military strength. In this dual character of the 
West European attitude, the former is opposed by the Soviet Union, and the 
latter would provide the Soviet Union with a loophole, by which to disrupt 
European-American relations. 

Second, Maintaining an Open Channel for East-West Dialog. A famous saying 
by the former West German Chancellor Schmidt was: The more strained the 
relations between East and West become, the more necessary is it to keep 
up the dialog. The French leader once proclaimed that as long as Soviet 
troops are not withdrawn from Afghanistan, there will be no meetings between 
French and Soviet leaders, but the French and Soviet foreign ministers 
have held repeated meetings. In November last year, Mitterand modified his 
previous remark by saying: If it is in the interest of peace, meetings 
with Soviet leaders must not be ruled out. Most recently the West German 
Chancellor Kohl again urged an American-Soviet summit meeting. Why is 
West Germany so strongly interested in the East-West dialog? There are 
three reasons: Firstly, in a corifrontaion of the two big military blocs. 
West Germany is located in the forward position and in case of an East- 
West conflict would be first to bear the brunt. That is why the West 
German leader does not want to tighten the bowstring too tight. Secondly, 
dialog helps maintain the momentum of "detente," and detente would allow 
Western Europe more room for maneuvering between America and the Soviet 
Union and to achieve some measure of a successful solution. Thirdly, by 
means of dialog it might be possible to project some influence into 
Eastern Europe internally and help encourage Eastern Europe to "evolve 
and move toward independence," so that it may gradually become a "buffer 
zone" between East and West, and the strategic scheme of a unification 
with Western Europe could possibly be realized in the end. 

Third, Active Development of Trade and Economic Cooperation. There is a 
saying current in Western Europe: Economic activity is one major guarantee 
of security. According to wishful thinking in Western Europe, the develop¬ 
ment of economic relations with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe will 
have two major effects. One is, the expansion of commodity export markets 


5 



and a wider spread of foreign assistance and raw material sources will 
alleviate the economic crisis and enable escape from the dangerous situation 
of an excessive dependence on such unstable areas as the Middle East and 
Africa. This will be beneficial for the maintainence of a prosperous and 
stable economy domestically. The second effect will be that the establish¬ 
ment of mutual economic dependence between the Soviet Union and Eastern 
Europe on the one side and the West on the other will have the beneficial 
effect of restraining the Soviet Union from taking military action against 
Western Europe and will facilitate—using the channel of economic 
cooperation—infiltrating the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and working 
toward a peaceful change of their policies. It is for these reasons that 
Western Europe refuses to join the United States in an "economic war" 
against the Soviet Union. 

The Year of Missiles in Europe 

Looking forward into 1983, we see the Polish situation somewhat stabilized, 
Western demands satisfied to a certain extent, both sides in need of 
development and cooperation in mutual economic relations and contradictions 
at a comparatively low level. However, the Soviet-American negotiations on 
nuclear weapons (i.e. intermediate missiles) in the European theater are 
about to enter a decisive stage, and people therefore call 1983 "the year 
of the missiles in Europe." In this struggle that is to decide the ratio 
of military strength between the two sides, the two superpowers, the United 
States and the Soviet Union, are the main actors, but Western Europe is 
the proposed area of deployment of the American intermediate missiles 
and also the target for the Soviet SS-20 missiles. Western Europe occupies 
a decisive position and thus has indirectly every right to speak in the 
matter. To a very large extent, the relationship between Western Europe 
and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe will prove decisive on the course 
and final outcome of this struggle. 

What is the present attitude of all concerned on this question? At the 
start of the negotiations, the Reagan government put forward the "zero 
option," that is, only on the condition that the Soviet Union will agree to 
dismantle all its intermediate missiles, will the West refrain from 
deploying the predetermined 108 Pershing II missiles and the 464 cruise 
missiles. The Soviets consider that this plan is a demand for "unilateral 
disarmament" on the part of the Soviet Union and flatly rejected it. On 
21 December, Andropov proposed that the Soviet Union would be willing to 
abolish its intermediate missiles to a level of equality with the British 
and French nuclear weapons, on the condition that the United States would 
not station intermediate missiles in Europe and that a restriction is 
placed on the number of planes of both parties that carry intermediate 
nuclear weapons. The essence of this proposal is to restrict the develop¬ 
ment of an independent nuclear force by Great Britain and France and to 
preclude American intermediate missiles from being stationed in Europe, 
while the Soviet Union would maintain a monopoly position as regards 
intermediate nuclear weapons. Great Britain and France flatly rejected 


6 






the proposal and together with West Germany, Italy and other countries 
indicated its support for the American "zero option," however, would not 
rule out trying to arrive at a compromise with the Soviet Union. The 
French Premier Mitterand said that the solution might be somewhere between 
the American "zero option" and the Soviet "freeze" proposal. The British 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs Pym indicated, if the ideal plan of the 
United States cannot be realized, a lesser alternative could be examined. 
The West German Foreign Minister Gentscher recently hinted that one could 
first conclude an "interim agreement" and keep negotiating while deploy- 
ment may also go on; the number of missiles to be deployed could depend 
on the progress of the negotiations. All this time, certain new compromise 
plans are also awaiting an opportunity to make their appearance. 


9808 

CSO: 4005/714 


7 



PARTY AND STATE 


LIAONING’S ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OF COUNTIES UNDER CITIES REVIEWED 

Nanjing QUNZHONG [THE MASSES] in Chinese No 3, 5 Feb 83 pp 2-4 

[Article by Xu Jiatun [6079 1367 1470]: "A Trip to Liaoning"] 

[Text] My trip to Liaoning* 1-9 December 1982* was to learn about the ex¬ 
periences with municipality-administered counties in Liaoning Province* I 
first listened to the introductory remarks of the Liaoning provincial party 
committee and the municipal party committees of Shenyang* Anshan* Dalian 
and Dandong* and the county party committees of Xinmin and Kuandian. I 
also visited several factories and mines* and also Dalian harbor* Although 
a rather hasty trip* it was very helpful and enlightening. 

After undergoing several changes* the system of having municipalities exer¬ 
cise leadership over counties* as practiced in Liaoning Province* is now in 
force in 10 municipalities under the jurisdiction of the provincial govern¬ 
ment and in 2 regions for a total of 45 counties and 3 municipalities of 
county rank* The system of municipality-administered counties developed 
in three stages: the first stage was to have the municipal party committee 
administer industry* and the cities to provide commodities for the country¬ 
side, and to have the prefectural party committee administer agriculture* and 
the countryside to provide grain* non-staple foodstuffs* raw and other 
materials for the cities. At the beginning of the First Five-Year Plan* 
Liaoning became an industrial base for the key construction projects of 
the nation and built up a large number of large-scale key industrial enter¬ 
prises* This was the initial change in the town-countryside structure of 
the economy; the urban production began to extend into the rural areas* and 
the rural economy began to develop from a single-product economy to a commo¬ 
dity economy. It was then felt that prefectural control of counties did 
not fit the prevailing conditions* and in 1959 the prefectural party com¬ 
mittees were abolished and a system of municipality-administered counties 
was established. This was the second stage. Now the third stage has begun, 
namely to further develop the role of the cities and of the countryside as 
two bases and as two markets* to further emphasize an attitude of separating 
the cities and the countryside* and to initiate a new phase in the socialist 
modernization drive according to a unified plan for economically divided 
areas and a unified management of economic construction and social develop¬ 
ment in the urban and rural areas. 


8 



From the experiences in Liaoning Province, the following are some initial 
impressions: 

1. The system of municipality-administered counties is capable of bringing 
into full play the central role of the cities and will help to eliminate 
gradually the "three major differences" [between workers and peasants, 
town and country, mental and manual labor]. The cities are the centers of 
all social, political, economic, scientific and cultural life. The forma¬ 
tion and development of the cities has resulted from the development of the 
social division of labor and the commodity economy. The cities are the pro¬ 
duct of historical progress. The urban-rural relationship in capitalism 
is characterized by the exploitation of the countryside by the cities. 

Socialism, on the other 'hand, attempts to integrate agriculture with indus¬ 
try and is promoting the gradual elimination of the antagonistic confronta¬ 
tion between town and country. Engels once said: "Elimination of the antag¬ 
onistic confrontation between town and country is not only possible, but 
has already become a necessity of the industrial production itself, in the 

same way as it has already become a necessity of agricultural production and 

public health." The cities are the centers of scientific and cultural 
development and the centers of large-scale industry; they plan an extremely 
important role in the process of eliminating the three major differences. 

As early as at the Second Plenary Session of the Seventh CPC Central Committee, 

Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out: "Now the direction is from the cities to 
the countryside, and the era of the cities exercising leadership over the country¬ 
side has begun. The center of gravity of the party's work has shifted from 
the villages to the cities." This was an extremely imporrant and absolutely 
correct course of action. We are now entering a new period of historical 
development, and the focus of work throughout the party has shifted to 
the modernization of our economy, which compels us to rethink the position 
and role of the cities. The system of municipality-administered counties 
is a method of consciously bringing into play the role of the cities as 
leading and supporting the countryside, of their equipping and transform¬ 
ing the countryside, of promoting the simultaneous development of cities 
and of the countryside, and of initiating the all-encompassing new phase 
in the socialist modernization drive. From a long-term point of view, our 
objective in the development of the urban-rural economy is the gradual re¬ 
duction and final elimination of the three major differences. We are not 
only determined to have a modem industry, but also to have a modem agri¬ 
culture, not only modem cities, but also modem villages. This develop¬ 
ment is therefore an inexorable trend of our economic.and social develop¬ 
ment. It is the essential substance of our economic readjustment and 
structural reforms, as it is also the road that must be followed in building 
a socialism of distinctly Chinese character. In this respect Liaoning has 
already accumulated many useful experiences which set examples for us. 

2. The system of municipality-administered counties demonstrates the integra¬ 
tion of municipal and country economies and of the town and country economies. 

It accords with the inherent law of the national economy. The division of 
economic zones must accord with the inherent links in the economic develop¬ 
ment. During the construction over a number of years, the cities have 


9 



generally become the political* economic* financial* scientific* cultural 
and educational centers of their areas* and a number of small cities and 
towns have become the ties that link the big cities with the villages 
and formed a network. If the prefectures control the counties* if the 
municipalities do not* or only to a limited degree, administer the counties 
and the two systems exist side by side in the same area* these kinds of 
centers and the network personnel would be split up locality-wise. 

The majority of cities in Liaoning Province have become industrial bases* 
with heavy industry being primarily represented in them* and although well 
geared to the needs of the whole country* certain problems in the supply 
of daily necessities for consumption could not be solved for quite some 
time. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee* 
the policies on twon-country economic relations became more relaxed and 
flexible. People recognized that it was not only that the countryside 
is a broad market for the commodities of the cities* but that the cities 
are also an important market for the commodities of the county* commune 
and production team enterprises. The villages are not only bases to supply 
the cities with agricultural main and sideline products* with raw and other 
materials* but the cities also provide the powerful backing for rural economic 
and social development and the bases for agricultural and village develop¬ 
ment. In their way of thinking* the people thus came to recognize the new 
concept that in reality there exist two bases and two markets and that the 
cities and the countryside are mutually interacting bases and markets. More¬ 
over* people began to explore the inherent links of mutual dependence and of 
mutual promotion between the two bases and two markets. 

Originally we had already assumed that the future economic development of 
the cities and of the countryside must be centered in the large and medium 
cities* have its foundation in the villages and be linked with the medium 
and small cities and towns* forming an economic* scientific* financial* 
cultural* educational and public health network and carrying out unified 
planning and simultaneous development. In this way .the administrative and 
tbe economic division would be unified within certain limits and to a cer¬ 
tain degree. The experiences in Liaoning and our conceptions were basically 
identical. Today* when the focus of work throughout the whole party has 
been shifted to economic construction* the system of municipality-admin¬ 
istered counties will be of great advantage in guiding economic construc¬ 
tion according to the laws of economics. 

3. The system of municipality-administereed counties integrates all that is 
economically superior in the municipalities and in the counties* as well 
as in the cities and in the villages* and will prove a good structure 
at this time to initiate a new phase in our socialist four modernizations 
and to accelerate our economic and social development. 

Among the comrades that I met in the various counties* the reaction was 
that the system of municipality-administered counties was better than 
prefecture-controlled counties* that administration by larger municipalities 
was better than by small municipalities. They expressed it vividly by 
saying* the prefectural party committee "cannot render support* but can 


10 



only give vocal support/* only the municipal party committee has the actual 
power to render support. In the words of the party committee of Xinmin 
County, it is a case of "relyong on Shenyang and living off Shenyang/* 
i.e. to have the backing of a powerful municipal party committee. Consider¬ 
ing the four municipalities that I visited, I saw that each, the large 
and the small, had its advantages. The large municipalities have abundant 
power, which they do not, by far, exercise to the fullest extent. The 
small municipalities, on the other hand, are much more agile. Actually, 
the evident advantage of the cities is first of all their solid economic 
base. Most cities have a strong industrial and financial base. Their com¬ 
munication lines and telecommunications are well developed, they have quick 
access to information and they are centers of circulation. Talents and 
intelligence is concentrated in the cities, and they are also the centers 
where talented persons are fostered and trained. The villages also have 
their points of superiority, the main point being the continuously growing 
ample supply of grain, non-staple foodstuffs, faw ans other materials, in¬ 
cluding mine and forestry products. The supply of non-staple foodstuffs 
in the cities of Liaoning has therefore greatly improved, particularly 
because the larger part of the population lives in the villages (57.64 
percent in the case of Liaoning Province) and form the inseparable founda¬ 
tion for the development of the cities. As the commodity economy in the 
rural areas developed and the rural population gradually became more affluent, 
the villages have become an expanding market for the commodities of the 
cities and a rapidly growing base for the supply of raw and other materials 
for industry; they are an expanding world which paves the way for the 
development of all kinds of trades and industries in the cities. The in¬ 
tegration of the points of superiority of town and country to a certain 
degree and within certain limits breaks the man-made shackles that fettered 
economic development and benefits the close integration and development of 
town and country, benefits the integration of the industrial and agricul¬ 
tural economies, benefits the development of both markets, benefits the trans¬ 
formation of the social structure in the cities and villages and is a means^ 
of avoiding a limitless inflation of the large and medium cities. It can 
promote the economic construction in the villages and small towns and bene¬ 
fit the gradual transformation of the traditional agriculture to a modern 
agriculture and the speedy development from a single-product, self-suffi¬ 
cient or semi-self-sufficient agricultural economy to a comprehensive corn- 
modi ty ec onomy. 

The integration of municipalities and counties, of town and country, is the 
integration of the points of superiority of cities and villages and the inte¬ 
gration of the advantages in resources of cities and villages. This kind of 
integration enables both sides to benefit from each other in a more reason¬ 
able way and to speed up economic and social developments. We may therefore 
say that it is a good structure for the future reform of the administra¬ 
tive and economic system. 

4. Municipality-administered counties, the integration of municipalities and 
counties, is an important experience of mutual learning and mutual educating 
between workers and peasants, of strengthening the worker-peasant alliance, 


11 



especially of using the progressive ideology of the working class to educate 
and reform the peasantry. The integration of municipalities and counties, 
and the close linkage and interaction of town and country economies, sci¬ 
entific, technological, financial and general educational affairs establishes 
closer contacts, and more opportunities for contacts, between workers and 
peasants, and will provide more opportunities for mutual learning and 
mutual interacting. Particularly in the process of supporting and; pro¬ 
moting the transformation of the rural economy with advanced science and 
technology, a considerable number of peasants will no more purely engage in 
agriculture. Some will be worker-peasants, some tradesmen-peasants, for 
some work in industry will become primary, for some commercial activities will 
be primary while still engaged in agriculture, some engaged primarily in 
agriculture will also work in industry and trade. This kind of peasant 
will become increasingly more numerous and large numbers of "new-type” 
peasants and agricultural workers will appear on the scene. The integra¬ 
tion of town and country will not only be useful in equipping and transform¬ 
ing the agricultural economy by the use of advanced science and technology, 
but will also be beneficial in educating and influencing the peasantry with 
the advanced working class ideology, and in remolding the ideological attitude 
of the peasants. This kind of change is of inestimable significance* 

During the "five stresses and four points of beauty" movement, some cities in 
Liaoning Province, similarly, adopted the method of "as dragon head leads 
on dragon body, so the city leads on the countryside," to launch the "five 
stresses and four points of beauty" movement on a broad scale in the villages, 
to foster and train a generation of new-type peasants by means of communist 
ideology and socialist spiritual civilization. In this way, as the cities 
lead on the counties and thus grasp both, the construction of socialist 
material and spiritual civilization in town as well as in the country, 
both will be developed simultaneously, and this will be a very good exper¬ 
ience. 

5. In a recent summing up of its method of placing counties under the ad¬ 
ministrative control of municipalities, Liaoning Province affirmed this 
system. As whenever charged with a newly emerging thing, there are still 
places that await perfecting and improving. The Dandong municipal party 
committee set forth the following problems that would require attention; 
ideological education of the cadres must be strengthened, everyone's under¬ 
standing of the system of municipality-administered counties must be im¬ 
proved and bias in favor of the municipalities and against the counties must 
be guarded against* The reaction of some comrades was that at the time of 
the prefectural control of the counties, many people moved into the villages, 
but when the counties are placed under the municipalities, few people will 
move into the villages. Some comrades believe, however that as long as the 
party's principles and policies correctly meet the situation, the county 
party committee can handle things itself and need not pay attention to how 
many people will move to the countryside. There is a certain justification 
for expressing it in this way; after municipalities assume administrative 
control of counties, the municipal party committees and governments will 
have to do unified planning with consideration for all concerned and effect¬ 
ing all-round dispositions, having their feet firmly placed in the cities, 


12 




but keeping the countryside in view. They must be adept at improving their 
leadership methods. They must exercise direct leadership of enterprises 
and industrial units in the cities and on the other hand bring their leader¬ 
ship role into full play in the countryside. 

The system of having counties under the administrative control of municipali¬ 
ties has been practiced in Liaoning Province for a fairly long time already, 
but there are still differing opinions about it. In our province it is an 
even newer topic, and we must therefore give even greater attention to the 
ideological education of the cadres. We must continue to free our minds from 
old ideas and truly recognize that this is a method of doing things according 
to the laws of economics, that it is a necessary reform in order to initiate 
a new phase in the £_bur modernizations, that it is a revolution. 


9808 

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13 



PARTY AND STATE 


V 


JIANGSU 1 S CITY JURISDICTIONS SUMMARIZED 

Nanjing QUNZHONG [THE MASSES] in Chinese No 3* 5 Feb 83 p 11 

[Text] Jiangsu Adopts System of Placing Municipalities in Administrative 
Charge of Counties 

Readjustment of Administrative Divisions Approved by State Council 

With the approval of the State Council* Jiangsu Province put into effect a 
new system of placing counties under the administrative control of muni¬ 
cipalities* After the readjustment* the administrative divisions will be 
as follows: 

1. Nanjing Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Gaochun, 
Lishui, Jiangning, Jiangpu and Liuhe. 

2. Zhenjiang Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Dantu* 
Danyang* Jurong and Yangzhong. 

3. Changzhou Municipality to haVe jurisdiction over the counties of Liyang* 
Jintan and Wujin, 

4. Wuxi Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Yixing* Wuxi 
and Jiangyin* 

5. Suzhou Municipality to have jurisdiction over Changzhu Municipality and 
the counties of Wujiang* Wuxian* Kunshan* Taicang and Shazhou. 

6. Yangzhou Municipality to have jurisdiction over Taizhou Municipality and 
the counties of Yizheng* Hanjiang* Jiangdu* Jingjiang* Taixing* Taixian* 
Gaoyou* Baoying and Zinghua. 

7. Nantong Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Nantong* 
Haimen* Qidong* Rugao* Rudong and Haian. 

8. Huaiyin Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Huaiyin, 
Shuyang* Hongze* Guannan* Sihong* Lianshu* Suqian* Huaian* Siyang* Yuyi and 
Jinhu. 


14 



9. Yancheng Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Jianhu, 
Sheyang, Funing, Dafeng* Binhai* Dongtai and Xiangshui. 

10. Xuzhou Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of Tongshan, 
Fengxian* Peixian, Peixian, Suining and Xinyi. 

11. Lianyungang Municipality to have jurisdiction over the counties of 
Donghai, Ganyu and Guanyun. 


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PARTY AND STATE 


FUJIAN SIXTH PEOPLE'S CONGRESS ELECTION CONCLUDES 
Fuzhou FUJIAN RIBAO in Chinese 9 Apr 83 p 1 

[Article: !, The Fujian Sixth People's Congress Election Successfully 
Concludes"] 

[Text] The representative election of Fujian Province's Sixth People's Congress 
has come to a satisfactory conclusion. The whole province has elected 577 
people's representatives. Yesterday, in the 20th session of the province's 
Fifth People's Congress Standing Committee, the qualifications of the 
representatives elected through the province's 66 electoral units were 
confirmed. 

The election of this session's representatives was conducted under the conditions 
of organizational restructuring, cooperation between old and new cadres and in 
some cases the new replacing the the old. Local and army electoral units have 
fully carried forward democracy and adopted the mass-line policy during the 
election. All representative candidates were chosen after serious 
consideration and democratic consultation, and representatives were elected 
by secret ballot and calculation of votes. 

Among the newly-elected representatives of the province's Sixth People's Congress, 
the ratio is as follows: industrial and agricultural representatives 30 
percent, intellectual representatives 20 percent, cadre representatives 22.5 
percent PLA representatives 7 percent, democratic parties and nonparty 
patriotic democratic personage representatives 14.5 percent, and returned 
overseas Chinese representatives 6 percent. 

Comparing representatives elected this time with those of the last session, 
relatively great change can be seen: 1. Compared with last session, the 
ratio of intellectual representatives from different fields has increased 8 
percent. The educational level of the representatives has relatively increased. 
Among them, 216, a total of 37 percent have college or higher educational 
level; the percentage of representatives with junior middle school or higher 
educational level has jumped from 54 percent in last session to 90 percent 
in this session, and the percentage of representatives with primary school 
educational level has decreased from last session's 43 percent to 10 percent. 

While therewere 29 illiterate representatives in last session, there was none 
in this session. Among the intellectual representatives, there are those from 


16 



education, science and technology, culture, health, physical education, 
journalism and publishing fields as well as in the fields of law and economics. 
2. The average age of this session's representatives was 50, two years younger 
than that of the last session. 3. The representatives, being from different 
strata, different fronts, different professions and different regions, and even 
from minority nationalities, are more representative than last session. Among 
the representatives, 98 of them are either model workers from different 
fronts, war heroes, or advanced elements, making up 17 percent of the total 
number of representatives; female representatives occupy 23 percent, an increase 
of 1.2 percent from last session; various democratic parties and nonparty 
personages have increased 9 percent and returned overseas Chinese has increased 
3 percent. 

The emergence of this session’s representatives fully reflects the development 
in the four modernizations and demonstrates the wishes of the broad masses of 
voters and people. 


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PARTY AND STATE 


PARTY URGED TO IMPROVE PARTY WORK STYLE 
Fuzhou FUJIAN RIBAO in Chinese 5 Apr 83 p 1 

[Editorial: "The Whole Party Must Pay Close Attention to Party Work Style"] 

[Text] The third session of the (enlarged) meeting of the Fujian Provincial 
CPC Committee’s Discipline Inspection Commission, convened by the provincial 
CPC Committee, has implemented the guideline of the Central Discipline 
Inspection Commission’s Second Plenum, and went one step further to delineate 
that paying close attention to party work style is the guiding principle and 
this year’s task of the party’s discipline inspection work. At present, the 
whole province’s party organizations and large number of party members at all 
levels have been mobilized to pay close attention to party work style. 

The whole party paying close attention to party work style is a very urgent, 
important task. This year is the first year in creating a new situation in 
socialist modernization and construction. It is also the first year in the 
effort to achieve a basic improvement in the party’s work style within 5 years. 

If the party work style is not correct, we would be divorced from the masses 
and the initiation of a new situation in modernization would be hindered. Only 
if the party work style is correct, can the masses be led to exert efforts in 
conducting reform and opening up a new situation for different kinds of work. 

Our party’s proletarian vanguard nature has given our party strong, healthy 
power to overcome and correct various unhealthy trends and incorrect work style. 
The key is to try hard to do these things: First, party organizations at all 
levels and their principal leaders must personally demonstrate the importance 
of a correct party work style, be bold in doing so, be thorough in making sure 
that the party members do have a correct work style, and never give up until 
the effort achieves results. In other words, party work style should not be 
stressed only by the dicipline inspection departments, but by the whole party 
as well. Moreover, the principal leaders must stress it personally. By doing 
this, even "old, big and difficult" problems will be solved with ease. Second, 
truth, not prestige, must be stressed and conscientious effort must be 
undertaken to correct poor styles among leadership groups. Only when correct work 
style exists among the leadership groups can the problems concerning work style 
among the grassroots organizations and the vast number of party members be 
solved. Third, depend upon and mobilize the enthusiasm of the broad masses 
of party members and people, and resolutely struggle against incorrect 
practices and unhealthy trends. 


18 



Practice has proven that party work style has obviously improved in areas 
where the above-mentioned three conditions are met. On the contrary, if a 
leader himself has a wrong work style and does not actively correct himself, 
and "criticizes others on the stage and is criticized off the stage," not only 
will the party work style not be improved, but very bad impact will be 
created; even though some leadership members are clean, they nevertheless weak 
and lax, and the way they treat incorrect work styles, especially the party 
working style of the leadership groups, is that "after hearing, they pretend 
to be deaf, after seeing, pretend to be blind, and during discussion, pretend 
to be dumb;" or, they just talk but take no action, and instead, only ask the 
grassroots organizations to pay close attention to work style. In places 
like these, unhealthy trends and evil practices are difficult to eliminate. 

If we only depend on a few people and the discipline inspection departments 
do not mobilize the broad masses of party members and people to pay close 
attention to this matter, incorrect work styles will not come under mass 
resistance and the pressure of public opinion and, as a result, not only will 
not disappear, but will possibly continue to spread. Therefore, the above- 
mentioned three conditions are the criterions for determining whether the work 
concerning the issue of paying close attention to party work sytle is being 
carried out in a genuine, fraudulent or totally negligent way. It is hoped 
that party organizations and leadership comrades at all levels must treat this 
as a standard to demand of themselves and to regularly and frequently conduct 
inspections and make improvements. 

"Resolutely upholding the party’s discipline is every party organization’s 
important responsibility. If party organization is negligent in upholding 
the party’s discipline, it must be investigated." This is an iron discipline. 

Every party organization must strictly observe it in the issue of paying 
close attention to party work style. Wherever unhealthy trends are discovered, 
the party organization there must take the responsibility of inspecting and 
handling with the matter. Shirking and shifting of responsibility or muddling 
through the matter is absolutely forbidden. As for party organizations which 
seriously violate the party’s discipline and, at the same time, do not correct 
themselves, they should be reorganized or disbanded, depending on the degree 
of seriousness and according to the procedures stipulated in the party 
constitution. 

When a leadership cadre adopts the attitude of looking but not seeing and 
listening but not hearing toward unhealthy trends, he is neglecting his duty. 

When he accomodates, connives with or protects unhealthy trends, he is 
violating the party’s discipline and regulation. Such individuals must be 
investigated by the party’s discipline inspection commissions. 

Discipline inspection bodies at all levels must fully and correctly exercise 
their functions and authorities. They must inspect and handle cases in which 
party members violate laws and regulations. They, moreover, have to help 
party committees grasp a good work style, and inspect and supervise the party 
organizations which do not pay close attention to work style and the negligent 
behaviour of their leadership personage. The comrades engaged in discipline 
investigation work must adhere to principles, thoroughly promote the spirit 
of materialism, maintain a vigorous morale, boldly uphold the truth, and be 
firm. Even if the task is risky, a high pressure job, or may lead to confrontation, 
they still have to step forward bravely to protect good people and good deeds. 

They must persist in waging uncompromising struggle with evildoers and evil deeds, 
and struggle hard to achieve a basic improvement in the party work style as soon 
as possible. 

12365 

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PARTY AND STATE 


CONFERENCE HELD ON CONSOLIDATION OF PARTY ORGANIZATIONS 
Harbin HEILONGJIANG RIBAO in Chinese 4 Apr 83 p 1 

[Article: "Heilongjiang Provincial Conference for Work at Tested Points of the 
Consolidation of Party Organizations Emphasized to Handle Well the Consolidation 
With Spirit of Creating New Situations"] 

[Text] Work at tested points of consolidation of party organizations must, 
this year, in this province, face new situations, solve new problems, recognize 
new-,laws, create new ways and try to search for new experiences to make a good 
preparation for better overall consolidation* This is an important guiding 
ideology defined by the Provincial Conference for Work at Tested Points of the 
Consolidation of Party Organizations. The conference was adjourned yesterday. 
The conference held that work in this province at tested points.of the consoli¬ 
dation of party organizations has achieved marked successes and discovered some 
good experiences during the last 4 years. Everyone felt that defining the 
guiding ideology for consolidating party organizations is the key to success 
in work at tested points of the consolidation. To consolidate party organiza¬ 
tions under new historical conditions is to solve problems of inadequate pre¬ 
paration and inadaptability in ideology, in organization and in working style 
for the accomplishment of new historical tasks. Therefore, party organizations 
must be consolidated to meet the demands put forward by Comrade Hu Yaobang at 
the 12th National CPC Congress: to build our party and make it a strong leading 
core for the cause of socialist modernization, to imbue the whole party with one 
heart arid one mind and keep in step with the realization of the strategic ob¬ 
jective defined by the congress. 

Comrades who participated in the conference held that work this year, at tested 
points of the consolidation must have as a guiding ideology.high standards and 
strict demands at the beginning, in order to raise the consolidation to a new 
level in accordance with demands of the 12th National CPC Congress on the con¬ 
solidation. Therefore, the selection of tested points this year must be serious, 
each attempt must be successful. They would rather have fewer total selections 
and but with better results. Standards of "five demands" put forward by the 
provincial CPC Committee must be adhered to. The "five demands" are: party 
members must meet the requirements for membership; cadres must be up to standards 
party organizations must have fighting capacity; party style must make a funda¬ 
mental change for the better; reform must have a new development, production 
and work must have new outlooks. 


20 


The conference held that for the purpose of doing better work at tested points 
of the consolidation, the spirit of reform must be carried out in the guiding 
ideology; be bold in putting things into practice and in creating new situations. 
To achieve a better result in consolidation of party organizations means to re¬ 
form significantly the political, ideological and organizational situations of 
our party. New historical conditions raise many issues which need to be re¬ 
formed in building our party. In comparison, as to the vanguard and exemplary 
role of a party member, the range is much wider and the demand is much higher 
than before. As to the fighting capacity of the party organizations, it shows 
not only in the fulfillment of general work and production, but also it mainly 
shows in leading the masses to achieve different tasks of reform. To strengthen 
the party ideologically, party members, especially leading cadres, must be 
freed from thoughts and styles which obstruct reform, such as staying in ruts 
and being full of misgivings, and to enable them to play leading roles in the 
reform, supporting it and advancing in the forefront in order to ensure the 
smooth accomplishment of all reforms. Means of consolidation must also be re¬ 
formed this time, that is, to sum up historical experiences and to eradicate 
ideological influences of the "Left." In consolidation, political consciousness 
of party members must be aroused, allowing them to have their own initiatives, 
to solve their own problems by themselves; the normal inner-party life must be 
insisted upon, respect the rights of party members and work according to prin¬ 
ciples of democratic centralism. There must be faith in the masses and the 
mass line must be followed in every respect; attention must be given to dis-e 
covering negative factors as well as positive factors and use must be made of 
the latter to overcome the former. 

During the conference, new ways, steps and demands for the better consolidation 
at tested points in a unit and focal points of the consolidation were thoroughly 
discussed and probed as well. 

The leading comrade of the provincial CPC Committee made a speech at the con¬ 
ference . 


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PARTYAND STATE 


RIGHTS OF PARTY MEMBERS IN DECISIONMAKING REAFFIRMED 
Harbin HEILONGJIANG RIBAO in Chinese 1 Apr 83 p 3 

[Party Member Forum by Tan Yiyan [6151 1355 1750] and Li Shuguo [2621 2885 2654]: 
"Party Member Rights Must Be Exercised Solemnly"] 

[Text] We recently found in the unit’s party branch when the party membership 
of an applicant was put to the vote, that two party members believed the 
applicant had some problems in his job and his applciation for party membership 
should not be approved at this time. However, when they aaw that most of the 
other party members at the branch meeting were in favor of it, they, too, 
"followed the general trend" and changed their votes. The reason the phenomenon 
of "following the general trend" occurs is because people are afraid of giving 
offense and have selfish ideas and personal considerations. This kind of ......... 

"following the general trend" behavior is out of tune with the Communist Party 
member’s sense of principle. 

To vote is a right of every member of our Communist Party. How to exercise 
this right correctly is a verification of the party character of every party 
member. Therefore, a party member must hold the party’s interest as the starting 
point when he exercises his right to vote. Some comrades hold "the minority is 
subordinate to the majority" is a principle provided by the party constitution; 
if the majority in a meeting vote in favor of an issue, there is nothing those 
who disagree with them can do. This kind of understanding is incomprehensable. 
Due to a variety of reasons, the truth may sometimes be on the side of the 
minority; this also can happen in the understanding of an applicant. Opinions 
of the minority, if they are fully expressed, can get the attention of the 
party organization and, if there is really something wrong in decisionmaking, 
corrections can be made in time. Facts have proved that opinions of the minority 
are sometimes right. Therefore, the conclusion that opinions of the minority 
are ineffective should not be reached. 

Thus, it is required that when leaders of party organizations are present at a 
meeting where after discussion, a decision is voted on they must not think 
that things have been passed by approval of the majority, and listening to and 
consideration of opinions of the minority are no longer needed. As a matter of 
fact, if we want to have a full expression of different opinions, party organ¬ 
izations must do a lot of painstaking work. Only by doing so can inner-party 
democracy develop fully and the democratic centralism of the party be better 
carried out. 


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PARTY AND STATE 


CONGRATULATIONS RELAYED TO HEILONGJIANG PEOPLE’S CONGRESS 
Harbin HEILONGJIANG RIBAO in Chinese 14 Apr 83 p 1 

[Editorial of This Newspaper: "Working as One to Draw a New Picture—Ardent 
Congratulations to the Convening of the First Session of the Sixth People’s 
Congress of Heilongjiang Province”] 

[Text] The First Session of the Sixth People’s Congress of Heilongjiang Province 
was solemnly convened in Harbin yesterday* This is a significant congress con¬ 
vening in this province during the great historical course of overall reform 
and the creation of new situations in all fields of socialist modernization in 
line with the spirit of the 12th National CPC Congress and the Fifth Session of 
the Fifth National Congress. It will have a great influence on all kinds of 
work in this province from now on. We convey to the congress our warm congrat¬ 
ulations and wish that it will be a successful one. 

This session of the congress shoulders a new historical mission, the tasks it 
must accomplish are glorious. Not only does it have to sum up, seriously and 
comprehensively, the work of the previous one, but it must also stress the 
examination and definition of major issues in the construction of the material 
and spiritual civilizations of this province during the period of the Sixth 
5-Year Plan and the principal task of this year in accordance with the spirit 
of the 12th CPC Congress and the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People’s 
Congress. At the same time, as a link connecting the preceding and the follow¬ 
ing, this session of the congress, in accordance with the principle of succession 
of new cadres to old and cooperation between them, will elect new members to 
form its Standing Committee, new leading members of the provincial people’s 
government, higher court and procuratorate. Deputies of this province to the 
Sixth National People’s Congress will be elected and other important matters 
must also be examined, approved or.decided in this new session. If it can make 
better arrangements as to the aspects of drawing a new blueprint of construction 
and electing a new leading body, the creation of new situations in all fields 
of this province will have a dependable guarantee. 

People are the creators of history, they are also the masters of a nation. As 
Comrade Hu Yaobang pointed out in the report to the 12th National CPC Congress, 
"We must continue to reform and improve our political institutions and system 
of leadership in accordance with the principle of democratic centralism so that 
the people are better able to exercise state power and the state organs can 
lead and organize the work of socialist construction more effectively." The 


23 



system of a People’s Congress is a basic system enabling the people to be masters 
in our country. People exercise their rights and govern the state through the 
People’s Congress. The new Constitution adopted by the Fifth Session of the 
Fifth National People’s Congress provided many new significant stipulations 
on the nature, position and role of the Poople’s Congress. These show fully 
the increasing consilidation and strengthening of the people’s status as the 
master of the country. Only by adhering firmly to this basic political system 
and allowing the people to exercise fully the democratic power to govern the 
state can socialist democracy and the legal system be safeguarded and developed, 
can our society maintain public order for a long time, and our cause be full 6f 
vitality. The great and heroic construction of the four modernizations is a 
cause that represents the people’s basic interests, and the people’s cause should 
be accomplished by the people’s complete intelligence and strength. In the 
5 years that passed from the first session of the last congress to the present, 
under the leadership of the Central and Provincial CPC Committees, especially 
under the guidance of the spirit of the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC 
Central Committee, the Fifth Provincial People’s Congress and its Standing 
Committee have played important roles in developing socialist democracy, in 
strengthening the socialist legal system, in setting wrongs to right, in pro¬ 
moting stability and unity and in ensuring the construction of socialist ma¬ 
terial and spiritual civilizations. Now, the tasks facing the new congress 
are even more arduous and gigantic. The tide of reform rushes steadily for¬ 
ward; new and enormous transformations are hastening this session of congress 
to plan quickly and effectively the magnificent blueprint for the construction 
of the two civilizations in this province, to organize and lead the people 
of all nationalities in this province so as better to join the new and great 
struggle to carry forward our cause and forge ahead into the future. We are 
happy to see that the quality of the congress has been highly improved—it is 
much clearer that more fields have their deputies in, and more advanced in¬ 
dividuals are elected to the congress. We are especially gratified to see 
that because of the obvious increase of deputies who are better educated and 
competent in different professions, the capacity for political discussion of 
the congress will be further heightened, preparing a firm ground for holding a 
more vital congress and realizing the desired objectives successfully. We 
believe that with deputies from all walks of life, assembled under the same 
roof, drawing on collective wisdom and absorbing all useful ideas in discussing 
matters of fundamental importance, they will certainly do a good job in designing 
the blueprint for socialist modernization in this province from now on; and 
with intensive and highly effective work, they will also live up to the mandate 
of people of all nationalities in this province and improve the congressional 
sessions. 

With the pleasing spring breeze blowing, everything looks fresh and gay. We 
hope this session of congress will be just like this spring and bring the 
people of this province new inspiration and hope to make a new contribution in 
the creation of new situations in all fields of socialist modernization. 


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PARTY AND STATE 


ROLE OF PARTY SCHOOLS IN CADRE DEVELOPMENT STRESSED 
Guangzhou GUANGZHOU RIBAO in Chinese 3 Apr 83 pp 1, 3 

[Article: "Comrades Wang Zhen, Ren Zhongyi Stress at Public Lecture for 

Provincial and City Party Member-Responsible Cadres: Use Strategic Fore¬ 
sight in Paying Serious Attention to Work of Cadre Development, Education; 
Public Lecture Presided Over by Comrade Lin Ruo, Over 5,000 Party Member- 
Responsible Cadres Attend"] 

[Text] In this important historical period in which a new situation of 
socialist modernization construction is being created, and old cadres are 
being replaced by new, the various levels of party committees should all 
use strategic foresight in paying serious attention to the work of party 
schools and the entire educational undertaking, to cadre development, and 
to the construction of a cadre contingent. This is the demand put forth by 
Wang Zhen [3769 7201] and Ren Zhongyi [0117 0112 1138] in talks and reports 
on the afternoon of the ninth of this month at a public lecture for party 
member-responsible cadres of Guangdong provincial and Guangzhou city organi¬ 
zations . 

This public lecture was held by the Guangdong provincial CPC committee in 
order to strengthen development and educational work for cadres. 

CPC Central Political Bureau member and Central Party School director, Wang 
Zhen, was invited to attend the public lecture, and also gave an important 
talk at the lecture. The Guangdong provincial CPC committee first secre¬ 
tary, Ren Zhongyi, gave a report on how to run the party schools well, and 
strengthen the work of cadre development. 

The public lecture was presided over by the Guangdong provincial CPC com¬ 
mittee secretary Lin Ruo [2651 5387]. Present at the public lecture were 
responsible comrades of the provincial CPC committee, the provincial Advisory 
Committee, the provincial People’s Congress, the provincial government, the 
provincial Commission for Inspection of Discipline, the provincial People’s 
Political Consultative Conference, the provincial area command, the Guang¬ 
zhou city CPC committee; also, party member-cadres at or above the bureau 
level of provincial and city organizations, a portion of section level party 
member-cadres, the entire faculty and student bodies of the provincial and 
city party schools, cadres of the Guangzhou area institutions of higher 


25 



learning at the department level and above, plus area, city and county 
party member-responsible cadres who attended the sixth session of the first 
provincial People’s Congress—altogether a total of over 5,000 people. 

In his talk, Comrade Wang Zhen first expressed satisfaction that the Guang¬ 
dong provincial CPC committee organized this kind of public lecture, and 
thoroughly reaffirmed the report by Ren Zhongyi, which was based on inte¬ 
grating the spirit of the central authorities with actual practice in Guang¬ 
dong. He said that we must make an investment in the area of developing 
intellectual resources—this is a basic kind of construction. Running party 
schools well and developing the various levels of party and government lead¬ 
ing mainstays are to spur on and unite the people of the whole nation to 
actively study and gain knowledge, and to correctly implement the policy 
for intellectuals. The central authorities’ proposal to run standardized 
party schools was in order to develop the thousands and ten thousands of 
party and government leading mainstays. Only with a large number of party 
and government leading mainstays can attention be paid to knowledge and 
intellectuals, and the various kinds of qualified personnel and experts be 
correctly chosen and employed, guaranteeing a thorough implementation of 
the party’s policy for intellectuals. 

While talking about how the party schools were to develop party and govern¬ 
ment leading cadres. Comrade Wang Zhen said that the party schools were to 
use Marxism-Leninism and the thought of Mao Zedong as the main course of 
study, and arm the students with the communist world outlook and outlook on 
life; students must be organized to study the various branches in the domain 
of the social sciences, as well as to study basic knowledge in the various 
domains of the natural sciences. Only in this way can the four fundamental 
principles be adhered to, and the correct party leadership be carried out 
in economic construction. 

Comrade Wang Zhen also said that Guangdong is where the Chinese revolution 
started, and is a province of important historical significance to the 
Communist Party of China in the area of cadre development; he hopes that 
Guangdong Province carries forward this glorious tradition of taking on a 
leading role in cadre development and education and other areas. 

In his report. Comrade Ren Zhongyi first spoke of the importance of imple¬ 
menting the spirit of the second All-China Party School Work Conference. 

He said that the second All-China Party School Work Conference convened in 
the early part of the year was a very important conference. A decision was 
made at the conference concerning realizing the standardization of party 
school education; this is a strategic measure to guarantee the smooth pro¬ 
gression of socialist modernization construction. We must conscientiously 
learn from and implement the spirit of this conference. 

Comrade Ren Zhongyi elaborated on the main significance and methods of 
strengthening the work of cadre development and education from five aspects. 
In the first part of his report, he stressed the relationship of cadre de¬ 
velopment to carrying out the party line, revolution and construction. He 
said that the revolutionary practice of our party in each historical phase 


26 



has proven that after having the correct political line, it is also necessary 
to have a cadre contingent that is adapted to it; it is necessary to have a 
cadre contingent which is able to understand and conscientiously carry out 
this political line, and able to fulfill the responsibilities of the new 
struggle. He said that among all the types of cadres, the influence of party 
and government leading cadres is especially great. A unit may have a very 
good technical cadre, but if the party and government leading cadres are un¬ 
able to correctly implement the party’s line and policies, and thus dampen 
the enthusiasm of the technical cadre, the technical cadre will be unable to 
carry out his role very well. 

Comrade Ren Zhongyi used a great number of historical facts to clarify how 
any ruling class in power, as well as any class struggling to seize political 
power, must obtain people with abilities and develop their own cadre contin¬ 
gent. He said that in the process of mobilizing and leading the revolution, 
our party has paid serious attention to continually developing and training 
leading cadres adapted to the needs of revolutionary struggle, according to 
the development of the revolutionary cause. And every time that concen¬ 
trated cadre development has been conducted, a new revolutionary height and 
victory has been ushered in. 

Comrade Ren Zhongyi also pointed out that in the period of socialist moderni¬ 
zation construction, large-scale cadre development and cadre education must 
be taken on as an important responsibility. He said that the responsibili¬ 
ties borne by our party during the present phase are different from those of 
any other historical period; that the composition of the present cadre con¬ 
tingent is different from that of the former war years. Because of the 
expansion of the party’s undertakings, and the rapid development of modern 
science and technology, the depth and breadth of knowledge needed by the 
cadre contingent has greatly increased, and because of this, there is an 
urgent need for development, education and establishment of a mighty con¬ 
tingent of cadres who adhere to the socialist road, and who possess spe¬ 
cialized knowledge and abilities. The various levels of our party schools 
and the whole undertaking of cadre education should develop cadres adapted 
to the realization of the magnificent goals set forth at the 12th Party Con¬ 
gress . 

Comrade Ren Zhongyi stressed that the various levels of party schools must 
pay attention to reform according to the new situation and demands of the 
task of cadre education. He said that we cannot run the party schools com¬ 
pletely according to the old ways. The decisions of the 12th All-China 
Party School Conference must be complied with, that is, to move from mainly 
short-term rotational training towards mainly standardized cadre development. 
Course content must be set in accordance with the needs of the four moderni¬ 
zations construction; a standardized system must be implemented as to the 
length of schooling and school record-keeping; strict proficiency assess¬ 
ments of student academic achievement must be carried out. 

Comrade Ren Zhongyi, after his look back on the glorious history of the 
training of cadres for the revolution in Guangdong, said emphatically that 
we now urgently need to put out new, even greater efforts in the area of 


27 



cadre development and education. He set forth a few of his hopes for the 
various levels of party committees: 1. The spirit of the second All-China 
Party School Work Conference must be conscientiously studied and imple¬ 
mented, understanding of the strategic significance of party school reform 
must be increased, and leadership of the party schools must be solidly 
strengthened. 2. While doing a good job of running the various levels of 
party schools, institutions of higher learning should at the same time be 
relied on to conduct development of cadres now serving in a planned and 
step-by-step manner. 3. While strengthening the work of cadre education 
and development, appropriate reform of the cadre system should be progres¬ 
sively implemented, and this reform should be integrated with the organiza¬ 
tion reform presently in progress. 

Comrade Ren Zhongyi said finally that we are at present in an important 
historical period in which a new situation of socialist modernization con¬ 
struction is being comprehensively created and in which new cadres are re¬ 
placing the old on a large scale; thus, the various levels of party commit¬ 
tees should use strategic foresight in paying close attention to the party 
school work and the whole educational undertaking, to the development of 
cadres, and to the construction of a cadre contingent. 


12326 

CSO: 4005/788 


28 


PARTY AND STATE 


ELIMINATING PREJUDICE AGAINST INTELLECTUALS URGED 
Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 4 Apr 83 p 3 

[Article by Wu Jianli [0702 1696 4539]: "Please Take Down Your ’Colored Glasses’ 
Against the Intellectuals!"] 

[Text] Editor’s Note: The problem reflected by this article 
published in Tianjin’s ZHIBU SHENGHVO [PARTY BRANCH LIFE], No 6, 
is of a representative nature. The situation in which two 
middle-aged intellectuals experienced at the time they joined 
the party as discussed in the article also exists in other 
places and units. 

Why is it so difficult for intellectuals to join the party? 

Where do the obstacles come from? The key to the problem lies 
in the "Leftist" prejudice harbored against intellectuals. 

"Conceited and arrogant," "slick and sly in running things" 
and the like are often the reasons cited by certain people in 
opposing intellectuals. Some comrades are afraid that once 
intellectuals get into the party they would hamper their own 
interests, and therefore seek to create unfounded "impressions" 
or "feelings" to obstruct them. In essence, this is a case 
of the influence of the "Leftist" ideology plus considerations 
of personal gains or losses turning into "colored glasses" 
against intellectuals. In order to limit fine intellectuals 
whose conditions are commensurate with party membership 
requirements into the ranks of the party, we must resolutely 
break down "Leftist" prejudice against intellectuals, resort 
to fairness on the question of the admission of intellectuals 
into the party, and conscientiously attach importance to the 
cause of the party. 

During the past 2 years, the Tianjin Textile Industry Research Institute has 
groomed two middle-aged engineers for party membership. But this process has 
somehow encountered obstacles twice in the party organization at the research 
institute. 


29 




Obstacles Encountered the First Time—"Two Instances of Being Outstanding" 

That the middle-aged engineer Yang Jinzhu [2799 6855 2691] has been "outstanding" 
in the projects of scientific research he has undertaken is publicly 
acknowledged; the color-testing device designed under his leadership has won 
first prize honors at the national conference on science and of the two first 
prizes the institute earned last year in scientific research achievement one 
belongs to him. But within the party ranks some suggested that Yang Jinzhu 
was "outstanding" also in another regard, and that was supposed to be arrogance 
and complacency; they alleged that he had "the arrogance of an intellectual." 
Because of this, despite the fact that he earnestly applied to join the party 
and the process went on for as long as 2 years and more within the party, when 
preparations were made to actually groom him for party membership, some still 
insisted on opposing him and their opposition was even expressed in a rather 
firm manner: "If you groom Yang Jinzhu for party membership, I am going to 
complain to the Central Committee!" 

As to how to deal with such opinions of opposition, the general party branch 
of the research institute’s responsible comrade prudently convened party 
members of the concerned party branches in several meetings on investigation 
and study to let everybody express his particular opinion. Some cited an 
example of Yang Jinzhu’s "arrogance": in 1978, the research institute issued 
a task assignment to the mechanics and electronics office to research and design 
a new type of spectrum color-testing device; one engineer suggested to employ 
the single-beam testing scheme, and the two held their respective views. 

Leaders of the research office thereby decided to let both do their own method 
of research, and then later select the better one. Subsequently, Yang Jinzhu’s 
result turned out to be the better one, which quickly passed the technical 
appraisal. "Before and after the execution of this project, Yang Jinzhu 
considered himself always in the right and exhibited a manner of conceit and 
arrogance." Some people therefore reached their conclusion in this way. But 
members of the general party branch did not understand it that way. They 
clearly pointed out: this is an indication that an intellectual has his 
independent views; it has nothing to do with arrogance and complacency. After 
repeated discussions, a conclusion was reached within the party ranks: Yang 
Jinzhu really has his independent views. 

One disturbance thus subsided. At present, Yang Jinzhu has formally become a 
party member. 

Obstacles Encountered the Second Time—"Slick and Sly" 

If Yang Jinzhu encountered difficulties in joining the party because of his 
"arrogance and conceit," then an intellectual who is politically active and who 
conducts himself in a humble manner should surely encounter no problem? That 
has not necessarily been the case either. Engineer Sun Song [1327 2646] of the 
textile engineering research office is such a person, but he is somehow often 
told that people think that he "has a work style of a merchant" and "run 
things in a slick and sly manner." Sun Song asked the party branch secretary: 
"When some say I am slick and sly, can I still apply for party membership?" 

The party branch secretary told him not to worry. But some party members still 
used the description "slick and sly" to describe Sun Song’s whole outlook, and 
objected to his membership to the party. At a forum of the party membership. 


30 



the responsible comrade of the general party branch analyzed the problem 
together with others. "What is the concrete manifestation of Sun Song’s 
work style merchant?" Someone answered: "He gives people that impression." 

When he was asked to cite an example, he could not do it. The general party 
branch secretary thus figured out the riddle: "This is not the reaction of the 
masses but a statement made on the basis of your own impression." 

One comrade wrote an essay on open-end spinning, with Sun Song, who serves 
as deputy director of the research office, assuming the responsiblity to 
review the manuscript. Sun Song observed that a certain journal had published 
a similar essay and did not agree to publish it. If he were really slick and 
sly, why did he not simply agree to have it published and thereby establish 
some friendly relationship? 

In front of fact and reason, "impressions" and "feelings" all become pale. 

In August last year, a general meeting of the party branch passed Sun Song’s 
application to join the party. 

The Party General Branch Secretary’s Answer to Reporter’s Question 

After this reporter coverd the story, he asked the general party branch secretary 
a question: "These two encounters with obstacles were of course caused by 
’Leftist’ influence; but is it possible that some comrades within the party 
also have problems subjectively?" 

His answer turned out to be unexpectedly clear "There are people who proceed 
from personal interests while depending on the ’party ticket’ for their 
livelihood; they are afraid of intellectuals behaving like tigers with wings 
added once they get into the party." 

What he said was right! The influence of the ’Leftist* ideology plus a 
claculation about personal interests and gains or losses form a pair of 
"colored glasses." Once enlarged and filtered by them the intellectuals’ 
certain shortcomings or even just characteristics become "reasons" to keep them 
from joining the party even when their qualifications match the requirements 
for admission. We cannot help but urgently appeal to certain comrades in the 
party: Comrades, please take down your "colored glasses!" 


9255 

CSO: 4005/706 


31 


PARTY AND STATE 


SHAANXI HOLDS CADRE TRAINING CLASSES 

Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 4 Apr 83 pp 1, 3 

[Article by He Ping [0735 0988]: "Seventeen Institutes of Higher Learning in 
Shaanxi Run Cadre Training Classes and Special Classes"] 

[Text] Seventeen institutes of higher learning in Shaanxi have run cadre 
training classes and special classes; at present there are more than 3,130 
students attending these institutions. At the end of last year, 4,259 students 
completed their training. 

These training classes.and special classes are designed for responsible leading 
cadres at the county level and above in the engineering and communications, 
agriculture and forestry, finance and trade, and culture and education systems 
as well as business cadres at the corresponding levels. The specialized 
management and engineering classes run by Jiaotong University in Xi’an accept 
students below 45 years of age with an educational level equivalent to that of 
graduates from a science and engineering college and with more than 10 years of 
work seniority. After strict examination, they are admitted for enrollment and 
only after 2 years of systematic study of the basic theories and knowledge 
of production and management in modern enterprises, plus basic training in 
electronic computers and writing of thesis, which a management engineer should 
have can they reach the level of a technician in high-level management. The 
first class of 49 students who graduated October last year have already been 
assigned to leadership posts at factories, mines and enterprises under the 
provincial economic commission system. The Shaanxi mechanical engineering 
college has undertaken the educational work in enterprise management for leading 
cadres at the factory level under the original First Ministry of Machine 
system; it has developed this program from short-term rotational training 
classes to a 2-year special course and already trained 350 plant directors 
and division and bureau chiefs. The Northwest Agricultural College and 
Northwest Forestry college have trained the leading cadres in charge of 
agriculture and forestry in the regions and counties to enable them to establish 
a scientific point of view and economic point of view, and to understand the 
laws of nature and laws of economics. The Shaanxi Normal University is 
presently carrying out training of the management cadres at the department level 
and above in the higher institutions of learning and higher education 
administrative organs in the northwestern region. Institutes of higher learning, 
involved in training these cadres have generally established special training 
units to fully tap potentials and uniformly arrange university teaching, 
scientific research, as well as cadre training tasks. 


9255 

CSO: 4005/706 


32 



PARTY AND STATE 


HARBIN COURT OFFICIAL DISCUSSES PEOPLE’S COURTS’ INDEPENDENCE 
Harbin HARBIN RIBAO in Chinese 18 Feb 83 p 3 

[Article by Liu Guang Yan [0491 0342 3508] vice president of Harbin’s inter¬ 
mediate people’s court: "Protect Civil Rights, Judge Independently According 
to Law"] 

[Text] The 126th article of the new Constitution stipulates: "People’s 
courts can independently exercise their judicial power according to law and 
are not subjected to intervention by any administrative organizations, social 
groups, or individuals." This stipulation is of great significance in pro¬ 
tecting citizens’ democratic rights and in safeguarding the socialist legal 
system. 

The fact that people’s courts can judge independently does not imply that they 
can behave unscrupulously. Instead, there is a prerequisite condition that, 
everything must be "subjected to the stipulations of the laws." 

We know that our state’s laws are the reflection of the Chinese people’s will 
and the extreme centralism of the highest degree of democracy. Trial according 
to law and trial without intervention or interference by ideas aimed at ful¬ 
filling the benefits of oneself or individual groups enable our state’s laws 
to be strictly practiced, and thus conform to the basic interests of the whole 
people. We are a socialist state of people’s democratic dictatorship. We 
must build a high degree of democracy. 

The new Constitution highly emphasizes the citizens’ basic rights. Its stipu¬ 
lations of civil rights are more extensive than any of the previous constitu¬ 
tions. No organizations, groups or individuals are allowed to violate civil 
rights. By judging independently, people’s courts can, according to law, 
strictly protect citizens’ basic rights and accurately punish or eliminate 
activities which violate or endanger civil rights. 

However, the principle of allowing people’s courts to judge independently 
according to law has been much misunderstood, criticized and opposed. 

For many years, some people have been critical that people’s courts’ judicial 
independence according to law is the same as the "judicial independence" in 
capitalist countries. In fact, if this specious criticism is not made for 


33 



devious purposes, like those of the "gang of four," it must originate from ig- 
norance about political systems. The capitalist’s tripartite political system 
was based on the theories of Madison, the philosopher in the 18th century who 
opposed feudalism and established the tripartite governing theory. The tri¬ 
partite political system means that the three different kinds of national 
powers, i.e. legislative power, executive power and judicial power, are re¬ 
spectively under three different departments. The people’s courts’ indepen¬ 
dence in exercising judicial power according to law, as stipulated in our 
state’s Constitution, and the judicial independence in capitalist countries 
are in essence different. The people’s courts’ independent judging power is 
performed under the supervision of the state’s highest organized authority, 
the People’s Congress; it is not parallel with this legislative organization. 
Furthermore, in capitalist countries, it is the judge who tries the cases; he 
is a representative of the bourgeoisie who has received a complete law educa¬ 
tion. In our state, the people’s courts independently exercise judicial 
power according to law and make decisions on the basis of democratic central¬ 
ism whose essence is to serve the basic interests of the working people. 

Some people think that "People’s courts, independently exercising their judi¬ 
cial power, conflict with the party’s leadership." This idea is wrong. 

Our state’s law is formulated under the leadership of the CPC. It is the 
written form of the party’s policies. The principle of allowing people’s 
courts to judge independently according to law is the party’s concept that it 
is the highest principle of judicial activity and it must be stipulated and 
consolidated in the constitution. When people’s courts conduct activities 
according to this principle, how can they conflict with the leadership of the 
party? In addition, people’s courts’ independence in exercising judicial 
power is made possible only because of the party’s leadership and guidance. 
Innumerable events have proven that when it encounters people with the "special 
privilege" mentality who try unreasonably to intervene in judicial work, the 
people’s courts can only get support from the party and then practice law. 

There also are people who think that "independently exercising judicial power 
does not allow the masses, organizations or individuals to voice their opin¬ 
ions." This idea is also wrong. On the contrary, people’s courts welcome 
opinions. The open trial principle is a judicial system of the people’s courts, 
which place the judiciary under the masses’ supervision and listen to differ¬ 
ent opinions. Of course, when we make final decisions, only facts will be 
considered and law will be the only yardstick. We must resolutely make de¬ 
cisions according to law and not be influenced by opinions. 

It is not true that people’s courts will not commit mistakes when they indepen¬ 
dently judge according to law. Therefore, the Constitution has supervision 
provisions over the judicial work of the people’s courts. The 3rd, 167th and 
104th articles of the Constitution stipulate that the People’s Congress and 
its Standing Committee must supervise people’s courts at all levels. The 
127th article stipulates that people’s courts of upper levels must supervise 
people’s courts of lower levels. People’s Procuratorates also have the respon¬ 
sibility to supervise people’s courts. Of course, the masses have more rights 
to supervise people’s courts. It is because of this supervision that the peo¬ 
ple’s courts can effectively exercise judicial power. 

34 

12365 

CSO: 4005/811 



PARTY AND STATE 


SHANDONG STANDING COMMITTEE SETS REGULATIONS TO IMPROVE WORKING STYLE 
Jinan DAZHONG RIBAO in Chinese 6 Apr 83 p 1 

[Article: "In Order To Suit the Requirements of a Comprehensive Reform and an 

Initiation of a New Situation in the Building of Modernization, Shangdong CPC 
Standing Committee Sets Eight-point Regulation To Improve Work Style"] 

[Text] Shangdong CPC Standing Committee convened a standing committee meeting 
on 2 April, in which eight regulations were put forth to improve work style. 

The whole article is as follows: 

In order to suit the new requirements of a comprehensive reform and the initi¬ 
ation of a new situation in the building of Shangdong Province T s socialist 
modernization, the Shangdong CPC Standing Committee "group" must conscientiously 
implement the spirit of the 12th party congress, carry out the party constitu¬ 
tion and "standard" in an exemplary way, self-consciously increase the party- 
sense, improve the working style, increase self-contributions, and raise work 
efficiency. Because of this, the following regulations are established: 

1. Resolutely maintain a political unanimity with the party’s Central Commit¬ 
tee. The Central Committee’s line, principles, policies and various guidance 
must be conscientiously studied and understood. The provincial CPC Committee 
must arrange special study sessions and discussions to study important instruc¬ 
tions, closely integrate with reality and comprehensively implement and put 
into effect the instructions. We must courageously struggle with the ideas 
and behaviors which contradict the Central Committee’s line, principles and 
policies, and self-consciously uphold the leadership authority of the party’s 
Central Committee. We must regularly submit work reports to the Central Com¬ 
mittee and ask for instructions at the right moment concerning important 
issues. 

2. Insist on a practical and realistic ideological line and everything must 
proceed from actual conditions. Ideas must be liberated and reform must be 
carried out courageously. During the process of organizational reform, eco¬ 
nomic system reform and various other reforms, we must smash the "leftist" 
constraints and all the old constraints and practices which hinder the con¬ 
struction of Four Modernizations. We must comprehensively, systematically, 
resolutely and orderly improve the systems and be promoters of reform. We 


35 



must delve deeply into reality for inspection and research. Comrades of the 
standing committee must spend at least 2 months every year working among lower 
levels to investigate, to understand new conditions, to solve new problems, 
conclude new experiences and, above all, strengthen research work in order to 
establish a practical, powerful leadership over work. 

3. The principle of democratic centralism and collective leadership must be 
strictly enforced. During discussions, everybody must be frank, speak out 
freely, tell all he knows unreservedly. Truth, not prestige, must be empha¬ 
sized. An active discussion situation in which everyone dares to express dif¬ 
ferent opinions must be created so that collective wisdom can be drawn on and 
useful ideas can be absorbed and correct leadership can be carried out. Im¬ 
portant issues and the appointment and removal of personnel must be decided 
by the standing committee T s collective meetings, and by the system of one per¬ 
son, one vote; the principle of majority rule must be upheld, and no individ¬ 
uals or minority can make any decision. As for deciding important issues, 
there must be preparation and consideration before the decision, adequate dis¬ 
cussion during the meeting, and if no conclusion can be made in one meeting 
the issue must be reserved for the next meeting. Different opinions expressed 

in the discussion can be maintained but not released to the outside. Confiden 

tiality must be strictly observed. We must integrate the ideas of collective 
leadership and division of labor. When work is assigned, standing committee 
members must carry out the task in a bold, responsible and active way. 

5. We must set a good example for party working style. "Standards" and the 

party constitution must be strictly observed and we must set a good example to 
eliminate wrong working styles. We must at all times be the public r s servants 
not display a haughty manner, and never become separated from the masses. 
Within the party, everyone should be addressed as comrade. When any comrades 

move to the lower levels, the move must be simple and easily managed and 

farewell or welcome parties are absolutely forbidden. Party invitations must 
not be allowed nor accepted and special local products or other commodities 
must not be accepted nor purchased at a low price. No individual is allowed 
to promote or put himself forward. Besides some important meetings and mass 
activities, standing committee comrades must not arrange activities such as 
interviews, photography sessions, addresses or public promotional announce¬ 
ments. 

6. Democratic activities within the party must be strengthened. Standing com 
mittee comrades must self-consciously participate in the organizational activ¬ 
ity meetings of the party branches to which they belong and accept the super¬ 
vision of the party organizations. Standing committee activity meetings must 
be convened once every 6 months. Standing committee members and comrades 
should always discuss with one another, initiate criticism and self-criticism 
and when shortcomings or questions are discovered, actively correct them and 
sound the alarm so as to check erroneous ideas at the outset. We must open 

up more channels for opinions and listen to different ideas. Everything must 
be carried out according to the party’s principles instead of heeding and 
trusting only one side. We must love, support and be concerned with comrades 
at lower levels and their work, and actively shoulder responsibility when 
problems occur. 


36 



7. Unity and cooperation must be stressed. The standing committee "group" 
must study, support and help each other. Old comrades must emit ideas, pre¬ 
pare for the passage of party responsibilities to younger comrades, pay close 
attention in developing new comrades 1 functions. New comrades must learn from 
old comrades, and be courageous in taking charge and being bold in work. Old 
comrades who are retired must be politically respected and their lives must be 
well-taken care of. Informal discussions must be held on "7.1." and around 
New Year every year, during which old retired comrades will be told about con^- 
ditions and their opinions will be solicited. 

8. We must study hard. Shangdong CPC Standing Committee comrades must set an 
example in studying, take the lead in studying the works of Comrades Marx, 

Lenin and Mao Zedong, study the 12th party congress documents, the "Three Books" 
(that is "Important Articles and Documents Since the Third Plenary Session", 
"Chen Yun Articles" and the currently being published "Deng Xiaoping Articles") 
and the Central Committee instructions. We must study cultural, scientific 
knowledge and administrative knowledge, try hard to raise the levels of polit¬ 
ical theory and scientific culture, and the capability of leadership over 
modernization construction. 


12365 

CSO: 4005/811 


37 




PARTY AND STATE 


NEED FOR UTILIZING OLD CADRES DECLAIMED 

Nanjing QUNZHONG [THE MASSES] in Chinese No 3, 5 Feb 83, p 11 

[Article by Zheng Yue [2973 2588]: "Assert the Role of the Old Cadres in 
the Organizational Reform"] 

[Text] In the present organizational reform* many old cadres take the over¬ 
all revolutionary situation to heart and submit to their organizations requests 
for relieving them of their posts* for retirement or to be relegated to 
second line* and enthusiastically support the promotion of middle-aged and 
young cadres to succeed them in their posts* This broadmindedness and these 
exemplary actions give strong support to the smooth progress of our organiza¬ 
tional reform* It made some comrades believe that the old cadres* being 
ideologically on the right track and having submitted their reports* have 
now reached the end of their historical role in the organizational reform* 

This is a wrong view. 

The old cadres are precious assets of the party and the state* They have 
made enormous contributions during the protracted revolutionary struggle and 
have accumulated abundant experiences in leadership work. In the present 
organizational reform* we shall continue to trust the old cadres and rely 
on them* and bring their effectiveness into full play. Only thus will we 
achieve the predetermined objective of making this organizational reform 
"precise in its structure* efficacious in its leadership* firm in its 
work style and high in its efficiency." 

The organizational reform is an objective demand posed by the socialist moderniza¬ 
tion drive and involves the reform of the leadership system of organization 
as well as the reform of the organizational setup and of the cadre system. 

We have to admit that this is an arduous task with great complexity; it 
must not be lightly undertaken. All specific institutions of socialism have 
not* and cannot possibly have* fixed patterns and readymade plans; it remains 
for us to evolve them in earnest practice and probing. In this respect* the 
old cadres are experienced and knowledgeable; they have historical exper¬ 
iences as well as foresight and sagacity. The organization of our crack con¬ 
tingents that displayed such excellent fighting power during the way years 
has remained fresh in their memories. They also have a pretty good idea on 
the conditions of the organizational evolution following the establishment of 
our government. They are therefore highly qualified to speak on how the 


38 


organization is to be reformed. On the questions of readjustment of the 
government organization and the new setup, we would like to ask our old 
cadres to let us hear more of their opinions♦ The old cadres could actively 
favor us with their suggestions as to which organizations to establish, 
which ones to abolish or amalgamate, so as to build up a set of reasonable 
government organization that will meet the demands of the modernization 
drive. 

The key question in the present organizational reform is to follow the prin¬ 
ciple of having a small number of highly efficient men and to conform with the 
demand for "modernization" of our cadres, and accordingly readjust and set up 
a good leadership team which should be a leadership collective capable of 
initiating a new overall situation. Wheom to select into the leadership 
team, and to whom to entrust all powers, are questions that will determine 
the fate of our party’s undertakings for centuries* Strict checks and correct 
selections are therefore absolute requirements. Our old cadres have good 
judgement and good knowledge of human character. They are closely associated 
with the young cadres from morning to night and know them very well like 
teachers know their youngsters; they understand them can can be as good as 
the proverbial Bo Le [who was expert in sizing up horses]* With great 
fairmindedness the old cadres will personally test and recommend worthy and 
capable men and will enthusiastically support these young people who do not 
have the qualifications and seniority as the old cadres themselves, or as 
abundant a work experience as the old cadres themselves, in coming forth to 
shoulder the heavy burdens. This is of decisive significance for the 
successful accomplishment of our organizational reform. 

In our oganizational reform certain departments and units will have to be 
abolished, merged or retained, and this will entail the advancement, depar¬ 
ture or transfer of certain leading cadres. In this respect much organiza¬ 
tional and ideological work will have to be done. The old cadres, who have 
undergone the tests and trials of protracted revolutionary struggle, will 
of course have to bear the heavier burden in the question of educating 
cadres. The old cadres, on the one hand, will themselves be setting ex¬ 
amples and resolutely follow the decisions of the Central Committee. Who¬ 
ever is retained will stay on, whoever must retire will retire; those who are 
retained will work well, those who are to retire will do so joyfully, and 
by their very actions all will set a good example for the younger genera¬ 
tion. On the other hand, the old cadres must do a good job at passing on 
their experiences and principles by transmitting our party’s excellent 
tradition and style of work to the middle-aged and young cadres. The old 
cadres must also personally attend to and work for the solution of problems 
of ideology and understanding, especially the understanding of the prob¬ 
lems in teh selection and promotion of middle-aged and young cadres, as such 
problems arise in the course of our organizational reform. As long as the 
majority approves the selection and promotion and checks and counterchecks 
have verified the merits of the choices, our old cadres should unhesitatingly 
come out in support. Even if there are some shortcomings in certain men, as 
long as the old comrades will steer them with a firm hand, they will prove 
quite fit to be selected. 


39 



A poem by the Qing-era poet Zheng Banqiao reads: "The new bamboo branches 
grow above the old branches, all rely for support on the old stalks. Next 
year new branches will grow up, 10 zhang of sprouts around the Phoenix 
Lake." If only the old cadres will fully play their role, close coopera¬ 
tion between the old and the young cadres can certainly be achieved, so that 
both will unite in this struggle and successfully accomplish the task of 
the organizational reform, by which both will jointly initiate a new overall 
situation. 


9808 

CSO: 4005/697 


40 



PARTY AND STATE 


ON DEVELOPING ABLE PERSONNEL 

Nanjing QUNZHONG [THE MASSES] in Chinese No 3, 5 Feb 83, pp 9-10 

[Article by Fan Ren [0416 0086]: "Initiate a New Phase in Selecting and 
Promoting Able Personnel"] 

[Text] Reforms are at present being instituted in the structure of our pro¬ 
vincial, prefectural and municipal organs, step by step and in a planned way. 

It is now a core problem of the reform in the party and government structures 
to initiate a new phase in the selection and promotion of capable personnel, 
in particular to select excellent middle-aged and young cadres to join 
the leadership teams, a matter that has an important bearing on the initiation 
of a new phase in our socialist modernization drive. Comrade Deng Xiaoping 
pointed out in a recent talk: "To judge the effectiveness and quality of 
reforms in a certain unit, we must not only look at the rules and regulations 
it has instituted, much more imporrant is it to look at the quzlity of the 
men the unit has selected." 

Selecting middle-aged and young cadres means in actual fact selecting middle- 
aged and young intellectuals who have both ability and political integrity. 

The socialist modernization drive is a great and novel undertaking, and the 
cadres at all levels, especailly those in leading posts, must be capable of 
administering modernizations and possess scientific and technological knowledge. 
Although many of our leading cadres have gathered abundant experiences over 
the years and will continue to play an important role in guiding the moderniza¬ 
tion drive, they are now generally advanced in age and lackign knowledge in 
modernizations, and are therefore not suited to meet the objective demands 
posed by the intended initiation of a new phase in the modernization drive. 

This makes it imperative to promote a large number of intellectuals of 
ability and political integrity, who are now in their prime of years, to 
fill the gaps in leading posts at all levels and to have them shoulder the 
heavy historical task. If we do not do that, we cannot possibly initiate 
a new phase in our socialist modernization drive, and that would means 
that the grand program outlined at the 12th CPC Congress could not count 
on being reliably guaranteed in its organizational line. 

Initiating a new phase in selecting the promoting capable personnel means 
that the party committee members at all levels must resolve with great 
determination to use all their energy and the most effective ways to provide 


41 



opportunities for middle-aged and young cadres of ability and political 
integrity to move into positions of leadership. Not only enterprises and 
industrial units should boldly engage that type of personnel* but leader¬ 
ship sectors of the party and the government should also boldly select 
personnel of this type. Not only should one or a few of them be raised 
to higher positions* or raised to mere deputy positions* but a whole stratum 
should be selected and in case of sufficient maturity they should be placed 
in principal posts and be allowed to play leading roles. They should not 
only be selected from among specialists in the natural sciences* but attention 
must also be paid to select them from the social sciences. To do this is 
a question of keeping in step* in the organizational line* with the party’s 
Central Committee. 

Since the 12th CPC Congress* many localities and units have complied with the 
Central Committee’s disposition and demand, done much work in the area of 
employing qualified personnel* promoted a large number of middle-aged and young 
cadres of ability and political integrity to leading posts and thus advanced 
the ’’modernization” of the cadre contingent. However* there are still a 
considerable number of comrades who are too conventional* irresolute* slow in 
action and who have done nothing to pave the way for a selection of qualified 
personnel. A major obstacle in this respect is that they consider it 
’’difficult to find qualified personnel.” 

Are there no qualified people around for selection? Our great fatherland* 
China* is endowed with much natural beauty and an abundance ofhuman talent* 

The current era of socialist modernizations is bound to produce countless 
numbers of truly talented people. There are now more than 5 million* 
counting only pre-Cultural Revolution graduates from universities and 
colleges and self-study intellectuals of equal educational level through out 
the country. Many of these persons have been tempered and tested in actual 
struggle; very early already they formed the mainstay on all fronts and 
played many an excellent role. Free your minds of old ideas* break down 
obsolete conventions; excellent human material will emerge and brust forth 
to fill the needs of the time. 

If some comrades still feel is ’’difficult to find qualified personnel*" the 
reason is that these comrades have not yet broadened their field of vision. 
Although the party has long ago shifted its focus of work to a course of 
modernizations* some comrades are found not yet sufficiently prepared* ideo¬ 
logically* for this strategic shift* and when these men select cadres they 
consciously or unconsciously remain teid up in obsolete conventions. Even 
with a large number of middle-aged and young cadres in front of them* these 
comrades will still be blind on both eyes and find it difficult to select 
qualified personnel. There are also some comrades who do not follow the 
mass line when selecting qualified personnel* who do not immerse themselves 
in the actual struggle to do their discovering and examining. They will 
always limit themselves to the small circle in their party or government 
department, or to the few people under their noses. In addition* they 
ordinarily do nothave contact with cadres and with the masses and remain 
ignorant of general conditions* therefore believe that talents suitable for 
employment are rarities like "phoenix feathers and unicorn horns." Another 


42 



situation that also exists is that some comrades when they come across a 
variance of opinions, try to avoid further trouble by choosing as a way out 
and to keep things smooth, to "go for the roundabout way instead of taking 
direct action;" they will pass the buck to higher authority or ask support 
from another unit. Is this not narrowing your own opportunities for the 
selection of qualified personnel? As to the action of a small number of 
leading comrades who appoint people by favoratism and appoint only people 
that show subserviance, who appoint the ignorant and incompetent, regardless 
of their limitations, to posts of great responsibility and hold up and fail 
to select middle-aged and young cadres of ability and integrity, comrades 
who act in this manner completely block all chances for excellent middle- 
aged and young cadres to move into leadership positions. As we are de¬ 
termined to initiate a new phase in the selection of talents, we must cer¬ 
tainly show fairmindedness, open wide the opportunities for talented 
persons, recommend and promote the worthy and capable, not stick to one 
pattern and select outstanding talents wherever we find them. 

One reason for "finding it difficult to select qualified personnel" is 
that some comrades still persist in their bias against intellectuals, be¬ 
lieving that "the intellectuals may be good in practicing their specialities, 
but not fit to get into leadership teams." These comrades do not understand 
how extremely important professional expertise is in our modernization 
drive, and that it is necessary to bring cadres who are professionally com¬ 
petent into the leadership teams at all levels. Not every intellectual is 
a talent, but the intellectuals are indeed the great reservoir for those 
outstanding talents that are to lead our modernization drive. The actual 
practice of many localities and units has now proven, that bringing such 
"knowledgeable ones," who are full of party spirit, vigor, well educated and 
well versed in their professional specialities, into the leadership teams 
has had significant effects on initiating a new phase in the relevant 
localities or units, on overcoming bureaucracy and on raising work efficiency. 
In our selections we must of course differentiate according to the individual 
persons concerned and make full and appropriate use of a person 1 s strong 
points. We must resolutely and unhesitatingly select persons for higher 
positions who have the professional qualifications and organizational and 
administrative abilities. Persons who are professionally competent but 
lack organizational and administrative abilities are better left to pursue 
their professional research; that would be more beneficial for the party 1 s 
undertakings. 

Another reason for "finding it difficult to select qualified personnel" is 
the distrust against middle-aged and young cadres, the fear that they 
"lack experience and cannot shoulder the heavy responsibilities." It must 
be borne in mind, however, that experience grows from practice; only in the 
actual work situations can these persons be provided with the larger 
stage to give full rein to their talents, a stage where they can be further 
tempered and accumulate experiences. At the same time they will be gradually 
earning in actual practice the understanding and trust from a growing number 
of cadres and from the masses. Whenever university-educated cadres are pro¬ 
moted, some people point to the fact that they have no leadership experience. 
After all what is easier, to learn leadership experience after having obtained 


43 




an education* or to get an education after having had leadership experience? 

Of course it is easier to learn leadership experience after having had an 
education. Now another matter deserves our attention* and that is when 
selecting qualified personnel* to demand of them complete perfection, to 
be excessively demanding as regards certain minor issues, or even going so 
far as to make their strong points look to be faults and relentelssly harp on 
them, or misrepresent their definite views and self-confidence as "arrogance," 
and misrepresent their conduct and pioneering spirit as "presumptiousness." 

In fact nothing much could be achieved in the pursuit of the four moderniza¬ 
tions if there are not people who would have some self-confidence or if they 
were all without capabilities. In the present readjustment of leadership 
teams there is one group of comrades who are actually past the age limit, 
but because of actual requirements and their continued good physical condi¬ 
tion and willingness to continue on their jobs* are permitted to continue as 
an interim measure with the approval of the superior authority. This pro¬ 
cedure helps to ensure continuity in the party 1 s undertakings. However, such 
king of continuity must not be over-emphasized, this would prevent the pro¬ 
motion of excellent middle-aged and young cadres. Otherwise* those persons 
now in the prime of life would get to take over only after a number of 
years* when they would possibly become similarly only interim leadership 
team members. This would continue a succession of overaged leaderships or 
compel making another great change in the leadership* and would make it 
impossible to properly solve the problem of establishing a perfect coopera¬ 
tion between the new and the old* and to smoothly transfer form the old to 
the new. If we do not resolutely and courageously promote middle-aged and 
young cadres to leadership positions* allowing them to play leading roles, 
it seems from a short-term view that this would be benefitical in ensuring 
continuity in the undertakingsof theparty* but from a long-term point of 
view it would actually have the effect of cutting that continuity. Our 
old cadres should display a high and upright character, voluntarily and en¬ 
thusiastically aid the young cadres who are inferior in seniority, prestige 
and capabilities and who are now stepping out to shoulder the heavy tasks, 
to make new contributions toward a long and peaceful period of good 
government by the party and the state and a period of prosperity and 
development. 

The 12th CPC Congress already designated it as an important matter that 
demands urgent solution when it placed before the entire party the need to 
render the contingent of our cadres more revolutionary* more composed of 
younger men, more knowledgeable, more professionally specialized, the need 
for an appropriate solution of the problem of cooperation between old and 
new cadres and the question of replacing the old by the new, and, in the 
organizational field, the need to initiate on a comprehensive scale a new 
phase in the socialist modernization drive. The party organizations at all 
levels, especially the important leading comrades in the party committees, 
must free themselves even somewhat further of old ideas, must be even some¬ 
what more determined in their actions, take even somewhat larger steps in 
the handling of selections and promotions of talents and must display a 
personal courage, insight and superiority of conduct. 


9808 

CSO: 4005/697 


44 


SOCIOLOGICAL, EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


’GUANGMING RIBAO 1 ON TRAINING OF PROFESSIONAL MANAGERIAL PERSONNEL 
Beijing GUANGMING RIBAO in Chinese 9 Apr 83 p 3 

[Article by Xia Shuzhang [1115 2579 4545]: "It Is Imperative To Grasp the 
Timely Training of Professional Managerial Personnel 1 ’] 

[Text] Comrade Hu Yaobang pointed out in the report of the 12th Party Central 
Committee, "It is necessary to strength the study and application of economic 
science and management science, constantly improve the planning and level of 
management of national economy and the level of operation and management of 
enterprises." The various aspects of modernized industry, agriculture, na¬ 
tional defense and scientific technology cannot be divorced from effective 
modernized management. However, there is a serious shortage of professional 
managerial personnel on the various battlefronts at present. In order to 
meet the needs of the socialist cause of building modernizations, we must 
grasp the training of professional managerial personnel. 

The socialist cause of building modernization is an organic entity, While 
building a high material civilization, it is a basic task for the people of 
our country in building socialism to strive to build a high socialist spirit¬ 
ual culture. Personnel on the various fronts at all levels should implement 
civilized and democratic management and adopt scientific methods and attitudes 
to try their best in doing a good job of management in their profession. This 
conforms to the demands which material civilization makes on management work. 

It is also a concrete manifestation of socialist spiritual civilization. At 
present, people have a certain understanding of the importance of the work of 
economic management. However, if management work outside economic management 
cannot be respectively strengthened in time, or, if management is not good 
with a low efficiency and cannot meet the demands of economic work, people’s 
productivity and work enthusiasm and potentialities cannot be easily and fully 
developed. Unfavorable influences will also be exerted on economic work and 
will drag back economic work. It can thus be seen that management work out¬ 
side economic work is related to the whole situation and cannot be neglected. 

The question of training various kinds of managerial personnel and the estab¬ 
lishment of various specialized management courses is directly related to the 
reinforcement of management work in various aspects. Management science is 
one of the applied sciences which closely tie up theory with reality. We 
must start from reality in our setting up of specialized courses in management. 


45 



At present, most of the management courses set up by institutions of higher 
learning in the whole country are courses on economic management and enters 
prise management. There are very few courses on the management of scientific 
technology (including scientific study) and engineering management. These 
courses are definitely not sufficient and must be vigorously developed, so as 
to increase the quantity and improve the quality. We must also put the estab¬ 
lishment of management courses in other fields as an item on the agenda at an 
early date and actively put this into action. Two examples of a general nature 
are cited here for illustration. 

The first is educational management (including school management), especially 
management of institutions of higher education. This is a new, comprehensive 
and interdisciplinary branch of education, higher education and management 
science. In recent years, the education department in our country has begun 
to pay attention to conditions in this aspect and adopted various measures for 
creating a new situation for our educational undertaking. After approval by 
the State Council, the Central Education Administrative College was reopened, 
the education department has given teacher training colleges in six large re¬ 
gions in the whole country, which are the regions of northern China, north¬ 
eastern China, northwestern China, eastern China, south central and south¬ 
western China the task of holding study classes on higher education for cadres. 
The various provinces have, one after the other, re-opened educational adminis¬ 
trative schools. Some hold study classes on a provincial basis or individual 
basis. Stress is placed on educational science, including educational manage¬ 
ment or the science of school management in the content of study. Many stu¬ 
dents realize that management is indeed a science. Only cadres of educational 
management armed with educational theory or management science can run the 
schools properly. Similar measures have also been adopted by the schools of 
higher learning in the fields of hygiene, coal mining and metallurgy. These 
are pleasing phenomena. However, rotation training for cadres who stay at 
their posts cannot fully meet the demands of the development of the situation. 

A further attempt may be the formal establishment of courses on educational 
management. There are things which we can learn from other countries in this 
aspect. However, we must open up the paths ourselves as to how we should man¬ 
age socialist primary, middle and higher education with Chinese characteris¬ 
tics. 

The second is administrative management (including organization management). 
Although this is a relatively old course, administration was set up as an in¬ 
dependent course only slightly more than half a century ago. The period is 
short but the development is rapid. At present, voices of discontent are heard 
all over the world regarding bureaucratism and low administrative efficiency. 

A shortage of well-trained administrative staff is a general phenomenon. Ac¬ 
cording to the statistics up to the end of 1970, 100 countries had already made 
plans for administrative management. From 1946 to 1947, France set up the Na¬ 
tional Administrative College. In 1969, England set up a college for civil 
servants. The Federal Administrative College in the United States has a his¬ 
tory of approximately 14 years. In addition, about 500 faculties of political 
science in American universities have set up administrative courses (some have 
set up more than one course); in addition, there are more than 60 universities 


46 




with schools of administrative studies, administrative schools, administrative 
(teaching research) centers and other specialized organizations. These are 
still said to be insufficient. The assertion that "administration is the heart 
of modern contemporary politics" in western administrative circles can be taken 
as a footnote explaining the importance for the study of administration. Cer¬ 
tainly, the guiding thoughts, purposes and methods of administration are dif- 
ferent under different political systems. We are a socialist country. We 
should and can thoroughly eradicate bureaucy and improve efficiency. However, 
in order to do this, we must make great efforts. Organizational reforms which 
have been started and are being carried out are in essence administrative re¬ 
forms. Whether or not the results can be consolidated and developed depends 
on whether or not administration and management can be really strengthened. 

The study and research of management will help reinforce administration and 
management. There are very few courses of political science (these are dif¬ 
ferent from the courses on political education in teacher colleges) in the 
existing schools of higher learning. Management courses are not commonly set 
up in the faculty of political science, not to mention the set up of the Facul¬ 
ty of Administration. These conditions must be changed. It has been said that 
the establishment of a faculty of administration is in preparation. I hope 
that this can be done quickly. Some comrades in the colleges of social sci¬ 
ence in the four provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Shanxi, and Hunan are in the 
course of compiling a publication entitled "Concise Administration." This 
should be encouraged and supported. As long as we can arouse interest and 
attention, there is a future for the study of administration in our country. 

Other kinds of management work are similar. We can think along similar lines 
for other management work. There are courses that have much in common such as 
personnel management, management and administration. There are comprehensive 
courses such as municipal management and the study of urban management. The 
reinforcement of management studies is for strengthening management. This can 
also rectify the unfavorable results caused by the prejudice and misunder¬ 
standing of many people in the past—the view that management work is "Tiger 
Balm Ointment." Higher education is faced with adjustment and reforms. The 
past system of party schools must also draw up plans to increase the content 
of specialized training if possible and include the various specialized man¬ 
agement courses in planning. This should be given attention. 


9954 

CSO: 4005/767 


47 



SOCIOLOGICAL, EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


XINJIANG CONVENES MEETING TO CITE ADVANCED WORKERS IN MEDIATION WORK 
Beijing ZHONGGUO FAZHI BAO in Chinese 11 Feb 83 p 1 

[Article: "Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region People’s Government Convened a 

Meeting To Cite the Advanced Workers on Mediation Work"] 

[Text] Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region People’s Government convened the 
first citation meeting at Urumqi City between 25 January and 30 January to 
cite advanced collectives and workers in mediation work in the whole province 
of Xinjiang. 

There were 37 advanced mediation committees, 113 advanced mediators and 40 ad¬ 
vanced judicial assistants cited at the meeting. Among them were mediators of 
the nine nationalities of Kazakhs, Mongols, Moslems, Sibo, Donxiang, Tajiks 
and Khalkas. 

The people’s mediation organization in Xinjiang has developed very rapidly in 
the past year. At present, there are 11,939 mediation organizations and more 
than 59,000 mediators in the whole region. In 1982 they have altogether set¬ 
tled more than 76,000 disputes among the people. They have drawn up local 
rules and people’s agreements in conjunction with the relevant departments and 
done a lot of work in developing family activities and helping youths who have 
gone astray. 

Tomur Dawamat [6993 2606 5101 6671 3907 6314 2251], secretary of the party 
Central Committee in the autonomous region and secretary of the political com¬ 
mittee attended the meeting and gave a talk. He said that Uigur autonomous re¬ 
gion in Xinjiang is a region with multiple nationalities and the prime task is 
to maintain unity among the nationalities. People’s mediation work has played 
an excellent role in this aspect. He demanded that party committees at all 
levels and the government should realistically pay attention to, show concern 
for and support people’s mediation work, help solve real problems and promote 
the development of mediation work. 


9954 

CSO: 4005/767 


48 



SOCIOLOGICAL, EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


CADRES TRAINING, EDUCATION IN NINGXIA DISCUSSED 
Yinchuan NINGXIA RIBAO in Chinese 3 Feb 83 p 3 

[Article by Ming Xuan [5407 3138]: "Vigorously Strengthen the Training and 
Educating of Cadres"] 

[Text] The report of the 12th Party Central Congress points out that "in or¬ 
der to train a large number of specialized people for building socialist mod¬ 
ernization, it is necessary to strive to strengthen the work of educating and 
training cadres." This is an important strategic measure and embodies the 
brilliant ideas of our party. 

Our party has a fine tradition and experience in the general rotation training 
of cadres. In the years of revolutionary wars, despite adverse conditions and 
difficulties, various types of cadres schools and party schools were run one 
after the other and a large number of talents in the various aspects of party 
work, military affairs, politics, economics, culture and education have been 
educated and trained, and conditions have been created for scoring victories 
in the new democratic revolution and laying the foundation for the socialist 
revolution and construction in the future. In the early period of the Liber¬ 
ation, our party continued to adopt various forms in running various types of 
schools and party schools and organized the broad masses of cadres to study 
theory, culture and various types of specialized knowledge. Consequently, many 
military commanders rapidly became talents for the cause of building socialism. 
However, up to the late fifties, owing to the "leftist" influences in the 
guiding thoughts, the work of training cadres was gradually weakened and cadres 
were discouraged in their study of various types of specialized knowledge. In 
the 10 years of civil war, the "gang of four" considered the cadres 1 study of 
theory, culture and specialized knowledge as "an extremely revolutionary" 
event and obstructed the education and training of cadres. Most of the leader¬ 
ship backbone cadres and professional backbone cadres who are active on the 
various fronts at present were trained during the period of revolutionary wars 
and in the early period of founding the country. Most of them have "aged" 
but the new generation has not properly grown up in large numbers. Historical 
experiences clearly show that if we pay attention to cadres education, there 
will be a wealth of talents and the cause of the party will prosper, if we 
neglect or discard cadres education, the source of talents will dry up and the 
cause of the party will suffer loss and the various items of construction can¬ 
not be easily or smoothly developed. 


49 




After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Party Central Congress, following 
the shift of the key point in party work, the work of education and rotation 
training of cadres has not only been gradually restored but also tremendously 
developed. According to statistics, the whole country has restored and 
newly built more than 8,100 party schools and professional cadres schools in 
the past few years, and the contingent of teaching cadres has developed to 
around 100,000 people. Many institutes of higher learning have also run pro¬ 
fessional courses for cadres. Our region is the same. The party schools and 
cadres schools in various regions under various systems have been restored and 
set up one after the other and the number of cadres participating in rotation 
training and training has also increased year by year. After rotation train¬ 
ing and training, the theoretical and vocational level of the broad masses of 
cadres has been raised to varying degrees and they have played a marked role 
in the building of socialist modernizations at present. For example, some 
comrades intended to practice the responsibility system in the countryside. 

They were hesitant at first and could not make a decision. This has suppressed 
the initiative of the masses. After their study of theory, things became clear 
to them all of a sudden and they understood that responsibility systems of 
various forms meet the levels of the development of productivity in our coun¬ 
try. The systems make up a socialist path which suits the conditions of our 
country. After their return to their work posts, they eradicated the "leftist" 
influences and led the masses in actively promoting the responsibility system 
of production and they rapidly changed their outlook. 

However, there are still some phenomena which merit attention in the work of 
cadres education. First, a small number of leading comrades think nothing of 
the work of training cadres. Whenever they hear that people are sent for 
training, they will first of all think of comrades who are old, weak or who 
cannot take charge of work. The chiefs of some units never go to study, while 
some comrades have become "study representatives "committee members of study 
committees." There has emerged the situation whereby "those in charge do not 
study, and those who study do not take charge" and there are unfavorable con¬ 
ditions created among the people. 

Secondly, some comrades are not willing to study and they neglect theoretical 
study in particular. They think that theory is not important and that theory 
cannot resolve their practical problems. They say, "theory is empty while ex¬ 
perience alone is practical," "so many years have passed, why should we study 
now?" They are just like certain people whom Comrade Liu Xiaoqi criticized 
long ago, "I did not study these books in the past and I have become the sec¬ 
retary of the hsien committee and regional committee. I do not study now and 
I can still work as the secretary for the hsien committee and regional commit¬ 
tee." ("Selected Works of Liu Xiaoqi» n Vol 1, p 412) These comrades have 
not properly grasped the dialectic relation between theory and practice and 
do not understand the role of theory in guiding practice. Comrade Mao Zedong 
said, "People with working experience must study theory seriously. Only then 
can their practice be organized and comprehensive and become theory. Then they 
will not misunderstand partial experience as general truth and they will not 
commit the error of empiricism." ("Selected Works of Mao Zedong," p 776) 
Practical experiences are certainly precious. However, without the guidance 
of a correct theory, this will easily lead to blindness, and we cannot clearly 


50 




distinguish which of our experiences are correct and which are erroneous, and 
it is difficult to improve our comprehensive ability and leadership level. 

Many leading comrades hold this view: only a leading cadre who understands 
theory can correctly understand the party line, the general and specific pol- 
icies of the £arty and can be good at investigation and study, understand 
thoroughly the conditions of their regions and their departments, and give a 
realistic analysis of the various complicated contradictions, make accurate 
judgments and produce a correct guide for work. In real life we can see that 
among cadres with a similar vocational level, those who have a higher level of 
Marxism-Leninism have stronger analytic abilities. They can grasp the essence 
of things, see clearly the orientation for advancement and made correct deci¬ 
sions, Following the continuous development of the situation, new conditions 
and new questions emerge constantly. Things will go wrong if we are contented 
with past experiences. 

Thirdly, some comrades are deterred by the difficulties in studying economic 
theory, economic management and scientific and cultural techniques. Some old 
comrades said, "We are old and our memory is weak. It is a waste of time for 
us to study." Other comrades who are younger and have certain fundamental 
knowledge may also become discouraged and may even stop and refuse to continue 
to study hard when they come across "bones that are hard to chew and the con¬ 
fusing formula." These comrades lack a certain sense of urgency and cannot 
see the contradictions between the present conditions of the cadres contingent 
and the demands of building socialist modernizations. They do not see that we 
have already created serious obstacles for the socialist cause because of our 
weakness in Marxist theory, professional knowledge, scientific and cultural 
level and leadership and management abilities. Comrade Deng Xiaoping said in 
"The Present Situation and Tasks" that certain vocational knowledge and abil¬ 
ity are needed no matter for what posts and we should learn whatever we lack. 
Without real knowledge, we cannot realize the four modernizations. The study 
results of cadres directly affect the success of our undertaking. What rea¬ 
sons do we have for not rendering efforts to studying well? A comrade who 
does not fear any difficulties in his studies and arduously overcomes his prob¬ 
lems has aptly said, "Whenever I recall the low productivity and chaotic man¬ 
agement at our place, I will become feverish and hate my incompetence. Now the 
party has sent me here to study, I must learn some real skills!" The results 
of study will certainly be different with this determination. We must bear 
in mind some well-known sayings of Marx, "There is no flat and smooth path in 
science. Only those people who climb a tortuous path and fear no difficulties 
can reach the glorious summit." ("On Capital," Vol 1, p 26) 

At present, the party Central Committee has made a great decision to grasp well 
the task with strategic significance of the general training of cadres. Let 
us make a strong determination, and with the spirit of "not fearing difficul¬ 
ties in the seige of a city and not fearing difficulties in our studies," 
strive to study well theory and various types of vocational and cultural knowl¬ 
edge, and make the necessary contributions for creating a new situation for 
building socialist modernizations. 


9954 

CSO: 4005/767 


51 


SOCIOLOGICAL, EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


HEBEI BUREAU OF HIGHER EDUCATION STUDIES TO IMPROVE HIGHER EDUCATION 
Shijiazhuang HEBEI RIBAO in Chinese 3 Mar 83 p 1 

[Article by Zhang Qiuyang [1728 7264 7122]: "The Hebei Provincial Bureau of 
Higher Education Conscientiously Studies How To Reform Measures, Helps Train 
Talents and Mobilizes the Initiative in Running Schools on All Sides"] 

[Text] At present, the Hebei Provincial Bureau of Higher Education is serious¬ 
ly studying reform measures on the basis of investigation and studies. 

The Provincial Bureau of Higher Education is preparing a forecast of talents 
needed and drawing up regulations for the training of talents. On the basis 
of talent forecast, they have transformed the unreasonable conditions in spe¬ 
cialized departments in schools of higher learning, added courses that were 
lacking before, reinforced weak courses, increased the proportion between sci- 
ence and arts subjects, enlarged the scope of knowledge in some courses and in¬ 
creased the flexibility of specialized courses. 

The reform of higher education must contribute to the formation of a socialist 
system of higher education with Chinese characteristics and help train people. 
It is necessary to run schools with many levels, according to varied educa¬ 
tional systems, through diverse channels and with varied forms, eliminate the 
one-sided method of running schools in the past, vigorously support the various 
forms of higher education adopted by various units, regions, municipalities 
and enterprises in the province such as the workers’ university, workers’ 
sparetime university, short-term university, broadcast university and univer¬ 
sity courses by correspondence. Full time universities must actively hold 
correspondence and evening university courses, specialized courses for cadres 
and special courses to enroll day students, and set up examination and guidance 
committees for higher education in our province as soon as possible. The coun¬ 
try should recognize the qualifications of candidates who take and pass self- 
study examinations so as to actively promote success in self-study. In the 
aspect of school leadership and management, we can adopt a management system 
under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Higher Education, Bureau of Enter¬ 
prises and regions and municipalities according to the demands. 

Reform in the enrollment system must open the road to the countryside. The 
schools of agriculture, forestry and medical science should enroll a fixed pro¬ 
portion of students from the countryside, forests, and mountainous region, 


52 



appropriately lower the grading requirements and accept the good candidates. 
Students will return to work in their own regions upon graduation. The 
schools should examine the records of those candidates who have put down the 
subjects of agriculture, forestry, teacher training, water conservancy, coal 
mining, geology and petroleum as their first choice, give these candidates an 
overall moral, intellectual and physical examination and select and accept the 
outstanding candidates. Colleges with the required conditions can run prepa¬ 
ratory classes for model workers, advanced producers and shock soldiers in the 
new Long March above the provincial level who have not done well in the over- 
all examination but nonetheless exhibit the potentialities of being trained. 
After educational upgrading for a year, students who attain a passing grade 
can be promoted to pursue studies in their own field. Attention should be 
paid to the enrollment of young cadres with practical experience in special 
courses in social science. Under the prerequisite of accomplishing national 
tasks, colleges of higher learning should be encouraged to train the personnel 
required for units which employ people, gradually increase the proportion of 
non-resident students, adopt the method of levying resident fees for resident 
students, replace bursaries for students with joint bursaries and scholarships 
and change the method of the total payment of fees by the state. 

In addition, the Provincial Bureau of Higher Education and institutions of 
higher learning are also actively thinking out methods and studying suggestions 
for reforming the questions of school organization, teaching method, management 
system of scientific research, rear service work, improvement for middle-aged 
intellectuals, living conditions, staff immobility, unemployment, "eating from 
the big pot" and economic effectiveness. 


9954 

CSO: 4005/767 


53 



SOCIOLOGICAL, EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


’RENMIN RIBAO ? CALLS FOR STRENGTHENING OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 
Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 10 Apr 83 p 3 

[Article by Liu Daoyu [0491 6670 3768] of Wuhan University: "Build a System 
of Specialized Courses Suitable to China f s Condition 1 *] 

[Text] The establishment of specialized courses in institutions of higher 
learning is a basic question. It is directly related to a series of questions 
such as the direction of the development of the school, the formulation of 
teaching plans, the rules for training people, the direction of scientific 
studies conducted by teachers and the set up of laboratories and libraries. 

At present, the questions around the set up of specialized courses can be 
mainly summarized in three points. 

Firstly, the Imbalance Between Farming, Light and Heavy Industries and Between 
Arts, Science and Engineering 

During the first five-year plan, in order to meet the demands of giving prior¬ 
ity to the development in heavy industries, the institutions of higher learn¬ 
ing in our country have set up a system of courses with a "heavy structure." 
This structure was correct at that time. At present, there have been tremen¬ 
dous changes in the economic structure and layout in our country. However, 
the structure of specialized courses in universities has not undergone any 
great changes. According to the statistics in 1979, the proportion of the 
various courses in various universities in the whole country was as follows: 
Engineering courses accounted for 48.35 percent; science courses accounted for 
15.3 percent; agricultural courses accounted for 5.9 percent; medical courses 
accounted for 5.7 percent; teacher-training courses accounted for 5 percent; 
arts courses accounted for 4.2 percent; finance and economics courses accounted 
for 5.3 percent; political science courses accounted for 0.3 percent. 

Secondly, the Division Between Courses Is Too Small 

At present, some general colleges are trying to keep up with the universities; 
and teacher colleges are trying to come close to comprehensive universities. 
Consequently, some courses are repetitious and redundant. If the division 
between the courses is too small, the students will not have a firm foundation. 
The scope of their knowledge will not be limited and they will not adapt to 
their work easily. There are two reasons for the small division between 
courses: firstly, it is restricted by the goal of training. The teaching 


54 



program stipulates that schools of higher learning are for training specialized 
people who are well versed in Marxism-Leninism, who have a firm theoretical 
basis and certain professional knowledge, who know one foreign language and 
who are healthy. The emphasis here is to train specialized people. Under the 
guidance of this educational thought, people try to make the various courses 
short but comprehensive. There are more and more specialized courses which 
are getting narrower and narrower and the teaching of basic theories is ne- 
glected. The second reason is the influence exerted by the system of school 
management and the management of specialized courses. The schools of higher 
learning in our country are divided into three types: schools under the juris¬ 
diction of the education department, schools under the jurisdiction of the 
various industries, and schools under the jurisdiction of the provinces, mu¬ 
nicipalities and autonomous regions. In the past, it was stressed that the 
courses should be under the jurisdiction of the committees of the relevant 
industries and training was given under the jurisdiction of the respective 
trades. The various industrial departments concerned set up and reformed 
courses and formulated teaching plans in accordance with the demands of 
linking teaching with the various industries, thus the division between 
courses is too narrow. 

Thirdly, the Courses Are Old and the Newly Emerging Fringe Courses Are Too 
Weak 

The pattern of the courses in the university in our country is basically the 
system of colleges during the period of adjustment in the early fifties. In 
the past 30 years and more, tremendous changes have taken place in the econom¬ 
ic structure in our country. However, old courses still account for more than 
90 percent of the courses in the universities in our country and the newly 
emerging courses are developed very slowly. According to the statistics, 
there are more than 2,500 courses in overseas universities, but there are only 
more than 840 courses in our country at present. These courses cannot meet 
the demands of social economic development and the industrial structure in 
our country at present in terms of quantity and quality. 

On the question of the establishment of courses, there have not been any uni¬ 
form views for a long time. There are mainly two viewpoints. One advocates 
the abolition of specialized courses and the establishment of f, general educa¬ 
tion" courses modeled after the European and American style. Another view 
advocates the set up of specialized courses. However, the specialized 
courses at present are too narrow and the scope can be appropriately widened. 

I think that the essence of the question does not lie in whether or not 
specialized courses should be set up, but what kind of educational thought 
should be used to guide and organize teaching and on what kinds of talents 
should be trained. If a worldwide view is taken, the courses in some coun¬ 
tries are broad while some are narrow but they have all trained outstanding 
talents. It can thus be seen that the question does not lie in whether or not 
courses should be set up. Following the development of scientific technology, 
the educational systems and kinds of talents of some industrialized countries 
permeate one another and they overcome their weaknesses by acquiring the 
strong points of other people. Some people with insights in the United States 


55 



have discovered the shortcomings of !, general education" and realize that people 
trained by American universities lack specialized knowledge. They have weak 
capabilities and require a long period of adjustment to their working environ¬ 
ment. They have already adopted some measures of remedy. In the late sixties, 
there were also great changes in the specialized courses in the Soviet Union and 
they advocated the necessity of training talents "with broad and comprehensive 
specialized knowledge" "who can work even for a number of years ahead," It 
can thus be seen that in the present era, the central task of the university 
is not only to give the students knowledge, but also to teach students scien¬ 
tific methods and imbue them with scientific thinking, so that they can under¬ 
stand the path and future of modern scientific development and can meet the 
demands of the new industries in the future. It should be said that the "gen¬ 
eral education" in Europe and the United States, and "specialized education" 
the Soviet Union are gradually merging under this general goal. Consequently, 
there is no practical meaning in disputing this question which is already 
quite clear. 

The conclusion should be very clear: the set up of specialized courses in 
schools of higher learning in our country should not be "general education" 
which is too broad or "specialized education" which is too narrow, but we 
should establish a system of specialized courses which are suitable for the 
conditions in China. 

What is the educational system of specialized courses in China? I think there 
are the following characteristics: 

(1) Suitable Scope. Specialized courses in universities in our country 
should not be too broad or too narrow. On the whole, it is more appropriate 
to designate specialized courses as second level subjects. Individual special¬ 
ized courses can be set up as third level courses, but these should be organ¬ 
ized in accordance with the teaching of the second level courses, so as to 
allow more flexibility in the training of talents. (2) Adaptation to Local 
Conditions. Civilization and scientific knowledge in the world are gradually 
accumulated throughout the long period of practice by mankind and are the com¬ 
mon wealth of mankind. Beyond a doubt, these common subjects should be de¬ 
veloped. However, each nationality has its own special civilization, art, 
technology and resources and it should train various talents adapted to these 
conditions. Our country is vast with rich resources and a longstanding, splen¬ 
did civilization. We should set up specialized courses with these character¬ 
istics and train specialized talents. (3) Unified Planning in the Whole Coun¬ 
try. Set up a system of specialized courses that suit the conditions in the 
whole country. This means that rare and short-term courses should not be set 
up on a large scale but the whole country should unify planning. New sciences 
and technologies have greater vitality and these can be set up on the level 
of large, joint co-operatives. General, long-term specialized courses should 
be set up at the levels of the province, municipality and autonomous region. 

(4) Set Up a System of Structure of Specialized Courses That Conform With 
Farming and Light and Heavy Industries. In the next 20 years, the strategic 
key points in economic development in our country are farming, energy, commun¬ 
ication, education and science. Our specialized courses should train people 
for these key point items. 


56 



The revision of specialized courses is an extremely complicated and meticu¬ 
lous task. The key of doing a good job in this work is to firstly take the 
long-term development plan of national economy as the basis, and secondly 
grasp the direction of scientific development. Thirdly, the departments which 
train and employ people should work in close conjunction with one another and 
make scientific forecasts on the provisions of talents. 


9954 

CSO: 4005/767 - END - 


57