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ARMY NAVY AIR FORGE NASA FAA NATO 


Crew System 
Ergonomics/ 
Human Systems 
Technology 
Information 
Analysis Center 


Human-Systems Integration 
Technologies, Tools, and Techniques 
(HSIT 3 ): Survey Results 

Interim Report 1 


Prepared for: Edwin R. Smootz, Ph.D. 

Human Research Engineering Directorate 
Army Research Laboratory 
91012 Station Avenue 
Fort Hood, TX 76544-5073 


REBECCA SINGER 

Human Factors Consultant 


FEBRUARY 1, 2000 


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March 2000 Interim Report 


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Human-Systems Integration Technologies, Tools, and 

Techniques (HSIT3): Survey Results SP0700-98-D-4001 

Interim Report 1 

_____ ~ 

Rebecca Singer 


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Human Systems IAC 

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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 


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13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) 

The Human Systems Integration Technologies, Tools, and Technicques (HSIT3) Survey was 
implemented to solicit input from HSI subject-matter experts (SMEs) and MANPRINT 
practitioners to identrify the user's requirements for an updated HSI practitioner's 
guidebook. The survey was divided into three major sections: (1) Demographics; (2) 
MANPRINT Implementation; and (3) MANPRINT SOAR Recomendations. The survey was sent 
electronically to 70 MANPRINT practitioners and SMEs representing the Army, Air Force, 
Navy, FAA, industry, academia, the UK and Canada. The survey responses that were returned 
varied in the level of detail. It appears that individuals concentrated their efforts on 
areas with which they were most familiar. 


14. SUBJECT TERMS 

MANPRINT Human Systems Integration Survey Results Demographics 
MANPRINT Implementation MANPRINT SOAR Recommendations 


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OF REPORT 

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OF THIS PAGE 

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Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) 

Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 
298-102 






















Human Systems Integration 
Technologies, Tools, and Techniques 

(HSIT3): Survey Results 
Interim Report 1 


Prepared for: Edwin R. Smootz, Ph.D. 

Human Research Engineering Directorate 
Army Research Laboratory 
91012 Station Ave. 

Fort Hood, TX 76544-5073 


Rebecca Singer 
Human Factors Consultant 


February 1, 2000 



Table of Contents 


1. Background.1 

2. Purpose and Objectives.1 

3. Methodology. 

4. Results. 

4.1 Demographics. 

4.2 MANPRINT Implementation. 

4.3 MANPRINT SOAR Recommendations.3 

4.3.1 Part I - Introduction.3 

4.3.2 Part II - HSI Tools, Techniques, and Technologies.4 

4.3.3 Part HI - HSI Applications in Acquisition Process.5 

4.3.4 Part IV - Management and Organization Factors.6 

4.3.5 Part V - Case Examples.7 

5. Conclusions.7 

Attachment 1 - HSI Survey.9 

Attachment 2 - HSI Survey Summary Results.15 

Attachment 3 - Proposed SOAR Chapter Titles.25 


i 


to to to to 



















Interim Report #1 
Human Systems Integration (HSI) 
Technologies, Tools, and Techniques Survey 


1. Background 

Over the past decade the U.S. Army has developed a wide range of tools, techniques, and 
technologies for integrating human factors into material acquisition. Many of these 
methodologies have been critical to the Army’s MANpower and PeRsonnel INTegration 
(MANPRINT) program, providing a number of cost and performance benefits. The 
Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Government agencies, and foreign countries have 
begun to implement their own programs modeled after the MANPRINT program. These 
programs are frequently identified as Human-Systems Integration (HSI) or Human- 
Factors Integration (HFI) programs. However, a major problem has developed with both 
the Army MANPRINT program and those programs modeling MANPRINT in their 
attempts to achieve cost and performance benefits similar to those achieved in the past. 
This is due to the lack of guidelines and case study material describing the 
methodologies. 

Since MANPRINT was introduced 14 years ago, HSI has become more prevalent in 
system designs. While many accomplishments were made, there is still a tremendous 
potential for the application of HSI to future systems. To capture the theoretical 
advances and lessons learned in the development and application of HSI technologies, 
tools, and techniques, it was determined that a complete state-of-the-art study was needed 
as the first major step to update, standardize, document, and train for the current HSI 
concepts and processes. The first item to accomplish in this task was a survey of the user 
community to obtain input on user requirements and needs for an updated HSI 
practitioner’s guidebook. 

2. Purpose and Objectives 

The Human-Systems Integration Technologies, Tools, and Techniques (HSIT 3 ) Survey 
was implemented to solicit input from HSI subject-matter experts (SMEs) and 
MANPRINT practitioners to identify the user’s requirements for an updated HSI 
practitioner’s guidebook. Structured to follow the format of the proposed updated HSI 
state-of-the-art report (SOAR), the survey (Attachment 1) queried the SMEs and 
practitioners for recommendations on issues, themes, and information they believed 
should be covered in each section, as well as potential authors and contributors. The 
overall goal of the survey was to develop a guidebook that would be responsive to the 
needs of the user community. 

The survey was divided into three major sections: (1) Demographics; (2) MANPRINT 
Implementation; and (3) MANPRINT SOAR Recommendations. The Demographics 
section was included to obtain background information so that a user profile could be 
established. The purpose of the second section, MANPRINT Implementation, was to 
determine the voids in MANPRINT methodology, the success rate with, or obstacles to, 
implementing MANPRINT, and whether the program receives the support from top-level 
management that it needs. Finally, the third section, MANPRINT SOAR Development, 


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was divided into the five proposed sections for the SOAR. Within each section, the 
survey respondents were provided with a one-paragraph description of the proposed 
section and were requested to provide what their recommendadtions for an organizing 
principle or theme, potential chapter titles, and potential authors or contributors for each 
chapter. 

3. Methodology 

The survey was sent electronically to 70 MANPRINT practitioners and SMEs 
representing the Army, Air Force, Navy, FAA, industry, academia, the UK and Canada. 
These individuals were selected on the recommendations of a panel of senior analysts 
working on the project. Of the 70 recipients, 15 submitted responses (21%), and an 
additional 6 individuals (9%) replied that they did not feel they had enough knowledge on 
this topic to submit a reasonable response. 

4. Results 

4.1 Demographics 

Of the 15 respondents, 8 were government employees and 7 worked in the industrial 
sector, with an average of 11 years experience using MANPRINT. In addition to 
MANPRINT, other commonly used tools were Hardman, Imprint, Survivability 
Assessments, and Personnel Subsystems. 

4.2 MANPRINT Implementation 

Question 1 asked what the respondents believed were the most significant voids in the 
MANPRINT methodology. The most common void reported was the lack of 
authoritative requirement for the mandatory implementation a MANPRINT 
program. Additional responses included lack of quantitative MANPRINT methods, 
scarcity of HSI professionals who understand the acquisition process, lack of methods, 
procedures, and techniques for integrating MANPRINT issues early in the design 
process, and the difficulty of determining a “return on investments” for MANPRINT 
interventions. 

With regard to question 2, respondents stated MANPRINT was often successful when 
implemented as a routine activity in design and operations. 

Question 3 asked what the respondents believed was the biggest obstacle to the 
implementation of MANPRINT in the design phase of system development. Overall, the 
response was the inability to make MANPRINT a routine step in the early concept 
definition phase of development and the lack of funding resources. Other responses 
included the lack of reliable data, lack of understanding of MANPRINT implications, and 
the lack of leadership understanding as to what HSI involves. 

Finally, on Question 4, respondents believed that on the whole, MANPRINT sometimes 
(as opposed to always or never) has the support needed from top level management for 
successful implementation in system design. 


2 


4.3 MANPRINT SOAR Recommendations 


This section of the questionnaire comprised open ended/text questions only. For this 
reason, analysis was difficult, particularly with the low number of responses and the high 
degree of variability among the answers. However, it was possible to extract overall 
themes for each section which were summarized and distributed to a list of potential 
Workshop attendees. These results served as the underlying basis for discussion at the 
HSI Pre-Seminar and SOAR Workshop that was held 19-20 January, 2000 in Arlington, 
Virginia. 

The survey responses that were returned varied in the level of detail. It appears that 
individuals concentrated their efforts on areas with which they were most familiar. In 
addition, recommended chapter titles and authors were not always provided. This section 
reports the resulting comments in a general format. For a detailed account of all themes, 
chapter titles, suggested authors, and comments, please see the HSI Survey Summary 
Results (Attachment 2). 

4.3.1 Part I - Introduction 

Three general themes were suggested by the respondents for Part I of the new HSI 
guidebook: 


THEME 1 

Organize around the overall need for MANPRINT by first providing a historical 
perspective, moving to the technologies, tools, and techniques, and ending with future 
goals and methods of achieving these goals. 

• Issue 1 - Define the domains and discuss why integration is needed for success. 

• Issue 2 - Discuss why MANPRINT was needed and how the policy came about. 


3 




THEME 2 

Introduce a summary of the acquisition process with the understanding that more detail 
will be included in the following sections of the SOAR. 

• Issue 1 - Requirements Definition: need to get quantifiable MANPRINT 
requirements early and identify DoD and Department-level documents that 
specify HSI requirements. 

• Issue 2 - User Involvement: get users who have operational experience assigned 
directly to the program. 

• Issue 3 - Source Selection: imbed MANPRINT throughout the Request for 
Proposal (RFP). 

• Issue 4 - Design Integration: have knowledgeable MANPRINT experts working 
within the design and development of systems. Emphasize cost savings of 
integration. 

• Issue 5 - Test and Evaluation: ensure that T&E starts as an iterative effort early in 
the design stage. Test REAL subjects that are trained, skillful, and have the 
equipment representative of soldiers. 

• Issue 6 - Plan, program, and budget for MANPRINT. _ 


THEME 3 

Good HFE principals are always needed. 

• Issue I - Sell Management on HFE: top 10 mistakes made by systems 
engineering management and how to avoid them. 

• Issue 2 - Tailor to your project: discuss guidelines and task analysis and testing. 
Determine how much, when and how to tailor to your program budget, scope, and 
size. 

• Issue 3 - Pitfalls in using SMEs to design systems - how to work with SMEs and 

_ PMs. Must ensure that users and PMs are thinking along the same line. _ 


4.3.2 PartII-HSI Tools, Techniques, and Technologies 
Four general themes were proposed by the respondents for Part II: 


THEME 1 

Discuss the current state of MANPRINT/HSI and provide a separate chapter for each 
domain, including a discussion of intended users and address technology gaps. 

• Issue 1 - What should a good HSI domain tool do? 

• Issue 2 - Identify and explain the various domain (MPT, HFE, HH, etc). 

_ problems? _ 


4 






THEME 2 

Focus on the selection process for tools and the use of appropriate tools or techniques at 
the appropriate stage of the process. 

• Issue 1 - Select the best tool for the application and the methods for applying the 
tool. 

• Issue 2 - Address special issues with new tools or the adaptation of existing tools. 

• Issue 3 - Keep the tool useful over iterative applications as the design matures. 

• Issue 4 - Avoid data collection that is not useful. _ 

_____ 

Discuss the problems of insufficient metrics to make decisions and the methods of HSI 
design without MIL-STDs. _ 

THEME 4 

Discuss emerging tools, such as NASA’s MIDAS and ONR’s HCDE, and virtual 
environments for HCD. These are still in the early stages, but are becoming more 
powerful. Integration is lacking and needed. 


4.3.3 Part 111 - HSI Applications in Acquisition Process 
Seven general themes were proposed for Part III: 


THEME 1 

Focus on trade-off decisions rather than specific methods. 

• Issue 1 - The Systems Acquisition Process: introduce readers to the process, 
including a streamlined version of it. 

• Issue 2 - Inform the reader on actions that can be taken at each stage of the 

_ process to ensure MANPRINT issues are considered. _ 


THEME 2 

Emphasize choosing the right tool for each stage in the acquisition process. 


THEME 3 

MPT must be viewed as an integral part of the system performance. Convey that MPT 
influences the ability of the weapon system to accomplish the mission. 

• Issue I - Training needs to develop skills specific to evaluating a particular 
system need to be in place for applicable testing. 

• Issue 2 - Mission Focus (part-task vs. mission simulation): discuss how to gather 
early part-task human performance information and relate it to mission 
accomplishments. 

• Issue 3 - Set MPT Objectives and Meet Them: set meaningful MPT objectives 
and have them drive systems design. 

• Issue 4 - Get user buy-in to push for designs that will reduce total ownership cost 
and get MPT financiers input in the design process. 

• Issue 5 - Maintain full system MPT performance objectives and ensure that they 
are tested. 


5 













THEME 4 

Emphasize the role of the practitioner in each stage of the design process and as an 
integral member of the concepts and requirements team, system engineering team, and 
test and evaluation team. _ 

THEME 5 

Describe MANPRINT in ORD, SRD, RFP, Source Selection and Contract. Describe the 
Assessment Guidelines for Program Managers and Industry._ 


I 


THEME 6 

Don’t disregard the basics. Transition of task requirements must include human 
requirements as well as system or mission requirements. Design is more of an art than 
science, particularly when no guidelines exist on previous systems. 

• Issue 1 - Requirements to Design: how to navigate the tricky path. Tools help 
_ you but don’t THINK for you. _ 

THEME 7 

Discuss a need for MANPRINT databases to support tools, techniques, and technologies. 


4.3.4 Part IV- Management and Organization Factors 
Four general themes were proposed for Part IV: 


THEME 1 

Approach from the standpoint of leveraging the discipline’s impact for the good of the 
person in the system, not a competing approach. _ 


THEME 2 

Discuss how the placement of MANPRINT elements within an organization structure has 
historically influenced this approach. _ 


THEME 3 

Consider staffing for MANPRINT success. For instance, training developer, material 
developer, contractor, and government staff. _ 


THEME 4 

Consider how this part (Part IV, Management and Organizational Factors) complements 
with the Handbook of System Engineering and Management. _ 

I 


6 










4.3.5 Part V - Case Examples 

Three general themes were proposed for Part V: 


THEME 1 

Emphasize the payoff from investing in HSI. Illustrate how the various principles, 
methods, and process have been successfully (and unsuccessfully) applied in real 
systems. _ 


THEME 2 

Use the work already done on the MANPRINT/HSI success storied and those published 
by the DoD HFE TAG. _ 


THEME 3 

Emphasize the acquisition process - state what is good and bad at each phase in the 
process. _ 


5. Conclusions 

This survey was implemented as the first of many steps in creating a high-quality HSI 
SOAR that would serve as a practical guidebook to the HSI practitioner. Rather than 
trying to anticipate what the users would like to see, the practitioners and users were 
approached directly for opinions and input. The responses were then summarized and 
presented to the HSI Workshop attendees to serve as a basis for discussion in the various 
panel sessions that were conducted and to stimulate additional ideas. 

The most comprehensive recommendations gathered were on the themes for the SOAR. 
Nearly all of the themes that were suggested were useful, and attempts will be made to 
include most of them in the SOAR. In some cases, a recommended theme was very close 
to a planned chapter or one of the five Parts, but perhaps more often, a recommended 
theme appeared to be most useful if followed throughout a number of chapters. 

Several chapter titles were suggested, however all but two titles were already under 
consideration. These titles were added to the proposed list of chapter titles (Attachment 
3) since they suggested important areas of content that were missing. The titles, 
Emerging Technologies and Data Design and Management are presented in bold in 
Attachment 3. In addition, a number of candidate authors were suggested. However, 
since it was previously determined that the workshop would be held prior to assigning 
specific chapters to specific authors, most of those individuals suggested by the survey 
were invited to the workshop. Some candidates were also invited to submit chapter 
outlines, both of which are presently under consideration by the HSI Advisory Group. 

A typical response rate for surveys is approximately 20% of all surveys administered. 
While we achieved this rate on actual responses (with an additional 9% that replied 
indicating they did not feel qualified to respond), it was hoped that we would receive a 
higher number of returns. However, the responses that were received were well thought 
out and provided valuable information. The survey and the summarized results that were 

7 






distributed to the workshop attendees prior to the workshop provided an effective means 
of preparing the participants for the issues that were addressed and the discussions held 
during the two-day event. 


8 


Attachment 1 

Human Systems Integration (HSI) 

Technologies, Tools, and Techniques Survey 

NOTE: Before you begin, please save this document as your last name only. When you have completed the survey, 
return the document as an attachment in your e-mail. This will allow us to track the responses in a more efficient 
manner. Thank you! 

1. Demographics 

1. Name: __ 

2. Primary work domain: a: _ Government. Which branch? _ 

b: _ Contractor 

c: _ Academia 

d: _ Other. Please specify _ 

3. Number of years experience using MANPRINT: _ 

4. Other HSI tools and techniques 

used: _ 

2. MANPRINT Implementation 


1. What do you believe to be significant voids in the MANPRINT methodology? (For example: No formal descriptions 
of methods for the HSI domain; No common basis for HSI applications across systems). 



2. How frequently has the MANPRINT implementation, as a routine step in design and operations, been successful? 


Always 

Often 

Sometimes 

Rarely 

Never 


3. What do you believe are the biggest obstacles to the implementation of MANPRINT in the design phase of system 
development? 



4. How frequently does MANPRINT have the support from top level management that it needs for successful 
implementation in system design? 

_ Always 

_ Often 

_ Sometimes 

_ Rarely 

Never 


9 




3 . MANPRINT SOAR Recommendations 


This section contains the five proposed sections for the MANPRINT SOAR. Please read the section 
descriptions and recommend any issues, topics, and information that you believe should be covered in each section. In 
addition, please provide your recommendations for chapter headings (as many as you consider appropriate) and two 
potential authors, per chapter, that you consider to be subject matter experts and potential contributors. 

Parti. Introduction 

The Introduction will draw heavily from the MANPRINT experience, showing how the systems acquisition 
culture operates and where opportunities for human factors disciplines exist in this culture. MANPRINT principles for 
large organizations to use in applying HSI will be discussed as will various HSI concepts. Historical examples of good 
and poor MANPRINT applications will be included. 

If you were designing this section in the MANPRINT SOAR, what would you choose as your organizing principal or 
theme? _ 


What chapters would you include in this section and what issues and/or problems would you address? In addition, 
please nominate two potential authors that you consider to be the best contributor for each chapter. 


Chapter Heading I Issues and/or Problems 


1 . 


Author 1 


Author 2 


Name 
Phone or email 


Chapter Headin 



Name 
Phone or email 


Chapter Headin 



Name 
Phone or email 


Chapter Headin 



Name 
Phone or email 


Chapter Headin 



Name 
Phone or email 



10 































Part II. HSI Tools, Techniques, and Technologies 


HSI Tools, Techniques, and Technologies provides the current state-of-the-art for the seven domains of 
MANPRINT. Although Manpower, Personnel and Training (MPT) are each a domain, one chapter may be sufficient to 
show the current HSI methods for these domains. Human Factors Engineering is the most fully developed of the HSI 
disciplines having a large number of specific design tools and technologies, so this chapter may be longer than the 
others, covering not only well validated tools but more advanced concepts as well. Each of the other three domains 
(Health Hazards, Systems Safety, and Personnel Survivability) have specialized methods for application to the HSI 
process which would best be described in separate chapters. A special HSI domains integration chapter for tools like 
IMPRINT would be the wrap-up chapter in this part. 


If you were designing this section in the MANPRINT SOAR, what would you choose as your organizing principal or 
theme? 



What chapters would you include in this section and what issues and/or problems would you address? In addition, 
please include two potential authors that you consider to be the best contributor for each chapter. 



11 





























Part III. HSI Applications in Acquisition Process 


HSI Applications in the Acquisition Process provides information on the major stages in acquiring a system. 
The process will be described in terms of requirements determination (which has major MPT tradeoffs), system 
specification (with extensive need for HSI considerations in the Request for Proposal (RFP) and source selection 
guidelines), and system design, development, and test and evaluation of system performance. This section will also 
address the specific methods which help in tradeoff decisions between MPT and system performance. In addition, the 
role of HSI in the new simulation-based test and evaluation culture, which relies more heavily on system level measures 
of effectiveness and measures of performance in early concept stages, will be covered. 


If you were designing this section in the MANPRINT SOAR, what would you choose as your organizing principal or 
theme? 



What chapters would you include in this section and what issues and/or problems would you address? In addition, 
please include two potential authors that you consider to be the best contributor for each chapter. 



12 






























Part IV. Management and Organization Factors 


The section on Management and Organization (M&O) Factors will survey the state-of-the-art for the latest 
M&O environments that procure and produce systems and equipment. It is important that the reader gain a clear 
understanding of other competing and complementary disciplines like Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) and systems 
engineering which could be covered in chapters on ILS and systems engineering interfaces. Finally the need for HSI 
practitioners to understand the various economic factors which drive decisions in the acquisition process should be 
addressed. 


If you were designing this section in the MANPRINT SOAR, what would you choose as your organizing principal or 
theme? 



What chapters would you include in this section and what issues and/or problems would you address? In addition, 
please include two potential authors that you consider to be the best contributor for each chapter. 



13 




























PartV. Case Examples 


Case Examples are needed to fully understand how HSI has and can be applied on real systems. Major system 
procurements are considerably different from small systems, but HSI can play an extremely important role is both types 
of acquisitions. This part should provide illustrations that integrate the earlier parts by describing how the various 
methods and principles have been successfully applied in past systems. A particular emphasis should be placed on 
proven demonstrations of major cost and performance benefits that have been achieved because of HSI. One chapter 
could focus on how HSI has worked successfully in major system procurements like the Comanche and another chapter 
might describe how HSI can and has been applied successfully in small system acquisitions (like the Fox Nuclear, 
Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Reconnaissance System vehicle). 


If you were designing this section in the MANPRINT SOAR, what would you choose as your organizing principal or 
theme? 



What chapters would you include in this section and what issues and/or problems would you address? In addition, 
please include two potential authors that you consider to be the best contributor for each chapter. 



14 




























Attachment 2 

HSI Survey Summary Results 


Note: I have confirmation from 3 additional individuals who plan to submit results. Three individuals 
replied stating they either didn’t know of MANPRINT or didn’t feel they had enough experience with it. 

Number of Responses: 15 

Work Domain: 8 government; 7 contractors. 

Years Experience: Average of 11 years 

Other HSI Tools used: Hardman, Imprint, Survivability Assessments, Personnel Subsystems. 

Question 1: 

What do you believe to be significant voids in the MANPRINT methodology? (For example: No formal 
descriptions of methods for the HSI domain; No common basis for HSI applications across systems). 

• Lack of quantitative methods. 

• Lack of HSI Professionals that understand the acquisition process. 

• Lack of methods, procedures, and techniques for integrating MANPRINT issues early in the 
design process. 

• Difficult to determine “return on investment” for MANPRINT fixes. 

• No common forum for sharing lessons learned and challenges. 

• Lack of formal relationship between requirements (OPNAV) and process (ASN). 

• authoritative requirement for mandatory implementation. 


Question 2: 

How frequently has the MANPRINT implementation, as a routine step in design and operations, been 
successful? 

• Always/Often 

Question 3: 

What do you believe are the biggest obstacles to the implementation of MANPRINT in the design phase of 
system development? 

• Lack of reliable test data. 

• Lack of unambiguous performance criteria. 

• Funding resources. 

• Lack of adequate HFE tools. 

• Inability to make MANPRINT a routine step in the early concept definition phase. 

• Lack of full understanding of MANPRINT implications. 

• Lack of well-defined requirement (DoD 5000.2 isn’t explicit enough in reform environment). 

• Lack of leadership understanding as to what HSI is. 

• Archaic systems. 

Question 4: 

How frequently does MANPRINT have the support from top level management that it needs for successful 
implementation in system design? 

• Sometimes 


15 





MANPRINT SOAR Recommendations 

Part I - Introduction 

Theme A: (Sue Archer) ____ 

• Organize around the overall need for MANPRINT. First provide a historical perspective of MANPRINT projects, 
move to technologies, tools, and techniques, and end with future goals and how to get there. _ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme A: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

5. “What is MANPRINT” or ‘Why 
MANPRINT” 

Define the domains and discuss why integration is key to success of 

MANPRINT. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

Hal Booher 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

6. The History of MANPRINT 

Discuss reasons MANPRINT was needed and how the MANPRINT policy 
came about. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 



Theme B: (Tom Metzler) _ 


• Tie this section to the Acquisition process. 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme B: 


Chapter Headin 


1. Requirements Definition 


Issues and/or Problems 


Getting quantifiable MANPRINT requirements in early. 

Identify the DoD and Department level documents that specify HSI 
requirements. 


Author 1 


Name Col. Mac Willie 


Author 2 


Chapter Headin 


2. User Involvement 


Chapter Headin 


3. Source Selection 


Chapter Headin 


Design Integration 


Issues and/or Problems 


Getting users who have operational experience assigned directly to the program. 


Author 2 


Author 1 


Name 1 Mark Ammon 


Issues and/or Problems 


Imbed MANPRINT throughout the RFP. 


Author 1 


Name Dr. Bruce Hamilton 


Issues and/or Problems 


• Having knowledgeable MANPRINT experts working within the design and 
development of systems. 

• Highlight cost savings of an integrated effort. 


Author 2 


Chapter Headin 


Test and Evaluation 


Author 2 


Author 1 


Name | Jerry Seeman Matt Hannan 


Issues and/or Problems 


Insuring that T&E starts as an iterative effort early in the design stage. Have 
REAL subjects that have the training, skill and equipment representative of 
soldiers. 


Author 1 


Author 2 




16 



















































Theme C: (Taylor Jones) 
• (No principle/theme) 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme C: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. Why do we integrate domains? 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

Marjorie Zelko 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. Planning, programming and 
budgeting for MANPRINT 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

Taylor Jones 



Theme D: (Glenn Osga) _ 

• Good HFE principles are always needed. The developer must know the task, customer, user environment, user 
skills/training requirements, cost, safety issues, and be able to sell and educate management as well as work closely 
with system engineers and use iterative design with usability testing. _ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme D: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. Selling Management on HFE 

Top 10 mistakes made by system engineering management and how to avoid 
them. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. Tailoring to your project 

Guidelines and task analysis and testing how much, when, and how to tailor to 
your program budget, scope, and size. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

3. Pitfalls in using SMEs to design 
systems - how to work with SMEs 
and program managers 

User’s often cannot describe requirements and think only in terms of the end 
design. However, PMs think in terms of requirements. The key is to separate 
clearly the requirements from the design and not cloud discussions between the 
two. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 




17 

































Part II - HSI Tools, Techniques, and Technologies 



Theme A: (Sue Archer) 


• Use this section to discuss the current state of MANPRINT. Provide a separate chapter for each domain (HFE 
Tools, Manpower Tools, Personnel Tools, etc.). Include a discussion of intended users and address technology 




Suggested chapters associated with Theme A: 


Chapter Heading Issues and/or Problems 


1. HFE Tools (also, have chapters Have it be an introduction - What should a good HFE tool do?, What sorts of 

for tools each other domain) problems are HFE problems?, etc. (address same issues for each tool). 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name I no author provided 



Theme B: (MikeStrub)__ 


• Discuss a need for MANPRINT databases to support tools, techniques, and technologies. 



Suggested chapters associated with Theme B: 


Chapter Headin 


1. MANPRINT Data B ase Design 
and Development 


Issues and/or Problems 


Author 1 


Author 2 





Theme C: (Tom Metzler)_ 


• Focus on the selection process for tools and the use of appropriate tools or techniques at the appropriate stage of the 
rocess. (Frank Malkin mentioned this also)__ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme C: 


Chapter Headin 


1. Tools Selection 


Issues and/or Problems 


Selection of best tool for the application. 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Issues and/or Problems 


How to apply the tool. Consider strengths and weaknesses. 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Issues and/or Problems 


How to keep the tool useful over iterative applications as the design matures. 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Issues and/or Problems 


4. Tools Generation or Adaptation I How to treat special issues with new or adaptations of existing tools. 


Author 1 I Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Chapter Heading Issues aiid/or Problems 


5. Data or Information How not to get caught in gathering a lot of data that isn’t useful. 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Chapter Headin 


2. Tools Use 


Chapter Headin 


3. Tools Maintenance 


Chapter Headin 



18 














































Theme D: (Taylor Jones) 
• No theme 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme D; 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. Where have all the metrics gone? 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

ARL-HRED 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. Substitutes for MIL STDs 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

AI Sciaretta 



Theme E: (Glenn Osga) __ 

• Tools are emerging - they are still in the infancy stage but are becoming more powerful. Integration is lacking and 
needed. Industry need to pull together to link their tools to share information._ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme E: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. MIDAS 

Looks like a promising toolset 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

NASA Ames (see website) 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. HCDE 

Human Centered Design Environment. Funded by ONR - 4 th year of a 5 year 
development plan. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

John Winters 



19 



























Part III - HSI Applications in Acquisition Process 

Theme A: (Sue Archer) _ 

• Focus on tradeoff decisions rather than specific methods. _ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme A: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. The System Acquisition Process 

Introduce readers to the process, including a streamlined version of it. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. (the remaining chapters should be 
each stage in the acquisition 
process). 

Inform the reader on the types of things they can do at each stage of the process 
to ensure MANPRINT issues are considered. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 



T heme B: (Mike Strub) _ 

• Emphasize choosing the right tool for each state in the acquisition process. 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme B: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. MANPRINT Early in System 
Design 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

Bill Rouse 



Theme C: (Tom Metzler) ___ 

• MPT must be viewed as an integral part of the system performance and it should be conveyed that MPT influences 
the ability of the weapon system to accomplish the mission. _ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme C: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. Chicken or the Egg 

If the training that is needed to develop skills specific to evaluating a particular 
system are not in place, how can the system be tested? 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. Mission Focus (part task vs. 
mission simulation) 

How to gather early part task human performance information and relate it to 
mission accomplishments. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

3. Setting MPT Objecting and 

Meeting Them 

How to set meaningful MPT objectives and have them drive systems design. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 



20 






































Chapter Headin 


4. Getting user buy-in to push for 
designs that will reduce total 
ownership cost. 


Name 


Chapter Headin 


5. Maintaining full system MPT 
performance objectives and 
ensuring that they are tested. 


Issues and/or Problems 


Need to get MPT financiers into the design process for their input. 


Author 2 


Author 1 


no author provided 


Issues and/or Problems 


Determining the means and constraints of realistically testing for MPT 
throughout the acquisition process. 


Author 1 


no author provided 


Author 2 


Theme D: (Frank Malkin) _ 

• Role of the practitioner in each stage of the design process and his/her value as an integral member of the concepts 
and requirements team, System Engineering team, and the Test and Evaluation team._ 


no chapters or authors suggested. 

Theme E: (Taylor Jones) _ 

• no theme 



Suggested chapters associated with Theme E: 


Chapter Headin 


1. MANPRINT, ORD, SRD, RFP, 
and Contract 


Issues and/or Problems 


Author 1 


Author 2 


Name Taylor Jones 


Chapter Headin 


2. Assessment Guidelines for PMs 
and Industr 


Issues and/or Problems 


Author 1 


Name I All independent assessors 


Author 2 



Theme F: (Glenn Osga) _ 

• Don’t disregard the basics. Task analysis is the key. Transition of task requirements must include human 
requirements as well as system or mission requirements. Transition into design is the key. Design is more of an art 
than science, particularly when no guidelines exist on previous systems. You must prototype and test rather than 
rely on models. _ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme F: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. Tools help you but don’t THINK 
for you. 

Requirements to Design - how to navigate the tricky path. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 




I 

\ 


21 




























Part IV - Management and Organization Factors 

Theme A: (Tom Metzler) _ 

• Approach this section from the standpoint of leveraging the discipline’s impact for the good of man in the system, 
not a competing approach. _ 


Issues and/or Problems 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme A: 


Chapter Headin 


l.ILS 


Author 1 I Author 2 


Name Hal Booher 


Chapter Heading I Issues and/or Problems 


2. Trainin 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Chapter Heading I Issues and/or Problems 


3. Life Cycle Cost 


Author 1 Author 2 


Name no author provided 


Chapter Heading I Issues and/or Problems 


I Wm.L4iW HB«Bn 


Author 2 


Author 1 


Name I no author provided 


Chapter Heading I Issues and/or Problems 


5. MPT Implanted Requirements (in 
the above listed discipline 
requirements). _ 


Author 1 I Author 2 


Name I no author provided 


Theme B: (Sue Archer)_ 


• Discuss how the placement of MANPRINT elements within an organization structure has historically influenced the 
approach. _ 


No chapters or authors suggested for this theme. 

Theme C: (Taylor Jones) __ 


• No theme 



Suggested chapters associated with Theme C: 


Chapter Headin 


1. ILS and why we need HSI 


Issues and/or Problems 


Author 1 I Author 2 


Name Mitch Howell 


Chapter Heading Issues and/or Problems 


2. Staffing for MANPRINT success. 
Training Developer, Material Developer, 
Contractor and Government Staff 


Author 1 I Author 2 


Name no author provided 



22 









































Part V - Case Examples 


Theme A: (Mike Strub) _ 

• The payoff from investing in MANPRINT 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme A: 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. CRUSADER-MANPRINT 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

Linda Pierce 



Theme B: (Nancy Dolan) 

• Navy case examples 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme B: 


-Qu- 1 -. . 

Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. DD-21 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. JSF 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

3. AAV 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 



Theme C: (Sue Archer) ____ 

• Use the work already done on the MANPRINT/HSI success stories and those published by the DoD HFE TAG. 
(One chapter per case study). ____ 


No chapters or authors suggested for this theme. 

Theme D: (Tom Metlzer) ___ 

• Emphasize the Acquisition Process - state what is good and bad at each phase in the process (Chapter should go 
back to the Acquisition Process - MS 0, MS I, MS II, etc.) Also, set up a web site for the exchange of lessons 
learned so that users can exchange and contribute information.__ 


No chapters or authors suggested for this theme. 


Theme E: (Taylor Jones) 
• No theme 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme E: 


__do,.—" _ r ... . 

Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. An Armored gun system 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 



23 


































Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

2. An AT CCS System (ASAS) 



Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

3. DDG-51 (the first Aegis 



Destroyer) 




Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

4. Tactical Communications like 



SINCGARS 




Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

no author provided 



Theme F: (Glenn Osga) _ 

• Task Centered Design - what is it, how to employ it, what do you get, how is it different than other design 
approaches? Design the system around the tasks to be performed in a clear and simple way rather than forcing the 
user to build the content, goals and information for tasks on the fly while at work. _ 


Suggested chapters associated with Theme F; 


Chapter Heading 

Issues and/or Problems 

1. Task Centered Design - US Navy 
Multimodal Watchstation 

Moving from a legacy task environment to a task centered design in future naval 
command and control systems. 


Author 1 

Author 2 

Name 

Glenn Osga 

Karl Van Or den 


24 

























Attachment 3 

Proposed SOAR Chapter Titles 


PART I: 
Chapter 1: 
Chapter 2: 

PART II: 
Chapter 3: 
Chapter 4: 
Chapter 5: 
Chapter 6: 
Chapter 7: 
Chapter 8: 
Chapter 9: 

PART HI: 
Chapter 10: 
Chapter 11: 
Chapter 12: 
Chapter 13: 
Chapter 14: 

PART IV: 
Chapter 15: 
Chapter 16: 
Chapter 17: 
Chapter 18: 

PART V: 
Chapter 19: 
Chapter 20: 


Introduction 

Human System Integration (HSI) Concept 
Systems Acquisition Culture 

HSI Tools, Techniques, and Technologies 
Manpower, Personnel and Training (MPT) 
Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Technology 
Health Hazards Tools and Techniques 
Systems Safety 
Personnel Survivability 
Special Integration Tools (e.g., IMPRINT) 
Emerging Technologies 

HSI Applications in Acquisition Process 
Requirements Stages 
Solicitation/Procurement Stages 
System Design (Performance Tradeoffs) 

Human Systems Integration Test and Evaluation 
Data Base Design and Management 

Management and Organization Integration 
Management and Organization Environments 
ELS Interfaces 

Systems Engineering Interfaces 
Economic Factors 

Case Examples 

Systems Acquisition - Major (e.g., Comanche) 
Systems Acquisition - Small (e.g., Fox) 


25