AIR WAR COLLEGE
PROFESSIONAL STUDY PAPER
DOES THE AIR FORCE TOTAL FORCE
CHAPLAIN SERVICE’S MAP MATCH
THE CURRENT TERRAIN?
David E. Markwalder
09 December 02
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Does the Air Force Total Force Chaplain Service’s Map Match the
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The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and
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Air and Space Expeditionary Force.6
Langley AFB, Virginia.16
Survey Results—Active Duty Chaplains.22
Survey Results—IMA chaplains.24
There is a graphic, true story about Ken Killip who was hiking in Colorado’s
Rocky Mountain National Park in August 1998 and, unfortunately, got lost. During his
expedition he experienced rain, hailstorms, and extreme cold weather. He suffered
numerous injuries including two sprained ankles, pulled muscles in his shoulder, and
damaged ligaments and cartilage in his knees. Fortunately, he was rescued after being
lost for five days. Edward Cornell, a psychology professor at the University of Alberta
Edmonton, who specializes in studying the behavior of people who become lost, writes:
“Whenever you start looking at your map and saying something like, ‘Well, that lake
could have dried up,’ or ‘That boulder could have moved,’ a red light should go off.
You’re trying to make reality conform to your expectations rather than seeing what’s
there. They call that bending the map.” 1
The Air Force chaplain service is guilty of bending the map in its development of
the Total Force chaplain service. There has not historically been a healthy integration
between active duty chaplains and Individual Mobilization Augmentee (IMA) chaplains
attached to active duty bases. The goal for this paper is to argue for the seamless
integration of IMA chaplains and active duty chaplains so the chaplain service can
successfully meet mission requirements now and in the future.
The chaplain service is still training and utilizing IMA chaplains under the Cold
War scenario instead of small-scale contingencies of today. The current and future
emphasis of a strong Air and Space Expeditionary Force (AEF) has changed the way
business is done in the Air Force. With operational and personnel tempo increasing and
the active duty chaplain service personnel numbers shrinking, the Air Force needs IMA
chaplains to help with this increased demand. This paper will address the key areas of
the Total Force, AEF, readiness training, mentoring, communication, and survey results
in an effort to understand how the IMA chaplain can be best utilized in today’s Total
To accomplish the task of having a unified Total Force chaplain service, it is
essential to understand the Air Force Total Force origin and purpose. The Total Force in
the USAF today is accomplished through the AEF. Without the support of the Reserve
Component, the AEF would not be successful. Does IMA chaplain readiness training
mirror the active duty, and are IMA chaplains trained and equipped to serve at home or
deployed? For the Total Force chaplain service to be effective, IMA chaplains need to be
mentored by their active duty counterparts. Are active duty chaplains mentoring IMA
chaplains or is it merely a pipe dream? Are meaningful feedback sessions really
occurring or is it a “pencil whip” exercise? Finally, clear communication is critical
across the Total Force chaplain service to build a solid team. Communication is the
underpinning for a successful Total Force chaplain service.
To get accurate feedback from the active duty chaplains and the IMA chaplains
concerning the Total Force chaplain service, two surveys (Attachment One and Two)
were completed through email or telephone interviews. Twenty-six active duty chaplains
filled out attachment one covering all major commands except USAFE where there are
very few IMA chaplains attached. Members from the staff of HQ Air National Guard
and HQ Air Force Reserve Command were also included. It includes responses from
Protestant and Catholic chaplains, male and female, staff positions at Major Commands,
wing chaplains, deputy wing chaplains, senior Protestant chaplains and base chaplains.
The participants ranged in rank from Captain through Colonel. The objective was to get
a good cross section of rank, commands, and faith groups where IMAs are attached. The
majority of chaplains interviewed were IMA supervisors or indirectly responsible for
In addition to the active duty chaplain survey, twenty-nine IMA chaplains
completed a different survey (Attachment Two), which covered similar questions. All
major commands except USAFE and PACAF responded. An Air National Guard
chaplain and IMA chaplains from Direct Reporting Units were included. The group
covered both genders, Catholic and Protestant IMA chaplains, and three different racial
groups. The rank varied from First Fieutenant through Colonel, with the majority of
IMA chaplains being captains — future chaplain service leaders. The results of these
surveys will be shared in support of the thesis.
It is important to understand the origin and purpose of the Total Force concept.
The Total Force idea first appeared in 1970 when Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Faird
articulated his vision and said, “Concurrent consideration of the Total Force, active and
reserve, to determine the most advantageous mix to support national strategy and meet
the threat. A Total Force concept will be applied in all aspects of planning,
programming, manning, equipping, and employing Guard and Reserve forces.” 2
In 1973 following the Vietnam War, Secretary of Defense Schlesinger
implemented the Total Force policy to transfer missions from the active duty to the less-
expensive reserves wherever possible. The Total Force policy was quite popular from an
economic perspective and would force future presidents to mobilize the Reserve
Component when going to war. This would require presidents, unlike what President
Johnson did in Vietnam, to get the explicit support of the American people and Congress
before going to war.
In 1973, America was withdrawing from Vietnam. Our society was deeply
divided and public opinion and political pressure called for a smaller military. The Cold
War was still a present threat, so the Department of Defense created a twin solution: shift
from the draft to an All-Volunteer Force, and use a Total Force policy. The solution gave
the Air Force a higher quality force and larger force for a reasonable price. The majority
of the Reserve Component had active duty experience. The average officer grade was
Major and Technical Sergeant for the enlisted.
Between the inception of the Total Force policy in 1973 and the first real test of
its efficacy in 1990 during Desert Shield/Storm, President Carter and President Reagan
were very committed to the program. Both presidents ensured a substantial commitment
of resources were given to the Reserve Components for new equipment. No longer did
the Guard need to depend upon the active duty discarded equipment to perform their
mission. The Reserve Component would be the first and primary source of augmentation
for active duty during any contingency. On 22 August 1990 President George Bush
implemented section 673(b) of Public Law 94-286 for the first time. It allowed him to
call up to 200,000 reserves for not more than 180 days.
The Total Force concept was very successful during Desert Shield/Storm. It
proved the active duty and the Reserve Component could fight side-by-side. Three of the
benefits of a Total Force are a larger pool of resources, cost efficiency, and the Guard and
Reserve are Air Force ambassadors to the American people - a closer civil/military
relationship. The Air Force has enjoyed twenty-nine years of successful integration of
the Total Force, but the future demands process improvements in order to achieve the six
core competencies of Joint Vision 2020: Air and space superiority, precision
employment, global attack, rapid global mobility information superiority, and agile
combat support. Total Force is integral to the success of Joint Vision 2020.
In 1997, Secretary of Defense William Cohen stated his desire for a seamless
integration of the Total Force. His memorandum addressed the need to eliminate all
structural and cultural barriers. Some of the barriers identified included a lack of trust on
both sides and a lack of confidence in Reserve Component capability by the active duty -
the second-class-citizen syndrome, as well as, inadequate and ineffective coordination
and communication between active and Reserve Components. Other barriers inhibiting
Total Force were a lack of coordinated Total Force approach in developing and
implementing training and military education, and inappropriate disparities in benefits
among active, Guard and Reserve forces. 4
The Total Force policy requires reservists to play a continuous role in both
wartime and peacetime operations. Gone are the days when reservists are considered
“week-end warriors” and strategic reinforcements. Reservists are called to make a
difference in their training and manning assistance. Readiness demands a force, which is
prepared to respond quickly and efficiently. No longer are reservists just waiting in the
wings to augment the active force. 5 Is the Air Force chaplain service integrating the IMA
chaplains into the main stream of the AEF mission? Or are they still seen and treated, as
“backfill” like during the Cold War?
One of the “Top 20” issues of the combat commanders is to equip and train the
Reserve Component at levels closer to the active duty. Yet IMA chaplains are not fully
trained for deployment during an AEF. IMA chaplains need equivalent training if there
is to be a seamless Total Force chaplain service. It would eliminate the excuse that IMA
chaplains cannot be deployed for AEFs because they are not sufficiently trained. It is
time the active duty and IMA chaplains become better integrated and a stronger Total
Force. It is time to create a new map that aligns properly with the current terrain.
Air and Space Expeditionary Force
With the Cold War behind us, 45% fewer active duty Air Force personnel
(650,000 to 358,000), and two-thirds less overseas bases, the United States Air Force
changed its force structure in 1999 to the Expeditionary Air and Space Force (EAF).
This enabled the Air Force to meet the 1997 National Military Strategy to “shape the
international environment, prepare our forces for the future, and respond to crisis when
and where our interests require.” 6 The EAF concept recognized the Air Force’s global
mission and the vital role the Air Force would play across a full spectrum of military
operations. The Air and Space Expeditionary Force (AEF), the fundamental element of
the EAF, is a very flexible force presentation system tailored to respond rapidly to
support any crisis, anytime, anyplace in the world. With a shrinking active duty Air
Force, the AEF relies on critical help from the Air National Guard (ANG) and the Air
One of the pillars of the AEF is a strong Total Force through the integration of the
Reserve Components and the active duty force. Phrases like “they are only reserve or
guard” have no place in our new Air Force. For the USAF Chaplain Service to be a
viable contributor in the AEF culture, it will need to make changes as well. Using the
Reserve Component chaplain service for home sustainment and deployments is
foundational. The challenge is, “How to meld the Reserve Component chaplain service
into the Air and Space Expeditionary Force?”
To answer this crucial question, an understanding of the AEF is necessary. AEF
originated as a result of shifting national strategy from containment to global
engagement; a consequence of going from a bipolar world during the cold war to an
unstable world dominated by regional instability. It required the Air Force to deploy
forces four times more frequently than during the Cold War. “Before the implementation
of EAF, the Air Force was sized for major theater war but tasked to perform small-scale
contingencies. This mismatch between configuration and mission resulted in shortfalls in
some capabilities.” 7 Is it possible this may be happening in our Total Force chaplain
service through a bending of the map?
The AEF requires forces that are rapidly responsive, trained and ready, modem
and capable, lean and agile. One of the hallmarks of the AEF is it provides predictability
and stability, which allows personnel to schedule training, education and family
activities. Predictability and stability enhances retention in the Air Force and improves
the quality of life for the military personnel and their families. The AEF helps cut
optempo and allows our troops to spend more time at home.
The idea of an expeditionary force is not a new concept. During World War I, the
formation of the Air Service, American Expeditionary Forces was created to support
France. 9 The Navy and Marines have been structured as an expeditionary force for
decades. The word expeditionary means “sent on military service abroad.” 10 The AEF is
about force management— using limited Air Force resources to meet the demanding
requirements of the theater commander.
There are 10 AEFs having similar capabilities such as fighter and bomber forces,
airlift and tanker forces, tactical leadership, and combat support. Each AEF draws forces
from across the Total Force, including the ANG and Air Force Reserve, to distribute the
load more evenly and minimize disruption in home base operations. Each of the AEFs
have a lead wing. There are approximately 10,000-15,000 people and 150+ total aircraft
for each AEF. The AEF deployment period is 90 days. During that time, two AEFs are
deployed forward or remain on call at home. The total AEF cycle is 15 months and has
four different internal periods: normal training and exercises (8 months); spin-up/deploy
preparation (3 months); deployment/on call (3 months); and recovery/reconstitution (1
month). The AEF offers a greater balance and excellent force management of our Total
Force while meeting the national security challenges of the 21 st Century. 11
It is also important to understand how critical the Reserve Components are to the
success of the AEF. When General Ryan was Chief of Staff of the Air Force, he made it
very clear how important the ANG and Air Force Reserve are by stating: “The AEFs will
provide the Air Force, the war fighting commanders and the nation three things: 1)
known, rapid response capability tailored to support operations across the spectrum of
crises; 2) predictability and stability across the force improving morale and retention of
high-quality people, and 3) further integration of the special partnership between active,
guard and reserve forces.”
On 20 September 2002 following a lecture at Air War College by a MAJCOM
Commander, a student asked, “What are the future roles of the Reserve Component in
your command?” He answered, “Total Force is part of our deal. I push Total Force as
much as I can. It’s an important part of the day to day mission.” I heard a General
Officer share similar words as the commander of the Air Force Crisis Action Team in the
Pentagon following the terrorist attack on 11 September 2001. He said, “Without the
ANG and the Reserve, we could not get our mission done.” So the Reserve Components
are not only critical for the AEF, they’re essential for the Air Force to accomplish its
To continue to be relevant and effective, the ANG and Air Force Reserve must be
able to support real-world contingencies. According to the “Reserve Component
Employment Study, 2005” an increase in Reserve Component participation in small scale
conflicts will occur through the Expeditionary Air and Space Force concept. The AEF
depends upon using a broad range of ANG and Air Force Reserve capabilities. 14
The integration of the ANG and the Air Force Reserve into the AEF is necessary
for the success of the Air Force mission. Before Desert Shield, the Guard and Reserve
served just under one million duty days a year. From 1996-2001 the ANG and Air Force
Reserve supported the active duty with between 12.5-13.5 mi llion duty days per year. 15
These numbers reflect the large number of guard and reserve working in unison with the
active duty before 11 September 2001. During Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and
Operation Noble Eagle (ONE), the number of active duty days performed by the ANG
and Air Force Reserve climbed even higher. Today the Reserve Component represents
50 percent of our Air Force capability. As of 28 August 2002, the total Air National
Guard and Air Force Reserve still on active duty in support of OEF and ONE were
Not only are the Reserve Components important to the success of the Air and
Space Expeditionary Force, but the ANG and Air Force Reserve also benefit from
participating in AEFs. Volunteerism, the willingness of personnel to deploy and/or
continue serving the military needs of the nation, is critical for the ANG and Air Force
Reserve participation in anything short of a total mobilization. Just like the active duty,
the ANG and Air Force Reserve gain from the predictability and stability the AEF offers.
Through a more predictable schedule, the reservist and guardsman will be able to keep
employers informed of deployments well in advance. This is an enormous improvement
for the Reserve Components. Employers feel violated by last minute deployments that
disrupt lives and businesses. The AEF allows families and employers to anticipate and
plan more effectively. This is absolutely essential for the reserve and guard precisely
because many personnel left active duty to pursue a more stable lifestyle for themselves
and their families. Filling AEF slots with volunteers is the preferred methodology of the
ANG and Air Force Reserve. To quote Ft Gen Sherrard, Commander of Air Force
Reserve Command, this “reduces the stress on our reservists and their families, as well as
employers. It’s the best way for us to operate. I will do everything I can to fill our
requirements using volunteers.”
How does the Reserve Component chaplain service fit into the Air and Space
Expeditionary Force? Is there a natural fit? Is the chaplain service structured to allow for
maximum participation and support in the AEF? Is there a healthy blend between the
active duty chaplain service, the ANG, and Air Force Reserve chaplain service? The
current plan has the ANG chaplains and unit reserve chaplains deploying with their units,
which is great for unit integrity. While this 15-day rotation may work best for the ANG
and Air Force Reserve, it plays havoc on continuity at the deployment site. One of the
purposes of the chaplain service is to encourage higher morale. Two-week tours do not
enhance morale. This also defeats one of the pillars of the AEF, which is to add stability.
Instead of one chaplain deploying for 90 days, six different chaplains rotate during a 90-
Ch, Lt Col Dwight Braswell, the chaplain in charge of readiness at Headquarters
Air Combat Command and the chaplain service functional manager at the AEF Center
said, “Most commanders don’t want a chaplain for only 15 days. They prefer a 30 or 45-
day rotation.” According to Braswell, almost every chaplain after-action report from an
AEF rotation suggests moving from 15-day to 30-day tours or more. The wing
commanders and wing chaplains are very frustrated with the current system of short 15-
day tours for ANG and reserve chaplains. The lack of continuity is a detriment to
ministry and good morale at a deployment site. In fact, commanders at three sites have
refused to accept chaplains for 15 days.
Col Fred Rauch, the commander at Eskan Village from June 2000-2001, agrees
with Chaplain Braswell’s assessment. Although the majority of ANG and Air Force
Reserve personnel were well trained, mature, and a welcomed addition, he felt there was
too much turnover with a 15-day tour. There was an excessive amount of time lost and a
huge orientation drain. Out of 15 days, you can only expect to receive 10 days maximum
of good work. Col Rauch also mentioned there are certain career specialties where short
15-days deployments really hurt continuity. He cited chaplains, specifically. This was
not as critical with technicians such as plumbers and electricians. Ideally these positions
would not be one deep but offer overlap for continuity. He said that short tours of 15
days played havoc on productivity and morale. Col Rauch’s vote is for a 30-day
minimum deployment with five days overlap. The general consensus appears to be the
EAF concept works best if the system is not strained through short tours of 15 days.
If chaplains are an important part of the Expeditionary Combat Support team
along with the medics, civil engineers, lawyers, security forces and other career fields,
then 15-day tours need to be an exception to the rule rather than the norm. Air Force
Instruction 10-400, “Aerospace Expeditionary Force Planning Document,” explicitly
refers to the Air Reserve Component in 4.2.3 by stating, “During each AEF cycle, one or
both AEFs will have force elements provided by ARC units. The ARC fills the 90-day
commitment, or portion of a rotation, by teaming units and personnel, and rainbowing
equipment. Specific methodology for meeting this objective is managed by the ARC.”
Although 15 days seem to be acceptable per the Air Force instruction, it is in the best
interest of the Air Force to deploy reserve and guard chaplains for at least 30 days.
One of the subjects General John Jumper, Chief of the Staff of the United States
Air Force, asked the students currently attending Air War College to tackle is, “How do
we get the entire Air Force into the rhythm of the AEF?” Breaking this question down to
a sub-component level, the question becomes: “what is the best way to meld the chaplain
service into the AEF? Perhaps one way is through changing the number of required
There are many Air Force Reserve and ANG chaplains who would volunteer for
longer deployments if the system changed. In Title 10, United States Code—Armed
Forces, Section 10147, the number of training days authorized for ANG and unit
reservists (14 Annual Training Days and 24 Inactive Duty Training Days) was
established during the Cold War era. 19 At this time the reserve was kept ready in case of
a World War III. They were used very little by the active duty. Now with the dawn of
the Air and Space Expeditionary Force, Reserve Components are heavily tasked by the
active duty in support of AEF and the Total Force. Perhaps it’s time to rethink training
and funding for the ANG and Air Force Reserve. In order for Air Reserve Component
(ARC) chaplain service personnel to consistently serve longer than 15 days during an
AEF or other deployment. Title 10, Section 10147 needs to be changed.
This is not only true for the ANG chaplains and unit reserve chaplains but also for
Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMAs) chaplains who receive 12 Annual Training
(AT) days and 12 Inactive Duty Training (IDT) days. IMA chaplains are attached to
active duty bases to directly support the active duty chaplains in their mission. Currently
IMAs are seen as a resource for home sustainment rather than deployment for the AEF.
This is partly because of the old stigma “they are just reservists” and are not fully trained.
Another MAJCOM/CC said, “The key is to have the right blend with active duty and
reserve. It’s the mindset of ‘Here comes the reserve.’ We don’t have that feeling. We
see them as equal partners.” - By training and deploying IMA chaplains, reservists have
the opportunity to expand their ministry, while providing stability for the active duty
chaplains and their fa mi lies. Why two personnel moves instead of one? This would save
money by reducing two separate moves to one.
There are currently several IMA chaplains who want to volunteer for longer
deployments. They have a positive attitude and bring excellent skills, talents and
expertise. Although doing home sustainment is still an important part of their mission,
deployment integration needs to be improved. If the prevailing thinking is they need
more training to be equivalent to the active duty, then let the training begin. Not using
this critical resource to its full potential is damaging to the IMA and to the Total Force
Since the active duty chaplain service is fully integrated into the EAF/AEF
structure, IMAs should follow suit. As Ch, Col Cecil Richardson, ACC/HC said, “IMAs
should be assigned to an AEF just like active duty chaplains. They should train when
their AEF trains and they should be especially ready for call up (to backfill or even
deploy) when their AEF is vulnerable to deploy. In my opinion, IMAs should be on the
same ‘train, deploy, reconstitute’ rotation.”
If the IMA chaplain service is realigned for better integration with its active duty
counterparts in the AEF, then the requirements of 12 Annual Training (AT) days and 12
Inactive Duty Training (IDT) days needs revision. The Air Force is no longer training in
a Cold War environment, so why does the archaic number of training days still apply?
Title 10 United States Code —-Armed Forces for ANG and reserve unit personnel and
AFMAN 36-8001 requirements for IMAs need to be changed. It is not fair to ask our
reserve and guard personnel to be part of the AEF and Total Force without proper
training and funding. This is like forcing a square peg in a round hole or forcing an old
map to match new terrain.
One suggestion to solve this incongruence is to offer the IMA chaplains a tiered
participation program with two options. One for those who want to stay as traditional
reservists doing the current number of training days (12 AT days and 12 IDT days).
Attach them to bases that are supporting the AEF where they agree to backfill during the
AEF 90-day rotations. Encourage them to do all 24 training days together or whatever
works best for the active duty. The second plan is for the IMA chaplains who want to
participate more than the minimum 24 training days a year. They would do 14 AT days
and 24 IDT days plus 30 Military Personnel Appropriation (MPA) days for deployment
or home sustainment purposes. Currently all Reserve participation in an AEF is done on
MPA days for accounting purposes rather than Reserve Personnel Appropriation (RPA)
days used exclusively for training.
When Royal Air Force Group Captain Dave Fidler briefed an Air War College
seminar about the reserve component of the British armed forces, he mentioned their
system includes several options for reservists. One option, “Full-Time Reserve Service,”
is parallel to our Active Guard Reserve (AGR), contracted for 6 months to four years to
work hand-in-hand with the active duty. The second option, “Part-Time Volunteers” do
two weeks of training plus weekends, very similar to our Unit Reservists and ANG. This
includes 47 days of training per year in which there exists tax-free bounty once 27 days
of training is completed. The third option, “Royal Auxiliary Air Force” is somewhat
parallel to our IMA program as these reservists augment the active duty and are
specialists, and not part of a reserve-flying unit.
Besides offering a tiered participation program for reservists, redistributing the
IMA chaplain service is crucial for a true alignment in the AEF. To accomplish Chaplain
Richardson’s idea of realigning the IMAs to best meet the AEF mission, it is imperative
to redistribute the attachment of our IMA chaplain service. The IMA chaplain service is
currently attached to bases that are geographically as close as possible to the IMA’s
residence. This serves two purposes; it keeps the travel cost to a minimum, and it is very
convenient for the IMA. Under the AEF concept it is not logical to have IMAs do their
training one-day a month at their convenience. They need to consolidate their training
into blocks of time when AEF training occurs. This will require advance planning by the
IMA in coordination with the active duty staff and the IMA’s employer.
To allow the IMA chaplains to make a significant contribution in the AEF
structure, it is critical to attach them to the lead wings or bases in direct support of the
AEF. The lead wings are:
Hill AFB, Utah
Dyess AFB, Texas
Elmendorf AFB, Alaska
Royal Air Forces Fakenheath, United Kingdom
Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona
Shaw AFB, South Carolina
Barksdale AFB, Fouisiana
Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota
Cannon AFB, New Mexico
Langley AFB, Virginia 22
With this concept, IMA chaplains may have to travel 1000 miles to their base of
attachment. This will require them to train in concentrated blocks of time. It is actually
more productive for the active duty chaplain service and less disruptive for the civilian
employer for IMA chaplains to train for two weeks or more at one time.
The most important reason for attaching the IMAs to bases supporting the AEF is
continuity. If a reservist is deployed during an AEF rotation, he will know many of the
military personnel deployed from the same base. It also allows for follow-up ministry
after the deployment. If a reservist does home sustainment, there is also continuity of
knowing the people. This makes a 15-day tour of performing home sustainment during
an AEF relevant and produces team cohesion with other chaplain service members. It
provides the reservists with a specific focus and purpose for serving. They are no longer
a “lone ranger” but a key member of the chapel team. It is no longer a “we-they”
quagmire, but “we need each other.” Both sides bring unique gifts and skills to the table
to make a win-win approach possible. But to make this a reality, positive changes need
to occur. This kind of synergy can be a significant force multiplier as Total Force
chaplain service personnel work and minister together to support Air Force members and
their families, at home and deployed.
To accomplish the task of having an effective Total Force chaplain service
through the proper use of IMA chaplains during AEF, proper training is imperative. Too
many times the excuse that is given for why IMA chaplains cannot deploy during AEF is
because they are not trained. Ensuring IMA chaplains receive the same training given to
active duty chaplains is critical if this paradigm is to change.
According to Air Force Instruction 52-104, “Chaplain Service Readiness”, “The
Chaplain Service (CS) plans, organizes, trains, equips, and sustains a corps of chaplains
and Chaplain Assistants in order to provide opportunities for the free exercise of religion
through worship observance, pastoral care, and advice to leadership in a readiness
environment.” This Air Force Instruction specifically states the source for all UTC
classification, for deployment purposes, is “Active, Reserve and Guard.” ANG chaplains
and AFRC Category A unit chaplains normally deploy with their units during peacetime
and contingencies. The IMA chaplain is used by the chaplain service to meet mission
requirements. It states “IMAs are deployed IAW AFH 10-416 (Personnel Readiness and
Mobilization).” The instructions make HQ ARPC/HCP responsible for administrative
tracking of the IMA chaplains to ensure they are properly trained and not the first wave
There are three different Chaplain Service Readiness Training Phases:
Phase 1—The Chaplain Service Institute provides the Basic Chaplain Course
training which includes a field exercise called Silver Flag training.
Phase 2 - The Wing Chaplain will provide training where the IMA is attached.
Phase 3 - This is conducted by MAJCOM level or higher such as the ACC
Expeditionary Readiness Training (ExperRT) and the Air Mobility Warfare
Center Phoenix Readiness programs.
Active duty chaplains are required to attend these courses, but IMA chaplains are not
allowed to attend because the IMA chaplains are still seen as backfill assets and not
In a recent Chief’s Sight Picture , General Jumper, USAF Chief of Staff of the Air
Force, said, “The Air Force continues to embrace and solidify our AEF rhythm, mindset,
and culture. Today’s deployable UTCs now include over 100,000 new USAF members,
and we have improved the training and packaging of our AEF resources” 26 These should
include assigning IMAs to an AEF UTC.
In order to have an outstanding Total Force chaplain service, IMA chaplains need
to be trained to the same standards of active duty chaplains. Until this occurs, IMA
chaplains cannot mirror active duty chaplains, and the Total Force chaplain service
suffers. The chaplain service map cannot match the new terrain of the AEF without these
important training changes.
Another important pillar of the Total Force chaplain service is for active duty
chaplains to mentor IMA chaplains. General Jumper, Chief of Staff of the Air Force,
said, “At CORONA Fall we adopted a new vision for how we work with the most
important resource we have, all of you. As we transform our Cold War structure into an
Air and Space Expeditionary Force, it follows that we transition the way we train,
educate, promote, and assign our Total Force. We intend to develop leaders who
motivate teams, mentor subordinates, and train successors.If the Total Force is going
to be successful, mentoring, according to Gen Jumper, must happen effectively. How are
active duty chaplains mentoring IMA chaplains to create a seamless Total Force chaplain
service? Is it a concept or is it reality? To have a successful Total Force chaplain
service, good mentoring is imperative.
Air Force Policy Directive 36-34 states, “Mentoring is a fundamental
responsibility of all Air Force supervisors. They must know their people, accept personal
responsibility for them, and be accountable for their professional development. The goal
of mentoring is to help each person reach his/her full potential, thereby enhancing the
overall professionalism of the Air Force. A mentor is defined as ‘a trusted counselor or
guide.’ Mentoring, therefore, is a relationship in which a person with greater experience
and wisdom guides another person to develop both personally and professionally.”
The Air Force expects mentoring to be an integral part of developing future
leaders. It is not an optional program but is foundational for the future success of the Air
Force. Mentoring covers a wide range of areas including career guidance, professional
development, and Air Force core values. At a very minimum, mentoring should be a part
of the performance feedback session.
The origin of the word “mentor” comes from the Greek poem. The Odyssey.
When Odysseus was planning to leave for the Trojan War, he realized his only adolescent
son needed to be coached on becoming a king. He hired his trusted friend named
“Mentor” to be his son’s tutor while he was fighting the war. A mentor is both sensitive
and wise—two key ingredients of being a good mentor.”
Active duty chaplains have the responsibility of mentoring other active duty
chaplains and also mentoring IMA chaplains who are an important part of their team.
By mentoring IMA chaplains, active duty chaplains will cultivate a valuable resource to
enhance mission accomplishment. If mentoring does not take place, IMA chaplains will
not be as effective and their talents will not be utilized to the fullest. In order for the
Total Force chaplain service to reach its full potential, a vibrant mentoring program must
exist across the active/ARC spectrum.
One of the tasks from the Chaplain Service Strategic Plan is Task 2.2.2.:“Develop
and maintain a mentoring program to facilitate professional development.” From the
same Chaplain Service Strategic Plan there is a section entitled “Strategic Environment:
Strategic Issues Identified.” It asks the question, “How can the Chaplain Service better
integrate Active and Reserve Components to meet the needs of the Chaplain Service?”
Mentoring is one very positive avenue to increase the integration of the Active and
Global Ministry—Vision 2020 states the Air Force Chaplain Service Vision. “A
professional Chaplain Service, building upon its rich diversity by shared experiences,
mentorship, training, to promote a vibrant, spiritually healthy Air Force community.”
Mentoring is very central to the Air Force Chaplain Service vision and the success of a
future Total Force chaplain service.
A great example of mentoring is the following true story. “When I was fresh out
of law school, I went to work for a large law firm. One of the partners I was assigned to
would give me and other new lawyers what seemed like dauntingly complex work
assignments. When we expressed ambivalence about taking on these assignments
because we feared making mistakes, the partner would reassure us, saying, ‘Don’t worry.
There is no mistake you can make that I can’t fix. I think it is much more important that
you have this learning experience.’ Needless to say, we all learned an enormous amount
by working for this man.” “ Here is a poignant story of how to develop the troops
through excellent mentoring. Sometimes it may be easier to do the job yourself, but what
kind of personal and professional mentoring occurs by not trusting others to do the job?
If the active duty chaplains are not mentoring IMA chaplains to become more competent,
the Total Force will suffer.
What is mentoring in the chaplain service? “The Chaplain Service defines
mentoring as the intentional, focused nurturing (formal and or informal) of a less
experienced chaplain by a more skilled, seasoned chaplain with the mutually agreed goal
of having the less experienced chaplain acquire pertinent knowledge and develop key
skills to become the very best officer and clergy possible. Mentoring is ‘intentional’ - a
concerted effort is made on the part of the mentor and protege to meet, discuss and
interchange ideas and experiences.” Mentoring is an ongoing process, which takes time
but reaps great rewards for the Air Force and the individuals experiencing the process.
Clear communication is vital to a seamless Total Force chaplain service. One of
the four Chaplain service goals included in “Global Ministry: A Vision for the 21 st
Century” talks about communication. It says, “Create an environment where information
flows freely and where changes in strategy, policy, and guidance are fully understood and
implemented.” 34 Sometimes communication sent out to the active duty chaplains that
affects IMA chaplains never reach the reserves. IMA chaplains are an important part of
the Total Force chaplain service and need to be kept informed on a regular basis.
Communication flow must reach every comer of the chaplain service: active duty,
Reserves and ANG. Excluding any leg of the tripod hurts the Total Force chaplain
service. Not sending IMA chaplains the same tool or handout given to the active duty
also sends the wrong message. To have a vibrant Total Force chaplain service,
information flow must include all members of the chaplain service.
Survey Results—Active Duty Chaplains
The purpose of the surveys was to discern critical information regarding the Total
Force chaplain service. It was broken down into three key areas: Personal, Training; and
Mentoring. This report will first cover the results of the survey given to 26 active duty
chaplains (Attachment Three).
The first set of training questions were designed to determine if IMAs are
receiving adequate training in areas required for active duty: annual weigh in, cycle
ergometry, chemical warfare training, self-aid and buddy care training, shot records and
physical exams. In this area, there was a mixed response with some indicating that
training was being conducted. The majority, however, were not sure, and far too many
said they were not being trained. The next question, “What kind of training should be
offered to IMAs for home sustainment?” Their answers included chaplain fund policies,
contracts, weddings, funerals, religious education and readiness training. Being trained
in the AEF concept and Total Force concept were also mentioned. The desire to receive
senior faith group or senior leadership (Wing Chaplain) training was also mentioned.
Supervision was also highlighted as a concern. IMAs should rate other IMAs. Still
others recommended IMA chaplains receive the identical training that active duty
The survey shows two-thirds of the active duty bases have training programs in
place to ensure the readiness of IMA chaplains. The other one-third of the bases are
working to implement a readiness training program for IMA chaplains. Active duty
chaplains said, almost unanimously, they would be willing to support more IMAs being
attached to their base to support AEF home sustainment or deployment. At some bases
the active duty chaplain staff was less than 50% manned during AEF deployments. The
final training question asked, “If the funding law was changed to increase the number of
training days and man-days for IMAs, could you use their support especially for AEF?”
Active duty chaplains answered 100% YES with exclamations!!!
Regarding the mentoring questions, approximately 50% of active duty chaplains
said IMAs were receiving annual feedback sessions. The rest said “not sure” or “no”.
The response was similar with respect to mentoring in general. There was a general
feeling mentoring should happen, but that active duty chaplains are often too busy. The
final question to active duty chaplains was, “How can active duty chaplains better utilize
IMA chaplains?” Answers varied from keep everyone in the communication loop, use
IMA chaplains for deployments, align IMA chaplains in the AEF, send them to the same
training as active duty, prepare them to take over active duty positions better, and closer
coordination with IMA chaplains. Other active duty chaplains suggested to utilize them
in all areas of base ministry, incorporate them into the chapel team with seamless effect,
clearer guidance for IMA chaplains on how they can best support the mission, give them
real projects not busy work, integrate them into all the AD training requirements, and
ensure job descriptions are relevant and current.
Ch, Col Steve Frick, Director of the Chaplain Service Institute at Maxwell AFB,
summed-up the overall feeling regarding the importance of IMA chaplains in the Total
Force chaplain service by saying, “Air Reserve Component personnel must be trained
and utilized just like the active force. The laws and rules must be changed to reflect the
current reality. Times have changed. The Chaplain Service must change as well if we’re
going to be integral to mission accomplishment in the future.”
Survey Results—IMA chaplains
A different survey was emailed or given over the telephone to 29 IMA chaplains
(Attachment Two). Although this survey was slightly different, the three main areas —
personal, training, and mentoring — were identical. The results of this survey can be
found in attachment four. Almost 100% of IMA chaplains were current regarding their
annual training requirements: weigh-in, cycle ergometry, chemical warfare training, self¬
aid buddy care training and Preventative Health Assessments. The majority of IMA
chaplains received Phase One readiness training. Silver Flag during the Basic Chaplain
Course. None had been to Phase Three training at Silver Flag Alpha or Phoenix
Readiness. The reason IMA chaplains did not attend these readiness training courses was
because they were not invited. When asked if interested in attending these courses in
preparation for deployment, almost 100% answered “yes”.
In response to the question, “Has the AD adequately prepared you to do home
base sustainment?” The majority of IMA chaplains answered “yes” but some felt the
process was too dependent on the inclination or commitment of individual supervisors
and Wing Chaplains. Others felt the training was not prescriptive enough. They received
no formal training but needed to ask lots of questions and figure things out on their own.
The next question asked, “Would you be willing to support an AEF deployment of 30
days or more if you knew 15 months in advance?” Almost all the IMA chaplains
responded affirmatively to this question. There were two “maybe” and two “no” answers
of 29 IMA chaplains due to current job conflicts.
Another training question asked, “If the funding law was changed, how many
more days a year would you be willing to serve?” There was a wide range of responses
to this question. Four responded they could not serve any more days currently because of
their civilian job but expressed interest in the future. Several said 10-20 additional days a
year. Approximately 65% voted for 30-60 additional days a year. In response to the
question whether they would be interested in a dual participation track, the majority were
very interested. This would allow those who wish to stay on the same training track due
to heavy civilian job commitments to do so, and others who desire to spend more time
serving in the Air Force the flexibility to increase their training days and manning assist
Under mentoring, the majority of IMA chaplains received a feedback session
within the last year. Two received a feedback session within 2-3 years. One said,
“never”, and one responded he had to seek it out. When asked, “Do you feel you need
mentoring?” six responded “no”, a few mentioned it was happening informally. Those
who responded, “yes” said they needed mentoring in global ministry, areas of higher
responsibility, career progression, and promotion issues. Many of the IMA chaplains
mentioned they were currently mentoring other IMA chaplains.
Finally, under “other comments,” one of the IMA chaplains summed-up the
general feelings by saying, “Allow IMA chaplains to go forward and deploy. It is often
easier for my civilian employer to release me from work if I’m being deployed rather
than just backfilling in CONUS. Make sure we have orders as it provides us the “top
cover” to be released from work.”
The Total Force chaplain service has many strengths, but work needs to be done
to meet current and future requirements. The temptation is to bend the map to match
reality rather than to change the chaplain service to match the new terrain of the Air and
Space Expeditionary Air Force. The current and future emphasis of a strong Air and
Space Expeditionary Force has changed the way business is done in the Air Force. With
operational and personnel tempo increasing and the active duty chaplain service
personnel numbers shrinking, we need the Reserve and Air National Guard to accomplish
the chaplain service mission.
In order for this to occur, I offer five recommendations to help create a seamless
Total Force chaplain service. First, Title 10, United States Code- Armed Forces, Section
10147 and AFMAN 36-8001 need to be changed to give the Reserve and ANG chaplain
service the proper funding to support the AEF mission and operation. Part of changing
Title 10, Section 10147 and AFMAN 36-8001 is to create a “Dual Track” participation
system. A dual track is an excellent tool to allow IMA chaplains to maximize their
participation efforts. It also offers flexibility for IMA chaplains to balance civilian work
load and Air Force needs, and creates outstanding support to active duty chaplains to help
offset the high operation and personnel tempo.
Second, attach more IMA chaplains to bases that are directly involved in
supporting the AEF. Mirror active duty and ARC training to ensure better AEF support
for either home sustainment or deployment. Assign IMA chaplains to an AEF just like
the active duty personnel. Everyone wins when reservists are an integral part of a
chaplain staff and have a clear purpose for training and ministry. Organize, train and
equip ARC personnel to deploy based on current requirements and resources. The active
duty chaplain service wins by having a dynamic reservist team where the home base and
deployment burden is shared and the subsequent synergy benefits the entire Air Force
Leaving the training and structure as status quo defaults to the old Cold War
system and does not match the current AEF terrain and culture. Survey results indicate
that active duty chaplains would welcome more IMA chaplains assigned to their bases.
The majority of IMA chaplains are willing to do more training and man days in support
of AEF as well. It is absolutely critical for an effective Total Force chaplain service to
embrace this change to meet the needs of the Air and Space Expeditionary Force and the
Air Force mission.
Third, train IMA chaplains to the same training standards as active duty chaplains.
Both IMAs and active duty chaplains begin their Air Force career with the same
education and training requirements. They attend Commission Officer Training and
Basic Chaplain Course, which includes a Silver Flag readiness training exercise. Some
of the active duty chaplains attend Silver Flag Alpha and Phoenix Readiness. The IMA
chaplains do not currently attend these training courses. Survey results clearly indicated
IMA chaplains want advanced readiness training so they can serve more effectively in
support of an AEF or other deployments.
Fourth, mentoring IMA chaplains is foundational to making them part of the Total
Force chaplain service. There is no better way to encourage IMA chaplains to be highly
productive team members than mentoring them. Yes, it requires commitment and it is
time consuming. But IMA chaplains are great force multipliers and mentoring will
always pay enormous dividends. Winston Churchill, speaking of reservists of all nations,
called them “twice the citizen.” The IMA chaplains are a great resource for the Total
Force chaplain service.
Lastly, communication needs to include IMA chaplains. When letters that affect
IMA chaplains are sent to the active duty community, send the same memo to the IMA
chaplains. If active duty chaplains are given a book or tool for training, IMA chaplains
should be put on the same mailing list. Keeping IMAs in the communication loop sends
a very positive signal that they are an important part of the team.
It is easy to bend the chaplain service map to match the current AEF terrain
without fully integrating IMA chaplains. It is easy to say we are a Total Force chaplain
service in theory than to demonstrate it in practice. By implementing these
recommendations, we will begin the process of re-drawing a very different map and
creating a Total Force chaplain service that will effectively meet mission requirements
now and in the future. As Gen Jumper said, “We need to understand how we will do
business in the future. Our job will be to deploy and everything we do needs to be geared
in that direction. Our training at home will be to prepare to deploy in the AEF. Our Air
Force mindset will have to change.” 36
The chaplain service cannot afford to allow 25% of its resources, the IMA
chaplains, to continue to train under a Cold War scenario. Chaplains are to be “visible
reminders of the Holy, and support directly or indirectly the free exercise of religion by
all members of the Military Service, their dependents, and other authorized persons.”
By becoming a seamless Total Force chaplain service, active duty chaplains win, IMA
chaplains win, and above all the people they serve are the real winners.
Former Chief of Staff of the Air Force, General Michael E. Ryan, summed-up the
ultimate goal of Total Force by saying, “...a future where we no longer have to say
“Total Force”... We are the United States Air Force and that says it all!! !” 38 May that be
said of the chaplain service as well.
1 Faurence Gonzales, “Beyond Fost.” Reader’s Digest (June 2002), 104.
2 Total Force Policy and the fighter Force (Montgomery: Air University Press, April
3 Ibid., 35.
4 Terrence M. O’Connell II, “The Year of Total Force Integration.” The Officer,
January/February 1999, 38.
5 Gen Colin F. Powell, “Guard and Reserve: Making a Difference.” The Officer,
February 1993, 136.
6 Hon. Charles F. Cragin, “Milestones on the Road to Integration.” 26 June
2000,1,On-line. Internet, 25 Sept 2002. Available from
7 Staff Sgt. Feslie McCoy, “The EAF, Time has Come for New Way of Doing
Business.” Citizen Airman, October 1999, 3.
Maj Gen Farry K. Arnold, “Evolving to an Expeditionary Air Force.” Oct 1999,
n.p. On-line. Internet, 04 Oct 2002, Available from
9 Allen R. Millett and Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense, (New York: The
Free Press, 1984), 370.
10 Air Force Link, “An Introduction to the Expeditionary Aerospace Force.” Oct
1999,n.p. On-line. Internet, 18 Oct 02. Available from http://www.af.mil/eaf/intro.shtml,
11 Detailed Concept Paper: Aerospace Expeditionary Forces (AEFs), HQ
USAF/XOPE EAF Implementation Div., 3 January 2000.
12 Michael E. Ryan, “The Inspector General TIG Brief.” Jan-Feb 1999.
13 “Jones Auditorium Lecture/Speaker, Sept 2002.”
14 United States. Joint Chiefs of Staff, “Reserve Component Employment Study,
2005.” AUL DOCS AULDOC M-U 42215-168, September 2, 1999.
15 “National Guard, Reserves ease strain of shrinking active duty force.” March 23,
2001, On-line. Internet, 22 Sept 2002, Available from
1(1 Defense Link, “National Guard and Reserve Mobili z ed as of August 28.” No. 447-
02, August 28, 2002, On-line. Internet. 15 Sept 2002, Available from
17 Staff Sgt. Sean P. Houlihan, Citizen Airman, “Staying the Course: Longer AEF
tours don’t change command’s policy to use volunteers.” August 2002, On-line. Internet.
16 Sept 2002, Available from http://www.afrc.af.mil/hq/citamn/aug02/aeftours.html.
Air Force Instruction 10-400, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Planning
Document, 1 October 1999.
19 Title 10, United States Code—Armed Forces, (Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, February 1999), 1685.
20 “Jones Auditorium Lecture/Speaker, Sept 2002.”
21 Stephen M. Duncan, Citizen Warriors, (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1997) 232.
22 McCoy, 5-6.
“ Air Force Instruction (AFI) 52-104. Chaplain Service Readiness, 3 September
24 Ibid., 10.
25 Ibid., 13.
26 Gen John Jumper, “CORONA Fall 2002.” CHIEF’S Sight Picture, 22 October
27 Gen John Jumper, “Total Force Development.” CHIEF’S Sight Picture, 06
November 2002, 1.
“ Air Force Policy Directive 36-34, “Air Force Mentoring Program.” 1.
“ Chaplain(Col) Ronald Strong, “Mentoring Revisited: New Challenges and
Strategies.” (PA:Carlisle Barracks, 09 April 2002), 3.
30 Chaplain Sendee Strategic Plan, “Strategic Environment: People.” 10, CD-ROM,
Global Ministry—Vision 2020, “The Future of the Air Force Chaplain Service.”
n.p., CD-ROM, August 2002.
32 Shawn Smith, “Mentoring and developing your employees.” Fairfield County
Business Journal, 22 July 2002, Vol. 41 Issue 29, 4.
33 The USAF Chaplain Sendee Mentoring Handbook, CD-ROM, August 2002.
34 Ibid., 2.
Gen Colin L. Powel, “Guard and Reserve: Making a Difference.” The Officer,
February 1993, 136.
36 Gen John P. Jumper, AEF Quarterly Update Brief, 2 July 2002.
Air Force Instruction 52-101, “Chaplain Planning and Organizing.” 1 May 2001.
38 The Future Total Force, no date, 28. On-line. Internet, 4 November 2002.
Available from http://www.af.mil/lib/misc/ftf99.htm.
Air Force Handbook (AFH) 10-416. Personnel Readiness and Mobilization, 22
Air Force Instruction (AFI) 10-400. Aerospace Expeditionary Force Planning Document,
1 October 1999.
Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36-3401. Air Force Mentoring, 1 June 2000.
Air Force Instruction (AFI) 52-101. Chaplain Planning and Organizing, 1 May 2001.
Air Force Instruction (AFI) 52-104. Chaplain Service Readiness, 3 September 2002.
Air Force Link. An Introduction to the Expeditionary Aerospace Force, Oct 1999, n.p.
On-line. Internet, 18 Oct 02. Available from http://www.af.mil/eaf/intro.shtml,
AFMC Manual 36-1. Guide to the AFMCMentoring Program, 1 December 1997.
Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36-34. Air Force Mentoring Program, 1 June 2000.
Arnold, Maj Gen Larry K., “Evolving to an Expeditionary Air Force.” Oct 1999, n.p. On¬
line. Internet, 04 Oct 2002, Available from www.dtic.mil/ndia/warfare/arnold.pdf.
Chaplain Service Strategic Plan, “Strategic Environment: People.” 10, CD-ROM, August
Cragin, Hon. Charles L., “Milestones on the Road to Integration.” 26 June 2000, 1, On¬
line. Internet, 25 Sept 2002. Available from
Defense Link. “National Guard and Reserve Mobili z ed as of August 28.” No. 447-02,
August 28, 2002, On-line. Internet. 15 Sept 2002, Available from
Detailed Concept Paper: Aerospace Expeditionary Forces (AEFs ), HQ USAF/XOPE
EAF Implementation Div., 3 January 2000.
Duncan, Stephen M., Citizen Warriors. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1997.
French, David A., “Leadership development: a supervisory responsibility.” Maxwell
AFB, AL: Rand Corporation, 15 April 2000.
The Future Total Force, no date, 28. On-line. Internet, 4 November 2002. Available from
Global Ministry—Vision 2020, “The Future of the Air Force Chaplain Service.” n.p., CD-
ROM, August 2002.
Gonzales, Laurence, “Beyond Lost.” Reader’s Digest, June 2002.
Hamilton, Col Danny W., “Total Force Policy: A Structure for the Future.” Washington,
D.C.: National Defense University, 1996.
Houlihan, Staff Sgt. Sean P., Citizen Airman, “Staying the Course: Longer AEF tours
don’t change command’s policy to use volunteers.” August 2002, On-line. Internet.
16 Sept 2002, Available from http://www.afrc.af.mil/hq/citamn/aug02/aeftours.html.
Jumper, Gen John, “CORONA Fall 2002.” CHIEF’S Sight Picture, 22 October 2002.
Jumper, Gen John, “Total Force Development.” CHIEF’S Sight Picture, 06 November
McCoy, Staff Sgt. Leslie, “The EAF, Time has Come for New Way of Doing Business.”
Citizen Airman, October 1999.
Millett, Allen R. and Maslowski, Peter For the Common Defense. New York: The Free
“National Guard, Reserves ease strain of shrinking active duty force.” March 23, 2001,
On-line. Internet, 22 Sept 2002, Available from
O’Connell II, Terrence M., “The Year of Total Force Integration.” The Officer,
Powell, Gen Colin L., “Guard and Reserve: Making a Difference.” The Officer, February
Ryan, Michael E., “The Inspector General TIG Brief.” Jan-Feb 1999.
Smith, Shawn, “Mentoring and developing your employees.” Fairfield County Business
Journal, 22 July 2002, Vol. 41 Issue 29.
Strong, Chaplain (Col) Ronald, “Mentoring Revisited: New Challenges and Strategies.”
PA:Carlisle Barracks, 09 April 2002.
Title 10, United States Code—Armed Forces. Washington: U.S. Government Printing
Office, February 1999.
Total Force Policy and the fighter Force, Montgomery, AL: Air University Press, April
United States. Joint Chiefs of Staff, “Reserve Component Employment Study, 2005.”
AUL DOCS AULDOC M-U 42215-168, September 2, 1999.
The USAF Chaplain Service Mentoring Handbook, CD-ROM, August 2002.
Young, Lt Col James D., “Use of a Mentor to Enhance Professionalism in the Air Force”
Concepts for Air Force Leadership. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 2001.