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Award Number: DAMD17-99-2-9024 


TITLE: Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring, Conservation and 

Training 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Elizabeth C. Losos, Ph.D. 


CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Washington, DC 20560 


REPORT DATE: December 2004 


TYPE OF REPORT: Final Addendum 


PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command 
Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 


DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; 

Distribution Unlimited 


The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are 
those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official 
Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so 
designated by other documentation. 


20050302 164 



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(Leave blank) December 2004 Final Addendum M Oct- 200*^ > nor. onn/ii 


4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 

Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring, Conservation and 
Training 


Final Addendum (1 Oct 2003 - 31 Dec 2004) 

5. FUNDING NUMBERS 
ation and DAMD17-99-2-9024 


6. AUTHOR(S) 

Elizabeth C, Losos, Ph.D. 


7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATIONNAMEISI AND ADDRESSIES) 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Washington, DC 20560 

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 

REPORT NUMBER 

E-Mail: elosos@stridc. si . edu 


9. SPONSORING / MONITORING 

AGENCY NAMEISI AND ADDRESSIES) 

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command 

Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 

10. SPONSORING / MONITORING 

AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 

7 7. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES --—---- 


72a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 

Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 


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13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) " “ —-- 

Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring. Conservation and Training fAPD is 
^mposed of three organizations: Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessina Biodivei^itv Pmnram/ci/RiiAD\ 

(CJFS), and the Bkaasourcas 

focuses on ^e use of phaseout funds provided by ICBG to enable API - now ongoing for nine v^re^To nLiSSTte 
projects in the short term while seeking new sources of funding to sustain the program over the long term In addition 
IkVim ^ purpose of completing the enumeration of lianas in the 50-ha Korup Forest Dynamics Plot 

Lriod rTFS preparing research publications for peer reviewed journals. During tWs phase-out 

Kas ’ ® by providing training opportunitie? in a vanJty of 

hat f?J° continuo monitoring and inventorying forest dynamics at the large (50 ha) and small M- 

large-scale plot data effectively address where diversity is found in relation to environment factorsTmv it 
K maintain^, and how it can be sustainably managed. The smaller plots provide data for understandina the distrihnfion of 
diversity and forest TOmposition changes over landscapes. Together these data provide key insights into the maintenanop 

e„da„,ered W 


14. SUBJECT TERm \ - - ■ 

Plant inventory, database creation, biodiversity, field training 


17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 
OF REPORT 

Unclassified 
NSN 7540-01-280-5500 


18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 
OF THIS PAGE 

Unclassified 


19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 
OF ABSTRACT 

Unclassified 


15. NUMBER OF PAGES 

10 

16. PRICE CODE ~ 

20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 

I _ Unlimited _ 

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) 

Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 
298-102 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Front Cover 1 

SF 298 2 

Table of Contents 3 

I. Introduction 4 

II. Body: Research and Other Accomplishments 5 

A. Korup Forest Dynamics Plot Progress Report 

i. Phase-out Field Season Activities 

ii. Lianas 

iii. Preparation of publications 

iv. Preparation of proposals for alternative funding 
B. Management and Training 

I. Soils and Hydrology Workshop in Panama 

ii. Botanical training workshop in Limbe Botanic Garden, Cameroon 

iii. CTFS Analytical Workshop Series 


iil. Key Research Accomplishments 8 

iV. Reportable Outcomes 8 

V. Conclusions 8 

VI. References 9 


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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 






INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE BIODIVERSITY GROUP (ICBG) ON DRUG 
DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY 
IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA. 

Walter Reed Final Report for Award Number DAMD17-99-2-9024 

Research Period: October 1,2003 - December 31,2004 


I. Introduction 

The original objectives of API (SI/MAB and CTFS) were to enhance the link between the information 
collected in the biodiversity plots and the large-scale Korup Forest Dynamics Plot (KFDP) with that of the 
other APs in the ICBG. CTFS will continue its research in Korup, collecting long-term forest dynamics 
data in the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot and making this information available to the other APs as well as 
others interested in drug discovery. KFDP will continue working towards its long-term goal of generating 
(a) an understanding of the process necessary for generating and maintaining the high biodiversity of the 
region, with the objective of providing information for the development of management strategies that will 
conserve this biodiversity; (b) identify the ecological and taxonomic distribution of plant species of 
economic and medicinal importance in different forested habitats, in order to develop strategies for their 
sustainable harvest or cultivation: and (c) continue training in-country partners, in order to expand the 
capacity of Cameroon to manage their natural resources. As other funds are secured, future studies will 
build on the ecological and taxonomic studies already funded by ICBG in Phases I and II. In the interim. 
Associate Program 1’s specific objectives were the following: 

1) Completion of Liana Census within Korup Forest Dynamics Plot. During this phase-out period, our 
core staff were to continue work on the liana census. Completion of the Korup liana census is extremely 
valuable to the long-term viability of the project as this information is important to understanding the 
structure of Central African forests, and especially to understanding medicinal chemicals. 

2) Core maintenance of the 50-ha plot. In its nine year history of our ICBG program, funds have 
enabled API to hire and train local researchers to establish, map, enumerate, and maintain the 50-ha 
Korup Forest Dynamics Plot. Over the course of the grant, ICBG funds have supported the salaries of 
these vital in-country members of the project. The phase-out funds were to be used to retain the core 
KFDP and their activities while we sought alternative funds for their continued employment. 

3) Production of Publications from the Korup Forest Dynamics Program. The investment in 
establishing a Forest Dynamics Plot has been large, both in terms of time and labor. At the end of this 
inventory and enumeration stage, it is critical that we disseminate the information gathered. There are 
two important audiences that we are targeting: The scientific community (reached largely through peer- 
reviewed publications and lectures) and the conservation and management community in Cameroon 
(reached through reports and lay public publications). These publications are not only important to 
disseminate the findings of this work, but also to provide a foundation from which to continue to obtain 
funding and governmental authorization for future censuses of the plot. Thus, for this phase-out period, 
our senior scientists in the US and Cameroon were to focus on the final clean up of difficult identifications, 
the writing of peer-review articles, and the preparation of lectures for scientific and management 
audiences. 

4) Development of proposals for alternate funding sources. The Smithsonian Institution has 
committed itself to supporting long-term research in Korup, Cameroon as well as other vital areas in the 
Congo Basin. During the phase-out period, Smithsonian and KFDP developed proposals for a variety of 
potential funders of the research, including the US National Science Foundation, US Agency of 
International Development’s Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE), and a 
variety of foundations in order to obtain funds for the long-term goals of this project. 

5) Conduct and support travel to training sessions. As part of our investment in the long-term 
sustainability of the program, AP1 had already begun planning various training sessions which are 
necessary to keep KDFP core staff and in-country researchers up-to-date with the most current research 
methods and analyses. As such, during the phase-out grant, API had plans to leverage other funds to 

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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 




support the following training sessions for KDFP researchers: a) Soils Workshop in Panama (attendance 
by Dr. George Chuyong), b) Botanical training workshop in Cameroon (coordinated by Dr. Duncan 
Thomas, David Kenfack, Dr. Terry Sunderland, and funded by CARPE), and c) CTFS Analytical 
Workshop IV (attendance by Dr. Duncan Thomas, Dr. Geroge Chuyong, and David Kenfack - funded by 
NSF). In particular, ICBG phase-out funds were to contribute to these activities by supporting David 
Kenfack and Dr. George Chuyong to prepare for these various training sessions. 


II. Body: Research and Other Accomplishments 
Korup Forest Dynamics Plot Progress Report 

Phases I and II of the ICBG saw the 50-ha Korup Forest Dynamics Plot move from plan to reality. An 
enormous research program was developed by CTFS and BDCPC, under on-going agreements with the 
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Korup National Park, and Limbe Botanical Garden. A research 
camp was constructed in the National Park near the plot, and an office building was rented in the nearest 
town, Mundemba. In part due to phase-out funds from ICBG, KFDP core staff - including Dr. Duncan 
Thomas, Dr. George Chuyong, David Kenfack, Sainge Moses, Peter Mambo, and Augustine B. Njamnshi 
(BDCPC) - were able to continue on-going ecological studies rather than seek alternative employment. 
Several set-backs did occur over the last nine months which delayed progress - late fund transfers 
delayed several projects, renegotiations with the Korup National Park Conservator limited entry of 
researchers into the KFDP area, and reduced funding lessened research activities. The problem with the 
park agreement was resolved by the end of January 2004 when BDCPC partners (Dr. Tata F. Thomas 
and Augustine NJamshi) met the Director of Wildlife. These issues resulted in some delay in the 
maintenance of the 50-ha plot and the liana census. Despite these adversities, the KFDP core staff has 
managed to accomplish vital research which will enable the project to maintain itself until additional funds 
are found to begin the recensus. 

i. Phase-out Field Season Activities. Approximately 2,300 trees were sampled on a transect 
surrounding KFDP, phenology studies were carried out by Dr. George Chuyong, and a reconnaissance 
survey of Rumpi Hills was conducted by Sainge Moses. Phenology studies were carried out three times 
throughout the year and all data entered. Forty-nine fertile plant specimens were also collected by Sainge 
Moses (1293 -1341), as requested by the Conservator of the Limbe Botanic Garden, and sent to the LBG 
herbarium. In addition, a new gas (Butane) plant drier for drying of KFDP specimens at Mundemba was 
constructed. 

Dr. Duncan W. Thomas and Sainge N. Moses also visited the Mount Oku forest and lake for a 
comparative ethnobotany and phenological fieldwork. During this trip, individuals of the families 
Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, and Meliaceae were collected (representing the genus MImulopsis, 
Oreacanthus, Plectranthus, Brilantaisia and Carapa). This trip will allow KFDP researchers to develop 
methods and information for community-based recording of plant names at different sites. 

The Korup Natonal Park is also known to be a center of genetic diversity for Phytophthora 
megakarya, the pest causing black pod disease of cocoa in Central and West Africa. Researchers believe 
that the black pod pathogen has developed in association with the Co/a species (family: Sterculiaceae). 
Researchers are utilizing the Korup plot to investigate the possibility that cocoa {Theobroma cacao) may 
possibly be infected with the black pod pathogen which could have jumped from Cola to cocoa. 
Specifically, Sainge Moses of KFDP is working with the Cameroonian research agency IRAD, Yaounde, 
and researchers from the US Department of Agriculture to find fungi that may be able to serve as 
biological control agents against the black pod disease. It is likely that Phytophthora megakarya evolved 
along with its natural antagonists in the Korup region. Sainge Moses has conducted an initial exploratory 
investigation in KFDP to determine whether potential biological control agents can be found in the park. 
He spent approximately one week in the park observing Cola trees and the decaying fruit of Cola 
altissima and Irvingla gabonensis (bush mango) for the presence of the Phytophtora and potential 
biological control agents. If this exploratory research confirms the existence of the black pod pathogen 
and possible biological control agents, KFDP researchers will participate in a proposal to undertake 
extensive research in the Korup Park for biological control agents against the black pod pathogen. 

Duncan Thomas has recently compiled an extensive database with ethnobotanical information for 
the KFDP area. In order to expand this database, he is adding fields such as life-form, habitat, and 
distribution to analyze patterns of plant use by local communities. One obvious trend is that secondary 
forest/fallow is very important as a source of NTFPs. These findings will be the focus of a peer-reviewed 


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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 


publication, which will also discuss the significance of this finding for land-use planning and rural 
development. 

ii. Lianas. The KFDP liana dataset now covers a total of about 18 hectares, making it one of the 
largest datasets on tropical forest Iianas in the world. The ICBG-funded census is on-going and each 
liana included in the census dataset is now assigned a code name or species name, coordinates which 
indicate its location within the plot, diameter measurements, and host tree tag numbers. The first set of ‘ 
data (of the double-entry data process) is being entered rapidly, so that a dataset will be available for 
preliminary analysis soon after the completion of the field data collection. In November 2003, some slight 
amendments were made to the lianas inventory methods for KFDP, such as documenting the relationship 
between tagged liana individuals and host trees. 

In terms of taxonomy, we have found that the lianas are more difficult to identify than trees, and 
there appear to be at least as many rare and new species among them. Specimens from the family 
Annonaceae are particularly difficult to match, and several new liana species are expected from this 
family. In terms of ecology, the lianas make a very interesting comparison with the trees, and will be used 
to study patterns of diversity. 

In order to manage collected vouchers of trees and lianas in the plot, sets of representative 
vouchers for each species are now deposited at the Limbe Botanical Garden in Cameroon and at the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, besides the collection which is housed at the KFDP headquarters in 
Mundemba. Establishing the voucher repositories is making the identification of species from the plot 
much easier. Identification of trees, lianas, and other plants from the KFDP area will continue at the 
Limbe Botanical Garden and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

“Distributions of rattan species in an African foresf, lead authors: D. Thomas, T. Sunderland, G. 
Chuyong, D. Kenfack, S. Moses, will be the first publication from the KFDP liana dataset. In order to 
complete this publication in a timely fashion, we have focused on the extraction of rattan data from the 
main dataset, checked it for errors, and are currently placing the newly acquired rattan data from the on¬ 
going census as a priority for checking, data entry, and processing. Rattans provide a number of non¬ 
timber forest products in Cameroon, and are of economic importance for rural communities, and for 
urbanized manufacturers of rattan products. Seven rattan species have been found in the KFDP so far, of 
which two were recently described as new species and one still remains unknown. These results indicate 
that even for an economically important group like rattans, their biology remains very poorly known. We 
expect to complete this publication once the rattan dataset is finalized, hopefully by the end of 2004. 

iii. Preparation of publications. As demonstrated by presentations at our recent symposium at 
the Limbe Botanical Garden, our research in Korup, Takamanda, and (soon) Cross River are ripe for 
analyses and dissemination in peer-reviewed journals. Several additional papers are ready to be 
prepared for publication. These papers include: 

• Kenfack D., Ewango E.N., and D.W. Thomas. Manilkara lososiana Kenfack & Ewango, a new 
species of Sapotaceae from Cameroon (accepted by Kew Bulletin). 

• Kenfack D., Sainge M.S. and D.W. Thomas. A new species Cassipourea korupensis Kenfack & 
Sainge from Western Cameroon (submitted to Novon). 

• Thomas, D.W., Kenfack, D. and G. Chuyong. 2004. Measuring the alpha diversity of trees: Is this 
a useful tool for biodiversity assessment?” Inside CTFS. 

• Kenfack, D. and D.W. Thomas. Korup Species Inventory. (To be published as a chapter of 
“Systematic Studies in Africa and Madagascar”, part of the series Monographs in Systematic 
Botany in Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden by September 2004. 

• Kenfack, D. and D.W. Thomas. Species Description of Crotonogynopsis nov. sp. (to be submitted 
to Novon by December 2004.) 

• Kenfack, D.W., Thomas, D.W., Chuyong, G., Losos, E.C., and R. Condit. Floristics of Korup 
Forest Dynamics Plot. (To be submitted to Vegatio by February 2005.) 

• Chuyong, G., Kenfack, D.W., Thomas, D.W., Losos, E.C., and R. Condit. Population Structure 
and Habitat Associations within Korup Forest Dynamics Plot. (To be submitted to Journal of 
Ecology by September 2004.) 

• Thomas, D.W., Kenfack, D.W., Chuyong, G., Condit, R. and E.C. Losos, Assessing Rapid 
Biodiversity Sampling Techniques. (To be submitted to Conservation Biology by September 
2004.) 

• Thomas, D.W., Sunderland, T., Chuyong, G., Kenfack, D., and M. Sainge. Distributions of rattan 
species in an African forest, (To be submitted by December 2004.) 

• Thomas, D.W., Kenfack, D.W., Chuyong, G., Losos, E.C., and Condit, R.. Ethnobotany of the 
Korup National Park. 

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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 




• Comiskey, J A and T. Sunderland. Floristics comparison of Takamanda Forest Reserve plots 

and Korup Forest Dynamics plots. (To be submitted to Journal of Tropical Ecology.) 

Iv. Preparation of proposals for alternative funding. In 2004, the Central African Regional Program for 
the Environment (CARPE) awarded CTFS and the Smithsonian Institution — Monitoring and Assessment of 
Biodiversity (MAB) funds to conduct botanical training workshops in Cameroon and establish 1-ha exploratory 
plots in Cameroon and Gabon. 

The Smithsonian is also currently preparing letters of inquiry for various funding agencies including: 
New England Biolabs Foundation, Meyer Memorial Trust, The Coca-Cola Africa Foundation, Sempra 
Energy, The Lawrence Foundation, UN Foundation, Aventis Foundation Karl Winnacker Fund, and have 
started discussions with the International Program of NSF. 

Management and Training 

One of the primary goals of API is to train researchers from West Africa in biodiversity assessment and 
monitoring, and the collection, management, and analysis of taxonomic and ecological data. Training 
efforts to date have enhanced scientific infrastructure, built links between US, Cameroonian, and Nigerian 
researchers, and laid groundwork for continuation of the project and incorporation of additional partners. 
At present, training activities have focused within the large and small plots, through organized courses, 
and through scientific exchanges. 

i. Soils and Hydrology Workshop In Panama. Funded by NSF, Dr. Kyle Harms (University of 
Louisiana), Dr. James Dalling (University of Illinois), Dr. Robert Stallard (US Geological Survey), and Dr. 
Joseph Yavitt(Cornell University) organized and coordinated a workshop at the Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute in Panama which addressed the interrelations among soil properties, hydrology, and 
the forests found within several of the large-scale Forest Dynamics Plots within the CTFS network. The 
goal of this workshop was to instruct CTFS partners to use a standardized protocol to measure key soil 
and hydrologic properties in the Forest Dynamics Plots. KFDP researcher. Dr. George Chuyong 
successfully participated in this workshop and will begin implementing this protocol in future soils 
research at KFDP. 

ii. Botanical training workshop In Limbe Botanic Garden, Cameroon. Funded by CARPE and 
coordinated by David Kenfack (CTFS), Dr. Terry Sunderland (SI-MAB), and Dr. Duncan Thomas (CTFS), 
the Smithsonian Institute and Missouri Botanical Garden hosted a workshop (July 18 -25, 2004) entitled 
“A Landscape Approach to Measuring and Conserving Plant Diversity in the Congo Basin”, with the aim 
of teaching standard botanical inventory techniques to technicians and botanists working within Central 
Africa. Twenty-five botanists and technicians from six Central African countries participated in the 
workshop. 

ill. CTFS Analytical Workshop Series. With funding from the US National Science Foundation, 
CTFS hosts an annual meeting of three to four weeks of duration with the objective of training scientists 
from the plots in the CTFS network in the statistical tests needed to analyze the datasets, and to work on 
publications from both individual plots and from the network. Workshops have focused on statistical 
analyses of diversity, species/area, spatial patterns, the production of graphics, associations between 
species and habitat, and calculating growth, recruitment, and mortality of trees. For the last three years, 
the workshops have been successfully attended by three KFDP scientists (Thomas, Kenfack, Chuyong. 
As a result, KFDP produced a Stand Table Book which was published by CTFS in 2003. In addition, 
substantial progress has been made on a series of publications from the Korup dataset on the structure, 
diversity, species habitat associations and floristics of the plot. During the fourth workshop, which was 
held In Taiwan in August 2004, Thomas, Kenfack, and Chuyong continued working with the KFDP 
dataset to analyze habitat associations, neighborhood effects on tree distributions, and assess population 
dynamics of related taxa. In conjunction with the workshop. Dr. Thomas presented a talk entitled 
“Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics in Central Africa” at the CTFS Network-Wide Symposium which was 
held in Taipei,Taiwan on August 16-17,2004. 


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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 



III. Key Research Accomplishments 


> Completion of Liana Census within Korup Forest Dynamics Plot 

> Core maintenance of the 50-ha plot 

> Production of Publications from the Korup Forest Dynamics Program and the Takamanda Forest 
Reserve plots 

> Development of proposals for alternate funding sources 

> CTFS and SI-MAB were awarded funds from CARPE 

> Conduct and support travel to training sessions 


IV. Reportable Outcomes 

Book (Attached as Appendix I) 

• Elizabeth C. Loses and Egbert G. Leigh, Jr. (editors) 2004. Tropical Forest Diversity and 
Dynamism: Findings from Large-Scale Plot Network. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 
Illinois, USA. 

Chapters in Book 

• G.B. Chuyong, R. Condit, D. Kenfack, E. Losos, M. Sainge, N.C. Songwe, D.W. Thomas. 2004. 
Korup Forest Dynamics Plot, Cameroon. Chapter 29 In: Tropical Forest Diversity and Dynamism: 
Findings from Large-Scale Plot Network. Edited by Elizabeth C. Losos and Egbert G. Leigh, Jr. 
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago Illinois, USA. 

Peer Reviewed Article 

• Chuyong, G. B., Newbery, D. M., and N. C. Songwe. 2004 Rainfall input through fall and stem 
flow of nutrients in a central African rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. 
Biogeochemistry 67: 73-91 

Newsletter Article 


• Thomas, D.W., Kenfack, D. and G. Chuyong. 2004. Measuring the alpha diversity of trees: Is this 
a useful tool for biodiversity assessment?” Inside CTFS. 


V. Conclusions 

The Monitoring and Assessing Biodiversity Program (MAB) continues to provide in-country participants 
with the capacity to conduct biodiversity assessments in areas considered to be of conservation 
importance through a series of training courses. Research at the Takamanda Forest Reserve has also 
yielded a series of publications detailing biodiversity in Cameroon and highlighting areas of conservation. 
MAB will continue to coordinate with CTFS in the establishment of exploratory plots in Cameroon and 
Gabon thanks to funding by CARPE. 

While CTFS continues to seeking long-term funding to support the Korup Forest Dynamics Plot and its 
recensus, Drs. Duncan Thomas, George Chuyong, and Mr. David Kenfack will finalize and submit various 
manuscripts that are currently in preparation. Disseminating the findings of the Korup 50-ha plot will not 
only benefit the greater scientific community but will also allow CTFS to leverage funding from alternate 
sources. Scientists from the Korup Forest Dynamics Plot, will also be active participants in the fifth 
Analytical Workshop Series, coordinated by the Center for Tropical Science, which will be held in Panama 
in June 2005. The training at these workshops has already provided participants with the basic skills 
necessary to continue data analysis and management currently employed at the site. In order to produce 
meaningful results and understand the dynamics of this forest, the Korup Forests Dynamics Plot will need 
to complete a recensus of this 50-ha plot. This is our main priority and goal to maintain this long-term 
large-scale research plot. 


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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 


VI. References 


Cable, S. and M.Cheek. 1998. The Plants of Mount Cameroon - a Conservation Checklist. 198 pp. Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 

Cheek, M. 2003. A new species of Ledermanniella (Podostemaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew 
Bulletin 58: 733-739 

Chuyong, G. B., Newbery, D. M., and N. C. Songwe. 2004 Rainfall input through fall and stem flow of 
nutrients in a central African rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. Biogeochemistry 67: 73-91 

Chuyong, G.B, Condit, R., Kenfack, D., Losos, E., Sainge, M., Songwe, N.C., Thomas, D.W. 2004. Korup 
Forest Dynamics Plot, Cameroon. Chapter 29 In: Tropical Forest Diversity and Dynamism; Findings from 
Large-Scale Plot Network. Edited by Elizabeth C. Losos and Egbert G. Leigh, Jr. The University of 
Chicago Press, Chicago illinois, USA. 

Chuyong G.B., Newbery DM, Songwe NC. 2000. Litter nutrients and retranslocation in a centrai African 
rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. New Phytologist 148:493-510. 

Condit, R. 1998. Tropical Forest Census Plots. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 

Comiskey J.A., T.C.H. Sunderland, and J.L. Sunderland-Groves, eds. 2003. Takamanda: The Biodiversity 
of an African Rainforest, SI/MAB Series #8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 

Courade, G. 1974. Cameroon Regional Atlas, West 1. ORSTOM. 

Forbin, 1.1996. Fish biodiversity of lower Korup Basin with emphasis on the development of ornamental 
fish trade, aquaculture and capture fishery. Consultancy report to the Korup Project, Mundemba, Ndian 
South West Province, Cameroon. 

Gartlan, J.S., D. M. Newberry, D.W. Thomas, and P.G. Waterman. 1986. Studies on the rain forest 
vegetation of Cameroon. 1:The role of phosphorus in species distribution in Korup Forest Reserve. 
Vegetatio 65:131-148. 

Gereau, R .E. a nd D. K enfack. 2000. Le g enre U variopsis (Annonaceae) e n Afrique t ropicale, a vec I a 
description d’une espece nouvelle du Cameroon. Adansonia 22(1):39-43. 

Hamilton, P. 1996. The significance of patterns of distribution shown by forest plants and animals in 
tropical Africa for the reconstruction of upper Pleistocene environments: A review of the paleoecolgy of 
Africa and the surroundings. Isles & Antract 9:63-97. 

Kenfack D., Ewango E.N., and D. W. Thomas, in press. Manilkara lososiana, a new species of 
Sapotaceae from Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 

Makana, J. R. and S. C. Thomas. 2004. Dispersal limits natural recruitments of African mahoganies. 
Oikos106:67 - 72. 

Moyersoen B., A.H. Fitter, and I.J. Alexander. 1998. Spatial distribution of ectomycorrhizas and 
arbuscular mychorrizas in Korup National Park rainforest, Cameroon, in relation to edaphic parameters. 
New Phytologist 139:311-320. 

Newbery DM, Chuyong GB, Green JJ, Songwe NC, Tchuenteu F, Zimmermann L. 2002. Does low 
phosphorus supply limit seedling establishment and tree growth in groves of ectomycorrhizal trees in a 
central African rainforest? New Phytologist 156:297-311. 

Sonk6 B., Kenfack D. & Robbrecht E. 2002. A new species of the Tricalysia atherura group (Rubiaceae) 
from southwestern Cameroon. Adansonia s6r. 3,24:173-177 


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US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Final Addendum Report 



Sunderland, T.C.H., C.J. Ros, JA Comiskey, and A. Njiamnshi. 1997. The vegetation of the Campo 
Faunal Reserve and Ejagham Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Washington D.C.: SI/MAB, Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Thomas, D. W. and R.E. Gereau. 1993. Ancistrocladus korupensis (Ancistrocladaceace): a new liana 
from Cameroon. Novon 3:494-498. 

Thomas, D.W. and D.J. Harris. 1999. New Sapindaceae from Cameroon and Nigeria. KewBulletin 
54:951-957 

Thomas, D.W. J.M. Thomas, W.A. Bromley and Mbenkum Fonki Tobias. 1989. Korup Ethnobotany 
Survey. Worid Wide Fund for Nature, U.K. 


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