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Construction Engineering 

Research Laboratory erdc/cerltr-16-4 



US Army Corps 
of Engineers® 

Engineer Research and 
Development Center 



INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS 
for a safer, better world 


Cultural Landscape Analysis of Existing 
Historic Districts 

Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey 

Sunny E. Adams, Megan W. Tooker, and Adam D. Smith March 2016 



Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 








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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 
March 2016 


Cultural Landscape Analysis of Existing Historic 
Districts: Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey 


Sunny E. Adams, Megan W. looker, and Adam D. Smith 

Construction Engineering Research Laboratory 
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 
2902 Newmark Drive 
PO Box 9005 

Champaign, IL 61826-9005 


Final report 

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 


Prepared for U.S. Army Garrison, Picatinny Arsenal 
Cultural Resources Program 
Environmental Affairs Division 
IMPI-PWE, Bldg 319 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806 

under Project 201221, “Cultural Landscape Analysis, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey” 



ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


ii 


Abstract 

This study documents the cultural landscape at Picatinny Arsenal, focus¬ 
ing on five existing historic districts. This work looks at the historic devel¬ 
opment and discusses the existing conditions within each of the five dis¬ 
tricts. It analyzes the features within each district for their historic 
significance and integrity, and based on this analysis, makes treatment 
recommendations. This document meets the requirements for federal 
agencies to address their cultural resources which are defined as any pre¬ 
historic or historic district, site, building, structure, or object. Especially 
relevant is Section no of the National Historic Preservation Act, which re¬ 
quires federal agencies to inventory and evaluate their cultural resources. 


DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Ci¬ 
tation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. 
All product names and trademarks cited are the property of their respective owners. The findings of this report are not to 
be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. 

DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 iii 


Table of Contents 

Abstract.ii 

List of Figures and Tables.vi 

Preface.xx 

Unit Conversion Factors.xxi 

Abbreviations.xxii 

1 Methodology.1 

1.1 Background.1 

1.2 Objectives.2 

1.3 Approach.2 

1.3.1 Site visits .3 

1.3.2 Archival research .3 

1.3.3 Analysis and evaluation .4 

1.4 Researchers.5 

1.5 Future projects.5 

2 Criteria for Evaluating Historic Landscapes.7 

2.1 Landscape inventory.8 

2.2 Categories of historic properties.9 

2.3 Historic context.10 

2.4 Significance.11 

2.5 Aspects of historic integrity.12 

3 Administrative and Research Historic District.15 

3.1 History.15 

3.2 Landscape inventory.21 

3.2.1 Site and layout . 22 

3.2.2 Land use .25 

3.2.3 Transportation networks .37 

3.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions . 49 

3.2.5 Buildings and clusters .52 

3.2.6 Vegetation . 84 

3.2 .7 Small-scale features .95 

3.2.8 Views and vistas .109 

3.3 Landscape evaluation.137 

3.3.1 Historic significance .137 

3.3.2 Integrity .137 

3.3.3 Character-defining features .145 

3.3.4 Final determinations .148 








































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 iv 


4 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic District.165 

4.1 History.165 

4.2 Landscape inventory.166 

4.2.1 Site and layout . 166 

4.2.2 Land use . 170 

4.2.3 Transportation networks . 173 

4.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions . 176 

4.2.5 Buildings and clusters . 176 

4.2.6 Vegetation . 209 

4.2.7 Small-scale features . 211 

4.2.8 Views and vistas .215 

4.3 Landscape evaluation.215 

4.3.1 Historic significance .215 

4.3.2 Integrity . 216 

4.3.3 Character-defining features . 216 

4.3.4 Final determinations .218 

5 Army Rocket Test Area Historic District (1500 Area).221 

5.1 History.221 

5.2 Landscape inventory.224 

5.2.1 Site and layout .224 

5.2.2 Land use . 226 

5.2.3 Transportation networks .228 

5.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions .231 

Buildings and clusters .231 

5.2.5 Vegetation .271 

5.2.6 Small-scale features .275 

5.2.7 Views and vistas .277 

5.3 Landscape evaluation.278 

5.3.1 Historic significance .278 

5.3.2 Integrity .278 

5.3.3 Character-defining features .280 

5.3.4 Final determinations .282 

6 NARTS Test Areas D and E Historic Districts.285 

6.1 History.285 

6.2 Landscape inventory.291 

6.2.1 Site and layout .291 

6.2.2 Land use .293 

6.2.3 Transportation networks .295 

6.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions .296 

6.2.5 Buildings and clusters .296 

6.2.6 Vegetation .321 

6.2.7 Small-scale features .321 

6.2.8 Views and vistas .325 

6.3 Landscape evaluation.325 
















































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


v 


6.3.1 Historic significance NARTS Test Areas D and E . 325 

6.3.2 Integrity . 326 

6.3.3 Character-defining features . 326 

6.3.4 Final determinations . 328 

Bibliography.331 

Report Documentation Page 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 vi 


List of Figures and Tables 

Figures 

Figure 1. Map showing locations of current Historic Districts and buildings at 
Picatinny Arsenal as noted in 2008 ICRMP (Chugach Industries 2008).2 

Figure 2.1907 map (PICA Cultural Resources Office).17 

Figure 3. Crop of 1920 map of Picatinny (PICA Cultural Resources Office).17 

Figure 4. Crop of 1931 map of Picatinny (PICA Cultural Resources Office).18 

Figure 5. Crop of 1962 map of Administrative and Research Area (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).18 

Figure 6. Cropped portion of 1971 map of Administrative and Research Area 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office).19 

Figure 7. Cropped portion of 1984 map showing Administrative and Research 

Area (PICA Cultural Resources Office).19 

Figure 8.1904 map showing the existing Administrative and Research District 
(outlined in green), on which buildings that are still standing are highlighted in 
red (PICA Cultural Resources Office).22 

Figure 9.1920 map showing the existing Administrative and Research District, 
on which buildings that are still standing are highlighted in red (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).23 

Figure 10. Aerial photograph of Administrative and Research Historic District, 

1940. Note that north is at the top of this photo. (PICA Cultural Resources Office).24 

Figure 11. 2012 map of Administrative and Research Area Historic District with 
existing boundary line in dark red.24 

Figure 12. Land use map containing areas of Administrative and Research 

District; note that legend contains other areas of PICA. (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office).25 

Figure 13. Historic photograph of Building 112,1913 (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office).26 

Figure 14. Historic photograph of Building 114,1913 (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office).26 

Figure 15. Historic photograph of Building 115, circa 1940 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).27 

Figure 16. Historic photograph of "Chemistry Row", circa 1945 (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).28 

Figure 17. Historic photograph of the new "Technical Building", circa 1945 (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office).28 

Figure 18. Construction of Building 173,1942 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).29 

Figure 19. Completion of Building 173,1942 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).29 

Figure 20. Historic photograph of Building 167, ca. 1940 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).30 

Figure 21. Building 119 after late 1930s rehabilitation (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office).30 

























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 vii 


Figure 22. Building 119 after addition of wheelchair lifts in 2010 (ERDC-CERL, 

2013).31 

Figure 23. Historic photograph of Building 151, circa 1930s (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).31 

Figure 24. Aerial view of Building 151,1970s (PICA Cultural Resources Office).32 

Figure 25. Aerial view of "Chemistry Row," 2013 (Bingmaps.com).32 

Figure 26. Photo of open space in front of Quarters 112 and 113 from 1936 
Picatinny Yearbook (PICA Cultural Resources Office).34 

Figure 27. Open space in front of Quarters 112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).34 

Figure 28. Historic photograph of the landing field (now the golf course) from the 
western edge of the parade field looking east (with Buildings 112 and 113 in the 
background on the left), no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office).35 

Figure 29.1925 Plan of Picatinny Arsenal's nine-hole golf course (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).36 

Figure 30. Course layout as depicted on the Picatinny Golf Club scorecard, 2008 
(Panamerican 2009).36 

Figure 31. Map of iron mines in Morris County, 1867 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office).38 

Figure 32. Map from 1887 showing Picatinny Powder Depot (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).38 

Figure 33. Intersection of Farley Avenue and Parker Road from Building 151, 

circa 1958 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).39 

Figure 34. Looking north along Parker Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012).39 

Figure 35. Buses at the northwest termination of Farley Avenue where it 

intersects with Phipps Road, no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office).40 

Figure 36. Sidewalk on the north side of the golf course along Farley Avenue 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).40 

Figure 37. Train taking passengers (workers) to Back Line, 1940s (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).42 

Figure 38. Train cars taking employees from the gate to the far end of the loading 
area, 1943 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).43 

Figure 39. Road and track to Spicertown (ERDC-CERL, 2012).43 

Figure 40. Looking south near the intersection of 1st Street and Parker Road at 

the modified railroad track, now used as a walking path (ERDC-CERL, 2012).44 

Figure 41. Looking eastward near the intersection of 1st Street and Parker Road 

at the modified railroad track, now used as a walking path (ERDC-CERL, 2012).44 

Figure 42. Historic photograph of the stone bridge (Bridge B-4) by Building 151, 

circa 1930 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).46 

Figure 43. Current stonework for Bridge B-4; note that stonework on one side 

(left in this photo), has been replaced with concrete (ERDC-CERL, 2013).46 

Figure 44. Bridge connecting Buildings 151 to 162 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).47 

Figure 45. Sidewalk on the north side of the golf course looking northwest along 
Farley Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2012).48 

Figure 46. Sidewalk along Farley Avenue, looking northeast (ERDC-CERL, 2013).48 





























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 viii 


Figure 47. Historic photograph of guns and flagpole, 1913 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).50 

Figure 48. Flagpole near Headquarters, 1963 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).51 

Figure 49. Golf course and open space from Parker Road, looking west towards 
Quarters 112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).52 

Figure 50. Building 1, Administration Building/Post Headquarters (ERDC-CERL 

2012).55 

Figure 51. Root storage (ERDC-CERL, 2012).56 

Figure 52. East elevation of Building 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).57 

Figure 53. Looking north towards Building 112A, Tennis Courts (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).58 

Figure 54. View of Building 112B, pergola (ERDC-CERL, 2012).59 

Figure 55. East elevation of Building 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).60 

Figure 56. Building 113A (ERDC-CERL, 2013).61 

Figure 57. Southwest elevation of Building 114 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).62 

Figure 58. Southwest elevation of Building 114A (ERDC-CERL, 2013).63 

Figure 59. Northeast oblique of Building 115 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).64 

Figure 60. Northwest oblique of Building 115A (PICA Cultural Resources Office).65 

Figure 61. Southeast oblique of Building 119 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).66 

Figure 62. Southwest elevation of Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).67 

Figure 63. South elevation of Building 162 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).68 

Figure 64. Southeast elevation of Building 163 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).69 

Figure 65. Southwest elevation of Building 164 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).70 

Figure 66. Southeast oblique of Building 166 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).71 

Figure 67. Southeast oblique of Building 167 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).72 

Figure 68. Look north at Building 168 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).73 

Figure 69. East elevation of Building 172 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).74 

Figure 70. Southeast oblique of Building 173 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).75 

Figure 71. East elevation of Building 174 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).76 

Figure 72. East elevation of Building 176 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).77 

Figure 73. Southeast elevation of Building 183 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).78 

Figure 74. East elevation of Building 197 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).79 

Figure 75. Steam line infrastructure, center, behind Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).80 

Figure 76. Steam line infrastructure between Buildings 197 and 178, which has 

been removed since this photo was taken (ERDC-CERL, 2012).81 

Figure 77. Steam line infrastructure behind Building 1 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).81 

Figure 78. Picatinny Arsenal steam line location map, no date (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).82 

Figure 79. Noncontributing structures in the Administrative and Research 

Historic District Boundary (ERDC-CERL, 2012).83 





































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


ix 


Figure 80.1885 Plan for US Powder Depot showing heavily planted street trees 
along Parker Road and Farley Avenue (PICA Cultural Resources Office).86 

Figure 81. Historic photograph of an oak tree near Building 117, circa 1905 (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office).87 

Figure 82.1883 proposed plan for “U.S. Powder Depot,” with note, “This plan 

has been changed. See plan approved 1885.” (PICA Cultural Resources Office).87 

Figure 83. Orchard area behind Building 34 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).88 

Figure 84. Row of cedar trees behind Quarters 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). Five of 
these were lost during Hurricane Sandy in 2013.88 

Figure 85. Shade trees line Farley Road in the Administrative and Research Area 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).89 

Figure 86. Another view of shade trees lining Farley Road in the Administrative 

and Research Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012).89 

Figure 87. Foundation plantings around Quarters 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).90 

Figure 88. New flower beds in front of Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).90 

Figure 89. A row of cherry and dogwood trees separates the golf course and the 
quarters (ERDC-CERL, 2012).91 

Figure 90. Historic photo of typical tree wells for tree protection on north side 
Building 172,1943 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).91 

Figure 91. Evergreen shrubs planted around flagpole in front of Building 1 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).92 

Figure 92. Cannon Gates (ERDC-CERL, 2013).96 

Figure 93. The west portion of the stone wall adjacent to Cannon Gates (ERDC- 
CERL, 2013).97 

Figure 94. Middle Forge Monument in a 1912 photograph at an undocumented, 
unknown location (PICA Cultural Resources Office).99 

Figure 95. Current location of the Middle Forge Monument (151M) in front of 

Building 151. Monument’s configuration and base have changed with new 

location. (ERDC-CERL, 2012).100 

Figure 96. Close view of Middle Forge Monument (ERDC-CERL, 2012).101 

Figure 97. Monument 114M, located on sidewalk adjacent to Farley Avenue 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).102 

Figure 98. One of the two cannons that comprise Monuments 153M and 154M, 
located in front of Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).102 

Figure 99. Flagpole in front of Building 151 (original headquarters building), no 

date (PICA Cultural Resources Office).103 

Figure 100. View of the flagpole in front of Building 1 (current headquarters) 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012).104 

Figure 101. Historic marker identifying the Administrative and Research Historic 
District (ERDC-CERL, 2012).105 

Figure 102. Original cast-iron handrails located in Chemistry Row in the 
Administrative and Research Historic District (ERDC-CERL, 2012).106 

Figure 103. Garage door openers embedded in post located behind Quarters 

112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).106 




























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


x 


Figure 104.Granite post along west side of Farley Ave by former parade grounds 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).107 

Figure 105. Various styles of lamp posts found throughout the Administrative and 
Research Area Historic District (ERDC-CERL, 2012).107 

Figure 106. Force protection planters in front of Building 172 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).108 

Figure 107. Force-protection boulders that are located near Buildings 172,173, 

and 174 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).108 

Figure 108. Map of significant views in the Administrative and Research Historic 
District (ERDC-CERL).Ill 

Figure 109. View toward Cannon Gates, 1908-1940 (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office).114 

Figure 110. View toward Cannon Gates, 1940s (PICA Cultural Resources Office).115 

Figure 111. View toward Cannon Gates priorto removal of railroad in 1979 (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office).115 

Figure 112. View toward Cannon Gates after removal of railroad in 1979 (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office).116 

Figure 113. Current view toward Cannon Gates, looking north from outside the 
installation’s boundary (ERDC-CERL, 2013).116 

Figure 114. Looking north up Parker Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012).117 

Figure 115. Looking south down Parker Road, just past Farley Avenue (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).118 

Figure 116. Another view looking farther south down Parker Road just after 

Larned Terrace (ERDC-CERL, 2012).118 

Figure 117. View north on Parker Road looking at Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 

2013).119 

Figure 118. Looking north from Farley Avenue at the south elevation of Building 

151 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).119 

Figure 119. Historic photograph of the flagpole, circa 1905 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).121 

Figure 120. View from Building 151 of intersection of Farley Avenue and Parker 

Road, ca. 1958 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).122 

Figure 121.1971 view of the flagpole (PICA Cultural Resources Office).123 

Figure 122. View looking southeast at the intersection of Parker Road and Farley 
Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2012).124 

Figure 123. View looking west along Farley Avenue from the intersection with 

Parker Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012).124 

Figure 124. Looking east along Farley Avenue from in front of Quarters 114 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).125 

Figure 125. Looking east along Farley Avenue from the intersection of Buffington 
Road (ERDC-CERL, 2013).125 

Figure 126. View of Building 162 looking north from Farley Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 

2013), 


126 



























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 xi 


Figure 127. Photo of open space in front of Quarters 112 and 113, taken from 

the 1936 Picatinny Yearbook (PICA Cultural Resources Office).127 

Figure 128. View from Parker Road, looking west across open space of the golf 
course towards Quarters 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).128 

Figure 129. View looking west from open space of the golf course towards 

Buildings 112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).128 

Figure 130. View from the Building 112 looking east towards the golf course 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).129 

Figure 131.1940s historic photograph of the east elevation of Building 1 (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office).130 

Figure 132. East elevation of Building 1 (Headquarters) (ERDC-CERL, 2012).130 

Figure 133. Looking south towards Building 1 along 5th Street (ERDC-CERL, 

2013).131 

Figure 134. Looking north towards Building 1 along 5th Street (ERDC-CERL, 

2013).131 

Figure 135. Historic photograph of view towards Building 167,1943 (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office).132 

Figure 136. Historic photograph of "Chemistry Row," ca. 1945 (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).133 

Figure 137. Chemistry Row, looking north showing the east sides of Buildings 

167 (left) and 197 (right) along Kibler (ERDC-CERL, 2012).133 

Figure 138. Looking south along Kibler Road in Chemistry Row (ERDC-CERL, 

2013).134 

Figure 139. Looking south on 5 th Avenue in Chemistry Row area (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).134 

Figure 140. Aerial view looking north at the buildings along Buffington Road and 
"Chemistry Row”.135 

Figure 141. Looking north down Buffington Road from intersection at Farley 

Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2013).136 

Figure 142. Looking south along Buffington Road (Building 183 is on the right) 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).136 

Figure 143. Looking west along Farley Avenue from Parker Road, 1944 (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office).138 

Figure 144. Looking west down Farley Avenue at the tree-lined street (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).139 

Figure 145. A tree located along Farley Avenue that is tagged for removal should 
be replaced with a native oak tree (ERDC-CERL, 2012).139 

Figure 146. An example of a damaged or dead tree in the historic district that 

should be replaced (PICA Cultural Resources Office).140 

Figure 147. Left: 1938 photograph showing a corner of the apple orchard 
(website). Right: current condition of apple trees in the orchard (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).140 

Figure 148. View looking north from outside the installation toward Cannon 

Gates (ERDC-CERL, 2012).141 

Figure 149. East side of Cannon Gate structure (ERDC-CERL, 2012).142 



























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 xii 


Figure 150. Stone wall that extends west from Cannon Gates along First Street 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).142 

Figure 151. Various styles of replacement street light fixtures are located in the 
Administrative and Research district (ERDC-CERL, 2012).143 

Figure 152. Replacement planting and mulch (ERDC-CERL, 2012).143 

Figure 153. Fallen tree damaging elevated steam line near Building 154 (ERDC- 
CERL, 2012).144 

Figure 154. Overgrown vegetation around the steam lines in the Administrative 

and Research Historic District (ERDC-CERL, 2012).144 

Figure 155. Open space being used as a golf course (ERDC-CERL, 2012).150 

Figure 156. A 13-gun salute on parade ground, 1946 (Rae 1999).151 

Figure 157. Map of early golf course, 1920s (PICA Cultural Resources Office).151 

Figure 158. Open space of the golf course is in the center of the photo, taken 

from Picatinny Peak (ERDC-CERL, 2012).152 

Figure 159. Root cellar (Building 111) and orchard located behind Building 112 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).153 

Figure 160. Row of trees behind Building 112 was added after the period of 
significance (ERDC-CERL, 2012).153 

Figure 161. Open space in the backyards behind quarters, Buildings 112 and 

113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).154 

Figure 162. Looking north down Farley Lane at quarters and street trees (ERDC- 
CERL, 2012).155 

Figure 163. View of front and northwest facades of Building 108, former 

storehouse (ERDC-CERL, 2013).156 

Figure 164. View of front of Building 117, former stables (ERDC-CERL, 2013).156 

Figure 165. Spruce trees planted in front of Building 102, Officers’ Quarters 
(ERDC-CERL, 2013).157 

Figure 166. Buildings 167 and 197 located in the Chemistry Row area of the 

district have been recently demolished. (ERDC-CERL, 2012).159 

Figure 167. Comparing the existing boundary line for the Administrative and 
Research historic district (left) and the proposed district boundary line for the 
Administrative and Research Historic District (right).163 

Figure 168. Map of area prior to construction of 600 Area, 1922 (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).167 

Figure 169. 600 Area, 1930-1957 from Thurberand Norman HAER Record NJ- 
36 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).167 

Figure 170. Map of the 600 Area with existing boundary line for historic district 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office).168 

Figure 171. View looking north at Picatinny Lake and Picatinny Peak, ca. early 

1900s. Building in photo is no longer extant. (PICA Cultural Resources Office).169 

Figure 172. View from lookout tower at Picatinny Peak, looking southwest to 600 
Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012).169 

Figure 173. View from same lookout tower, also looking southwest toward 600 

Area, 2008 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).170 




























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 xiii 


Figure 174. Detail of 600 Area showing building locations, 1976 (Thurber and 
Norman 1983).171 

Figure 175. View from hillside, looking south on 20th Avenue (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).172 

Figure 176. View looking north on 20th Avenue; Building 611 is on the left (ERDC- 
CERL, 2012).172 

Figure 177. Looking north towards Building 611B (ERDC-CERL, 2012).173 

Figure 178. Looking north 20th Avenue leading to the 600 Test Area; Building 

611 is at the left behind the parked car (ERDC-CERL, 2012).174 

Figure 179. Looking south on 20 th Avenue from in front of Building 611 (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).174 

Figure 180. Looking to the north along 20 th Avenue from Building 611 (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).175 

Figure 181. Looking northwest on 20 th Court which is located between Buildings 
613, 617A, and 617B which are not visible in this photo (ERDC-CERL, 2012).175 

Figure 182. View looking south at 20 th Circle and Building 620 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).176 

Figure 183. Historic photographs of Building 620, original Small Arms Range, 

1929 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).177 

Figure 184. Comparison photographs of a slug butt (611B); on the left is historic 
photograph (taken from Picatinny website, undated), and on the right is a current 
photograph of the same structure which is now partially obstructed by debris 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).178 

Figure 185. Looking northwest from 20 th Avenue in order from left foreground 
towards Buildings 607, 604, 604E (on left of street), and 604Aand 607A (on 
right) (ERDC-CERL, 2012).179 

Figure 186. Locational relationship of Buildings 621 (foreground), 607 (middle 
ground), and 604 (background) (ERDC-CERL, 2013).179 

Figure 187. Building 604, northeast oblique (ERDC-CERL, 2012).184 

Figure 188. East elevation of Building 604A (ERDC-CERL, 2012).185 

Figure 189. South elevation of Building 604B (ERDC-CERL, 2012).186 

Figure 190. North elevation of Building 604C, Sectioning Chamber; drop-tower is 
visible behind it (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2011).187 

Figure 191. Building 604D, Drop Tower (ERDC-CERL, 2012).189 

Figure 192. Southeast elevation of Building 604E (ERDC-CERL, 2012).190 

Figure 193. Images of a “bull pen" in the 600 Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012 [left] and 
Picatinny Arsenal, 2011 [right]).191 

Figure 194. Northeast oblique of Building 607 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).192 

Figure 195. Northeast oblique of Building 607A (ERDC-CERL, 2012).193 

Figure 196. Looking north at Building 611B, Gas Gun Test Tunnel (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).195 

Figure 197. Comparison photographs of the original fuze test tunnel to the 

altered test tunnel (PICA Cultural Resources Office).195 

Figure 198. Southwest oblique of Building 613 (ERD-CERL, 2012).196 





























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 xiv 


Figure 199. South elevation of Building 617 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).197 

Figure 200. West elevation of Building 617A (PICA Cultural Resources Office).198 

Figure 201. Northwest oblique of Building 617B (ERDC-CERL, 2012).199 

Figure 202. North elevation of Building 617F (ERDC-CERL, 2012).200 

Figure 203. Northeast elevation of Building 620A (ERDC-CERL, 2012).202 

Figure 204. Drop Tower and Friction Test (pendulum) (ERDC-CERL, 2012).203 

Figure 205. Southwest oblique of Building 621 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).204 

Figure 206. View of front fagade of Building 621B (ERDC-CERL, 2012).205 

Figure 207. Elevated steam lines stretch over 20 th Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2012).206 

Figure 208. Steam lines located throughout the 600 Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).207 

Figure 209. Replacement steam lines placed high above the paved roads in the 

600 Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012).207 

Figure 210. Noncontributing structures in the 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic 
District.208 

Figure 211. Trees line the curved road near Building 617 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).210 

Figure 212. Drainage swales (ERDC-CERL, 2012).210 

Figure 213. Drainage swales (ERDC-CERL, 2012).211 

Figure 214. Testing flagpole (ERDC-CERL, 2012).212 

Figure 215. Large lightning rod adjacent to Building 607A (ERDC-CERL, 2012).213 

Figure 216. Historic marker identifying the 600 Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012).214 

Figure 217. Remove vegetation from steam lines (ERDC-CERL, 2012).218 

Figure 218. The 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic District boundary (green 
outline) and eligibility status for the structures within the proposed boundary, 

2012.220 

Figure 219.1972 Picatinny Arsenal map with the 1500 Area indicated within the 

red box (PICA Cultural Resources Office).222 

Figure 220. Map of the 1500 Area, circa 1960s (PICA Cultural Resources Office).223 

Figure 221. Historic photograph of the 1500 Area, May 1951 (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).223 

Figure 222. General layout of the 1500 Area at Picatinny Arsenal, May 1951 

(PICA Cultural Resources).225 

Figure 223. The Army Rocket Test Area Historic District (1500 Area) boundary is 
outlined in red. Red areas indicate buildings, blue area is wetland, and shaded 
area is a buffer zone. Lake Denmark road is on the leftside of this figure (ERDC- 
CERL, 2013).226 

Figure 224. Historic aerial view of the 1500 Area, no date (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).227 

Figure 225. Historic photograph of the placement of the Rocket Test Area with a 

row of trees for protection, May 1951 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).227 

Figure 226. Hart Road is the main east access road into the 1500 Area from 

Lake Denmark Road on the area’s west side (ERDC-CERL, 2012).228 
































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


xv 


Figure 227. Hart Road (main access road to the Rocket Test Area), looking west 
towards Lake Denmark Road; note entrance gates in far background of photo 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).229 

Figure 228. Paved road leading from the main access road (Hart Road) to the 

Testing Area in the district (ERDC-CERL, 2012).229 

Figure 229. Concrete walkways connect the test stands in the Testing Area of the 
historic district (ERDC-CERL, 2102).230 

Figure 230. Covered walkways near the test stand area in the Testing Area of the 
historic district (ERDC-CERL, 2012).230 

Figure 231. An Honest John rocket is carried down a covered walkway near 

Building 1503 in 1953 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).231 

Figure 232. Buildings 1512 (left) and 1515 (right) in the Storage and Laboratory 

Area on the east side of the district (ERDC-CERL, 2012).233 

Figure 233. Historic photograph of Building 1506 (Ordnance Facility), 1954 

(Chugach Industries 2008, 5-14).234 

Figure 234. Historic photograph of Building 1503 (Temperature Conditioning 
Building), May 1951 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).235 

Figure 235. Historic photograph of Rocket Velocity Testing Facility (Building 

1505), no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office).235 

Figure 236. Current condition of the water tower, Building 1500 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).239 

Figure 237. Leftside of the north elevation of Building 1501 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).240 

Figure 238. Northeast side of Building 1502 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).241 

Figure 239. Southwest side of Building 1503 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).242 

Figure 240. West elevation of Building 1504 (ERDC-CERL, 2013)).243 

Figure 241. Southwest oblique of Building 1504A [Building 1504 is to right] 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012).244 

Figure 242. South elevation of Building 1505 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).245 

Figure 243. Building 1505A (left) and Building 1505B (right), Test Cells (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).246 

Figure 244. Building 1505C (ERDC-CERL, 2012).247 

Figure 245. Building 1505D, Test Cell (ERDC-CERL, 2012).248 

Figure 246. East elevation of Building 1505E and covered walkway (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).249 

Figure 247. North elevation of Building 1505F (ERD-CERL, 2012).250 

Figure 248. Building 1505N, Storage Building and Wind Tunnel (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).251 

Figure 249. Southwest oblique of Building 1506 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).252 

Figure 250. North elevation of Building 1507 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).253 

Figure 251. Building 1508, High Explosives Magazine (ERDC-CERL, 2012).254 

Figure 252. North elevation of Building 1509 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).255 

Figure 253. North elevation of Building 1509A (right), with pipes connecting it to 
Building 1509 (left) (ERDC-CERL, 2012).256 































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


xvi 


Figure 254. East elevation of Building 1510A, which was recently demolished 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).257 

Figure 255. Northwest oblique of Building 1511 (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 

2012).258 

Figure 256. Building 1512, Physics Laboratory northwest elevation (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).259 

Figure 257. View south of Building 1512A, General Purpose Storehouse (PICA 
Cultural Resources Office, 2012).260 

Figure 258. View south at Building 1513, General Purpose Magazine (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office, 2012).261 

Figure 259. View south of Building 1514, Pyrotechnic R&D Laboratory.262 

Figure 260. View south of Building 1515 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).263 

Figure 261. Building 1517, now demolished, consisted of two large, connected 
chambers and a number of associated, connected buildings (ERDC-CERL, 2012).265 

Figure 262. Building 1518, now demolished, connected Chambers #1 and #2 

with Building 1517A in the middle (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2011).265 

Figure 263. Building 1520, now demolished, was identical to 1519 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).266 

Figure 264. Building 1521, now demolished (ERDC-CERL, 2013).267 

Figure 265. East elevation of Building 1522, now demolished (ERDC-CERL, 

2012).268 

Figure 266. Remnants of steam conduit supported on cast stone piers (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).270 

Figure 267. Steam lines supported by metal structure over the paved road (ERD- 
CERL, 2012).270 

Figure 268. Overgrown vegetation on an earthen barricade (ERDC-CERL, 2012).271 

Figure 269. Arrangement of velocity screens for use with 57 mm gun at range at 
Building 1505,1951 (Picatinny Arsenal Cultural Resources).272 

Figure 270. Wooded area surrounding Building 1527, a noncontributing building 

to the Rocket Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012).272 

Figure 271. Example of grasses kept mowed when adjacent to buildings or 

structures in current use (ERDC-CERL, 2012).273 

Figure 272. Earth barricade constructed around high explosives magazine 

(Building 1507), 1964 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).274 

Figure 273. Earth barricades around Building 1507 (ERDC-CERL, 2012).274 

Figure 274. Relationship of building and earth barricade (ERDC-CERL, 2012).275 

Figure 275. Main entry point into the Rocket Test Area through gate off Lake 
Denmark Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012).276 

Figure 276. Another chain-link gate and fencing providing controlled access to 

the Rocket Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012).276 

Figure 277. Historic marker located near main entry to the Rocket Test Area 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012).277 

Figure 278. Overgrown vegetation on structure for steam line distribution pipes 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


279 





























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 xvii 


Figure 279. Remnant testing materials in the landscape (ERDC-CERL, 2012).280 

Figure 280. Existing Rocket Test Area Historic District boundary (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office).283 

Figure 281. NARTS Test Areas map, no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office).286 

Figure 282. The rocket test areas built between 1946 and 1953 are shown in 

this 1960s aerial. The view is to the south (PICA Cultural Resources Office).287 

Figure 283. Historic view of NARTS Test Area D, 1962 (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office).288 

Figure 284. Historic photograph of rocket motor tests at Building 3606, no date 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office).288 

Figure 285. Entrance sign for NARTS Test Area D with historic plaque (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012).289 

Figure 286. Map showing NARTS Test Area D Historic District, located in center of 

red box (PICA Cultural Resources Office).289 

Figure 287. Early construction activities and site overview in Test Area E, 1952.290 

Figure 288. Former NARTS Test Area E Historic District prior to demolition, 

centered in red box (only 3622 and 3623 remain) (ERDC-CERL).291 

Figure 289. Aerial view of NARTS Test Area D, no date (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office).292 

Figure 290. Cluster of buildings near the entrance into the NARTS Area D.294 

Figure 291. Curved road that provides access to the NARTS Testing Area D from 
Snake Hill Road (ERDC-CERL, 2013).295 

Figure 292. Single-lane road that provides access to NARTS Testing Area E from 
Snake Hill Road (ERDC-CERL, 2013).296 

Figure 293. Historic photograph showing the construction of Building 3603 (Test 
Stand D-l), 1950 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).297 

Figure 294. Building 3602, NARTS Liquid Propellant Storage (ERDC-CERL, 2013).301 

Figure 295. View west at Buildings 3603 (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010).303 

Figure 296. View south at Building 3604 (ERDC-CERL, 2013).304 

Figure 297. Southeast oblique of Building 3605, NARTS Control House (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office, 2010).305 

Figure 298. Southeast oblique of Building 3606 (PICA Cultural Resources Office).306 

Figure 299. Building 3607, Central Control Room (ERDC-CERL, 2013).307 

Figure 300. Southeast oblique of Building 3608, NARTS Test Area D Boiler House 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010).308 

Figure 301. Building 3609, now demolished (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 

2010).310 

Figure 302. Building 3610, NARTS Liquid Propellant Storage (PICA Cultural 
Resources Office, 2010).310 

Figure 303. Southeast oblique of Building 3611, NARTS Electronic Equipment 

Facility (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010).311 

Figure 304. Building 3612, NARTS Components Testing (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office, 2010).313 






























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


xviii 


Figure 305. North elevation of Building 3613, NARTS Area D Lunch Room (ERDC- 
CERL, 2013).314 

Figure 306. Northwest oblique of Building 3615, NARTS Utility House (ERDC- 

CERL, 2013).315 

Figure 307. North elevation of Building 3616 (background), Environmental Test 
Building (a noncontributing gun turret, also demolished is in the foreground) 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013).316 

Figure 308. Oblique view of northwest and northeast elevations, Building 3617- 
Control House (Nolte et al. June 2009).318 

Figure 309. View of rear and southeast side of Static Rocket Test Stand (Building 
3618) (ERDC-CERL, 2013).318 

Figure 310. Historic photograph of men working to clear the land in NARTS Test 

Area D in preparation for building construction, January 1950 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office).321 

Figure 311. Chain-link fencing and security gate at the entrance to NARTS Test 

Area D (ERDC-CERL, 2013).322 

Figure 312. Chain-link fencing and gate at the entrance to NARTS Test Area E 
(ERDC-CERL, 2013).322 

Figure 313. Historic marker located at the entrance to NARTS Test Area D & E 
Historic Districts (ERDC-CERL, 2013).323 

Figure 314. Flagpole located near entrance into the NARTS Test Area D (ERDC- 
CERL, 2013).324 

Figure 315. Aerial view of cleared landscape for NARTS Test Areas D (foreground) 

and E (background), no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office).326 

Figure 316. NARTS Testing Areas D (upper) and E (lower) Historic Districts map. 

NARTS Testing Area E is now demolished (ERDC-CERL).329 

Tables 

Table 1. List of buildings in the Administrative and Research Area Historic District 
(taken from PICA real property records).53 

Table 2. List of landscape plants found at Picatinny Arsenal (Picatinny NRMP).93 

Table 3. Character-defining features within Administrative and Research Historic 
District at Picatinny Arsenal.146 

Table 4. Proposed list of buildings in the Administrative and Research Area 

Historic District after historic district expansion (taken from PICA real property 

records).161 

Table 5. List of buildings in the 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic District.181 

Table 6. 600 Area character-defining features.217 

Table 7. List of buildings currently in the Army Rocket Test Area Historic District.237 

Table 8.1500 Area character-definingfeatures.280 

Table 9. List of buildings in the NARTS Test Area D Historic District.299 

Table 10. List of buildings in the NARTS Test Area E Historic District.319 

Table 11. NARTS Test Area D, character-definingfeatures.327 



























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 xix 

Table 12. NARTS Test Area E, character-defining features.328 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


xx 


Preface 

This study was conducted for the Environmental Affairs Division of the 
U.S. Army Garrison, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ under Project 201221, “Cultural 
Landscape Analysis, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey.” Funding was pro¬ 
vided by Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) 
MIPR2ILG3EB301. The Picatinny Arsenal technical monitor was Mr. Ja¬ 
son Huggan, Cultural Resource Manager, Environmental Affairs Division. 

The work was performed by the Land and Heritage Conservation Branch 
(CN-C) of the Installations Division (CN), U.S. Army Engineer Research 
and Development Center - Construction Engineering Research Laboratory 
(ERDC-CERL). At the time of publication, Dr. Michael L. Hargrave was 
Chief, CEERD-CN-C; Ms. Michelle Hanson was Chief, CEERD-CN; and 
Mr. Alan Anderson was the Technical Director for Sustainable Ranges and 
Lands, CEERD-CV-T. The Deputy Director of ERDC-CERL was Dr. Kiran- 
kumar Topudurti, and the Director was Dr. Ilker Adiguzel. 

The Commander of ERDC was COL Bryan S. Green, and the Director was 
Dr. Jeffery P. Holland. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


xxi 


Unit Conversion Factors 


Multiply 

By 

To Obtain 

acres 

4,046.873 

square meters 

degrees Fahrenheit 

(F-32)/1.8 

degrees Celsius 

feet 

0.3048 

meters 

gallons (U.S. liquid) 

3.785412 E-03 

cubic meters 

inches 

0.0254 

meters 

miles (U.S. statute) 

1,609.347 

meters 

miles per hour 

0.44704 

meters per second 

square feet 

0.09290304 

square meters 

square miles 

2.589998 E+06 

square meters 

square yards 

0.8361274 

square meters 

yards 

0.9144 

meters 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


xxii 


Abbreviations 

Term 

Spell-out 

AAL 

Arsenal-At-Large 

AETC 

Air Education and Training Command 

AMC 

Army Materiel Command 

ARDEC 

Armament, Research, Development and Engineering Center 

ATFP 

Anti-terrorism force protection 

APM 

asbestos protected metal 

CRM 

cultural resources manager 

CWA 

Civilian Works Administration 

ERDC- 

Engineer Research and Development Center-Construction 

CERL 

Engineering Research Laboratory 

FRP 

Facility Reduction Program 

gpm 

gallons per minute 

JATO 

jet-assisted takeoff 

LOX 

liquid oxygen fuel 

NAD 

Naval Ammunition Depot 

NARL 

Naval Aeronautical Rocket Laboratory 

NARTS 

Naval Air Rocket Test Station 

NHPA 

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 

NJ HPO 

New Jersey Historic Preservation Office 

NRHP 

National Register of Historic Places 

PA 

programmatic agreement 

PICA 

Picatinny Arsenal 

psi 

pounds per square inch (pressure) 

R&D 

research and development 

RDECOM 

Research, Development and Engineering Command 

RMD 

Reaction Motors Division 

RMI 

Reaction Motors, Inc. 

WPA 

Works Progress Administration 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


1 


1 Methodology 

1.1 Background 

Congress codified the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), 
the most effective cultural resources legislation to date, in order to provide 
guidelines and requirements for preserving tangible elements of our past. 
Benefits derived from this Act were the result of a broader need for pre¬ 
serving historic cultural resources. Resources were identified primarily 
through creation of the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Con¬ 
tained within the NHPA are Sections 106 and 110 which outline specific re¬ 
quirements for federal agencies to address their cultural resources. In the 
NHPA, cultural resources are defined as any prehistoric or historic district, 
site, building, structure, or object. Section 106 requires determining the ef¬ 
fect of federal undertakings on properties deemed eligible or potentially el¬ 
igible for the NRHP. Section 110 requires federal agencies to inventory and 
evaluate their cultural resources. 

Picatinny Arsenal (PICA) is located in Rockaway and Jefferson Townships 
in Morris County, New Jersey. The installation is located 32 miles north¬ 
west of Newark and 42 miles west of New York City. Picatinny Arsenal be¬ 
gan as a War Department powder depot in 1880 and evolved into one of 
the Army’s most important armament research and development centers. 

PICA has evaluated approximately 1,159 buildings, structures, and objects 
and found that 99 are eligible for inclusion on the NRHP. 1 Of these 99 re¬ 
sources, 97 are located within five historic districts—the Administrative 
and Research Historic District, the 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic 
District, the Army Rocket Testing Historic District, NARTS 2 D, and 
NARTS E Historic Districts (Figure 1). Two of those 99, Building 3250 and 
Building 3316, are located outside the historic districts (Figure 1). Within 
the five districts, there are 22 noncontributing properties. 


1 Conversation with Jason Huggan, Cultural Resources Manager at Picatinny, June 2013. 

2 Naval Air Rocket Test Station 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


2 


Figure 1. Map showing locations of current Historic Districts and buildings at 
Picatinny Arsenal as noted in 2008 ICRMP (Chugach Industries 2008). 



1.2 Objectives 

The objective of this project is to perform a cultural landscape analysis of 
five historic districts at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, as required by Sec¬ 
tion no and 106 of the NHPA and by the Real Property Master Plan and 
Facility Reduction Program Programmatic Agreement between Picatinny 
Arsenal and the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office (NJ HPO). 
Knowledge of the cultural landscape and potential impacts on these re¬ 
sources will aid in the NHPA process. 

1.3 Approach 

For a property to qualify for the NRHP, it must meet at least one of the Na¬ 
tional Register Criteria for Evaluation, must be significantly associated 
with an important historic context, and must retain sufficient integrity to 
convey its significance under that context. 














































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


3 


This report establishes the process by which the historic landscapes of 
PICA are inventoried and evaluated according to the criteria set forth for 
the NRHP. To be eligible or listed on the NRHP, cultural resources must 
meet certain requirements establishing their importance to American his¬ 
tory and heritage. The cultural importance of Picatinny’s landscape is de¬ 
termined through the installation’s historic context. Next, using the his¬ 
toric context as a reference point, the physical site is analyzed and 
inventoried to determine the original design intentions. In doing this, the 
historic landscapes are identified and their features are documented 
through mapping, diagramming, and image collection. With this infor¬ 
mation, the historic qualities are determined and evaluated according to 
NRHP criteria. This process establishes the historic importance of the 
landscape and determines its historic integrity. With the analytical results, 
recommendations are made that are appropriate for the preservation and 
maintenance of the historic landscape features. 

1.3.1 Site visits 

An initial site visit was conducted in September 2012 and additional pho¬ 
tos were taken in April 2013. During this visit, the team conducted a wind¬ 
shield survey while documenting the site with photographs. During this 
visit, researchers were also given a guided tour during which photography, 
sketches, and note-taking were used to compile an overall understanding 
of the built environment of Picatinny Arsenal. 

1.3.2 Archival research 

The first phase of archival research established the historic context of 
PICA. This research included finding, gathering, and reviewing all sources 
relevant to the project. The next phase identified and located primary 
sources to document the original design and planning intentions of the in¬ 
stallation. Sources were used to determine the development including 
published and unpublished materials held in the National Archives, and at 
PICA. During these visits, researchers collected archival information such 
as historic photographs, artwork, maps, and architectural plans. These 
documents were used to provide the historic context and original design 
intention, and to illustrate the challenges of planning and building PICA. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


4 


1.3.3 Analysis and evaluation 

Using information from the historic context, an overarching NRHP integ¬ 
rity was determined. Cultural resources can retain or lose historic integ¬ 
rity, meaning that a resource either does or does not convey historic signif¬ 
icance. By establishing a historic context, individual resources can be 
evaluated along similar physical metrics. The physical features of each 
component landscape were documented and evaluated to establish the 
character-defining features of the site and if they did or did not contribute 
to the established historic context. From this, a recommendation of eligi¬ 
bility to the National Register was made based on guidelines found in the 
following documents. 

• National Register Bulletin #15, How to Apply the National Regis¬ 
ter Criteria for Evaluation 3 

• National Register Bulletin #16, Part A: How to Complete the Na¬ 
tional Register Registration Form 4 

• National Register Bulletin #18: How to Evaluate and Nominate 
Designed Historic Landscapes 5 

• Bulletin #30: Guidelines for Documenting and Evaluating Rural 
Historic Landscapes 3 4 5 6 7 

• Preservation Brief #36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes 7 

• National Register Bulletin: How to Prepare National Historic 
Landmark Nominations 8 9 

• The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of His¬ 
toric Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural 
Landscapes 9 

• The National Park Service’s Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports 10 


3 National Park Service, 1997a. 

4 National Park Service, 1997b. 

5 National Park Service, 1987. 

6 National Park Service, 1999a. 

7 National Park Service, 2000. 

8 National Park Service, 1999b. 

9 Birnbaum and Peters, 1996. 

10 National Park Service, 1998. 



ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


5 


• The Department of Defense guidance, Guidelines for Documenting 
and Evaluating Historic Military Landscapes (Loechl et al. 2009) 

The guidelines presented in these documents provided the basis for the 
historic landscape evaluation. The guidelines were applied to identify and 
list the character-defining features of the Picatinny landscape while noting 
the cumulative loss of character, the alternation/masking of prominent 
features, or the introduction of new elements. Additionally, the landscapes 
were ranked high, medium, or low based on their significance to the over¬ 
all history of Picatinny, the US military, and the United States, and then on 
their ability to convey historic significance. 

1.4 Researchers 

This project was conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 
Engineering Research Development Center, Construction and Engineering 
Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) based in Champaign, IL. The research 
team included Adam Smith, M.Arch, as project manager and lead 
historian; Megan Weaver Tooker, MLA, as historic landscape architect; 
and Sunny Adams, M.Arch, as assistant architect. 

1.5 Future projects 

This phase of the cultural landscape analysis concentrates on the five iden¬ 
tified historic districts. Further evaluation is pending for the entire instal¬ 
lation landscape to include a more in-depth historic context, overall land¬ 
scape inventory, and discussion of how the historic districts relate to the 
Picatinny landscape as a whole. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


6 


(This page intentionally left blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


7 


2 Criteria for Evaluating Historic 
Landscapes 

Cultural landscapes express ideas and behaviors which have been commit¬ 
ted to material reality. Cultural landscapes include elements such as roads, 
sidewalks, houses, lawns, parks, signs, buildings, and objects. Assessing 
the integrity of a growing and changing landscape is a complex matter. 

This cultural landscape analysis will inventory the current features of the 
landscape at Picatinny, evaluate their historical significance, and deter¬ 
mine their integrity. This report will look at each identified historic district 
individually, since each district is distinct in location, mission, and history. 

Military installations such as PICA are discrete areas with clear boundaries 
that usually contain buildings, equipment/weapons storage, testing areas 
or training lands, open space, roads, utilities, and subsidiary features. 

Each installation will differ somewhat from the others, based on use and 
site characteristics. These functional considerations maybe manifested in 
myriad ways through the built environment, land use patterns, and sys¬ 
tems of spatial order. 11 

An installation is as much about change as it is about permanence. As a re¬ 
sult, individual installations often exhibit a variety of time periods. When 
military missions have changed throughout history, so have the physical 
development and appearance of military installations. These changes can 
involve any combination of razing, building, rebuilding, acquiring, re¬ 
claiming, shaping, reusing, abandoning, or expanding. In addition, mili¬ 
tary installations often evolve through periods of rapid change in response 
to crises. They frequently appear as chaotic mixes of land-use areas and 
unrelated architectural styles. However, patterns are often visible that are 
the vestiges of an installation’s former missions. 

An understanding of the relationship between the changing mission of an 
installation and its landscape is the key to identifying the historical signifi¬ 
cance and identifying character-defining features. A cultural landscape 


11 Suzanne Keith Loechl, et al., Guidelines for Identifying and Evaluating Historic Military Landscapes, 
ERDC/CERL TR-09-6 (Champaign, IL: Engineer Research and Development Center-Construction Engi¬ 
neering Research Lab, 2009), 22. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


8 


analysis can assist planning for the future, while preserving the historical 
character of the installation. 

2.1 Landscape inventory 

In historic landscape studies, the term "landscape characteristic" has a 
specific meaning. Landscape characteristics are defined as the “tangible 
evidence of the activities and habits of the people, who occupied, devel¬ 
oped, used, and shaped the land to serve human needs; they may reflect 
the beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and values of these people.” 12 Identifying 
the characteristics of the military landscape requires an understanding of 
the natural and cultural forces that have shaped it. This section will de¬ 
scribe these processes and the resulting landscape features that together 
comprise the military landscape. The purpose of this section is to help de¬ 
fine the overall character of the landscape and identify the many features 
which make it significant. 

The National Park Service defines historic character-defining features of a 
landscape as “prominent or distinctive aspects, qualities, or characteristics 
of a cultural landscape that contribute significantly to its physical charac¬ 
ter”.^ Through the study of landscapes, the built environment is explained 
by the physical remains of the natural and cultural shaping forces. The his¬ 
toric landscapes of Picatinny are significant because they describe the 
adaption of the built environment to the military mission and the cultural 
values. Understanding the factors that influenced and composed the land¬ 
scape informs the preservation of its historic qualities. The inventory iden¬ 
tifies the historically significant features and characteristics of the Picat¬ 
inny landscapes. 

To identify the prominent or distinctive characteristics that make a land¬ 
scape historic, the physical features of the site are divided into eight (8) ar¬ 
eas as established by the National Park Service: site and layout, land use, 
expressions of military cultural values, transportation networks, views and 
viewsheds, buildings and structures, vegetation, and small-scale features. 


12 Birnbaum, Charles and Christine Capella Peters, Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treat¬ 
ment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. (Washington, DC: 
National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1996), 3. 
is ibid, 4. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


9 


These characteristics of the landscape combine to form the built environ¬ 
ment that is the primary image of PICA. 

2.2 Categories of historic properties 

The identification of historically significant properties is achieved through 
evaluation of their position within a larger historic context. A historic 
property is determined significant or not significant by applying standard¬ 
ized National Register Criteria for Evaluation to property within its histor¬ 
ical context. The NRHP categorizes significant properties as buildings, 
sites, districts, structures, or objects.^ The definitions of these property 
types follow: 

Building: A building is created principally to shelter any form of human ac¬ 
tivity. Examples of buildings include: administration building, house, 
barn, stable, train station, church, or shed. 

Structure: Structures are distinguished from buildings by being functional 
constructions made for purposes other than creating human shelter. Ex¬ 
amples of structures include: aircraft hangars, bandstands, bridges, ca¬ 
nals, fences, kilns, or windmills. 

Object: The term object is used to distinguish from buildings and structures 
those constructions that are primarily artistic in nature or are relatively 
small in scale and simply constructed. Although it may be, by nature or 
design, movable, an object is associated with a specific setting or environ¬ 
ment. Examples of objects include boundaiy markers, fountains, monu¬ 
ments, sculptures or statues. 

Site: A site is the location of a significant event, a prehistoric or historic oc¬ 
cupation or activity, or a building or structure, whether standing, ruined, 
or vanished, where the location itself possesses historic, cultural, or ar¬ 
cheological value regardless of the value of any existing structure. Exam¬ 
ples of sites include: battlefield, campsite, ceremonial site, designed land¬ 
scape, rock shelter, or village site. 

District: A district possesses a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of 
sites, buildings, structures, or objects united historically or aesthetically by plan 
or physical development. A district can comprise both features that lack individ¬ 
ual distinction and individually distinctive features that serve as focal points. A 
group of features lacking in individual distinction may even be considered eligible 
if the grouping achieves significance as a whole within its historic context. While 
a district derives its importance from being a unified entity, it can contain build¬ 
ings, structures, sites, objects, or open spaces that do not contribute to the signifi¬ 
cance of the district if these properties do not adversely affect the district's integ¬ 
rity. 


Throughout various historic building assessments, PICA and the NJ HPO 
have identified five historic districts to best comprehensively manage the 


14 National Park Service 1997a, 4-5. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


10 


numerous and diverse resources at the Arsenal: the Administrative and 
Research Historic District, the 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic Dis¬ 
trict, Army Rocket Testing Historic District, and the NARTS D and E His¬ 
toric Districts. These historic districts and their boundaries were defined 
based on careful consideration of historic and existing architectural char¬ 
acter, current and past land uses, construction periods, and concentration 
of contributing resources. 

2.3 Historic context 

The identification of historically significant properties can be achieved 
only through evaluation of their position within the larger historic context. 
According to the NRHP, historic contexts are defined as “...the patterns, 
themes, or trends in history by which a specific occurrence, property, or 
site is understood and its meaning (and ultimately its significance) within 
prehistory or history is made clear”. *5 

The landscape at PICA can be divided into three general periods: (1) pre¬ 
historic subsistence activities; (2) pre-Arsenal industrial and agricultural 
activities associated with rural community settlement; and (3) Arsenal-re¬ 
lated construction endeavors and subsequent military-industrial activities. 
The first period is characterized by subsistence activities conducted by Na¬ 
tive Americans prior to the invasion of European traders/settlers (i.e., pre¬ 
historic camp and rock shelter sites have been identified in the vicinity). 
The second period reflects industrial activities associated with iron mining 
and production endeavors during the colonial/pre-Arsenal period by Eu¬ 
ropean-American settlers, and rural settlement activities which included 
the limited cultivation of grains and livestock prior to 1880. The third land 
use period—construction activities associated with the creation of Picat- 
inny (Dover) Powder Depot beginning in 1880—involved the replacement 
or reuse of structures or remains associated with agricultural and early in¬ 
dustrial periods of the area and the subsequent, dramatic land alterations 
inherent in the erection of a federal military reservation. 

On the Arsenal's initial 1,866 acres in the Green Pond Brook valley, con¬ 
struction activities focused on the erection of storage magazines, officer's 
quarters, and service facilities. Then in June 1891, 315 acres of Picatinny’s 
land near Lake Denmark was ceded to the U.S. Navy for the establishment 


15 National Park Service 1997a, 7. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


11 


of the Lake Denmark Naval Ammunition Depot (NAD) to become its pri¬ 
mary depot on the east coast. PICA and the Lake Denmark NAD expanded 
within the valley, their missions diversified to incorporate the manufactur¬ 
ing of increasingly more powerful explosives and ordnance, and involved 
significant construction and land moving activities. 

The most dramatic alteration of the landscape occurred in July 1926 when 
a lightning strike caused explosions and fires at the Lake Denmark NAD. 
As a result, both PICA and Lake Denmark facilities were rebuilt based on 
newly devised procedures and building specifications. In i960, PICA in¬ 
corporated the Lake Denmark property (back) into its reservation. 

Picatinny currently houses the Headquarters of the U.S. Army Research, 
Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Armament Re¬ 
search, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC). RDECOM- 
ARDEC’s mission is “researching and developing armament and weapon 
systems for a changing Army”. 16 A major subordinate command of the U.S. 
Army Materiel Command (AMC), RDECOM is responsible for developing 
high quality weapons and munitions for US troops. 

2.4 Significance 

The National Register Criteria for Evaluation defines how historic proper¬ 
ties are significant by categorizing a property’s associations with important 
historic qualifiers. The National Register Bulletin #15: How to Apply the 
National Register Criteria for Evaluation 1 ? lists four (4) major criteria to 
which a historic property can be associated: Criterion A-important events, 
Criterion B-Persons, Criterion C-importance in design and construction, 
and Criterion D-information potential. Although there are other criteria 
considerations, the four major criteria are described in more detail below: 

A. Event— is associated with events that have made a significant contribu¬ 
tion to the broad patterns of our history; or 

B. Person— associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or 

C. Design/Construction— embody the distinctive characteristics of a 
type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a 
master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant 


16 Chugach Industries, Inc. Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan Picatinny Arsenal, New Jer¬ 
sey: 2009-2013. (Prepared for Picatinny Arsenal by Jason J. Huggan, Cultural Resource Coordinator, 
Chugach Environmental Office, Building 319 at Picatinny Arsenal, November 2008). 

17 National Park Service 1997a, 7. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


12 


and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual dis¬ 
tinction; or 

D. Information Potential—yielded, or is likely to yield, information im¬ 
portant in prehistoiy or history. 

2.5 Aspects of historic integrity 

Integrity in a cultural landscape relates to its ability to convey its signifi¬ 
cance. An integrity assessment evaluates the existence and condition of 
landscape features from a site’s period of significance, using individual 
qualities of integrity as part of the overall assessment. 


In addition to possessing historical significance, to be eligible to the NRHP 
properties must also retain sufficient physical integrity of features in order 
to convey their significance. 18 Historic properties both retain integrity and 
convey their significance, or they do not. The National Register recognizes 
seven (7) aspects or qualities of a property that define the concept of integ¬ 
rity. To retain historic integrity, a property must possess several, and usu¬ 
ally most, of these aspects. The retention of specific aspects of historic in¬ 
tegrity is paramount for a property to convey its significance. Determining 
which of these aspects are most important to a particular property requires 
knowing why, where, and when the property is significant. These aspects 
of integrity are again listed in National Register Bulletin #15: How to Ap¬ 
ply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation: 1 ? 

Location 

Location is the place where the historic property was constructed or the 
place where the historic event occurred. 

Design 

Design is the combination of elements that create the form, plan, space, 
structure, and style of a property. It results from conscious decisions made 
during the original conception and planning of a property (or its significant 
alteration) and applies to activities as diverse as community planning, engi¬ 
neering, architecture, and landscape architecture. Design includes such ele¬ 
ments as organization of space, proportion, scale, technology, ornamenta¬ 
tion, and materials. 

Setting 

Setting is the physical environment of a historic property. Setting refers to 
the character of the place in which the property played its historical role. It 
involves how, not just where, the property is situated and its relationship to 
surrounding features and open space. 


18 National Park Service 1997a, 44. 
is ibid., 44-45. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


13 


Materials 

Materials are the physical elements that were combined or deposited dur¬ 
ing a particular period of time and in a particular pattern or configuration 
to form an historic property. 

Workmanship 

Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or 
people during any given period in histoiy or prehistory. 

Feeling 

Feeling is a property’s expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a par¬ 
ticular time period. 

Association 

Association is the direct link between an important historic event or person and a 
historic property. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


14 


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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


15 


3 Administrative and Research Historic 
District 

3.1 History 

The Administrative and Research District combines two early, historically- 
related arsenal activities which are further united by one architectural 
style. During World War II, many important advances in new products or 
simplified methods of production were made at PICA in its newly con¬ 
structed labs, testing facilities, and administrative buildings. The im¬ 
portance of Picatinny’s research and development (R&D) activities grew, 
giving more emphasis to the R&D function which it would retain after the 
war. The job training methods, research projects, and improved work de¬ 
velopment originating at Picatinny, and passed along to other plants, 
saved the U.S. government more than $3,000,000 in one year. 20 

It was the massive reconstruction after the Lake Denmark NAD explosion 
of 1926, which destroyed or damaged most buildings at Picatinny, which 
resulted in the consolidation of administration and research in this area. 
The installation’s new focus on R&D was signified by the creation of 
“Chemistry Row,” a series of laboratories distinctive for their Colonial Re¬ 
vival style matching that of the post’s headquarters building. The admin¬ 
istration and research responsibilities of Picatinny ballooned during World 
War II, requiring the major expansion of existing buildings as well as new 
construction. This district was long the ceremonial center of Picatinny, and 
it remains so today. The post’s official flag staff stood in front of Building 
151 from the 1930s through 1981, and the flag now stands in front of Build¬ 
ing 1 (formerly Building 171). 21 

During the Great Depression, just at the time Picatinny was in the midst of 
a massive rebuilding effort following the nearby 1926 explosion, labor was 
provided through Roosevelt’s New Deal agencies. The Civilian Works Ad¬ 
ministration (CWA) came in 1933, followed by the Works Progress Admin¬ 
istration (WPA) from 1935 to 1939. The WPA assigned over 1,000 workers 
to the arsenal each year, with a peak of 1,903 workers in 1938, and spent 


20 Excerpt from Nolte, Kelly, and Mark A. Steinback. Definition of Historic Districts for Picatinny Arsenal, 
Morris County, New Jersey, September 1999. (For a full historic context of the Administrative and Re¬ 
search Historic District, refer to this report.) 

21 Thurber and Norman, Historic American Engineering Record, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, HAER 
ffNJ-36, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, 1983. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


16 


over $2.1 million in total. These workers built and repaired roads and rail¬ 
roads, steam lines and sewers, and magazines and factory buildings, all of 
which met real needs as well as provided jobs. The infrastructure improve¬ 
ments made it possible for Picatinny to step up to huge new demands dur¬ 
ing World War II. WPA teams worked to repair, renovate, and replace sev¬ 
eral buildings in the Administrative and Research Historic District that 
had been damaged in the 1926 explosion, including Buildings 114,115,119, 
151, and Building 1 (formerly Building 171). 22 

Some of Picatinny’s earliest buildings are in this district, but their func¬ 
tions have changed over time. Building 114, for example, was built in 1884 
as the first administrative headquarters, but was converted to officer’s 
quarters in 1912. Building 115, also dating to 1884, was a guard and fire en¬ 
gine house, housed schoolrooms during World War I, and was rebuilt as 
officers’ quarters in 1930. Building 119 started in 1887 as a shell filling 
house, was converted to a hospital during the 1917 influenza epidemic, and 
eventually also became military quarters; today, it houses administrative 
offices. 2 3 


22 Thurberand Norman 1983, 28. 

23 Harrell, Pauline Chase. Evaluation of Structures Built Prior to 1946 at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey 
(Fort Washington, MD: WCH Industries in association with Boston, MA: Boston Affiliates, Inc., 1996), E- 
72. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 17 


Figure 2.1907 map (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 3. Crop of 1920 map of Picatinny (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 

























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


18 

















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


19 



Figure 7. Cropped portion of 1984 map showing Administrative and Research Area 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



The Administrative and Research Historic District was also the Arsenal's 
earliest residential district. The first administrative headquarters (Building 
114), erected in 1884, was converted to Officer's quarters in 1912, and is 
still an officer’s residence today. This eclectic-style residence, with its 






















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


20 


stately facade, is one of PICA’s most distinctive historic buildings. Also in 
this historic district are the Commanding General’s Quarters and the Gen¬ 
eral’s residence (former Assistant Officer’s residence), both built in 1909 
(Buildings 112 and 113). The styles and sizes of these dwellings convey the 
status of their tenants and the hierarchy of post command, and their loca¬ 
tion along Farley Avenue at the end of the Picatinny golf course (a former 
parade ground) lends formality to their setting - but they also serve all of 
the functions of family homes. 2 4 

The cluster of buildings housing the new research laboratories (which be¬ 
gan construction in 1928), came to be known as “Chemistry Row.” Here, 
cutting-edge basic research on the chemistry and physics of explosives and 
propellants was conducted under the direction of Picatinny’s top scientific 
staff. Several buildings were built during 1928-1930. “The work of the Re¬ 
search Laboratories of Picatinny Arsenal forms the foundation upon which 
the entire development of propellants and explosives for the Army de¬ 
pends. Suitable equipment and housing for this equipment is essential for 
the proper performance of this work.” 2 s - from a 1928 report on new facili¬ 
ties at Picatinny The large main laboratory, home to the Chemistry De¬ 
partment of the Technical Group (former Technical Division), was promi¬ 
nently sited on Farley Avenue (Building 162). Laboratories performing 
hazardous operations were housed in separate buildings, including a high- 
explosives lab (facing Kibler Road and later incorporated into Building 
162), another chemistry lab (Building 163), and a bit further removed was 
a stability lab (Building 164) and an explosives preparation and test lab 
(Building 167). Construction was placed “on hold” during the 1930s, but 
more buildings were added during World War II, including Buildings 166 
(a propellant surveillance lab), and 168 (an ammunition and explosives 
magazine); Building 197 (a second surveillance lab) was completed shortly 
after the war’s end. 26 

PICA underwent a huge expansion during World War II as its experi¬ 
mental and peace-time levels of production ramped up to meet wartime 
demand. After the United States’ entry into the war, the work force grew to 
a peak of 17,900 in 1942, and it was highly diversified both in terms of 
technical skills and demographic profile. Thousands of women, as well as 


24 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistrict/AdministrativeResearch/index.html 

25 Quartermaster Corps. Completion Report on Construction and Completion of Buildings, Structures 
and Systems in Laboratory Area, Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ, 1928. 

26 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistrict/AdministrativeResearch/index.html 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


21 


African American and Jamaican workers, worked the production lines. 
Maintaining and running this large facility and keeping track of its work¬ 
ers vastly increased the arsenal’s administrative needs, as reflected in the 
construction of additional buildings in this historic district. At the same 
time, research and training programs were expanded. Picatinny was con¬ 
sidered the “West Point” of ordnance because of its role in training engi¬ 
neers and supervisors for the national war effort, with over 20,000 ord¬ 
nance personnel from all over the country visiting the installation for 
training during the WWII period. The arsenal also sent its staff far and 
wide to teach sampling inspection techniques and to supply technical 
plans to private industry nationwide when industry took over the bulk of 
ordnance production by the middle of the war. The arsenal’s Chemistry 
Department concentrated on explosives including the development of 
Haleite; a new gasless fuze powder for use in delay detonators; new pro¬ 
cesses for manufacturing tetryl; flashless non-hygroscopic powder for 
antiaircraft guns; and many other products. Their work ensured that Picat¬ 
inny was well-placed to lead basic research following the war. 2 ? 

During the buildup and early part of the war, the central administration 
building (Building 151) was considerably enlarged, and the main labora¬ 
tory (Building 162) was expanded and joined to the adjacent lab with an 
intervening addition. Building 1 (formerly Building 171 and originally a No. 
2 magazine that was destroyed in an explosion and later rebuilt as a lab) 
was turned into an administration building. Buildings 166,172,173, and 
174 were constructed in 1942-1943; Building 176 went up in 1944; Build¬ 
ing 167 was enlarged in early 1945; and Building 183 was completed in 
July of 1945. 28 

3.2 Landscape inventory 

To identify the prominent or distinctive characteristics that make a land¬ 
scape historic, the physical features of the site are divided into eight (8) ar¬ 
eas: site and layout, land use, expressions of military cultural values, 
transportation networks, views and viewsheds, buildings and structures, 
vegetation, and small-scale features. These characteristics of the landscape 
combine to form the built environment that is the primary image of PICA. 


27 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistrict/AdministrativeResearch/index.html 

28 Ibid. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


22 


3.2.1 Site and layout 

Farley Avenue became the epicenter of Picatinny’s research and develop¬ 
ment program during the 1930s. Building 151, the original arsenal head¬ 
quarters, stood at the nexus of the “Power Intersection” with Parker Road. 
This Colonial Revival-style building is prominently situated near an open 
area that has functioned as parade grounds, an airfield, and finally as the 
golf course. To the west are the Colonial Revival-style officers’ quarters. To 
the east are the chemistry facilities, referred to as “Chemistry Row”. 2 9 

The layout of the Administrative and Research Historic District is shown 
in Figure 8-Figure 11. 


Figure 8.1904 map showing the existing Administrative and Research District 
(outlined in green), on which buildings that are still standing are highlighted in red 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 






29 From historic marker located at the intersection of Parker Road and Farley Avenue in front of Building 
151, Picatinny Arsenal. 


























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


23 


Figure 9.1920 map showing the existing Administrative and Research District, on 
which buildings that are still standing are highlighted in red (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 






















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


24 


Figure 10. Aerial photograph of Administrative and Research Historic District, 1940. 
Note that north is at the top of this photo. (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 11. 2012 map of Administrative and Research Area Historic District with 
existing boundary line in dark red. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


25 


3.2.2 Land use 

The Administrative and Research District encompasses the historic hous¬ 
ing area, both the old and new general administration area on Farley Ave¬ 
nue and Buffington Road, and “Chemistry Row.” Current land uses are 
shown in Figure 12. 

3.2.2.1 Historic quarters 

The historic housing area has been and currently is the center of military 
housing at PICA. The quarters are clustered along Farley Avenue (called 
Mount Hope Avenue outside the Mount Hope Gate); Farley Avenue which 
appears to predate military occupation of the area. 3° Figure 13 through 
Figure 15 show historic photographs of the quarters buildings in this area. 

Figure 12. Land use map containing areas of Administrative and Research District; 
note that legend contains other areas of PICA. (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 

Legend 

Installation Boundary 
Restrictive Easements 
Administration 
Community Facilities 
Family Housing 
Industrial 
Maintenance 
Medical 
Open Space 
Outdoor Recreation 
Professional/ Institutional 
Supply/ Storage 
Surface Water 
Training 

Unaccompanied Personnel Housing 
North 

J3 _ i 

,200 2,400 4,800 

Scale in Feet 



so Harrell 1996, 27. 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


26 


Figure 13. Historic photograph of Building 112,1913 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 



Figure 14. Historic photograph of Building 114,1913 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


27 


Figure 15. Historic photograph of Building 115, circa 1940 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 


i it 



3.2.2.2 “Chemistry Row’’ 

Prior to the 1926 explosion, this area contained small-scale magazines and 
test buildings that supported powder and explosives testing and manufac¬ 
turing. The small-scale buildings were dispersed throughout the area to 
ensure safety in case of accidental explosion. After the 1926 explosion, the 
creation and construction of the administrative and research facilities in 
this area reflected a shift in the Arsenal’s focus to research and develop¬ 
ment. This area is characterized by several matching brick and cast stone 
Georgian Revival style buildings that were built after the 1926 explosion. 
The early laboratory area was also called “Chemistry Row .’^ 1 

Figure 16-Figure 25 are photographs documenting various buildings in 
this area over time. 


3i Harrell 1996, 29. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


28 


Figure 16. Historic photograph of "Chemistry Row", circa 1945 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 



Figure 17. Historic photograph of the new "Technical Building", circa 1945 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 


% 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


29 


Figure 18. Construction of Building 173,1942 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 19. Completion of Building 173,1942 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


30 


Figure 20. Historic photograph of Building 167, ca. 1940 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 




119 after late 1930s rehabilitation (PICA Cultural Resources 
Office). 

m 


Figure 21. Building 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


31 


Figure 22. Building 119 after addition of wheelchair lifts in 2010 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



Figure 23. Historic photograph of Building 151, circa 1930s (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 


















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


32 


Figure 24. Aerial view of Building 151,1970s (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 25. Aerial view of "Chemistry Row," 2013 (Bingmaps.com). 



3.2.2.3 Golf course/open space 

An installation often exhibits open spaces and on most installations, typi¬ 
cally the largest planned open landscape is the golf course. According to 
previous research, the current 18-hole golf course at PICA was completed 
in the 1950s after the purchase of the Spicertown land on the west side of 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


33 


Parker Road and south of 1 st Street. However, its architect and official start 
date of construction is not known. Nevertheless, it is known that holes 16 
and 17 were originally the site of the parade grounds. 3 2 

The first golf course at PICA was created in 1921 as a four-hole course in 
the general area of the present 16th hole. Located in front of the com¬ 
mander’s house, the course was laid out on a small area on the parade 
ground along Parker Road and Farley Avenue (Figure 26 and Figure 27). 
The Picatinny Historical Office does not have photographs on file of the 
course’s early years, except for a photograph from the late 1930s. Accord¬ 
ing to the Picatinny historian, the golf course during the late 1930s also 
served as the Arsenal’s airfield (Figure 28).33 

Within a couple years, Picatinny’s golf course expanded from a four-hole 
course to a nine-hole course. In 1925, the first tournament was held on the 
enlarged course. 34 The course remained unchanged until the late 1940s 
when improvements were made and five more holes were added to the 
course (Figure 29). In 1957, the course was completed as an 18-hole, par 
72 course and remains so today (Figure 30). At present, the Picatinny Golf 
Course is located on the edge of the Administrative and Research Historic 
District. 


32 Panamerican Consultants, Historic Building Assessment and Determination of Eiigibility for Inclusion 
in the National Register of Historic Places for Picatinny Golf Course (Buffalo, NY: Panamerican Consult¬ 
ants, Draft May 2009), 10. 

33 Ibid. 

M Ibid, 31. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


34 


Figure 26. Photo of open space in front of Quarters 112 and 113 from 1936 
Picatinny Yearbook (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 




Figure 27. Open space in front of Quarters 112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


35 


Figure 28. Historic photograph of the landing field (now the golf course) from the 
western edge of the parade field looking east (with Buildings 112 and 113 in the 
background on the left), no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


36 


Figure 29.1925 Plan of Picatinny Arsenal's nine-hole golf course (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 



Figure 30. Course layout as depicted on the Picatinny Golf Club scorecard, 2008 

(Panamerican 2009). 



































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


37 


3.2.3 Transportation networks 

When military installations are designed and built, a primary concern is 
transportation of troops, civilians, supplies, and materials on and off the 
base. Roads are usually the first items to be built. A number of early toll 
roads existed in the area around PICA and several were expanded, without 
the tolls, for use through the facility. Initially, the Army spent $481,000 on 
the construction and improvement of PICA’s roads and grounds.35 

3.2.3.1 Roads 

Early plans from 1885 for the installation featured the road junction of 
Farley Avenue and Parker Road as the heart of the installation. According 
to a Morris County Iron Mines map from 1867, Farley Avenue was the only 
one of the two roads in existence at that time (Figure 31). By 1887, Parker 
Road is depicted on maps, showing that this significant intersection and 
the layout of the historic district have been present since the beginning of 
the installation (Figure 32). 

Today, Parker Road provides access to the Administrative and Research 
District from the installation’s main entrance at Route 15. The road runs 
north-south starting at the installation boundary with the Cannon Gates 
and terminates at Farley Avenue and Building 151 (original post headquar¬ 
ters; Figure 33). The road crosses through the golf course and is lined on 
either side with a row of street trees (Figure 34). 

Farley Avenue, a major east-west artery, provides access west to the origi¬ 
nal residential, storage, and operations core as well as to the administra¬ 
tion and machine shops area. Trees and homes line Farley Avenue 
throughout the residential area, terminating at Phipps Road (Figure 35). 
Farley Avenue provides access east to the laboratory area located on its 
north side and the golf course on its south side (Figure 36). Buffington 
Road connects Farley Avenue with the north end of the installation. Cur¬ 
rently, there are more than 85 miles of paved roads within Picatinny Arse¬ 
nal. 


35 Nolte et al. Architectural Assessment of Historic Structures at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New 
Jersey (Depew, NY: Panamerican Consultants, Inc. August 1999), 102. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


38 


Figure 31. Map of iron mines in Morris County, 1867 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 32. Map from 1887 showing Picatinny Powder Depot (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 




























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


39 



Figure 33. Intersection of Farley Avenue and Parker Road from Building 151, circa 
1958 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 34. Looking north along Parker Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 

















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


40 


Figure 35. Buses at the northwest termination of Farley Avenue where it intersects 
with Phipps Road, no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 36. Sidewalk on the north side of the golf course along Farley Avenue 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


41 


3.2.3.2 Railroads 

Accessibility to a railway was a criterion for site selection for powder de¬ 
pots on the East Coast in the 1860s and 1870s. Land for the Picatinny 
Powder Depot was purchased in 1880. By 1887, 23.5 miles of track—called 
the Wharton &Northern Railroad—connected the Army depot with the 
Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad and the Dover and Central 
Railroad of New Jersey at Wharton. The track was laid out by the Morris 
County Railroad Company of New Jersey, under the terms of a nine-acre 
right-of-way granted by 99-year lease. 3 6 Rail links, both within and outside 
Picatinny Arsenal, were an essential part of its operability. 

After the 1926 explosion, the WPA workers replaced and rehabilitated the 
tracks at Picatinny.37 By 1930, the arsenal had approximately 25 miles of 
railroad tracks; 20.4 miles of standard gauge and one mile of narrow 
gauge government owned trackage, as well as three and one-half miles of 
the privately owned Wharton and Northern Railroad tracks running 
through the installation. 3 8 

The railroad system was a vital part of the mission at Picatinny, with track 
covering the largest area during World War II (Figure 37-Figure 38). After 
the war, the requirement for such extensive trackage lessened. In 1964, 
Picatinny undertook an extensive rehabilitation of the Arsenal’s railroad 
system and more than 21 miles of track was restored, reconstructed, or 
under consideration for reconstruction. Three railroad bridges (Bridges 11, 
12, and 13) and a turnout were replaced, and slightly more than three 
miles of abandoned track were removed. Some abandoned tracks became 
the bed for walking and jogging paths. 39 Most of the rail lines were ripped 
up in 1979 with the exception of those near the gate. 40 

Today portions of the railroad system are found throughout the 
Administrative and Research District (Figure 39). The earliest portions of 
the system, which ran roughly down Parker Road, are now completely 
covered in asphalt, used as walkways, or torn up to accommodate the golf 


36 Harrell 1996, E-464. 

37 Rae, John. Picatinny Arsenal, Images of America Series (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 1999), 
55-56. 

38 Harrell 1996, E-464. 

39 Nolte et al., August 1999, 103. 

40 Rae 1999, 14. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


42 


course (Figure 40-Figure 41). The railroad system is noncontributing to 
the Administrative and Research Historic District. 4 1 


Figure 37. Train taking passengers (workers) to Back Line, 1940s (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 



41 Nolte et al. August 1999, 103. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


43 


Figure 38. Train cars taking employees from the gate to the far end of the loading 
area, 1943 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


44 


Figure 40. Looking south near the intersection of 1st Street and Parker Road at the 
modified railroad track, now used as a walking path (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 41. Looking eastward near the intersection of 1st Street and Parker Road at 
the modified railroad track, now used as a walking path (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


45 


3.2.3.3 Bridges 

Bridges were an intergral part of Picatinny’s road system, which traverses 
large swampy areas. Bridge B-4 was originally constructed in 1917 as part 
of a continuing road-buiding effort Figure 42). By 1966 this small, narrow, 
poured concrete bridge was inadequate for modern traffic. A major 
widening and renovation effort was undertaken to upgrade it. Bridge B-4 
has undergone extensive alterations (shown in Figure 43), thereby 
degrading its integrity and, further, it lacks significanct historical or 
architectural merit. Bridge B-4 is noncontributing to the Adminsitrative 
and Research District. 4 2 

Although concerns for vehicular traffic are important at military 
installations, pedestrian traffic must also be considered. Large tracts of 
Picatinny are in low-lying, swampy areas. Over the years, many of these 
areas were drained and used for a number of purposes, among them 
recreation. For example, a pedestrian footbridge is located next to 
vehicular bridge B-4 and connects Building 151 and 162 (Figure 44). 

Bridge B-19 was created as a footbridge across Green Pond Brook on the 
golf couse. Several footbridges of the same type as B-19 can be found on 
the golf course. These bridges have no historical or architectural merit and 
are noncontributing to the district. 43 


42 Nolte et al. August 2009, 102. 

43 Nolte et al. August 2009, 106. 




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46 


Figure 42. Historic photograph of the stone bridge (Bridge B-4) by Building 151, circa 
1930 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 43. Current stonework for Bridge B-4; note that stonework on one side (left in 
this photo), has been replaced with concrete (ERDC-CERL, 2013), 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


47 


Figure 44. Bridge connecting Buildings 151 to 162 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



3.2.3.4 Sidewalks 

Concrete sidewalks exist throughout the historic district along Farley Ave¬ 
nue (Figure 45 and Figure 46), Kibler Road, and Buffington Roads. Walk¬ 
ways also exist connecting Building 151 to Chemistry Row. 





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48 




Figure 45. Sidewalk on the north side of the golf course looking northwest along 
Farley Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Figure 46. Sidewalk along Farley Avenue, looking northeast (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


49 


3.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions 

Military cultural traditions are reflected on military installations through 
both spatial organization and design aesthetics. The military is a unique 
culture that values hierarchy, discipline, utility, and patriotism. These ide¬ 
ologies are physically reinforced in the landscape, giving military installa¬ 
tions a distinct appearance and a sense of place that makes their design 
easily recognizable. 44 

The Administrative and Research Historic District is prominently located 
near the entrance to the installation, with the headquarters building at the 
terminus of the Parker Road. This district includes officers’ housing, recre¬ 
ation, headquarters and administration, and laboratory space. The district 
is a highly landscaped area, with rows of street trees and views of stately 
officers’ quarters and lush, green, open space provided by the golf course. 
The hierarchy so prevalent in the military is clearly evidenced in this his¬ 
toric district, the visitors’ first view of the installation. 

The main principle of military installation development was to accommo¬ 
date the mandated mission as quickly and efficiently as possible. 45 This of¬ 
ten led to a utilitarian landscape in which function was emphasized over 
aesthetics. At Picatinny, much of the installation’s 6,500 total acres are 
dedicated to the R&D of explosives and ordnance as dictated by the Arse¬ 
nal’s mission. In contrast to the Administrative and Research Historic Dis¬ 
trict, these areas are seldom landscaped and lack street trees and mowed 
lawns. Traditionally, the buildings are lacking in architectural ornamenta¬ 
tion as well. 

It is also a military tradition that the flagpole be placed in front of the 
headquarters building. The flagpole at PICA was originally located at the 
intersection of Farley Avenue and Parker Road in front of Building 151 (the 
original headquarters building, Figure 47). When the headquarters were 
moved to Building 1 in 1941 (Building 1 was formerly designated as Build¬ 
ing 171), the location of the flagpole was also moved (Figure 48). 


44 Loechl etal. 2009, 73. 

45 Ibid, 70. 




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50 


Figure 47. Historic photograph of guns and flagpole, 1913 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 






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51 


Figure 48. Flagpole near Headquarters, 1963 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



By the 1920s, a parade ground was added on the flat high area in front of 
Buildings 112 and 113 and to the side of Building 115. During the 1930s, the 
area around Farley Avenue became the epicenter of Picatinny’s research 
and development program. The new post headquarters, Building 151, 
stood at the nexus of the new power intersection at the arsenal—Parker 
Road and Farley Avenue. This gleaming, new, Colonial Revival-style build¬ 
ing looked straight ahead over a large open area that traditionally was 
open and remains open, serving as Picatinny’s golf course (Figure 49). 46 


46 Panamerican Consultants Draft 2009, 77. 








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52 


Figure 49. Golf course and open space from Parker Road, looking west towards 
Quarters 112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



3.2.5 Buildings and clusters 

After the Lake Denmark NAD explosion in 1926, the administration and 
research area was consolidated in this area. As the PICA website states, 
“The installation’s new focus on research and development was signified 
by the creation of ‘Chemistry Row,’ a series of laboratories distinctive for 
their Colonial Revival style, matching that of the post headquarters build¬ 
ing.’^ Using this architectural style gave this central area of the Arsenal 
the look of an academic institution. 

The Administrative and Research Area Historic District currently consists 
of 18 contributing and 3 noncontributing buildings and structures and 1 
object, the Middle Forge Monument, which are eligible for the NRHP un¬ 
der Criteria A and C as determined by the NJ HPCH 8 . These resources are 
listed below in Table 1. 


47 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoric Districts/AdministrativeResearch/index.html 

48 Nolte et al. September 1999, 35-37; 2015 table Picatinny Cultural Resources Office. 












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53 


Table 1. List of buildings in the Administrative and Research Area Historic District (taken from PICA real property records). 


Building 

Number 

Date Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District 
Eligibility 

Assessment Info 

Comments 

l 

1940 

Administration Building 

Administration/ Post Headquarters 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; completed 1999 

Former Building 171; many renovations, interior no longer 
historically significant 

ill 

1909 

Root Storage/ Greenhouse 

Storage/ Greenhouse 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Scheduled for demo 

112 

1909 

Commanding General's Quarters 

Family Housing General 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Entire interior is historically significant, except bathroom 
and kitchen area 

112A 

1925 

Tennis Court 

Court Area (Tennis) 

Contributing 

Completed 2009 


113 

1909 

Family Housing General 

Family Housing General 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Entire interior is historically significant, except bathroom 
and kitchen area 

114 

1884 

Administrative/ Headquarters Commanding 

Officer's Quarters 

Family Housing Colonel 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Entire interior is historically significant, except bathroom 
and kitchen area 

114A 

1937 

Garage 

Garage 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


115 

1884 

Guardhouse/ Fire Engine House/ School/ Officers' 
Quarters 

Quarters 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Majority of interior is historically significant, except 
bathroom and kitchen area; scheduled for renovation 

115A 

1943 

Garage 

Garage 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


119 

1887 

Officers' Quarters/ Fill Plant/ Hospital 

Quarters 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated and in 2010 

123 

1939 

Garage 

Garage 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


151 

1929-1941 

Post Headquarters 

Administrative Building/ General Purpose 
Administrative 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Many renovations exist; front and portions of the rear 
entrance are historically significant 

151A 

1985 

HVAC Building 

HVAC Building 

Not evaluated: not 50 years of 
age 

Not evaluated 


151M 

ca. late 1700s to 
early 1800 

Middle Forge artifacts and other various 
memorials/ monuments 

Middle Forge artifacts and other various 
memorials/ monuments 

Contributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; completed 2008 


162 

1930-1942 

Physics/ Chemistry Laboratory 

Applied 

Instrument Building 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Many renovations exist; front entrance is historically 
significant 

163 

1930 

High Explosives Research Laboratory 

Signal Photo Laboratory 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated in 2011 

17IB 

1969 

Incinerator 

Derelict 

Incinerator 

Noncontributing 

Completed 2009 

Scheduled for demo 

172 

1942 

Ordnance Administration Building 

Engineering Administration Building 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated in 2005 

173 

1942 

Guard House/ Transformer Station 

Police Station and Communication Center 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Scheduled for renovation 

174 

1942 

Sen/ice Magazine 

Administration 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


176 

1944 

Laboratory Equipment/ Sampling of Ammunition 

Administration 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated in late 1980s 

183 

1943-1963 

Steam Flow Meter House 

Non Metal Materials Facility/Administration 

Building R & D 

Contributing/ Criteria A &C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated during the early 2000s 























































































































































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


54 


(This page left intentionally blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


55 


3.2.5.1 Descriptions of contributing buildings to the Administrative and 
Research Area Historic District 

Building 1: Administration Building (completed 1940) 

The current Building l (formerly Building 171) is an extremely large, long, 
two-story brick structure that presents a relatively flat facade broken in the 
center by a front pediment, two-story porch supported by Doric columns 
(Figure 50). The long line of the roof is broken by a hexagonal cupola that 
sports a weather vane. The window features concrete sills and pediments 
and are surrounded by decorative shutters. While the start date of the 
building’s construction is uncertain, a blueprint detailing the structure’s 
front door shows that this building was in existence by June 18,1940. Por¬ 
tions of the exterior of the building are remnants of Magazine No. 2, which 
was built circa 1885. The building is approached off Buffington Road 
through an oval driveway system. 49 


Figure 50. Building 1, Administration Building/Post Headquarters (ERDC-CERL 2012). 



49 Nolte et al. August 1999, 71. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


56 


Building 111: Root Storage / Greenhouse (1909) 

Building ill is a small, one-story building, with a concrete foundation, ma¬ 
sonry bearing walls, an overhanging, gable roof with composition shingles 
and a square footprint. Concrete steps lead down into the semi-subterra¬ 
nean interior. Constructed in 1909, Building 111 served as a root house for 
the Commanding General’s House. In 1938, the building was rehabilitated 
by the WPA. The building retains original siting, massing, and construc¬ 
tion and has an enclosed wooden entry on the south side (Figure 51). 50 
This building is listed for demolition. 

Figure 51. Root storage (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



50 Ibid., 48. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


57 


Building 112: Commanding General’s Quarters (1909) 

Constructed from locally-quarried pudding stone, this Colonial Revival 
residence has a central four-square plan with adjacent, gable-front side ell. 
The house was built in 1909 and has served continuously since 1911 as the 
Commanding General’s Quarters. Building 112 is intact with limited altera¬ 
tions. It has a two-story front portico; rough-finished puddingstone facade 
with dressed pudding stone window surrounds; hipped, dormered central 
roof with flared ends; flared gables on side ell; enclosed front and rear 
porches and bay windows (side and rear elevations; and a glass-enclosed 
conservatory. Both exterior (Figure 52) and interior are richly embellished 
with decorative architectural elements. The original floor plan remains, ex¬ 
cept for alterations to the kitchen, bathrooms and enclosed porch.51 


Figure 52. East elevation of Building 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



51 Ibid., 48. (For further information please refer to the HABS/HAER Inventory card from 1982 on file NJ 
HPO.) 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


58 


Building 112A: Tennis Courts (1925) 


Building 112A is located between the two pergolas that are near Buildings 
112 and 113. The tennis court is oriented north to south, is finished with 
green asphalt surface, and surrounded with a chain-link fence (Figure 53). 
A tennis court is depicted on a golf course map from 1925 (Figure 29). The 
court is seen in its current location and configuration in aerial maps from 
1931. It is likely that the court began as a lawn court before it was covered 
with asphalt.s 2 


Figure 53. Looking north towards Building 112A, Tennis Courts (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



52 Grandine and Riggle. Historic Building Assessment and Determination of Eligibility for Inclusion in the 
National Register of Historic Places of 22 Buildings, Picatinny Arsenal, Rockaway and Jefferson Town¬ 
ship, Morris County, New Jersey. (Frederick, MD: R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc., November 
2009), 22. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


59 


Building 112B: Pergola / Picnic Shelter (1911); Demolished 

Building 112B is located north of the Commanding General’s Quarters 
(Building 112). It has six pairs of tapered square wood piers that are bolted 
onto concrete footers. The tops of the piers feature simple, square capitals. 
Two bays are open, while three bays are enclosed with square-pattern 
wood lattice (Figure 54). The piers support double-board beams that are 
bolted together along the length of the structure. The beams support raft¬ 
ers with decorative ends. Cross beams span the width of the structure at 
each end and are bolted to the piers below the capitals. A similar pergola is 
seen in the same location but with rounded piers in a 1911 photo. It is pos¬ 
sible the original structures was damaged in the 1926 explosion and was 
rebuilt on the same site.53 This structure was demolished in 2015 with 
SHPO consultation. Mitigation included completed architectural drawings 
so structure could be rebuilt in future depending on funding. 


Figure 54. View of Building 112B, pergola (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



53 Grandine and Riggle November 2009, 22,19. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


60 


Building 113: Family Housing, General (1909) 

Building 113 is a Colonial Revival structure built in 1909 of locally quarried 
pudding stone, with a shingled roof (Figure 55). Originally constructed in 
1909 as an Assistant Officer’s residence, the house was used for many 
years as a general’s residence. Building 113 remains intact with limited al¬ 
terations. The exterior walls are coursed puddingstone; the shingled 
hipped roof has flat roof dormers with central pediment (front and rear el¬ 
evations), and pedimented dormers (north and south elevations). Win¬ 
dows are double-hung and there is an oval window at the head of the 
maid’s stairway. It has an enclosed front porch, balustrade second floor 
balcony, and conservatory. Building 113 has its original floor plan, except 
for alterations to the bathroom.54 


Figure 55. East elevation of Building 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



54 Nolte et al. August 1999, 52. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


61 


Building 113A: Pergola / Picnic Shelter (ca. 1930); Demolished 

Building 113A is located north of the Assistant Officers’ Quarter (Building 
113) and is similar to the pergola near Building 112. It is possible that this 
pergola was constructed in the 1930s at the same time that pergola 112A 
was replaced. The pergola has six pairs of tapered square wood piers that 
rest directly on the ground. The tops of the piers feature simple square 
capitals. Two bays are open, while three bays have wood lattice between 
the piers (Figure 56). The piers support double-board beams that are 
bolted together along the length of the structure. The beams support raters 
with decorative ends. 55 This structure was demolished in 2015 with SHPO 
consultation. Mitigation included completed architectural drawings so 
structure could be rebuilt in future depending on funding. 


Figure 56. Building 113A (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



55 Grandine and Riggle November 2009, 22. 





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62 


Building 114: Administrative / Headquarters Commanding Officer’s Quar¬ 
ters (1884) 

Building 114 is a two-story brick building. It was built in 1884 to serve as 
the Arsenal’s administrative headquarters but was converted to officer’s 
quarters in 1912. The Commanding Officer lived here in 1937-38 while 
Building 112 was being renovated. Then in 1938-39, the WPA remodeled 
Building 114. A wooden porch that extended along the front facade was re¬ 
moved, the back porch was replaced, a chimney was removed, and an east¬ 
wing sunroom was added. The interior was also refurbished. 

Building 114 is intact with limited alterations. Its eclectic architectural 
style combines Second Empire decorative elements and proportions with 
Colonial Revival hipped and dormered roof and central projecting bow 
(Figure 57). Each facade is divided into three bays by the articulation of 
brick pilasters and recessed, corbelled panels. Remaining from the original 
structure are the steel-frame arched windows; decorative brickwork (re¬ 
cessed window surrounds and brick corbelling); and curved, central pro¬ 
jecting bay with front porch, segmented arch transom, and side lights at 
the front entrance. The structure’s 1913 interior layout is intact, with fin¬ 
ishes and woodworking dating from 1938.s 6 


Figure 57. Southwest elevation of Building 114 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



56 Nolte et al. August 1999, 52 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


63 


Building 114A: Garage (1937) 

Building 114A is a small, one-story, three-door garage for Building 114. It 
sits on a concrete foundation and has galvanized iron on a wood roof 
(Figure 58). The garage was built in 1937 in connection with other im¬ 
provements to Building 114.57 

Figure 58. Southwest elevation of Building 114A (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



57 Nolte et al. August 1999, 57. 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


64 


Building 115: Guardhouse / Fire Engine House / School / Officers’ Quar¬ 
ters (1884) 

Built in 1884 as Building No. 1, Building 115 was successively a guard 
house, a fire engine house, a school house (for Rockaway Township during 
World War I) and then officers’ quarters. It was one of the earliest admin¬ 
istrative structures built at Picatinny. However, it was damaged in the 
1926 explosion and was gutted, with most of the third floor removed. In 
the early 1930s, the third floor was rebuilt above the second story and has 
since been used for officers’ quarters. Building 115 is located at the inter¬ 
sections of Farley Avenue and Parker Road. An added gable on the front 
fagade gives extra height to the structure. Building 115 is a two-and-one- 
half-story, rectangular, pitch roof, brick building (Figure 59). 58 


Figure 59. Northeast oblique of Building 115 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



58 Nolte et al. August 1999, 57. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


65 


Building 115A: Garage (1943) 


Building 115A is a one-story, rectangular, gable roof, two-car garage 
(Figure 60) situated near Building 115. It was built in 1943 as a garage and 
is still used as such. It has a number of Colonial Revival style features in¬ 
cluding a hipped roof, common bond brick construction, and 6/6 double- 
hung windows (vinyl replacement windows per SHPO consultation). The 
building has wood sills, wood lintels, and two new aluminum roll-up gar¬ 
age doors on the north side.59 


Figure 60. Northwest oblique of Building 115A (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



59 Nolte et al. August 1999, 58. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


66 


Building 119: Officers’ Quarters / Fill Plant / Hospital (1887) 

Building 119 is a large two-and-one-half-story, T-plan building, which is 
built with brick bearing walls upon a stone foundation (Figure 61). The 
building has a pitched roof clad with asphalt shingles and is painted white. 
It was built as a shell filling house in 1887. It was converted to a hospital 
for the 1918 influenza epidemic. Although damaged in the 1926 explosion, 
it was used for temporary offices until the completion of Building 151 in 
1930. It then became enlisted quarters and a furniture storehouse until the 
1930s WPA renovation for multi-family quarters. It was previously used 
for military housing, but is now used for administration of Army Commu¬ 
nity Services and contains the Chaplain's office. Building 119 retains its 
original siting, massing, and construction, including brick exterior walls 
and 6/6 wood sash windows (recently replaced with SHPO concurrence). 

A number of minor changes appear to have been introduced ca. 1940, in¬ 
cluding new concrete stair platforms, new concrete water table, and new 
garage doors at the rear. 60 More recent changes include wheelchair lifts 
added in 2010, fencing along Farley Avenue, and sidewalk upgrades. 


Figure 61. Southeast oblique of Building 119 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



60 Nolte et al. August 1999, 59. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


67 


Building 151: Post Headquarters (1929-1941) 

Building 151 is a large, two-story plus basement, red brick, hip roof, Id- 
plan building. The front (south) “I” portion of the building was built in 
1929 as the major Administration Building at Picatinny Arsenal. Two lin¬ 
ear additions were built to the north in 1941 by Francisco and Jacobus, Ar¬ 
chitects and Engineers of New York and Chicago, giving the building its 
present H-plan configuration. The building is still used for administrative 
and office use. Building 151 retains original siting, massing, and most of it 
is original construction. Important Colonial Revival architecture features 
include Flemish bond patterning in the brickwork, limestone quoining at 
the corners, a formal plan with symmetrical composition, central pavilion 
at the front entrance, front portico, Colonial Revival style lanterns (front 
and back), “PICATINNY ARSENAL” sign in Roman block letters, orna¬ 
mented Classical pediment in the front pavilion, hipped roof, and six-over- 
six windows (Figure 62). The 1941 additions were sympathetic to the origi¬ 
nal in design and style, setting a precedent that allowed for further expan¬ 
sion in the future. The building has recently had some alterations to its 
original roof profile, as well as insertion of replacement windows with 
filler panels and snap-in mullions. 61 Other recent changes include new 
doors (to match historic doors), awnings over side doors with lighting, and 
solar lights currently being installed in parking lot (black poles to blend 
with the other existing poles). 


Figure 62. Southwest elevation of Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



61 Nolte et al. August 1999, 59. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


68 


Building 162: Physics / Chemistry Laboratory (1930-1942) 

Building 162 is a large, H-shaped building with one-, two-, and three-story 
sections. It is in the Georgian style, with a concrete foundation, brick walls, 
and hipped roofs (Figure 63). It was built in 1930, and the link and rear 
additions apparently date from 1942. It was renovated in 1980. Building 
162 is mostly intact, except for some features changed in the 1980 rehabili¬ 
tation. The building had brick quoins and cast stone entrance surrounds, 
string courses, keystones, cornices, and pediment. The sills are cast con¬ 
crete, and the flat arches are brick. The many chimneys are brick with cast 
stone capping. The stairs at each of the four side entrances are granite with 
iron railings (currently being replaced), with lantern lights hanging in 
front of some of the entrance doors. The entrance screen at the main en¬ 
trance appears to be glazed cast iron. Replacements include asphalt shin¬ 
gles to the roof (originally slate). Metal windows (probably double-hung 
wood, originally), anodized aluminum entrances doors, concrete stairs at 
the main entrances, and a two-story metal addition on the front left-hand 
side. 62 


Figure 63. South elevation of Building 162 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



62 Nolte et al. August 1999, 61. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


69 


Building 163: High-Explosives Research Laboratory (1930) 


Building 163 is a two-story, hip-roofed, brick building with stone trim and 
details (Figure 64). It was built in 1930 as a chemistry laboratory building 
and was recently used as a photographic laboratory; its new use is admin¬ 
istration. Building 163 retains original siting, massing, and construction. 
Significant Colonial Revival-style architectural features include the formal, 
symmetrical composition; Flemish bond brick exterior; hipped roof; six- 
over-six replacement windows; double exterior granite stairways; wrought 
iron replacement railings with brick repointing; and stone keystones. 6 3 


Figure 64. Southeast elevation of Building 163 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



63 Nolte et al. August 1999, 63. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


70 


Building 164: Chemistry / Stability Laboratory (1930); Demolished 

Building 164 was built during 1928-30 as part of the Arsenal's rehabilita¬ 
tion project following damage from the 1926 explosion. Like the other 
buildings of “Chemistry Row,” it was designed in the Colonial Revival 
style, featuring a symmetrical facade, hipped roof, Flemish bond brick¬ 
work, brick quoins at the corners, copper gutters and flashing, six-over-six 
windows, splayed lintels, a formal Georgian pedimented front door (Figure 
65). In addition, the building had a granite sill on the south side and a 
wrought-iron stair railing on the west side. The east and west sides each 
had a door and three windows, and a concrete exterior stairway and fourth 
door were located on the north side. The large front (south) room con¬ 
tained a lab bench with a continuous fume hood along the west side and a 
lab table in the center. The sample preparation room was behind this room 
at the northwest corner of the building. A third room, containing a sink, 
had no access to the other rooms and was entered from the east side exte¬ 
rior door. 6 4 It was demolished recently per consultation with the NJ HPO. 


Figure 65. Southwest elevation of Building 164 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



64 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/AdministrativeResearch/Photolnven- 

tory/Morelnformation/Nol64.html 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


71 


Building 166: Test Conditioning Chamber (1943); Demolished 

Building 166 was designed in 1941 and built in 1943, during the wartime 
expansion of research facilities at Picatinny. The 1941 plans called for a 
second structure identical to Building 166 (to be Building 197), which 
would eventually be built adjacent to Building 166. Like its neighbors on 
what would come to be called “Chemistry Row,” Building 166 was designed 
in the Colonial Revival style (though somewhat simpler overall). The de¬ 
sign features a symmetrical fagade, Georgian door surrounds on both the 
front and rear doors, Flemish bond brickwork, and hipped roof (Figure 
66). The east and west fagades (front and rear) had central doorways with 
windows to each side. The interior consisted of control rooms at front and 
rear, connected by a narrow passageway with four windows along one side 
of the building and a large, central space containing four self-contained, 
double-walled, circular surveillance chambers with reinforced concrete 
ceilings, each with its own entrance. 6 s It was demolished recently per con¬ 
sultation with the NJ HPO. 

Figure 66. Southeast oblique of Building 166 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 




65 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/AdministrativeResearch/Photolnven- 

tory/Morelnformation/Nol66.html 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


72 


Building 167: High-Explosives Preparation and Test Laboratory (1930); De¬ 
molished 

Building 167 (originally Building 256) was an experimental preparation 
and testing laboratory for explosives, designed in 1928 as part of the Arse¬ 
nal's rehabilitation project following the 1926 explosion and completed in 
1930. The style was Colonial Revival to match its neighboring buildings 
and featured a symmetrical south facade with a Georgian door surround, 
hipped roof, Flemish bond brickwork, brick quoins at the corners, copper 
gutters and flashing, and six-over-six windows. A1938 remodeling in¬ 
cluded an addition to the structure, and the proportions and scale were 
further altered when the building was enlarged around 1948. The design 
was fairly faithful to the original style, with the new north bay on the street 
fagade matching the original one, though the ridged hipped roof was not 
carried across (Figure 67). In 1951, the building was repurposed to func¬ 
tion as a nuclear chemistry research laboratory, due to the United States 
having entered the Cold War era and Picatinny turning to innovative, 
high-tech research. New ventilation stacks protruded from the original 
roof line, but otherwise the exterior was little changed. 66 It was demol¬ 
ished recently per consultation with the NJ HPO. 


Figure 67. Southeast oblique of Building 167 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



66 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/AdministrativeResearch/Photolnven- 

tory/Morelnformation/Nol66.html 



















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


73 


Building 168: Ammunition and Explosives Magazine (1930) Demolished 

Building 168 was constructed in 1930 as an ammunition and explosives 
magazine. It was a one-story, pitch-roofed, concrete and hollow clay tile 
building with corrugated asbestos-covered metal roofing and concrete 
foundations (Figure 68). It contained five small storage chambers, which 
were separated into two areas by concrete, blast-resistant, divider wall. 

The building had five metal vents on the roof, concrete loading docks on 
each end (north and south), and was separated from others buildings to 
the north and east by a V-shaped barricade constructed of vertical tele¬ 
phone poles and vertical board siding, attached by wood framing. 6 ? The 
building was located in the area north of the row of chemical laboratories 
that front to Kibler Road. It was demolished recently per consultation with 
the NJ HPO. 


Figure 68. Look north at Building 168 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



67 Nolte et al. August 1999, 70. (For more information please refer to the HABS/HAER documentation on 
Building 168 available at the Library of Congress.) 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


74 


Building 172: Ordnance Administration Building (1942) 

Building 172 is a two-story building and basement, with a concrete founda¬ 
tion, structural steel frame encased in concrete, brick walls, and a hipped 
roof. It was built in 1942 by Francisco and Jacobus, Architects and Engi¬ 
neers of New York and Chicago, as an ordnance administration building, 
and it continues to be used for administrative purposes. Building 172 is 
mostly intact. The building has a concrete foundation, a structural steel 
frame encased in concrete forming piers and beams, brick spandrels and 
panels, and metal windows with cast stone sills (Figure 69); the hipped 
roof is covered with asphalt shingles, and there are two copper-clad dor¬ 
mer vents front and back. The front entrance stairs are concrete, with iron 
railings and standard lamps topped with eagles. The handicap walkway, 
rear wheelchair lift, and the awning were installed in 2008. Modifications 
to the original building include aluminum entrance doors, anodized alumi¬ 
num windows, metal gutters and downspouts, and a metal entrance can¬ 
opy at the basement entrance. The interior has been renovated. 68 


Figure 69. East elevation of Building 172 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



68 Nolte et al. Augustl999, 71. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


75 


Building 173: Guard House / Transformer Station (1942) 

Building 173 is a two-story, flat-roofed, concrete structure which occupies 
a central position at Picatinny Arsenal. Building 173 was built in 1942 as a 
transformer station. It was later used as a fire station, before Picatinny Ar¬ 
senal acquired the Navy property. It currently is used both as a police sta¬ 
tion (main building) and a communications center (concrete block addi¬ 
tion on the east side). Building 173 retains original siting, massing, and 
construction (Figure 70). The building has a large, concrete block addition 
on the east, three small additions on the west, and a group of new HVAC 
chillers on the north. Many of the original windows openings have been 
filled in with concrete panels. Many of the original wood elements (sash 
windows and doors) have been replaced with aluminum doors and win¬ 
dows. 6 9 


Figure 70. Southeast oblique of Building 173 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



69 Nolte et al. August 1999, 75. 

























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


76 


Building 174: Service Magazine (1942) 

Building 174 was built in 1942 as a service magazine. It is an eleven-bay 
building with a concrete foundation, load-bearing brick and hollow tile 
construction, covered with metal siding (Figure 71). There are replacement 
doors and windows and a gable roof. While recently used for administra¬ 
tive offices, it is currently vacant and awaiting funds for renovation. Build¬ 
ing 174 retains original siting, massing, and construction. There are 
wooden eaves with ventilated soffits. One end elevation is gabled; the 
other is hipped. 7 ° 


Figure 71. East elevation of Building 174 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



70 Nolte et al. August 1999, 75. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


77 


Building 176: Laboratory Equipment / Sampling of Ammunition (1944) 

Building 176 is a single-story building with nine bays, load-bearing brick 
walls laid in common bond, and concrete block additions with vinyl siding. 
There are replacement windows, a central doorway, and a gabled roof. It 
was built in 1944 as a laboratory and for sampling batches of ammunition. 
Additions were built in 1959,1961, and 1962. The building is now used for 
administration. Building 176 retains its original siting, massing, and con¬ 
struction (Figure 72). There is no longer a wooden walkway connecting 
Building 176 to Building 1 (formerly Building 171). 7 1 


Figure 72. East elevation of Building 176 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



71 Nolte et al. August 1999, 78. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


78 


Building 183: Steam Flow Meter House (1943) 


Building 183 is a combined building of an older one-story section and 
newer, T-shaped, two-story section; both sections have brick walls and ga¬ 
ble roofs. The older section of Building 183 was built in 1943 as the Steam 
Meter Flow House with an addition in 1963 (designed by Lawrence Picone 
and Associates of Metuchen, New Jersey). The building is now used as a 
materials facility and for administrative purposes. The older section of 
Building 183 is a Georgian style with a concrete foundation, brick walls, 
six-over-six double-hung replacement sash windows, brick sills and sol¬ 
dier-course lintels, and a gable roof covered with asphalt shingles (Figure 
73). The east facade has two sets of double wood doors with five-light rec¬ 
tangular transoms; the west facade had a central entrance with double 
wood doors topped with a semicircular fanlight, all set in a pedimented en¬ 
trance bay. The newer section of the building has brick walls, metal win¬ 
dows with soldier brick lintel and concrete sills, spaced similarly to those 
on the original building, and a gable roof. A metal stairway leads to the up¬ 
per doorway in the gable end.? 2 The building was fully renovated in the 
early 2000s and in 2010, when a handicap access and a pushbutton door 
were added. 



Figure 73. Southeast elevation of Building 183 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


72 Nolte et al. August 1999, 78. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


79 


Building 197: Laboratory and Test Building (1945); Demolished 

Building 197 was designed in 1941 but was not built until 1945. It was es¬ 
sentially identical to Building 166 except for its shingle roof. Like its earlier 
neighbors at “Chemistry Row,” Building 197 was designed in the Colonial 
Revival Style (though somewhat simpler overall), featuring a symmetrical 
facade, Georgian door surrounds on both front and rear doors, Flemish 
bond brickwork, and a hipped roof. The front and rear facades had central 
doorways with windows to each side (Figure 74), and the longer side walls 
had four windows each. The interior consisted of control rooms at front 
and rear connected by a narrow passageway with four windows along one 
side of the building, and a large central space containing four self-con¬ 
tained, double-walled circular surveillance chambers with reinforced con¬ 
crete ceilings, each with its own entrance. 73 It was demolished recently per 
consultation with the NJ HPO. 


Figure 74. East elevation of Building 197 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



73 www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/AdministrativeResearch/Photolnven- 

tory/Morelnformation/Nol97.html 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


80 


Steam distribution system 


The steam distribution system is a network of metal or asbestos-protected 
metal (APM) conduit that run above and below ground from the power 
plants throughout PICA. A centralized system of steam throughout Picat- 
inny Arsenal and the Lake Denmark NAD provided a source of heating and 
allowed production facilities throughout the installation to use pressurized 
steam as a sparkless form of energy. The steam was created as a by-prod¬ 
uct of electricity production at the Power Plant (Building 506), built in 
1906 and the Boiler House (Building 3013), built in 1901. Water from Pi- 
catinny Lake was heated, and the resulting steam forced through turbines 
to produce energy. Pressurized steam was then sent to production facilities 
via conduit. On site buildings were fitted with pressure-reducing valves 
and steam-powered equipment, which reduced the risk of explosion. Over¬ 
all, the Steam Distribution System consists of a network of conduit, sup¬ 
porting structures, and pressure-reducing valves. Most of the system that 
was visible has been replaced, but there are remnants of an earlier system 
of conduit supported on cast stone pier such as the example in Figure 75- 
Figure 77.74 A map of steam lines is shown in Figure 78. 


Figure 75. Steam line infrastructure, center, behind Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



74 Harrell 1996, E-465. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


81 


Figure 76. Steam line infrastructure between Buildings 197 and 178, which has been 
removed since this photo was taken (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 77. Steam line infrastructure behind Building 1 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


























































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


82 


Figure 78. Picatinny Arsenal steam line location map, no date (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 




























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


83 


3.2.5.2 Noncontributing structures in the Administrative and Research 
Historic District 

There are currently three noncontributing structures within the Adminis¬ 
trative and Research Historic District boundary; they are listed in Figure 
79 - 


Figure 79. Noncontributing structures in the Administrative and Research Historic 
District Boundary (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 




Building 151A - HVAC Building (1985) (PICA, 2011). 


Building 123 - Garage (1939) (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Building 171B - Incinerator (1969) (ERDC-CERL, 
2012 ). 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


84 


3.2.6 Vegetation 

Vegetation is a characteristic of the landscape that has a relationship to 
land-use patterns. Differences in vegetation patterns can delineate bound¬ 
aries, land-use areas, and natural areas such as streams or ravines. In the 
military context, how vegetation is used may connote ceremonial, residen¬ 
tial, training, or industrial areas. For example, residential neighborhoods 
are often the most heavily planted areas on military installations, while 
open spaces allow for gatherings or training. Additionally, prominent sup¬ 
port buildings such as headquarters, chapels, hospitals, and officers’ clubs 
tend to have more decorative landscaping than utilitarian buildings such 
as motor pools, flight lines, and the warehouse and shop areas. Because 
pests, disease, and death are inherent in vegetation over time, the study of 
historic landscapes looks at continuity in terms of design, style, material, 
and form. 

In the 1885 plan for Picatinny Arsenal (Figure 80), street trees were de¬ 
picted on all the streets featured. While not all the proposed streets were 
constructed, street trees were planted throughout the administration and 
research area, especially up Parker Road from the entrance gates (Cannon 
Gates). Today, street trees exist in the administration and research area, 
most heavily along Farley Avenue, Parker Road, and one side of Buffington 
Road. There are also remnants of the same age trees up and down Farley 
Lane. These trees were historically oak (Figure 81), replaced with Norway 
Maple trees, probably in the 1960s. 

A root cellar and orchard were built behind Quarters 112 and 113 during 
their construction from 1909 to 1911. Coincidently, a grid of planted trees 
is depicted in the same location on an early 1883 plan for the installation 
(Figure 82), even though Quarters 112 and 113 were not planned during 
this first phase of construction. Review of the early maps does not show an 
orchard marked, so the orchard is dated by the construction date of the as¬ 
sociated root cellar. Only thirteen or so of these trees remain, and most are 
in poor condition (Figure 84). A tall row of mature cedar trees separates 
the quarters from the orchard, root cellar, and the dirt Orchard Lane. A 
tall row of cedars also separates the rear yards of the quarters from the golf 
course (Figure 84). It is assumed that the cedar trees were added for pri¬ 
vacy in the 1960s, when the golf course expanded to the south. 

Historically, landscaping would have depended on building use. Figure 
85-Figure 86 show foundation plantings located along the front facades of 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


85 


the Farley Avenue quarters, and Figure 87 shows more intensive plantings 
located in front of the historic quarters (Quarters 112,113,114, and 115), 
depicting the hierarchy of rank inherent in the military. However, all the 
quarters along Farley Avenue and Farley Lane have some plantings (at 
least evergreen shrubs) along the front facades (Figure 88). A row of 
cherry and crabapple trees is located along Larned Terrace, separating 
Quarters 112 and 113 from the golf course and former parade ground 
(Figure 89). A list of the landscape plants found at Picatinny is shown in 
Table 2. 

In contrast, “Chemistry Row” along Kibler Road does not have any founda¬ 
tion plantings. As laboratory space and utilitarian buildings, these histori¬ 
cally would not have had shrubs and planting beds, only grass. The same 
lack of landscaping would have applied to Building 174 as a magazine. The 
new buildings added in the 1940s, and those converted to administrative 
space (Building 1,119,162,172,176, and 183) all have some foundation 
plantings today (Figure 90). Building 173 has no foundation plantings, 
only ornamental trees planted in front. Building 151, as a headquarters, 
would have historically had showy, formal plantings. A good example of 
formal plantings is the traffic oval and evergreens in front of Building 1 
(Figure 91). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


86 



Figure 80.1885 Plan for US Powder Depot showing heavily planted street trees along 
Parker Road and Farley Avenue (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 

























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


87 


Figure 81. Historic photograph of an oak tree near Building 117, circa 1905 (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 82.1883 proposed plan for “U.S. Powder Depot," with note, “This plan has 
been changed. See plan approved 1885.” (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


88 


Figure 83. Orchard area behind Building 34 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 84. Row of cedar trees behind Quarters 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). Five of these 
were lost during Hurricane Sandy in 2013. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


89 


Figure 85. Shade trees line Farley Road in the Administrative and Research Area 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 86. Another view of shade trees lining Farley Road in the Administrative and 

Research Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


90 




Figure 88. New flower beds in front of Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Jr**, 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


91 



Figure 89. A row of cherry and dogwood trees separates the golf course and the 

quarters (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Figure 90. Historic photo of typical tree wells for tree protection on north side Building 
172,1943 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


92 


Figure 91. Evergreen shrubs planted around flagpole in front of Building 1 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


93 


Table 2. List of landscape plants found at Picatinny Arsenal (Picatinny NRMP). 


Landscape Plants 

Common Name 

Scientific Name 

Grasses 

Redtop 

Agrostis alba 


Kentucky 31 Tall Fescue 

Festuca arundinacea 


Creeping Red Fescue 

Festuca rubra 


Japanese Blood Grass 

Imperata cylindrica var 'RED 
BARON' 


Perennial Ryegrass 

Lolium perenne 


Giant Chinese Grass 

Miscanthus floridulus 


Maiden Grass 

Miscanthus sinensis var 
gracillimus 


Switchgrass 

Panicum virgatum 


Fleavy Metal Grass 

Panicum virgatum var ’HEAVY 
METAL' 


Dwarf Fountain Grass 

Pennisetum alopecuroides var 
'HAMLEN' 


Kentucky Bluegrass 

Poa pratensis 




Groundcovers 

Moonbeam Grass 

Coreopsis sp? var 'MOONBEAM' 


Crown Vetch 

Coronilla varia 


Ivy Varieties 

Hedera spp. 


Japanese Creeper 

Parthenocissus tricuspidata 


Pachysandra 

Pachysandra terminalis 


Periwinkle □ 

Vinca minor 




Trees 

Maple 

Acer spp. 


Birch 

Betula spp. 


Hickory 

Carya spp. 


Atlas Cedar 

Cedrus atlantica 


'Kousa' Dogwood 

Cornus chinensis var ’KOUSA’ 


’Scarlet 1 Plawthorn 

Crataegus laevigata var ? 


Ash 

Fraxinus spp. 


Ginkgo 

Ginkgo biloba 


'Sunburst 1 Locust 

Gleditisia tricacanthos var inermis 


American Holly 

Ilex opaca 


Goldenchain Tree 

Laburnum x watereri 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


94 


Landscape Plants 

Common Name 

Scientific Name 


American Larch 

Larix laricina 


Magnolia 

Magnolia spp. 


Flowering Crabapple Varieties 

Malus sp? var ? 


Dawn Redwood 

Metasequoia glyptostroboides 


Colorado Spruce 

Picea pungens 


Norway Spruce 

Picea abies 


'Roster' Blue Spruce 

Picea glauca 


Dwarf Alberta Spruce 

Picea glauca var ’CONICA' 


Serbian Spruce 

Picea omorika 


Austrian Pine 

Pinus nigra 


White Pine 

Pinus strobus 


Scotch Pine 

Pinus sylvestris 


Japanese Cherry Varieties 

Prunus serrulata var ? 


Douglas Fir 

Psuedotsuga taxifolia 


Pear 

Pyrus spp. 


Oak 

Quercus spp. 


Willow 

Salix spp. 


Mountain Ash 

Sorbus spp. 


Arborvitae Varieties 

Thuja occidentalis var ? 


Littleleaf Linden 

Tilia cordata 


Plemlock 

Tsuga canadensis 


American 'Liberty' Elm 

Ulmus americanus var libertas 




Shrubs 

Serviceberry (a.k.a. Shadblow) 

Amelanchier spp. 


Azalea Varieties 

Azalea spp. 


Barberry 

Berberis spp. 


Common Boxwood 

Buxus sempervirens 


Flowering Quince 

Chaenomeles japonica 


Summersweet 

Clethra spp. 


Rock Cotoneaster 

Cotoneaster horizontalis 


Cryptomeria 

Cryptomeria spp. 


Slender Deutzia 

Deutzia gracilis 


Burning Bush 

Euonymus alatus 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


95 


Landscape Plants 

Common Name 

Scientific Name 


Forsythia 

Forsythia x intermedia 


Rose-Of-Sharon 

Hibiscus syriacus 


Hydrangea Varieties 

Hydrangea spp. 


Japanese Holly 

Ilex crenata 


Juniper Varieties 

Juniperus spp. 


Mountain Laurel 

Kalmia latifolia 


Privet 

Ligustrum spp 


Sweet Mockorange 

Philadelphus coronarius 


Andromeda 

Pieris japonica 


Mountain Andromeda 

Pieris floribunda 


Flowering Almond 

Prunus glandulosa 


White Fountain Weeping Cherry 

Prunus subhirtella 


Weeping Higan Cherry 

Prunus subhirtella var pendula 


Scarlet Firethorn 

Pyracantha coccinea 


Rhododendron Varieties 

Rhododendron spp. 


Spiraea Varieties 

Spiraea spp. 


Common Lilac 

Syringa vulgaris 


Yew Varieties 

Taxus spp. 


Viburnum Varieties 

Viburnum spp. 


Village Green Zelkova 

Zelkova serrata 




Vines 

Wisteria 

Wisteria floribunda 


3.2.7 Small-scale features 

Small-scale features are found throughout the Administrative and Re¬ 
search Historic District and help define the character of the cultural land¬ 
scape. Developed in association with the roadways, buildings, and the oc¬ 
cupancy of the site, these features often reflect the influence of the period 
in which they were added. Many of these miscellaneous small-scale fea¬ 
tures’ character and feel contribute to the cultural landscape of the district, 

3.2.7.1 Cannon Gates and wall 

Cannon Gates located at the main entry on the south side of PICA (Figure 
92). Cannon Gates provided an appropriate entrance for the initial plan of 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


96 


the Picatinny Powder Depot that included storage magazines, stable, fore¬ 
man’s quarters and office, engine house, store, shop, and other sites 
planned for future buildings. 75 The Cannon Gates were manufactured by 
the Cornell (NY) Iron Works in 1885 and used a heavy cannon mounted on 
stone foundation as the post for the wrought-iron gates. The gate insignia 
is the badge of the Ordnance Corps. The gates are bordered by a 3 ft stone 
wall (Figure 93), but two entrances break up the wall - one for the tracks 
of the Wharton & Northern Railroad and Picatinny’s rails, the other for a 
road paralleling the tracks. The road went to a former housing area, Spic- 
ertown, along Parker Road that today is just a wooded area. 7 6 Gates were 
widened when the three lane entrance road was built 1941. The wall was 
rebuilt using the existing stone with matching mortar in 2012. The wall be¬ 
hind the Gunpowder Grill is dry-laid, as was the original wall prior to be¬ 
ing moved. 


Figure 92. Cannon Gates (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



75 Harrell 1996, E-49. 

76 Rae 1999, 11. 























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


97 


Figure 93. The west portion of the stone wall adjacent to Cannon Gates 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



3.2.7.2 Monuments 

The Middle Forge Monument and memorial (151M) is located within the 
landscaped area of the Administrative and Research Historic District and 
in front of Building 151 at the intersection of Parker Road and Farley Ave¬ 
nue (Figure 95 and Figure 96). It was previously located in front of Build¬ 
ing 114 adjacent to the golf course, in almost the same location as 114M 
(discussed below). The monument is an Army memorial that commemo¬ 
rates the history of the Middle Forge with a display of eighteenth-century 
ironworking tools. ?? The forge and tools in the monument were recovered 
at the actual Middle Forge site which was operational from 1749 toi88o 
near Picatinny Peak. The Middle Forge supplied ordnance material to the 
Continental Army during the American Revolution. The monument is first 
seen in a 1912 photograph as configured in Figure 94 at a location that is 


77 Chugach Industries 2008, 5-23. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


98 


unknown, but could be the former parade ground/golf course location. Re¬ 
mains of the actual Middle Forge still exist as a remote archaeological site 
at the outlet of Picatinny Lake. 

Monument 114M is located on the north side of the former parade grounds 
along Farley Avenue (Figure 97). It is a memorial to all employees, military 
personnel, and retirees of Picatinny, date June 1984. Monuments 153M 
and 154M are located in front of Building 161 on either side of the Middle 
Forge Monument (Figure 98). They are Civil War-era, six-pound Napoleon 
cannons from Frankford Arsenal which was located in northeast Philadel¬ 
phia. Field cannons were used by the U.S. Artillery until 1868. This type of 
gun was the most common Army field piece used during the Mexican- 
American War and at the start of the Civil War. It is unknown when they 
were moved to this location but they have been at PICA since 1911 when 
they were relocated from Rock Island Arsenal. 

Since monuments and memorials can be moved around the landscape, 
they are typically not eligible unless they were added to the landscape dur¬ 
ing the period of significance. Dates should be established as to when these 
monuments were added to the landscape. Since the Middle Forge Monu¬ 
ment is significant to the area as well as to the establishment of PICA and 
the cannons have been at PICA since 1911, justification can be made that 
they are tied to the historic district. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


99 


Figure 94. Middle Forge Monument in a 1912 photograph at an undocumented, 
unknown location (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


100 


Figure 95. Current location of the Middle Forge Monument (151M) in front of Building 
151. Monument’s configuration and base have changed with new location. 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


101 



Figure 96. Close view of Middle Forge Monument (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


102 


Figure 97. Monument 114M, located on sidewalk adjacent to Farley Avenue (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 




Figure 98. One of the two cannons that comprise Monuments 153M and 154M, 
located in front of Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


103 


3.2.7.3 Flagpole 

The flagpole is a significant feature within the historic district (Figure 99- 
Figure too). It is also a military tradition that the flagpole be placed in 
front of the headquarters building. The flagpole at PICA was originally lo¬ 
cated at the intersection of Farley Avenue and Parker Road in front of 
Building 151 (the original headquarters building). When the headquarters 
was moved to Building 1 (formerly Building 171), the location of the flag¬ 
pole was also moved. 


Figure 99. Flagpole in front of Building 151 (original headquarters building), no date 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


104 


Figure 100. View of the flagpole in front of Building 1 (current headquarters) 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



3.2.7.4 Historic marker 

A historic marker for the NRHP-eligible historic district is used to identity 
and highlight significant areas (Figure 101). The marker allows for military 
and civilian personnel and installation visitors to be more aware of the in¬ 
stallation’s historical heritage and to ensure the long-term preservation of 
its significant areas. The marker was funded by the Environmental Affairs 
Division of PICA and produced by Lake Shore Industries of Erie, Pennsyl¬ 
vania. Text was developed by Cultural Resources Manager (CRM), 

NJ HPO, and the Morris County Heritage Commission. The marker was 
put in place in 2012. 















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


105 


Figure 101. Historic marker identifying the Administrative and Research Historic 

District (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



historic district 
- (CIRCA .1880-1945) 

FARI EY AVENUE BECAME THE.EPICENTEU OF 

pS«VS research and development 
PROGRAM DURING THE 1930V.^OUU-OINCI 15L 
theoricinal arsenal headquarters, stood 
at THE NEXUS OF THE "POWER INTERSECTION 
NITH PARKER ROAD. THIS COLONIAL REVIVAL- 
STYLE BUILDING IS PROMINENTLY SITUATED 
NEAR AN OPEN AREA THAT HAS FUNCTIONED 
AS PARADE GROUNDS. AN AIRFIELD, AND FINALLY 
AS THE GOLF COURSE. TO THE WEST ARE THE 
COLONIAL REVIVAL OFFICER'S QUARTERS: TO THE 
EAST ARE THE CHEMISTRY FACILITIES. IT CONTINUES 
TO BE A STATEMENT OF THE POWER OF THE ARMY 
TO DRIVE PAST THE CANNON GATES AND TOWARDS 
BUILDING 151. 


3.2.7.5 Miscellaneous features 

Other miscellaneous features around the historic district include railings, 
posts, street lamps, granite posts, and stone and brick garage door openers 
(Figure 102-Figure 105). 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


106 


Figure 102. Original cast-iron handrails located in Chemistry Row in the 
Administrative and Research Historic District (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 103. Garage door openers embedded in post located behind Quarters 112 

and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


107 


Figure 104.Granite post along west side of Farley Ave by former parade grounds 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 105. Various styles of lamp posts found throughout the Administrative and 
Research Area Historic District (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



3.2.7.6 Antiterrorism force protection features 

In 2009, planters and large boulders were added along Buffington Road in 
front and along the sides of Buildings 172,173, and 174 to comply with An¬ 
titerrorism Force Protection (ATFP) requirements (Figure 106-Figure 
107. Remote-controlled drop gates were also added for access to the front 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


108 



and rear of Building 173. These are not historic features, and there is no 
precedent in the historic district for such materials. 


Figure 106. Force protection planters in front of Building 172 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Figure 107. Force-protection boulders that are located near Buildings 172,173, 
and 174 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


109 


3.2.8 Views and vistas 

Cultural landscapes are a relatively new field of inquiry, and as a conse¬ 
quence, the idea of documenting and preserving historically-planned views 
and viewsheds is also a new idea in landscape studies. Views and 
viewsheds are intentionally designed features in a landscape. Although 
they are intangible, physical encroachment on them significantly alters the 
aesthetics of the design. 

Views and viewsheds are created by landscape-scale physical elements. In 
the process of identifying and evaluating historic views and viewsheds, the 
historic physical elements are compared with the contemporary site con¬ 
text. 




Viewshed: Viewshed refers to all visi¬ 
ble elements that can be seen from a 
certain viewpoint. Viewsheds are both 
external and internal. External 
viewsheds are those with views from 
viewpoints outside of PICA, while inter¬ 
nal viewsheds are viewpoints from 
within base grounds. 

View: A scene or vista that can be seen 
when looking in one direction standing 
at a certain viewpoint. 

Viewpoint: is the exact point where a 
person is standing when looking at a 
view. 


A map of the significant view at PICA is shown in Figure 108 and further 
discussed in the subsection that follows. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


110 


(This page intentionally left blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


111 



Figure 108. Map of significant views in the Administrative and Research Historic District (ERDC-CERL). 


LEGEND 


ExistingHistoric District 

Proposed Historic District 

Contributing Structure/Eligible 

Non-Contributing Structure/Not 
Eligible 

Visual Effect Buffer Zone 


















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


113 


3.2.8.1 Significant views within Administrative and Research Historic District 

Views and viewsheds are contributing features to a historic district. The 
following view have been identified as contributing elements to Adminis¬ 
trative and Research Historic District, based on historic photos and cur¬ 
rent integrity. 

1. View toward Cannon Gates 

2. Views north and south along Parker Road 

3. View Of Headquarters (Building 151) 

4. Views along Farley Avenue 

5. View across golf course to Quarters 112 and 113 

6. Views of Former Headquarters (Building 1) 

7. Views along “Chemistry Row” 

8. Views along Buffington Road 

3.2.8.1.1 View towai'd Cannon Gates 

The Cannon Gates have been at their current location on either side of 
Parker Road at the intersection with 1 st Street and Buffington Road since 
1885. These gates have been the symbol of the arsenal in photographs and 
documents over the years and have served as the historical entrance to the 
installation. The current main entrance with guard gates today is farther 
south from the Cannon Gates. This view, as well as gate and wall location, 
has changed over time because the road has been widened, First Street was 
added, and the railroad removed-all to accommodate more and more ve¬ 
hicular traffic. The loss of street trees also affects the integrity of this view. 
Figure 109-Figure 113 show the historical and current views toward Can¬ 
non Gates. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


114 


Figure 109. View toward Cannon Gates, 1908-1940 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


115 


Figure 110. View toward Cannon Gates, 1940s (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 111. View toward Cannon Gates prior to removal of railroad in 1979 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


116 


Figure 112. View toward Cannon Gates after removal of railroad in 1979 (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 113. Current view toward Cannon Gates, looking north from outside the 
installation’s boundary (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


117 


3.2.8.1.2 Views north and south along Parker Road 

Parker Road has been the historic entrance corridor to the installation. 

The street trees, first noted on plans from the 1880s, are an important fea¬ 
ture of this viewshed corridor as is the open space (now the golf course) on 
either side of the street (Figure 114-Figure 116). Daily installation traffic 
over the years has been rerouted away from this road, preserving Parker 
Road’s scale, width, and intersection at Farley Avenue within the historic 
district. 


Figure 114. Looking north up Parker Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


118 



Figure 115. Looking south down Parker Road, just past Farley Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 


Figure 116. Another view looking farther south down Parker Road just after Larned 

Terrace (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


119 


3.2.8.1.3 View of Headquarters (Building 151) 

The former Headquarters building, built in 1929, is prominently sited at 
the intersection of Parker Road with Farley Avenue, the terminus of the 
entrance road (Figure 117). Building 151 served as the installation’s head¬ 
quarters until 1941, but today is an administrative building. The Middle 
Forge Monument (151M) and Civil War-Era cannons(i53M and 154M) are 
prominently displayed in front of the building; parking is visible on the 
sides of the building but is mostly hidden behind the building (Figure 118). 


Figure 117. View north on Parker Road looking at Building 151 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



Figure 118. Looking north from Farley Avenue at the south elevation of Building 151 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 






















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


120 


3.2.8.1.4 Views along Farley Avenue 

Farley Avenue has been historically the site of officers’ quarters and ad¬ 
ministration buildings. Much care has been taken to preserve the historic 
architecture, street trees, open space, sidewalks, and views along this road. 
The road has only been widened slightly over the years, but the flagpole 
has been moved and the circle lost in front of Building 151 after it was no 
longer serving as Headquarters. Portions of the sidewalks have been re¬ 
placed over time for safety purposes and do not match color or styles of 
prior sidewalks. Yellow truncated domes at the edge of the sidewalks at 
certain intersections were added in 2011. 

In addition, Building 162 occupies a prominent position on Farley Avenue 
in the former Chemistry Row area. The building’s Georgian style is carried 
consistently throughout all sides of the H-shaped structure, and the land¬ 
scaped lawn with large trees adds to the dignified public appearance of 
Farley Avenue. ? 8 The flowering trees and other vegetation in front of 
Building 162 most likely date from the 1980 renovations. 

Figure 119-Figure 126 present historic and contemporary photos of these 
views. 


78 Nolte et al. September 1999, 63. 




mm 


ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


121 


Figure 119. Historic photograph of the flagpole, circa 1905 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


122 


Figure 120. View from Building 151 of intersection of Farley Avenue and Parker Road, 
ca. 1958 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


123 


Figure 121.1971 view of the flagpole (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


124 


Figure 122. View looking southeast at the intersection of Parker Road and Farley 

Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 123. View looking west along Farley Avenue from the intersection with Parker 

Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


125 


Figure 124. Looking east along Farley Avenue from in front of Quarters 114 (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 



Figure 125. Looking east along Farley Avenue from the intersection of Buffington 

Road (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


126 


Figure 126. View of Building 162 looking north from Farley Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 

2013). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


127 


3.2.8.1.5 View across golf course toward Quarters 112 and 113 

The golf course is sited on a “large open space area that has supported a 
number of military activities, including a parade ground and landing 
field.”79 The open space of the golf course has historically been maintained 
as an open space throughout the installation’s history, especially in front 
of Quarters 112 and 113 (Figure 127-Figure 130). This parcel of the golf 
course has been linked to the district and the quarters during the entire 
period of significance, first as a parade field, second as the first four holes 
of the golf course, and third as visual open space. 


Figure 127. Photo of open space in front of Quarters 112 and 113, taken from the 
1936 Picatinny Yearbook (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



79 Nolte et al. Draft May 2009, 81. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


128 


Figure 128. View from Parker Road, looking west across open space of the golf 
course towards Quarters 112 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 129. View looking west from open space of the golf course towards 
Buildings 112 and 113 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 


















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


129 



Figure 130. View from the Building 112 looking east towards the golf course (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 


3.2.8.1.6 Views of Building 1 (former Building 171) 

Building 1 anchors the northern end of the district and serves as a focal 
point off Buffington Road at 9 th Street. The building is approached from 
Buffington Road through an oval driveway system with the installation 
flagpole in the center. The oval entrance was added in 1970s but historic 
views still exist along 5 th Street. 

Figure 131-Figure 134 show the historic and current building elevations 
and views associated with Building 1. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


130 


Figure 131.1940s historic photograph of the east elevation of Building 1 (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 132. East elevation of Building 1 (Headquarters) (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


131 


Figure 133. Looking south towards Building 1 along 5th Street (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



Figure 134. Looking north towards Building 1 along 5th Street (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


132 


3.2.8.1.7 Views along “Chemistry Row” 

The views along “Chemistry Row” are characterized by: closely-set build¬ 
ings adjacent to Kibler Road that are of Georgian and Colonial Revival 
style architecture and brick in material (Figure 135-Figure 139). A side¬ 
walk lines the road, with neatly mowed strips of lawn as the only vegeta¬ 
tion in front of the buildings. There are some shade trees on the east side 
of Kibler Road, adjacent to parking, which appear in historic photographs 
below. Building 163 is virtually identical to the north portion of Building 
162 which stands parallel and nearby on the south; both are prominent 
structures in the historic “Chemistry Row.” 


Figure 135. Historic photograph of view towards Building 167,1943 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


133 


Figure 136. Historic photograph of "Chemistry Row," ca. 1945 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 



Figure 137. Chemistry Row, looking north showing the east sides of Buildings 167 
(left) and 197 (right) along Kibler (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


134 


Figure 138. Looking south along Kibler Road in Chemistry Row (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 




Figure 139. Looking south on 5 th Avenue in Chemistry Row area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


135 


3.2.8.1.8 Views of Buffington Road 

Views along Buffington Road include Buildings 119,172,173, and 183, with 
each building in a different architectural style. Some street trees are pre¬ 
sent along Buffington Road, but many have been lost and not replaced. 
Force-protection barriers, planters, and boulders are visible in front and 
along the sides of Buildings 172 and 173, breaking up the streetscape 
somewhat. 

Figure 140-Figure 142 present various views related to Buffington Road. 


Figure 140. Aerial view looking north at the buildings along Buffington Road and 

"Chemistry Row”. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


136 


Figure 141. Looking north down Buffington Road from intersection at Farley Avenue 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 




Figure 142. Looking south along Buffington Road (Building 183 is on the right) 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


137 


3.3 Landscape evaluation 

Landscaping, like plants and trees, are very fluid elements of a historic 
property and district, and they have constantly changed over the years so 
that obviously, most of the original landform features and plantings his¬ 
torically part of Picatinny Arsenal have been removed or added to over 
time. Original site features at least 50 years of age and retaining their orig¬ 
inal condition should be repaired or replaced in kind. These features in¬ 
clude but are not limited to: curbing and sidewalks, benches, fountains, 
stone walls, fences, lanterns and post lights, and posts, pillars and gates. 
Some of the sidewalks have been replaced over the years, but it is their 
placement (not their materials) that is important to the historic district. 
Individual features in a property’s landscape should never be viewed in 
isolation, but rather in relationship to their surrounding setting and over¬ 
all fabric. 80 

New plantings and landscaping should be in keeping with the original de¬ 
sign intent for the facility. Historic maps and site plans of individual struc¬ 
tures may serve as a guide to determining historic configurations. Mature 
plantings should be maintained to the extent possible; where replacement 
is necessary, it should be done in species matching the original. 

3.3.1 Historic significance 

The Administrative and Research Historic District combines two, early, 
historically-related arsenal activities, which are further united by one ar¬ 
chitectural style. During World War II many important advances in new 
products or simplified methods of production were made in PICA’s newly 
constructed labs, testing facilities, and administration buildings. Thus, the 
importance of Picatinny’s R&D activities grew and gave more emphasis to 
this R&D function, an importance which PICA would retain after the war. 
For example, in one year the job training methods, research projects, and 
improved work developments originating at Picatinny and passed along to 
other plants saved the United States more than $3 million. 81 

3.3.2 Integrity 

Street trees: Originally, the street trees were oak (Figure 143); currently 
they are Norway Maple (Figure 144). To maintain the historic character of 


80 Chugach Industries 2008, 6-16. 

81 Nolte et al. August 1999, iii. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


138 


the historic district, the street trees along Farley Avenue, Parker Road, and 
Buffington Road (ideally, Farley Lane as well) should be replaced when¬ 
ever they have been removed due to poor condition (Figure 145-Figure 
146). It is recommended that they be replaced with a native oak species 
that does well in the area—one with no pest or disease problems and a tol¬ 
erance to road salt. Removal and replacement should be spaced in time to 
best maintain a consistent canopy. 


Figure 143. Looking west along Farley Avenue from Parker Road, 1944 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


139 


Figure 144. Looking west down Farley Avenue at the tree-lined street 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 145. A tree located along Farley Avenue that is tagged for removal should be 
replaced with a native oak tree (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


140 


Figure 146. An example of a damaged or dead tree in the historic district that should 
be replaced (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Orchard and root cellar area: Only a few apple trees remain in the or¬ 
chard located behind Quarters 113 and adjacent to the root cellar. Those 
trees that do remain are in poor condition and are deteriorating (Figure 
147). Existing trees should be maintained or mitigated with NJ HPO. 


Figure 147. Left: 1938 photograph showing a corner of the apple orchard (website). 
Right: current condition of apple trees in the orchard (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


141 


Cannon Gates and wall: Street trees along Farley Avenue were removed 
during projects to widen the street and intersection (Figure 148); the trees 
should be replaced in this area to maintain the historic character of the 
area surrounding the Cannon Gates. Wall visible by motorists has been re¬ 
paired along First Street (Figure 149). Weeds should be removed south of 
gate and wall Figure 150). 


Figure 148. View looking north from outside the installation toward Cannon Gates 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


142 




Figure 150. Stone wall that extends west from Cannon Gates along First Street 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


143 


Street lamps: Many different street lamp styles exist throughout the his¬ 
toric district (Figure 151). A single style should be chosen for consistency. 

Figure 151. Various styles of replacement street light fixtures are located in the 
Administrative and Research district (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Vegetation: A consistent palate of plants and mulching types is needed 
throughout this historic district. A cohesive plan is needed for removal and 
replacement of the vegetation in the historic district (Figure 152). 



Figure 152. Replacement planting and mulch (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Steam lines: While the vegetation needs to be cleared and removed off and 
around exposed and elevated steam lines in the historic district, these lines 
are no longer in use(Figure 153 and Figure 154. These lines will be docu¬ 
mented in whole as part of this report, and their removal will be completed 
as part of the Real Property Master Plan and Facility Reduction Program 
(FRP) Programmatic Agreement (PA). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


144 


Figure 153. Fallen tree damaging elevated steam line near Building 154 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 154. Overgrown vegetation around the steam lines in the Administrative and 
Research Historic District (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


145 


3.3.3 Character-defining features 

The National Park Service defines historic character-defining features of a 
landscape as “prominent or distinctive aspects, qualities, or characteristics 
of a cultural landscape that contribute significantly to its physical charac¬ 
ter”. 82 Through the study of landscapes, the built environment is explained 
by the physical remains of the natural and cultural shaping forces. The his¬ 
toric districts of Picatinny are significant because they describe the adapta¬ 
tion of the built environment to the cultural values and the educational 
and military mission of Picatinny. Understanding the factors that influ¬ 
enced and composed the landscape informs the preservation of its historic 
qualities. 

The character-defining features of PICA are landscape features that were 
part of the initial design, present throughout the period of significance as 
established in the National Register nomination, and continue to be evi¬ 
dent in the district today. In Table 3, character-defining features of the Ad¬ 
ministrative and Research Historic District are listed along with summar¬ 
ies of their historical significance and integrity and indication of NRHP 
eligibility. 


82 Birnbaum and Peters 1996, 4. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


146 


Table 3. Character-defining features within Administrative and Research Historic 

District at Picatinny Arsenal. 


Character-Defining 

Features 

Historical 

Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Circulation and 
roadways 

The road system, 
planned in 

1880s, provides 
the layout of the 
Administrative 
and research 

area 

• Parker Road still provides 
entrance from south 

• Farley Avenue still 
provides entrance from 
east 

• Street widths 

• Farley Avenue vehicular 
bridge adjacent to Building 
151 retains some 
stonework; railing and one 
side replaced 

Yes 

Parade Field/Golf 
Course 

Historically a 
parade ground, 
then a golf 
course in the 
1920s 

• Views toward Quarters 

112 and 113 

• Mature trees 

• Open space 

Yes 

Headquarters 

Prominently 
located at the 
terminus of 
entrance road 
(Parker Road). 

• Location still prominent; 
surrounded by officers’ 
quarters 

• Mature street trees 

• Flagpole removed 

• Parking lots added, but to 
rear of building out of view 

Yes 

“Chemistry Row” 

Row of brick 
Georgian and 
Colonial Revival 
style buildings 
along Kibier Road 

• Architecture retains 
integrity 

• Massing of buildings and 
laboratories 

• Setbacks, cluster of 
buildings retains integrity 

• Some buildings slated for 
demolition 

Yes 

Officers’ quarters 

Officers’ quarters 
along Farley 
Avenue part of 
1880s layout and 
design 

• Varied styles of housing 

• Consistent setbacks, yard 
size, masses 

• Vegetation: foundation 
plantings, shade, and 
ornamental trees 

• Views along streets 

• Relationship to 
headquarters and 
administration space 

Yes 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


147 


Character-Defining 

Features 

Historical 

Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Monuments and 
memorials 

Monuments and 
memorials 
significant to 
military culture 

• Consistently located in 
prominent and ceremonial 
locations of old 
headquarters and former 
parade ground. 

Yes 

Flagpole 

Flagpole was 
originally located 
in front of the 
Headquarters 
buildingduring 
the period of 
significance. 

• Moved to current location 
in the 1970s, when 
Headquarters building 
location was changed. 

No 

Orchard and root 
cellar 

Root cellar was 
built at same 
time as Quarters 
112 and 113: 
most likely that 
the orchard dates 
to this time as 
well. 

• Orchard planted in a grid 
in line with Farley Avenue 
and Quarters 112 and 

113. 

• Only a few trees remain; 
those that remain in poor 
condition. 

Yes 

Cannon Gates and 
associated wall 

Built in 1885. 

Has served as 
historic entrance 
to the installation 
and symbolic 
image of 
installation 
through the 
years. 

• Gates widened overtime, 
no longer in historic 
locations 

• Roads widened 

• Street trees missing 

• Portions of wall need 
restoration 

Yes 

Street trees 

Street trees 
depicted in 

1880s plans for 
the depot 

• Some street trees are in 
need of replacement 

• Species not the same as 
original 

Yes 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


148 


Character-Defining 

Features 

Historical 

Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Vegetation 

Presence of 

vegetation 

around 

historically and 

culturally 

significant 

quarters and 

administration 

buildings 

• The presence of 
foundation plantings (may 
include replaced 
vegetation of same 
character) for historic 
quarters and Buildings 1, 
119, 151, 162, 172, and 
173 where historically 
verified. 

• Ornamental trees used 
around historic district 
(aged 50 years of age and 
those trees that replaced 
trees 50 years or older). 

Yes 

Tennis courts 

Built in 1925 for 
the officers’ 
quarters, 

Buildings 112 
and 113 

• Lighting and backstop 
added 

Yes 

Views and 
viewsheds 

Eight significant 
views identified 
around 

administration 
and research 

area 

• Loss of some street trees 

• Road widening at Cannon 
Gates 

• ATFP planters in front of 
Buildings 172 and 173 

Yes 

Steam lines 

Steam lines 

existed 

historically 

throughout 

installation 

• In disrepair and slated for 
removal 

Yes 

Street lamps 

Historic street 
lamps add to the 
character of the 
district 

• Many different styles exist 

• Only those 50 years or 
older are eligible for NRHP 

Yes 


3.3.4 Final determinations 

On July 2,1999, the NJ HPO ruled that the Administrative and Research 
Historic District was eligible under Criteria A and C. The district’s historic 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


149 


context is: World War I; the Inter-War era, World War II mobilization; 
World War II; and the Cold War. 8 s 

The findings of this report propose to extend the Administrative and Re¬ 
search Historic District boundary to include Parker Road, the rows of 
street trees on either side of the road, and the Cannon Gates. This tree- 
lined street, as proposed in 1885 during the initial design of the installa¬ 
tion, is a character-defining feature of the historic district. The historic 
gates and the tree-lined street serve as an entrance corridor to the installa¬ 
tion, and they have been documented in historic photographs over the 
years. 

Picatinny is currently observing a visual buffer boundary, based on the 
recommendation by Panamerican Consultants, that the golf course be in¬ 
cluded as a contributing element of the historic district as a “large open 
space area that has supported a number of military activities, including a 
parade ground and landing field.” The NJ HPO concluded, in a letter dated 
24 March 2010, that the submitted documentation did not provide suffi¬ 
cient justification for altering the boundary at this time, and they asked for 
further consultation. Specifically, they requested additional research to 
clearly demonstrate the linkages between the district’s areas of signifi¬ 
cance, the installation’s period of significance, and the historic develop¬ 
ment of the open space within the recommended boundary extension. 8 4 

This report agrees with the Panamerican Consultants report that the open 
space created by the golf course contributes to the district (Figure 155). A 
historic photograph of the airfield exists (see Figure 28), although no maps 
noting the airfield were located during this research. The open space of the 
golf course and the street trees along Parker Road have long served as the 
formal entryway of the installation. Given the role that open space has 
played in the history of the installation, and the fact that the course is in¬ 
advertently included in the Administrative and Research Historic District, 
the portion of the golf course north of 1 st Street, as an open space, should 
be considered a contributing element to the historic district. In addition, 
the inclusion of this open space within the existing historic district will 


83 Nolte et al. Draft May 2009, 79. 

84 New Jersey Historic Preservation Office, letter to Picatinny Cultural Resources, 24 March 2010. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


150 


connect it to the historically significant Cannon Gates. The proposed dis¬ 
trict enlargement would include these three important landscape features. 

This report proposes that, at the least, the original site of the parade 
ground (currently part of the golf course) be added to the historic district. 
This area is clearly defined by the historic roads—Parker Road, Farley Ave¬ 
nue, and Larned Terrace—as boundaries. This area has been maintained 
as visual open space over the years and is a crucial character-defining fea¬ 
ture of the historic district. Historically, parade grounds were the heart of 
military installations both in terms of their prominent locations at the cen¬ 
ter of historic post and cantonment designs and as formal ceremonial 
spaces. This parcel of the golf course has been inextricably linked to the 
district and the quarters during the entire period of significance—first as a 
parade field (Figure 156), second as the first four holes of the golf course 
(Figure 157), and third as visual open space (Figure 158). While the north¬ 
ern half of the golf course is associated open space to the historic district, 
the historic parade ground also holds some historical ceremonial signifi¬ 
cance beyond visual open space. 


Figure 155. Open space being used as a golf course (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 









Figure 157. Map of early golf course, 1920s 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


152 


Figure 158. Open space of the golf course is in the center of the photo, taken from 

Picatinny Peak (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Also included in the historic district should be the orchard and root cellar 
located in the backyards of Quarters 112 and 113 (Figure 159). This garden 
area is a historic landscape feature associated with the quarters. The re¬ 
maining trees are in declining health but should be maintained. While 
other current vegetation behind Quarters 112 and 113 visually separates 
the quarters’ “rear yards” from this garden landscape, much of this vegeta¬ 
tion was most likely a result of the increase in size and development of the 
golf course during the 1950s and 1960s, so it does not fall within the pe¬ 
riod of significance of the district and is not contributing (Figure 160 and 
Figure 161). Although the noncontributing vegetation serves as a separa¬ 
tion between the root cellar and the orchard, those areas are still an im¬ 
portant character-defining feature. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


153 



Figure 159. Root cellar (Building 111) and orchard located behind Building 112 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Figure 160. Row of trees behind Building 112 was added after the period of 
significance (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


154 


Figure 161. Open space in the backyards behind quarters, Buildings 112 and 113 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Lastly, it is proposed that the historic district should extend along Farley 
Avenue to Farley Lane. The street trees along Farley Avenue clearly con¬ 
nect this area with the historic district. While the quarters in this section of 
Farley Avenue have previously been determined to lack architectural in¬ 
tegrity, the houses, the road, and the tree-lined character all date from the 
period of significance. It is possible these same street trees continued 
down Farley Lane at one time based on available stump size (Figure 162). 
However, since these trees are not visible on available historic maps and 
the quarters have been determined to lack significance and/or integrity, 
Farley Lane has not been included in the historic district. 

In addition, Buildings 108 and 117, while outside the current historic dis¬ 
trict, are clearly seen on early historic maps and it is recommended that 
they be reevaluated for eligibility based on their historic significance and 
dates of construction. Building 108, which dates to 1882, was the original 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


155 


storehouse (Figure 163). Circa 1922 it was converted for use as a school- 
house before becoming quarters in 1936. It was recommended as contrib¬ 
uting in earlier assessments 8 ^. 

Building 117 was originally built as a stable, coach house, wagon shed and 
scale house (Figure 164). Later it was used as a storehouse, as noted in a 
1931 publication. In 1937, a sun porch was added on the south end of the 
building, and it was assumed converted to quarters at this time. It was also 
recommended as contributing in earlier reports 86 .If determined contrib¬ 
uting, these two historic buildings from the start of the arsenal would cre¬ 
ate the northern boundary of the historic district. The southern boundary 
would be Building 119, the former shell filling house, and the eastern 
boundary would be the Cannon Gates, all from the same period of con¬ 
struction. 


Figure 162. Looking north down Farley Lane at quarters and street trees 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



85 Harrell 1996, E-56. 
as Ibid., E-69. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


156 


Figure 163. View of front and northwest facades of Building 108, former storehouse 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 




Figure 164. View of front of Building 117, former stables (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 




























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


157 


This historic district extension will add six additional noncontributing 
buildings to the historic district; Building 100, Officers’ Quarters (1939); 
Building 102, Officers’ Quarters (1939); Building 109, Officers’ Quarters 
(1939); Building 110, Former Superintendent’s house now Visitors’ Quar¬ 
ters (ca. i860); Building 127, Officers’ Quarters (1939); and Building 128, 
Garage (1939). The same streets trees along Farley Avenue continue in 
front of these quarters linking them with the rest of the historic district. 
However, in front of most of these quarters (Buildings 100,102,109,110 
and 127) are two large evergreen Spruce trees planted to either side of the 
front walk (Figure 165). In addition, most of these quarters have low ever¬ 
green foundation plants along the front and side facades. 

It is also recommended that these quarters (Buildings 100,102,109, and 
127), all built during the period of significance, be re-evaluated since they 
are a contributing part of the Historic District landscape. Previous reports 
have stated that these buildings are non-contributing since they were built 
during WWII. Since these are not temporary structures, they are not eligi¬ 
ble under the WWII Programmatic Agreement. This applies to the two 
garages (Buildings 123 and 128) as well. 


Figure 165. Spruce trees planted in front of Building 102, Officers’ Quarters (ERDC- 

CERL, 2013). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


158 


For the Administrative and Research Historic District, new construction 
must conform with a similar and in-kind design to the surrounding archi¬ 
tectural style. For example, new structures being built, within or adjacent 
to the Administrative and Research Historic District, should conform with 
brick construction and be patterned similar to major contributing sur¬ 
rounding buildings (e.g., Buildings l, 151,162, and 183), including scale 
and massing. If new housing is to be constructed, depending on location, it 
should conform to surrounding architectural styles of current housing. 

The simplest means of preserving landscape features and plantings is re¬ 
placement in-kind or with similar types of plants, if feasible. Replacements 
should be selected from an approved palate of plant materials consisting of 
pest-free and disease-free species that are hardy to the region and climate. 
The replacement of shrubs, herbaceous or woody plants or perennials, and 
even small deciduous trees with a different variety or exotic species in 
their place should involve coordination with the CRM and ideally be com¬ 
pleted within a NJHPO-approved plan or palate of materials. Any refor¬ 
mation or change to manicured lawns and the surrounding landscape fea¬ 
tures, replacement of sidewalks, installation of exterior lighting, fencing, 
and realigning of cul-de-sacs and road patterns within historic districts 
should involve coordination with the CRM and consultation with NJHPO. 
Overall, foundation plantings and landscaping should not overwhelm a 
property, nor conceal or obscure its primary facades or the properties ad¬ 
jacent to it. 8 ? 

Several smaller buildings along Chemistry Row were recently demolished 
(Figure 166). Loss of these buildings affects the integrity of this area as 
well as the viewsheds. Any replacement buildings should be of consistent 
mass, style, craftsmanship, and materials to the remaining buildings. 


87 Chugach Industries 2008, 6-16. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


159 


Figure 166. Buildings 167 and 197 located in the Chemistry Row area of the district 
have been recently demolished. (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



With the proposed district boundary expansion to include the Cannon 
Gate and Parker Road, the former parade ground, and the housing to Far¬ 
ley Lane, the final determination concludes that the district should include 
20 contributing buildings, io noncontributing buildings, 4 objects. Table 4 
below provides a list of the contributing and non-contributing buildings 
after the proposed district boundary expansion. 

Maps in Figure 167 depict the existing boundary and the proposed bound¬ 
ary for the Administrative and Research Historic District. 





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160 


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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


161 


Table 4. Proposed list of buildings in the Administrative and Research Area Historic District after historic district expansion (taken from PICA real property records). 


Building 

Number 

Date Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District 

Eligibility 

Assessment Info 

Comments 

l 

1940 

Administration Building 

Administration/ Post Headquarters 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; completed 1999 

Former Building 171; many renovations, interior no longer 
historically significant 

100 

1939 

Officers' Quarters 

Quarters (Col) 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Slated for demo; SHPO completed via final programmatic 
agreement (PA), signature May 2010. Should be re-evaluated since 
it was built during period of significance and it not covered under 
WWII PA. Contributes to Historic District landscape. 

102 

1939 

Officers' Quarters 

Quarters (Col) 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Should be re-evaluated since it was built during period of 
significance and it not covered under WWII PA. Contributes to 

Historic District landscape. 

108 

1882 

Storehouse/ Schoolhouse / Quarters 

Quarters (LC MJ) 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


109 

1939 

Officers' Quarters 

Quarters (MJ) 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Should be re-evaluated since it was built during period of 
significance and it not covered under WWII PA. Contributes to 

Historic District landscape. 

110 

Ca. 1860 

Superintendent’s House 

Distinguished Visitor’s Quarters/ Guest 
Quarters 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Potential Wiggins homestead. 

111 

1909 

Root Storage/ Greenhouse 

Storage/ Greenhouse 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Scheduled for demo 

112 

1909 

Commanding General's Quarters 

Family Housing General 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Entire interior is historically significant, except bathroom and 
kitchen area 

112A 

1925 

Tennis Court 

Court Area (Tennis) 

Contributing 

Completed 2009 


112B 

1911 

Pergola / Picnic Shelter 

Pergola / Picnic Shelter 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2009 

Scheduled for demo 

113 

1909 

Family Housing General 

Family Housing General 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Entire interior is historically significant, except bathroom and 
kitchen area 

113A 

Ca. 1930 

Pergola / Picnic Shelter 

Pergola / Picnic 

Shelter 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2009 

Scheduled for demo 

114 

1884 

Administrative/ Headquarters 
Commanding Officer's Quarters 

Family Housing Colonel 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Entire interior is historically significant, except bathroom and 
kitchen area 

114A 

1937 

Garage 

Garage 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


115 

1884 

Guardhouse/ Fire Engine House/ 
School/ Officers' Quarters 

Quarters 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Majority of interior is historically significant, except bathroom and 
kitchen area; scheduled for renovation 

115A 

1943 

Garage 

Garage 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


119 

1887 

Officers' Quarters/ Fill Plant/ Hospital 

Quarters 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated and in 2010 

123 

1939 

Garage 

Garage 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Should be re-evaluated since it was built during period of 
significance and it not covered under WWII PA. Contributes to 

Historic District landscape. 

127 

1939 

Officers' Quarters 

Quarters (Col) 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Should be re-evaluated since it was built during period of 
significance and it not covered under WWII PA. Contributes to 

Historic District landscape. 

128 

1939 

Garage 

Garage 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Should be re-evaluated since it was built during period of 
significance and it not covered under WWII PA. Contributes to 

Historic District landscape. 

151 

1929-1941 

Post Headquarters 

Administrative Building/ General 

Purpose Administrative 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Many renovations exist; front and portions of the rear entrance are 
historically significant 




















































































































































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


Building 

Number 

Date Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District 
Eligibility 

151A 

1985 

HVAC Building 

HVAC Building 

Not evaluated: not 50 years of age 

151M 

ca.late 

1700s to 

early 1800 

Middle Forge artifacts and other 
various memorials/ monuments 

Middle Forge artifacts and other various 
memorials/ monuments 

Contributing 

153 Mand 

154 M 

1868/ 

1911 

Civil War Era Cannons 

Monuments in front of Building 151 

Not evaluated; 

162 

1930-1942 

Physics/ Chemistry Laboratory 

Applied 

Instrument Building 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

163 

1930 

High Explosives Research Laboratory 

Signal Photo Laboratory 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

17IB 

1969 

Incinerator 

Derelict 

Incinerator 

Noncontributing 

172 

1942 

Ordnance Administration Building 

Engineering Administration Building 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

173 

1942 

Guard Flouse/ Transformer Station 

Police Station and Communication 

Center 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

174 

1942 

Service Magazine 

Administration 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

176 

1944 

Laboratory Equipment/ Sampling of 
Ammunition 

Administration 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

183 

1943-1963 

Steam Flow Meter Flouse 

Non Metal Materials Facility/ 
Administration Building R & D 

Contributing/ Criteria A &C 

1100M 

1885 

Cannon Gates 

Cannon Gates 

Contributing/ Criteria A &C 







75040 


1880s 


Parade Ground/Golf Course 


Golf Course 


Contributing/Criteria A & C 


Assessment Info 

Comments 

Not evaluated 


Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; completed 2008 


Potentially Eligible 

Transferred to PICA from Rock Island in 1910 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Many renovations exist; front entrance is historically significant 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated in 2011 

Completed 2009 

Scheduled for demo 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated in 2005 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Scheduled for renovation 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 


Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated in late 1980s 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; reevaluated 1994; completed 1999 

Gutted and renovated during the early 2000s 

District should be expanded to include gates and street trees 
along Parker Road. 

Have been moved out from original location overtime, still at same 
intersection. 


District should be expanded to include section of golf course as 
defined by Parker Road, Farley Avenue, and Lamed Terrace. 


Should be maintained as visual open space. 





































































































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


163 


Figure 167. Comparing the existing boundary line for the Administrative and Research historic district (left) and the proposed district boundary line for the Administrative and Research Historic District (right). 



















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


164 


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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


165 


4 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic 

District 

4.1 History 

The 6oo Ordnance Testing Area Historic District 88 (1928-1948) was con¬ 
structed after the 1926 Lake Denmark NAD explosion and several other 
accidents that destroyed the arsenal’s cannon blenders. The complete 
planning of this area in 1928 was carried out by the Engineering Depart¬ 
ment of the arsenal with the assistance of the US Army Quartermaster and 
outside contractors. 

World War II blueprints show that structure designs were created by The 
War Plans Division, Ordnance Department, Picatinny Arsenal. These fa¬ 
cilities were built to withstand shock and blast from indoor testing of mili¬ 
tary explosives. No similar grouping of explosive testing-related structures 
is known to exist at any other former industrial arsenal. 8 9 

PICA conducted a significant number of testing operations. All testing re¬ 
lated to the sensitivity, brisance, stability, rapidity of reaction, energy con¬ 
tent, and type of intensity of the initial impulse of explosives conducted in 
the 600 Area. This testing involved not only the manufacture of arma¬ 
ments but most importantly, the research and development of most types 
of ammunition (except machine guns). 9° Testing was a critical part of the 
weapons R&D work carried out at Picatinny, and was a service provided to 
other military branches, other Army installations, and private industry. 
These tests define properties which military explosives must possess. 

The portion of the 600 Area that makes up the historic district includes a 
wide range of specialized structures. Some of the components tested in 
this area historically were Ml and M3 flashless, non-hydroscopic cannon 


88 Referred to in short name as “600 Area.’’ 

89 From the historic marker located at the entrance into the 600 Area off 20 th Avenue. 

90 Nolte et al. September 1999, 82. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


166 


powders; bomb fuses; artillery fuses, boosters and grenades; and pyrotech¬ 
nic devices. 9 1 

4.2 Landscape inventory 

To identify the prominent or distinctive characteristics that make a land¬ 
scape historic, the physical features of the site are divided into eight areas: 
site and layout, land use, expressions of military cultural values, transpor¬ 
tation networks, views and viewsheds, buildings and structures, vegeta¬ 
tion, and small-scale features. These characteristics of the landscape com¬ 
bine to form the built environment that is the primary image of PICA. 

4.2.1 Site and layout 

The 6oo Area is located on a ridge above Picatinny Lake and lies on the 
slope beneath Picatinny Peak on the north side of the Arsenal (Figure 171). 
For safety following the explosion of 1926, ordnance and testing was 
moved to this location due to its relative isolation. All of the major indoor 
ordnance test facilities were located in one area immediately off 20th Ave¬ 
nue^ 2 Farther along the ridge are a series of isolated ranges for test firing 
guns (both barrel tests and shell flight tests), testing armor-piercing shells 
and bombs, and testing anti-personnel weapons.93 

Various views of the 600 Area site are shown in Figure 168-Figure 170. 


91 Excerpt from https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/OrdnanceTesting/in- 
dex.html 

92 Nolte et al. September 1999, 83. 

93 Thurberand Norman 1983, 125. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


167 


Figure 168. Map of area prior to construction of 600 Area, 1922 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 169. 600 Area, 1930-1957 from Thurber and Norman HAER Record NJ-36 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 




































































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


168 


Figure 170. Map of the 600 Area with existing boundary line for historic district (PICA 



N 

A 0 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 


The 6oo Ordnance Testing Area is approximately 20 acres. Large, well-lit 
open areas surrounded oddly configured buildings which stand in stark 
simplicity. No attempt has ever been made to landscape this group of 
buildings. 94 Various photos of the area are shown in Figure 171-Figure 
173 . 


94 Nolte et al. September 1999, 83. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


169 


Figure 171. View looking north at Picatinny Lake and Picatinny Peak, ca. early 1900s. 
Building in photo is no longer extant. (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 172. View from lookout tower at Picatinny Peak, looking southwest to 600 Area 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


170 


Figure 173. View from same lookout tower, also looking southwest toward 600 Area, 
2008 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



4.2.2 Land use 

Before the 1926 explosion, ordnance testing was conducted all over the Ar¬ 
senal, usually just outside the building where research was being con¬ 
ducted. Such impromptu testing caused numerous accidents and fires 
within the production areas. 95 Ordnance testing was consolidated and re¬ 
located in the 600 Area following the 1926 explosion at the Lake Denmark 
NAD. 

Final relocation of the test area to the ridge produced a number of im¬ 
portant benefits for the facility. The relocation removed all activities ex¬ 
cept storage from the extreme northern end of the Arsenal (south side of 
the lake), thereby freeing the east and west shores of Picatinny Lake from 
the hazards of test firing across the lake into the mountain. Eliminating 
the firing hazards near the lake also meant that all roads around the lake 
would have uninterrupted serviced 6 


95 Ibid., 82. 
se Ibid. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


171 


Various view of building locations and building photos are shown in Fig¬ 
ure 174-Figure 176 and as referenced in text. 


Figure 174. Detail of 600 Area showing building locations, 1976 
(Thurber and Norman 1983). 

















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


172 


Figure 175. View from hillside, looking south on 20th Avenue (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 



Figure 176. View looking north on 20th Avenue; Building 611 is on the left (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


173 


The administration observed that the new location was “well-suited for 
practically all activities and tests which are usually assigned to a small 
proving ground .”97 

Wooded areas surround the 600 Area, with some of the buildings nestled 
in the woods like Building 611B (Figure 177). 


Figure 177. Looking north towards Building 611B (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



4.2.3 Transportation networks 

One main road, 20 th Avenue, runs through the center of the district in 
what is basically a north-south direction (Figure 178-Figure 180). Other 
roads provide access to various structures located throughout the wooded 
area on either side of 20th Avenue (Figure 181-Figure 182). 


97 Ibid., 82. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


174 


Figure 178. Looking north 20th Avenue leading to the 600 Test Area; Building 611 is 
at the left behind the parked car (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 179. Looking south on 20 th Avenue from in front of Building 611 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


175 




Figure 180. Looking to the north along 20 th Avenue from Building 611 (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 


Figure 181. Looking northwest on 20 th Court which is located between Buildings 613, 
617A, and 617B which are not visible in this photo (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


176 


Figure 182. View looking south at 20 th Circle and Building 620 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



4.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions 

The district contains a variety of structures designed for testing the various 
ammunition components and explosives produced at PICA. The special re¬ 
quirements of such activities have resulted in a number of unique struc¬ 
tures. It is this uniqueness of design, as well as sharing the same basic 
function, which ties these buildings together. 98 Since it was an ordnance 
testing area, for safety the buildings had to be far apart from each other. 

4.2.5 Buildings and clusters 

The 6oo Area structures were specifically designed to withstand shock and 
blast effects, and they were built in a variety of shapes and sizes. The struc¬ 
tures are utilitarian design in the extreme, with all construction features 
being dictated by the testing to be conducted within (Figure 183). Building 


98 U.S Department of the Army Draft 1982, 15. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


177 


materials included wood, brick, concrete, galvanized steel, and tile. Fram¬ 
ing styles and materials also differed with the structure’s testing intent.99 

A firing range with gun emplacements, velocity screens, and a recovery 
butt were constructed to permit the testing of pilot lots of smokeless pow¬ 
der for velocity and pressure. Other structures provided for the safe explo¬ 
sion of a number of different ordnance types of items. 


Figure 183. Historic photographs of Building 620, original Small Arms Range, 1929 

(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



The main indoor testing buildings were supported by a variety of small- 
scale, short-term storage buildings. Items requiring short-term storage 
comprised explosives, oil and grease, paint, primer, fuses, and detonators. 
These types of buildings served a minor role in the testing activities that 
occurred in the indoor testing facilities in the 6oo Area. 100 


99 Nolte et al. September 1999, 83. 

100 Grandine and Riggle, HABS-HAER Documentation for Picatinny Arsenal Building 617D (Frederick, 
MD: R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, December 2009), 4. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


178 


Two small clusters of buildings are located at the southwest end of the 
area. One of these groups houses the black powder factory, a facility that 
produced black powder for use in the fuze assembly lines and as an igniter 
in gun powder bags. 

The portion of the 600 Area that makes up the historic district includes a 
wide range of specialized structures, including fragmentation tub build¬ 
ings, a drop tower, wind and fuze test tunnels, a “bull pen” for exploding 
ordnance, slug butts Figure 184), and an indoor firing range. 101 

Since the construction of the complex in 1928, structures continued to be 
added until 1965 (Figure 185 and Figure 186). Buildings 611 and 611A, a 
gun emplacement and an armor plate-butt, were built in 1965. These two 
structures are noncontributing buildings to the district. Buildings 604 
through 621 contain the control rooms, testing chambers, and other facili¬ 
ties used in the indoor testing of explosives. 102 

Figure 184. Comparison photographs of a slug butt (611B); on the left is historic 
photograph (taken from Picatinny website, undated), and on the right is a current 
photograph of the same structure which is now partially obstructed by debris (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 



101 Nolte et al. September 1999, 83. 
“2 ibid. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


179 


Figure 185. Looking northwest from 20 th Avenue in order from left foreground 
towards Buildings 607, 604, 604E (on left of street), and 604A and 607A (on right) 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 186. Locational relationship of Buildings 621 (foreground), 607 (middle 
ground), and 604 (background) (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


180 


The 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic District consists of 20 contrib¬ 
uting which are eligible for the NRHP under Criteria A and C, and 8 non¬ 
contributing buildings and structures as determined by the NJ HPO. They 
are all listed below in Table 5. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


181 


Table 5. List of buildings in the 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic District. 


Building 

Number 

Date Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District 
Eligibility 

Assessment Info 

Comments 

604 

1928 

Environmental Testing 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


604A 

1928 

Control House for Drop Tower (604D) 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


604B 

1931 

Detonating Chamber 

Ordnance Facility ("Detonating Chamber") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


604C 

1928 

Sectioning Chamber 

Ordnance Facility ("Sectioning; Teardown Facility") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


604D 

1928 

Drop Tower 

Drop Tower/ Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

47 ft above grade to top of 3 rd floor platform; addition of tower was also 
known as 604G 

604E 

1942 

Wind Tunnel 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

2012-13 Renovations 

604F 

1928 

Bull Pen 

Ordnance Facility ("Bull Pen; Rifling Chamber") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

Also labeled IFS AS R604F (1980); 2012-13 renovations 

607 

1940 

Fragmentation Tub Bldg 

Ordnance Facility (“Fragmentation Tub Bldg") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


607A 

1938 

Testing Facility 

Ordnance Facility ("Testing Facility") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


611 

ca. 1959- 

1963 

Terminal Effects Evaluation Facility and Gun 
Emplacement 

Ordnance Facility; Range Control Admin 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; 

Completed 1999 

Within Historic District Boundary 

611A 

1965 

Armor Plate-Butt 

Ordnance Facility 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; 

Completed 1999 

Within Historic District Boundary 

611B 

1929 

Gas Gun Test Tunnel 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


611D 

ca. 1940 

Slug Butt 

Vacant; 

Derelict 

Noncontributing 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

Within Historic District; Demo SHPO complete vie Final signature 17 May 10 

613 

1928 

Mortar Powder Bldg; Ballistic Mortar Testing 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

Interior renovations occurred in 2009 (HPO-F2008-131) 

617 

1928 

Fragment Cleaning, Reconstruction and 
Photography Bldg 

Admin General Purpose 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

2009-10 interior renovations, addition, and new stucco exterior 

617A 

1928 

Fligh Explosives Magazine 

High Explosives Magazine 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

2012-13 Renovations 

617B 

1928 

Magazine 

General Storehouse 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


617F 

1928 

Magazine 

Fuze and Detonator Magazine 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 

Relocated September 2012 next to 621B due to new water tank and cul-de- 
sac- NJHP0-E21012-285 

617G 

1938 

Gun and Powder Shed 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


618 

2011 

Pump House 

Pump House 

Noncontributing 


Not evaluated; likely to be noncontributing; within historic district 

620A 

1921 

Ordnance Facility 

Test Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Completed 2008 

Attached to Building 620 (northeast corner); Demo NJ HPO complete 
pending narrative completion 

620B 

1921 

Test Range; Tower 

Ordnance Facility ("Test Range; Tower") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


621 

1941 

Fragmentation Tub Bldg 

Ordnance Facility (“Fragmentation Tub Bldg") 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


621A 

1947 

Small Arms Pyrotechnic Magazine 

Vacant; Derelict 

Noncontributing 

Completed 2007 

Within Historic District boundary 

621B 

1914 

Shipping and Receiving Bldg 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; Completed 1999 


623F 

1957 

Valve House 

Valve House 

Noncontributing 



623G 

2008 

Pump/Valve House 

Pump/Valve House 

Noncontributing 


Not evaluated; likely to be noncontributing; within historic district 

626 

2013 

Water Tank 

Water Tank 

Noncontributing 


Not evaluated; likely to be noncontributing; within historic district 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


182 


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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


183 


4.2.5.1 Descriptions of contributing buildings to the 600 Ordnance Testing 
Area Historic District 

Building 604: Environmental Testing (1928) 

Building 604 is of concrete (first floor) and wood frame (second floor) con¬ 
struction on a concrete foundation that includes a basement (Figure 187). 
Constructed in 1928 and similar to Buildings 607 and 621, Building 604 
originally contained a fragmentation tub supported by steel columns and 
concrete piers in the basement. Live shells were detonated inside the hop¬ 
per which was filled with sand to absorb the shock of the blast, and the 
shell fragments were retrieved by a screen for examination. The sand, 
which could be reused, was stored in the basement and lifted to the hopper 
by means of a bucket elevator. In 1943, the fragmentation tub and the ele¬ 
vator were removed, and the louvered (which served to alleviate structural 
stress during explosions) on the second floor were replaced by wooden lap 
siding. The building is currently used for storage. 10 3 

The exterior shell is intact. The rectangular, two-story structure has an as¬ 
bestos-protected corrugated metal gable roof and stands almost 35 ft high. 
The north (front) elevation has a center door flanked by two metal indus¬ 
trial windows on the first story and two more on the second story. The 
south (rear) elevation is similar to the front minus the center door, and it 
contains a basement door. East and west (side) elevations have one sec¬ 
ond-story window each. One wood lighting pole is located to the building’s 
east side . 10 4 


103 Nolte et al. September 1999, 84. 

104 ibid., 85. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


184 



Figure 187. Building 604, northeast oblique (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


185 


Building 604A: Control House for Drop Tower (1928) 

Building 604A is a one-story, rectangular structure with a concrete foun¬ 
dation, concrete walls, and a concrete with tar and gravel low shed roof 
(Figure 188). It was constructed in 1928 as a control house for Building 
604D, the drop tower. The interior and exterior are intact, with original 
wood door and windows. An L-shaped concrete barricade shields a door 
on the south side; a half-story above-grade basement with concrete walls 
and a concrete shed roof is attached to the west. A cable runs from an 
opening in the basement to Building 604D (the drop tower) via a wood A- 
frame with pulleys that elevate the cable. 10 s 


Figure 188. East elevation of Building 604A (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



105 Ibid. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


186 


Building 604B: Detonating Chamber (1931) 

Building 604B is a one-story, irregularly shaped hexagonal structure with 
a concrete foundation, tie rod-reinforced concrete walls, and a flat con¬ 
crete roof (Figure 189). It was constructed in 1932 as a detonating cham¬ 
ber to test explosives. The entire structure of Buildings 604B is intact and 
unaltered. The roof projects on two sides to form an overhang supported 
by steel brackets. The entrance to the chamber is shielded on the outside 
by a concentric concrete wall and on the inside by a concrete barrier 
wall. 106 


Figure 189. South elevation of Building 604B (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



106 Ibid., 86. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


187 


Building 604C: Sectioning Chamber (1928) 

Building 604C is a row of one-story operating rooms with concrete foun¬ 
dations, concrete walls, and concrete shed roofs (Figure 190). It was con¬ 
structed in 1928 as a teardown facility for the disassembly of ammunition. 
It consisted of a control room flanked by two operating rooms, and a sepa¬ 
rate chamber to the west that housed a lathe. In 1942, a saw room with its 
own control room was added and in 1958, a milling machine room was 
added. Both additions, with their buttressed concrete blast walls, unified 
Building 604C into one structure. Its interior and exterior are intact. The 
original building’s two operating rooms which open to the north are faced 
with wood-framed cel-o-glass blowout walls. 10 ? 


Figure 190. North elevation of Building 604C, Sectioning Chamber; drop-tower is 
visible behind it (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2011). 



107 Ibid. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


188 


Building 604D: Drop Tower (1928) 

Building 604D consists of two connected drop towers (Figure 191). The 
original drop tower was constructed in 1928 for artillery detonation test¬ 
ing. In 1946, an enclosed multiple-impact test chute was inserted in the 
middle of the tower; the chute contained several steel plates placed at var¬ 
ying heights to interrupt the fall of the object being tested. Each plate 
ledge could be accessed from the exterior by a sliding steel gate. In 1949 
another tower was built, with a steel-walled detonating enclosure at its 
base. The entire structure of Building 604D is intact, including the moni¬ 
toring shed. The original tower has a concrete foundation, concrete blast 
wall at its base, open steel frame, three platforms accessible by a ladder 
running up the north end, and a multiple drop chute that rises to the third 
platform which is 47 feet above grade. The second tower has a concrete 
foundation, steel-walled drop chamber at its base, open steel frame, and 
two platforms accessible by stairs. The second platform is 40 feet above 
grade. An enclosed monitoring shed, with a metal frame and transite and 
Cel-O-Glass walls, is located beneath the original tower. 108 


ids Ibid., 87. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


189 



Figure 191. Building 604D, Drop Tower (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


190 


Building 604E: Wind Tunnel (1942) 


Building 604E is a one-story, rectangular structure with a concrete foun¬ 
dation, load-bearing brick walls, and a flat roof of tar and gravel (replaced 
in kind, 2013; Figure 192). It was constructed in 1942 as a wind tunnel but 
was converted to an office structure in 1961. The building is intact with 
multi-pane metal windows. 10 9 Doors replace in 2013 to meet safety stand¬ 
ards with NJ HPO approval. 


Figure 192. Southeast elevation of Building 604E (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



“a Ibid., 89. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


191 


Building 604F: Bull Pen (1928) 


Building 604F is a one-story, round structure with a concrete foundation, 
concrete walls (lined on the inside with tarred timber, replaced continu¬ 
ously as needed for explosives testing), and an open roof that is protected 
by a steel-wire mesh hung from the walls. It was constructed in 1928 as a 
firing chamber. 110 A “bull pen” is a structure that contains a test explosion 
within its thickly reinforced concrete circular walls lined on the interior 
with heavy oak timbers allowing shrapnel to embed in the wood (Figure 
193). * 111 Building 604F, as well as the metal superstructure, was painted 
Concrete Gray in 2013 with SHPO concurrence. Also with SHPO concur¬ 
rence, the shed in front was replaced. 


Figure 193. Images of a “bull pen" in the 600 Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012 [left] and 

Picatinny Arsenal, 2011 [right]). 



no Ibid. 

111 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/OrdnanceTesting/index.html. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


192 


Building 607, Fragmentation Tub Building (1940) 


Building 607 is a two-story gable-roofed structure, with elevator head- 
houses projecting above the roof (Figure 194). The building has a steel 
frame, with concrete walls on the first floor and corrugated metal above. 
The upper floor contains large panels of metal louvers. Building 607 was 
built in 1940 as part of Picatinny Arsenal’s testing program. Shells to be 
tested were placed in a large hopper surrounded by sawdust, and the shells 
were detonated. During the blast, the metal louvers (“blast louvers”) 
opened. The roof of the building was reportedly built on flanges so that it 
could expand with the detonation. After the detonation, the sawdust was 
sifted and the metal fragments recovered for examination. A further mag¬ 
netic process recovered small fragments that had passed through the sieve. 
Then the sawdust was collected in buckets on a conveyor belt and lifted to 
the top of the building where it was dumped into a storage hopper above 
the fragmentation tubs, ready for re-use. Building 607 was designed for 
shells up to 105 mm. The building is intact with limited alterations. 112 


Figure 194. Northeast oblique of Building 607 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



112 Ibid., 90. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


193 


Building 607A: Testing Facility (1938) 


Building 607A is a one-story, pitched-roof building constructed with a 
concrete foundation, steel frame encased in concrete, hollow-tile infill, and 
an APM roof on a steel frame (Figure 195). It was built in 1938 as a testing 
facility in conjunction with Building 607. Building 607A retains original 
siting, original massing, and construction. 1 ^ 



Figure 195. Northeast oblique of Building 607A (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


ns ibid., 92. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


194 


Building 611B: Gas Gun Test Tunnel (1929) 

Building 611B originally consisted of a one-story, rectangular firing range 
(373 ft-9 in. long) with a concrete foundation, low concrete walls, and a 
semicircular, corrugated metal roof that gave way to a series of wood barri¬ 
cades mounted on top of the walls (Figure 196 and Figure 197). It was con¬ 
structed in 1929 as a test tunnel for firing artillery rounds. A drawing from 
1955 114 shows a 75-mm gun and labels the structure as a “fuze test tunnel,” 
and it calls for repairs to the wood barricades, liners, and concrete walls. 

In 1959, a gas gun was installed and a concrete barricade end wall with 
sand fill was inserted into the tunnel, dramatically decreasing the length of 
the range. That same year another tunnel was constructed, and an instru¬ 
mentation room was added to the front of the old structure. Building 611B 
retains its original siting, massing, and construction. There are angled bar¬ 
ricades that acted like fixed louvers to absorb the force of the shell’s impact 
and direct it up and away from the walls into the open air. The test tunnel 
walls were lined with timber and the end of the range was filled with sand. 
A second tunnel addition (40 feet long), constructed of five sections of 
concrete sewer pipes, intersects the original tunnel from the west. A wood¬ 
framed instrumentation room, on concrete piers with a shed roof and two 
double wood loading doors, fronts the original tunnel from the south. n s 


114 Drawing available at Picatinny Cultural Resources Office. 

115 Nolte et al. September 1999, 92. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


195 


Figure 196. Looking north at Building 611B, Gas Gun Test Tunnel 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 197. Comparison photographs of the original fuze test tunnel to the altered 
test tunnel (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


196 


Building 613: Mortar Powder Building; Ballistics Mortar Testing (1928) 


Building 613 is a one-story, rectangular structure with a concrete founda¬ 
tion, brick and concrete load-bearing walls, and a corrugated asbestos pro¬ 
tected metal saltbox roof supported by a steel truss and covered in spray 
foam in 2008 (Figure 198). A small concrete shed with a concrete roof is 
attached to the main building on the east side. It was constructed in 1928 
for Ballistics Mortar Testing. Plans indicate overhead mortar support 
beams inside, and the walls and floor of the concrete shed are lined with 
wood planks; more research is needed to determine the function of Build¬ 
ing 613 regarding these interior features. In 1944, a brick addition was 
constructed on the north side, giving the structure its current saltbox 
shape. The building retains its original siting, massing, and construction. 
There are metal double loading doors, a concrete loading dock, and metal 
awning windows. 116 Doors and windows recently replaced with NJ HPO 
consultation. 


Figure 198. Southwest oblique of Building 613 (ERD-CERL, 2012). 



us ibid., 95. 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


197 


Building 617: Fragment Cleaning, Reconstruction and Photography Building 
(1928) 

Building 617 is a one-story, H-plan building with a concrete foundation, 
load-bearing hollow clay tile walls, and a gable roof covered with asphalt 
shingles and supported by steel purlins (Figure 199). Stucco covers the old 
hollow clay tile of the structure similar to 171A. The east-facing courtyard 
contains a concrete moat which is used to direct rainwater away from the 
site. It was constructed in 1928 as a Fragment Cleaning, Reconstruction, 
and Photography Building. It is currently used as an Administrative Office 
Building. Building 617 retains original siting, massing, and construction. 
The building has lightening protection. Alterations include new windows 
and metal siding for the exterior, and 2x4 ft-tile suspended acoustical 
ceiling for the interior. u ? Building was renovated in 2009-10 and a new 
HVAC area was added in the rear. 


Figure 199. South elevation of Building 617 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



117 ibid. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


198 


Building 617A: High Explosives Magazine (1928) 


Building 617A is a small, one-story, white building with a concrete founda¬ 
tion, steel frame enclosed in concrete, hollow clay-tile walls, and a gable 
roof supported by steel frame and covered with corrugated asbestos 
(Figure 200). It was constructed in 1928 as a high explosives magazine, 
but it is currently used for storage. Building 617A retains original siting, 
massing, and construction. There are steel-sash windows, painted galva¬ 
nized metal doors, and lightning rods. There are also exterior electric con¬ 
trols, exterior steam heater controls, and an unused concrete pad adjacent 
to the south end of the building. 118 Recently painted adobe red to match 
original tile with NJ HPO approval. 


Figure 200. West elevation of Building 617A 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



us ibid., 96. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


199 


Building 617B: Magazine; Smokeless Powder Storage (1928) 

Building 617B is a small, one-story white building with a concrete founda¬ 
tion, steel frame, corrugated asbestos walls, and a gable roof covered with 
corrugated asbestos (Figure 201). It was constructed in 1928 for use as a 
smokeless powder magazine, but it is currently used for general storage. 
Building 617B retains its original siting, massing, and construction. The 
building has a rooftop ventilator, a single steel-sash window, and a painted 
galvanized metal door with wire-glass vision lights. It has two lightning 
rods on the roof . n 9 


Figure 201. Northwest oblique of Building 617B (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



us Ibid. 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


200 


Building 617F: Magazine (1928) 

Building 617F is a small, one-story white building with a concrete founda¬ 
tion, steel frame, corrugated asbestos walls, and a gable roof covered with 
corrugated asbestos (Figure 202). It was constructed in 1928 as a maga¬ 
zine, but it is currently used for storage. Building 617F was relocated adja¬ 
cent to 621B in 2012. The building has a rooftop ventilator, a single steel- 
sash window, and a painted galvanized metal door with wire-glass vision 
lights. 120 



Figure 202. North elevation of Building 617F (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


120 ibid. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


201 


Building 617G: Gun and Powder Shed (1938) 

Building 617G is a one-story, shed roof, six-bay, garage-like building that 
is finished with a thin coat of concrete or stucco and painted Richmond 
Bisque in 2008. It was constructed in 1938, and was altered in 1956 and 
1964. It was originally used for storing howitzers used in the nearby firing 
range and for storing pallets of powder. Building 617G retains its original 
siting, massing, and construction. The exterior includes a concrete founda¬ 
tion, load-bearing hollow clay tile and poured concrete walls, concrete 
roofing beams, and concrete roof. The building has lightning rods on a 
copper-clad roof, and a non-conductive floor made of concrete with an as¬ 
phalt coating. The building appears to have evolved through three 
phases—Phase 1: one-bay structure (westernmost bay) built with load- 
bearing hollow clay tile walls, concrete roof, garage type vehicular doors; 
Phase 2: five bays added to the west side of the original building, built with 
poured concrete walls, concrete roof, concrete roof beams with integrated 
braces, and five additional sets of vehicular doors; Phase 3: converted to 
steam form of energy. The steam was created as a by-product of electricity 
production at the Power Plant (Building 506, originally Building 1906) 
and the Boiler House (Building 3013, originally Building 1901). Water 
from Picatinny Lake was heated, and the steam was forced through tur¬ 
bines to produce energy. Pressurized steam was then sent to production 
facilities via conduit. On site, buildings were fitted with pressure reducing 
valves and steam powered equipment, which reduced the risk of explosion. 
Overall the Steam Distribution System consists of a network of conduit, 
supporting structures, and pressure reducing valves. Most of the system 
visible has been replaced, but there are remnants of an earlier system of 
conduit supported on cast stone pier. 121 


121 Harrell 1996, E-485. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


202 


Building 620A, Ordnance Facility (1921) 

Building 620A is a one-story, structure with a concrete foundation, tie- 
rod-reinforced concrete walls, and a flat concrete roof (Figure 203). The 
building is partially depressed in the side of the hill and fenced off. The 
building is currently unused and is covered in vines. 


Figure 203. Northeast elevation of Building 620A (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


203 


Building 620B, Drop Tower and Friction Tower (1921) 

Building 620B is a one-story, rectangular structure with a concrete foun¬ 
dation, steel frame, corrugated asbestos protected metal exterior walls, 
and a corrugated APM shed roof (Figure 204). A 25’ tall steel tower in 
front of the building has a concrete base that is used as an impact anvil, 
and an impact hammer above. A steel plate wall, s’-6” tall, screens the 
tower base on three sides from the adjacent road. It was constructed in 
1921. The tower tested an explosive’s sensitivity to direct impact, compara¬ 
ble to normal handling under worst conditions. The hammer was operated 
remotely from the building via a cable and pulley. The building contains a 
steel A-frame with a swinging pendulum centered over an anvil; the device 
was used to test friction resistance of explosive compounds. The controls 
were located behind a semi-circular steel shield (along with the tower con¬ 
trols). Building 620B retains its original siting, massing, and construc¬ 
tion. 122 



Figure 204. Drop Tower and Friction Test (pendulum) (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


122 Nolte et al. September 1999, 98. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


204 


Building 621, Fragmentation Tub Building (1941) 

Building 621 is a two-story gable roofed structure, with elevator head- 
houses projecting above the roof (Figure 205). The building has a steel 
frame, with concrete walls on the first floor and corrugated metal above. 
The upper floor contains large panels of metal louvers. It was built in 1941 
as part of the Arsenal’s testing program. Shells to be tested were placed in 
a large hopper surrounded by sand, and the shells were detonated. During 
the blast the louvers (“blast louvers”) opened. The roof of the building was 
reportedly built on flanges so that it could expand with the detonation. Af¬ 
ter the detonation, the sand was sifted and the metal fragments revered for 
examination. A further magnetic process revered small fragments that had 
passed through the sieve. Then the sand was collected in buckets on a con¬ 
veyor belt and lifted to the top of the building where it was dumped into a 
storage hopper above the fragmentation tubs, ready for re-use. Building 
621 was designed for shells up to 105 155mm. 12 3 


Figure 205. Southwest oblique of Building 621 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



123 |bid„ 90. 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


205 


Building 621B, Shipping and Receiving Building (1914) 


Building 621B is a one-story, rectangular structure with concrete founda¬ 
tion, corrugated asbestos walls on a steel frame and corrugated, APM ga¬ 
ble roof (Figure 206). It was constructed in 1914 for the storage of ammu¬ 
nition and used as a shipping and receiving facility for the 600 Test Area. 
It retains its original siting, massing, and construction. Its exterior in¬ 
cludes: concrete foundation; steel frame; asbestos walls; and a gable roof 
covered with APM . 12 4 


Figure 206. View of front fagade of Building 621B (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Buildings 620, 623, 623A, 623B, 623D, 623E and 623G (Demolished) 

A set of 6 water tanks were demolished in 2013. Building 623 and 623A 
were constructed in 1929, while the rest were constructed in 1942. All 
tanks were replaced in 1970. 12 s Building 620, a long firing range con¬ 
structed in 1928, currently vacant is slated for demolition. 


124 Ibid, 99. 

125 According to 1982 HABS/HAER property card on file at PICA Cultural Resources Office. 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


206 


Steam lines distribution system 


The steam distribution system is a network of metal or APM conduit that 
run above and below ground from the power plants throughout PICA. A 
centralized system of steam throughout Picatinny Arsenal and the Lake 
Denmark NAD provided a source of heating and allowed production facili¬ 
ties throughout the installation to use pressurized steam as a sparkless 
form of energy. The steam was created as a by-product of electricity pro¬ 
duction at the Power Plant (Building 506), built in 1906 and the Boiler 
House (Building 3013), built in 1901. Water from Picatinny Lake was 
heated, and the resulting steam forced through turbines to produce en¬ 
ergy. Pressurized steam was then sent to production facilities via conduit. 
On site, buildings were fitted with pressure reducing valves and steam 
powered equipment, which reduced the risk of explosion. Overall the 
Steam Distribution System consists of a network of conduit, supporting 
structures, and pressure-reducing valves. Most of the system visible has 
been replaced, but there are remnants of an earlier system of conduit sup¬ 
ported on cast stone pier. 126 Steam lines exist throughout the 600 Area 
(Figure 207—Figure 209). 


Figure 207. Elevated steam lines stretch over 20 th Avenue (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



126 Harrell 1996, E-465. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


207 



Figure 208. Steam lines located throughout the 600 Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


Figure 209. Replacement steam lines placed high above the paved roads in the 600 

Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


208 


4.2.5.2 Noncontributing structures in the 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic 
District 

There are eight (8) noncontributing structures within the 6oo Ordnance 
Testing Area Historic District boundaries. The structures are listed below 
(Figure 210). 

Figure 210. Noncontributing structures in the 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic 

District. 



Building 611 - Terminal Effect Evaluation 
Facility and Gun Emplacement (ca. 1959- 
1963) 


Building 611A - Armor Plate Butt (1965) 


Building 618 - Pump House (2011) 


Building 611D - Slug Butt (ca. 1940) 





















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


209 



Building 621A - Small Arms Pyrotechnic 
Magazine (1947) 


Building 623F - Valve House (1957) 




Building 626 - Water Tank (2013) 


Building 623G - Pump/Valve House (2008) 


4.2.6 Vegetation 

The 6oo Area is nestled on the hillside and surrounded by wooded land. 
The vegetation located inside the boundary of the 6oo Area is minimal. 

The landscape is dotted with mature deciduous trees concentrated mainly 
around the court area on either side of 20 th Court. Grasses surrounding the 
buildings are kept mowed (Figure 211 and Figure 212). 


















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


210 


Figure 211. Trees line the curved road near Building 617 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 




Figure 212. Drainage swales (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


I> a>>* 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


211 


4.2.7 Small-scale features 

Small-scale features, such as drainage swales, walls, signage, and flagpoles 
are found throughout the 600 Area and help to define the character of the 
cultural landscape. Developed in association with the roadways, buildings, 
and the occupancy of the site, these features often reflect the influence of 
the period in which they were added. Many of these miscellaneous small- 
scale features’ character and feel contribute to the cultural landscape of the 
district. 

4.2.7.1 Drainage swales; Demolished 

Concrete-formed drainage swales are found around Buildings 620 and 617 
(Figure 213). The swales were designed and incorporated into the original 
layout and function of the area. While the 600 Area is built into the side of 
a steep hill, no documentation was found detailing the need for extensive 
swales in this area. These swales were removed during the demolition of 
Building 620, and a new parking lot was installed with sidewalks leading 
to Building 617. 


Figure 213. Drainage swales (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


212 


4.2.7.2 Flagpole 

The significance of the flagpole located at the entrance into the 6oo Area 
(Figure 214) is that it alerts people of testing being conducted within the 
buildings. 



Figure 214. Testing flagpole (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


213 


4.2.7.3 Lightning rods 

Lightning rods are located adjacent to or on all buildings within the 6oo 
Area (Figure 215). 

Figure 215. Large lightning rod adjacent to Building 607A (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


214 


4.2.7.4 Historic marker 

A historic marker is located along 20 th Avenue, describing the significance 
of the 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic District (Figure 216). The his¬ 
toric markers for the NRHP-eligible historic district are used to identify 
and highlight these significant areas. The markers allow for military and 
civilian personnel and visitors to the installation to be more aware of the 
installation’s historical heritage to ensure the long-term preservation of 
these significant areas. The markers were funded by the Environmental 
Affairs Division and produced by Lake Shore Industries. Text was devel¬ 
oped by CRM, NJ HPO, and the Morris County Heritage Commission. 
Placement of the markers was carried out in 2012. 


Figure 216. Historic marker identifying the 600 Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



600 ORDNANCE TESTING A8EA 
•HISTORIC DISTRICT 

(1978- 1948) . 5 1 


THIS TEST AE* WAS CONSTRUCTED AFTER'-THE 
1926 LAKE DENMARK NAVAL P0W0ER DEPOT 
EXPLOSION AND SEVERAL OTHER ACCIDENTS 
DESTROYED THE ARSENAL'S CANNbN BLENDERS. 
THESE FACILITIES WERE BUILT-TO WITHSTAND 
SHOCK AMO BLAST FROM INDOOR TEST1NC-0F 
MILITARY EXPLOSIVES. NO SIMILAR CR0UPIH0 
OF EXPLOSIVE TESTING RELATED STRUCTURES 
IS KNOWN T0:EXI5T AT ANY OTHER FORMER 
INDUSTRIAL ARSENAL FARTHER ALONG GREEN 
POND MOUNTAIN ARE A SERIES OF ISOLATED 
TEST RANGES FOR FIRING GUNS. ARMOR-PIERCING 
SHELLS AND BOMBS. AND ANTI-PERSONNEL 
WEAPONS. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


215 


4.2.8 Views and vistas 

The design and layout of the 600 Area was mission-specific. Views and 
viewsheds would not have been part of this design unless needed for visi¬ 
bility. 

4.3 Landscape evaluation 

Landscaping such as plants and trees are very fluid elements of a historic 
property and district. These elements have constantly changed over the 
years to the point that obviously, most of the original landform features 
and plantings historically part of PICA have been removed or added to 
over time. In the 600 Area, the planting of existing large shade trees was 
most likely not designed, but remaining trees were allowed to grow in the 
parking areas and court for shade. Drawings on file at the DPW office 
show some of these trees date to the 1940s. Original site features obtained 
with at least 50 years of age and retaining their original condition should 
be repaired or replaced in kind. These features include curbing and side¬ 
walks, retaining walls, fences and gates, and lighting. Individual features 
in a property’s landscape should never be viewed in isolation, but rather in 
relationship to the property’s surrounding setting and overall fabric. 12 ? 

New plantings and landscaping should be in keeping with the original de¬ 
sign intent of the facility. Historic maps and site plans of individual struc¬ 
tures may serve as a guide to determining historic configurations. Mature 
plantings should be maintained to the extent possible; where replacement 
is necessary, it should be done in species matching the original. 

4.3.1 Historic significance 

Located on the north side of Lake Picatinny, the 600 Area is the largest 
area in the arsenal. The 600 Area contains the buildings and testing areas 
used for the explosive testing of guns, shells, powders, and other explo¬ 
sives. The buildings within the 600 Area test zone were specifically de¬ 
signed to withstand shock and blast effects, and they were built in a variety 
of shapes and sizes. The special requirements of such activities have re¬ 
sulted in a number of unique structures. It is the uniqueness of design, as 
well as the same basic function, which ties these buildings together. 128 


127 Chugach Industries 2008, 6-16. 

128 Nolte et al. September 2009, 83. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


216 


The 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic District is full of unique struc¬ 
tures specifically designed for various testing functions. Because the test¬ 
ing function dictated the design, the result has been a number of unusual 
structures and interesting architectural features. The collection also re¬ 
flects Picatinny’s role in the production and R&D of ammunition. The dis¬ 
trict historically assumed an integral position at PICA by providing the fa¬ 
cilities to test the ammunition being developed and produced there. The 
600 Area has been carefully documented by a 1983 Historic American En¬ 
gineering Record (HAER) report 12 9 and consistently highlighted in previ¬ 
ous architectural reports as being significant, w 

4.3.2 Integrity 

A few buildings in this area are still in use for ammunition production and 
testing. Many of the structures are now vacant or used for storage. The in¬ 
frastructure such as curbs, drainage swales, parking areas, and steam lines 
are still present, as are the large shade trees scattered around the site. 
These features still provide a setting for the historic testing mission, alt¬ 
hough it appears they are no longer being maintained. 

4.3.3 Character-defining features 

The National Park Service defines historic character-defining features of a 
landscape as “prominent or distinctive aspects, qualities, or characteristics 
of a cultural landscape that contribute significantly to its physical charac¬ 
ter.”^ 1 Through the study of landscapes, the built environment is ex¬ 
plained by the physical remains of the natural and cultural shaping forces. 
The historic districts of Picatinny are significant because they describe the 
adaption of the built environment to the cultural values and educational 
and military mission of Picatinny. Understanding the factors that influ¬ 
enced and composed the landscape informs the preservation of its historic 
qualities. 

The character-defining features of PICA are landscape features that were 
part of the initial design, present throughout the period of significance as 
established in the National Register nomination, and continue to be evi- 


129 Thurber and Norman 1983. 

130 Nolte et al. September 1999, iv. 

131 Birnbaum and Peters 1996, 4. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


217 


dent in the district today. Character-defining features of the 600 Area Ord¬ 
nance Testing Historic District are listed in Table 6 along with summaries 
of their historical significance, integrity, and NRHP eligibility. 


Table 6. 600 Area character-defining features. 


Character- 

Defining 

Features 

Historical Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Circulation and 
roadways 

A circular drive, 
Twentieth Circle with 
inner court provides 
access to buildings. 

• Drive and court still in 
use; good condition 

Yes 

Clustering of 
buildings 

Historically a testing 
area, building 
separations are based 
on building functions 
and safety 

• Spacing between 
buildings remains the 
same 

Yes 

Lightning rods 

Some rods located on 
poles adjacent to 
buildings; support the 
testing mission. 

• Rusted 

Yes 

Vegetation 

Vegetation consists of 
mature shade trees 
not planted during site 
design; either left in 
place during 
construction or 
allowed to grow later. 

• Mowed lawns are 
maintained 

• Trees in court area 
should remain; do not 
need to be replaced. 

No 

Steam lines 

Steam lines existed 
historically throughout 
installation 

• Still in use as needed. 
Boilers-in-a-box not 
allowed in explosive 
areas. 

Yes 

Testing flagpole 

Original flagpole is 
located along the 
main road to warn of 
testing. 

• Rusted 

Yes(new 
ones at 

Bigs 613 
and 604F, 
no) 

Fencing 

Built to restrict access 
for security and safety. 

• Some fencing still 
remains in place; 
rusted and in 
disrepair. 

Yes 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


218 


Steam lines: the vegetation needs to be cleared and removed off and 
around exposed and elevated steam lines (Figure 217). Their alignment, 
stanchions, and steam stations are significant. 


Figure 217. Remove vegetation from steam lines (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Fencing: Portions of the 600 Area are surrounded by chain-link fencing to 
provide security for testing conducted in the buildings. 

4.3.4 Final determinations 

This World War II testing area has been well documented. First with the 
HAER documentation completed in 1982 and 1983 is 2 . A second report 
conducted by Panamerican Consultants in September 1999, Definition of 
Historic Districts for Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey, con¬ 
cluded that the 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic District was made up 
of 29 contributing buildings and three noncontributing structures (Figure 
218). x 33 On July 2,1999, the NJHPO ruled that the 600 Ordnance Test 


132 Thurber and Norman 1983,116-127. 
233 Ibid. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


219 


Area District is eligible to the NRHP under Criteria A and C. The 600 Ord¬ 
nance Test Area District’s historic context is: the Inter-War era; World 
War II mobilization; and World War II. 

The findings of this current report concur with the earlier report’s existing 
district boundary but conclude the district today contains 20 contributing 
structures and 8 noncontributing structures for reasons of either newer 
construction or demolition as a result of Section 106 mitigation on previ¬ 
ously contributing buildings (Figure 218). 

For the 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic District, new construction 
must conform with a similar and in-kind design to the surrounding archi¬ 
tectural style. For example, new structures being built within or adjacent 
to the 600 Area Ordnance Testing Historic District, should conform to 
concrete construction and be patterned similar to contributing surround¬ 
ing buildings including their scale and massing. Additionally, new struc¬ 
tures within the remaining historic district should be painted white, con¬ 
crete gray, or tan/beige. The installation prefers a tan/beige exterior with 
dark green trim on most test range buildings, and an adobe red color on 
the clay tile buildings. Several of the buildings have been repainted re¬ 
cently with NJ HPO consultation. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


220 


Figure 218. The 600 Ordnance Testing Area Historic District boundary (green outline) 
and eligibility status for the structures within the proposed boundary, 2012. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


221 


5 Army Rocket Test Area Historic District 
(1500 Area) 

5.1 History 

The Army Rocket Test Area Historic District (also known as the “1500 
Area”) *34 was built over a period spanning the late 1940s to the 1960s 
(Figure 219 through Figure 221); the district includes the remnants of two 
Cold War Army testing facilities. One is a set of test stands, conditioning 
chambers, and support buildings for testing jet-assisted takeoff (JATO), 
rockets and missile components, located in the central part of the district. 
The Army’s rocket and missile testing program served basic research pur¬ 
poses and was part of the broader U.S. response to a perceived Soviet 
threat following World War II, but this was a time when outsourcing to 
private industry and academic institutions increasingly came to dominate 
military spending on both R&D and production projects.^ 

Picatinny was one of the Army’s six old-line manufacturing arsenals that 
participated in major weapons programs after World War II, and the as¬ 
signment to this installation in 1950 of nuclear munitions development en¬ 
sured that PICA would continue its rocket testing program throughout the 
ensuing decade. Important weapons systems for which components are 
known to have been tested in the 1500 Area include LOKI (1951), SAGE 
(1951), HONEST JOHN (1952), REDSTONE (1953), NIKE AJAX (1954), 
SHILLELAGH (1958), and PERSHING I (i960). Other systems that PICA 
participated in developing such as the CORPORAL, LACROSSE, NIKE 
HERCULES, HAWK, LITTLEJOHN, SERGEANT, LANCE, PATRIOT, and 
PERSHING II, also probably underwent components testing here. Follow¬ 
ing the Cold War, the test stands of this historic district continued to be 
used for static testing of thrusters, for a variety of tests on projectiles in de¬ 
velopment at Picatinny, and for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) 
tests. ! 3 6 


134 NOTE: Rocket Test Area Historic District has gone by a number of names including the Rocket Propel¬ 
lant Power Plant (late 1940s), the Liquid Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Test Area (early 1960s), and the 
1500 Area (present). 

135 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/index.html 

136 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/index.html 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


222 


The second constituent of the district is a group of pyrotechnics research 
facilities. These structures stood in two locations within the district: high- 
altitude simulation test chambers and related buildings were on the west 
end of the district near the entrance off Lake Denmark Road, and a group 
of research laboratories and storage buildings were at the east end of the 
district. Picatinny had led pyrotechnics development for the Army from 
the time the War Department created the Pyrotechnic Board after World 
War I, and the Arsenal was given oversight of national programs after 
World War II. The 1950s facilities were sited within the relatively remote 
rocket test area partly for safety reasons. The pyrotechnic facilities built 
there were state-of-the-art for their time, but were largely obsolete by the 
end of the 1970s. ^7 


Figure 219.1972 Picatinny Arsenal map with the 1500 Area indicated within the red 

box (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



137 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/index.html . 




















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


223 




Figure 221. Historic photograph of the 1500 Area, May 1951 (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office). 




































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


224 


5.2 Landscape inventory 

To identify the prominent or distinctive characteristics that make a land¬ 
scape historic, the physical features of the site are divided into eight (8) ar¬ 
eas: site and layout, land use, expressions of military cultural values, 
transportation networks, views and viewsheds, buildings and structures, 
vegetation, and small-scale features. These characteristics of the landscape 
combine to form the built environment that is the primary image of Picat- 
inny Arsenal. 

5.2.1 Site and layout 

The Army Rocket Test Area Historic District lies along Hart Road in a 
wooded area off Lake Denmark Road adjacent to the far northeast part of 
Picatinny Arsenal, although off the installation proper (Figure 222). The 
1500 Area is a 20-acre site currently used for storage, assembly, research, 
development, and testing of high explosives, propellants, and 
projectiles. 188 


138 Nolte, Kelly, Mark A. Steinback, and Mark Drumlevitch. HAB S Survey Documentation of Pyrotechnic 
R&D Laboratory #1510 and General Storage Building #15106, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. (Buffalo, NY: 
Panamerican Consultants, Inc., 2008), 26. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


225 


Figure 222. General layout of the 1500 Area at Picatinny Arsenal, May 1951 (PICA 

Cultural Resources). 



It-38031/58 March 1951 -KAriNUT »ost«Ai omNUMX coars 

General Layout Of The Rocket Tea tin* Area 

-at Plcatlniq Araaoal._ 


Although the 1500 Area is traditionally divided into the eastern and west¬ 
ern sections, the area really consists of three distinct building groupings: 
Extreme Environment Testing Area, the Testing Area, and the Storage and 
Laboratory Area. All of the 1500 Area is enclosed within a chain-link fence. 
In addition there is a path or sidewalk used for security monitoring just in¬ 
side the fence and visible on aerial photographs. x 39 Within the 1500 Area 
fence, the Testing Area and portions of the Storage and Laboratory Area 
are also within additional chain-link fences.^ 0 

The boundary of the Army Rocket Test Area Historic District, begins at 
Lake Denmark Road on the west and extends easterly behind Buildings 
1519 and 1520 to Building 1530 north of Hart Road. The boundary turns 
south and extends to encompass Buildings 1511,1515 and 1513, east of Sage 
Place. From Building 1513, the boundary turns west and runs behind the 


139 Chugach Industries 2008, 5-15. 
mo Nolteetal. 2008, 35. 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


226 


buildings along the south side of Hart Road to the end of the chain-link 
fence, where the boundary turns north and extends to Hart Road. The 
boundary continues westerly along Hart Road to Lake Denmark Road 
(Figure 223 ).w 

Figure 223. The Army Rocket Test Area Historic District (1500 Area) boundary is 
outlined in red. Red areas indicate buildings, blue area is wetland, and shaded area 
is a buffer zone. Lake Denmark road is on the left side of this figure (ERDC-CERL, 

2013). 



5.2.2 Land use 

A wooded area to the south of the buildings separates buildings and struc¬ 
tures from a number of pyrotechnic magazines (Figure 224 and Figure 
225). The wooded area serves as a type of blast protection and helps delin¬ 
eate the use areas within the 1500 Area. 


mi Ibid., 43. 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


227 


Figure 224. Historic aerial view of the 1500 Area, no date 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 225. Historic photograph of the placement of the Rocket Test Area with a row 
of trees for protection, May 1951 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


228 


5.2.3 Transportation networks 

A single road, Hart Road, provides access from Lake Denmark Road to the 
1500 Area (Figure 226 through Figure 228). Today, access to the 1500 
Area is through a gate on Hart Road, but historic maps depict a guard 
house which is no longer extant. No rail lines were discovered during field 
work. Walkways (some covered) connect the buildings and testing areas 
(Figure 229 and Figure 230). 


Figure 226. Hart Road is the main east access road into the 1500 Area from Lake 
Denmark Road on the area’s west side (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


229 


Figure 227. Hart Road (main access road to the Rocket Test Area), looking west 
towards Lake Denmark Road; note entrance gates in far background of photo 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 228. Paved road leading from the main access road (Hart Road) to the Testing 
Area in the district (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


230 


Figure 229. Concrete walkways connect the test stands in the Testing Area of the 
historic district (ERDC-CERL, 2102). 



Figure 230. Covered walkways near the test stand area in the Testing Area of the 
historic district (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 

















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


231 


5.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions 

The Army Rocket Test Area, as with most military industrial areas, was de¬ 
signed to efficiently and cost effectively support the mission. The buildings 
are uniformly laid out along the access road. The use of concrete block 
construction and lack of aesthetic extras support this efficiency (e.g., no 
landscaping or high-end building materials). 

In the 1500 Area, rockets were moved from buildings to be placed in test 
positions in the firing test bays. The design of the covered walkways was a 
typical industrial feature within this area (Figure 231). 


Figure 231. An Honest John rocket is carried down a covered walkway near Building 
1503 in 1953 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Buildings and clusters 

The 1500 Area is divided into three distinct building groups: (1) Storage 
and Laboratory Area, (2) the Testing Area, and (3) Extreme Environment 
Testing Area. 

The 1950s Contemporary style resembled the International style in having 
flat roofs and no decorative detail; however, it lacked the stark, white 
stucco surfaces of the International style, instead choosing combinations 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


232 


of wood, masonry, and stone. In the case of the Army, the building mate¬ 
rial of choice was concrete block. Concrete block is cheap, has superior 
tensile strength, and provides great flexibility in its use. During World War 
II, the Army had been partial to hollow-clay tile, which had many of the 
same features as concrete block and created a familiarity with hollow sup¬ 
porting units. The majority of the buildings within the Rocket Test Area 
Historic District have Contemporary style touches—asymmetry, flat roofs, 
and wide overhanging eaves. 

5.2.4.1 Storage and Laboratory Area 

The Storage and Laboratory Area is located off Hart Road on the east side 
of the district. In this section of the district, laboratories (chemistry, pyro¬ 
technic, physics), R&D buildings (chemistry, pyrotechnic, physics, ord¬ 
nance), and different types of storage structures are found. Some testing 
was done inside a building as opposed to the test area where live fire was 
tested primarily outside.^ 

The buildings in this area and their current uses include 1500 (Water 
Tower), 1509 (Ordnance Test Facility), 1509A (HVAC Building), 1510A 
(Storage), 1511 (Conditioning Building), 1512 (Chemistry Laboratory), 

1512A (Flammable Materials Storehouse), 1513 (Pyrotechnic R&D Labora¬ 
tory), 1514 (Pyrotechnic R&D Laboratory), and 1515 (Physics Laboratory 
and Administrative R&D; Figure 232). 


M 2 Nolteetal. 2008, 36-37. 

143 Nolte, Kelly, Kelly Mahar, Mark A. Steinback. Determination of Eligibility for 318 Buildings and Struc¬ 
tures for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, Picatinny Arsenal, Rockaway Township, 
Morris County, New Jersey. (Buffalo, NY: Panamerican Consultants, Inc., 2007), 4-126. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


233 


Figure 232. Buildings 1512 (left) and 1515 (right) in the Storage and Laboratory Area 
on the east side of the district (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



5.2.4.2 Testing Area 

Built over a period spanning the late 1940s to the 1960s, the district in¬ 
cludes the remnants of two Cold War Army testing facilities. During that 
time period, this area conducted fully instrumented tests on a wide variety 
of munitions systems and components, including gun and rocket propel¬ 
lants, projectiles, warheads, igniters, primers, detonators, fuzes, flares, 
and mines. The test generally involved explosives detonations or propel¬ 
lant burning but were not ballistic in nature since free flight of the test 
item was limited to a few feet. *44 One is a set of test stands, conditioning 
chambers, and support buildings for testing jet-assisted takeoff (Jato), 
rocket, and missile components, located in the central part of the dis¬ 
trict.^ 


This area, well away from the active test firing of propellants, was set aside 
for laboratories and longer term storage of explosives and other materials. 
Chemistry, physics and pyrotechnics laboratories were found in this area 
as were flammable, HE, and general storage facilities.^ 

Buildings in this area and their current uses include 1501 (R&D Admin¬ 
istration), 1502 (Ordnance Facility), 1503 (Powder Conditioning Building), 
1504 (Ordnance Facility), 1504A (Storage), 1505 (Test Cell and Control 


144 Nolte et al. 2007, 4-110. 

145 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/index.html 

146 Nolte et al. 2007, 4-134. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


234 


Room), 1505A (Test Cell and Control Room), 1505B (Test Cell), 1505C 
(Control House), 1505D (Test Cell), 1505E (Control Spin Room), 1505F 
(Storage and Wind Tunnel), 1505N (Open Back Blast Area), 1506 (Assem¬ 
bly Building), 1507 (High Explosives Earth-Barricaded Magazine), 1508 
(Derelict Storage), 1527 (Vacant), 1528 (Barricade), 1529 (General Purpose 
Warehouse), and 1530 (Administration Building; R&D Laboratories). 

Figure 233 through Figure 235 provide historic photos of Buildings 1506, 
1503, and 1505, respectively. 


Figure 233. Historic photograph of Building 1506 (Ordnance Facility), 1954 
(Chugach Industries 2008, 5-14). 





















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


235 




Figure 234. Historic photograph of Building 1503 (Temperature Conditioning 
Building), May 1951 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 


Figure 235. Historic photograph of Rocket Velocity Testing Facility (Building 1505), no 

date (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


236 


5.2.4.3 Extreme Environment Testing Area 

High-altitude simulation test chambers and related buildings were on the 
west end of the district, near the entrance off Lake Denmark Road. Build¬ 
ings in this area, Buildings 1517 (High Altitude Test Chamber), 1518 (Va¬ 
cant), 1519 (High Explosives Magazine), 1520 (High Explosives Magazine), 
1521 (Component Propellant Building), and 1522 (Ordnance Facility) were 
demolished recently in consultation with the NJ HPO. 

In total, the Army Rocket Test Area District consists of 25 contributing and 
five noncontributing buildings and structures, which are eligible for the 
NRHP under Criteria A and C as well under Criterion Consideration G, as 
determined by the NJ HPO. These buildings and structures are listed be¬ 
low in Table 7. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


237 


Table 7. List of buildings currently in the Army Rocket Test Area Historic District. 


Building 

Number 

Date 

Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District 

Eligibility 

Assessment Info 

Comments 

1500 

1947 

Water Tower 

Water Tower 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1501 

1948 

Electronic Equip; R&D Admin; CML Equip Material Facility; Service Bldg 

R&D Admin. Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1502 

1948 

Powder Conditioning Bldg; Service Bldg; Ordnance Facility; AC Plant; Compressor, Altitude 
Chamber 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1503 

1948 

Powder Conditioning Bldg; Ordnance Facility; Conditioning Bldg; Salt Spray Facility 

Powder Conditioning Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1504 

1948 

Storage Shed; Repair and Storage Bldg 

Ordnance Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1504A 

1948 

Test Stand #3; HP Storage Bottle Stand and Manifold; Gen Purpose Warehouse; Storage 
Shed; Ordnance Facility; Conditioning Bldg 

Storage 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505 

1948 

Ordnance Facility; Rocket Static Test Bldg 

Test Cell and Control Room 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505A 

1948 

Test Cell 

Test Cell and Control Room 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505B 

1948 

Test Cell 

Test Cell 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505C 

1958 

Control House 

Derelict Control House 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505D 

1965 

Test Cell 

Test Cell 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505E 

1966 

Control Spin Room 

Control Spin Room 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505F 

1959 

Storage and Wind Tunnel 

Storage and Wind Tunnel 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1505N 

1948 

Open Back Blast Area 

Open Back Blast Area 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1506 

ca. 

1946 

Ordnance Facility: Loading 

Assembly Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 

Building relocated to site in 1946 moved from Loki test facility, exact construction date 
unknown 

1507 

1946 

Gen Purpose Magazine 

High Explosives Earth-Barricaded Magazine 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1508 

1952 

Gen Purpose Magazine; Boiler House; High Explosives Magazine 

Derelict Storage (Spill Materials) 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 

Emergency Demo -(NJHPO-H2012-049); relocated within District to present location in 

1967 

1509 

1950 

Pyrotechnic Pressing Bldg and Lab 

Ordnance Test Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1509A 

1950 

HVAC Bldg 

HVAC Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1511 

1952 

Gen Purpose Storehouse; Inert Storehouse; Neutralizing and Pumpstation 

Conditioning Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 

Demo SHPO complete pending narrative completion; Demo per FRP from PYRO facility 

1512 

1952 

Physics Lab; Hyd Inj Caliber Stand; Basic Chemistry Research Lab; Laser Lab 

Chemistry Laboratory 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 

Demo SHPO complete pending narrative completion; Demo per FRP from PYRO facility 

1512A 

1958 

General Purpose Storehouse 

Flammable Materials Storehouse 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 

Demo SHPO complete pending narrative completion; Demo per FRP from PYRO facility 

1513 

1968 

Gen Purpose Magazine; Pyrotechnic R&D Lab; Engineering Lab 

Gen Purpose Magazine 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1514 

1968 

Liquid Storage Non-Purpose; Flame and Incendiary Reactory Dissemination Facility; 
Flammable Materials Storehouse 

Pyrotechnic R&D Lab 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1515 

1961 

Radiation Lab; Electronic Lab; Physics Lab; Propellant Mixing Station; Electrical Equip 

Facility 

Physics Lab; Admin R&D 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2007 


1516 

2010 

Ordnance Facility 

Ordnance Facility 

Not evaluated; not 50 years of age 

Not evaluated 


1527 

1960 

Barricade 

Vacant; Derelict 

Noncontributing 

Completed 2007 

Within Historic District Boundary; Demo NJ HPO complete via Final PA signature 17 May 10 

1528 

1963 

Barricade; Explosives Flammable Materials Storehouse 

Barricade 

Noncontributing 

Completed 2007 

Within historic district boundary; Demo NJ HPO complete via Final PA signature 17 May 10 

1529 

1964 

Gen Purpose Warehouse 

Gen Purpose Warehouse 

Noncontributing 

Completed 2007 

Within Historic District Boundary; Demo NJHPO complete via Final PA signature 17 May 10 

1530 

1982 

Admin Bldg; R&D Labs 

Admin Bldg; R&D Labs 

Noncontributing 

Completed 2007 

Within Historic District Boundary 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


238 


(This page left intentionally blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


239 


5.2.4.4 Contributing structures of the Army Rocket Test Area Historic District 

Building 1500: Water Tower (1947) 

The water tower originally had a red-and-white-checkered pattern painted 
on the metal surface. It is located off Hart Road and is a steel tank on a 
steel frame (Figure 236). 


Figure 236. Current condition of the water tower, Building 1500 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 














ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


240 


Building 1501: Electronic Equipment; R&D Administrative; Equipment Material 
Facility; Service Building (1948) 


Building 1501 was constructed in 1948 and is located along Hart Road 
(Figure 237). It was previously used as an electronic equipment building, 
R&D administration building, equipment material facility, service build¬ 
ing, and office. It is a long, rectangular, gable-roofed structure with a cov¬ 
ered walkway incorporated under the main roof line. The building sits on a 
concrete foundation, has concrete-block walls, and a roll roof.*47 


Figure 237. Leftside of the north elevation of Building 1501 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



147 Nolteetal. 2007, 4-111. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


241 


Building 1502: Powder Conditioning Building; Service Building; Ordnance Fa¬ 
cility; Altitude Chamber Plant Compressor (1948) 

Building 1502 was constructed in 1948. It was previously used as powder 
conditioning service building, ordnance facility, and altitude chamber 
plant compressor. Located off Hart Road, it is a long, rectangular, flat- 
roofed structure along a covered walkway. The building sits on a concrete 
foundation, has hollow tile walls, and built-up roof (Figure 238).* 4 8 


Figure 238. Northeast side of Building 1502 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



MS Ibid. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


242 


Building 1503: Powder Conditioning Building; Ordnance Facility; Conditioning 
Building; Salt Spray Facility (1948) 

Building 1503 was constructed in 1948. It was previously used as powder 
conditioning building and ordnance facility. Located off Hart Road, it is a 
long, rectangular, flat-roofed structure with a covered walkway (Figure 
239). The building sits on a concrete foundation, has concrete block walls, 
and a roll roof. ^9 


Figure 239. Southwest side of Building 1503 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



149 Ibid. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


243 


Building 1504: Storage Shed; Repair and Storage Building (1948) 

Building 1503 was constructed in 1948. It was previously used as an ord¬ 
nance facility, and a repair and storage shed. Situated along Hart Road, it 
is a long, rectangular, gable-roofed structure. The building sits on a con¬ 
crete foundation, has corrugated aluminum walls, and a corrugated alumi¬ 
num pitched roof (Figure 240). * 5 ° 



Figure 240. West elevation of Building 1504 (ERDC-CERL, 2013)). 


iso Ibid. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


244 


Building 1504A: Test Stand #3; High pressure Storage Bottle Stand and Mani¬ 
fold; General Purpose Warehouse; Storage Shed; Ordnance Facility; Condition¬ 
ing Building (1948) 

Building 1504A was constructed in 1948. It was previously used as test 
stand #3, high pressure storage bottle stand and manifold, general pur¬ 
pose warehouse, storage shed, and ordnance facility. Located off Hart 
Road, it is a small, square, shed-roofed structure with double doors. The 
building sits on a concrete foundation, has APM walls, and an APM corru¬ 
gated-aluminum roof (Figure 241).^ 


Figure 241. Southwest oblique of Building 1504A [Building 1504 is to right] (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 



Ibid. 

















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


245 


Building 1505: Ordnance Facility; Rocket Static Test Building (1948) 

Building 1505 was constructed in 1948. It was previously used as an ord¬ 
nance facility and a rocket static test building. Located off Hart Road, it is 
rectangular, flat-roofed structure with a covered walkway along the north 
side. The building sits on a concrete foundation, has concrete walls, and a 
built-up roof (Figure 242). To the rear of the building is a rocket-test bay 
with concrete walls. ^ 


Figure 242. South elevation of Building 1505 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



152 Ibid., 4-121. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


246 


Buildings 1505A and 1505B: Test Cells (1948) 

Test cells were generalized structures in which a variety of equipment 
could be set up as needed for specific types of tests. The warhead for 
PERSHING I was developed at Picatinny, and components of the motor 
were tested there as well. In what is now Building 1505A (it was then iden¬ 
tified as Static Firing Test Bay No. 4), the PERSHING underwent static 
spin testing. 1 ^ 

Building 1505A was constructed in 1948 as a test cell. It is a rectangular, 
flat-roofed structure located along a covered walkway. The building sits on 
a reinforced concrete foundation, has reinforced concrete and steel, open- 
back wall, and a reinforced concrete and steel roof. To the rear of the 
building is a rocket test bay with concrete walls. Building 1505B was con¬ 
structed in 1948 as test cell. It is a rectangular, shed-roofed structure sup¬ 
ported by two I-beams. The building sits on a reinforced concrete founda¬ 
tion, has a reinforced concrete and steel, open-back wall, and a reinforced 
concrete and steel roof (Figure 243). To the rear of the building is a rocket 
test bay with concrete walls. 


Figure 243. Building 1505A (left) and Building 1505B (right), Test Cells (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 



153 Nolte et al. 2008, page 31. 
























ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


247 


Building 1505C: Control House (1958) 

Building 1505C was constructed in 1958 as a control house. It is a rectan¬ 
gular, shed-roofed structure with a central entry flanked by two one-over- 
one windows. The building sits on a concrete foundation, has wood walls, 
and a rolled roof (Figure 244). *54 


Figure 244. Building 1505C (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



is4Nolteetal. 2007, 4-121. 













ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


248 


Building 1505D: Test Cell (1965) 

Building 1505D was constructed in 1965 as a test cell off Hart Road, is a 
rectangular, flat-roofed structure supported by two I-beams. The building 
sits on a reinforced-concrete foundation, has a reinforced-concrete and 
steel open-back wall, and a reinforced-concrete and steel roof (Figure 
245). To the rear of the building is a rocket-test bay with concrete walls, *55 


Figure 245. Building 1505D, Test Cell (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



155 Nolteetal. 2007, 4-121. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


249 


Building 1505E: Control Spin Room (1966) 

Building 1505E was constructed in 1966 as a control spin room. It is a rec¬ 
tangular, gable-roofed structure. The building sits on a concrete founda¬ 
tion, has corrugated-aluminum walls, and a corrugated-aluminum roof 
which was recently replaced in kind (Figure 246).Building is still in use 
today. 


Figure 246. East elevation of Building 1505E and covered walkway (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 



iseNolteetal. 2007, 4-121. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


250 


Building 1505F: Storage and Wind Tunnel (1959) 

Building 1505F was constructed in 1959 as a storage facility. A rectangular, 
shed-roofed structure along a concrete blast wall, the building sits on a dirt 
foundation, has wood walls, and a wood and asbestos roof (Figure 247).*57 


Figure 247. North elevation of Building 1505F (ERD-CERL, 2012). 



157 Ibid. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


251 


Building 1505N: Open Back Blast Area (1948) 

Building 1505N was built in 1948 as an open top and back-blast area. It is 
a three-sided structure with a reinforced-concrete foundation, reinforced- 
concrete walls (Figure 248).^ 


Figure 248. Building 1505N, Storage Building and Wind Tunnel (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



158 Ibid. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


252 


Building 1506: Ordnance Facility and Loading Building (ca. 1946) 

Building 1506, an ordnance facility and a loading and assembly building, 
was moved to this site in 1946 from the Loki Test Facility. The initial con¬ 
struction date is unknown. It is a rectangular, gable-roofed structure that 
sits on a concrete foundation, has corrugated-aluminum walls, and a cor¬ 
rugated-aluminum pitched roof (Figure 249)459 


Figure 249. Southwest oblique of Building 1506 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



159 Ibid. 























































ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


253 


Building 1507: General Purpose Magazine (1946) 

Building 1507 was constructed in 1946. It was previously used as a high ex¬ 
plosive (HE) and general purpose magazine. The building is a rectangular, 
flat-roofed structure with interior blast walls extending above the main 
roof line. The building sits on a concrete foundation, has transite walls, 
and a tar paper on wood roof (Figure 250). 160 


Figure 250. North elevation of Building 1507 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



iso Ibid. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


254 


Building 1508: General Purpose Magazine; Boiler House; High Explosives 
Magazine (1952) 

Building 1508 was constructed in 1952 as a boiler house for Building 1505. 
It was located to the east of 1505. In 1963 it was relocated near 1505E and 
reserviced for Class 9 inert storage. In 1967, it was moved to its current lo¬ 
cation adjacent to 1502 and 1503 and used for Class 7 powder storage. It 
was recently damaged in a wind storm and is slated for demolition. The 
building is a rectangular, shed-roofed structure that sits on a concrete 
foundation, has transite walls, and a transite roof (Figure 251). 161 


Figure 251. Building 1508, High Explosives Magazine (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



“I Ibid., 4-122. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


255 


Building 1509: Pyrotechnic Pressing Building and Laboratory (1950) 

Building 1509 was constructed in 1950. It was previously used as an ord¬ 
nance facility and a pyrotechnic pressing (placing under pressure [literally 
pressing] explosive elements so that they would detonate evenly and with 
great force) building and laboratory off Sage Place. It is a rectangular, flat- 
roofed structure, with two one-story bays with exterior stairs that flank the 
main two-story entrance. A series of blast bays with the blast walls extend¬ 
ing above the one-story roofline is south of the building. The building sits 
on a reinforced-concrete foundation, has reinforced-concrete walls, and a 
build-up reinforced-concrete roof (Figure 252). 162 


Figure 252. North elevation of Building 1509 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



162 ibid., 4-126. 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


256 


Building 1509A: HVAC Building (1950) 

Building 1509A is associated with Building 1509, an Ordnance Test Facil¬ 
ity, that had been used at various times for pyrotechnic pressing, a labora¬ 
tory, and as a general ordnance facility. Building 15 09A is the heating 
building for 1509, and it is connected by a series of shared pipes (Figure 
253) >3 


Figure 253. North elevation of Building 1509A (right), with pipes connecting it to 
Building 1509 (left) (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



163 Ibid., 4-126. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


257 


Building 1510A: Storage (1960); Demolished 

Building 1510A was a storage facility for the pyrotechnics laboratories and 
was constructed in i960 to replace two temporary storage buildings that 
stood in the same general location (these were labeled 1510A and 1510B). 
It was demolished recently. The building consisted of two separate, mir¬ 
ror-image, hollow-tile structures that shared a common roof (Figure 254). 
It was oriented toward Buildings 1512 and 1515 across the parking area, 
and a concrete walkway led from the parking area to doors that were 
slightly offset toward each other on the east fagade of each section. Six- 
pane windows were set centrally in the west fagade of each section. The in¬ 
terior of each section consisted of a single room lined with plywood shelv¬ 
ing. 1 ^ 


Figure 254. East elevation of Building 1510A, which was recently demolished 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



164 https://www.pica.army.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnyHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 
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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


258 


Building 1511: General Purpose Warehouse; Inert Storehouse; Neutralizing 
and Pumpstation (1952) 

Building 1511 was a small, rectangular, flat-roofed structure (Figure 255), 
located at the far eastern end of the district and behind Building 1512. It 
was listed as a conditioning building and a storehouse on building records, 
and was identified as a neutralizing and pump station in the architectural 
survey. A door was located in the west bay of the north fagade (front) of 
the building, and the adjacent east bay had a raised opening with a roll-up 
steel door (a loading dock). Windows were located in each bay of each of 
the other sides of the building. The east half of the building interior had an 
upper level, labeled as a "high pressure laboratory" on a 1976 electrical 
plan. It had exterior access via the loading dock door, and inside access via 
a set of metal steps and a door located just to the left of the building entry¬ 
way. Steps also led down from the entryway into the semi-subterranean 
basement level, which extended the entire length of the building. A small 
stream flows through the district just east of the building, causing flooding 
in the basement. l6 s Building is slated for demolition. 

Figure 255. Northwest oblique of Building 1511 (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 

2012 ). 



165 https://www.pica.army.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnyHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 
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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


259 


Building 1512: Physics Laboratory; Hydraulic Injection Caliber Stand; Basic Chemistry 
Research Laboratory; Laser Laboratory (1952) 

Building 1512 was built in 1956 to house an additional laboratory for the 
existing pyrotechnics R&D facility. It is rectangular shaped with a concrete 
foundation and glazed-tile walls. The building has a central double door¬ 
way on the west (front) fagade (later replaced with a single door), flanked 
by large windows, plus windows at the rear. The building contained four 
laboratory rooms equipped with fume hoods, an office, and a small confer¬ 
ence room. In 1964, an extension was built on the south side, adding two 
additional laboratory rooms, each with an exterior entrance door and win¬ 
dow. A bin for storing gas cylinders was later added to the south side of the 
addition. Building 1512 housed chromatography and spectroscopy instru¬ 
mentation in the 1950s and 1960s but circa 1970, the majority of the build¬ 
ing was in use as a laser laboratory. Laser technology, developed at the end 
of the 1950s and first operated successfully in i960, was soon under study 
in the military for use in igniting pyrotechnic devices (as well as for weap¬ 
ons guidance systems). Building 1512 was being used for equipment stor¬ 
age prior to being vacated for demolition (Figure 256). 166 Building 1512 is 
slated for demolition. 


Figure 256. Building 1512, Physics Laboratory northwest elevation (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 



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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


260 


Building 1512A: General Purpose Storehouse (1958) 

Building 1512A was built in 1958 for flammable materials storage. It is a 
small square building with a central doorway and a louvered vent on one 
side. The building once stood at the rear of Building 1512 near its south 
corner. When the extension was built on the south side of Building 1512 in 
1964, Building 1512A had to be moved; it was placed between Buildings 
1512 and 1513, with its door oriented to Building 1512 (Figure 257). As was 
typical at Picatinny, flammable or explosive materials were stored sepa¬ 
rately from the laboratories where they were used for experiments. l6 ? 
Building is slated for demolition. 

Figure 257. View south of Building 1512A, General Purpose Storehouse 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2012). 



167 https://www.pica.army.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnyHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 
tory/Morelnformation/Nol512a.html 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


261 


Building 1513: General Purpose Magazine; Pyrotechnic R&D Laboratory; Engi¬ 
neering Laboratory (1968) 


Building 1513 was constructed in 1968. It was previously used as a general 
purpose magazine, pyrotechnic R&D laboratory, and an engineering labor¬ 
atory. Located off Sage Place, it is a long, rectangular, flat-roofed structure 
with interior blast walls extending above the main roof line. The building 
sits on a reinforced-concrete foundation, has concrete-block walls, and a 
build-up on wood roof (Figure 258). 168 


Figure 258. View south at Building 1513, General Purpose Magazine (PICA Cultural 

Resources Office, 2012). 



issNolteetal. 2007, 4-133. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


262 


Building 1514: Liquid Storage Non-Purpose; Flame and Incendiary Reactory 
Dissemination Facility; Flammable Materials Storehouse; Pyrotechnic R&D La¬ 
boratory (1968) 

Building 1514 was constructed in 1968. It was previously used as a liquid 
storage non-propellant flame and incendiary trajectory dissemination fa¬ 
cility, pyrotechnic R&D laboratories, and flammable materials storehouse. 
Situated off Sage Place, it is a long, rectangular, flat-roofed structure with 
interior blast walls extending above the main roof line (Figure 259). The 
building sits on a reinforced-concrete foundation, has concrete-block 
walls, and a build-up on wood roof. An addition was made in 1968 by 
Rouse, Dublin & Ventura Architect and Engineers of New York. l6 9 


Figure 259. View south of Building 1514, Pyrotechnic R&D Laboratory 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



lea Nolteetal. 2007, 4-133. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


263 


Building 1515: Radiation Laboratory; Electronic Laboratory; Physics Labora¬ 
tory; Propellant Mixing Station; Electrical Equipment Facility (1961) 

Building 1515 was built in 1961 and previously used as a laboratory, pro¬ 
pellant mixing station, and electrical equipment facility. Located along 
Sage Place, it is a long, rectangular, flat-roofed structure with a central 
smokestack. The building sits on a reinforced-concrete foundation, has 
concrete block walls, and a build-up on wood roof (Figure 260). An addi¬ 
tion was made in 1968 by Rouse, Dublin & Ventura Architect and Engi¬ 
neers of New York. 1 ? 0 


Figure 260. View south of Building 1515 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



170 Nolte et al. 2007, 4-133. 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


264 


Building 1517: High Altitude Test Chamber (1956); Demolished 
Building 1517A: Electric Equipment Facility (1963); Demolished 
Building 1518: Instrumentation Building (1956); Demolished 

This pyrotechnics testing complex sat in a well-protected location sur¬ 
rounded by natural berms, just inside the Former Rocket Test Area His¬ 
toric District. Reflecting the military's Cold-War era readiness agenda, the 
facility was designed to simulate conditions of high-altitude flight. It con¬ 
sisted of two steel cone-shaped altitude test chambers, and the buildings 
housing the pumps and instrumentation used to operate the chambers and 
monitor the tests conducted in them. The first structures, erected in 1956 
(based on plans drawn in 1953-54), included one 75 ft-long test chamber 
(Chamber No. 1) and the long, narrow pump room adjacent to its south 
side (both were considered Building 1517; Figure 261); a frame instrument 
room behind the chamber (Building 1518; Figure 262); a frame electrical 
control room (later referred to as 1517A) adjacent to the instrument room 
and abutting the rear corner of the pump room; and small magazines set 
off in the woods nearby (Buildings 1519 and 1520; Figure 263) (see build¬ 
ing inventory in Table 7). Six vacuum pumps were installed in the pump 
room and connected to the chamber. A conditioning room, to house equip¬ 
ment used to bring test items to temperature specifications, was added im¬ 
mediately behind the pump room in 1957 or 1958. This structure, some¬ 
times labeled as Building 1517A (but not to be confused with the adjacent 
electrical control room), was no longer standing at the time the complex 
was surveyed for historic architecture in 2007. Plans for a second steel test 
chamber, Chamber No. 2, were drawn up in 1957, and construction was 
completed circa i960. At that time, the instrument room at the rear was 
expanded to encompass the back of the second chamber. In 1964 a new 
concrete-block observation room (Building 1518A) was constructed be¬ 
tween the two test chambers, toward the front. A new exhaust system for 
the chambers was installed in 1968, including a dome on Chamber No. 2 to 
facilitate the dispersion of smoke and powder from flare tests. 1 ? 1 

In the end high-altitude test chambers were costly and difficult to main¬ 
tain. They were used less and less through the 1970s and by the 1980s, 


171 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 
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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


265 


they were essentially obsolete. All three buildings have been demol¬ 
ished. 


Figure 261. Building 1517, now demolished, consisted of two large, connected 
chambers and a number of associated, connected buildings (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



Figure 262. Building 1518, now demolished, connected Chambers #1 and #2 with 
Building 1517A in the middle (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2011). 



172 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 

torv/Morelnformation/Nol517 18.html 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


266 


Buildings 1519 and 1520: Ready Magazines (1956); Demolished 


These small, square structures were built in 1956 for use as ready maga¬ 
zines to store items being tested in the high-altitude chambers. Records in¬ 
dicate that these buildings were part of the original complex, though not 
typically shown on plans. The buildings were sited in the woods, well away 
from the test chambers for safety; Building 1519 stood 72 feet north of the 
front of the Chamber No. 1, and Building 1520 (Figure 263) stood 80 feet 
to the northeast . 173 


Figure 263. Building 1520, now demolished, was identical to 1519 
(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


267 


Building 1521: Ordnance Facility (1960); Demolished 

Building 1521 was a salvaged ordnance shed placed in front of Chamber 
No. 1 in i960 and used for preparing pyrotechnic components for testing. 
It was a small, square, plywood structure with a shed roof, a door and two 
windows, and an electrical connection for lighting (Figure 264).^4 


Figure 264. Building 1521, now demolished (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



150 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 

torv/Morelnformation/Nol51 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


268 


Building 1522: Ordnance Facility (1970); Demolished 


Like Building 1521, Building 1522 was an ordnance shed salvaged from 
elsewhere on the base. It was placed in front of Chamber No. 2 in 1970 and 
used for preparing pyrotechnic components for testing. The small, square, 
shed-roofed structure had a door on the north (front) elevation and win¬ 
dows on the east and west sides (Figure 265). J 75 



Figure 265. East elevation of Building 1522, now demolished (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 


175 https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/FormerRocketTest/Photolnven- 

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ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


269 


Steam Line Distribution System 

The Steam Line Distribution System is a network of metal or asbestos-pro¬ 
tected metal conduit running above ground from the power plants 
throughout PICA. A centralized system of steam throughout PICA and the 
Lake Denmark NAD provided a source of heating and also allowed produc¬ 
tion facilities throughout the installation to use pressurized steam as a 
sparkless form of energy. The steam was created as a by-product of elec¬ 
tricity produced at the Power Plant (Building 506, originally Building 
1906) and the Boiler House (Building 3013, originally Building 1901). Wa¬ 
ter from Picatinny Lake was heated, and the steam was forced through tur¬ 
bines to produce energy. Pressurized steam was then sent to production 
facilities via metal conduit. On site, buildings were fitted with pressure-re¬ 
ducing valves and steam-powered equipment to reduce the risk of explo¬ 
sion. Overall, the Steam Line Distribution System consists of a network of 
metal conduit, supporting structures, and pressure-reducing valves. Most 
of the system visible has been replaced, but there are remnants of an ear¬ 
lier system of conduit supported on cast stone piers and on metal struc¬ 
tures when crossing over roads (Figure 266 and Figure 267). 


176 Harrell 1996, E-485. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


270 



Figure 266. Remnants of steam conduit supported on cast stone piers (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 



Figure 267. Steam lines supported by metal structure over the paved road 

(ERD-CERL, 2012). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


271 


5.2.5 Vegetation 

Today the vegetation in the Rocket Testing Area is overgrown, most likely 
since the 1980s and 1990s as the mission uses changed (Figure 268). His¬ 
torically this area would have been cleared back to a line that allowed for 
visibility and for fire breaks. For example, in the 1505 area, line of sight 
ranges were a 1000 ft x 10 ft swath (for Class 9 explosives) through the 
woods towards portable barricades (Figure 269 ).^7 The overgrowth has af¬ 
fected the integrity of the barricades (1527 and 1528) which are no longer 
visually associated with the testing area (Figure 270). 


Historically, testing areas had minimal ground vegetation or would have 
been mowed. Few trees would have been allowed to remain in the area, 
and those few would be adjacent to buildings and parking areas. Areas and 
buildings still in use today are being mowed (Figure 271). 


Figure 268. Overgrown vegetation on an earthen barricade (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



177 Image of Line of Sight range at Building 1505 from 1960s on file with PICA Cultural Resources Office. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


272 


Figure 269. Arrangement of velocity screens for use with 57 mm gun at range at 
Building 1505,1951 (Picatinny Arsenal Cultural Resources). 



Figure 270. Wooded area surrounding Building 1527, a noncontributing building to 
the Rocket Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


273 


Figure 271. Example of grasses kept mowed when adjacent to buildings or structures 

in current use (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


274 


5.2.5.1 Earth barricades 

Earth barricades or berms were built for protection. They were found in 
the test area and were constructed around propellant magazines (Figure 
272 through Figure 274). 


Figure 272. Earth barricade constructed around high explosives magazine (Building 
1507), 1964 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



Figure 273. Earth barricades around Building 1507 (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


275 


Figure 274. Relationship of building and earth barricade (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



5.2.6 Small-scale features 

Small-scale features found within the Rocket Testing Area include fencing 
and gates, covered walkways, and historic markers. 

5.2.6.1 Chain-link fencing and gates 

The entire 1500 Area is fenced. Controlled entry to the area is at the inter¬ 
section of Lake Denmark Road and Hart Road (Figure 275). Once inside 
the 1500 Area, the Testing Area is also fenced to restrict access for security 
and safety purposes (Figure 276). 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


276 


Figure 275. Main entry point into the Rocket Test Area through gate off Lake 
Denmark Road (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 




Figure 276. Another chain-link gate and fencing providing controlled access to the 
Rocket Test Area (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


277 


5 . 2 . 6.2 Historic marker 

A historic marker describing the significance of the Army Rocket Test Area 
is located outside the entrance gate at Hart Road (Figure 277). The historic 
markers for the NRHP-eligible historic district are used to identity and 
highlight these significant areas. The markers allow for military and civil¬ 
ian personnel and visitors to the installation to be more aware of the in¬ 
stallations’ historical heritage, to ensure the long-term preservation of 
these significant areas. The markers were funded by the Environmental 
Affairs Division and produced by Lake Shore Industries. Text was devel¬ 
oped by CRM, NJ HPO, and the Morris County Heritage Commission. 
Placement of the markers was carried out in 2012. 


Figure 277. Historic marker located near main entry to the Rocket Test Area (ERDC- 

CERL, 2012). 



5.2.7 Views and vistas 

Views and vistas would not have been part of the design and layout of the 
Rocket Testing Area, however, they were much needed to provide visibility 
at the ranges during the testing process. Mission-specific industrial areas 
on military installations rarely followed the design principles that are visi¬ 
ble in high-profile areas such as housing and administration. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


278 


5.3 Landscape evaluation 

Original site features of the Army Rocket Test Area can provide historical 
information on the testing process at Picatinny, and they are eligible to the 
National Register as features within the historic district. Ideally, the fea¬ 
tures with at least 50 years of age and retaining their original condition 
should be preserved. These features include, but are not limited to: walk¬ 
ways, benches, walls, fences, lighting, posts, pillars, and gates. Individual 
features in a property’s landscape should never be viewed in isolation, but 
rather in relationship to the landscape’s surrounding setting and overall 
fabric. 


5.3.1 Historic significance 

Activities occurring in the Army Rocket Test Area Historic District played 
a significant part of the United States’ and the Army’s initial forays into 
space. Picatinny served in key roles for some of the most important rocket 
programs and missile systems ever devised including those programs that 
involved the adaptation of rockets to accommodate nuclear warheads. Nu¬ 
clear warhead-adapted rockets include the HONEST JOHN, REDSTONE, 
LITTLE JOHN, and NIKE AJAX.^9 

The construction dates of the buildings within the Rocket Test Area span a 
broad spectrum from 1946-1980, all of which fall within the Cold War pe¬ 
riod, 1946-1989. According to Army Cold War Guidelines for deciding 
building/structure significance, the determination of significance is made 
only after a resource is shown to be important to one or more of the Army 
Cold War Themes. The Rocket Test Area meets two of the Army’s broad 
themes: Technological Imperative and Survival and Preparation for a Hot 
War. Specific Army themes the area meets include: Mission Focus, Tech¬ 
nology, and Militarization of Space. 180 

5.3.2 Integrity 

The area at the time of this investigation was mostly overgrown with vege¬ 
tation and run down (Figure 278). Some of the buildings and structures 


178 Chugach Industries 2008, 6-16. 
ire Nolteetal. 2008, 33. 
iso Ibid. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


279 


are derelict, but some portions of the area are still used for testing today. 
Old testing equipment is strewn all over the wooded area (Figure 279). 


Figure 278. Overgrown vegetation on structure for steam line distribution pipes 

(ERDC-CERL, 2012). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


280 


Figure 279. Remnant testing materials in the landscape (ERDC-CERL, 2012). 



5.3.3 Character-defining features 

Character-defining features are landscape features that were part of the in¬ 
itial design, present throughout the period of significance as established in 
the National Register nomination, and continue to be evident in the dis¬ 
trict today. Character-defining features of the Army Rocket Test Area His¬ 
toric District are listed in Table 8, along with summaries of their historical 
significance, integrity, and NRHP eligibility. 


Table 8.1500 Area character-defining features. 


Character-Defining 

Features 

Historical Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Circulation and 
roadways 

A straight drive, Hart 

Road, provides access to 
test areas and 
laboratories at end. 

• Hart Road still in 
good condition; 
smaller drives to 
unused testing 
areas in disrepair. 

Yes 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


281 


Character-Defining 

Features 

Historical Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Clustering of 
buildings 

Historically a testing 
area, building 
separations are based 
on building functions 
and safety 

• Spacing between 
buildings remains 
the same 

Yes 

Covered walkways 
and walkways 

Provided access from 
magazines and 
laboratories to test cells 
and blast areas. 

• Paint peeling, 
rusted and in 
disrepair; poor 
condition. 

Yes 

Berms/earthen 

barricades 

Built to provide blast 
protection and 
containment. 

• Most overgrown 

Yes 

Vegetation 

Historically all vegetation 
in this area was cleared 
for safety and fire 
prevention. The lack of 
vegetation is the 
significant feature. 

• Mowed lawns are 
maintained 

• Unused test areas 
and some berms 
are overgrown. 

• Tree line used to 
buffer adjacent 
areas 

Yes 

Steam lines 

Steam lines existed 
historically throughout 
installation 

• Still in use 

• Has been replaced 
as needed 

Yes 

Testing flagpole 

Flagpole is located along 
the main road to warn of 
testing. 

• Rusted 

Yes 

Fencing and 
sidewalk 

Built to restrict access 
for security and safety. 

• Entrance gate is 
newer; entire area 
fenced. 

Yes 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


282 


5.3.4 Final determinations 

The buildings in the Army Rocket Test Area were used to meet a perceived 
Soviet military threat and to influence Soviet objectives and policy through 
the development of rockets and missile systems that could and would mili¬ 
tarize space or change the traditional battlefield into a nuclear one. The 
implied or actual use of nuclear war material is considered one of the most 
significant aspects of the Cold War. Certainly, the Army Rocket Test Area 
meets these criteria. 181 

The Army Rocket Test Area Historic District (1500 Area) is eligible as a 
district for the NRHP under Criterion A (contributing to the broad pat¬ 
terns of history) and Criterion C (architectural/engineering features) as 
well as satisfying Criteria Consideration G, a property achieving signifi¬ 
cance within the past 50 years that is of exceptional importance. 182 

In 2007, Panamerican Consultants recommended the Army Rocket Test 
Area Historic District was eligible for listing to the NRHP, and the NJ HPO 
concurred (Figure 280 ). l8 3 

While the landscape in the 1500 Area still conveys the mission, the circula¬ 
tion networks, the relationships between the buildings and structures, the 
covered walkways, the steam lines, the security fencing, berms and barri¬ 
cades, and the overgrown vegetation and derelict appearance affect the in¬ 
tegrity of the landscape. 


181 Nolteetal. 2008, 33. 

182 Ibid. 

I 88 Nolteetal. 2007, 4-134. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


283 


Figure 280. Existing Rocket Test Area Historic District boundary 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office). 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


284 


(This page intentionally blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


285 


6 NARTS Test Areas D and E Historic 
Districts 

6.1 History 

A separate Navy installation stood adjacent to the north and east of Picat- 
inny Arsenal until i960. This was the Lake Denmark Powder Depot (fa¬ 
mous for the 1926 explosion), later named the Naval Ammunition Depot, 
which became obsolete after World War II. In 1946, the Navy leased land 
to a local, private firm, Reaction Motors, Inc. (RMI)., and partly by the 
Navy for its in-house rocket research program. Reaction Motors, seeking a 
secluded site in the Denville area, first leased land and buildings here from 
the Navy in mid-1946. RMI was founded in 1941 (absorbed by the Thiokol 
Corporation in 1958, becoming the Reaction Motors Division [RMD], later 
becoming Thiokol Propulsion until being acquired by Alliant Techsystems 
[ATK] in 2001). Seeking a secluded area, RMI built 9 rocket test stands 
and related facilities on the north side of Snake Hill Road, and continued 
work on their 6000 series engines, including the 6000C4 (later called the 
XLR-11), which would power the Bell X-i aircraft that broke the sound 
barrier in 1947-Their work led to the development of both the XLR-II and 
the XLR-99 engine. Tested at Lake Denmark, the XLR-99 liquid rocket en¬ 
gine was the first large, throttle-able, restartable, liquid propellant rocket 
engine. The XLR-99 was used for the X-15, the experimental hypersonic 
aircraft, and a preliminary design for the Space Shuttle called for its use . l8 4 

The Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics, which wanted a rocket-engine test cen¬ 
ter on the east coast, established the Naval Aeronautical Rocket Labora¬ 
tory (NARL) at Lake Denmark in 1948. The advantages of this location in¬ 
cluded the installation's existing infrastructure; excellent transportation 
connections; relative proximity to Washington, D.C.; and access to special¬ 
ized personnel and materials procurement in this highly-industrialized re¬ 
gion of the country. l8 5 The Navy's relationship with its tenant, Reaction 
Motors, was also an important factor. NARL built 11 more test stands and 
related facilities, infrastructure, and interim labs. The name was changed 
to the Naval Air Rocket Test Station (NARTS) in April 1950 (Figure 281 
and Figure 282). The NARTS was established for testing and evaluating 


184 Chugach Industries 2008, 4-22. 

185 http://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/cultural/picatinnvhistoricdistricts/NARTS/index.html 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


286 


“rocket engines, components and propellants, and training service person¬ 
nel in handling, servicing, and operating rocket engines.” 186 Later decom¬ 
missioned by the Navy, the Lake Denmark installation reverted to PICA in 
August i960, enlarging the installation to its present size. 


Figure 281. NARTS Test Areas map, no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



186 Chugach Industries 2008, 4-22. 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


287 



Figure 282. The rocket test areas built between 1946 and 1953 are shown in this 
1960s aerial. The view is to the south (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 


Test Area E - 
NARTS, 1953 


Test Area D - 
begun by NARL, 
completed under 
NARTS, 1951 


Test Areas 
B and C - 
Test stands 
added by NARL 
1948-1950 


Test Area A - 
Original RMI 
test stands 


6.1.1.1 NARTS Test Area D Historic District 

NARTS Test Area D was completed in 1951. It is here, presumably, that the 
Navy tested its contractors’ work, conducted independent tests, wrote 
guidelines, and experimented with any number of rocket-related activities 
such as the decay time for hydrogen peroxide. It was the area where the 
majority of the NARTS projects were conducted. In connection with Test 
Area E, the largest static rocket test stand on the East Coast, Area D served 
as the nerve center for various Navy rocket projects, the most important of 
which was the testing of the XLR-99 rocket engine, which was conducted 
with RMD . l8 7 Figure 283 through Figure 286 show historic and current 
views of Test Area D along with a map indicating the area’s boundaries. 


187 Nolte et al. June 2009, 41. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


288 


Figure 283. Historic view of NARTS Test Area D, 1962 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 



Figure 284. Historic photograph of rocket motor tests at Building 3606, no date (PICA 

Cultural Resources Office). 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


289 


Figure 285. Entrance sign for NARTS Test Area D with historic plaque (ERDC-CERL, 

2012 ). 



Figure 286. Map showing NARTS Test Area D Historic District, located in center of red 

box (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


290 


6.1.1.2 NARTS Test Area E Historic District 

NARTS Test Area E was created in 1948 and completed in 1953 (Figure 
287 and Figure 288). The earliest work at NARTS was devoted primarily to 
liquid propulsion, but it eventually encompassed a wide range of activities 
including evaluation of rocket engines and rocket systems, development of 
methods for analyzing rocket propellants, and the collaboration with pri¬ 
vate industry on a wide range of experiments and safety manuals. All these 
function were part of the NARTS missions as assigned by the Chief of Na¬ 
val Operations: “to test, evaluate and conduct studies pertaining to rocket 
engines, their components and propellants.” 188 Test Area E was considered 
the most “elite” among the many facilities at NARTS. 

In 1960-1962, Lake Denmark NAD was disestablished, and its land and 
facilities were fully transferred to the Army’s Picatinny Arsenal. Testing at 
the NARTS Test Area E would end in the early 1970s. The Rail Gun at 
NARTS Test Area D was still used in the 1980s for x-ray testing. 


Figure 287. Early construction activities and site overview in Test Area E, 1952 

(Nolte et al. June 2009). 



188 Nolte et al. September 1999, iv. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


291 



Figure 288. Former NARTS Test Area E Historic District prior to demolition, centered 
in red box (only 3622 and 3623 remain) (ERDC-CERL). 


6.2 Landscape inventory 

6.2.1 Site and layout 

6.2.1.1 Site and layout of NARTS Test Area D 

NARTS Test Area D is located off Picatinny installation proper, in the 
Snake Hill Road area of the former Lake Denmark NAD on the south side 
of Snake Hill Road (Figure 289). Directly east of NARTS Area D is E Road, 
which runs south to the NARTS Test Area E. NARTS Area D was used pri¬ 
marily for the Navy’s in-house evaluation and development of rocket en¬ 
gines and propellants by the renowned team at the NARTS Rocket Propul¬ 
sion Laboratory. l8 9 


189 Excerpt from Picatinny Website. For full documentation please refer to 
https://www.pica.armv.miI/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/NARTS/index.html# 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


292 


Figure 289. Aerial view of NARTS Test Area D, no date (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 



6.2.1.2 Site and layout of NARTS Test Area E 

NARTS Test Area E was located on E Road south of Snake Hill Road south 
east of NARTS Test Area D. The test area occupied 14 acres on a precipi¬ 
tous slope that was used to advantage in the construction of Buildings 3617 
and 3618. 

The Naval depot had everything needed for a successful testing facility. It 
was located in a fairly isolated area but had excellent transportation con¬ 
nections up and down the east coast. The depot was situated in a highly in¬ 
dustrialized portion of the country that facilitated the hiring of specialized 
personnel and the procurement of materials. ^ 


190 Nolte et al. June 2009, 40. 

191 Nolte et al. September 1999,101. 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


293 


The HAER report from 2009 concluded that the entire NARTS Test Area E 
formed a single district with Building 3617 and 3618, which were still sur¬ 
rounded by their original landscape design, as the two most important 
structures within it. 1 ? 2 

The entire area is enclosed in a chain-link fence that is now secured with a 
padlock. The chain link fence forms the boundary of the district. NARTS 
Area E was demolished in 2014-2015. 

6.2.2 Land use 

6.2.2.1 Land use NARTS Test Area D 

Test Area D was used primarily for the Navy's in-house evaluation and de¬ 
velopment of rocket engines and propellants by the renowned team at the 
NARTS Rocket Propulsion Laboratory. The buildings clustered around a 
drive off Snake Hill Road (Figure 290) and included a number of test 
stands, bunkers, control rooms, water flow facility, and a few small shops, 
a lunch room/change house and toilet. 


192 Nolte et al. June 2009, 16. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


294 


Figure 290. Cluster of buildings near the entrance into the NARTS Area D 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



Q.2.2.2 Land use NARTS Test Area E 

The natural slope of the landscape is the defining landscape element of the 
district. The slope was utilized in the designs of Buildings 3617 and 3618. 
For example, the slope was used to shield the first floor of Building 3617 
from blast/engine emissions stemming from the test stand. The test stand 
also used the slope of the area to advantage. A rocket engine was actually 
cantilevered from the test stand and fired down the side of the slope into a 
pit area dug deeply into the slope. The slope itself provides insulation and 
protection from the blast. x 93 


193 Ibid., 50. 










ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


295 


6.2.3 Transportation networks 

6.2.3.1 Transportation networks NARTS Test Area D 

NARTS Test Area D is located along Snake Hill Road. An entrance is lo¬ 
cated at the northern end of the site. A circular drive connects all the 
buildings and structures with the entrance gate (Figure 291). 


Figure 291. Curved road that provides access to the NARTS Testing Area D from 
Snake Hill Road (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



6.2.3.2 Transportation networks NARTS Test Area E 

NARTS Test Area E site is accessed by E Road (Figure 292), an asphalt 
road off Snake Hill Road that climbs the slope and circles around the rear 
(south) of the Rocket Test Stand, passing under the bridge that extends 
from the liquid oxygen fuel (LOX) pad to the rear entry of the test stand. J 94 
The path of the road passed all of the primary structures within Test Area 
E and is a defining man-made landscape element.*95 


194 |bid„ 40. 

195 Ibid., 50. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


296 



Figure 292. Single-lane road that provides access to NARTS Testing Area E from 
Snake Hill Road (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 


6.2.4 Expression of military cultural traditions 

The NARTS Test Areas D and E were designed, as were most military in¬ 
dustrial areas, to efficiently and cost-effectively support the military mis¬ 
sion (Figure 293). The buildings are uniformly laid out along the access 
road. The use of concrete-block construction and the lack of aesthetic ex¬ 
tras such as landscaping or high-end building materials, support this effi¬ 
ciency. 

6.2.5 Buildings and clusters 

6.2.5.1 Buildings and clusters in NARTS Test Area D 

The NARTS Test Area D Historic District currently consists of four con¬ 
tributing buildings and structures, which are eligible for the NRHP under 
Criteria A and D (as determined by the NJ HPO), and four noncontrib¬ 
uting structures (Table 9). Several buildings and structures were demol¬ 
ished recently. 















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


297 


Figure 293. Historic photograph showing the construction of Building 3603 (Test 
Stand D-l), 1950 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


298 


(This page intentionally left blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


299 


Table 9. List of buildings in the NARTS Test Area D Historic District. 


Building 

Number 

Date Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District Eligibility 

Assessment 

Info 

Comments 

3602 

1952 

NARTS Oxidizer Bunker; Liquid Propellant Storage; Detection Facility; 

Radar Equipment Storage 

Liquid Propellant 

Storage 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2004 

Prior Navy Bldg 792 

3607 

1950 

NARTS Test Cell 2-D and 3-D Central Control Room; Electronic 

Equipment Facility 

Central Control Room 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2004 

Prior Navy Bldg 766; Demo NJ HPO complete pending narrative 

3610 

1952 

NARTS Liquid Propellant Storage; Ready Storage Shed; Radar and 
Detection Equipment Storage 

Propellant Systems 
Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2004 

Prior Navy Bldg 793 

3614 

ca. 1973 

Open Test Cell 

Open Test Cell 

Noncontributing to District/Determined 

Not Eligible 

Completed 2004 

Within District Boundary 

3616 

ca. 1950; walls framed 
in 1959 

NARTS Environmental Test Bldg 

Environmental Test 

Bldg 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Completed 2004 

Demo NJ HPO complete pending narrative 

3620 

1973 

Ballistic Rail Gun 

Ballistic Rail Gun 

Noncontributing to District/Determined 

Not Eligible 

Completed 2004 

Within Historic District boundary; US Army Stock No. 10, 7148074, Mechanism recoil M6A2, No. 2125, US 1944, Rock 
Island Arsenal, Overhauled by Lead 6169 

3628 

NA 

Navy Gun Turret 

Navy Gun Turret 

Noncontributing to District 

Completed 2004 

Within Historic District boundary; 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


300 


(This page left intentionally blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


301 


Building 3602: NARTS Oxidizer Bunker; Liquid Propellant Storage; Detection 
Facility; Radar Equipment Storage (1952) 

Building 3602 was constructed in 1952 as a NARTS Oxidizer Bunker. It is 
a small rectangular structure with metal walls and a flat corrugated-metal 
roof (Figure 294). Chain-link fencing surrounds the building. 


Figure 294. Building 3602, NARTS Liquid Propellant Storage (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


302 


Building 3603: NARTS Stand D-l; Test Cell Booster (1950) Demolished 

Built in 1949-1950, Test Stand D-l was the largest rocket test stand and 
stood at the west end of Test Area D (Figure 295). It was a massively con¬ 
structed reinforced-concrete structure standing 37 feet 9 inches tall. The 
stand had a working/utility floor at ground level and an upper firing floor. 
A concrete-block room attached to the north side contained an internal 
stairway which provided access to the firing floor via a double steel door. 
There was also an external ramp to the firing floor on the south side of the 
building. A large steel gantry crane was attached to the south side of the 
structure, and a 5-ton electric hoist mounted on the ceiling of the building 
was used to lift rockets into firing position. A rectangular fuel-neutralizing 
pit for receiving rocket exhaust during vertical test firings was built into 
the ground at the south side of the stand (beneath the gantry). 

Test Stand D-l, designed by the Bureau of Yards and Docks, was under 
construction when Naval Aeronautical Rocket Laboratory (NARL) pub¬ 
lished its January 1950 progress report. It was considered the most up-to- 
date and best-equipped static test stand of its kind in the country at that 
time, with a thrust capacity of 100,000 pounds (exceeded only by the large 
test stand at White Sands in California). Firings could be from either hori¬ 
zontal or vertical attitudes for durations of up to five seconds, and rockets 
up to 20 feet long by 30 inches in diameter could be mounted. 

D-l was one of the first three test stands built by the Navy in Test Area D. 
The other two, D-2 and D-3 (called the “small scale test stands,” with a 
thrust capacity of 20,000 pounds), stood farther east and flanked a control 
room for all three stands. Firings at Test Stand D-l were controlled and 
viewed by remote control from this part of the facility. Test stands D-2 and 
D-3 and the control room collectively make up present-day Building 
3607. !9 6 


196 Edited excerpt from Picatinny Website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 
tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3603.html 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


303 


Figure 295. View west at Buildings 3603 (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010). 



Building 3604: NARTS Test Cell D-4 (1953); Demolished 

This test stand was built in 1953. It was 14 foot square and made of heavy 
reinforced concrete with large double doors which were opened for hori¬ 
zontal firings out the south side (Figure 296). Engine mounts were at¬ 
tached to steel rails in the floor during testing. Apparently firings in D-4 
were controlled and monitored from the Central Control Room (Building 
3607) for the first few years. Then in 1956, a new control room (Building 
3605) and test stand (Building 3606, Test Stand D-6) were built immedi¬ 
ately to the east, forming a three-building unit. In 1958, plans were drawn 
up to convert both D-4 and the adjacent large vertical test stand (D-i) to 
specialized stands for testing liquid-propellant engines. The conversion of 
D-i was never carried out, but D-4 was altered substantially. An 18 foot, 
reinforced-concrete addition was built on the north side, resulting in two 
main sections. One large section (14 x 14 feet) was divided into two rooms, 
with a north-south wall separating them. The west bay was for fuel tanks, 
the east for oxidizer tanks. New wall pockets were cut into the concrete 
wall between the test bay and the tank rooms. Two smaller valve rooms 
(each 4 feet deep) were located on the north side of the tank bays with ex¬ 
terior doors at the sides, and there was a 5 feet-deep rectangular concrete- 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


304 


block neutralization pit with a steel cover, located adjacent to the north ex¬ 
terior to provide access to piping. Tanks were pressurized with nitrogen 
that was piped throughout Test Area D. According to a ca. 1959 description 
of Test Stand D-4, it could be used for testing engines with up to 30,000 
pounds of thrust. ^7 


Figure 296. View south at Building 3604 (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



197 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3604.html 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


305 


Building 3605: NARTS Control House for D-4 and D-6; Electronic Equip Facility 
(1956); Demolished 

This control chamber (Figure 297), dating to 1956, was built along with 
Test Stand D-6, which stood immediately to the east. It was also connected 
to Test Stand D-4 which stood to the immediate west. From here, tests 
conducted at the flanking stands were controlled, monitored by closed-cir¬ 
cuit TV, and recorded. The original building was 14 x 21 feet with concrete 
foundation and walls, a central rear (north) door, and a central viewing 
port on the south side. In 1958, as part of the conversion of Test Stand D-4 
to liquid propellant testing, the control room was more than doubled in 
size when a 14 feet north extension was built, including a small (4 feet) 
ell. The new addition had two windows on the north facade and exterior 
doors on the east and west. 1 ^ 8 


Figure 297. Southeast oblique of Building 3605, NARTS Control House 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010). 



198 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation please refer to 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3604.html 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


306 


Building 3606: NARTS Small Scale Test Stand; Propellant Systems Facility 
(1956); Demolished 

This test stand was built in 1956 along with a control room immediately to 
the west (Building 3605). D-6 was a 12 x 14 ft reinforced concrete structure 
used for testing solid propellant motors and jet-assisted takeoff units (JA- 
TOs) up to a thrust capacity of 40,000 pounds. JATOs were mounted on a 
roller frame and bolted to rails imbedded in the floor. Firing was done hor¬ 
izontally or at slight angles using special mounts. The firing bay had dou¬ 
ble set of steel doors to the south that opened for testing. The interior was 
divided by V2-in. thick steel partitions into three rooms—a large full-width 
firing room and two smaller rooms behind it, each with an exterior door 
on the side. The roof was slightly pitched down to the north. There were 
small louvered vents situated high-up on each side of the firing bay. In 
i960, Test Stand D-6 was destroyed in a failed liquid-fueled rocket motor 
test; evidently, the stand was completely rebuilt, though not until 1964 
(Figure 298)499 It was recently demolished. 


Figure 298. Southeast oblique of Building 3606 (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



199 Edited excerpt from Picatinny Website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3606.html 
















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


307 


Building 3607: Central Control Room for Test Cell D-l and D-2; Electronic 
Equip Facility (1950) 


Building 3607 was renovated in 2011 (Figure 299). New doors were added, 
and window was replaced on the western fagade. The interior was reno¬ 
vated slightly for new control room uses. 



Figure 299. Building 3607, Central Control Room (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


308 


Building 3608: NARTS Heating Plant (Oil-Fired); Boiler House (1958); Demol¬ 
ished 

Building 3608 was a small (10 sq ft) boiler room built in 1958 to service 
the adjacent Building 3609, a “Passivation Facility.” Building 3608 had a 
concrete foundation and slab floor, concrete block walls, flat roof, and a 
metal-framed door centered on the west side. A tall sheet-steel chimney 
pipe emerged from the south wall (Figure 300). 200 

Figure 300. Southeast oblique of Building 3608, NARTS Test Area D Boiler House 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010). 



200 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3608.html 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


309 


Building 3609: NARTS Oxidizer Bunker; Propellant Handling Facility; 
Passivation Facility; Water Flow Facility; Ordnance Facility with Neutralizing Pit 
(1958); Demolished 

The 1958 plans for this building call it a “Passivation Facility,” and a 1959 
NARTS brochure refers to it simply as a new hazardous-propellant han¬ 
dling building. Passivation (also referred to as “pickling”) is the prepara¬ 
tion of a metal surface with chemicals so that it becomes more passive (or 
resistant) to further chemical reactions that cause corrosion (e.g., from 
stored liquids). An important aspect of the work NARTS did on propel¬ 
lants involved finding ways to handle and store oxidizers and fuels that 
were potentially highly corrosive and combustible. The building also had 
facilities for conducting flow calibrations and small-scale hazardous blend¬ 
ing tests, and it was equipped with two fume hoods. The L-shaped struc¬ 
ture included the Passivation Room section (31 x 16 ft), which was oriented 
east-west, and two 11 x 12 ft storage bunkers on the east side (Figure 301). 
The latter held hydrogen peroxide used for treating metal. The height of 
the main section was 13 ft 4 in., and the height of the bunker rooms was 8 
feet 10 in. The main section had a concrete entrance ramp on the west end, 
three evenly spaced windows on the north fagade, and an entrance door 
and window on the rear (south) fagade. A “monorail” (presumably for 
moving tanks) ran down the center of the floor, and the fume hoods stood 
against the north and south walls. The drainage system included a 6 foot- 
square neutralization pit built into the ground outside the north side of the 
building. In 1969, the building was converted to a water flow facility and 
two large cylindrical tanks (26 x 4 ft) were installed below ground on the 
north exterior. The Passivation Room became the Flow Room, the north 
bunker became the Pump Room, and the south bunker became the Control 
Room. 201 


201 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 
tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3609.html 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


310 


Figure 301. Building 3609, now demolished (PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010). 



Building 3610: NARTS Liquid Propellant Storage; Ready Storage Shed; Radar 
and Detection Equip Storage (1952) 

Building 3610 was constructed in 1952 as a NARTS Liquid Propellant Stor¬ 
age Bunker. It is a small rectangular structure with concrete block walls 
and a flat corrugated-metal roof (Figure 302). 


Figure 302. Building 3610, NARTS Liquid Propellant Storage (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office, 2010). 




















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


311 


Building 3611: NARTS Instrument Shop; Electronic Equipment Facility (1956- 
7); Demolished 


The Instrument Shop was built in 1956-1957. It contained an electronic 
workshop, storage room, instrument calibration room, office, and boiler 
room. The shop handled fabrication of instruments designed by the 
NARTS Instrumentation Branch and the repair, overhaul, and storage of 
all instruments and spare parts used for Test Area D static firing tests. The 
main section of the building was 49 ft 4 in. x 23 ft 4 in., constructed of con¬ 
crete block. It had an entrance door and three windows on the south fa- 
gade (Figure 303), two windows on the east, and four windows on the 
north. A small 10 x 12 ft ell on the west side contained the boiler room. 
Plans were drawn up for a small shed-roofed extension on the north side 
in 1963, but there is no evidence that this addition was built. 202 It was de¬ 
molished recently. 


Figure 303. Southeast oblique of Building 3611, NARTS Electronic Equipment Facility 
(PICA Cultural Resources Office, 2010). 



202 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3611.html 











ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


312 


Building 3612: NARTS Components Testing (1953); Demolished 

Also known as testing facility D-5, the 1953 Components Workshop was 
divided into nonhazardous and hazardous areas. The reinforced-concrete- 
walled hazardous portion was on the building’s west side, in an L configu¬ 
ration. A12 x 27 ft gas flow room spanned the width of the building, and a 
14 ft x 7 ft 6 in.-high-pressure tank room lay perpendicular to it on the 
south side of the building. Tests of high-pressure inert gas equipment, ig¬ 
nition delay, and gas generator performance were conducted in this part of 
the building. The remaining nonhazardous section of the building, of con¬ 
crete block construction, contained a large assembly-disassembly area, an 
office, and a storage room. This section was used for testing rocket engine 
components, and had a flow-test system that delivered water at pressures 
up to 1200 pounds per square inch (psi) and flow rates up to 500 gallons 
per minute (gpm). A centrally located instrument and control area served 
the entire building. Circa 1959, instruments typically in use in the building 
included six high-speed potentiometer chart recorders; oscillographs and 
other recorders were installed as needed. 

There were no windows in the hazardous side of the building, but two sets 
of double doors on the south fagade provided access to the gas flow room 
and the tank room. The nonhazardous side of the building had large win¬ 
dows on the north, south, and east sides, and on the north fagade there 
was a doorway and a bay with an overhead roll-up steel door. The western¬ 
most double door on the south side of the building as well as the roll-up 
door on the north side were later replaced with aluminum roll-up doors. 
Sometime before ca. i960, an extension consisting of two concrete-block 
shed structures was added to the south side of the building at the east end. 
The function of this extension is not known. It was in place by the time of 
publication of the “All About NARTS” brochure (ca. 1959). A1969 building 
list mentions “X-36i2“ as a barricade on the south side of Building 3612, 
and it is possible this actually refers to the extension, though “X” typically 
designated open storage . 2 °3 Figure 304 shows one view of Building 3612 in 
2010. 


203 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 
tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3612.html 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


313 


Figure 304. Building 3612, NARTS Components Testing (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office, 2010). 





ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


314 


Building 3613: NARTS Area D Lunch Room; Storage; Electronic Equipment Fa¬ 
cility (1960, moved 1971); Demolished 

This small structure is atypical for Test Area D. It is clad with asbestos 
shingles and has a side gable roof covered with sheet metal. The Army ac¬ 
cessioned the building in i960, but a plan drawing indicates it was moved 
to its latest recorded location at Test Area D in 1971, with a new foundation 
and slab poured at that time. It is a simple rectangle, with three bays 
(Figure 305). The south fagade has a door and 2 windows, and the north 
fagade has 3 windows. It is possible this building was kit-built. 2 °4 


Figure 305. North elevation of Building 3613, NARTS Area D Lunch Room (ERDC- 

CERL, 2013). 



204 Edited excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3613.html 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


315 


Building 3615: NARTS Utility House; Public Toilet; Electronic Equip Facility 
(unknown; ca. 1962); Demolished 

The original date of construction for the building now designated 3615 is 
not known. It was not shown in a circa i960 photograph of Test Area D 
dated ca. 1959. The building was present by 1962, however, as records in¬ 
dicate that it was transferred to the Army from the Navy in that year. It 
was front-gabled, with a concrete block foundation, stuccoed walls, and a 
slate roof. There was an entry door centered on the front (south) fagade, 
and small, square windows on each of the other three sides. The building 
interior contained a sink, shower, and urinal, all against the rear (north) 
wall. In 1966, the building was nearly doubled in size with construction of 
a north addition. An interior connecting door was built in the center of the 
rear wall (the sink had to be relocated). The addition had a centrally- 
placed exterior door on the north side, and windows on the west and east 
sides. The addition’s roof line was slightly below that of the original build¬ 
ing (Figure 306). 2 °s 


Figure 306. Northwest oblique of Building 3615, NARTS Utility House (ERDC-CERL, 

2013). 



205 Excerpt from Picatinny Website. For full documentation please refer to 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDistricts/NARTS/index.html 









ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


316 


Building 3616: NARTS Environmental Test Building (ca. 1950, enclosed 1959) 

The NARTS Area D Temperature Conditioning Pad was originally a con¬ 
crete pad with a roof supported by lally columns (construction date un¬ 
known, but prior to 1955). It was enclosed in 1959 with corrugated alumi¬ 
num siding, and at that time was called the Environmental Conditioning 
Pad. The facility included a hot box, a cold box and an ambient tempera¬ 
ture box for conditioning test items — typically JATO units, igniters, 
starter cartridges, etc. — prior to test firing. The enclosure had a roll-up 
overhead door and loading platform on the south side; an exterior door, 
ventilation panel, and removable siding panels on the west side; and two 
aluminum-sash windows, a louvered ventilation panel, and an exterior 
door on the north side (Figure 307). A barricade stood just to the west of 
the building. Plans drawn up in 1955 called for a sand-filled frame barri¬ 
cade to be built around the north and east sides, but it is not clear that this 
was accomplished. 206 Building is slated for demolition. 


Figure 307. North elevation of Building 3616 (background), Environmental Test 
Building (a noncontributing gun turret, also demolished is in the foreground) (ERDC- 

CERL, 2013). 



206 Excerpt from Picatinny website. For full documentation, please refer to: 
https://www.pica.armv.mil/ead/Cultural/PicatinnvHistoricDis- 

tricts/NARTS/Photolnventory/Morelnformation/No3616.html 












ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


317 


6.2.5.2 Buildings and clusters NARTS Test Area E 

Test Area E was considered by the Navy to be its premier rocket engine 
testing area. NARTS engineers completely designed the original plan for 
Test Area E. They drew up the preliminary specifications and maintained 
an active role during the final architectural detailing and construction. The 
architectural and engineering firm chosen was Frank Grad & Sons, an old 
firm with an outstanding reputation from Newark, New Jersey. This pro¬ 
ject was considered one of the major accomplishments of the NARTS engi¬ 
neering staff. When the stand was first put into use, it was one of the larg¬ 
est test stands on the East Coast. 20 ? 

Building 3617 (Control House; Figure 308) and Building 3618 (Test Stand; 
Figure 309), while two separate buildings, had an efficacious relationship; 
both structures were conceived as essential components of the same oper¬ 
ation: to test rockets and motors. 208 In addition to its two major buildings 
(3617 and 3618), the area also included the following noncontributing 
buildings and structures: the remnants of Building 3619, the LOX tank pad 
and remaining tank supports at the foot of the bridge portion of Building 
3618; Buildings 3622 and 3623, a 400,000-gal Water Tower and attached 
support building; Building 3625, Maintenance Facility; Building 3626, 
Ordnance Facility; and Building 3627 (EID Control Room), made from an 
old Navy gun turret. 

For more in-depth analysis of Buildings 3617 and 3618, the two contrib¬ 
uting buildings, refer to the HAER documentation found in “Historic 
American Engineering Record, Documentation of the Control House 
(Building 3617) and the Static Rocket Test Stand (Building 3618)” from 
June 2009 . 2 °9 Since these buildings were demolished, no further docu¬ 
mentation is needed. 

A list of buildings and structures in the NARTS Test Area E is included in 
Table 10. 


207 Nolte et al September 1999, 105. 

208 Nolte et al. June 2009, 5 

209 Nolte et al. June 2009. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


318 


Figure 308. Oblique view of northwest and northeast elevations, Building 3617- 
Control House (Nolte et al. June 2009). 




Figure 309. View of rear and southeast side of Static Rocket Test Stand (Building 

3618) (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


319 


Table 10. List of buildings in the NARTS Test Area E Historic District. 


Building Number 

Date Built 

Historic Use 

Current Use 

National Register District 
Eligibility 

Assessment Info 

Comments 

3617 

1953 

Control House 

Facility 

Propellant Systems Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1994; Completed 1999; HAER 2009 

Demolished 2015. 

3618 

1953 

Test Cell E-l (Test Stand) 

Propellant Systems Facility 

Contributing/ Criteria A & C 

Evaluated 1982-83 HABS; Reevaluated 1994; 
Completed 1999; HAER 2009 

Demolished 2014. 

3622 

1962 

Water Tank 

Water Tank 

Noncontributing 

Completed 1999 

Within Historic District; demolition approved and pending. 

3623 

1953 

Water Tank 

Water Tank 

Noncontributing 

Completed 1999 

Within Historic District; demolition approved and pending. 

3625 

1961 

Propellant Systems Facility 

Maintenance Facility 

Noncontributing 

Completed 1999 

Demolished 2015. 

3626 

1960 

Ordnance Facility 

Ordnance Facility 

Noncontributing 

Completed 1999 

Demolished 2015.. 

3627 

1960 

Control Room 

Control Room 

Noncontributing 

Completed 1999 

Demolished 2015. 






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320 


(This page intentionally left blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


321 


6.2.6 Vegetation 

The forested landscape was clear cut around the buildings in both NARTS 
Test Areas D and E (Figure 310). When completed and in use, the areas 
around the Test Stand and the Control House were completely devoid of 
trees and shrubs; anything that could burn or get in the way of observing 
an engine test was removed. The bare ground was probably seeded to pre¬ 
vent erosion, but everything else was cut down. The Control House (Build¬ 
ing 3617) had a bituminous paved area on the southwest side of building 
and a concrete paved area on its northwest side. 210 However, currently the 
area is completely overgrown with vegetation, which makes it difficult to 
comprehend and understand the site as a whole. 


Figure 310. Historic photograph of men working to clear the land in NARTS Test Area 
D in preparation for building construction, January 1950 (PICA Cultural Resources 

Office). 



6.2.7 Small-scale features 

Small-scale features common to both NARTS Testing Area D and E in¬ 
clude gates and fencing, flagpoles, and signage. 


210 Nolte et al. June 2009, 51. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


322 


6.2.7.1 Fencing 

Fencing in both testing areas was used to restrict access for security and 
safety (Figure 311 and Figure 312). 


Figure 311. Chain-link fencing and security gate at the entrance to 
NARTS Test Area D (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 



Figure 312. Chain-link fencing and gate at the entrance to NARTS Test Area E 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 





















ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


323 


6.2.7.1 Historic markers 

A historic marker is located outside the entrance to NARTS Test Area D 
along Snake Hill Road adjacent to the area’s identification sign (Figure 
313). Historic markers for the NRHP-eligible historic districts are used to 
identify and highlight these significant areas. The markers allow for mili¬ 
tary and civilian personnel and visitors to the installation to be more 
aware of the installations’ historical heritage to ensure the long-term 
preservation of these significant areas. The markers were funded by the 
Environmental Affairs Division and produced by Lake Shore Industries. 
Text was developed by CRM, NJ HPO, and the Morris County Heritage 
Commission. Placement of the markers was carried out in 2012. 


Figure 313. Historic marker located at the entrance to NARTS Test Area D & E Historic 

Districts (ERDC-CERL, 2013). 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


324 


6.2.7.2 Flagpole 

A flagpole is located immediately inside the fence at the entrance to 
NARTS Test Area D (Figure 314). The flagpole was initially used to alert 
people of testing being conducted within the buildings. 


Figure 314. Flagpole located near entrance into the NARTS Test Area D 

(ERDC-CERL, 2013). 








ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


325 


In addition to the road, other landscape features that comprise the district 
include: the Test Stand firing pit; rock and concrete retaining walls; and a 
number of concrete drains and earth-fast ventilation shafts. 211 

6.2.8 Views and vistas 

Views and vistas would not have been part of the design and layout of the 
NARTS Test Areas D and E (Figure 315). Mission-specific industrial areas 
on military installations rarely followed the design principles visible in the 
high-profile areas such as housing and administration. 

6.3 Landscape evaluation 

There is still testing taking place in NARTS Area D using the rail gun. The 
Area is no longer used for rocket testing. NARTS Area E has been docu¬ 
mented as part of the Section 106 process and the buildings are demol¬ 
ished. 212 

6.3.1 Historic significance NARTS Test Areas D and E 

NARTS Area D and E Historic Districts are associated with a much larger 
NARTS complex, frequently called the Lake Denmark Test Area, which is 
located off Snake Hill Road in the extreme southeastern end of Picatinny. 
The Lake Denmark Test Area was broken into smaller test area segments 
called Areas A, B, C, D, E, G and later S and R (refer to Figure 281), all of 
which were operated by RMI/RMD with the exception of Area D. 21 3 Area D 
is significant for its role by the Navy and private company RMI to test 
rocket engines including the Bell X-i rocket engine which Chuck Yeager 
used to break the sound barrier in 1947. Area D is still used as a rail gun 
testing facility. 

The NARTS Test Area E was both nationally and regionally significant for 
the role it played in the Cold War military-industrial complex and the cre¬ 
ation and testing of liquid and solid rocket fuels and engines, particularly 
the XLR-11 and XLR-99 rocket engines, the latter being the workhorse en¬ 
gine of the early rocket era. 21 4 


211 Nolte et al. June 2009, 40. 

212 Per RPMP FRP PA (On file with PICA Cultural Resources Office and NJ HPO), 2010. 

213 Nolte et al. June 2009, 41. 

214 ibid., 40. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


326 


Figure 315. Aerial view of cleared landscape for NARTS Test Areas D (foreground) and 
E (background), no date (PICA Cultural Resources Office). 



6.3.2 Integrity 

Despite the significance of the NARTS Testing Areas D and the contrib¬ 
uting structures within the historic district, the condition of the structures 
is poor, with each building having fallen into a state of disrepair. The land¬ 
scape is also in a state of disrepair due to lack of use and maintenance of 
the areas and a number of the buildings have been demolished affecting 
the integrity of the landscape. Since the contributing buildings at the 
NARTS Testing Area E have been demolished, there is no integrity re¬ 
maining of the landscape. The remaining structures, 3622 and 3623, are 
noncontributing. 

6.3.3 Character-defining features 

Character-defining features are landscape features that were part of the in¬ 
itial design, present throughout the period of significance as established in 
the National Register nomination, and continue to be evident in the dis¬ 
trict today. Character-defining features of the NARTS Area D Historic Dis¬ 
trict are listed in Table 11 and for NARTS Test Area E in Table 12 along 
with summaries of their historical significance and integrity, and indica¬ 
tions of NRHP eligibility. 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


327 


Table 11. NARTS Test Area D, character-defining features. 


Character- 
Defining Features 

Historical Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Circulation and 
roadways 

A circular drive to site is 
accessed from Snake 

Hill Road. 

Asphalt drive not in 
use; poor condition 

Yes 

Clustering of 
buildings 

Historically a testing 
area, building 
separations are based 
on building functions 
and safety 

Spacing between 
buildings remains 
the same; but many 
structures have 
been demolished. 

Yes 

Testing flagpole 

Flagpole is located 
along the main road to 
warn of testing. 

Rusted 

Yes 

Fencing 

Built to restrict access 
for security and safety. 

Entire area fenced; 
poor condition. 

Yes 

Vegetation 

Historically area was 
cleared of any 
vegetation other than 
grass for fire 
suppression. The lack of 
vegetation is significant. 

Vegetation is now 
overgrown. 

No 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


328 


Table 12. NARTS Test Area E, character-defining features. 


Character-Defining 

Features 

Historical Significance 

Integrity 

NRHP 

Eligibility 

Circulation and 
roadways 

Long, straight drive 
ends in circle. 

Drive not in use; 
poor condition 

No 

Topography 

Natural topography 
used for blast 
protection. 

Still evident but 
no contributing 
buildings present. 

No 

Vegetation 

Historically, area was 
cleared of any 
vegetation other than 
grass for fire 
suppression. The lack 
of vegetation is 
significant. 

Vegetation is now 
overgrown. 

No 

Fencing 

Built to restrict access 
for security and safety. 

Entrance gate is 
newer; entire area 
is still fenced. 

No 

Concrete retaining walls 
and drains 

Features part of initial 
design. 

May still be 
evident after 
demolition. 

No 

Earth-fast ventilation 
shafts 

Features part of initial 
design. 

May still be 
evident after 
demolition. 

No 


6.3.4 Final determinations 

In 2004, the NJ HPO concurred that NARTS Test Area D (Figure 316) was 
eligible for listing to the NRHP as a district under Criteria A (contributing 
to the broad patterns of history), Criteria C (architecture/industrial signifi¬ 
cance), and Criteria D (providing information about a little-known or un¬ 
derstood period of history), and Criteria Consideration G (exceptional im¬ 
portance for a property less than 50 years of age). 21 s Many of the buildings 


215 Nolte et al. June 2009, 41. 







ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


329 


at NARTS Test Area D have been demolished, and there is a loss of integ¬ 
rity of the landscape. 

On 2 July 1999, the NJ HPO ruled that NARTS Test Area E (Figure 316) 
was eligible for listing to the NRHP and the New Jersey Register of His¬ 
toric Places as a district under Criteria A and D. The site illustrates the 
symbiotic relationship of private industry and government agencies in the 
creation of the vital military industrial complex that sent the United States 
to space. NARTS Test Area E District’s historical context is the Cold War 
1950-1969. 216 Buildings have been fully documented by HABS/HAER as 
mitigation for demolition. The contributing buildings have been demol¬ 
ished, and the landscape no longer has integrity. Remaining structures 
3622 and 3623 are non-contributing. 


Figure 316. NARTS Testing Areas D (upper) and E (lower) Historic Districts map. 
NARTS Testing Area E is now demolished (ERDC-CERL). 



216 Nolte et al, September 1999,119. 






ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


330 


(This page intentionally left blank.) 




ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


331 


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5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 


5b. GRANT NUMBER 


5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 


6. AUTHOR(S) 

Sunny E. Adams, Megan W. Tooker, and Adam D. Smith 


5d. PROJECT NUMBER 

201221 


5e. TASK NUMBER 

MIPR 2ILG3EB301 


5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 


7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 

US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) 
Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) 

PO Box 9005 

Champaign, IL 61826-9005 


8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT 
NUMBER 

ERDC/CERL TR-16-4 


9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 

U.S. Army Garrison, Picatinny Arsenal 
Cultural Resources Program 
Environmental Affairs Division 
IMPI-PWE, Bldg 319 
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806 


12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 


10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 


11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 
NUMBER(S) 


13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 

Copies are available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 


14. ABSTRACT 

This study documents the cultural landscape at Picatinny Arsenal, focusing on five existing historic districts. This work looks at the historic 
development and discusses the existing conditions within each of the five districts. It analyzes the features within each district for their 
historic significance and integrity, and based on this analysis, makes treatment recommendations. This document meets the requirements for 
federal agencies to address their cultural resources which are defined as any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or ob¬ 
ject. Especially relevant is Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act, which requires federal agencies to inventory and evaluate 
their cultural resources. 


15. SUBJECT TERMS 

National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), cultural resources management, historic landscape, historic preservation, master planning, 
Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey 


16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 


17. LIMITATION 

18. NUMBER 

19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 




OF ABSTRACT 

OF PAGES 


a. REPORT 

b. ABSTRACT 

c. THIS PAGE 



19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER 

Unclassified 

Unclassified 

Unclassified 

uu 

358 

(include area code) 


NSN 7540-01-280-5500 


Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)