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Head Types 




Facial Features 





Bum Ml 

Watson-Guptill Publications/ New York 

Paperback Edition 

First Printing 1983 

Copyright A 1905 py Burne Hogarth 

First published 1965 in Hew York by Watson -Guptiil Publications, 
a division of Billboard Publications, Inc . 

1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number; 64-14763 

ISBN 0-8230-1375-8 
ISBN 0-8230-1376-6 (pbk) 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be 
reproduced or used in any form or by any means — graphic, 
electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, 
taping or information storage and retrieval systems — without 
written permission of the publisher 

Manufactured in U S.A 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9/97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 

To my wife Constance; 
to my children Richard 
and Ross, Michael and Mary. 
When these embers are reduced 
to ashes, who finally will 
know its warmth? 

This is for them, after all. 




Introduction 10 

I. Basic Structures and Forms 1-i 

Great Masses 25 

Crania] Mass ........... 25 

Facial Mass 25 

Contour of Cranial Mass 27 

Contour of Facial Mass 18 

Proportions and Measurements 25 

Drawing Cranial and Facial Masses 22 

Form Structures of the Head 2U 

Forms of Skull 2h 

Four Close-ups of Skull 26 

Forms of Facial Mass 28 

Lower Jaw (Mandible) 28 

Facial Features 80 

Proportions and Measurements * — 82 

Refinement of Features 87 

Eye 87 

Nose h2 

Mouth i7 

Ear 52 

Anatomy: Major Muscle Masses 56 

Mouth Muscles 56 

Jaw Muscles 57 

Eye and Socket Muscles 59 

Superficial Scalp and Face Muscles 59 

Function of Anatomy 59 

II. Head Movement 


Head Rotation 61 

Constructing a Rotating Head 61 

Drawing a Three-Quarter View 62 

Four Views of Head in Rotation 6 4 

Proof of Method 64 

Positioning Side Plane and Jaw Line 66 

Side Plane 87 

Jaw Line 71 

Up and Down Movement of Head 73 

How Movement Affects the Brow Line . . 73 

Ear Placement 75 

Checking Proportions and Placement 76 

III. Facial Change: Wrinkles 82 

Three Wrinkle Patteims 83 

Frontal Pattern 83 

Oblique Pattern 86 

Lateral Pattern 90 

Tension and Pressure Wrinkles 92 

Example of Tension and Pressure Wrinkles 92 

Sag and Shrinkage Wrinkles 93 

Example of Sag and Shrinkage Wrinkles 93 

Interaction of Wrinkle Patterns 94 

Parallel Effect of Pressure and Tension 94 

Pressure Reaction to Head Thrust 94 

Opposition of Tension and Sag Wrinkles 95 

Contrary Effect of Pressure Rifts 95 

IV. Facial Change: Aging 96 

At Birth . . . 
6 Months . . 

1 Year .... 

2 Years . . . 
31,4-4 Years 
6-7 Years . 
8-9 Years . 
11-12 Years 
14-15 Years 
18-20 Years 
25 Years . . 
30 Years . . 
35 Years . . 
40 Years . . 
45 Years . . 
50 Years . . 
55 Years . . 
60 Years . . 
65 Years . . 
70 Years . . 
75 Years . . 
80 Years . . 

. . . 97 

... 97 

... 98 

... 98 

... 99 

... 99 

... 100 
... 100 
... 101 
... 101 
. . . 102 
... 103 
... 103 
... 104 
... 104 
... 105 
... 105 
... 106 
... 106 
... 107 
. . . 107 

V. Head Types 

. 108 

■* * «- •# 

Three Types of Heads 

Broad-Headed ( Br achy cephalic ) 

Applying Proportions in Drawing 

Head Proportions 

Facial Features 

Long-Headed (Dolichocephalic) 

Moderately Arched Forehead 

High, Arched Forehead 

Facial Features 

Intermediate or Medium-Headed (Mesocephalic) 

Female Head 


Facial Features 

Facial Slope 

Steep Slope 

Diagonal Slope 

Moderate Slope 

Examples of Head Types 


. . 10!) 
. . 109 
. . Ill 
. . Ill 
. . Ill 
. . 112 
. . 112 
. . 112 
. . 112 
. . 115 
. . 115 
. . 115 
. . 115 
.. 116 
.. 116 
. . 117 
. . 117 
. . 118 

VI. Gallery of Great Heads 


A Summary and Documentation of Drawing Principles 127 


* * 


Among all the subjects which 
the art student is called upon 
to draw, none is more com- 
plex than the human head. 
The head presents subtleties 
of form, structure, and propor- 
tion which are a continuing 
challenge not only to art stu- 
dents, but to professionals. To 
many, drawing the head is not 
merely a perpetual challenge, 
but a perpetual struggle. 

Watching students wrestle 
with the problems of drawing 
the head for many years, I have 
long hoped to see a book which 
would take some of the guess- 
work out of their struggles : a 
book which would systemati- 
cally assemble the basic facts 
that every artist needs to know 
in order to draw the head con- 

Drawing the Human Head 
fulfills this hope. Based on 
the author’s widely respected 
drawing classes at the School 
of Visual Arts in New York, 
this is the most comprehensive 
book now available on this vital 
subject. The author does not 
pretend that this is the ulti- 
mate book on the human head. 
The ultimate book will never 
be written. After all, Rem- 
brandt, the greatest of all por- 
trait painters, was still discov- 
ering new insights about the 
human head in the final years 
of his life. 

Drawing the Human Head 
is simply an attempt to orga- 
nize basic information: sys- 
tems of proportion, concepts 
of form, anatomical facts, and 
other data which have formed 
the basis of sound draftsman- 
ship for more than 2000 years. 

None of this material is 
radically new. On the contrary, 
this approach to drawing — 
this method of visualizing the 
human head, the human face, 
and its features — begins with 

the artists of ancient Greece, 
reaches its greatest refinement 
in the Renaissance, and has 
been followed by artists and 
art teachers to the present day. 

The systems of proportions 
and concepts of form which are 
presented in Drawing the Hu- 
man Head l are essentially those 
which were perfected by the 
Greek sculptors. The anatom- 
ical information was first as- 
sembled by the artists of the 
Renaissance. Although modes 
of artistic expression change 
from one era to another, we 
are still building on the foun- 
dation laid by these remark- 
able men. 

D rawing the Human Head 
begins with a definition of the 
major masses of the head — the 
cranial and facial masses — 
and demonstrates how to draw 
their shapes, contours, and 
proportions. Via drawings and 
diagrams, we then move closer 
to the individual structures 
that form the head : the forms 
of the skull and facial mass; 
the jaw; and the nine dom- 
inant facial features, from 
brow ridge to chin box. 

We then examine each facial 
feature individually, defining 
the shapes and contours within 
each feature. For example, the 
nose is not a single shape — not 
merely a wedge-shaped mass 
— but an assemblage of upper 
and lower nasal masses, nos- 
tril wings, septal cartilage, 
and other subtle, .interlocking 
forms. The intricate forms of 
the eye, ear, and mouth are 
analyzed in the same way. 

Having visualized the head ;i 
as form, we now look beneath 
the surface to the artistic anat- 
omy of the head. The word ar- 
tistic must be emphasized. This 
is not a medical anatomy book 
and the student is not expected 
to memorize Latin names. The 

function of artistic anatomy is 
to provide the artist with a 
sound basis for creative expres- 
sion. As shown in these pages, 
the musculature of the head 
reveals the blend of expressive 
form and anatomical function 
which has inspired draftsmen 
from the time of Leonardo. 

With this structural infor- 
mation in mind, we can now 
examine the head in motion. 
The reader is shown how to 
construct a head as it rotates 
from front view to three-quar- 
ter view to side view; and as 
the head moves up and down. 
Finally, the reader is given a 
checklist of the relationships 
between the features ; this 
checklist is intended to help 
him arrive at an accurate 
placement of the features as 
the head moves. 

Wrinkle patterns are not a 
random phenomenon, but fol- 
low definite routes over the 
surface of the face. In dia- 
grammatic drawings, the read- 
er follows the courses of the 
three major wrinkle patterns; 
studies the types of wrinkles 
caused by tension, pressure, 
sag, and shrinkage; and 
watches the interaction of the 
wrinkle patterns. 

The aging of the head is al- 
ways a difficult problem for 
the artist. To explain the subtle 
changes that take place from 
childhood to old age, a series 
of drawings follow the develop- 
ment of a single head from 
birth to the age of eighty, trac- 
ing the changes in proportions 
and facial detail that happen 
gradually, year by year. 

The scientific classification 
of head types is extremely use- 
ful to the artist. An extensive 
series of drawings describes 
the general characteristics of 
the three basic head types: 
broad-headed (brachycephal- 

ic), long-headed (dolichoce- 
phalic), and intermediate(meso- 
cephalic) . ' ’he reader notes the 
facial features of each head 
type, then sees how the various 
head types and their features 
merge in an infinite number of 
variations. The immense va- 
riety of human faces and fea- 
tures is emphasized in a gal- 
lery of drawings surveying the 
various head types as they 
appear in racial and ethnic 
groups around the world. 

Drawing the Human Head 
concludes with a selection of 
great heads in sculpture, paint- 
ing, drawing, and the graphic 
arts, from the time of the 
Greeks to the art of our own 
century. The purpose of this 
gallery is to document the prin- 
ciples of head construction 
upon which this book is based. 
The reader will discover a re- 
markable continuity from the 
work of anonymous Greek and 
Roman sculptors, through the 
great artists of the Renais- 
sance and Baroque periods, 
down to such contemporary 
masters as Picasso and Rouault. 

All have drawn strength and 
inspiration from the classical 
conception of the head which 
is summarized in these pages 
by a masterful draftsman and 
an outstanding teacher. 

Donald Holden 

1 . 


and Forms 


The basic shape of the head 
consists of two major divisions. 
The tirst and greater part is 
the egg-shaped brain case of 
the skull: the cranial mass . 
The second and lesser part is 
the tapered half-cut cylinder 
of the face and lower jaw : the 
facial mass. 


Head Form , 

Three-Quarter Down View 

Head Form, 

Three-Quarter Up View 

Cranial Mass 

The cranial mass is quite even 
and regular: a simple, curved 
dome in general outline. 

Facial Mass 

The facial mass, on the other 
hand, is uneven and irregular: 
a somewhat hard-cornered, tri- 
angular form. 

Cranial Mass, 
Three-Quarter Down View 

Facial Mass, 
Extreme Up View 

Cranial and Facial Masses, Lower Jaw Form, 

Three-Quarter View Back View 

Contour of Cranial Mass 

Seen from the side, the cranial 
mass curves upward from the 
mounded ridge of bone just 
above the rim of the eye socket. 
This is the superciliary arch 
or visor of the brow. Beginning 
at the frontal depression in the 
bridge of the nose the cranium 
rises up the forehead to the 
vault of the skull and sweeps 
backward across the crown in 
a great curve toward the lower 
occipital bulge at the base of 
the head. The base line of the 
skull then proceeds horizon- 
tally forward to meet the hinge 
of the jaw. From the jau r 
hinge, the brain case line con- 
tinues obliquely upward to the 
starting point at the bridge of 
the nose. This line forms the 
boundary between the two 
great masses of the head : the 
cranial mass above, and the 
facial mass below. 







Contour of Facial Mass 

The facial mass descends along 
the projecting nasal line from 
the bridge of the nose. At 
the point of the nose, the facial 
mass scoops sharply inward 
and swings over the bulge of 
the teeth to the protruding 
mound of the chin. From here, 
the contour moves angularly 

up the lower edge of the jaw 
line to the angle of the jaw. 
Here it rises steeply, almost 
vertically, to the jaw hinge 
in the base of the head. The 
boundary line, connecting the 
hinge with the nose bridge, di- 
vides the facial mass from the 
cranial mass. 






Proportions and 

The size relations between the 
cranial mass and the facial 
mass reveal two different sets 
of proportions. 




From a direct front view, the 
cranial mass and the facial 
mass tend to be equal in size. 


From a side view, the cranial 
mass is virtually twice as large 
as the facial mass. 





When you draw the head, it 
is helpful to visualize these 
proportions in the following 

step 1 

Frontally, the head, with its 
two great masses, is clearly 
egg-shaped. In older to estab- 
lish the shape correctly, first 
draw the outline of this ovoid 


Now divide the simple head 
shape lengthwise in equal 
halves with a center line ( A-B ) 
drawn from crown to chin. 


Take the width of one of the 
halves of the egg (C-D) and 
measure this against the ver- 
tical center line ( A-B). If you 
have drawn the egg properly, 
the center line (A-B) should 
be three times the length of the 
horizontal line (C-D). Thus, 
the total width of the head ( C- 
E) is just two thirds the 
length. If your first drawing 
of the head shape is too long 
or too short, use these space 
divisions to eliminate the dis- 


Now, using this egg shape as 
your norm for the front view 
head, draw it again and divide 
it with a horizontal line ( A-B) 
midway between top and bot- 
tom. This line reveals the equal 
measures of the two major 
masses: the cranial mass 
above, and the facial mass be- 
low. If you then divide the egg 
with a vertical line (C-D), the 
point where the vertical and 
horizontal lines cross ( E ) 
identifies the position of the 
bridge of the nose in the mid- 
region of the head. 



To establish the plan of the 
side view head, take two egg- 
shapes of identical size and 
draw them one over the other, 
the first upright, the second 
horizontal. The downward 
bulge will identify the lower 
jaw. The backward bulge (the 
widest part of the horizontal 
egg) becomes the back of the 
head. Note that the height 
(A-B) and width (C-D) of 
the side view head are equal. 
Furthermore, if you drop 
another vertical line (E-F) at 
the inner edge of the upright 
egg, you find that the width 
(C-D) divides into three equal 
parts. Finally, if you visualize 
the upper egg as the cranial 
mass, you will see that the 
cranial mass is twice the size 
of the facial mass. 

Drawing Cranial and 
Facial Masses 

This series of drawings shows 
how to simplify the two major 
masses when you draw difficult 
view's and extreme positions of 
the head. What is most im- 
portant in this first stage is to 
set down a firm and correct 
foundation upon which to build 
the smaller forms. Specific de- 
tails of these smaller forms are 
left for later refinement. See 
how easily a difficult view' of 
the head may be solved by 
starting the drawing with the 
initial placement of the two 
great masses. Note the flatness 
of the under-jaw and skull base. 

Back View 

Three-Quarter Top View 

Oblique Side Up View 

Three-Quarter Front Up View 


The form structures are the 
hard, bony, skeletal parts of 
the head or body. Or they are 
the tensile, firm, cartilaginous 
parts. These are the rigid 
framework or support struc- 
tures of the body, upon which 
all the soft, limber, or supple 
tissues depend. Having' es- 
tablished the basic form of the 
two great masses, we will look 
more closely at the form struc- 
tures which give the brain case 
and the facial region their spe- 
cial qualities. We shall see how 
the upper mass becomes a 
skull and how the lower mass 
becomes a face with features. 
We shall not describe these 
structures as mere anatomical 
parts, but as forms which are 
used in drawing the head. 

Forms of Skull 

Examined in detail, the cranial 
mass takes on the appearance 
of a helmet, flattened at the 
sides, with a short, thick visor 
projecting in front. The helmet 
consists of five shapes fused 

On the frontal curve of the 
dome, we see the shell of the 
forehead (frontal bone) which 
rises to the mid-region of the 

On top, we see the crowm or 
vault of the dome (parietal 
bone) which partly covers the 
top, sides, and rear of the head. 

In back, we see the rear bulge 
(occipital bone) which encases 
the skull base. 

On the side of the skull, we see 
the slightly concave temple 
wall (temporal bone). 

In the lower front region we 
see the heavy visor of the brow 
(superciliary arch). This 
prominence is actually a con- 
tinuation of the forehead fron- 
tal bone, but it is useful to vi- 
sualize it as a separate form. 


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Four Close-ups of Skull 

In these close-ups, see how the 
five fused shapes of the skull 
are expressed. 


The crown has its own subtle 
but distinct contour, with 
slight dips where the five 
shapes meet. 


The rear bulge is a somewhat 
stronger shape than the crown. 
The top edge of this bulge 
aligns with the upper eyelid. 


The temple wall curves inward. 


The brow visor is a powerful, 
thrusting form, especially no- 
ticeable in a three-quarter 
front view. 


Forms of Facial Mass 

Although the cranial mass is 
larger, the smaller facial mass 
commands more interest and 
attention, for it is here that the 
more decisive features appear. 
Indeed, the visual impact of 
the face and its features is so 
great that the student must 
force himself never to forget 
the relative proportions of the 
two great masses. Failure to 
give the cranial mass its cor- 
rect size always labels a draw- 
ing as amateurish. In the fa- 
cial mass there are ten visually 
prominent forms. One of these 
is primary and dominant : the 
lower jaw. The remaining nine 
are the eyes, nose, and other 

Lower Jaw (Mandible) 

The jaw is the decisive form in 
producing the contour of the 
face as a whole. It is the largest 
bone structure of the facial 
mass. Beyond this, it has the 
unique characteristic of being 
the only movable bone struc- 
ture of the head. In general, 
the lower jaw is shaped like a 
horseshoe . 

At its front — the central re- 
gion of the chin mound (1) — 
the jaw is tight, constricted, 
somewhat angular. Just above 
is the dental arch (2) of the 
lower teeth. As the arch curves 
back and ends, the jaw widens 
and develops two broad, plate- 
like structures (3) (the ra- 
mus ) which rise steeply to each 
jaw hinge (4) alongside the 
ears. The jaw ends in two spur- 
like formations above each 
ramus, neither of which ap- 
pears on the external aspect 
of the face. 

Horseshoe of Jaw: 


Three-Quarter Down View 

Horseshoe of Jaw: 
Three-Quarter Up View 




From a side view, the base of 
the jaw is not horizontal. From 
the chin, it gently rises 12 to 
15 degrees up to the angle of 
the jaw. From the angle or jaw 
corner, the contour is a steep 
diagonal to the jaw hinge. 


Observe how the horseshoe of 
the jaw is drawn. The chin is 
angular. The jaw corners are 
aligned parallel with the chin. 
The ramus projections are 
widespread and equal in 

Facial Features 

The nine secondary forms of 
the face, small as they are, 
have the greatest visual im- 
pact. The subtle differences in 
these forms are what make one 
face different from another. 
Although the visor or brow 
ridge is really part of the cra- 
nium, note that we also include 
it here as a facial feature. The 
nine secondary feature forms 

Brow ridge or visor of the 
cranial cap, widespread and 
horizontally arched across the 
mid-facial region. 

Tapered wedge of the nose, 
descending steeply from under 
the brow ridge. 

Eye socket, depressed and 
placed against both sides of 
the nose, opening immediately 
below the arch of the brow. 

Cheek bones, thickly formed, 
mounded along the lower out- 
side rim of each eye socket. 

Barrel of the mouth, rounded 
and heavy-set, protruding be- 
low the prominent overhang of 
the nose. 

Box of the chin, below the 
mouth barrel and farther for- 

Angle of the lower jaw or jaw 
corner, forming the rear edge 
of the facial area. 

Side arch of the cheek bone, 
starting from the cheek bone, 
swept back and arched toward 
the mid-ear. 

Shell of the ear, beyond the 
upper edge of the jaw, at the 
side of the face. 






Proportions and 


The middle of the brow ridge, 
at its base, is the depressed 
bridge of the nose. This is the 
exact midpoint of the head. 
Here, at the midway line, the 
head is five eye-lengths wide. 
The brow ridge itself is four 
eye-lengths wide. 


Centrally located in the facial 
mass, the tapered wedge of the 
nose descends to a point mid- 
way between the bridge of the 
nose and the base of the chin. 
The width of the nose at its 
base is equal to the width of the 

Distances from bridge to Base of nose is one eye wide, 

midway point to base of 
chin are equal. 


Starting at the base of the 
brow bone, the socket extends 
halfway down along the length 
of the nose. The outer edge of 
the socket lies just above the 
projecting cheek bone. 


The base line of the cheek bone 
aligns with the base of the 
nose. In frontal views, the in- 
ner depression of the cheek 
bone is roughly midway along 
a diagonal line (30 degrees) 
from the eye socket to the 
angle of the jaw. 

Cheek bone aligns with 
base of nose. 

Cheek bone depression is 
midway on diagonal line. 


Stalling at the nose base, the 
mouth barrel extends two 
th irds the distance down from 
the nose to the chin. The sides 
of the barrel align with the 
centers of the eye sockets. 


Projecting from under the 
mouth barrel, the chin extends 
one third the distance upward 
to the nose. At its widest point, 
the chin box is equal to the 
width of the mouth barrel. 


The angle of the lower jaw 
aligns with the lower lip of the 
mouth barrel. 

Mouth barrel aligns with 
centers of sockets and 
widest points of chin. 


The side arch of the cheek bone 
starts at the lower rim of the 
eye socket, and aligns with the 
midpoint of the nose. The arch 
ends just below the middle of 
the ear, in line with the back 
edge of the jaw. 


The ear begins at a line drawn 
up from the rear edge of the 
jaw. The ear base aligns with 
the base of the skull, the base 
of the cheek bone, and the base 
of the nose. The top of the ear 
aligns with the protruding- 
brow ridge. The peak of the 
eyebrow' hair will identify 
the height of the ear, in rela- 
tion to the brow r . 


Among the nine feature forms, 
four have a more complex and 
involved quality : the eye, nose, 
mouth, and ear. 'Two of these 
are carried to a new phase of 
form development. Examining 
the mouth bulge, we shall ob- 
serve the special quality of the 
fleshy cover, the lips. Drawing 
the eye socket, we must con- 
sider the eyeball and the eye- 


Almost spherical and about one 
inch in diameter, the eyeball 
lies within the deep cavity (the 
orbit) of the eye, cushioned in 
fatty tissue and situated partly 
to the front of the socket open- 
ing. On all sides of the socket 
rim, the eye is protected by 
great projecting structures of 
bone: the high nasal bone to 
the inside; the overhanging 
brow ridge (the superciliary 
arch ) above and to the outside ; 
the protruding cheek mound 
(the zygomatic bone) below. 


The eye may be conceived as a 
partially exposed internal or- 
gan of the body. Covering the 
exposed bulge of the eyeball 
are the upper and lower eye- 
lids. The upper lid is more 
active and moveable than the 
lower. It is also the larger of 
the two lids and more fully 
curved. The wider arc of the 
upper lid swings around the 
eyeball at its equatorial middle. 
The lower lid curves around a 
small arc at the base of the 



The greater curve of the upper 
lid and smaller curve of the 
lower lid are more clearly seen 
from a three-quarter or side 
view of the eye, Note that the 
lower lid lies on a backward 
slope of A 5 degrees from the 
outthrust upper lid. 



The highest point of the curve These points, joined with a 

of the upper lid is close to the line, show the oblique axis of 

inside corner of the eye, ap- the eye. The eye opening is not 
proximately one third of an a symmetrical almond shape, 
eye- width aw ? ay. The low point 


Axis of Eye: 

Three-Quarter Down View 

Axis of Eye: 
Three-Quarter Up View 


With these curves in place, the 
pupil of the eye appears sus- 
pended from under the upper 
lid, and slightly above the rim 
of the lower lid. 

Eye Muscles, 

G reatly Co m pressed 


Surrounding the entire eye 
is a large, widespread, oval 
muscle: the orbicularis oculi. 
It consists of two parts: the 
orbital part, which encircles 
the entire eye socket from the 
brow ridge down to the middle 
cheek bone ; and the palpebral 
part, the eyelids, which encase 
the eye itself. Both parts of 
the orbicularis muscle close 
the eye by compression. The 
greater orbital part vigorously 
contracts the region around the 
socket, while the eyelids cur- 
tain the eye briskly but gently. 


Eye Muscles, 
Partially C om pressed 

Eye Muscles 


1 t* 


In general form, the nose is a 
triangular, wedge-shaped 
block, narrow and depressed at 
its root under the brow ridge, 
broad and prominent at its 
base in the mid-region of the 

Three-Quarter Up View 


The nose consists of four im- 
portant forms : the upper nasal 
mass, with its supporting nasal 
bone and upper cartilage; the 
lower elliptical ball of the nose, 
the alar cartilage with its 
curved hook (the septum ); 
the two sidewise, expanding 
nostril wings, the ala carti- 
lages, triangular in shape and 
joining the projecting ball to 
form the nostril cavities in the 
base of the nose. 

Three-Quarter Down View 



The length of the nose is half 
the length of the facial mass 
(from the nose bridge to the 
base of the chin). The hook of 
the nose attaches to the pillars 
of the upper lip. 

The upper nasal mass gener- 
ally divides the nose length at 
the halfway mark. Somewhat 
below this point, the nostril 
wings reach their high point. 

Three-Quarter View 

Side View 

Across the width of the nostril 
wings, the base of the nose 
measures one eye-width. 



The under plane of the nose is 
decisively triangular, its broad 
base gently curved on the upper 
region of the mouth barrel 
(the maxilla). 


The septal cartilage (the hook 
of the nose) , divides the under 
plane from the nose tip to the 
jase, forming the steep-sided, 
triangular nostril cavities. 

Septal Cartilage 



The substructure of the mouth 
is formed by the two great den- 
tal arches of the teeth : the up- 
ler ( maxillary ) arch and the 
lower (mandibular) arch. Set 
together, both arches support 
the curving mouth barrel. 



From the base of the nose, the 
mouth bulge drops two thirds 
the distance from nose to chin. 


The outermost points of the 
dental curve align with the 
centers of the eye sockets. 


Overlying the arches of the 
upper and lower jaws is the 
broad, circular mouth muscle 
(orbicularis oris ) , with its 
prominently developed lip for- 


The upper lip is a widespread, 
gently curving arch, grooved 
in the center with a shallow 
depression. It is shaped like a 
flattened, extended M. 

Front View, Three-Quarter 

Three-Quarter Up View 

M Formation 


The center of the groove (tu- 
bercle ) on the lip thrusts slight- 
ly forward like the prow of a 


The central depression of the 
upper lip ( philtrum ) mounts 
and narrows at the septal car- 
tilage in the base of the nose. 
The two edges of the philtrum 
are the pillars of the lip. 


The lower lip contour is like 
an extended W. Two elliptical 
lobes develop outward from 
the center to form the arms of 
the W, while the middle of the 
lip dips to receive the tubercle 
from above. Both lips have thin 
marginal rims. 

W Formation 


The upper lip is somewhat 
more arched and wider than 
the lower. Because it covers 
the greater dental arch of the 
upper teeth, the upper lip is 
the longer of the two. The 
lower lip is therefore recessed 
on the arch of the lower row of 
teeth. It is recessed 30 degrees 
in relation to the upper lip. 

Upper lip is wider , 
?nore arched . 

Side view shows recessed 
lower Up. 



This generalization obviously 
does not apply to individuals 
with an outthrust lower jaw. 
In such cases, the lower lip pro- 
trudes and the upper lip 

The lower lip is more active 
and mobile than the upper. Its 
placement on the free-moving 
lower jaw guarantees greater 
activity. The lower lip is also 
moved by an ample set of lower 
mouth, chin, and jaw muscles. 

Lips Retracted and Open 

Lips Dratun Down , 
with Jaw Dropped 



The ear is shell-shaped in form 
and general structure. Its 
outer contour is formed like a 
C, wider at the top and nar- 
rower at the base. In the cen- 
ter, it has a bowl-like depres- 
sion, the concha, large enough 
to admit the curve of the 
thumb. ► 

C Formation 

The ear has four major forms : 
the wide, outer encircling rim 
(helix) ; the smaller inside rim 
( antihelix), which encloses the 
depressed bowl ; the lower 
fleshy base (lobule); the firm 
projection (tragus) which 
overhangs the opening to the 
ear canal. The inner rim (anti- 
helix), divides at the top into 
two arms, forming a bent Y 
shape. Below the tragus is a 
small notch, just under and 
outside the ear canal opening. 
The tubei'cle, a small knot on 
the upper outside curve of the 
helix, is sometimes called Dar- 
win’s point. The curve of the 
helix turns into the bowl of the 
ear and implants itself in the 
central wall. ▼ 




The entire ear lies within two 
lines drawn from the top of the 
eyebrow and the base of the 
nose. The ear divides vertically 
into three generally equal 

First part : from the top of the 
ear to the point where the helix 
attaches to the side of the head. 

Second part : the mid-region of 
the ear is occupied entirely by 
the bowl (concha). The tragus 
is at the exact midpoint of the 

Third part: the lobe of the 
ear. The bottom of the lobe 
aligns with the base of the 

The width of the ear is half 
the length. This measure 
occurs only at the highest part 
of the ear, the helix or outer 


Back Wall of Ear 

On the side plane of the head, 
the ear tips slightly backward 
at an angle of 15 degrees. Seen 
from the back, the outer rim 
of the ear stands away from 
the head at an angle of almost 
20 degrees. This view T clearly 
reveals the rounded back wall 
of the central bowl. 

Ear tips backward 15 


The muscles of the head and 
face divide into four general 
groups: the muscles of the 
mouth; the muscles of the eye 
and eye socket : the muscles 
of the jaw; the superficial 
muscles of the scalp and face. 
The most important muscles 
are those which produce the 
larger surface forms, the visu- 
ally prominent masses. Pri- 
marily, these are the muscles 
of the mouth and jaw. The eye 
and socket muscles are sec- 
ondary. The others are minor, 
since they are barely seen. 




Jaw Muscles 

temporalis: passing under 




Mouth Muscles 




buccinator: draws corner 








'-f k 


■** f - 

J ■ 







tr f 



Superficial Scalp 
and Face Muscles 




Function of Anatomy 

The purpose of artistic anat- 
omy is not to dissect and ex- 
pose muscles, but to analyze 
and evaluate forms. The stu- 
dent must observe which forms 
are major, minor, or superfi- 
cial; which ones have signifi- 
cant visual impact; and which 
ones are scarcely visible. Fur- 
thermore, he must evaluate 
head forms in general, study- 
ing the relations between bony 59 
skeletal forms, rigid carti- 
laginous forms, and flexible 
muscular forms. The artist 
studies anatomy not as an end 
in itself, but as a groundwork 
for the expressive interpreta- 
tion of visual form. 

2 . 



Constructing a Rotating Head 

Step 1 : Draw a full front view 
head shape in correct propor- 

Step 2: Now draw horizontal 
( A-B) and vertical (C-D ) 
lines which divide the ovoid 
shape at the midpoint in both 
directions. These are the axis 
lines: the horizontal axis (A- 
B) identifies the brow line; 
the vertical axis (C-D) defines 
the bilateral symmetry of the 
face and features. 

To draw the movement of the 
head means to record the 
changing aspects and relations 
of head forms when the head 
changes position. How do we 
draw the varied views of the 
head? How are the major 
masses related when the head 
changes direction? How are 
the features expressed when 
seen from above and below? 
How are the significant planes 
and structures positioned when 
the head turns? When the head 
moves, a new set of form rela- 
tions appears. The student 
must strive to observe these 
changes and draw them with- 
out distortion. 


To draw the head in a full 
front view or a direct side 
view is elementary. The simple 
relations of the cranial and 
facial masses, front and side, 
have been explained in Chapter 
1, The difficulty occurs when 
the head rotates from a front 
view to a three-quarter view. 
A question arises about the 
back of the head. How much of 
the cranial bulge will be shown 
at the rear in relation to a 
given amount of turn? Here is 
a simple solution. 



Step 3 : Our chief interest is in 
the vertical axis, the center 
line which records every side- 
wise movement of the face and 
features. To make the head 
turn from a front view to a 
new position, draw a new ver- 
tical centerline (C-E-D) from 
crown to chin. This line curves 
to show the characteristic 
bulge of the ovoid mass. The 
midpoint (E) of the curve is 
at the horizontal brow line. 
Keep biow line level and un- 

Step 4 : On this curved line 
( C-E-D ) , the new center of the 
face, sketch the wedge of the 
nose in three-quarter view. 
Then lightly draw the lips and 
a new outline on the right side 
of the face. This new outline 
must be held generally within 
the original ovoid shape. 

Step 5 : Now, how much of the 
cranium will appear at the 
rear? The answer is clear. The 
amount of turn the head makes 
in front will produce a similar 
amount of turn in back. Mea- 
sure the distance between the 
midpoint of old center line (F) 
and the midpoint of the new 
center line (E). Add this mea- 
sure to the head at the rear 
( A-G) . This gives you the cor- 
rect amount of cranial bulge 
in back, corresponding to the 
amount of turn in front. Mea- 
surement A-G equals E-F. 

Drawing a 

Three-Quarter View * 

With these measurement lines 
in place, complete the shape of 
the skull and draw in the fea- 
tures. This is a good time to 
review the details of the sec- 
ondary forms we studied in the 
preceding chapter. Check the 
horizontal line-up of the nose 
base, cheek bone, ear, and skull 
base. The edge of the mouth 
and chin should align with the 
center of the eye. The ear 
should attach on a horizontal 
line drawn from the outside 
cornei' of the eye. 

Four Views of Head 
in Rotation 

Proof of Method 

When you have mastered the 
procedure, try it on a series of 
heads showing various turns 
to left and right. In all views, 
note how each measure A-B 
equals measure C-D. 

Slight Turn to Left 

Greater Turn to Left 

Let us, for the sake of argu- 
ment, raise an important ques- 
tion: Is the foregoing method 
reliable for any stage in the 
rotation of the head? It is. 
Here is the proof. Suppose that 
w ? e wish to give the head its 
greatest possible rotation, 
from a front view to a full side 
view. First, we draw the front 
ovoid shape and divide it, as 
before, in halves. We then take 
the measure A-B (half the 
width of the front view head) 
and transpose it to C-D, which 
completes the cranial mass. 
Finally, we sketch in the full 
profile. Our method gives us a 
good side view head. But is it 
proportionally correct ? Recall 
Chapter 1, in which we demon- 
strated that the side view head 
divides vertically into three 
equal parts. Measure the above 
head: A-B, B-C, and C-D are 
exactly equal. 

Slight Turn to Right 

Very Great Turn to Right 


In drawing the many possible 
views of the rotating head, two 
problems impede our attempts 
to achieve sound proportions. 
These are the placement of the 
side plane ( A-B) and jaw line 
(C-D). The side plane, which 
begins at the corner of the 
brow, changes with every turn 
of the head. But the jaw line 
tends to remain unchanged re- 
gardless of the rotation 1 


Side Plane 

The side plane of the face be- 
gins decisively at the broiv 
point, just above the outside 
corner of the eye. Here the 
front and side planes meet, 
then fall obliquely inward to 
the cheek bone, mouth edge, 
and chin. The line of the side 
plane lies on a steep 15 degree 
drop from brow to chin. 


Hard-cornered as the brow 
point is, the line (A-B) on 
which it lies is quite circular, 
going around the middle of the 
head. This curvature means 
that when the head turns, the 
side plane of the head (C-D) 
rotates in the same proportion 
as the center line (E-F) . 


To locate the side plane for 
any given turn of the head, fol- 
low this simple procedure: 

Step 1: Draw a front view 
head and put in the vertical 
(A-B) and horizontal (C-D) 
axes. These axes meet at the 
center point of the face (E). 
On the brow line (horizontal 
axis C-D) indicate the two 
brow points (F and G). 

Step 2 : If we give the head a 
turn to the right, the center 
point of the face will move 
from E to H. A new center line 
i A-H-B is established. F 
shows where the left brow 
point appeared on the front 
view, step 1. Note the new lo- 
cation of the right brow point 


Step 3 : The measure E-H rep- 
resents the amount of rotation 
of the center point. The rota- 
tion of the old left brow point 
to its new location (F-I) should 
equal E-H, Beginning at the 
new brow point (I), complete 
the 15 degree drop of the en- 
tire plane from brow to chin. 


In these four head views, the 
side plane is established by 
first resetting the brow point 
as demonstrated above. Keep 
this simple rule in mind: The 

Left Turn, Down View 

brow point shifts from the 
same distance (A to B) as the 
center facial line shifts from 
the front to a new position (C 
to D). In all cases the parti- 
tions are held to the line of 
the brow, whether the line is 
curved or fiat. 

Right Turn , Up View 

Right Turn, In this view (full turn, right 

Deeper Down View profile) measures A-B and 

C-D meet at brow point 

Jaw Line 

The jaw line, from any view, 
tends to remain unchanged no 
matter how the head turns. 
This means that the edge of 
the egg shape, when drawn as 
a front view, will continue to 
define the jaw line as the head 
turns. As the head rotates, the 
jaw line stays where we orig- 
inally drew it! This seems to 
be a startling assertion. But 
observe the jaw outline as the 
head rotates and you shall see 
this principle borne out. 



In this three-phase drawing, 
we see three positions of rota- 
tion in one head. 

Center line (A) is a front 
view; center line (B) is a 
three-quarter view; center line 
(C) is a side view r . In all these 
views, the jaw line does not 
change. It is constant for all 
positions. Try seeing each head 
separately with the jaw line: 
It is roughly correct for each 
view of the head. 


The jaw contour has this sur- 
prising characteristic because 
of the widespread, flat form of 
the lower-side-facial area. 
From the edge of the mouth to 
the jaw, the surface is quite 
even and without projections. 


Seen from a front view, the 
mouth-to-jaw plane (A-B) ap- 
pears greatly compressed or 


However, as the head turns, 
first a little, then more, the 
side plane of the jaw ap pears to 
expand and widen , like the flat 
side of a box which reveals 

more of its side as the box ro- 
tates. This expansion of the 
side plane holds the jaw line 
to a constant position. No mat- 
ter how much the head turns, 
the jaw line remains exactly in 
the same place. 



which lies across 
the head at the 
bridge of the nose, is the hori- 
zontal axis of the head. Below 
this line, the facial mass be- 
gins. All up and doivn move- 
ment of the head starts with 
this line. If the head tips down, 
the axis line drops ; if the head 
lifts np, the line rises. 

How Movement Affects 
the Brow Line 

The amount of rise or fall of 
the brow line off the horizontal 
position represents how much 
curvature the brow arch will 
show. The brow curvature is 
reflected in a sequence of sim- 
ilar curves over the entire sur- 
face of the head, from top to 


The brow line, 

m t rT a 1 a Af 


In a direct frontal view, the 
brow line axis is a horizontal 


In a down view, the drop of the 
brow permits a corresponding- 
drop of the crown. We see the 
top of the skull. 

UP view 

In an up view, the rise of the 
brow gives the chin base a cor- 
responding- lift. We see the 
under plane of the jaw. 

Ear Placement 


If the head is seen from an ex- 
tremely low angle, the brow 
curve takes on an extremely 
arched appearance. This qual- 
ity also appears in the jaw base 
and smaller features like the 
mouth, lips, and chin. Note 
how the amount of rise of the 
brow curve determines the rise 
of the chin base. 

When the head moves up and 
down, special care must be 
given to the placement of the 
ear. The ear always goes in an 
opposite direction to the facial 
tilt. When the face is down, the 
ear is up ; when the face is up, 
the ear is down. This rule also 
applies to the skull base. 

Head Up 



To place the ear on a tilted 
head, set up two track lines: 
the first from the brow corner ; 
the second from the nose base. 
Swing these tracks as the brow 
axis line indicates, curving 
down or up as the head posi- 
tion demands. Place the ear 
within the tracks, fixed to the 
jaw line. The skull base aligns 
with the ear base. 

Face down: ear appears 
high in this view. 

Head Down 


Face up: ear is now 
very low. 

Checking Proportions 
and Placement 

Once the ear is properly placed 
on the head, we must check the 
remaining features of the face 
for accurate placement and 
proportions. The following 
points are offered as a check 
list for up views and down 
views of the head. 


The base of the nose is one 
eye-length wide. Check the eye 
with the nose width for accu- 


To place the eye correctly in 
its socket, draw T a line upward 
from the edge of the nostril 
wing to the brow. The inside 
corner of the eye starts from 
this line. 


The corner of the mouth holds 
to a line drawn down from the 
center of the eye. This line also 
identifies the side of the chin. 


The jaw corner lines up with 
the opening of the mouth and 
the lower lip. In three-quarter 
up and down views, this corner 
lies on a 45 degree line that 
starts at the nose bridge and 
curves across the face. 



Seen from below, the muscle 
mass connecting the chin to the 
neck slopes down at a 15 degree 
angle. Its form looks like a wide 
funnel-opening thrust into the 
horseshoe form of the lower 


The eye, in upshot and down- 
shot, shows two remarkably 
different curves. Here, when 
the eye is seen from above, the 
low’er lid curve is round, while 
the upper lid is hardly curved, 
almost a straight line. When 
the eye is seen from below 7 see 
facing page), the appearance 
is reversed. The upper lid is 
greatly curved, and the lower 
lid is flat. 



Study the pupils of the eyes, 
both in up and down views, and 
in rotating views of the head. 
In these positions, the eye pupil 
disc is an ellipse , a circle in 
perspective. In a front view, 
when the eye moves up or 
down, the ellipse is horizontal : 
shallow from top to bottom. In 
a partial side view, the ellipse 
is vertical : shallow from left 
to right. 

Up view : pupil is 

horizontal ellipse. 

Doivn view: pupil is 
horizontal ellipse. 

Partial side view: pupil is 
vertical ellipse. 



Seen from an extremely high 
or low position, the great ovoid 
form of the cranial mass dom- 
inates the shape of the head. 
The irregular facial forms 
tend to become subordinate to 
the spherical brain case. 

Extreme Down View 

Extreme Up Vieiv 


When the head moves in any 
direction, you can locate the 
voice box by drawing a line 
from the center of the nose 
through the center of the lips. 
Moving downward, the line 
strikes the voice box in the 
center of the neck. 

Upshot Side View , Left: 
Finding Center of Neck. 


The neck column, curving 
backward in a long arc, may 
then be added from the skull 

Extreme T hree-Quarter 
Up View, Right: Finding 
Center of Neck. 

In Chapters 1 and 2, the head 
has been seen as a standard, 
generalized structure. The dis- 
cussion has been limited to 
averages and similarities of all 
heads. We shall now proceed 
to the factors which determine 
facial differences. In the next 
two chapters, we shall explore 
two forms of facial change: 
wrinkling and aging. 


Wrinkling of the face occurs 
for a variety of reasons. The 
most common reasons relate to 
incidental facial activity, such 
as chewing, grimacing, wink- 
ing, pouting, squinting, ex- 
pressions of pleasure and dis- 
taste, and demonstrations of 
emotion. Other reasons relate 
to psychological stress and in- 
ner tensions, as well as aging, 
muscular flaccidity, or loss of 
firmness in flesh. Whatever the 
origin of wrinkles, their de- 
velopment follows three major 
patterns: frontal, oblique, and 

Frontal Pattern 

The frontal pattern of wrinkles 
is heavily concentrated in the 
central region of the face. This 
pattern has its root in the nose 
bridge, and at the base. 


At the bridge, the frontal pat- 
tern starts with a deep hor- 
izontal groove across the root 
of the nose, accompanied by an 
intense inward compression of 
the eyebrows. As the eyebrows 
compress, vertical furrows rise 
in the center of the brow arch, 
swing slightly out, then close 
in an elliptical curve at the 
base of the forehead. As the 
eyebrows collide, the skin folds 
seem to squeeze or crush. Note 
the upward movement of the 
frontal pattern, high in the 

Horizon tcU Groove 

Vert ical Furrows 


At the base of the nose, two 
wrinkle movements occur : one 
thrusts upward to the nostril 
wings; the other drags down- 
ward to the mouth and chin. 
These movements are largely 


The upward thrust from the 
nose base produces a sharp 
curling of the flesh around the 
nostril wings. The action is 
high and arched. The upper lip 
is pulled upward from the cen- 
ter. The nose tip, while it does 
not move, takes on a forced, 
outthrust appearance. The 
effect is like an expression of 


The downward movement be- 
gins lightly around the nostril 
wings. From here, a deep chan- 
nel emerges and swings around 
the mouth bulge, then closes in 
a tight curve, circling the fron- 
tal prominence of the chin. The 
lower lip is forced out when the 
mouth is closed. 

Oblique Pattern 

The oblique pattern of wrinkles 
develops above and below the 
inside curve of the eye socket, 
and the inner contour of the 
cheek bone. The oblique pattern 
belongs to the inner eye, the 
brow, and the cheek bone, as 
the frontal pattern belongs to 
the nose, the mouth, and the 
chin. The oblique pattern lies 
adjacent to the frontal pattern. 
Its main directions are angular 
and outward. It moves both up 
and down. 


The oblique pattern begins in 
the deep inner curve of the eye 
socket below the nose root. Two 
wrinkle movements develop : 
below, a depressed ring edges 
the socket and lower eye and 
moves downward over the 
cheek ; above, the pattern moves 
from the socket curve over the 
mid-brow to the base of the 





The oblique pattern descends 
across the cheek. Decisive rifts 
appear. In aged persons, the 
cheek bone is exposed, with a 
hollow below. 


The downward movement con- 
tinues across the middle of the 
jaw and its undersurface, then 
cascades in fleshy channels 
down the side of the neck to the 
protruding collar bones. 




The wrinkles rise from the 
compression line of the eye- 
brow and inner socket. Then 
they range up and outward in 
an arc that curves around the 
mid-brow. The movement 
turns and ends in a series of 
horizontal rifts across the 
lower forehead. 

The oblique pattern is like a 
zig-zag movement up and down 
the face, starting at the inner 
curve of the eye socket. 


Lateral Pattern 

The lateral pattern consists of 
all the wrinkles on the side re- 
gion of the face, neck, and 
back of the head. This diffuse 
pattern shows isolated furrows 
and rifts which emanate from 
the outer eye, ear, jaw line, 
and back of the neck below the 
skull base. 

CROW'S feet 


The fan-like wrinkles which 
start at the outer corner of the 
eye are commonly called croiv’s 

As the eyelids terminate, a 
series of creases fan out from 
the socket, wheel upward 
around the brow corner and 
across to the ear, and spread 
downward to the cheek bone 

From a side view, the crow’s 
feet show a radiating effect. 
Near the eye corner, the 
wrinkles are deeply creased. 
As they flare outward, they 
split into finer, less decisive 
wrinkles, especially on the side 
of the forehead and cheek. 

The wrinkles which develop 
around the ear merge with 
those of the jaw line and neck. 
At the forward edge of the ear, 
slight rifts curl around the 
rim ; slip down to the lobe ; then 
descend to a series of furrows 
cutting the line of the jaw. 
These move on to the under-jaw 
and neck, becoming deeper 
fleshy channels. From the rear 
of the neck below the ear, cor- 
rugations move down to meet 
the jaw wrinkles, flowing down 
together toward the neck base. 
The ear is like an island divid- 
ing a flowing stream. 



Wrinkles tend to develop in the 
skin which covers the crevices 
and 7'ecessed regions of the 
head and face. In these places, 
rifts, creases, and folds appear 
when the skin responds to some 
movement of the head, jaw, or 
facial muscles. For instance, 
wrinkles occur when we laugh, 
frown, sneeze, squint, wink, 
tilt or swing the head. The pull 
of muscles causes tension 
wrinkles. The contraction or 
squeeze of muscles causes pres- 
sure wrinkles . 

Example of Tension and 
Pressure Wrinkles 

The skin creases when thrusts 
develop from the action of 
eyebrows, eyes, cheeks, and 
mouth. Creases under the chin 
and jaw are forced by the tilt 
and inward pull of the head. 





Another variety of wrinkles 
occurs as a result of the aging 
of the skin and fleshy fibers of 
the head. The flesh loosens and 
the skin shrivels; the tissues 
lose their firmness and elas- 
ticity. This creates w 7 hat we 
may call sag and shrinkage 
wrinkles. These tend to be ran- 
dom and unpredictable. Sag 
wrinkles are usually loose or 
flaccid, taking a downward 
course, as they are pulled by 
the force of gravity. Shrinkage 
wrinkles look dried out and 
withered in the heavier, thicker 
tissues of the face ; a shrunken 
and cross-grained effect may 
be seen, for example, on the 
lips, chin, cheeks, and ear lobes 
of aged persons. 

Example of Sag and 
Shrinkage Wrinkles 

Note the sag of the loose, hang- 
ing folds below the chin and 
jaw. Shrinkage may be seen on 
the brow, cheek, lips, and back 
of the neck. Note the cross- 
grained, shriveled appearance. 


The three major wrinkle pat- 
terns interact: they are not 
independent or compartmen- 
talized. In these four examples, 
observe the groupings and then 
draw your own examples from 
persons near at hand. Observe 
the tension and pressure wrin- 
kles, and the sag and shrink- 
age wrinkles. 

( Parallel Effect of 
94 Pressure and Tension 

An expression of concentration 
causes pressure wrinkles to 
appear between the eyebrows. 
At the same time, incipient ten- 
sion folds develop on the side 
of the mouth and cheek. 

Pressure Reaction to 
Head Thrust 

When the head is thrust force- 
fully into the neck, extreme 
pressure creases girdle the en- 
tire perimeter of the lower jaw 
and chin. 

Opposition of Tension 
and Sag Wrinkles 

Here we see two contrary ten- 
dencies. The upward pull of 
the eyebrows reveals tension 
wrinkles on the forehead, 
while the neck region expresses 
an over-all downward drift of 
sag wrinkles. Note further the 
subtle shrinkage creases on the 
lips of this older woman. 

Contrary Effect of 
Pressure Rifts 

The retracted mouth produces 
tension in the lips and chin. At 
the same time, a severe con- 
traction (pressure) in the 
brow and nose bridge effects 
an opposite pressure on the 
nose above the nostril wing. 


4 . 




As the head ages, changes take 
place in head proportion, skull 
development, and bone articu- 
lation in brow, nose, jaw, and 
teeth. Growth in flesh, tissue, 
skin, lips, ears, eyelids, and 
hair all contribute to the de- 
scriptive aspects of aging. Less 
obvious, but no less important, 
are changing head positions, 
body attitudes, and gestures; 
these add subtlety and distinc- 
tion to the head in growth, 
maturity, and decline. The fol- 
lowing sequence of illustra- 
tions will analyze the progres- 
sive aging of the head, as form 
and detail change year by 


Proportion: facial mass, 1 
part ; cranial mass, 3 l /j parts. 
Forehead and nose meet in con- 
tinuous S-curve. Ear quite 
large, set forward toward face. 
Jaw short; flat, undeveloped 
jaw angle. Nose appears large, 
compared to mouth and chin. 
Eye closed; has compressed, 
bulged appearance. Sparse, 
downy hair (but occasionally 
profuse) covers head from 
crown backward. Short neck; 
appears feeble and weak. 


Proportion: facial mass, 1 
part; cranial mass, 3 parts. 
Facial mass fuller; jaw slight- 
ly increased. Nose appears 
smaller. Note roundness of 
cheek, chin, and neck. Mouth 
tends to be full, curved, open. 
Hair longer, fine, feathery. 
Eye alert, responsive. 



Proportion: facial mass, 1 2 

part; cranial mass, just under 
3 parts. Pronounced S-curve of 
forehead and nose. Eye, mouth, 
and lips active and eager. Chin, 
cheek and neck fat developed ; 
chubby appearance. Neck 
somewhat longer. 


Proportion: facial mass (still 
increasing), 1 part; cranial 
mass, 2% parts. S-curve of 
forehead and nose maintained. 
Small, short nose. Hair thicker 
and profuse. Jaw and chin 
more developed ; cheek, jaw 
and neck fat evident. Mouth 
soft and curved, but firmer and 
more controlled. Neck some- 
what longer. 



3»/ 2 -4 YEARS 

Proportion: facial mass (still 
increasing), 1 part; cranial 
mass, 2(4 parts. S-curve of 
forehead and nose persists. 
Nose slightly longer. Cheek 
full and rounded. Jaw larger; 
chin curved, somewhat prom- 
inent. Under-jaw fat and neck 
fat disappearing ; neck longer. 
Lips firmer; mouth more com- 
petent and expressive. 



6-7 YEARS 

Proportion; facial mass (still 
increasing), 1 part; cranial 
mass, 2 1 ,;. parts. Orbits almost 
as large as adult. Nose still 
curved, but longer; tip up- 
thrust. Mouth region larger. 
Chin round, more prominent; 
jaw angle more vertical; jaw 
larger. Neck longer. S-curve 
of rear head bulge and neck 
evident. Hair unruly, thicker, 
more adult. 



8-9 YEARS 

Proportion : facial mass ( still 
increasing), 1 part, cranial 
mass, 2y± parts. Forehead 
changed somewhat : brow arch 
showing, nose bridge deepen- 
ing. Nose longer, more devel- 
oped, but still curved; tip up- 
thrust. Lips still curved; 
mouth region increased. Jaw 
leaner; chin longer, more 
pointed, but still rounded. 
Neck longer. S-curve of head 
bulge and neck maintained. 

11-12 YEARS 

Proportion: facial mass, 1 
part; cranial mass, almost 2 
parts. Head somewhat smaller 
than adult, but mature ratio 
appears. Brow bulge and nose 
bridge more apparent. Nose 
longer, more articulated; tip 
still up. Mouth firmer; chin 
larger; jaw T heavier and 
broader. Adam's apple puts 
in slight appearance (voice 
change beginning) . Neck lon- 
ger and slightly thicker. 


14-15 YEARS 

Proportion: mature level 
reached; facial mass, 1 part, 
cranial mass, 2 parts. From 
here on, head proportion con- 
tinues at this ratio. Brow 
thicker. Nose bridge deepens. 
Nose tip still up. Jaw corner 
more angular ; chin firmer, less 
rounded. Adam’s apple more 
pronounced. Neck longer, a bit 
heavier. Back head bulge still 
present, still immature. 

18-20 YEARS 

Young adult stage achieved. 
Understructure of head comes 
through ; leaner facial appear- 
ance. Cheek softness disap- 
pears. Deeper nose bridge ; 
nose tip less evident. Jaw r angle 
firm. Mouth more firm ; lip 
softness disappears. Neck 
muscles stronger, more devel- 
oped. Skin texture firmer, 



Deep nose bridge; nasal bone 
more pronounced. Lean cheek 
and cheek bone. Chin mound 
more decisive; under-jaw re- 
gion firm and even. Mouth 
more reserved. 


Eye appearance deeper set, 
searching, incisive. Early de- 
velopment of creasing, starting 
at outer corner of eye and fore- 
head. Mouth, chin mound, and 
jaw line firm. Slight fleshiness 



First appearance of softness 
and fleshiness under jaw; chin 
mound cleavage occurs. Mouth 
wrinkle emerges. Under eye 
sag; further increase of eye 
and brow wrinkles. Neck less 
lean, somewhat heavier. More 
reserved, less intense facial as- 
pect and bearing. 


Hair somewhat thinner. Deep- 
er-set eye; eye socket shows 
more clearly. Forehead and 
eye wrinkles advance. Mouth 
crease more pronounced. Chin 
mound tighter, less rounded. 
Under-jaw sag advances; chin 
shows clear separation from 
jaw. Neck heavier. Slight 
fleshy roll at back of neck. 



Hair thinner, graying and re- 
ceding at temples. Definite 
crow’s feet wrinkle group 
forming at outer corner of eye. 
U nder-chin sag droops slightly 
toward neck. Chin mound quite 
distinct. Jaw corner fleshy, less 
lean. Neck less firm; early 
wrinkles starting on side ; flesh 
on rear neck reflects increased 
body weight. 


Frontal hair thinned out; side 
hair recessed. Grayness con- 
tinues. Upper lid line sags. Eye 
deeper-set in socket. Fleshy 
jouch beginning under lower 
id. Wrinkles in mid-forehead. 
Deeper nose bridge. Cheek 
flesh sags ; cheek bone evident. 
Secondary sag appears at side 
of chin. Soft flesh under- jaw 
sinks toward neck. Jaw line 
fleshy and unclear. Neck wrin- 
kles increase. 



Hair quite thin on crown ; gen- 
erally gray. Under-eye pouch 
more decisive. Cheek bone and 
zygomatic arch apparent. Tem- 
poral wall and brow corner 
pronounced. Chin mound more 
angular. Back neck fold 
deeper; front of neck shows 
sagging, folding, and shrink- 


Cranium generally bald. Bony 
features of skull apparent 
throughout. Eye takes on 
grave, concentrated look. Nose 
forms more distinct. Lower 
facial region (especially chin, 
jaw, and neck) appears slack, 
flaccid. Ear less firm ; shrink- 
age of forms evident. Facial 
expression shows tiredness, 
less energy. 




General flesh and bone shrink- 
age; hollows and recesses of 
skull become clear. Folds and 
creases deepen around mouth, 
jaw, and neck. Fatigue appears 
in eyebrow, eye and forehead 
wrinkles. Eyebrow hair some- 
what profuse and unruly look- 
ing. Placement of head on neck 
reflects slightly stooped, less 
erect body posture. 


Tooth loss causes jaw shrink- 
age ; jaw angle less steep. Chin 
more prominent. Nose seems 
enlarged. Mouth folds deeper, 
more extreme; lips appear 
tighter, more compressed. Ob- 
vious hair growth on ears. 
Scalp hair finer and lank ; loses 
coarseness and vigor. Network 
of smaller wrinkles develops 
throughout head. Placement of 
head on neck reflects increas- 
ing stoop of body. 



Loss of teeth ; further gum and 
jaw shrinkage. Chin less fleshy, 
thrust further forward. Cross- 
cut wrinkles emerge on shrink- 
ing lips. Substructure of skull 
emerges from below skin. Head 
tends to hang forward in walk- 
ing; balanced backward while 
sitting. General weariness in 
facial expression. 


Senescence and debility over- 
take head from this stage and 
beyond. Loss of teeth creates 
undershot bony look of jaw. 
Jaw angle quite low and flat. 
Mouth collapsed and wrinkled. 
Cheek sunken. Flesh withered 
throughout the head, including 
ear and neck. Hair fine, thin, 
silky. Deep sag on upper lid 
line; upper eyelid droops 
markedly. Generally feeble 





We have studied some factors 
of head structure and facial 
change common to all members 
of the human family. People 
the world over are generally 
alike. But we must recognize 
that there are enormous varia- 
tions in detail : there are diver- 
gent head types, races, and 
populations, as w r ell as varied 
culture groups, and an infinite 
diversity of individual faces. 


Among the peoples of the earth, 
there are three different head 
types. These are broadly clas- 
sified according to the cephalic 
index, an established standard 
of head measurement. 



Heads in this category are 
characterized by a wide skull, 
yet features and facial aspects 
may be remarkably varied. 


• • •'? 

Applying Proportions 
in Drawing 

In drawing this type — or any 
other — do not try to apply the 
proportions exactly. The draw- 
ing is apt to become forced and 
stilted. If the head is visually 
convincing — even if the pro- 
portions are not exact — you 
nave produced an acceptable 
solution. See how these three 
examples of broad heads prove 
this contention. 

Facial Features 

Individuals with medium to 
low foreheads tend to have 111 

* compact, square, relatively 

Head Proportions short faces and features. 

When you draw the broad- 
headed skull, you may find that 
the width of the skull is at 
least four fifths the length. 



Compared to the broad heads, 
the long heads seem to have ex- 
ceedingly narrow skulls. The 
width of the skull is generally 
three fourths the length. 

Moderately Arched Forehead 

The forehead shell, among long 
heads, varies greatly. In some, 
the cranium shows a moderate 


High, Arched Forehead 

"'he forehead may present a 
high, ai'ched eminence which 
curves into the cranial vault. 

Facial Features 

Persons with a high, vaulting 
forehead tend to have a gen- 
erally longer facial structure 
from crown to chin, with a 
more extended nose and ears. 

' **w 




Persons in this group generally 
fall between the two extremes. 
The forehead is neither highly 
arched nor markedly shallow 7 . 


Female Head 

Although the female head ap- 
pears more delicate in detail, 
it still conforms to the same 
head type: broad, long, or in- 
termediate. This is an inter- 
mediate example. Confirm this 
by categorizing the head types 
of the women you observe 
around you. 


'he proportions of the inter- 
mediate group lie between 
those of the broad and the long 
heads. Skull width is some- 
what less than four fifths and 
larger than three-quarters the 
length of the skull. 

Facial Features 

Persons with a medium-high 
forehead tend to have a more 
ovoid facial structure, with 
somewhat shorter nose, ears, 
and chin. 



There are major differences in 
the slope of the face, when the 
face is seen from the side view. 
This slope reflects the forward 
thrust of the front teeth (in- 
cisors) as compared with the 
forehead (disregarding the 
nose, of course). Three char- 
acteristic profiles emerge. 

Steep Slope 

When the facial angle is steep, 
the slope is vertical. Individ- 
uals in this group show the 
least projection of the front 
teeth (prognathism). 


Diagonal Slope 

At the other extreme, the pro- 
file is markedly slanted. There 
is a profound projection of the 
dental bulge. 

Moderate Slope 

Between these two extremes, 
the middle group shows a mod- 
erately upright profile. 



No one particular group of 
persons can be identified by a 
single head type classification 
or facial slope. Head form 
variations run through the in- 
dividuals of all population 
groups the world over. In the 
following drawings, we shall 
see a sampling of persons, 
chosen merely for visual in- 
terest and physical variety, 
who reveal the various head 
form traits in varying rela- 

Southern European Man 
(Italy): Broad Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope, 

Equador Indian Man 
(Jivaro ) : Medium Head Type; 
Moderate Facial Slope. 

Southern India-Ceylon Man: 
Medium Head Type; 
Diagonal Facial Slope. 

Northeastern India Woman 
(Bengal): Medium Head 
Type; Steep Facial Slope. 


Eastern European Man 
(Ukraine ) : Broad Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope. 

North African Man (Berber, 
Morocco): Long Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope. 

Central African Pygmy 
(Congo): Broad Head Type; 
Diagonal Facial Slope. 


North American Eskimo Man 
(Arctic Fringe): Medium 
Head Type; Moderate 
Facial Slope. 


Central European Man 
(Austria ) : Broad Head Type ; 
Steep Facial Slope - 

Guatemala Indian Woman: 
Medium Head Type; 
Moderate Facial Slope. 


Asia Minor Woman 
( Turkey ) : Medium Head 
Type; Moderate Facial Slope. 

West African Man (Nigeria ) : 
Long Head Type; 

Moderate Facial Slope. 

West European Man (Great 
Britain): Long Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope. 

Northern Japanese Man 
(Ainu): Broad Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope. 

Indonesian Woman (Java): 
Broad Head Type; 
Moderate Facial Slope. 

Eastern Asian Woman 
(Japan): Medium Head 
Type; Moderate Facial Slope. 

Southwestern European Man 
(Spain): Long Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope . 

Western United States Indian 
Man ( Sioux ) : Broad Head 
Type; Moderate Facial Slope. 


North eastern Austral van 
Man : Long Head Type ; 
Moderate Facial Slope. 

Central African Woman 
(Congo): Long Head Type; 
Diagonal Facial Slope. 

Eastern Asian Man (China): 
Medium Head Type; 
Moderate Facial Slope. 

Middle Eastern Man (Iran): 
Medium Head Type; 
Moderate Facial Slope. 

New Guinea Man ( Papua ) : 
Broad Head Type; 

Moderate Facial Slope. 

Northern European Man 
( S weden) : Long Head Type ; 
Steep Facial Slope. 

Near Eastern Man ( Saudi 
Arabia ): Long Head Type; 
Steep Facial Slope. 

South African Bushman 
( Kalihari Desert ) : Long 
Head Type; Diagonal 
Facial Slope. 


Polynesian Man (Samoa): 
Broad Head Type; 
Moderate Facial Slope . 

6 . 







We have come to a point where 
it is possible to assess the draw- 
ing principles presented in the 
preceding chapters. In the fol- 
lowing pages, we shall repro- 
duce a gallery of heads by mas- 
ters of drawing, painting, and 
sculpture. With this gallery of 
great examples, we shall 
attempt to document our prop- 
ositions of form and structure, 
order and proportion, as well 
as our generalizations about 
the organization of contours, 
planes, tonal values and tactile 
surfaces. We shall seek to dem- 
onstrate empirically that the 
material in this book is formed 
from observations which can 
be verified in art works across 
the centuries, from early Greek 
times to the present day. 

In every work of art, a syn- 
thesis exists between the pro- 
jection of an idea and the 
shaping of a form . When an 
idea is perceived mentally as 
an image, the visualizing pro- 
cess is called imagination. The 
act of making the image visible 
in some material (clay, paint, 
carbon, graphite, etc.) is called 
art. In the shaped material, we 
see the embodiment of the 
imagined idea as a form. The 
form — a created object — is a 
work of aH. 

Now, while all of us may be 
able to imagine or perceive 
images, not everyone is cap- 
able of shaping forms. The per- 
ception of images — the process 
we call imagination — is de- 
rived from the experience of 
our senses and their capacity 
to apprehend what happens in 
nature. But the process of 
making images into forms de- 
pends on a special system of 

knowledge. This process de- 
mands an understanding of 
useful, workable materials; 
trained motor and technical 
skills; and, more decisively, a 
comprehension of forms, their 
ordered relations and asso- 
ciated meanings, all of which 
we sometimes call the language 
of art. Only those who work to 
master this knowledge, who 
learn the language of forms, 
may conceivably produce a 
work of art. 

Knowledge of form, there- 
fore, is essential to every work 
of art. At this stage of our 
work, we will attempt to show 
that art must start from a con- 
cise body of form discipline, a 
grammar of forms, if you will. 
In the following pages, we shall 
recapitulate these factors in 
the works of masters whose 
outlook and interest spring 
from a common fund of infor- 
mation. In exploring this gal- 
lery of great heads, we shall 
search out certain salient fea- 
tures which, we hope, will 
illuminate and reinforce the 
propositions advanced in this 

Lest there be any misappre- 
hension as to the intent of this 
book, we must assert that it 
deals only with the precursory 
measures upon which a work 
of art is based. Our purpose 
has been to lay the ground- 
work of form comprehension. 
But once this foundation is es- 
tablished, and the reader has 
reached a stage of freedom 
wherein this basic knowledge 
is taken for granted, the read- 
er’s performance moves into 
the domain of personal expres- 
sion. From here, the common- 
place similarity of form is 
reconstructed by individual 
temperament into the sense 
values of the shaped image, the 
aesthetic work of art. 


Marble Sculpture 

Greek, early Fifth Century B.C. 

(ca. 490 B.C.) 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art , Rogers Fund , 1919. 

In this archaic Greek head, the 
basic masses are established 
with rigorous simplicity and 
clarity. Despite the loss of de- 
tails in the chipped nose, lips, 
lids and ear, the structure of 
the ovoid cranial mass and the 
tapered facial mass still force- 
fully assert the decisive char- 
acter of the head. 

It is wise to remember, as the 
early Greek sculptor shows us, 
that the essence of drawing lies 
in developing the great masses 
first. Whatever forms may be 
added later, these primary 
structures alone are capable of 
producing the fundamental 
form of the head. 127 


Marble Sculpture 

Greek, Fifth Century B.C. 
(450-425 b.c.) 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art , Fletcher Fund, 1926, 

In this downshot view of a 
Greek youth, the cranial form 
fully supports the external 
mass of hair and curls. 

The view from above the head 
presents a clear distinction be- 
tween the two different curves 
of the eyelids. Seen this way, 
the upper-lid curve is inhibited 
and quite flat, in contrast to 
the rounder curve of the lower- 
lid line. 

Here we see how the eyes are 
set in the sockets just below the 
overhanging brow bone. They 
are spaced the length of an eye 
apart. In another sense, this 
measure between the eyes can 
be taken from the extreme 
width of the nostril wings. 


Marble Sculpture 

Roman copy of a Greek 
Sculpture, 3rd Quarter 
Fourth Century B.c. 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art , Rogers Fund , 1911. 

This classic Greek head gives 
us three views of the secondary 
forms and features: 

Side View; In the side view, 
see how the eyelids are located 
on an oblique line from the ad- 
vanced upper lid to the reces- 
sive lower lid. Further, note 
how this oblique line, if con- 
tinued, tends to meet the cor- 
ner of the jaw. From this point, 
a line carried horizontally to- 
ward the profile will carry into 
the mouth slit and lower lip. 

Front View: Check the width 
of the mouth in this front view r 
and observe how the mouth 
corners terminate on lines car- 
ried down from the midpoints 
of both eyes. This relationship 
can be seen in all three views 
of the head on this page. 

Three-Quarter View: Finally, 
judge the correct placement of 
the near eye in the three-quar- 
ter view. The inner corner of 
the eye will be seen to start on 
a point directly above the edge 
of the nostril wing. 



Black and white chalk 
on white paper 

Anthony van Dyck 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Arty Gift of 

Mr. and Mrs . Janos Scholtz, 

In an upshot foreshortening 
of the head seen from below, 
van Dyck shows how the eye- 
lid curves are reversed. Set 
against the raised plane of the 
head and the arched swing of 
the brow, the upper lids take 
on a marked crescent-shaped 
curve while the lower lids are 
virtually straight. 

The foreshortened up view is 
further emphasized in the ellip- 
tic shapes of the pupil discs; 
the upthrust triangular nose 
base; the low-set cheek bones 
on the curved facial plane ; and 
the thrust of the chin mound 
through the beard, implying 
the recessed understructure of 
the jaw. 



Marble Sculpture 

Roman, First Century B.c. 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art , Rogers Fund, 1921. 

This lean, long-jawed indi- 
vidual presents an excellent 
example of the frontal wrinkle 
pattern which emanates from 
the narrow nose root at the 
bridge and the nostril wings at 
the base. The wrinkle pattern 
can be traced in the vertical 
compressions that start from 
the eyebrows and engage the 
horizontal forehead furrows. 
Then the pattern emerges from 
the nose wings and courses 
downward, holding to the pe- 
rimeters of the mouth bulge 
and chin mound. 

This trenchant portrait, with 
its gaunt face and narrow cra- 
nial box, gives us an explicit 
specimen of the long-headed or 
dolichocephalic skull form. 


Marble Sculpture 

Roman, First Century B.C. 
(Cate Republican Period' 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Rogers Fund , 1917. 

Despite the missing fragment 
of the nose, this head clearly 
shows the emerging wrinkle 
patterns of the nose. Note how 
the oblique pattern, starting 
from the inner corner of the 
eye and moving into the mid- 
face, is distinguished from the 
frontal pattern, which turns 
around the nostril wing and 
holds to the lower cheek con- 
tour. The wide-set lateral 
wrinkle group, beginning at 
the outer eye corner, radiates 
upward to the forehead and 
downward to the extreme edge 
of the jaw and neck. 

Of the three generic classes of 
head type, this version appears 
to be a remarkable example of 
the broad-headed or brachy- 
cephalic type. 


Marble Sculpture 

Roman, Third Century A.D. 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Samuel D. Lee Fund, 
19 ^ 0 . 

The upward direction of the 
oblique wrinkle pattern is pre- 
sented with incisive clarity 
in this portrait. The pattern 
thrusts from across the nose 
bridge and projects angularly 
over the brow to merge with the 
furrows of the mid-forehead. 
This vigorous accent is no over- 
statement, for it injects a re- 
vealing psychological tension 
in the imperious characteriza- 
tion of the emperor’s personal- 

In an over-all classification, 
this head can be assigned to 
the intermediate or mesoce- 
phalic skull type, wherein the 
general configuration of the 
cranium is neither broad nor 




Marble Sculpture 

Roman, Augustan Period 
(ca. 30 B.c.) 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Rogers Fund, 1919. 

This profile view confirms the 
means by which the front neck- 
line is established under the 
jaw. A line starting from the 
tip of the nose, touching the 
lips, and continuing down- 
ward strikes the forward pro- 
jection of the laryngeal box or 
Adam’s apple. 

In another note on form place- 
ment, see how the ear is set at 
the side of the jaw line. The 
length of the ear equals the 
distance between the eyebrow 
and nose base. 


Pencil on paper 

Jean-Auguste Dominique 
Ingres (1780-1867) 

The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Rogers Fund, 1919. 

A penetrating simplicity emer- 
ges in a drawing developed 
from a single source of light. 
In this manner, Ingres shows 
the massed side plane of the 
head, with the shadow" edging 
the depressed temple wall and 
the emerging cheek mound. 

Again, the deep hollow of the 
eye socket is joined to the nose 
forms which spread to form 
the triangular nose wedge. The 
mouth bulge is more subtly ex- 
pressed ; since the subject is an 
older person, the cheek folds 
and mouth line are specially 
emphasized to express the nu- 
ances of incipient shrinkage 
wrinkles, "he upper head mass 
is drawn in a linear shorthand ; 
the stroked modeling of the 
hair explains the cranial vault 


Oil on canvas 

Frank Du veneck (1848-1919) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Moms K. Jesup Fund, 
1923 . 

The look of old age: how ably 
the artist has juxtaposed the 
hard-edged bony projections 
beneath the corrugated fleshy 
surfaces. Most notably, he de- 
fines the furrowed brow and 
sockets with the eyes sunk 
deeply within. Especially 
praiseworthy is the handling 
of the tight lips holding to the 
bony forms. The lips are 
checked with cross-grain rifts, 
while on the perimeter two cur- 
tains of sagging cheek folds 
descend, laced with surface ir- 
regularities. Although a wealth 
of detail is recorded, the artist 
has not overstepped the sensi- 
tivity with which these subtle 
form nuances are disclosed. 


Oil on canvas 

Gustave Courbet ( 1819—1877 ) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Bequest of Mrs. H. 0. 
Havemeyer , 1929. 

While Courbet draws attention 
to the compelling near eye with 
its dark accent, the artist’s 
mastery of draughtsmanship 
is revealed in the muted hand- 
ling of the mouth, the sensi- 
tive treatment of the lip curves 
with their subtle range of form 
tones. How artfully he permits 
the slight sidewise tilt of the 
head to expose the nose in a 
double relief : the nose contour 
is keyed against a darkened 
facial plane ; the structured 
nose base is silhouetted against 
a lightened cheek plane. From 
here, the lip channel, descend- 
ing darkly, engages the deli- 
cate mouth forms and the bare- 
ly perceptible chin mound. 
Then, from below, the ribbon 
frames the jaw and joins the 
dark mass of hat and hair, 
thrusting the head into an im- 
pressive three-dimensional re- 

Oil on canvas 

Rembrandt van Rijn 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Bequest of Benjamin Alt- 
man, 1913. 

Rembrandt’s consummate skill 
as a draughtsman is seeming- 
ly belied in the casual, almost 
careless, use of the brush with 
which forms and contours are 
coarsely laid in. But under- 
neath these surface aspects, 
the positions of the decorative 
headband and the fillet of 
pearls reveal two counter- 
curves of the cranial vault; the 
first curve moves over, the sec- 
ond around the upper crown. 
At the same time, the pearl on 
the forehead subtly engages 
the curving center line of the 
frontal plane of the head. 

The facial planes recede in tone 
from top to bottom (compare 
the forehead and chin base), 
and from left to right (check 
the value changes on each of 
the pearls). The most artful 
treatment of structural rela- 
tionships can be seen in the 
handling of the eyes. The mod- 
eling indicates the degree of 
turn and the progression of 
value from the near to the far 
eye. But far more effective is 
the finesse of accent between 
both. The near eye — with its 
heightened color contrast, 
translucent pupil, and keenly 
inserted highlight — commands 
the central head bulge and be- 
comes the focal point of the en- 
tire head. 



Oil on wood, 

Peter Paul Rubens 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Egleston Fund, 1922. 

The condition of age is essen- 
tially a result of the withering 
and shrinking of the bony and 
fleshy tissues. Under extreme 
illumination, Rubens estab- 
lishes with subtlety and econ- 
omy the data of old age. In the 
silvery sheen of fine hair on the 
balding crown and in the pa- 
triarchal beard, we find the 
dark accents of the understruc- 
tures: the cranial bulge, the 
deep-set sockets, the elevated 
cheek mounds, the articulated 
nose projection, the contracted 
mouth corners. Then he adds 
the finer nuances of fleshy 
rifts on the brow, the nose 
bridge, the eye corner, and the 
cheek cover. His final tactics 
are the acute insertion of the 
profuse eyebrow hair, the sag- 
ging eye fold, the pendulous 
ear lobe, and most engaging, 
the high, white collar which 
thrusts the head downward in- 
to the confirmed body stoop of 
old age. 


Oil on canvas 

Rembrandt van Rijn 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , 1961. 

Unless a profound knowledge 
of form can be called upon, 
boldness of execution cannot 
show anything but the mere 
exercise of the brush. To be 
authentic and significant, 
stroke and form must be in- 
tegrated. In this head, Rem- 
brandt shows restless brush- 
work which is built up like the 
technique of a sculptor model- 

ing with clay. We begin by ob- 
serving the triangular block- 
ing of the nose wedge, the forc- 
ing of the upper nose plane, the 
pushing down of the side plane, 
the cutting of the nose base and 
gouging of the nostril. Then 
we slowly drift from the un- 
mannerly paint stroke into the 
flesh, bone, and vibrant pres- 
ence of the living man. The 
eyes peer from the deep sock- 
ets in translucent shadows ; the 
slack half-hidden mouth, barely 
open, begins to ph rase wordless 
sounds. This is when paint, 
controlled by the intelligence 
of form, passes into the realm 
of art. 



Oil on canvas 

Johannes Vermeer 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art y Gift of Henry G. Mar- 
quandy 1889. 

The light source, directed from 
the left, produces a clear ex- 
pression of planes in high and 
low relief; the effect is one of 
structural simplicity and spa- 
tial coherence of all the parts. 
This even-tempered precision 
is almost prosaic, except when 
we note how Vermeer has used 
the bonnet to play out the bal- 
ance of the head mass. The 
thin material becomes a veil 
through whieh the opaque vol- 
ume of the cranium is re- 
vealed; the subtle penetration 
of light permits the rear skull 
and neck to be shown. Against 
this, a reverse shift illumi- 
nates the translucent plane of 
the right face and chest. Fi- 
nally he releases a semi-trans- 
parent glow 1 through the left 
bonnet wing, against which the 
contour of the facial mass is 
securely enclosed. 

Red chalk on paper 

Jean-Baptiste Greuze 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Rogers Fund, 19^9. 

Command of a youthful head 
in this view' can come only 
from a profound awareness of 
the total head mass. The over- 
all structural unity is given 
cohesion by the spherical build- 
up of lines, which are worked 
in curved array from the left 
eye region and then course out- 
w'ard to the rotund perimeter 
of the head. The features are 
kept consistent with the con- 
ception of the upshot view. 
Strong curved accents hold the 
circumferential upper lid lines ; 
lesser curves engage the nose 
base, mouth, and lips ; then the 
spheroid curves reverse to take 
up the under arcs of cheeks, 
chin, and neck. 

Oil on canvas 

Francisco de Goya 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Bequest of Mary Stillman 
Harkness, 1950. 

Underscoring accents in the 
recessive areas of forms is one 
means by w r hich Goya extracts 
the qualities of his sitter’s 
identity. For example, the 
dark touches under the nose tip 
and the nostril cavity tend to 
define a lean, taut, angular 
slope. Low tones at the lip line 
and mouth corners create a re- 
tention of the upper lip and 
protrusion of the lower lip. In- 
cised values at the outer eye 
edges and nose bridge induce a 
swelling convexity in the eyes. 
And the inflected contour of 
the jaw base tends to send the 
chin mound out and open the 
low r er lip. Goya’s understand- 
ing of form is so precise that it 
is with his light passages that 
he reaches the intensity of char- 
acterization. See how the light 
strokes bulge the eye, lift the 
nose, raise the nostril, assert 
the lips, swell the cheeks, pro- 
ject the chin. 


Black and red chalk on paper 

Leonardo da Vinci 
( 1452 - 1519 ) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Dick Fund, 1951. 

Leonardo conceives the head 
as a great sphere on which he 
introduces the secondary forms 
and features. He initiates his 
approach with a central light 
source directed from above the 
head. Then, modeling the glo- 
boid mass, he develops curva- 
ture with a continuous grada- 
tion of values toward the un- 
dersurface of the right con- 
tour. Selectively, he relieves 
the major features with heav- 
ier pressures and lightly 
searches out the minor forms 
with softer touches. He skill- 
fully manipulates the hair as a 
background to his forms, dark- 
ening the mass to show the il- 
luminated brow and cheek, 
lightening the tones to empha- 
size the intensified mouth and 


Black crayon on paper 

Ludovico Carracci 
( 1551 - 1619 ) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund, 1950. 

In contrast with Leonardo, 
Carracci takes a low viewing 
position and exploits the over- 
curved directional relation- 
ship of the major and minor 
masses. Holding to this device, 
Carracci is able to expose all 
the under planes of his head 
forms : the brow ridge and eye 
socket; the nose base; the lip 
recesses; the chin mound and 
undercut jaw surface; the 
cheek plane and neck column. 
This done, Carracci simply 
darkens each of the undersur- 
faces, including the back- 
ground, and fuses the whole 
into a homogeneous mass of 
structured forms. 


Red and black chalk 

Frangois le Moyne 
( 1688 - 1737 ) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund, 1910. 

The head, from a high view 
above the crown, shows how 
forms relate to the great cir- 
cumferential brow curve. The 
cranial box, with its helmet- 
like vault, is well presented, as 
is the relationship of nose base, 
cheek bone, ear lobe, and skull 
base on the low curve under 
the brow arc. Especially note- 
worthy is the handling oj the 
mouth and eye curves on the 
foreshortened frontal plane of 
the face. The finesse of the in- 
side socket curve and the tight, 
elliptical pupil discs lend ve- 
racity to this downshot head. 


Tempera and oil on wood 

Robert Campin 
(active 1418-1444) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Bequest of Mary Stillman 
Harkness, 1950. 

With an extraordinary econ- 
omy of means, Campin lets us 
see the facial qualities which 
characterize aging. Relying 
mostly on the rigid substratum 
of the skull overlaid with a flac- 
cid flesh cover, he skillfully de- 
scribes the simple forehead 
furrows; the emerging cheek 
mounds ; the flat mantle of flesh 
drooping in undulant folds 
below the jaw ; the constrained 
mouth and chin ; the elongated 
ear ; the sagging eye and mouth 
wrinkles, with the spare bridge 
and crow’s-feet rifts ; and final- 
ly the marginal tufts of fine- 
spun hair on the cranial vault. 



Tempera and oil on wood 

Rogier van der Weyden 
(ca. 1400-1464 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, The Jules S. Bache Col- 
lection, 1949. 

According to van der Weyden, 
painting is conceived as a col- 
oring of forms in relief, with 
drawing as a primary base. 
This linear tendency enables 
him to edge his contours with 
darks in order to elevate his 
forms in relief. If the drawing 
is consistent and precise, form 
control is elegantly sustained. 
However, if an error occurs, 
the effect is noticeable. In this 
respect, we note that the right 
mouth corner seems overex- 
tended, just beyond the mid- 
point of the eye above. At first 
glance, this seems to put the 
mouth out of drawing. Yet, if 
we look at the tone of the dental 
bulge under the lips, we see 
the true structural position. 
The retracted mouth corner is 
not a distortion; it is a wry 
expression the painter has ob- 
served and recorded. See how 
the cheek curve responds to the 
mouth tension on the right, 
while the left side remains re- 
laxed and passive. 


Tempera and oil on wood 

Giovanni Bellini 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, The Jules S. Bache Col- 
lection, 1949. 

This notable example of the 
head as living sculpture is 
firmly shaped with light-dark 
planes. The hair is built like a 
helmet which shows tonal and 
linear turns of form. The 
structuring of the eyes, lids, 
and pupils is so secure that 
even the eyeball is given its 
spheroid form by the light. 
Note the suave detailing of the 
nose : the curving tip, the nos- 
tril wings, the side plane join- 
ing the girdle of the socket. The 
mouth and lips — the project- 
ing tubercle, the incurving cor- 
ners — give full knowledge of 
every form. The strong jut of 

the chin and jaw in front of the 
recessive plane of the face com- 
pletes a memorable impression 
of unity. 

55 | | 


Oil on canvas 

Michelangelo Amerighi 
Caravaggio (1560/5-1609) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund, 1952 

It is interesting to note the age 
levels of the four youths 
Caravaggio shows us. How old 
are they, and on what basis 
shall we decide? On the ex- 
treme left is the youngest. Ob- 
serve the smooth curve of the 
cheek and jaw line. The turn 
of the cheek is scarcely affected 
by any show of the cheek bone 
under the round fleshy surface. 
The chin is simply a continua- 

tion of the ovoid facial contour, 
and the facial forms are gen- 
erally small, soft, and imma- 
ture. While the front neck line 
shows a slight mound of the 
voice box, the neck column is 
slender and the body mass has 
little bulk. This youth, we in- 
fer, is a teen-ager, hardly more 
than fourteen years old. The 
second youth from the left is 
older. Not only does the jaw 
corner appear, but the firmer 
jaw line, cleft chin, flatter 
cheek contour, and somewhat 
inflected nose tend to prove 
this. Observe the more mature 
body frame and the thicker 
neck column. This lad is about 
seventeen or eighteen years 

old. The youth in the back- 
ground i second from right) 
appears to be the oldest. Note 
the more decisive facial angu- 
larity : the deeper nose bridge, 
emerging nasal bone, distinct 
under-eye curve, more assert- 
ive cheek tautness. He is be- 
tween nineteen and twenty 
years of age. What of the youth 
with his back to us? The firm 
planes of the nose tip suggest 
a level of maturity, unlike the 
round nose of the first lad. But 
the subtle rise of the cheek- 
bone and brow against the un- 
inflected jaw angle shows him 
to be somewhere between the 
oldest and the youngest. Hence, 
he is about sixteen years old. 

14 2 


Red chalk 

Michelangelo Buonarroti 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Purchase, 192k, Joseph 
Pulitzer Bequest. 

In this overview of the head, 
Michelangelo turns the posi- 
tion almost into a profile while 
tipping the mass over to its 
side. This subtle attitude is as- 
serted with a number of small 
but decisive clues. Just above 
the nose bridge, he shows the 
far brow bulge. On the eye, 
the arc of the upper lid domi- 
nates the low T er and tends to 
foi'ce the orb deep into the 
socket. The swing of the upper 
lip curve goes beyond the cen- 
ter groove and rotates the 
mouth into view. Heavy ac- 
cents under the forms on the 
right produce a box-like effect 
which further suggests the 
oblique tilt. The spiraling neck 
wrinkles show the twist of the 
head in our direction. This 
twist is confirmed by the si- 
multaneous lift of the shoulder 
in reverse, which confirms the 
wrench-tilt position. 



Albrecht Diirer (1471-1528) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Fletcher Fund, 1919. 

The modeling process, as Dii- 
rer performs it, is almost like 
carving. A multiple series of 
fine-spaced lines is stroked in 
to extract the topographical 
array of forms and textures. 
He explores the undulant 
course of hair, the thick-set 
brow, the heavy eyes, the broad 
nose, the full-hewn lips, the 
ample chin, and the pendulous 
jowl. Form after form, he ex- 
plores the relative sequence of 
planes in depth. But there is no 
passage so perceptive as the in- 
cisive probing of the mouth, 
chin, and jaw. The lips pro- 
trude over the maxillary bulge, 
and this joins the far-left con- 
tour of the higher cheek. The 
under-mouth recess is inflected 
against the thrust of the jut- 
ting chin, which brings the left 
outline into play toward the 
inner face. Below, the heavy 
jaw flesh swings from left to 
right under the dark curls. 
Then the rear neck fold re- 
verses and rings the throat 
with a fatty collar to engage 
and complete the facial line. 


Tempera and oil on wood 

Hans Holbein the Younger 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Bequest of Benjamin Alt- 
man, 1913. 

The development of depth in 
this spare and meticulous head 
is accomplished by overlapping 
form over form in sequence, 
and playing out contrasting 
areas of tone. To this end, Hol- 
bein takes advantage of a 
three-quarter view and pene- 
trates the facial contour with 
the incisive nose, the taut chin, 
the fine extension of the eye- 
lash. Great curving arcs on the 
headpiece produce a series of 
turns like a tunnel through 
which the head emerges; then 
the device is carried to the 
neckband to let the chin and 
jaw through, and to the neck- 
lace and collar to ring the neck 
and shoulders. His modeling of 
forms is only incidental to his 
linear effect, for his use of tone 
is introduced to support and 
enhance an overlapping edge. 
See how the tone on the chin 
base and behind the nose line 
qualify these edges. 



Oil on canvas 

Louise Elisabeth 
Vigee-Le Brun (1755-1842) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Bequest of Edward S. 
Harkness, 1910. 

A lyrical treatment of a head 
requires grace of attitude, deli- 
cacy of form, sensuousness of 
surface, and suavity of brush 
work. The lightness of the ele- 
vated head is reinforced in the 
rise of the upper eye and brow 
curves, the lift of the lip forms 
and mouth corners, the upward 
tilt of the nose, the elongation 
of the neck column. The sin- 
uous brush rhythms of hair, 
undulant curls, and swaying 
ribbons induce a feeling of 
lightness. All this may tend to 
convey an excess of mannered 
and superficial charm. But the 
attempt, however inane, is al- 
ways secure in the artist’s fun- 
damental knowledge of form. 


Oil on canvas 

Frans Hals (after 1580-1666) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Bequest of Benjamin 
Altman, 1913. 

A mobile expression, as in this 
capricious show of laughter 
and merriment, depends on a 
rigorous grasp of structure to 
effect an agreeable result. 
Otherwise, an inexact knowl- 
edge of facial structure may 
produce an eccentric or per- 
verse grimace. In these up- 

turned and down-turned heads, 
the wry facial tensions around 
the mouths hold clearly to the 
maxillary dentures and the 
jaw formations. And while 
Hals’ uninhibited brush com- 
municates a spontaneous effect 
of gaiety, we still find in the 
squint of the eyes, the stretch 
of the lips, the lift of the 
cheeks, the drop of the jaw, the 
solid skull structures under- 
neath. This adherence to form 
produces a Falstaffian humor, 
while an ignorance of form re- 
veals the floundering distor- 
tions of the amateur. 



Pen and bistre drawing 
with wash 

Guercino (1591-1666) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund , 1908 . 

very old, infancy and youth 
are revealed in fullness of flesh 
and roundness of forms, while 
maturity and age are ex- 
pressed in dryness of tissue 
and angularity of bony sup- 
ports. The line only briefly 
makes a concession to a wrinkle 

In this spirited drawing, Guer- 
cino confirms with great sim- 
plicity that aging is not merely 
a matter of wrinkling, but also 
a change in structural forms. 
In the disparate age levels 
from the very young to the 

here and there, but it is the 
wash tone which puts the com- 
pact volume of these heads in 
relief. And it is this use of 
massed form and plane that 
does the work of age charac- 



Oil on canvas 

Georges Rouault (1871-1958) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Purchase , 1951, Joseph 
Pulitzer Bequest. 

When a Fauve painter like 
Rouault expresses a head in a 
tragic mood, the brush may 
slash and stab ; but rough- 
hewn and raw as this head 
first appears, it still affirms a 
knowledge and mastery of 
forms. See how Rouault holds 
to the mouth bulge, the maxil- 
laries over which the lips are 
scored, and the nose wedge, 
blocked and clipped. And how- 
ever disparate the eyes, they 
relate to the socket position. 
Finally, the disposition of the 
ears, cheek bones, and facial 
planes confirm the artist’s 
structural planning. The result 
is an underlying sense of order 
over which, as on a battlefield, 
a destructive struggle has 
taken place. 


Oil on canvas 

James Abbot McNeill Whistler 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Gift of George S. Heilman, 

At first glance, this seemingly 
rudimentary and unfinished 
painting projects an immate- 
rial, amorphous quality. While 
the details may be vague, there 
is nevertheless a studied unity 
in the assemblage of masses. 
The light play, expressed in 

tonal recession, moves from 
the intense upper right of the 
hat and cheek plane to the 
lower left chin and jaw. Then 
the slash of the mouth, the nose 
base, the bearded chin, the 
touches of eyes and ears are 
affixed, and the whole is se- 
curely inserted into the collar 147 
and shoulders. The fleeting, 
nondescript impression is dis- 
pelled as the head takes on a 
plastic totality in space. The 
head solidly exists, though de- 
tails are missing, as if veiled 
in an atmospheric haze. 

boy with a baseball 

Oil on canvas 

George Benjamin Luks 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Gift of Edward J. 
Gallagher, Jr., 195Jt. 

This vigorous result is not a 
mere show of facility, but 
the product of self-confidence 
which comes from a vast sur- 
plus of knowledge. Against a 
tonal background, the brush 
plays on structures relieved in 
ight which tugs at the cap, 
hair, cheek bones, nose, mouth, 
and jaw. Then lesser values 
cut back recesses and lateral 
planes until the structured 
masses evolve into a coherent 
whole. From here, the finish is 
a simple matter of abbreviated 
touches of pupils, nostrils, lips, 
chin, and hair accents. 



Chalk on paper 

Pablo Picasso (born 1881) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Justin K. Thannhauser, 1950. 

The suggestion of weight and 
bulk in the structured masses 
of the left side of the head con- 
trast with the vaporous, un- 
clarified mass of the right side. 
Although the artist draws in a 
rough -hewn manner which im- 
plies a conflict between the con- 

trolled and the chaotic, Picasso 
is never unsure of himself. His 
treatment may be crude, but 
his forms are always in order. 
First, he presents the ovoid 
head mass. Then he imbeds the 
eye under the brow, but care- 
fully related to the edge of the 
nostril wing. The implied ear 
is correctly placed, as are the 
suave, soft mouth with the phil- 
trum channel, and the well- 
formed cheek and side plane 
joining the chin. 

Lead pencil on paper 

Edgar Degas (1834-1917) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund, 1918. 

A great draughtsman is at his 
best when he can, like Degas, 
use his vast knowledge to be 
subtle and suggestive when 
forms are modest and unim- 
portant, and then assert swift, 
staccato accents at those cru- 
cial points where form becomes 
significant, n this portrait, a 
tentative, casual stroking is 
given to the wispy hair, mus- 
tache, and beard, while light 
flicks of the pencil barely tell 
of the brow, cheek, and nose 
planes. We scarcely realize 
that Degas is tempering the 
eye with the rapier-like touch 
of the pupils; incising the nose 
base, ear curves, and neck line ; 
at the same time taking up the 
slack gray of the mustache and 
beard with the tensions of 
mouth and cheek. The result is 
deceptively effortless and dis- 
arming; yet underneath, how 
adroit and unequivocal are the 
means which produce it. 

/■ -jry 


Pencil on paper 

Pablo Picasso (born 1881) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Elisha Whittelsey 
Collection , 19 b7. 

The artist’s approach seems 
dry, plodding, and parsimoni- 
ous; not an elegant, virtuoso 
performance. But look at the 
personality Picasso has drawn : 
the humorless, intractable cast 
of the man, Picasso’s slow, 
exacting- line and form ex- 
plain the character as well as 
the identity of the sitter. The 
artist digs out the obstinate set 
of the mouth over the stubborn 
jaw ; the lips stretch to the left 
of the face, and to emphasize 
the pugnacious thrust, he 
grinds a tone under the right 
bearded jaw and cheek. He 
mounts the blunt nose over the 
lift of the dentures and takes 
in the pair of cold, aloof eyes. 
He delineates the large vault of 
the skull edged with the scrub- 
by fringe of hair ; the lackluster 
ear joined to the thick neck; 
and the whole of the head mass 
erected on the heavy, phleg- 
matic body. A pervasive grace- 
lessness is suggested in the 
man through the art. 



Alphonse Legros (1837-1911) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Gift of the Artist, 1892. 

In drawing a head, a problem 
not easily grasped is the fact 
that the over-all mass curves 
from top to bottom and from 
left to right. Legros explains 
this with a fine network of 
linear strokes, building great 
masses overlaid with smaller 
forms in consistent tonal re- 
cession. The distinction is 
shown in the gradual descent 
of the tones, using an over- 
head left light. As the facial 
plane curves from top to bot- 
tom, the value lowers and the 
forms sink slowly in depth. 
Only briefly does the nose 
emerge in light; but the lower 
lip and chin are progressively 
set downward, as are the upper 
and lower lids. The left-to- 
right curvature is governed by 
an increasing modulation of 
darks across the mounds of 
form until the side plane of the 
head is reached; then a gen- 
eral, almost uniform darkness 
obscures the right mass. Note 
the care with which forms are 
reduced in depth of plane with- 
out hard edges. 


Lithograph Lithograph 

Honore Daumier (1808-1879) Odilon Redon 

The Metropolitan Museum of The Metropolitan Museum of 

Art , Rogers Fund , 1920, Art, Dick Fund, 1925. 

The art of caricature needs an 
exacting fund of information 
with which to play out the ex- 
tremes of exaggeration and 
grotesquerie. In his gallery of 
rascals, knaves, and black- 
guards, Daumier is savage and 
vitriolic. But whatever his tem- 
per, he never lets his craft lose 
discrimination or self-posses- 
sion. His art, though it renders 
the gross and obnoxious, can- 
not be incautious or careless. 
Treading close to absurdity, he 
is always scrupulous in his 
control of form. He provokes 
laughter at his victims while 
the artist goes unscathed. 



Jean-Louis Forain 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund , 1921. 

Terse, edged planes, massed 
with dark areas, are sufficient 
to establish an individual’s 
identity, Forain’s approach is 
sculptural in its simplicity. He 
holds to a continuity of facial 
structure, moving from crown 
to brow, cheek bone to jaw. His 
incisive edge and loosely 
stroked line give a documen- 
tary realism to his characteri- 
zations. As he shows with tell- 
ing impact, exclusion of details 
need not disqualify an effective 

A vague half-light diffuses the 
entire left side of the head and 
implies a concealment of form. 
Ordinarily, such an ambiguous 
approach might lead to a feeble 
and inarticulate result. The 
right side, how'ever, is given a 
more concentrated light, which 
exposes the lucid forms of the 
eye and socket structures, the 
nose and cheek planes, the 
mouth and jaw formations. 
Here and there, the line 
accents on lips, nostrils, eyes, 
and hair redeem the unified 
appearance of the head. Before 
the vaporous tone may have 
seemed neutral; now, with 
these accents of light and line, 
the shaded region takes on a 
mysterious, occult, poetic qual- 



Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Dick Fund, 1928. 


Oil on canvas 

Pierre Auguste Renoir 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Gift of Miss G. Louise 
Robinson, 194-0, 

Sound structure in drawing 
always conveys respect and 
confidence in the intent of an 
artist, however specialized his 
intent may be. Between Renoir 
and Kollwitz the expressive re- 
sults may stand diametrically 
opposed to one another. Koll- 
witz’ withered distortion pro- 
jects pathos ; Renoir proclaims 
vitality. The arid, granulated 
line and tone of Kollwitz con- 
trasts with the full-blown form 
and volume of Renoir. But 
whatever the artist’s method 
of conveying his meaning, one 
fact is clear: the mastery of 
ordered form lies at the bot- 
tom of all good art. 



Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, Rogers Fund , 1922. 

When a sculptor works out a 
graphic problem, his tendency 
is to render volumes in space 
by chiseling and carving with 
line. Rodin, using a top-light 

source on three views of his 
subject, lays bare sculptur- 
esque planes; gouges and un- 
dercuts ledges of structure ; 
delicately chips and scrapes 
lesser depressions. The over- 
head light is used as a tool to 
examine the relationships of 
forms to the variations of tex- 
ture. The end result is decisive 



Pastel on canvas 

Edouard Manet (1832-1883) 

The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art , Bequest of Mrs. H. 0. 
Havemeyer, 1929. 

As Rodin is a carver, Manet is 
a painter. Light is used here 
not to explain forms but to ex- 
hibit the personality of the sit- 
ter and to extol the sensuality 
of materials. See how Manet 
varies his stroke, from the 
swaying rhythms of the hair 
to the sensitive caress of the 
flesh ; from the delicate touches 
of the features to the nimble 
cadence of the ruff. The joy of 
his line is as beguiling as the 
plasticity of his surfaces. And 
the correctness of his forms — 
their placement, accenting, 
and highlighting — matches the 
charm of the sitter. 



Accents, 138 

Adam’s apple, 81, 100, 101, 133 
Aging of the head, 97-107, 137, 
140, 145 

Alar cartilage, 42 
Antihelix, 52 ; illus. of, 52 

Bellini, Giovanni, illus. by, 141 
Brow, 127 

Brow line, how movement affects, 

Brow ridge, 30 ; illus. of, 31 ; pro- 
portions of, 32 
Brow visor, 26 
Brow wrinkles, 92, 93 
Brachycephalic, 109-111, 131 
Buccinator, 56 

Buonarroti, Michelangelo, see 
Michelangelo Buonarroti 

Campin, Robert, illus. by, 140 
Caninus, 56 

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Amer- 
ighi, illus. by, 142 
Carracci, Ludovico, illus. by, 139 
Cephalic index, see Head types 
Cheek bone, illus. of, 31; propor- 
tions of, 33, 35 
Cheek wrinkles, 88, 92, 93 
Chin, at various ages, 97-107 
Chin box, 30; illus. of, 31 ; propor- 
tions of, 34 
Chin line, illus. of, 30 
Chin mound, 28; illus. of, 29; see 
also Dental arch; Jaw hinge; 
Mandible; Ramus 
Concha, 52, 53; illus. of, 52 
Cor ruga tor, 58 

Courbet, Gustave, illus. by, 134 
Cranial mass, 15-59 passim; con- 
tour of, 17 ; illus. of, 16, 17, 18 
Crown, 26 
Crow’s feet, 91 

ages, 97-107; illu3. of, 31; place- 
ment of, 55, 75; proportions of, 
35, 53; wrinkles, 91 
Ear bones, see Antihelix; Concha; 

Helix; Tragus; Tubercle 
Epicranius, frontal part, 59; occip- 
ital part, 59 

Eye, 37^11, 78; at various ages, 
97-107 ; axis of, 39 ; placement 
of, 76, pupils, 79; shape of, 39; 
wrinkles, 87, 91 
Eyeball, 37; illus. of, 36, 37 
Eyelids, 37-38, 127, 129, 130; illus. 

of, 37, 38 ; side view of, 38 
Eye muscles, 40 ; see also Curruga- 
tor ; Orbicularis oculi ; Procerus 
Eye socket, 17, 30; illus. of, 31, 
47 ; proportions of, 33 

Facial mass, 15-59 passim : contour 
of, 18 ; illus. of, 16, 17, 18, 19 
Facial slope, 116-117 
Features, proportions of, 32 
Forain, Jean-Louis, illus. by, 150 
Forehead, illus. of, 7 
Frontal bone, 24; illus. of, 25 

Goya, Francisco de, illus. by, 138 
Greuze, Jean-Baptiste, illus. by, 

Guercino, illus. by, 145 

Hals, Frans, illus, by, 144 
Head movement, 61-79; rotating, 
61-72; up and down, 73-79 
Head proportions, 19-21 ; drawing 
frontal, 20 ; drawing side view, 

Head types, 109-115 ; broad-headed, 
109-111; long-headed, 112-113; 
medium-headed, 115 
Helix, 52, 53; illus. of, 52 
Holbein, Hans, illus. by, 143 

Darwin’s point, see Tubercle 
Daumier, Honore, illus. by, 150 
Da Vinci, Leonardo, illus. by, 139 
Degas, Edgar, illus, by, 149 
Dental arch, 28; illus. of, 29 
Dental curve, illus. of, 47 
Depressor labii inferioris, see 

Dolicocephalic, 112-113, 131 
Dtirer, Albrecht, illus. by, 143 
Duveneck, Frank, illus. by, 134 

Ear, 30, 52-55, 133; at various 

Ingres, Jean-August-Dominique, il- 
lus. by, 133 

Jaw, at various ages, 97-107 ; pro- 
file of, 30 ; wrinkles, 88 
Jaw angle, 30; illus. of, 31 
Jaw bones, see Mandible; Ramus * 
Jaw corner, 77, 129; illus, of, 30; 

proportions of, 34 
Jaw hinge, 17, 28; illus. of, 17, 18, 


Jaw, lower, see Chin mound ; Den- 
tal arch; Jaw hinge; Mandible; 

Jaw line, 66, 71-72 ; relation of side 
plane to, 71 

Jaw muscles, see Masseter; Tem- 

Kollwitz, Kathe, illus, by, 152 

Laryngeal box, see Adam’s apple 
Legros, Alphonse, illus. by, 149 
Le Moyne, Francois, illus. by, 139 
Levator anguli oris, see Caninus 
Levator labii superioris, 56 
Levator labii superioris nasi, 56 
Lips, 48-51; comparison of upper 
and lower, 50; movements, 51; 
see also Mouth; Orbicularis oris; 
Philtrum; Tubercle 
Lobule, 52; illus, of, 52 
Lower jaw, see Chin mound ; Den- 
tal arch; Jaw hinge; Mandible; 

Lower occipital bulge, 17 ; illus. of, 

Luks, George Benjamin, illus, by, 

Mandible, 28; illus. of, 28; see also 
Chin mound; Dental arch; Ra- 
mus; Jaw hinge 

Mandibular arch, 47; illus. of, 46 
Manet, Edouard, illus. by, 153 
Mass, cranial, see Cranial mass; 

facial, see Facial mass 
Masseter, 57 
Maxilla, 45 

Maxillary arch, 47 ; illus. of, 46 
Mental is, 56 
Mesocephalic, 115, 131 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, illus. by, 

Mouth, 46-47, 140 ; at various ages, 
97-107; front view proportions, 
47 ; side view proportions, 47 ; see 
also Lips 

Mouth barrel, 30, 45; illus. of, 31; 
proportions of, 34 ; see also Max- 

Mouth bones, see Mandibular arch ; 
Maxillary arch 

Mouth muscles, see Buccinator ; Ca- 
ninus; Levator labii superioris; 
Levator labii superioris nasi; 
Mentalis; Orbicularis oris; Quad- 
ratus; Risorius; Triangularis; 

Nasal bones, 37 ; see also Alar car- 
tilage; Septum 

Nasal orbit, illus. of, 36 
Neck, 81, 88; at various ages, 97- 
107 ; wrinkles, 88, 93 
Nose, 30, 31, 42-45, 137 ; at various 
ages, 97-107; illus. of, 31; pro- 
portions of, 32, 44 
Nose base, 44; placement of, 76; 
wrinkles, 85 

Nose bridge, 17, 18, 77 ; illus. of, 
17, 19; wrinkles, 84 

Occipital bone, 24 ; illus. of, 25 
Orbicularis oculi, 40, 58 
Orbicularis oris, 48, 56 
Orbit, 40; illus. of, 36 

Palpebra, 40 

Parietal bone, 24; illus. of, 25 
Philtrum, 49 ; illus. of, 49 
Picasso, Pablo, illus. by, 148, 149 
Platysma, 59 
Procerus, 58 

Proportions, changing with age, 97- 
107 ; checking correct, 76-79 
Pupils, placement of, 40 

Quadratus, 56 

Ramus, 28, 30; illus. of, 29, 30 
Rear bulge, 26 
Redon, Odilon, illus. by, 151 
Rembrandt van Rijn, illus. by, 
135, 137 

Renoir, Pierre Auguste, illus. by, 

Risorius, 56 

Rodin, Auguste, illus. by, 154 
Rouault, George, illus. by, 146 
Rubens, Peter Paul, illus. by, 136 

Scalp muscles, see Epicranius, Pla- 

Septal cartilage, 45; illus. of, 45 
Septum, 42 ; illus. of, 48, 49 
Side plane, 66-69; placement of, 
68-69; relation of jaw line to, 
71 ; rotation of, 67 
Skull, see Cranial mass; Frontal 
bone; Occipital bone; Parietal 
bone; Temporal bone; Supercil- 
iary arch 

Superciliary arch, 17, 24; illus. of, 
17, 25, 36 

Temple wall, 26 

Temporal bone, 24; illus. of, 25 
Temporalis, 57 

Tubercle, 49, 52; illus. of, 49, 52 

Tragus, 52; illus. of, 52 

Under- jaw, 78; illus. of, 22 

Upper nasal mass, 44; illus. of, 44 

Van der Weyden, Rogier, illus. by, 

Van Dyck, Anthony, illus. by, 130 

Van Rijn, Rembrandt, see Rem- 
brandt van Rijn 

Vermeer, Johannes, illus. by, 138 

Vigee-Le Brun, Louise Elisabeth, 
illus. by, 144 

Voice box, see Adam’s apple 

Whistler, James Abbot McNeill, il- 
lus. by, 147 

Wrinkles, 83-95, 140, 145; frontal 
pattern of, 83-85 ; interaction of, 
94 ; lateral pattern of, 90-91 ; 
oblique pattern of, 86-89 ; sag 
and shrinkage, 93; tension and 
pressure, 92 

Zygomatic arch, 37, 105; illus. of, 

Zygomatieus, 56 

Edited by Donald Holden 

Designed by William Harris 

Composed in Twelve Point Century Expanded 

$16.95 USA 

Drawing the Human Head repre- 
sents a landmark in art instruction 
books. A comprehensive work on the 
human head, this outstanding hand- 
book is so unique in concept and 
approach that no artist’s library wiil be 
complete without it. This remarkable 
volume belongs alongside the au- 
thor's other highly acclaimed books — 
Dynamic Anatomy, Dynamic Figure 
Drawing, Drawing Dynamic Hands, 
and Dynamic Light and Shade. 

In a dramatic series of 300 extra- 
ordinary drawings and diagrams, 
Burne Hogarth masterfully analyzes 
the basic structure, proportions, and 
anatomy of the human head. He 
carefully delineates the precise form 
and musculature of every facial 
feature: he outlines wrinkle patterns 
and demonstrates how to draw the 
human head from every angle. Step- 
by-step, he clearly explains how to 
age the face year by year, from birth 
to old age. 

Stressing the primary need to draw 
the head and body artistically, not 
merely in the medical book manner, 
the author defines head types accord- 
ing to structure and explains what 
features go with these types. To illus- 
trate the enormous diversity of head 
structures and proportions, he then 
displays a sampling of heads from 
racial and ethnic groups throughout 
the world. 

To supplement his own magnificent 
drawings, Mr. Hogarth offers a gallery 
of great heads in art that exemplify 
his principles. Starting with Greek 
sculpture and Roman portrait heads, 
he includes works by such masters as 
Bellini, Campin, Caravaggio, Carracci, 
Courbet, Daumier, Degas, Durer, 
Goya, Greuze, Guercino, Hals, 
Holbein, Ingres, Kollwitz, Legros, 
Leonardo, Manet. Michelangelo, 
Picasso, Redon, Rembrandt, Renoir, 
Rodin, Rouault, Rubens, van Dyck, 
Vermeer, and Whistler. 

Drawing the Human Head is a 
basic reference work and a beautiful 
art book unsurpassed in scope and 
authority. A distillation of the author's, 
unique teaching methods, it is a 
classic in its field and is indispensable 
for every art student, art teacher, 
portrait and figure painter, sculptor, 
illustrator, and cartoonist. 

760 pages. 8 Vs x it Over 300 black- 
and-white illustrations. Index. 



: i =*.1 ■: 

Burne Hogarth 




Burne Hogarth is one of the 

founders of the School of Visual Arts 
in New York City, where he served as 
Coordinator of Curriculum, Design, 
and Art History. His famed lecture 
demonstrations of anatomy and draw- 
ing provided the material for Dynamic 
Anatomy Drawing the Human Head, 
Dynamic Figure Drawing, Drawing 
Dynamic Hands, and Dynamic Ught 
and Shade. 

The author received his education 
and art background in Chicago, 
where he started a diversified profes- 
sional career that embraces some 


forty years of experience in art educa- 
tion, fine art, illustration, advertising, 
and newspaper art. He achieved 
worldwide recognition with his illustra- 
tions for the Sunday newspaper fea- 
ture "Tarzan and has since published 
Tarzan of the Apes and Jungle Tales 
of Tarzan in book form. His cartoons, 
drawings, prints, and paintings have 
been exhibited at the Musee des Arts 
Ddcoratifs of the Louvre in Parts. 

A past president of the National 
Cartoonists Society and member of 
the Board of Governors, Hogarth was 
awarded the N.C.S. silver plaque for 
best in illustration and advertising in 
1974, 1975, and 1976. He was also 
named artist of the year in 1975 at the 
Pavilion of Humor in Montreal. Can- 
ada.. In 1986 he received the lifetime 
Caran D’Ache Award in Lucca, Italy, 
and in 1988 was awarded the Lauriers 
d Or (Golden Laurels) by the 
C.E.S.A.R. Art Society in Paris. 

Burne Hogarth teaches analytical 
figure drawing at Art Center College 
of Design in Pasadena, California, 
and makes his home in Los Angeles. 

Jacket design by Bob Fillie 

1515 Broadway 
New York, NY 10036 

ISBN 0-AB30-li37b“b 


Printed m U $ A