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24 



RESUME 





I 



ED 024 541 



RE 001 487 



I By* Otto, Wayne 

I Overview of the Wisconsin Prototypic System of Reading Instruction in the Elementary School- Report rom 
| the Reading Project. 

I Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning. 

Spons Agency* Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C. Bureau of Research. 

Report No* WRDCCL*PP*5 
I Bureau No* BR*5-0216 
I Pub Date Aug 68 
I' Contract* OEC*5* 10* 154 
Note* 76p. 

| EDRS Price MF*$0.50HC*S3.90 _ 

Descriptors* Grouping (Instructional Purposes), Inservice Teacher Education, *Reading Materia s. * ea mg 
T Skills, * Reading Tests, *Sequential Reading Programs, *Student Records, Teaching Procedures, Iraditional 

I Schools 

I Identifiers* Wisconsin Prototypic System Of Reading Instruction _ 

I Although refinement and development are to continue, the Wisconsin Prototypic 

System is now at the point where it can serve as a basis for a reading program, 
particularly where there is to be strong emphasis on individually guided instruction. 
This report discusses the rationale and assumptions underlying the system and lists 
its component parts: an outline of reading skills, an individual skill development record 
that stays with the child from grades through 6, prototypic exercises for the 
assessment of reading skills (reductions of the exercises are included in the report), 
I the Wisconsin Expanding Inventory of Reading Development for use in group 
I assessment of reading skills, and a compendium of materials and procedures. 

Inservice preparation of staff, grouping for instruction, and implementation in the 
j multiunit school and the traditional school are also discussed. Further areas of 

I research are suggested. (WB) 



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t 









iflil 



Practical Paper No. 5 



OVERVIEW OF THE WISCONSIN PROTOTYPIC SYSTEM OF 
READING INSTRUCTION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



By Wayne Otto 



Report from the Reading Project 
Wayne Otto, Principal Investigator 



Wisconsin Research and Development 
Center for Cognitive Learning 
The University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 

August, 1968 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE- 
OFFICE OF EDUCATION 



BEEN reproduced exactly as received from the: 

REPRESENT ommL «««" 3? 



The research reported herein was performed pursuant to a contract with the United States Office of 
Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, under the provisions of the Cooperative 

Research Program. 



Center No. C-03 / Contract OE 5-10-154 



FOREWORD 



The goal of the Wisconsin R & D Center is to contribute to an under- 
standing of cognitive learning by children and youth and to improve related 
educational practices. Activities of projects in R & D Program 2, Processes 
and Programs of Instruction, are directed toward the development of instruc- 
tional programs based on research on teaching and learning and on the 
evaluation of concepts in subject fields. The reading project operates 
within Program 2. 

This Practical Paper provides an overview of the 2-year period of 
development of a prototypic instructional system in reading for the ele- 
mentary school as well as a description of the components, including an 
outline of objectives, assessment procedures, provision for individual 
records, and a compendium of materials related to each element in the 
outline. In the section on implementation of the system, the I & R Unit 
developed in R & D Program 3, Facilitative Environments, is discussed 
illustrating the interrelationship of Programs 2 and 3. 

Professor Otto emphasizes the fact that this prototypic instructional 
system is not an intact reading program but rather provides the basic ele- 
ments needed for the development of an individualized reading program in 
any school setting. 



Thomas A. Romberg 
Director, Programs 2 and 3 



PREFACE 



The present paper is, as the title suggests, limited to the presentation 
of an overview of the Wisconsin Prototypic System of Reading Instruction: 
its background, the component parts of the system, and suggestions for 
implementation. The discussion is focused upon the system at its present 
stage of development, the assumption being that although development and 
refinement is to continue it is now at a point where it can be useful to 
school people as a basis for a reading program, particularly where there is 
to be emphasis upon individually guided instruction. The background, 
rationale, and assumptions underlying the system are discussed in the paper. 

When development of the prototypic system was begun, a basic decision 
was made to start with as little as possible and to add to the minimum base 
only as needs became apparent through feedback from teachers in the field 
and more formal research efforts. The Outline of Reading Skills — a hierar- 
chically arranged set of behavioral objectives in reading at the elementary 
(K— 6) level which is the foundation for the system — is a minimal statement. 

That is, much more explicit breakdowns of many of the skills (objectives) 
could be, and perhaps should be, made, but they will be made only if it 
becomes apparent that more specificity is needed in order to insure uninter- 
rupted development of reading skills. Perhaps, for example, it will become 
apparent that more explicit statements are needed at the kindergarten- 
readiness level to insure a reasonable prognosis of success; or, more 
specificity may be needed with certain skills to insure that the essential 
aspects be covered at the optimum time in the sequ en ce. Refinements of 
the Outline can be made as problems are identified in the field tryouts and 
alternate approaches are then tested in controlled, short-term experiments. 

Group assessment exercises have been developed to supplement the 
individual exercises that were prepared for the initial field tryout. It was 
apparent early last year that group exercises were needed to make the 
individual skill assessment scheme workable. The group exercises were 
developed from the field-tested individual exercises, which had been 
revised in view of feedback from teachers. Both sets of exercises will, if 
necessary, be revised as additional data become available, and realistic 
criteria for demonstration of mastery of specific skills will become apparent 
as data from large numbers of children are gathered. Two additional kinds of 
assessment instruments appear to be needed and await future development: 

(1) Diagnostic tests would probably be useful, at least for certain skills, to 
go beyond the behavior sampling for the assessment of current skill status 
provided by the existing exercises. That is, given a deficiency in a specific 
skill, it would be desirable to have a means for probing to discover the 
reasons for the deficiency, for the latter knowledge would permit the most 
straightforward prescription of corrective instruction. Here again, diagnostic 
tests can be developed as problems are identified in the field. (2) General 
achievement tests built upon the foundation of behavioral objectives listed for 
the system are needed to permit periodic testing to assess developmental growth 
in reading . 



A compendium of materials and procedures appropriate for use in teaching 
specific skills has been developed. New materials have not been developed 
for the system; instead, the attempt has been to identify existing materials 
and ideas and to key them to the Outline. The suggestion is that teachers use 
the compendium as a basic source and that they add items that they know or 
find to be particularly useful. Again, the attempt is to provide a nucleus or 
base as a beginning point and to identify areas in need of further development 
in view of experiences in the field. In some instances the development may 
come simply from a more exhaustive search of existing materials, but in others 
it may be necessary to develop new teaching materials . It would appear that 
the latter action may be necessary to make materials available for helping pupils 
to conceptualize and state the main idea in reading, for existing materials are 
quite limited in scope. The essential point is that we are attempting to make 
use of the profusion of existing materials and that we shall undertake the devel- 
opment of materials only when a gap in the r existing coverage is demonstrated. 

One of the major functions of the system is to provide a framework for 
individually guided instruction in reading. Some suggestions for implementation 
of the system and, concurrently, for the provision of individually guided instruc- 
tion are made in the present paper. A number of important questions remain to 
be answered. For example: Are there optimum sizes for the instructional groups 
when certain skills in certain areas are being taught? How might teacher time 
be most effectively distributed over individual, small group, and large group 
instruction? What can be done to insure active support of operation of the 
system? Here again particularly troublesome problem areas can be identified 
in the field and alternate solutions can be tried out and evaluated in terms of 
pupil progress in reading skill development. 

Finally, the prototypic system of reading instruction provides a framework 
for important research in the area of "learning for mastery" as discussed by 
Carroll^ and Bloom. ^ Very briefly, Carroll has suggested that although students 
may be normally distributed as to aptitude, given the kind and quality of instruc- 
tion and the amount of time for learning appropriate to the characteristics and 
needs of each student, the majority of students may be expected to achieve 
mastery of the subject and relationship between aptitude and achievement should 
approach zero. The present writer is in essential agreement with this point. 

Now it is suggested that the details of "kind" of instruction are spelled out— at 
least tentatively — for elementary reading by the compbnents , considered col- 
lectively, of the prototypic system; thus, the basis for the consideration of 
kind, quality, and pacing of instruction is provided. Some suggestions have 
already been made regarding the quality of instruction in reading; e.g. , flexible 
grouping according to individual skill assessment, dual grouping for instruction 
depending upon the areas involved. Research designed to find a workable bal- 
ance among the kind, quality, and pacing of instruction required for mastery in 
reading promises to be worthwhile. Such research can proceed within the frame- 
work provided by the prototypic system. 



^Carroll, John. A model for school learning. Teachers College Record , 1963, 
64, 222—228. 

^Bloom, Benjamin S. Learning for mastery. In B. S. Bloom, J. T. Hastings, 
and G . F . Madaus , Formative and summative evaluation of stu dent learning . 
New York: McGraw-Hill, in press . 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The Wisconsin Prototypic System of Reading Instruction represents, at its 
present state of development, almost two years of active support and creative 
effort from many people# To attempt to acknowledge this support and effort, 
which was forthcoming from diverse sources and from individuals with a wide 
array of affiliations, responsibilities, and competencies, is to undertake a 
formidable task. The people named here are those who had specific roles in 
various developmental activities; many other people were involved in a variety 

of ways . 

The initial Prototypic Guide to Reading Skill Development in the. Elementary 
Schools and the related Model Exercises and Observations were developed with 
the cooperative efforts of Camille Houston of the Reading Project staff, Ruth 
Saeman, reading consultant with the Madison Public Schools, and Patricia 
Wojtal and Betty McMahan, Unit leaders at Huegel School, Madison Public 

Schools . 

Mary Lou Ellison of the Reading Project staff had the difficult job of 
coordinating the 1967-68 field tryout— along with many other tasks— in 
five schools . She carried on and somehow managed to keep smiling as the 
faltering first steps toward implementation were taken. 

Personnel from five schools located in four districts participated in the 
1967-68 field tryout. Many people contributed, but only a few can be named. 
William Amundson and Patricia Woolpert made it possible for the field tryout to 
be conducted in the Evansville Public Schools, which was the only non-Unitized 
setting for the tryout. In Madison, the tryout was conducted in Huegel School— 
Patricia Wojtal, Betty McMahan, and Maurine Miller were the Unit leaders 
involved— and in Franklin School— Joyce Peterson, Lera Gates, and Marguerite 
Gilbert were the Unit leaders . Ruth Saeman of the Madison central office reading 
staff contributed much, in terms of both professional and personal involvement, 
to the implementation of the field tryout and to the refinement of the system. 
Thomas Delamater, Norma Smith, Esther Olson, Helen Johns, and Connie Glowacki 
were the Unit leaders in Wilson School, Janesville Public Schools; and Norman. 
Graper, principal, offered continuing support. Mildred Yahnke, Janesville reading 
consultant, contributed freely from her apparently inexhaustible store of ideas and 
enthusiasm. In Racine, Winslow School— Mary Jane Clausen and Audrey James, 
Unit leaders— was designated for the tryout in an inner-city school. The support 
of Dawn Klofton, Winslow principal, and Mildred Brady, Racine reading consul- 
tant, is appreciate'd . Feedback and input from the field tryout has taken many 
forms and it has come from many sources and through many channels. We learned 

a great deal. 

Two day-long seminars were held at the R & D Center to permit people 
involved in the field tryout to share perceptions and ideas and to look toward 
future development. The seminars were a success because busy people who took 
two full days from their schedules participated freely and constructively. The 
following people participated: Mary Lou Ellison, Camille Houston, Karl Koenke, 
and Diana Weintraub from the Reading Project staff; Ruth Saeman, Joyce Peterson, 



Patricia Wojtal, and Betty McMahan of the Madison Public Schools; Thomas 
Delamater and Mildred Yahnke of the Janesville Public Schools; Mary Jane 
Clausen and Audrey Janes of the Racine Public Schools; Patricia Woolpert 
and Joyce Glass of the Evansville Public Schools; and George Glasrud of the 
Wisconsin State Department of Public Instruction. 

Members of the Reading Project staff have worked together on all aspects 
of the system, but individuals have taken primary responsibility for certain of 
the component parts. Diana Wbintraub joined the staff early in 1968 and began 
to work on the Wisconsin Expanding Inventory of Reading Development. Without 
her creative talent— exemplified by the splendid acronym for which she is respon- 
sible — and untiring efforts, WEIRD would not be what it is today. Mary Lou 
Ellison and Camille Houston did the analyses and compiled the suggestions that 
are summarized in the Compendium of Materials and Procedures . Mary Lou and 
Diana coordinated the revisions of the Outline of Reading Skills, the Individual 
Reading Skill Development Record, and the Prototypic Exercises for the Assess- 
ment of Reading Skills. Carol Niblett did the art work. 

The person who did the typing always seems to be mentioned last, not, I 
think, because the contribution is felt to be least significant but because the 
contribution is so constant and so obvious that it is taken for granted. Anyway, 
the latter is so in the present instance. Susy Schultz: you type real good. 



CONTENTS 



I. Background of the Prototypic System 
Introduction 
Rationale 
Assumptions 

II. Overview of Component Parts of the Prototypic System 

The Outline of Reading Skills 
Individual Reading Skill Development Record 
Prototypic Exercises for the Assessment of Reading Skills 
Wisconsin Expanding Inventory of Reading Development 
^ Compendium of Materials and Procedures 
Summary 

III. Implementation of the Prototypic System 

General Assumptions 
Inservice Preparation of Staff 
Grouping for Instruction 
Implementation in the Multiunit School 
Implementation in the Traditional School 

IV. Prototypic Exercises for the Assessment of Reading Skills 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 

1 Check Sheet for Self-Directed, Interpretive, and 

Creative Reading 

2 Organization Chart of a Multiunit School of 600 Students 



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ix 



I 



BACKGROUND OF THE PROTOTYPIC SYSTEM 



INTRODUCTION 

The general purpose of this paper is to pre- 
sent an overview of -a prototypic system of 
reading instruction that is being developed 
within the context of the Wisconsin Research 
and Development Center for Cognitive Learning. 
The presentation is directed mainly to the 
practitioner. Research related to the system 
and its development is discussed in the preface. 

Development of the program was begun early 
in 1967, and by the summer of 1967 an outline 
of reading skills, a series of correlated assess- 
ment exercises-*- and individual pupil record 
folders had been produced and were ready for 
tryout in the field. During the 1967-68 school 
year thG Gristing portions of the system were 
used in iour Multiunit schools ^ and one tradi- 
tional school* As a result of the field tryout 

(1) the placement of a number of skills was 
changed in the scope and sequence outline, 
reflecting observations that certain skills were 
placed too high or too low in the skill develop- 
ment hierarchy and that certain skills needed to 
be restated at subsequent levels of development; 

(2) many of the individual assessment exercises 
were redesigned to make them more appropriate 



1 SeeW. Otto, R. Saeman, C. Houston, B. 
McMahan, and P. Wojtal, Prototypic guide to 
reading skill development in the elementary 
school. Working Paper from t he Wisconsin R 
& D Center for Cognitive Learning , University 
ofWisconsin, 1967, No. 7. 

2 See H. J. Klausmeier , D. M-. Cook, G. E. 
Tagatz, and J. L. Wardrop, Project MODELS: 

A facilitative environment for increasing effi- 
ciency of pupil learning and for conducting 
educational research and development. Workj 
ing Paper from the Wisconsin R & D Center for 
Cognitive Learning , University ofWisconsin, 
1967, No. 5. 



for use with children and/or to make the focus 
upon a specific skill more clear; and (3) the 
individual pupil record folder was redesigned 
to make it both more attractive and more useful 
as a communication/diagnostic tool. In addi- 
tion, as the Reading Project staff worked closely 
with the teachers , Unit leaders and consultants 
in the several schools, many ways in which the 
prototypic system could be usefully augmented 
and further refined were identified, and some of 
the critical problems in implementing the system 
were recognized . 

Knowledge gained from the field tryout, then, 
has been the basis for revision of previously 
existing materials and the addition of certain 
materials to the prototypic system. This knowl- 
edge has also made it possible to make a num— 
ber of suggestions, based upon experience in 
the field and the stated needs of school person- 
nel, to expedite the implementation of the sys- 
tem. In this paper the existing component 
parts of the system are introduced and des- 
cribed, and implementation of the system— in 
Multiunit and traditional schools — is discussed. 

The system continues to undergo develop- 
ment: This paper is, in a sense, a progress 
report as of Summer 1968. We shall continue 
to refine the prototype we began with more than 
a year ago and we hope that others will join us. 
Meanwhile, the system is at a stage of develop- 
ment where it can be useful in the field, both 
as a guide to individually guided instruction 
and as the basis for an elementary school read- 
ing program. 

RATIONALE 

The foundation for the prototypic system of 
reading instruction is the Outline of Reading 
Skills (see p.4). The Outline is a scope and 
sequence statement of reading skills for kinder- 
garten through Grade 6. The arrangement of 
skills is, in a sense, arbitrary: Other scope 
and sequence outlines that are defensible have 



1 



been and will continue to be developed; yet, 
the present arrangement of skills represents a 
consensus among teachers , Unit leaders, and 
reading consultants who originally constructed 
the Outline, and it has been shown to be viable 
in the field. The point here is that the Outline 
of Reading Skills represents a defensible— if 
not the ultimate — scope and sequence state- 
ment that serves as a description of hierarchi- 
cally arranged reading skills for the elementary 
grades. The Outline can and should be changed 
when changes are felt to be necessary for philo- 
sophical, theoretical, or pragmatic reasons . It 
is prototypic, not dogmatic. 

In another sense the Outline of Reading Skills 
comprises a set of objectives, behaviorally 
stated , for the reading program in kindergarten 
through Grade 6. The attempt has been to strike 
a balance between specificity and generality in 
stating objectives in order to represent the es- 
sentials with at least minimal adequacy without 
becoming bogged down in details and technicali- 
ties . In essence, the entire prototypic system 
described here is designed to help teachers 
expedite the movement of children through the 
sequence of objectives by providing a means 
whereby they can focus upon the skill develop- 
ment of individuals. Fortunately, information 
about individuals' skill development can be the 
basis for intelligent grouping as well as for 
strictly instruction. The point here is that 
whether instruction is to proceed with individu- 
als or with groups is left to the teachers in- 
volved, it is not decreed by the system. In 
practice, a child is likely to receive some indi- 
vidual and some group instruction, with the 
size of an individual's instructional unit at any 
given time dictated by (a) his idiosyncratic 
skill development status, (b) the commonality 
of his status with that of other pupils , and (c) 
the nature of the instruction being offered. 

The component parts of the entire system are 
described in detail in the next section of this 
paper, but each is briefly introduced here to 
show the interrelationships among the several 
part s . 

To assess pupils' attainment of specific 
skills (objectives) , a set of exercises designed 
for use with individuals — Prototypic Exercises 
for the Assessment of Reading Skills — provides 
a means for sampling pupil behaviors associated 
with each of the skills in selected areas of the 
Outline of Reading Skills . The Prototypic Exer- 
cises for the Assessment of Reading Skills are 
reproduced, reduced in size, in the final por- 
tion of this paper. A parallel set of exercises 
for group administration — the Wisconsin Expand- 
ing Inventory of Reading Development has also 
been devised. The group exercises provide a 
means for initial assessment and periodic check- 



ing of skill development with the time-saving 
advantages of group administration. Taken 
together, the group and individual exercises 
provide the basis for the assessment and con- 
tinual updating of the Individual Reading Skill 
Development Record. 

The Individual Reading Skill Development 
Record, a folder that serves as a permanent 
record of skill development and as a repository 
for relevant supplementary information for indi- 
vidual pupils, is an integral part of the system. 
The Outline of Reading Skills is reproduced on 
the Record and space is provided for the teacher 
to indicate when the pupil reaches an acceptable 
level of proficiency with each skill. Thus, 
when it is kept current, the Record provides an 
up-to-date individual profile of reading skill 
development from kindergarten through sixth 
grade . 

Finally, a correlated list of materials and 
procedures has been compiled for use with the 
Wisconsin Prototypic System of Reading Instruc- 
tion. Again, the basis is the Outline of Read- 
ing Skills: Specific suggestions are keyed to 
the objectives in the outline. The intent is not 
to provide a comprehensive listing, but to iden- 
tify a core of materials and procedures found to 
be useful in the field. In application, the ex- 
pectation is that teachers will supplement the 
basic list with materials that are available and 
procedures that are particularly useful to them. 
The materials and procedures list completes the 
instructional cycle inherent in the prototypic 
system: a behavioral objective is stated; a 
means is provided for sampling the behavior 
involved with that objective, yielding a basis 
for assessing skill attainment; and, if an ac- 
ceptable level of mastery has not been reached, 
materials and procedures appropriate for teach- 
ing /learning the skill are suggested. 

ASSUMPTIONS 

Several assumptions have shaped the devel- 
opment of the prototypic system. 

The Outline of Reading Skills was constructed 
to accommodate an eclectic approach to the de- 
velopment of word recognition skills . The skills 
included in the word recognition portion of the 
Outline have been found to be generally accept- 
able to teachers who employ a variety of in- 
structional approaches. It seems obvious, 
however, that no single outline could accom- 
modate all of the approaches , with their wide 
variations in emphases and the hierarchical 
arrangement of skills , being advocated at the 
present time . 

Aside from the specific area of word recog- 
nition, the general assumption is that the pro- 
totypic system described here will be adapted 



2 



in view of existing local conditions. The pro- 
totypic system can be the foundation upon 
which a reading program that is appropriate for 
and sensitive to the needs and desires of a 
local school or school district is built. The 
most valuable contribution of the prototypic 
system in some situation may be its provision 
of a starting point for discussion of the objec- 
tives of a desirable reading program and the 
means for reaching the objectives. The essen- 
tial point here is that change, in the form of 
refinement in view of additional knowledge and 
adaptation to meet local needs , is not only ex- 
pected but encouraged. 

While most of the early field tryout has been 
conducted in Multiunit schools, every attempt 
has been made to keep the prototypic system 
workable in traditionally organized schools. 

There is little question that the Multiunit organi- 
zation facilitates the implementation of the 
system, just as it facilitates the implementation 
of many other types of innovations; nevertheless , 
there are no inherent conditions to block the 
implementation of the system in other organiza- 
tional set-ups. (Suggestions for implementation 
in Multiunit and traditional schools are given in 
another section of this paper.) The system 
should be equally workable, too, in both graded 
and ungraded schools, for the hierarchy of skill 
development is not necessarily tied to grade 
level designations. 



There is no assumption that any particular 
array of instructional materials will be used in 
schools where the prototypic system is in oper- 
ation. As already mentioned, the list of cor- 
related materials and procedures is intended 
merely to provide a base from which a more 
comprehensive list can be developed. The ex- 
pectation is that in operation the system will 
be useful in making a multitext/multimaterial 
approach to reading instruction truly workable. 
That is , given a consensual statement of se- 
quentially arranged behavioral objectives, the 
task of insuring continuity of instruction from 
a variety of materials is made more reasonable 
than it might be when each teacher must attempt 
to coordinate skill development sequences that 
are frequently out of phase in different materials. 

A final and extremely important assumption 
is that the school personnel who tackle the 
task of individualizing instruction through the 
use of the prototypic system will be willing to 
accept the hard work involved. The prototypic 
system is not an instant reading program, nor 
is it a neat little bundle of self-administering 
lessons. It provides a foundation for a reading 
program and it is a basis for individually guided 
instruction; but the details must be provided in 
the local setting and the teaching is the re- 
sponsibility of the teachers in the field. We 
feel that good teachers would, want it no other 
way. 



3 



II 

OVERVIEW OF COMPONENT 
PARTS OF THE PROTOTYPIC SYSTEM 



THE OUTLINE OF READING SKILLS 

As a statement of the objectives of reading 
instruction in kindergarten through Grade 6 , the 
Outline of Reading Skills is the foundation of 
the prototypic system. The six areas covered 
in the Outline— I. Word Recognition, II. Com- 
prehension, III. Study Skills, IV. Self- 
Difected Reading, V. Interpretive Reading , 
and VI. Creative Reading — include the objec- 
tives commonly considered in a reasonably 
broadly conceived definition of reading in the 
elementary school. Each of the six areas is 
subdivided into five levels, with Levels A, B, 

C , and D being roughly equivalent to Kindergar- 
ten, Grades 1, 2, and 3 and Level E spanning 
Grades 4, 5, and 6. 

The question of whether or not to designate 
levels has been troublesome . One might argue 
that to designate levels is to imply that certain 
skills should be taught at certain grade levels 
and that this flies in the face of the basic as- 
sumptions underlying individualized instruction. 
On the other hand, the levels provide at least 
a rough indication of normative pacing by grade. 
The decision was to indicate distinct levels for 
kindergarten through Grade 3, the period during 
which the sequential development of skills re- 
ceives much attention, and to indicate a single 
level for Grades 4-6, the period during which 
the emphasis is placed upon the refinement of 
skills. Teachers in graded situations may find 
the leveling to be of some use; teachers in non- 
graded schools are invited to ignore the levels. 
Both groups are cautioned to be concerned about 
each individual's skill development across the 
six areas covered in the outline. And, to state 
the obvious, the stage of an individual's skill 
development, not his year in school, dictates 
the appropriate level of his instruction. 

Origins 

The Outline of Reading Skills is based sub- 
stantially upon the Madison Public Schools' 



scope and sequence statement. It does not 
differ fundamentally from hundreds of other 
scope and sequence statements and it was 
chosen for that reason: We did not feel it was 
necessary to rediscover the reading skills. 

The scope, sequential arrangement , and word- 
ing of the Outline were examined in the 1967- 
68 field tryout in five schools, and revisions 
were made in view of the feedback from the 
field. The present Outline, then, is a con- 
sensually acceptable statement by reading 
teachers who had an opportunity to work with 
the preliminary Outline for an entire school 

year. 

The Outline 

The Outline is given in the pages that im- 
mediately follow. Two points should be noted: 
First, specific objectives are not listed at Level 
E for Word Recognition. The assumption is that 
the essential skills will have been introduced 
early and that the attention at the intermediate 
level should be devoted to the refinement of 
existing skills. Second, some of the objectives 
listed under Study Skills might also have been 
listed under Comprehension and vice, vers a.. 
Arbitrary placement for the purpose of recording 
should not imply a lack of relationship among 
the skills. 

I. WORD RECOGNITION 
Level A 

1. Listens for rhyming elements 

a. Words 

b. Phrases and verses 

2. Notices likenesses and differences 

a . Pictures 

b. Letters and numbers 

c. Words and phrases 

3. Distinguishes sizes 

4. Distinguishes colors 

5. Distinguishes shapes of objects 

6. Listens for initial consonant sounds 



4 



Level B 

1. Has sight word vocabulary of 50 to 100 
words 

2. Follows left-to-right sequence 

3. Has phonic analysis skills 

a. Consonant sounds 

1. Beginning 

2. Ending 

b. Consonant blends 

c. Rhyming elements 

d. Short vowels 

e. Simple consonant digraphs 

4. Has structural analysis skills 

a. Compound words 

b . Contractions 

c. Base words and known endings 

d. Simple plural forms 

e. Simple possessive forms 

Level C 

1. Has sight word vocabulary of 100 to 170 
words 

2. Has phonic skills 

a. Consonants and their variant sounds 

b. Consonant blends 

c. Vowel sounds 

1 . Long 

2. Vowel plus_r 

3 . a. plus _L 

4. a_ plus w 

5. Diphthongs oi, oy., ou, ow, ew 

6. Long and short oo_ 

d. Vowel rules 

1 . Short vowel generalization 

2. Silent £ rule 

3. Two vowels together 

4. Final vowel 

e. Knows the common consonant digraphs 

3. Has structural skills 

a. Base words with prefixes and suffixes 

b. More difficult plural forms 

4. Distinguishes among homonyms.- syno- 
nym s , and anto nym s 

a. Homonyms 

b. Synonyms and antonyms 

5. Has independent and varied word attack 
skills 

6. Chooses appropriate meaning of multiple 
meaning words 

Level D 

1. Has sight word vocabulary of 170 to 240 
words 

2. Has phonic analysis skills 

a. Three-letter consonant blends 

b. Simple principles of silent letters 

3. Has structural skills 

a . Syllabication 

b. Accent 

c. Schwa 

d. Possessive forms 



Level E 

1. Chooses appropriate meaning of multiple 
meaning words . 

2. Knows syllabication patterns 

a. Syllabication patterns 

b. Single vowel sound per syllable 

II . CO MPREHENSION 
Level A 

1. Develops listening skills 

a. Has attention and concentration 
span suitable for his age 

b. Is able to remember details 

c. Can relate details to each other in 
reconstructing story read to him 

d. Can follow two oral directions 

2. Increases vocabulary through listening 

3. Is able to recall stories in sequential 
order 

4. Anticipates outcome of stories 

5. Interprets pictures critically 

6. Can identify main characters in a story 

Level B 

1. Uses picture and context clues 

2. Is able to gain meaning from 

a. Words 

b. Sentences 

c. Whole selections 

3. Uses punctuation as a guide to meaning 
Level C 

1. Is able to gain meaning from 

a. Words 

b. Phrases 

c. Paragraphs 

2. Reads in meaningful phrases 
Level D 

1 . Reads for facts 

2. Reads for sequence of events 

Level E 

1. Adjusts reading rate to 

a. Type of material 

1 . Factual 

2. Fiction 

b. Level of difficulty 

c. Purpose 

1 . Identification 

2. Reading for general information 

3. Reading for specific information 

d. Familiarity with the subject • 

2. Gains additional skill in use of punctua- 
tion as a guide to meaning (semicolon, 
colon, dash, and added uses of the 
comma) 

3. Selects main idea of paragraphs 

4. Reads for sequence of events 

5. Is able to gain meaning from 

a. Words 



5 



Level E (continued) 

b. Sentences 

c. Paragraphs 

III . STUDY SKILLS 
Level A 

1. Follows simple directions 

2. Demonstrates elementary work habits 

a. Shows independence in work 

b. Accepts responsibility for comple- 
tion and quality of work 

3. Shows development of motor coordination 
(eye and hand) 

4. Uses picture clues to find answers to 
questions 

Level B 

1. Follows directions 

a. Follows directions when working 
in a group 

b. Follows directions when working 
independently 

c. Follows written directions 

2. Has adequate work habits 

3. Recognizes organization of ideas in 
sequential order 

4. Summaries material 

5. Begins to make judgments and draws 
conclusions 

6. Uses table of contents 
Level C 

1. Uses picture dictionaries to find new 
words 

2. Groups words by initial letters 

3. Explores library as research center 

4. Shows increasing independence in work 

a. Reads and follows directions by 
himself 

b. Uses table of contents without 
being reminded to do so 

c. Uses dictionary and glossary inde- 
pendently when appropriate 

5 . Begins to read maps 

Level D 

1 . Begins to use index of books 

2. Reads simple maps and graphs 

a. Maps 

b. Graphs 

1 . Picture graphs 

2. Bar graphs 

3. Realizes printed statements may be 
either fact or opinion 

4. Has beginning outlining skills 

5. Follows directions 

6. Has adequate work habits 

Level E 

1. Increases and broadens dictionary skills 



a. Alphabetizes words 

b. Uses guide words as aid in finding 
words 

c. Uses diacritical markings for pro- 
nunciation aids 

2. Utilizes encyclopedia 

a. Uses guide letters to find informa- 
tion on a given subject 

b. Uses alphabetical arrangement to 
locate information 

c. Understands the purpose of topical 
headings 

d. Understands the index 

e. Uses encyclopedia with greater 
facility to find information 

f. Understands and uses 

1. Topical headings 

2. Cross references 

3. Bibliographies 

g. Uses the index volume efficiently 

3. Uses maps, charts, and graphs 

a. Gains skill in reading and inter- 
preting political maps 

b . Begins to read and interpret simple 
graphs 

c. Reads and interprets several kinds 
of maps 

d. Reads and uses captions, keys, 
and legends of maps 

e. Selects appropriate maps to deter- 
mine 

1 . Direction 

2. Distance 

3. Land formation 
41 Climates 

5. Time zones 

6. Populations 

f. Reads and interprets additional 
kinds of graphs 

g. Answers questions requiring the 
interpretation of maps, graphs, 
and tables 

h. Gains skill in using many potential 
types of sources to solve a problem 

4. Uses IMC or library effectively 

a. Understands fiction books are 
alphabetized by author 

b. Begins to use card catalogue to 
find information 

c. Understands and uses author, title, 
and subject cards 

d. Locates books on shelves 

e. Uses cross reference cards 

f. Uses other reference materials 

1. Atlases 

2. World Almanac 

3. Pamphlet file 

4. Magazines and subject index 
to children's magazines 

g. Locates and uses audio-visual materials 



1. Card catalogue 

2. Equipment 

5. Recognizes and uses with facility the 
various parts of texts and supplementary 
book and materials 

6. Organizes information 

a. Gains skill in notetaking 

1 . Begins to take notes in own 
words 

2. Learns to take notes selectively 

3. Arranges ideas in sequence 

4. Selects main ideas 

5. Selects supporting details 

6. Keeps notes brief 

7. Shows ability to work from own 
notes 

8. Identifies source of materials 
by use of 

a. Bibliography 

b. Footnotes 

b. Understands and uses^outlining in 
work 

1. Uses correct form of outline 

2. Can find main idea 

3. Makes sample outline 

4. Outlines topics in more detail 

5. Uses own outline for oral and 
written reports 

6. Uses outline to organize think- 
ing in appropriate areas 

c. Summarizes material 

1 . Writes summary of a story in 
three or four sentences 

2. States important points ex- 
pressed in a discussion 

7. Evaluates information 

a. Realizes printed statements may be 
either fact or opinion 

b. Checks statements with those in 
other sources to evaluate validity 

c. Evaluates relevancy of materials 
to topic 

d. Compares various viewpoints on 
the same topic 

e. Evaluates information in terms of 
his own experience 

f. Identifies propaganda 

8. Follows directions 

IV. SELF- DIRECTED READING 
Level A 

1. Cares for books properly 

2. Is aware of sequential order of books 

3. Begins to show initiative in selecting 
picture books 

Level B 

1 . Begins to apply independent word study 
skills 

2. Is able to find answers to questions inde- 
pendently. 



3. Begins to do recreational reading 

4. Begins to select suitable reading 
materials independently 

Level C 

1 . Broadens skills listed at Levels A and B 

2. Develops increasing fluency ■ 

Level D 

1. Develops varied purposes for selecting 
material 

2. Begins to do independent research 
assignments 

3. Is able to locate sources of information 

4. Applies reading skills to subject matter 
areas 

Level E 

1. Conducts research independently 

a. Applies work study skills to inde- 
pendent work 

b. Uses bibliography as guide to 
materials 

c. Makes own bibliography in research 
work 

d. Uses multiple sources to find infor- 
mation 

e. Broadens application of reading 
skills 

f. Understands the function of foot- 
notes 

2. Reads independently 

a. Enjoys reading and reads widely 

b. Selects reading materials 

1. Appropriate for his reading 
level 

2. Of a variety of kinds (maga- 
zines, newspapers, etc.) 

3. That hold his interest 

c. Keeps a brief record of his library 
book reading 

d. Enjoys sharing his reading experi- 
ences with others 

e. Seems to use his independent read- 
ing to initiate activities (e.g., in- 
dependent projects, intellectual or 
manipulative; creative activities; 
hobbies) 

3. Appreciates literature 

a. Enriches vocabulary through wide 
reading 

b. Cherishes and rereads favorite 
books and stories 

c. Begins to evaluate a selection of 
literature and analyze why it did or 
did not appeal to him 

d. Shows interest in building a per- 
sonal library 

e. Becomes more discriminating in his 
reading 



7 



Level E (continued) 

f. Uses reading increasingly as a 
leisure time activity 

V. INTERPRETIVE READING 

Level A 

1 . Reacts to pictures and relates to own 
experiences 

2. Shows interest in stories read 

3. Begins to react to mood of poems and 
stories 

Level B 

1 . Sees humor in situations 

2. Reads with expression 

3. Has empathy with characters 

Level C 

1 . Recognizes implied ideas 

2. Identifies character traits 

3. Begins to make judgments 

4. Begins to draw conclusions 

Level D 

1 . Recognizes reactions and motives of 
characters 

2. Has ability to relate to stories set in 
background different from his own 

3. Makes simple inferences about charac- 
ters and story outcomes 

Level E 

1. Reaches conclusions on the basis of 
stated facts 

2. Relates isolated incidents to the central 
idea of a story 

3 . Understands character roles 

4. Recognizes and ant ' - zes more subtle 
emotional reactions and motives of 
characters 

5. Handles implied ideas 

6. Recognizes story problem or plot struc- 
ture 

7. Gains skill in interpreting and appreci- 
ating types of language (figurative, idi- 
omatic, picturesque, dialectal) 

8. Senses subtle humor and pathos 

9. Reacts to writer as well as writing 

a. Begins to identify elements of style 

b. Begins to identify his purpose in 
writing 

c. Begins to evaluate and react to 
ideas in light of the author's purpose 

10. Forms and reacts to sensory images 

11. Perceives influence of different elements 
within selection 

a. Notes impact of time and place 

b. Follows sequence of events 

c. Understands cause-effect relation- 
ship 



12. Identifies and reacts to tone and mood 

13. Selectively assimilates ideas 

a. Uses ideas gained from reading to 
solve a problem in other areas 

b. Integrates ideas read with previous 
experiences 

c. Modifies behavior and thinking as 
a result of reading 

14. Gains increased skill in critical reading 

a. Weighs evidence 

b. Combines materials from various 
sources in making decisions and 
solving problems 

c. Understands the importance of 
checking facts and conclusions 
frequently 

d. Develops understanding that critical 
thinking is necessary in a democracy 

VI. CREATIVE READING 

Level A 

1 . Engages in creative dramatic play based 
on stories read by teacher 

2. Reflects mood in use of voice 

Level B 

1 . Has ability to '-.ijoy rhythm in words 

2. Has ability to see and hear rhyming words 

3. Can interpret ideas and stories through 
discussions, dramatizations, drawing, 
etc. 

4. Has ability to do cooperative planning 

5. Is able to share ideas 

a. Shares with individuals 

b. Shares with groups 

6. Participates in development of experi- 
ence charts 

7. Tells original stories 
Level C 

1 . Shows initiative in large group activities 

2. Uses voice intonation creatively 

3. Writes original stories 

Level D 

1 . Shares in creative dramatics 

a. Acts out stories read 

b. Creates own plays 

2. Identifies with people and situations 
encountered in stories 

Level E 

1. Participates in choral speaking 

2. Memorizes poems 

3. Tells stories to the group 

4. Plans dramatizations of stories and poems 

5. Reads selections of his choice and to the 
group 

6. Shares books with others 

7. Composes original stories and poems 



8 



8 . Reads orally to entertain 

9. Pantomimes 

10. In artistic media expresses ideas gained 
from reading 

INDIVIDUAL READING SKILL 
DEVELOPMENT RECORD 

The Individual Reading Skill Development 
Record makes the system operational. The 
Record is a- file folder on which the entire Out- 
line of Reading Skills is printed. Space is 
provided for the teacher to check off each skill 
as it is attained. A record is begun for each 
child as he enters kindergarten and it is kept 
current through Grade 6. 

Functions of the Record 

The Record can serve a number of functions 
both in the classroom and in the total school 
building /district. The most prominent of the 
functions observed in the field tryout follow. 

(1) The simple fact of the Record's existence 
and its key role in the implementation of system 
keeps a broadly conceived overview of the 
objectives in reading constantly before the 
teacher. In the press of day-to-day operations 
it becomes extremely easy to focus upon bits 
and pieces and to lose the broad conception. 

The Record serves as a constant reminder. 
Furthermore, the Record can be the basis for 
inservice discussions of the scope and sequence 
of reading skills. (2) Within the classroom, 
the pupils' Records, if they are kept current, 
can serve as a basis for intraclass grouping for 
reading instruction. The function, then, is to 
facilitate individually guided instruction. In- 
struction need not necessarily be one-to-one 
to be individualized: Whenever instruction is 
planned in response to a specific need of an 
individual it is individualized. Inspection of 
the Records for common and/or unique pupil 
profiles can lead directly to the identification 
of specific skill development needs of indi- 
viduals and groups , and instruction can be 

planned in terms of specific skills. (3) The 
Record can help to expedite communication 
about pupils among teachers within a grade or 
Unit. The need for such communication is 
obvious in the Multiunit school, and it is 
equally great when any degree of interclass 
grouping for instruction in reading is done. 

(4) The Record can also help to insure the flow 
of communication within both the school build- 
ing and the school district. In a graded situa- 
tion, the Record provides a base for the new 
teacher to begin with in the fall; the same in- 
formation is available when a child moves from 
one Unit to another in a Unitized school. If 
the system is functioning district-wide, then 



pupils who change schools within the district 
will have a record of reading skill development 
to accompany them and their assimilation into 
a new group will be greatly expedited, (5) The 
Record can also be useful as a guide to report- 
ing in parent-teacher conferences. It provides 
a concrete basis for discussing a pupil's over- 
all skill development in reading. (6) Finally, 
because the Record is a file folder it can serve 
literally as a receptacle for supplementary in- 
formation, such as group test profiles, anec- 
dotal comments , etc. 

Keeping the Record 

Two collections of assessment exercises 
have been developed as a part of the prototypic 
system: the Prototypic Exercises for the Assess- 
ment of Reading Skills, designed for individual 
administration, and the Wisconsin Expanding 
Inventory of Reading Development, which is 
designed for group administration. Both sets 
of exercises are described in detail in the 
pages that follow. The point here is that the 
two sets of exercises are the basic tools pro- 
vided within the prototypic system to (a) assist 
teachers in making the necessary judgments to 
keep the Individual Reading Skill Development 
Records current , and (b) insure a reasonable 
degree of consensus among teachers as they 
make their judgments. 

The need for consensus in making the re- 
quired judgments is basic if the Record is to 
serve an optimal function as a vehicle for com- 
munication. If teachers approach the task of 
making judgments about skill attainment with 
different sets of criteria and/or different con- 
ceptions of acceptable mastery levels , then the 
usefulness of the Record is limited to the self- 
contained classroom. The individual and group 
exercises , evoking behavior samples , serve 
the function of bringing the skill into focus . 

That a particular group of teachers accept the 
exercises just as they are described is, of 
course, less important than that they arrive at 
some mutually acceptable behavior descriptions. 
The suggested exercises can be adopted as they 
are or modified in whatever ways seem sensible. 

Even with a consensually acceptable set of 
exercises, the question of precisely what con- 
stitutes mastery of a particular skill is extremely 
troublesome. A teacher may encounter children 
who succeed one day and fail the next with the 
same task; he may feel that although a child 
succeeds or fails with a specific exercise, this 
does not represent his real skill development 
status; or he may see that although a child 
performs a directed task satisfactorily , he can- 
not or does not apply the same skills independ- 
ently. Because all of these situations exist, 
it is imperative that observations based upon 



9 



the exercises be tempered with good judgment 
and, in some cases, supplemented with informal 
observations. The teacher confronted with the 
necessity of indicating mastery of a skill on an 
individual's Record may find it disconcerting at 
first to operate without explicit norms; but ex- 
perience has shown that the judgments can be 
made with reasonable confidence, particularly 
when guidelines have been arrived at through 
faculty discussion. 

Teachers who participated in the field tryout 
devised some means for handling certain details 
of keeping. the Record. The general feeling was 
that'it would be useful to record the date on 
which a skill was judged to be at a sufficiently 
high level of development rather than Limply to 
check it off. With that bit of information, 
teachers working subsequently with a record 
would know the grade/chronological age con- 
text in which the judgment was originally made. 
This is important because many skills must be 
developed to higher levels of sophistication 
after initial "mastery." Some teachers recorded 
the dates in different colors, which were keyed 
to pupils' grade placement. That is, second 
graders' entries were made in, say, red; third 
graders' in blue; etc. The expectation was that 
over the seven-year span covered by the Record 
the color keying would help to make individuals' 
emerging patterns of skill development clear. 

A few teachers attempted to set a minimum num- 
ber of correct responses for each individual 
skill assessment exercise, but in general this 
was not felt to be particularly useful or desir- 
able. Projecting into the future, as performance 
data from large numbers of pupils become avail- 
able for the group assessment exercises, it will 
be possible to derive normative guidelines. 

Such guidelines should have some value in pro- 
viding a starting point for making judgments 
about individuals , but they will not replace 
considered judgments based upon the exercises 
and/or systematic observations. 

A question that has frequently been asked 
is: How much time will it take to keep the 
Record current? Unfortunately, there is no 
general answer. For some individuals keeping 
the Record will take much time , and for others 
it will take relatively little time . There is no 
question that the total time involved for an 
entire class will be substantial. But to keep 
things in perspective, the teacher viewing the 
Record for the first time must remember that the 
skills listed cover a seven year span of devel- 
opment . 

PROTOTYPIC EXERCISES FOR THE 
ASSESSMENT OF READING SKILLS 

The Prototypic Exercises for the Assessment 
of Reading Skills , which are designed for indi- 



vidual administration, are reproduced in reduced 
size in the final portion of this paper. Full- 
size Exercises suitable for use with children 
are packaged in an envelope with the recom- 
mendation that the Exercises be inserted into 
transparent plastic folders and bound in a large 
ring binder. Exercises have been prepared for 
each of the objectives (skills) included in the 
Outline of Reading Skills in Areas I, Word Rec- 
ognition, II, Comprehension, and III, Study 
Skills; for reasons discussed later, there are 
no exercises for Areas IV, Self-Directed Read- 
ing, V, Interpretive Reading, and VI, Creative 
Reading. Each exercise calls for a sampling of 
the type of behavior associated with a specific 
skill from the Outline. As already pointed out, 
this behavior sampling serves to pin down the 
skill involved and to provide the teacher with 
a basis for making judgments about pupils' skill 
development status . Skill review cards , which 
include brief samplings from the several skills 
included at a given level, have been provided 
to aid the teacher in (a) establishing a pupil's 
base level of competence or (b) reviewing a 
pupil's skill status at a given point in the se- 
quence . 

In practice, the Exercises, in concert with 
the group Inventory, can be the source of basic 
input for the Individual Reading Skill Develop- 
ment Record. As the Record evolves, it dic- 
tates the particular exercises to be used at 
particular times . The skill levels (A, B, C, 

D, E) should not be tied slavishly to grade 
levels or years in school. Instead each teacher 
must be sensitive to each child's emerging skill 
mastery. A child might, for example, be oper- 
ating at different levels in the several skill 
areas. It is necessary to watch simultaneously 
for growth through skill levels and across skill 
areas . While kindergarten teachers may be 
able to focus on a rather narrow band of skills , 
teachers at subsequent levels must be prepared 
to deal with wider achievement r.anges, which 
may overlap two or more levels . 

To focus on a specific skill on the Record, 
the procedure is to find the appropriate exercise, 
which is identified by the Outline designation 
(e.g. , if the intent is to assess the skill given 
at I. A3b in the Outline the appropriate exercise 
is given at I. A3b in the Prototypic Exercises 
for the Assessment of Reading Skills) . The 
sampling of behavior evoked by the exercise 
can help to provide one basis for a judgment as 
to whether the skill requires further concentrated 
attention or only incidental developmental fol- 
lowup. Of course the final judgment should 
always be based upon all of the information 
available (e.g. observations in other contexts, 
relevant standardized test scores, etc.), and 
in some cases it will be necessary to seek 



10 



additional information. Each exercise is in- 
tended to be prototypic: that is, the basic 
model is provided with the expectation that 
additions, revisions, and adaptations will be 
made . 

As already noted there are no specific exer- 
cises for Areas IV, V, and VI of the Outline. 

Of course there are no exercises for Self- 
Directed Reading because to structure the task 
would be to preclude self-direction. Observa- 
tions of self-directed reading must be made 
opportunistically, and judgments as to skill 
attainment are preferably made in consultation 
with the school librarian or instructional mate- 
rials center director. Useful insights may also 
be gained from parent conferences . Prolonged 
observation and subjective judgments are nec- 
essary in the areas of Interpretive and Creative 
Reading. Spontaneous reactions from children 
are more indicative of underlying skill develop- 
ment in these areas than solicited behaviors. 

The Outline itself can serve as a guide to rele- 
vant observations and as a reminder of the many 
important skills that frequently tend to be ne- 
glected. 

To sum up, several points that have been 
explicitly or implictly made about the Prototypic 
Exercises are reviewed. (1) The exercises are 
intended to help teachers to focus upon specific 
skills as they make judgments about individuals' 
skill development. (2) The Exercises are pro- 
totypic: They may be adapted, supplemented, 
or replaced in view of the demands of a particu- 
lar situation. (3) Norms or expected minimum 
scores are not provided for the exercises. The 
suggestion is that an exercise serve as just one 
basis for skill assessment and that local teacher 
groups should develop their own criteria for 
judging skill mastery. (4) Time limits are not 
suggested for the administration of individual 
exercises. The focus is upon individual per- 
formance, so there should be no attempt to 
standardize administration procedures . (5) A 

final point, which has not yet been made, is 
that answer keys are provided only in instances 
where teachers in the field tryout felt they would 
be useful. 

WISCONSIN EXPANDING INVENTORY 
OF READING DEVELOPMENT 

The 19 67-68 field tryout demonstrated the 
fact that implementation of the system would 
be greatly expedited if a means for group assess- 
ment were made available to serve as a basis 
for the initial placement of pupils on the Indi- 
vidual Reading Skill Development Record. The 
need for such an instrument was particularly 
apparent at the upper elementary levels, where 
pupils' background of skill development is well 



along and individual skill assessment can be 
excessively time consuming unless a certain 
base level of skill mastery is either assumed 
or determined by other means. In response to 
this need, the Wisconsin Expanding Inventory 
of Reading Development was constructed. The 
Inventory is designed for group administration 
as a paper-and-pencil test, and it parallels 
the Prototypic Exercises in both content and 
scope. 

The Inventory is limited to the same skill 
areas as the Prototypic Exercises, i.e. Word 
Recognition, Comprehension, and Study Skills. 
Within each of the three skill areas, clusters 
of items are provided for the assessment of each 
of the sequentially arranged skills. The items 
in each cluster are patterned after the items in 
the individual exercise for the same skill. The 
intent, then, is to sample similar behaviors 
with both the individual and group assessment 
exercises so they can be used interchangeably 
as a basis for the judgments required by the 
Individual Reading Skill Development Record. 

The recommendation for practice is to administer 
appropriate portions of the Inventory early in 
the school year and to use the results obtained 
to make at least tentative judgments about indi- 
viduals' skill status for the purpose of up-dating 
or beginning the individual Records. Analyses 
of pupil profiles can then provide basic data for 
initial grouping and instructional planning . The 
individual assessment exercises can be used 
as needed to fill in gaps , to verify existing in- 
formation, and to check progress. Portions of 
the Inventory can be readministered or additional 
portions can be given when a teacher feels the 
information would be useful. The assessment 
sequence is discussed further in the implemen- 
tation section of this paper. 

The format of the Inventory is tied closely to 
the Outline of Reading Skills. That is, there 
are separate booklets for assessing the skills 
listed at each level in each of the three skill 
areas, e.g. Word Recognition, Level A; Word 
Recognition, Level B; etc. The complete Inven- 
tory comprises fourteen booklets, four for Word 
Recognition, five for Comprehension, and five 
for Study Skills. The intent is to make it pos- 
sible to administer only the booklet from each 
skill area that is generally appropriate to the 
skill development status of a pupil at a particu- 
lar point in time. In practice, the procedure 
may not be so straightforward with all pupils 
because some difficulty may be encountered in 
establishing a base level. That is, if a particu- 
lar booklet is too difficult or too easy for a 
pupil, it will be necessary to administer the 
booklet for the preceding or following level. 

Given experience with the Inventory and some 
basis for estimating base level — say, observation 



11 



of performance on an informal inventory or on 
the skill reviews included with the Prototypic 
Exercises — teachers should be able to keep 
such problems to a minimum. 

Too often the requirements of standardization 
and ease of scoring dictate the nature and con- 
tent of tests and thereby prescribe the informa- 
tion they yield. We decided early that stand- 
ardized administration and ease of scoring were 
secondary concerns in constructing the Inven- 
tory; the primary concern was to focus upon 
specific skills as explicitly as possible within 
the constraints imposed by group administra- 
tion. Therefore, there are no time limits; the 
teacher is permitted to supply unknown words 
where word recognition is not the skill being 
examined; some exercises are scored by scal- 
ing responses and some scoring must be tem- 
pered by teacher judgment. Detailed instruc- 
tions for administering and scoring the Inven- 
tory are given in the Teacher's manual. The 
essential point here is that the Inventory is not 
conceived as a "standardized" test; it is de- 
signed to serve a diagnostic function and the 
sampling of individual reading behaviors is the 
prime concern. 

COMPENDIUM OF MATERIALS 
AND PROCEDURES 

The Compendium of Materials and Procedures 
is a correlated list of materials and procedures 
prepared for use with the Wisconsin Prototypic 
System of Reading Instruction. The entries in 
the Compendium are keyed to the Outline of 
Reading Skills in the same manner as the Pro- 
totypic Exercises and the Inventory. In prac- 
tice, then, if an individual or group is found to 
be having difficulty with a particular skill — 
say, I, Word Recognition, D2a Three-letter 
consonant blends — the teacher can refer to 

I.D2a in the Compendium for a listing of mate- 
rials and/or. procedures that are appropriate for 
use in instruction designed to help pupils to 
develop the skill. 

The entries in the Compendium are meant to 
be descriptive rather than prescriptive. That 
is, the entries represent only a relatively small 
sample from the variety of materials and pro- 
cedures available and appropriate for use in 
teaching most of the skills. The Compendium 
is intended simply to provide a nucleus of items 
that have been found to be useful in the field. 
Teachers should feel free to make use of the 
suggestions *if they are useful or to make sub- 



stitutions that are available and appropriate. 

The expectation is that teachers, as individuals 
and in faculty groups , will want to add to the 
entries given for most of the skills; therefore, 
space has been provided in the Compendium for 
additional notations . The Compendium is pub- 
lished as a Practical Paper of the Wisconsin 
R & D Center for Cognitive Learning. 

SUMMARY 

The five existing component parts of the 
Wisconsin Prototypic System of Reading Instruc- 
tion are reviewed in the preceding pages. The 
format and source of each part are given in the 
summary list that follows: 

1 . Outline of Reading Skills . The Outline a 
hierarchical list of objectives in six areas of 
reading, can be found in the present paper and 
in the Individual Reading Skill Development 
Record. 

2 . Individual Reading Skill Development Rec- 
ord. The Record is a file folder on which space 
is provided for checking off each of the specific 
skills that appear on the Outline. A record is 
kept for each pupil from kindergarten through 
sixth grade. 

3 . Prototypic Exercises for the Assessment of 
Reading Skills . An exercise is provided for the 
assessment of each of the skills included in 
the areas of word recognition, comprehension, 
and study skills. The exercises are presented, 
reduced in size , in the final portion of this 
paper and the full-size exercises are packaged 
in an envelope, with the recommendation that 
they be inserted into individual plastic folders 
and placed in a ring binder for easy reference. 

4. Wisconsin Expanding Inventory of Reading 
Development . The Inventory is designed for 
group assessment of the same skills covered 
by the exercises. Individual booklets are 
available by area and level (e.g. Word Recog- 
nition, Level A, etc.). There are fourteen 
booklets in all. 

5. Compendium of Materials and Procedures . 
The Compendium, a list of materials and pro- 
cedures appropriate for use in teaching the 
skills covered by the Exercises, is a Practical 
Paper of the R & D Center. Suggestions are 
keyed to the Outline of Reading Skills. 



IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROTOTYPIC SYSTEM 



The fact that the prototypic system is not 
conceived as an instant reading program or a 
self-administering instructional sequence has 
already been pointed out. The system is con- 
ceived as a collection of essentials from which 
a reading program that meets local needs can 
be built and from which the'individualization of 
reading instruction can proceed. Because the 
latter is so, there is no escaping the fact that 
a decision to work with the system will mean 
that everybody iiivolved is likely to find him- 
self confronted with a great deal of work, par- 
ticularly at the early stages of implementation. 
We make no apologies: To individualize assess- 
ment and instruction is no easy task. 

The discussion that follows has to do with 
implementing the prototypic system. There are 
several specific concerns. First, if implemen- 
tation of the system is to proceed in a reason- 
ably straightforward manner, then certain as- 
sumptions regarding commitment and attitudes 
should be met. These assumptions are dis- 
cussed. Second, the need for inservice efforts 
is recognized and some relevant topics for con- 
sideration are suggested. Third, a rationale 
for grouping is presented. And, finally, there 
are some suggestions specifically for imple- 
mentation in Unitized and non— Unitized school's. 
Unfortunately, there are few pat answers to the 
questions that persist regarding implementation, 
but the discussion is based upon lessons we 
learned from the field tryout. 

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS 

Four general assumptions that we feel are 
essential to the successful implementation of 
the prototypic system are discussed here. The 
assumptions should be considered and consen- 
sus reached before implementation is undertaken. 

Total Staff Involvement 

Individualization of instruction in reading 
through the use of the prototypic system is not 



likely to get to a functional level without the 
active participation and support of an entire 
school faculty. The Individual Record, the 
Prototypic Exercises, and the Inventory are all 
designed to facilitate the skill development of 
individual pupils from kindergarten through 
Grade 6; and the expectation is that the flow 
of information- will be vertical as well as hori- 
zontal. Anything less than total staff partici- 
pation will block the flow of information about 
individuals as they move through the school 
experience. (It should be noted that individual 
teachers , particularly remedial teachers , have 
found the Record to be useful; but, of course, 
the usefulness of the Record is then limited to 
a relatively short time span and to the context 
of a single classroom.) 

Aside from assurance of an unbroken flow of 
communication, total staff participation is im- 
portant, too, because the development of the 
total reading program requires input, or at least 
understanding, from all who will be involved. 

The fact that the prototypic system is not the 
reading program has been pointed out repeatedly 
in the preceding pages. The task of filling in 
the framework provided by the system is one 
that demands the instructional leadership of a 
principal, the consultative help that may be 
available, and the careful consideration of the 
instructional staff. (There is no intent to imply 
that before a staff began to think about imple- 
mentation of the prototypic system there had 
been no thought or effort devoted to the instruc- 
tional program in reading. To the contrary, the 
assumption is that the staff will want to assimi- 
late the Strong aspects of existing practice into 
the hew scheme of things. Perhaps it is also 
realistic to assume that, in a majority of situ- 
ations where the system is about to be imple- 
mented, the" existing program was basically 
sound and strong: This is the kind of base from 
which movement toward individualized instruc- 
tion is likely to proceed.) 

Finally, total staff commitment is important 
because solidarity makes for esprit de corps; 

13 



and at a time when not only hard work but 
probably personal rethinking and reorganization 
is required, esprit can be the critical factor in 
the success of the effort. This is not supposed 
to be a treatise on group dynamics , but the fact 
that one or two carping critics can do great 
damage has been amply demonstrated. 

The first assumption, then, is that there be 
a reasonable degree of commitment of all staff 
members to the effort before implementation of 
the program is begun. The commitment can be 
confined to the staff of a single building; but, 
of course, a district- or system-wide commit- 
ment is preferable . Implicit here is the as sump- 
tion that a reasonable period of time will be 
devoted to the implementation. 

A quickie tryout for a semester or even a 
year is not likely to amount to anything worth- 
while. Implementation of the system will take 
time. Recognition and acceptance of the latter 
as a fact are the bases for the second assump- 
tion. 

Three-Year Sequence 

Doldrums often come after an enthusiastic 
start has been made in the absence of inter- 
mediate goals and time guidelines . There is 
no question that the task of working out the 
details and establishing the patterns of working 
relationships required for installing the system 
and getting an individualized instructional pro- 
gram to a fully operational stage for an entire 
elementary school will take considerable time. 

To avoid the doldrums , it is realistic to think 
of implementation as a two- or three-year se- 
quence of activities. Details of the sequence 
must, of course, be worked out in the local 
setting, but a sequence that we feel is gen- 
erally realistic is suggested here by way of an 
example . 

In a traditionally organized elementary 
school, kindergarten through Grade 6, the first 
year might be spent in (a) conducting the in- 
service sessions (see the following section of 
this paper for a discussion of inservice needs) 
felt to be a necessary requisite to the total 
operation; (b) actually beginning the implemen- 
tation — that is , administering the group/indi- 
vidual assessment exercises and completing the 
individual records up to the appropriate level 
— at the primary (K— 3) level in Areas I, II, and 
III; and (c) finding and organizing appropriate 
materials and procedures for teaching the Level 
E skills, particularly in Areas IV, V, and VI. 

Such an approach would permit the primary- 
teachers to limit their focus to the explicitly 
described skill areas while they lay a founda- 
tion of skill assessment for the total operation, 
and at the same time it would permit the teachers 
in the middle grades to begin to talk specifically 



about the nature and range of skills at their 
levels. The second year, then, could be spent 
in (a) continuing with Areas I, II, HI while 
expanding to Areas IV, V, VI in the primary 
grades; (b) picking up the existing individual 
records and continuing them in Grade 4; (c) 
beginning the individual records , primarily as 
a skill review technique for the then current 
year, in Grades 5 and 6; and (d) participating 
in inservice training and discussion sessions 
designed to tackle problems identified during 
the first year and to cope with problems as they 
arise in the second year. With such a sequence 
the system would be in full operation, insofar 
as the use of current individual records for 
initial placement and subsequent grouping are 
concerned , during the third year , which could 
be conceived as a final year for debugging. 

Obviously the pace could be quickened or 
slowed in view of local conditions . Perhaps 
a two-year sequence would be adequate in 
Unitized schools or in situations where sup- 
porting personnel — e.g. reading consultants, 
paraprofessionals- — are available. On the other 
hand, to introduce the system at the rate of a 
grade per year, beginning with kindergarten, 
might be desirable in some situations . Whether 
the pace with the latter arrangement would be 
too slow to maintain momentum remains to be 
seen: There could be a glacier effect, with 
slow but inexorable forward movement until all 
of the grades are included . 

An essential point here is that implementa- 
tion should proceed with all deliberate speed. 
But to keep personnel from being overwhelmed 
by the many tasks involved at the early stages, 
a realistic pace must be set and interim goals 
established. A second point is that attempts 
at evaluation in terms of achievement over the 
elementary grades should come only after the 
system has been installed and sufficiently de- 
bugged to be operating reasonably smoothly. 

Acceptance of the Flexible Approach 

An extremely important assumption is that 
the personnel involved in implementation under- 
stand the need and are willing to accept the 
responsibility for a great deal of self-directed 
activity. The need for discussion, consensus 
with regard to skills, judgments, choice of 
materials , and so on has been stated so fre- 
quently in this paper that the point may already 
be overmade, but it is critical. The school 
faculty that is not ready to accept an active 
role in the implementation process is best ad- 
vised not to become involved with the proto- 
typic system. For those who want them, there 
are as many prepackaged instructional programs 
as there are prepackaged meals. Both tend to 
be equally bland. 



Local Adaptations 

The final assumption is that local adapta- 
tions of the system— in view of the adminis- 
trative setup, philosophy, preference for 
methods and/or materials, etc. will be made. 
Such adaptations are not only expected but also 
can be made without doing violence to the 
system. 

INSERVICE PREPARATION OF STAFF 

Once a firm commitment to individualization 
of reading instruction through the use of the 
prototypic system has been made, the process 
of implementation can be facilitated through a 
series of meetings. In such a series of meet- 
ings some new information should be piovided, 
but equally or more important there should be 
opportunities for the immediately involved 
faculty group, including the principal as instruc- 
tional leader, to carry on the discussions and 
make the decisions that are required to make 
the system operational and fill in the substance 
of the total reading program. The setup and 
sequence of the meetings, particularly those 
designed for information input, will need to be 
worked out in view of local calendars and avail- 
ability of resource persons , but some general 
topics that appear to be basic are listed with 
comment . 

1 . Overview and demonstration of component 
parts of the prototypic system. This would be 
primarily an input session, where the system 
would be presented, preferably by someone who 
had worked closely with its development or use 
in the field, and general questions about the 
system and specific questions about the com- 
ponent parts could be answered. A video tape/ 
kinescope devoted to introduction of the system 
and demonstration of the component parts will 
be available in late September from the Wiscon- 
sin R & D Center for Cognitive Learning . 

2. The concept of "reading" broadly defined. 
"Reading" is broadly defined by the Outline of 
Reading Skills. If the range of skills involved 
is to be attended to in practice as well as in 
theory, then there must be general acceptance 
of the broad definition and some ideas on how 
to proceed must be developed and exchanged. 
(One idea, dual-groupings, is discussed in the 
next section of this paper as an example.) One 
or more sessions devoted to the examination of 
definitions, reading behaviors involved, and 
promising procedures and techniques would be 
desirable . 

3. The concept of individualized instruction. 
"Individualized instruction" has come to mean 



quite different things to different people. At 
one extreme, it may imply self- selection, self- 
pacing, and strictly individual instruction, 
where the teacher interacts with each child on 
an individual basis. Or, it may imply indi- 
vidual assessment and instruction based on 
the needs of individuals, who might be taught 
individually or in groups identified on the basis 
of their common needs. As a school faculty 
moves toward a program of individualized in- 
struction it is extremely desirable that there 
be basic agreement regarding the specifics of 
individualization, e.g. basic assumptions, 
administrative setup, working relationships. 
Consideration of existing viewpoints and knowl- 
edge prior to making the decisions that will 
shape local practice will be useful. 

4. Discussion of essential skills. The par- 
ticular skills listed in the Outline of Reading 
Skills can provide focus for discussion of 
scope, sequence and specificity of an accept- 
able, maximally useful statement of essential 
skills for use in the local setting. Such dis- 
cussions may lead to modifications of the Out- 
line and/or additions to the Outline, say, more 
explicit breakdown into sub skills; or they may 
serve essentially to clarify and to familiarize 
participants with the Outline. In either case, 
discussion is desirable and worthwhile. In 
addition, through discussion of the specific 
skills and the behaviors involved, teachers 
can move toward consensual standards of mas- 
tery, which is vital if the Individual Records 
are to be meaningful. 

5. The overall testing program. At some point 
it will be necessary to consider the relationship 
of the nonstandardized assessment instruments 
included with the prototypic system to (a) the- 
standardized testing program that exists or is 
contemplated and (b) locally developed informal 
instruments that may exist. With regard to the 
latter, the suggestion is that any informal in- 
strument that has been found to be useful ought 
to be retained and used to acquire supplementary 
information that can be useful in making judg- 
ments about the skill attainment of individuals. 
On the other hand, the decision may be to cut 
back on standardized testing and/or to seek 
tests for the general assessment of reading 
achievement that are most closely in line with 
the objectives of the instructional program in 
reading. 

6. Materials and procedures. A general ses- 
sion on materials and procedures might profitably 
come after smaller groups have had an opportu- 
nity to conduct a search at given levels. The 
purpose would be to acquaint each teacher with 
particularly useful materials and ideas at various 



levels . The Compendium of Materials and 
Procedures can serve as a starting point. 

7. Planning/feedback sessions . Brief but 
frequent sessions devoted to common problems 
and short-range plans should be scheduled, 
some for the total group and some for subgroups, 
e.g. teachers concerned with teaching skills 

at a given level. Such sessions need not take 
more than 20—30 minutes, but they probably 
should be scheduled on a weekly basis. One 
focus for such sessions, aside from dealing 
with problems as they arise, could be consid- 
eration of regrouping for certain individuals as 
skill development profiles change. 

8. Orientation for new teachers. Each fall, 
and at other times as needed, one or more 
orientation sessions should be held to acquaint 
new teachers with the system and its compo- 
nent's. Unless this is done, faculty commit- 
ment to and participation in the program will 
gradually become eroded through lack of infor- 
mation and active involvement. Unit leaders, 
or their counterparts in traditional schools , are 
likely to be in the best position to conduct 
such sessions . 

GROUPING FOR INSTRUCTION 

Current Individual Records provide informa- 
tion that can be the basis for intelligent group- 
ing as well as for determining individual in- 
structional needs. In the field tryout it was 
clear that the most acceptable and workable 
approach to the individualization of instruction 
was through flexible grouping. The discussion 
that follows is, therefore, devoted to ideas and 
procedures for grouping within the context of 
the prototypic system. 

Initial Grouping 

When school starts in the fall, most teachers 
are anxious to get their pupils into at least 
tentative reading groups as quickly as possible. 
This initial grouping can be expedited by the 
use of the Wisconsin Expanding Inventory of 
Reading Development and the Individual folders. 
The latter will, of course, be available for 
initial grouping only in instances where the 
system was in operation during the preceding 
year, but the Inventory can be administered 
and scored to yield base line information very 
early in the fall semester. 

With either or, preferably, both sets of indi- 
vidual data available, grouping can proceed in 
a straightforward manner: Within a grade level 
or within a Unit of whatever composition, pupils 
can be assigned to groups by commonality of 
skill development status. The range of skills 



to be considered can be expanded or restricted 
in view of the total number of groups to be 
formed. That is, placement within a level (A, 

B, C, D, E) might be considered to be sufficient 
commonality if relatively few groups were to be 
formed; whereas , much more explicit focus upon 
specific skills might be considered if more and 
smaller groups were to be formed initially. The 
size of the group and the basis for the initial 
grouping is of less importance than the fact of 
grouping for purposes of management. The 
important point, of course, is that the initial 
groups must be conceived as strictly temporary; 
from these groups pupils are to be deployed to 
other groups as their needs change. 

Realistically, Skill Areas I, II, and III prob- 
ably serve as an adequate base for initial group- 
ing. Informal reading inventories, in addition 
to the Records, will be useful as a guide to the 
selection of reading materials for the groups 
and for individuals within the initial groups . 

A final word about initial groups: No matter 
what the criteria for forming them , the groups 
will be obsolescent in a very short time and 
obsolete within a month. This is a fact and 
most teachers recognize it. Nevertheless, 
many people continue to devise elaborate 
schemes for fall grouping and to take a month 
or two to carry them out; then they are too awed 
with their magnificent handiwork to tamper with 
the groups for the rest of the year. When the 
focus is to be upon the individuals who consti- 
tute the groups, there is less likelihood of 
becoming bogged down with group: When pupils 
no longer share the need for which they were 
grouped, they should no longer share the group. 

Subsequent Grouping 

Subsequent grouping should be as straight- 
forward a process as initial grouping: Examina- 
tion of the Records should lead to identification 
of pupils with common skill development needs, 
and these needs become the bases for grouping. 
Such flexibility calls for continuous assess- 
ment of individuals' skill development through 
the use of the prototypic exercises and reas- 
signment of pupils to new groups . Where there 
is to be interclassroom or intra-Unit mobility 
for readincr instruction, provision must be made 
for planning, discussion of profiles and re- 
placement, probably not less than once each 
week. 

This is the point at which some teachers, 
confronted with the need for continuous assess- 
ment and regrouping throw up their hands and 
wonder where they are going to find time for all 
that. Unfortunately there is no pat reply that 
is guaranteed to fire the questioner with enthu- 
siasm. The individualization of instruction, 
even with a basis for efficient grouping, does 



16 



take time. The response here must be that the 
prototypic system is designed to be useful to 
teachers as they tackle the necessary tasks . 
Furthermore, it should be clear that the assess- 
ment of skill development is an integral part of 
the teaching of reading. Time should be budg- 
eted each week— probably up to one-third of 
the time available for reading instruction for 
assessment and for planning instruction on the 
bases of current data regarding individual skill 
development. Somehow a substantial number 
of teachers apparently have come to place more 
importance upon getting on to the next story in 
the reading text than upon the development of 
essential reading skills for each individual. 

This misplacement of emphasis is a product of 
slavish dedication to curriculum guides that 
are tied to grade levels. Fifteen minutes of 
instruction that is well planned in response to 
an individual need is likely to be more produc- 
tive than an hour of let’s-go-on-to-the-next- 
page instruction. Time spent in assessment 
activities offers every promise of being time 
well spent. 

Sometimes the most efficient instruction is 
done with a single individual. As pupils’ Rec- 
ords are examined for grouping purposes , some 
pupils with unique problems will be found . 

They should be dealt with individually • Refer- 
rals for special remedial or psychological help 
can be made when necessary. With constant 
assessment, special needs can be recognized 
and appropriate help provided at a very early 
stage, when the prognosis for recovery is most 
favorable . 

Placement of Transfer Pupils 

Pupils who transfer into a situation where 
individual records of reading development are 
being kept current can be placed in the instruc- 
tional program and considered for grouping with 
relative ease. The procedure would be to give 
and score the appropriate portions of the Expand- 
ing Inventory (or the appropriate prototypic exer- 
cises, depending on preference) in order to 
establish a base level of skill development on 
the Record. From the resul-tant profile, decis- 
ions could be made about placement in the in- 
structional sequence and about possible group- 
ing. 

A Plan for Dual Grouping 

Most of what has been said to this point has 
had to do with the skills listed in the Outline 
under I, Word Recognition, II, Comprehension, 
and III, Study Skills. There are two reasons: 
first, specific assessment exercises have been 
developed for the three areas; and second, 
most of the skills in Areas IV, Self-directed 
Reading, V, Interpretive Reading, and VI, Crea- 



tive Reading, require prolonged observations 
in relatively unstructured situations if assess- 
ments are to have validity. The fact that spe- 
cific skills involved in Areas IV, V, and VT are 
listed in the Outline and on the Record provides 
some structure, for observations can be focused 
upon particular skills for selected time periods. 

By checking on individual competence with the 
various skills involved, a teacher can insure 
not neglecting vital skills. 

To insure systematic observations in the 
three areas , however , a plan for grouping and 
for focusing upon the skills is desirable. One 
such plan has been devised by Mrs. DeLores 
VanderVelde of the Madison Public Schools and 
found to be viable. 

Basically, it is a plan for dual grouping: 

A pupil is placed in one group according to his 
needs for instruction and skill development in 
the foundation, or tool, areas of word recogni- 
tion, comprehension and study skills; and he 
is placed in a second group according to teach- 
ers' judgments regarding their perceptions of 
his attitudes and abilities in the areas of self- 
directed, interpretive and creative reading. 

To accomplish the latter, a check-sheet (shown 
on the following page) to assist in making judg- 
ments in several areas has been devised. 

Use of the check sheet would permit teach- 
ers to examine general behaviors and to group 
pupils with similar attitudes and/or abilities. 
There appear to be at least two advantages. 

First, the behaviors in the areas of concern 
here are not necessarily tied directly to skill 
status in the foundation areas . That is , a 
child might have the basic word recognition 
skills, have the basic study skills, and be 
able to cope with literal comprehension, but 
be unmotivated where self-directed reading for 
enjoyment is concerned and at a loss so far as 
creative or interpretive reading is concerned. 

The dual grouping scheme permits the teacher 
to focus separately on the latter areas in set- 
ting up groups and in planning library and re- 
lated experiences. Second, the task of making 
specific judgments regarding Area IV, V, VI 
skills is made more manageable by bringing 
pupils with generally similar characteristics 
together. The plan seems sufficiently promising 
to merit additional tryout and refinement. 

Role of Paraprofessionals 

This is not the place to become involved in 
a general discussion of the role of paraprofes- 
sionals (or teacher aides or whatever local 
terminology happens to be applied to describe 
personnel who are not fully certified as profes- 
sional teachers and whose essential function 
is to assist teachers) because, at least for the 
forseeable future, the specifics will need to 



17 



Name Grade 

(Underline the appropriate characteristic and rate each generalization on the five-point scale.) 





Almost Always 


1 — 

Usually 


At Times 

i 


Seldom 


Only when 
directed 


1. Enjoys reading appropriate to his level - 

efficiency 

2. Reads with interpretation in the subject matter areas 

understanding 

facts 

3. Considers opinions in drawing conclusions 

inferences 

dramatizes .... 

4. Exhibits evidence of creative impact of reading: ^ ustrates 

writes 

reads more .... 

plot 

5 . Reacts personally to environment in story reading 

characters 













Fig. 1. Check Sheet for Self-Directed, Interpretive, and Creative Reading 



continue to be worked out at the local level 
and, realistically, in view of the qualifications 
and aptitudes of individuals . Nevertheless, it 
seems clear that paraprofessionals , when they 
are available, could assume a number of spe- 
cific responsibilities in the operation of the 
prototypic system, particularly with regard to 
activities that can be subsumed under grouping 
as a general area of concern. Again, these 
roles must be worked out explicitly in the local 
setting, but some suggestions can be made 
here . 

An obvious starting point for participation 
would be the administration of the Wisconsin 
Expanding Inventory of Reading Development. 
Teachers should probably participate in the 
scoring, particularly when judgments that are 
to be recorded on the individual records are to 
be made, but it would appear that much of the 



scoring task could be handled by paraprofes- 
sionals. With teacher direction, many of the 
prototypic exercises could also be administered 
by paraprofessionals; but, again, judgments to 
be recorded on the individual folders should be 
the responsibility of teachers . 

Paraprofessionals can play an extremely 
useful role in facilitating instruction by work- 
ing with small groups or individuals on skills 
that are causing difficulties. Specific skill 
deficits can be located from inspection of indi- 
vidual records , suggestions for corrective/ 
developmental help can be found in the com- 
pendium, a plan of action can be formulated in 
consultation with the teacher, and the activi- 
ties prescribed can be carried out. (An impor- 
tant finding from research on motivation is that 
in situations where adults are able to spend 
relatively brief periods of time working with 



18 



pupils on desired behaviors the results, in terms 
of pupil behaviors, have been good. The proto- 
typic system can provide the structure for a pro- 
gram in which para professionals work briefly 
but regularly with individuals on the develop- 
ment of specific reading skills in a sequential, 
developmental order . More exploratory work 
with this particular scheme is planned for the 
next stage of refinement of the prototypic system.) 

IMPLEMENTATION IN THE 
MULTIUNIT SCHOOL 

The Multiunit school — a concept that has 
been undergoing development, field tryout, and 
refinement within a project at the Wisconsin 



R & D Center — provides a receptive setting 
for implementation of the prototypic system of 
reading instruction. As already pointed out, 
four of the five schools in the 1967—68 field 
tryout of the prototypic system were Multiunit 
schools. Because the- Multiunit concept and 
the concept of a prototypic system of reading 
instruction are in many ways complementary , 
implementation in the Multiunit setting is spe- 
cifically discussed. The organization of the 
Multiunit school is very briefly reviewed -along 
with suggestions for implementation. The or- 
ganizational chart of a hypothetical Multiunit 
school of 600 elementary pupils is given in 
Figure 2. Key groups that operate at three 



I 

i 

I 

I 

I 

i 

i 



Representative 

Teachers 



Representative 
Unit Leaders 



Central Office 
Personnel 



| Principal 



«# 



Principals of 
Other Schools 



Other 

Consultants 



I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 



J 



IMC 

Director 



r 


Unit Leader A 




Unit Leader B 




5 Teachers 




5 Teachers 




Teacher Aide 




Teacher Aide 




Instructional 




Instructional 




Secretary 




Secretary 




Intern 




Intern 




150 Students 




150 Students 




I Ages 4-6 




Ages 6-9 



External 

Consultants 







Unit Leader C 




Unit Leader D 


I 


5 Teachers 

Teacher Aide 
Instructional 
Secretary 
Intern 

150 Students 
Ages 8-11 




5 Teachers 

Teacher Aide 
Instructional 
Secretary 
Intern 

150 Students 
Ages 10-12 





Unit A 



Unit B 



Unit C 



Unit D 



Building Instructional Improvement Committee 
m System-Wide Policy Committee 



Fig. 2. Organization Chart of a Multiunit School of 600 Students 

(From H. J. Klausmeier, R. G. Morrow, and J. E. Walter. The multiunit 
organization (I & R units) and elementary e ducation in the decades ahe a d 
Madison: Wisconsin R & D Center for Cognitive Learning, 1968.) 



ERJC 

iminaffammaa 



19 



distinct levels in the organizational hierarchy 
are represented there. Numbers of pupils and 
personnel involved will of course, vary in 
practice . 

The System-Wide Policy Committee, 
chaired by the superintendent or his representa- 
tive, operates at the district level and includes 
relevant central office staff and consultants , 
principals from the Unitized schools, and rep- 
resentative Unit leaders and teachers. This 
group meets less frequently than the other two, 
but decisions with implications for the entire 
district are made at this level. With regard to 
the adoption and implementation of prototypic 
systems of instruction— in reading and in other 
curriculum areas — the role of the group is to 
consider the facts and, if such is their decision, 
to endorse and to disseminate relevant informa- 
tion to the schools and to the community. 

The Instructional Improvement Committee 
is chaired by the building principal and operates 
at the building level. Unit leaders within the 
building are permanent members and consultants 
from available sources are involved as needed. 
The committee meets weekly and, among other 
things, takes leadership with regard to alloca- 
tions of time , organization for instruction, 
consideration of materials and approaches to 
assessment, use of special personnel, and 
inservice activities . Decisions of the com- 
mittee are communicated and executed by the 
Unit leaders. With these functions the Instruc- 
tional Improvement Committee has a vital role 
in the implementation of the prototypic system 
of reading instruction. 

At the outset, decisions with regard to the 
sequence and timing — that is, at what level to 
begin and how rapidly to proceed of the imple- 
mentation process must be made, and a series 
of interim goals and a scheme for eliciting and 
evaluating feedback must be established. The 
responsibility here is clearly with the Instruc- 
tional Improvement Committee. Decisions must 
be made , too , about the general acceptability 
of the scope and sequence statement in the 
Outline — that is, can it be accepted as is or 
are certain general revisions necessary to meet 
local needs and expectations — and about the 
general content of the other component parts of 
the system. Such decisions are, of course, 
guideline decisions, for basic, operational 
changes— deletions, additions , revisions— 
must be made in view of feedback from experi- 
ence with the system. Leadership for obtaining 
the latter and effecting the changes required 
must come from the Instructional Improvement 
Committee. The Committee must also make the 
general decisions and provide the leadership 
for building a locally acceptable and appropriate 
reading program around the framework provided 



by the prototypic system. Care must be taken 
to see that the proposed reading program fits 
into the general instructional program without 
doing violence to any other subject matter 
area(s) . The Committee is in a position to see 
that (a) enthusiasm for a particular curriculum 
area does not result in neglect, even temporar- 
ily, of the remaining areas; and (b) over a 
period of time all areas receive special atten- 
tion, i.e. clarification of behavioral objectives , 

clarification of effective approaches to assess- 
ing pupils' skill development status at short 
intervals and over the entire elementary school 
experience, and consideration of effective 
means for offering instruction that is truly indi- 
vidualized . 

The Unit operates at the classroom level 
and includes the Unit leader, a professional 
teacher who teaches from one-half to two-thirds 
time; the regular teachers assigned to the 
Unit; and, when available, a teacher aide 
and/or an instructional secretary. The instruc- 
tional process is determined cooperatively 
within the Unit and is executed by Unit mem- 
bers. Thus, it is within the Unit that each 
child's achievement, progress, and other 
characteristics are assessed. These assess- 
ments — which are particularly vital to the 
successful operation of the prototypic system 
in reading — tend to be more accurate and com- 
prehensive when the professional knowledge 
and perceptions of the several Unit members 
are brought to bear. Sharpened perceptions of 
individual characteristics and needs make fre- 
quent regrouping possible and redesigning of 
instructional approaches feasible. And, equally 
important, the Unit operation makes possible 
the pooling of strengths and competencies of 
several teachers with resultant upgrading of 
instruction. There are, then, many ways in 
which the Unit can expedite the implementation 
of the prototypic system. It is vital that at 
least two hours per week be set aside for Unit 
meetings: of this , one-third to one-half could 
realistically be scheduled for consideration of 
the operation of the prototypic system during 
the first two years of implementation. 

(Klausmeier , Morrow, and Walter have addressed 
themselves to the problems of finding time for 
such meetings and they have suggested several 
approaches .) 



^Much more explicit details regarding roles and 
responsibilities are given in The mult iunit or- 
ganization (I & R units) and elementary educa_^ 
tion in the decades ahead by H. J. Klausmeier, 
R. G. Morrow, and J. E. Walter. Madison: 
Wisconsin R & D Center for Cognitive Learning, 
1968 . 



The essential point here is that the Multi- 
unit setup is a receptive environment for the 
prototypic system in reading and the system 
provides a base of specifics for the Unit opera- 
tion. The complementary nature of the Unit- 
system operation is particularly clear in the 
following instances. (1) The Unit is a con- 
venient operating group to make decisions 
about skill development, which demand experi- 
ence, discussion and consensus if the assess- 
ment process is to be productive. That is, the 
facilitation of communication and the sharing 
of perceptions within a Unit are basic to the 
decision-making process with regard to assess- 
ing individuals' skill status and, subsequently, 
providing for individualized instruction. (2) 

The Unit operation makes for pooling of ideas 
regarding materials and procedures appropriate 
for use in developing specific skills. (3) Con- 
tinual assessment of pupils and freedom of 
movement within a Unit is conducive to the 
kind of grouping necessary to insure individuali- 
zation of instruction. 

IMPLEMENTATION IN THE 
TRADITIONAL SCHOOL 

"Traditional school" is defined here as any 
school that is not Unitized. This, of course, 
is not a very useful definition, for the variety 
of administrative setups and instructional 
emphases lumped together is virtually limitless. 



Yet, to attempt to direct specific discussions 
to specific setups would be unmanageable. 

The discussion is, therefore, limited to sev- 
eral general points . 

First, as already pointed out, there is no 
inherent need to limit implementation of the 
system to any particular administrative setup. 
The focus is upon individual performance. 
Second, a number of assumptions and general 
requirements for operation of the system have 
been pointed out. These should be considered 
carefully before implementation is attempted. 

To begin without adequate staff commitment or 
a realistic time schedule is not only undesir- 
able, but probably futile. Third, the task of 
implementation will be greatly eased if groups 
are formed within the school building to have 
concerns and responsibilities similar to those 
of the Instructional Improvement Committee and 
the Unit in the Unitized setting. The parallel 
to the Instructional Improvement Committee 
might comprise the principal and representative 
teachers from two to four levels; and the paral- 
lel to the Unit could comprise all of the teach- 
ers at a level, with one teacher designated 
"chairman." The essential point is that work- 
ing groups must be established to insure com- 
munication and pupil mobility; without this , the 
impact of the system so far as individualization 
of instruction is concerned is almost certain to 
be dissipated or completely lost. 



PROTOTYPIC EXERCISES FOR THE 
ASSESSMENT OF READING SKILLS 



Reductions of the Prototypic Exercises are given below and on the pages 
that follow. If a key is provided for an exercise, it is given immediately 
following the exercise. The key is given on the back of the exercise in the 
full-size version for actual use. 



1 



i. 



2 



WORD RECOGNITION 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



Al. Listens for rhyming words and sounds, phrases, 
and verses. 

a) Rhyming words 

TEACHER: Do the names of these pictures rhyme? 





sled 







chin 

fish 








socks 

train ^ 
frog 

(continued on following page) 



Ala. Rhyming words. 

TEACHER: Listen to the words I say. Do these words 

rhyme? 



man 


pan 


call 


bell 


sing 


thing 


leg 


beg 


thin 


hen 


can 


rat 


big 


twig 


park 


play 


hat 


sat 


when 


pen 



22 



O 

ERIC 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 
Alb. Rhyming Phrases and Verses 

rhyme'.' "tcU L'ttUwdii 1 ®™ 

TO TEAChIr: y if you think the nonsense rhymes will 
be too distracting, omit them.) 

1, "Little Jack Horner 
Sat in a corner." 

"Humpty, Dumpty sat on a wall 
Humpty, Dumpty had a great fall. 

3. "Do you know why 

There are stars in the sky?" 

"Wing, wong, way 
Tisha, looma say 

5. "Looma see, looma so 
Tisha looma, taffy mo 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 

A2. Notes likenesses and differences in pictures, 
letters, words, and phrases. 

a) Pictures 

TEACHER: Point to the two pictures that are the same in 



«anh 1 i nn . 



TEACHER* I am going to tell you a j ingle » but I am 
ASt gSing to flnisR it. You finish if for me by 
telling me a rhyming word. 

1. The big tall man 

Fried eggs in a . 

2, It is so much fun 

To jump, and skip, and • 




down 


it 


down 


the 


find 


big 


want 


car 


end 


big 


from 


from 


as 


to 


what 


see 


how 


see 


other 


like 


jump 


were 


did 


see 


jump 


hill 




blue 


go 


hill 


our 


not 




run 


help 


me 


not 


wanted 


laugh 


kitten 


thank 


wanted 


happy 


what 


happy 


out 


stop 


did 


jump 


cow 


did 


ran 



(continued on following page) 



23 



7 

TEACHER: Point to the group of words that is the same 

as the first one in each line. 



in a pan 


under the table 


in a pan 


around the town 


up the tree 


behind the door 


may not go 


up the tree 


to the store 


to the store 


up a hill 


just so big 


up and down 


something wonderful 


at the corner 


up and down 


back and forth 


in and out 


back and forth 


found it 



8 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



A3. Distinguishes sizes 

TO THE TEACHER: Ask the child to point to the thing that 

is biggest for numbers 1 and 3: to point to the smallest 
for numbers 2 and 5; and to point to the thing that is 
the middle size for numbers 4 and 6. 




2 - ^ S? 

3 . A A * 



<■ o O o 



☆ 

c 



9 9B 




I. WORD RECOGNITION* 

A4. Distinguishes colors 
TEACHER: Point to the color I say. 



TEACHER KEY: 

TO THE TEACHER: Color rectangles on the exercise card 

according to the following key: 




Word 


Rectangle 


Rectangle 


blue 


black 


blue 


green 


red 


green 


black 


purple 


black 


yellow 


yellow 


white 


red 


green 


red 


orange 


orange 


brown 


white 


yellow 


white 


brown 


black 


brown 


purple 


purple 


blue 



NOTE TO THE TEACHER: A child who cannot discriminate 

between red and green on both examples should, perhaps, 
be tested by the school nurse for color blindness. 



o 

ERIC 



24 



10 



11 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



A5. Distinguishes shapes of objects 
TEACHER*. Find the two that are the same shape. 





I. WORD RECOGNITION 



A6, Listens for initial consonant sounds 
TEACHER: Do the words I say begin alike? 



bird 


ball 


boy 


take 


mother 


monkey 


house 


hair 


light 


baby 


candy 


cake 


nurse 


yard 


feather 


farm 


fish 


girl 


banana 


dog 



12 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



Bl. Has sight word vocabulary of 50-100 words. 

TO THE TEACHER: Assessment of the size of a sight 

vocabulary must necessarily be tied to the particular 
materials that have been and are being used . 
reading instruction. Speeific words 
be selected from materials used. .The Dolch List of 
220 words is provided because it includes many useful 
words that are frequently encountered. It should be 
understood, however, that (a) the list must be augmented 
with words from materials used and (b) known words may 
appear on any or all of the sublists. 

In testing sight vocabulary, the emphasis should be upon 
quick recognition. A good procedure is to put individual 
words on flash cards and to present each word for a 
maximum of five seconds. (After sight recognition has 
.been established you may want to allow more time to 
determine whether the pupil can use other word recognition 
techniques to get the word.) 

You can note the method of attack to determine what skills 
are used, if any . and whether there is a tendency to over- 
anaiyze the woratf. 

You may use the following list as a reference when making 
your flash cards. 

Alternative word lists may be used. Some suggested lists 
are the Botel word list or the Sullivan word list. An 
additional suggestion would be to develop a word list 
using the vocabulary of the basal reader you use. 



13 



Bl. (cont’d.) 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



Pre primer 
1. a 


Primer 
1 . all 


2. and 


2. 


am 


3. away 


3. 


are 


4. big 


4. 


at 


5 . blue 


5. 


ate 


6. can 


6. 


be 



7. come 

8. down 

9 . find 



8. * brown 

9. but 



10. 


for 


10. 


came 


11. 


funny 


11. 


did 


12. 


go 


12. 


do 


13. 


help 


13. 


eat 


14. 


here 


14. 


four 


15. 


I 


15. 


get 


16. 


in 


16. 


good 


17. 


is 


17. 


nave 


18. 


it 


18. 


he 


19. 


jump 


19. 


into 


20. 


little 


20. 


like 


21. 


look 


21. 


must 


22. 


make 


22. 


new 


23. 


me 


23. 


no 


24. 


my 


24. 


now 


25. 


not 


25. 


on 


26. 


one 


26. 


our 


27. 


play 


27. 


out 


28. 


red 


28. 


please 


29. 


run 


29. 


pretty 


30. 


sa id 


30. 


ran 


31. 


see 


31. 


ride 


32. 


the 


32. 


saw 


33. 


three 


33. 


say 


34. 


too 


34. 


she 


35. 


two 


35. 


so 


36. 


up 


36. 


soon 


37. 


we 


37. 


that 


38. 


where 


38. 


there 


39. 


you 


39. 


they 




40. 


this 






41. 


too 






42. 


under 






43. 


want 






44. 


was 






45. 


well 






46. 


went 






47. 


what 






48. 


white 






49. 


who 






50. 


will 






51. 


, with 






52. 


, yellow 



1. 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 

9. 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17, 

18. 

19. 

20 . 
21 , 
22 . 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 
27, 



30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 



1 

after 

agaiit 

an 

any 

as 

ask 

by 

could 

every 

|iy 

from 
give 
going 
had 
has 
her 
him 
his 
how 
just 
.know 
let 
1 ive 
may 
of 
old 
once 
open 
over 
pot 
round 
some 
stop 
take 
thank 
them 
then 
think 
walk 
were 
when 



1. always 

2. around 

3. because 

4. been 

5. before 

6. best 

7. both 

8. buy 

9. call 

10. cold 

11. does 

12. don't 

13. fast 

14. first 

15. five 

16. found 

17. gave 

18. goes 

19. green 

20. its 

21. made 

22. many 

23. off 

24. or 

25. pull 

26. read 

27. right 

28. sing 

29. sit 

30. sleep 

31. tell 

32. their 

33. these 

34. those 

35. upon 

36. us 

37. use 

38. very 

39. wash 

40. which 

41. why 

42. wish 

43. work 

44. would 

45. write 

46. your 



1. about 

2. better 

3. bring 

4. carry 

5. clean 

6. cut 

7. done 

8. draw 

9. drink 

10. eight 

11. fall 

12. far 

13. full 

14. got 

15. grow 

16. hold 

17. hot 

18. hurt 

19. if 

20. keep 

21. kind 

22. laugh 

23. light 

24. long 

25. much 

26. myself 

27. never 

28. only 

29. own 

30. pick 

31. seven 

32. shall 

33. show 

34. six 

35. small 

36. start 

37. ten 

38. today 

39. together 

40. try 

41 . warm 



25 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



14 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



B2. Follows left to right sequence 

TEACHER; Name the letter or numbers in each line. 











man 


pet 


c 


0 


e 


g 


ball 


boy 










girl 


bird 


4 


7 


1 


2 


mother 


map 










Sam 


sit 


P 


F 


B 


,D 


light 


fair 










Pig 


leaf 


d 


P 


1 


k 


fish 


gate 



16 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



15 



B3a. 



1 ) 



Consonant sounds 
Beginning 



TEACHER; Do these words begin alike? (Teacher reads 
child does not see word list.) 



TEACHER: Tell me another word that begins like each word 

I say. What letter makes this sound? (Teacher reads — 
child does not see word list.) 



boy 

man 

nest 

gate 

light 

fish 

pig 



17 



B3a, Consonant sounds 
2) Ending 



TEACHER: Do these words end alike? (Teacher reads- 

child does not see word list.) 



bat 

pen 

Pig 

ant 

cup 

car 

nap 

cat 

six 

look 



hut 

can 

pin 

hot 

cot 

pit 

lip 

pan 

sit 

sink 



TEACHER: Tell me which letter makes the ending sound 

for each wqrd I say. (Teacher reads— child does not 
see word list . ) 



bat 

pin 

cup 

car 

ball 



B3b. 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 
Consonant blends 



TEACHER; Listen carefully for the first two sounds in 
each word I say. Point to the pictures that begin the 
same way. (Teacher reads words— child sees only pictures. 
Covers lower half of page.) 



(tr) "tray 




(fr) "from" 

& < 5 ^ 

(br) " brin 'V^^ y 



each word 


I say. Which 


i two words begin the 


(bl) 


blanket 


broom 


blouse 


(gr) 


glow 


grapes 


groceries 


(pr) 


prize 


pray 


play 


(fl) 


flag 


frown 


flower 


(gl) 


grow 


glass 


glad 


(cr) 


crayon 


cloud 


crown 


(pl) 


plant 


play 


proud 



o 

ERIC 



26 



18 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



19 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



B3c. Rhyming elements 

TEACHER: Tell me a word that rhymes with each of these 

words. (Teacher reads-—child does not soe the word list.} 



B3d; Short vowels 

TEACHER: Tell me the vowel sound you hear in each word 
I say. What letter makes that sound? (Teacher reads — 
child does not see word list.) 



20 



pan 

ball 



sat 

far 



when 



21 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



man 

pin 

cup 

hen 

doll 

duck 

pan 

bed 

sit 

hop 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



B3e. Knows simple consonant digraphs 

TO THE TEACHER: Give an example after explanation. 

TEACHER: Two consonants often go together to make a 

new sound. These consonants are called digraphs. Tell 
me the digraphs in each of the words I say. (Teacher 
reads — child does not see word list.) 



she 


chalk 


teeth 


ship 


cheese 


with 


fish 


church 


beach 


thumb 



B4a . Compound words 

TO THE TEACHER: Explain compound words, if necessary. 

TEACHER: Tell me the compound word in each sentence. 

Then tell me each of the words in the compound word. 
(Teacher reads — child does not see sentences.) 

1. The cowboy likes to ride on his horse.. 

2. The policeman helped me to cross the street. 

3. We saw something in the road. 

4. There is a birdhouse in the tree. 

5. The boys like to play football . 



27 







22 

I. WORD RECOGNITION 




■ 


23 


I. WORD RECOGNITION 


B4b. Contractions 

TEACHER: Say these words. Then use each 

sentence. 


word 


in a 


B4c. Base words and known endings 

TEACHER: Tell me the root word in each word that I say. 










napped 


I’m 








catches 


it’s 








runs 


that ’s 








batting 


can’t 








scolded 


don’t 








taller 










strongest 










played 










running 


24 

' I. WORD RECOGNITION 






25 


I. WORD RECOGNITION 


B4d. Plurals 

TEACHER : Tell me whether there is one or more 

(Teacher reads — child does not see word list.) 


than one. 


B4e. Possessive forms 

TO THE TEACHER: Repeat the underlined word after each 

sentence . 

TEACHER: Does this word mean more than one, or does it 

tell that something belongs to someone. 


boy 










eyes 






1 , 


The girl’s dress was pretty. 


cheese 






2. 


The dogs began to bark. 


bikes 






3. 


Mary’s mother called her for dinner. 


boxes 






4. 


The wheel came off Ann’s wagon. 


lady 






5. 


The ladies ate dinner. 


wheels 






6. 


The boys played ball. 


buses 






7. 


The teachers played a game with us. 








8. 


My dad’s car is red. 








9. 


The cat’s tail is black. 








10. 


The mothers held their babies. 




28 



26 



26B 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



TEACHER KEY: 



SUMMARY CARD — LEVEL B 

Tom’s grandfather gave him a brown pony for his 
birthday. Tom named his pony Brownie. 

Tom loved his pony. He took good care of him. 
Everyday Tom gave the pony food and water. 

In the summer, Tom's friends came to visit. Tom 
wanted them to see Brownie. He called the pony and 
gave him an apple. 

Tom let his friends ride his pony. They all had a 
good time. 



1 . 


him, his, in 


, visit, (accept any of these words) 


2. 


grandfather , 


birthday 


3. 


brown 




4. 


friends 




5. 


grandfather , 


them, they (accept any of these words) 


6. 


Tom's 





1. Find three words that have the vowel sound you hear 
in pin . 



2. Sometimes two words are put together to make a new 
word, like playground. Find two more compound words 
in the story. 



3. Find a word in the story that begins like bring and 
names color . 



4. Find a word in the story that begins like frog and 
means pals. ” 



5. Find two words jn the story that have the th sound 
you hear in the . — 



6. What word in the story tells us grandfather belonged 
to Tom? 



27 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



SUMMARY CARD — LEVEL B 

Mother wanted Bill and Sally to be safe when they 
crossed the street. On the way to school she asked Bill, 
"Which light tells us to go?" 

"The green light," answered Bill. 

"That’s right, Bill,” said Mother. "Sally, which 
light tells us to wait?" 

Sally answered, "i know.' It is the yellow light." 

Mother said, "Very good.' Be sure you do what it says. 
Who can tell me which light tells us to stop?" 

Both of the children shouted, "The red light does.’" 

"That was not hard," said Bill. 

Mother said, "I am happy that you know what the 
lights tell you to do. I know my children will be safe 
when they cross the street." 

1. Find a word in the story that rhymes with bed and is 
the name of a color. 

2. Find a word in the story that is the name of one of 
the children and rhymes with will . 

3. Find two words in the story that begin like boy . 

4. Find three words in the story that end like den . 

5. Which word in the story is a color and begins like grow? 

6. Sally said to Mother, "it is the yellow light that tells 
us to wait. ' What one word could Sally have said that 
means it is ? 

7. Find a word in the story that means more than one light. 

8. Find a word in the story that means more than one child. 



27B 

TEACHER KEY: 

1 . red 

2. Bill 

3. Bill, both, be (accept any two) 

4. green, can, children 

5. green 

6. it's 

7. lights 

8. children 




29 



28 

I. WORD RECOGNITION 

Cl. Has sight * 0 rd vocabulary of 100-to-170 words. 

TO THE TEACHER: Assessment of the size of a sight vocabulary 

must necessarily be tied to the particular materials that 
have been and are being used for reading instruction. 

Specific words must, therefore, be selected from materials 
used. The Dolch List of 220 wordsis provided because it 
includes many useful words that are frequently encountered. 

It should be understood, however, that (a) the list must 
be augmented with words from materials used and (b) known 
words may appear on any or all of the sublists. 

In testing sight vocabulary, the emphasis should be upon 
quick recognition. A good procedure is to put individual 
words on flash cards and to present each ward for a 
maximum of five seconds. (After sight recognition has been 
established you may want to allow more time to determine 
whether the pupil car* use other word recognition techniques 
to get the word.) 

You can note the method of attack to determine what skills 
are used, if any and whether there is a tendency to over- 
analyze the words. 

You mav use the word list on page 13 as a reference when 
making your flash cards. 

Alternative ward lists may be used. Some suggested lists 
are the Botel word list or the Sullivan word list. An 
additional suggestion would be to develop a word list using 
the vocabulary of the basal reader you use. 



29 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



G2a. Consonants and their variant sounds 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following words. 



treasure 


ask 


picnic 


house 


circus 


police 


giant 


strange 


good 


get 


trees 


busy 


drag 


cake 


cage 


city 


sure 





30 



31 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 
C2b. Consonant blends 

TEACHER: Listen carefi ___ _ 

word that I say. Which words begin alike? 



I . WORD RECOGNITION 



TEACHER: ^isten carefully for. the first two sounds in each 



C2c . Vowel sounds 
1) Long vowel sounds 



(st) 


stove 


snowman 


stairs 


TEACHER: Read these words to me and tell 
which you hear in each word. Some of the 
real words. We call them nonsense words. 


(sk) 


skate 


skunk 


star 




nose 




skates 


(sm) 


smile 


spoon 


smoke 










(sp) 


swing 


spool 


spider 




cake 




use 


(sw) 


sweater 


swing 


sk irt 




ice 




seat 


(sn) 


snail 


stove 


snake 




goat 




tie 












cheese 




cute 


TEACHER : 


Tell me a word 


that begins 


like each word I say. 




rebe 




labe 



smell 

store 

sky 

spell 

swell 



brile 



treep 



goam 



prane 



30 




o 




35B 



36 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



TEACHER KEY: 

1. long 

2. short 

3. short 

4. long 

5. short 

6. short 

7. long 

8. long 



37 



C2d . Vowel rules 

1) Short vowel generalization 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following words. 

Tell him that some of the words are nonsense words. 

cat lut 

hot mab 

bus 1 is 

sit fom 

red seb 

4 



TEACHER: When there is only one vowel in a word, and 

that vowel is in the middle of the word, is that vowel 



TO THE TEACHER: Call attention to exceptions such as hold, 

cold, bold, comb, climb, night, sight, fight, light. 



38 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



I, WORD RECOGNITION 



C2d. Vowel rules 
2) Silent e rule 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following words. 

Tell him that some of the words are nonsense words. 



C2d. Vowel rules 

3) Two vowels together 



FO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following words, 

rell him that some of the words are nonsense woids. 



cake 


dibe 


nice 


mape 


rope 


heke 


tube 


sule 


Pete 


jome 



day 


gaip 


train 


soam 


boat 


tay 


meat 


kiel 


tied 


pread 



TEACHER: When there is an e at the end of a word, what 

sound does the vowel before it usually have? 

TO THE TEACHER: Call attention to exceptions such as give, 

come, have, prove, etc. 



JACHER: When two vowels are together in a word, what 

wind does the first vowel have, and what sound aoes 
le second vowel have? 

) THE TEACHER: The above generalization is usually true 

>r these vowel combinations: ai, ea , oa , ay , ee , and ow. 

; isnot always applicable for the ie or ei combination. 



32 



O 

ERIC 



39 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



40 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



C2d. Vowel rules 
4) Final vowel 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following words. 



C2e. Knows common consonant digraphs 



TO THE TEACHER: Give examples after explanation. 

TEACHER: Two consonants often go together to make a new 

sound. These consonants are called digraphs. Tell me 
the digraphs in each of the words I say. (Teacher reads 
child does not see word list.) 



go 



she 



me 



he 



so 



hi 



TEACHER: If there is one vowel in a one syllable word 

and it comes at the end of the word, what sound does 
it usually have? 



41 



42 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



sink 


what 


.where 


shining 


win£ 


thank 


chicken 


wishing 


thing 


wh ich 


back 


long 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



C3. Has structural skills 
a) Base words with prefixes and suffixes 

TO THE TEACHER: An example may be given, if it is 

necessary. ) 



C3. Structural skills, 
b) More difficult plural forms 

TEACHER: Tell me whether there is one or more than one. 

(Teacher reads - child does not see word list.) 



TEACHER: Make a word to finish each sentence by adding a 

beginning (or prefix), a suffix (or an ending). Use the 
word next to the sentence as a part of your new word. 



1 . 


An umbrella 


is 


on a rainy day. (use) 


2. 


The teacher 


is 


on the chalkboard. 


(write) 


3. 


Harry was 




when he lost the dime. 


(happy) 


4. 


Billy is the 


boy in the class, (tall) 


5. 


You should b 


19 


to your classmates. 


(friend) 


6. 


A key will 




the door, (lock) 




7. 


These birds 


fly 


than those birds. 


(high) 


8. 


Our dog has 


six 


. (puppy) 




9. 


Do not be 




with your toys, (care) 




10. 


Ann was so 




that she went to bed. 


(sleep) 



mice 


circus 


child 


dresses 


men 


lady 


goose 


noses 


houses 


children 



33 



0 

ERIC 



43 



44 






I. WORD RECOGNITION 

C4a. Distinguishes between homonyms. 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read and complete the 

following sentences. 

TEACHER: Tell me the word you would use to complete 

each sentence correctly. 

1. Mother bought some for dinner, (meet, meat) 

2. The boat has a . (sail, sale) 

3. The rabbit went into a . (hole, whole) 

4. A sleeps all winter, (bare, bear) 

5. comes after three. (Four, For)* 



X. WORD RECOGNITION 

C4b. Distinguishes between, a synonym and an antonym. 

TEACHER: Tell me whether these pairs of words are 

opposite or the same. (Teacher reads - child does not 
see word list.) 



strong 


weak 


pretty 


ugly 


quiet 


silent 


let 


allow 


little 


big 


frightened 


scared 


girl 


boy 


quit 


StO fj 


black 


whit» 


present 


gift 



45 



WORD RECOGNITION 



46 



WORD RECOGNITION 



C5. Has independent and varied word attack skills. 



C6. Chooses appropriate meaning of multiple meaning wor^is. 



TEACHER OBSERVATION: In his free and directed reading, 

does the student... 



1. use picture clues? 



TEACHER: Sometimes a word has two or more meanings, and 

then it is called a multiple meaning word. Here are some 
multiple meaning words. Tell me what the multiple meaning 
words in each sentence means. (Teacher reads - child 
does not see sentences.) 



2. use contextual clues? 

3. look for base words? 

4. compare new words to known words? 

5. note general configuration of words? 



1. My hands are very cold . I made a snowman. 

2. If you have a cold, stay in the house. 

3. John worked for days to train his dog to walk on 
two feet. 

4. Ttvs last car on the train was a caboose. 

5. Tom was hit on the back of his head. 

6. The storeman had to back his car out onto the street. 

7. The boys played football in the yard back of the 

school . 

8. Neighbors come to our house to watch TV. 

9. John has on the new watch that he bought for tbis 
birthday. 

10. Tim gave the right answer to the question. 

11. Put your name in the top right hand corner of 
your paper. 



34 



3 



I. WORD RECOGNITDN* 
SUMMARY CARD — LEVEL C 



There were many animals for the boy to see in the 
barnyard. First he saw a white hen eating wheat from a 

can/ After that he saw the farmer putting a shoe on 

the horse. An old truck for carrying farm tools was by 
the barn. The boy went into the barn where he saw a 
brand new calf sleeping by its mother. Back in a corner 
some fluffy baby kittens played with a ball yarn. If 
he stood on his toes he could see a fat pig stuck in the 
mud. A playful puppy tried to untie his shoe as he 
walked out of the barn. In front of him a mother goose 

and five baby geese waddled to their pen. 



1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 
7. 
6 . 

9 . 



Find another word in the story that starts with wh 
like wheat. 

Find two words in the story that begin with st. like 
star. and 

Find the two words that end with ing . and _ 



Sometimes two little words are put together to make one 
big word like barnyard. Find another word in the story 
made up of two little words. 

Find a word that begins with fi like fly. 



Find two words with an ed ending. and 

Find a word that begins with tr like tree. 

There is a word in the story that begins with sh like 
ship. What is it? 

What word begins like break and tells about the calf? 



10. What is the word that begins with un? 

11. Find a word with oo like in soon. _ 

12. Find the word that tells you there was more than one 

goose. 

13. Find the word with the ful ending. 

14. Find a word that ends in ee like tree. 



I. WORD RECOGNITION * 
SUMMARY CARD — LEVEL C 



Elephants 

Elephants are the largest animals that live on land. 
They usually travel in the day. When it is cold or cloudy 
or when they are being hunted, elephants travel at night. 

As the animals walk along, they sometimes push down 
young trees. They eat the roots, twigs, and leaves of 
the trees. Elephants eat weeds, too. 

The elephant uses his trunk for many things. It is his 
nose and his arm and his hand. He uses his trunk to help 
pick up things. 



1. Name one short vowel word and two long vowel words that 
name foods the elephant eats. 

2. Find a short vowel word that names a part of the 
elephant's body that is very useful to him. 

3. Find two words in the story that have the vowel sound 
you hear in mouse . 

4. Find a word in the story that has the w#el sound you 
hear in talk . 

5. Find two homonyms in the story for ’’two.” 

6. Find a word that means the opposite of smallest and 
the same 2 s biggest. 

7. Which of these is the right meaning for ’’trunk" as it 
is used in the story? 

a. part of a tree 

b. a big suitcase 

c. swimming shorts 

d. elephant's nose 




47B 

TEACHER KEY 

1. white (accept where) 

2. stood, stuck 

3. putting, carrying, sleeping, eating (accept any two) 

4. into 

5. fluffy 

6. played, walked, waddled, tried (accept any two) 

7. truck, tried (accept either word) 

8. shoe 

9 . brand 

10. untie 

11. tools 

12. geese 

13. playful 

14. see 



46B 



TEACHER KEY 

1. twigs, leaves, weeds 

2. trunk 

3. cloudy, down 

4. walk 

5. to, too 

6. largest 

7. d. elephant's nose 



49 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



50 



WORD RECOGNITION 



D1 . Has sight word vocabulary of 170-to-240 words. 



TO THE TEACHER: Assessment ol the size ol a sight 

vocabulary must necessarily be tied to the particular 
materials that have been and are being used lor reading 
instruction. Specific words must f therefore, be selected 
from materials used. The Doleh list of 220 words is 
provided because it includes many uselul words that are 
frequently encountered. It should be understood, however, 
that (a) the list must be augmented with words from 
materials used and (1)) known words may appear on any or 
all of the sublists. 



In testing sight vocabulary, the emphasis should be upon 
quick recognition. A good procedure is to put individual 
words on flash cards and to present each word for a 
maximum of five seconds. (Alter sight recognition has 
been established vou may want to allow more time to 
determine whether’ the pupil can use other word recognition 
techniques to get the word.) 

You can note the method of attack to determine what skills 
are used, it any, and whether there is a tendency to over- 
analyze the words. 

You may use the word list on page 13 as a reference when 
making your flash cards. 



D2a. Three- letter consonant blends. 

TEACHER: Tell me the three letters that begin each word 
that I say. (Teacher reads - child does not see words.) 
Some of the words are nonsense words. 



scream 


thrund 


strible 


spr illy 


spread 


split 


scrof t 


strawberry 


three 


splack 


shrab 


shrimp 



Alternative word lists mav be used. Some suggested lists 
are the Botol word list oi- the Sullivan word list. An 
additional suggestion would be to develop a word list 
using the vocabulary of the basal reader you use. 



51 



52 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



I. WORD RECOGNITION 



D2b. Simple principles ol silent letters 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read these words. 

TEACHER: Some consonants are not heard in words, and arc 

called silent consonants. Tell me the consonants that are 
silent in each of these words. 



know 


sign 


thumb 


high 


witch 


knit 


wrong 


c 1 imb 



TEACHER: Some vowels are not heard in words. Tell me 

the vowels that are silent in each of these words. 



ea L 


gate 


sa il 


please 


read 


four 



D3. Has structural skills 
a) Syllabication 



TEACHER : Read these words and tell me how many parts 

you hear in each word. 

TO THE TEACHER: Give explanation if necessary. 



drum 


window 


basket 


finished 


number 


dictionary 


hat 


freeze 


letter 


foolish 


elephant 


decided 


sled 


visit 


Indian 


sent 



TO THE TEACHER: This would be a good place to develop the 

generalization that every vowel sound in a word means a 
syllable . 



36 




o 



57 1 

I. WORD RECOGNITION 1 


58 

I. WORD RECOGNITION 


E2. Knows Syllabication principles 1 


E2b. Single vowel sound per syllable. 


a) Syllabication patterns 1 


TO THE TEACHER: Write the words on a chalkboard or 

separate sheet of paper. 


TO TEE TEACHER: Write the words ou a chalkboard or 1 

separate sheet. 1 

TEACHER: Tell me where you would divide these words. I 


TEACHER: Each syllable has only one vowel sound, so the 

number of vowel sounds you hear tells you how many 
syllables are in the word. Head these wOrds. Where 
would you divide each of these words? 


limit I 


trial create 


produce 1 


purple area 


visit I 


graduate audience 


little 


j cruel diameter 




lion variety 


silence 


violet radio 


widow 


1 diet violin 




1 idea poetry 


swimming 


I Indian fuel 


metal 

frozen 


J radiator museum 


custom 





59 

I, WORD RECOGNITION* 


59B 




TEACHER KEY 


SUMMARY CARD — LEVEL E j 

The otter likes to slide down the bank of a stream. 1 

In the winter he climbs to the top of a slope then I 

slides into the cold, icy water. The water splashes j 

and sprays much more when he slides this far. Not far 1 

from the otter's slide lives an old turtle. During 
winter he lies buried under several layers of warm mud. 1 

When spring comes he slowly climbs onto a rock to sun 1 

himself. , . . , . 1 

Some people say that a witch lives in the old rickety I 

shack near the otter's home. At night strange cries j 

have been heard when the wind whistles through the trees. 1 

Once some boys knocked on the door of the old shack. 1 

When they peeked in the window they saw an old woman 1 

sitting in a rocking chair knitting a scarf. 


1. stream, strange 

2. climbs 

3. otter's home 

4 . splashes 

5. witch, whistles, through, knocked, knitting 

6. sprays, spring 


1. Find two words in the story that begin with str. 

2. What word contains a silent b? 

3. What is the short way of saying the home of the 
otter that is used in the second paragraph? 

4. Find one word that begins with the letters s£l. 

5. Find five words in the second paragraph which have 
silent consonants. 

6. Find two words in the story that begin with sgr . 







GPO 609—464—0 


38 





o 



X. WORD RECOGNITION* 



60 



SUMMARY CARD — LEVEL E 



Lions 

The lion is one of the strongest and fiercest of 
all animals. The male lion, with his heavy body, big 
head, and long mane looks like a king. 

Baby lions, called cubs, look like soft, furry 
kittens. When they are babies, lion cubs are as gentle 
and playful as kittens. When they are about six months 
old, they go hunting with their parents and outgrow their 
baby ways. Soon, they learn the ways of the grownup lion 
world. 

Lions hunt in groups called prides. The adult lions 
eat what they want of the food they catch. Then the 
younger lions eat what remains. Because of this, the 
young lions are sometimes weak and thin. They just don t 
get enough to eat. 

Lions hunt for food in the same way that a barn cat 
does. The lion hides and springs at smaller animals 
the same way a cat springs at a mouse. The lion's speed, 
strength, fierceness, ana cruelty make lion hunting a 
dangerous sport. 



6 OB 



TEACHER KEY 

1 . dangerous 

2. fierceness — first syllable is accented 

3. a. strong'est 

b. re mains' 

c. cru'el ty 

4 . b. hunting group 

5. c. what is left 

6. kittens, playful, about, parents (accept any 

of these) 



1. Find a three syllable word that means full of danger » 

2. Find a two syllable word that means wildness. Which 
syllable of the word should be accenTetT? 

3. Divide these words from the story into syllables. 

Put in the accent marks. 

a. strongest b. remains c. cruelty 

4 . Which of these is the correct meaning of pride , as 
used in the selection? 

a. high opinion of one's self 

b. hunting group 

c. something one is proud of 

5. Which of these is the correct meaning of remains, as 
used in the story? 

a, stays b. continues c. what is left d. k&eps on 

6. Find two words in the second paragraph that hkve the 
scnwa sound . 



39 




1 



2 



II. COMPREHENSION 



II. COMPREHENSION 

Al. Develops listening skills. 

a. Has attention and concentration span 
suitable for his age. 

b. Is able to remember details. 

c. Can relate details to each other in 
reconstructing story read to him* 

d. Can follow two oral directions* 

(See card III. Al.) 

TO THE TEACHER: Observe the child’s listening in varied 

situations over a span of several months. 

There may be a variance between a child’s ability to 
repeat wnat he has heard and to act °n it. Though 
a child may have listened carefully and be able to repeat 
directions word for word, he may not retain the information 
to the completion of the task assigned. 



A2. Increases vocabulary through listening# 

TO THE TEACHER: Note the child’s incorporation of 

the listed school-type words into his listening 
vocabulary. 

Observe the child’s speaking vocabulary to determine 
if words from his listening vocabulary or concepts 
from it are fi-ltering into his speech. 



Listening 



Speaking 



lavatory 
wraps (coats) 
chalkboard 
custodian 
recess 
princ ipal 



Watch for the appearance in the child’s speech of 
other new words introduced in daily activities. 

NOTE TO TEACHER: You may wish to substitute words 

commonly used in your school for those on the 
above list. 



II. COr '-REHENS ION 

A3. Is able to recall stories in sequential order. 

TO THE TEACHER; Evaluate this skill u si ^ r »^ory 
with strong -mphasis on sequence, such as GfiliiilQfiKa 
and the Vn, ^ 3ears or Little. Rea Riding Heal* f 
Check to see mat the cnild can retell at least four 
events in proper sequence. 



II. COMPREHENSION 

A4. Anticipates outcome of stories# 

TO THE TEACHER; Read either of these stories to the 
child and have him predict the outcome. 

It was a rainy day. Puff, the kitten, 
had been outside playing in the mud. She 
was tired when she came in and wanted a 
soft, warm place to sleep. She was wet 
and her paws were muddy . Puff walked 
across the kitchen floor Mother had just 
washed. 



QUESTIONS: 1. Where did Puff go? 

2. How did Mother feel about this? 



Father- and Bobby were raking the leaves. 
They saw a bird that could not fly. The bird 
had hurt its leg. 

Father did what he could for the bird’s 
leg. Then he put the bird into a small cage. 
Bobby gave the bird food and water every day. 

One morning Father said to the bird, 

’’Now you are strong. We will miss you.” 

QUESTIONS: 1. What will the bird do? 

2. How will Bobby feel about this? 




40 






II. COMPREHENSION 
A5. Interprets pictures critically. 

TEACHER: Look at these pictures and tell me about them. 

HOTE: Accept any reasonable answer that shows critical 

interpretation. 



II, COMPREHENSION 
Bl, Uses picture and context clues* 

To THE TEACHER: Picture ciuea: refer t0 Study Skllls 

card III. A4. for pictuies. 

Context clues: / e ®^ d t hlTappropri^ 

the child to n r | P 5roVided for the last two 

e »ch one^ No choices are^o^^ word the chlld 

supplies® to compSete Lch sentence. 

1. Mary drew a funny picture of a dog. The children 
when they saw it . 

a. jumped b. laughed c. strut 

2 . would you to the store and get a loaf of 

bread? 

a. catch b. smile c. go 

3. Tom wanted a drink. Mother put some milk into 

a for him, 

a. glass b, basket c, walk 

4. Helen had a cake with candles on it because it 

was her « — * 

5. Joey was afraid he was late so he looked at the 

to see what time it was. 



II. COMPREHENSION 
A6. Can identify main characters in a story. 

SoSI 

ksk him what happened to the people. 

(Suggested procedure: Discuss story you are currently 

reading to the class.) 




b. Sentences 

c. Whole selections 

Uses punctuation as a guide to meaning. 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the c h jld read silently one 

of the two selections that follow. 

Next have the child r f ad f p h ? liability 0 to°deal*wi?I» 

Si&Ar&HKS SSiSMS ■»*"«• 

Read the dueetidns that SO “itn ^.J^jX/Vrefer 

ffifio '-saw “* 

nit ion . 



II. COMPREHENSION 
B2. and B3. (continued) 



want to 1 

You do what you want, Fathe^. 

I will meet you at the car. 

Mr. Brown said. "I will come with you 
I want to see the hats, too. „ 

We will find a new hat for yai . 

"Good:" said Mrs. Brown. 

"We will go to this store. 

Maybe we will see a hat we like. 

went into the stoj*e. 
nais, hats, and hats! 1 said Mr. Brown 
"See what you can find, Mother. 

I'll look, too. 

"Look!" said Mr. Brown. 

"Here is a red hat. 

See how it looks on you. 

"I like this hat," said Mrs. Brown. 

"Can we get this hat in blue or black? 
Red is not a M good color for a hat for a 
grandmother . » 

"Red is a good color for you, 

You look good in this r^d hat 
f, I will get it for you: 



QUESTIONS: 

1. Find three color words in the story. 

2. Vhat color hat did Mr. Brown like? 

3. What color hat did Mrs. Brown want to buy? 

4 . Why do you suppose Mrs. Brown said that red 



10 

II. COMPREHENSION 
B2. and B3. (continued) 

Mr. White and Bob went to the circus. 

Thev went into a big tent and found their seats. 
They sat down and waited for the circus to begin 

Some elephants came into the tent 
A girl was riding on an elephant. 

Bob asked, lf May I 

Mr. White laughed and said, "No, Bob. 

You are not in the circus. _ . .. 

You can look at the animals, not ride them 

Then some lions in a cage came into the tent 
The lions looked at Bob* 

Bob looked away. 

*No lions for me, he said. 

"Look, Bob!" said Mr. White. 

"Here comes something you like 

Bob looked and saw a funny clown and a dog 
The clown had a red nose. 

The dog was a clown, too. 

He was in a yellow car. 

The dog had on a green hat. 

Bob laughed and laughed at the clowns. 

The clown saw Bob laughing. 

He walked over to Bob. . ... - 

"Do you want to come and have fun with me? 

ob looked at Mr. W^ite. 
ay I go with him? asked Bob. 

"Yes!" answered Mr. White. 

"I will watch you from here. 

You will be in the circus, after all 

QUESTIONS: 

1. Find three color words in the story. 

What animals came into the tent first? 

How do you know Bob did not like the lions? 
Why couldn't Bob ride on an elephant? 



2 . 

3. 

4 . 

5. 



TEACHER KEY: 

1. Accept any three: 

a. brown 

b. red 

c . blue 

d. black 



Child's answer should reflect the idea that red is a 
bright color and a grandmother may want something 
more subdued. 




5. The clown took him into the ring and Bob was in the 
circus, after all. 

happy, excited, thrilled (accept any of the three 
or something similar) 



Whit surprising thing happened to Bob at the 
circus? 

How do you think Bob felt about the surprise? 



42 



11 



12 



II. 



COMPREHENSION 



II. COMPREHENSION 

Cl. Is able to gain meaning from... 

a. Words 

b. Phrases 

c. Paragraphs 

C2. Reads in meaningful phrases. 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read silently one of 

the two selections that follow. 

Next, have the child read the same selection orally 
and while he reads evaluate his ability to phrase. 
Watch for logical groupings, i.e., a noun and its 
modifiers; a verb and its helping verbs; prepositional 
phrases; as well as observation of punctuation and 
smooth overall effect. 

Read the questions that go with the story to the 
child. (See following cards.) 

Permit the child to refer back to the' story to 
formulate his answers. 



12B 

TEACHER KEY : 

1. She had no one to talk to at home. 

2. "That green and yellow bird can talk." 

3. Pretty Boy would not talk. 

4 . "I like you! I like you! I like you!" 

5. No. "Now n I will have someone to talk to at 
my house l " 



Cl. and C2. (continued) 



Miss Black went to the pet store. „ I do not have 
anyone to talk to at home, she said. I would like t$ 
have a bird that talks. Do you have a bird like that? 
she asked the storeman. 

"I sure do.*" said the man. "That green and yellow 
bird can talk. He can say his name. Come with me and 
I will have him talk for you. 

Miss Black and the storeman went over to the bifd. 
The man said, Pretty boy! Pretty Boy! Pretty Boy! 

The bird just looked and looked. He looked at 
Miss Black. He looked at the storeman. &it he would 
not talk. 

"Oh my! Oh. my!" said Miss Black. I want a bi£d 
that can talk. A talking bird would be fun to have. 

Miss Black was sad. She began to go. She said, 
"Good-by, Pretty Boy. I wish you would talk to me. M 
I like you and would like to take you home with me. 

Pretty Boy looked at Miss Black again. He bfean 
to talk! But he did not say his name. He said, I 
1 ike you ! I 1 ike you ! I 1 ike you ! 

Miss Black clapped her hands and laughed. "Oh, 
good! I will take you home with me. |f Now I will 
have someone to talk to at my house! 



QUESTIONS : 

1. Why did Miss Black want a talking bird? 

2. Read the sentence that tells what Pretty Boy 
looked like. 

3. Why were Miss Black and the storeman sad at first? 

4. Read what Pretty Boy said. 

5. Will Miss Black still be lonely? Read the 
sentence that answers the question. 



13 



II. COMPREHENSION 



Cl. and C2. (continued) 



Little Bear was an Indian boy. He watched the 
sheep in a field far from his tepee. This was a big 
job for one little Indian boy. His father Chief Rain 
Cloud knew that Little Bear must learn to be on his 

own. Then some day he would be a good chief. Every 

day Little Bear walked past a field of ponies on his 

way to the field where the sheep were. Every night 

he J dreamed about having a pony of his very own. 



Chief Rain Cloud told his son that wool from the 
sheep would be used to make blankets. When many blankets 
were sold there would be money to buy a pony. So Little 
Bear did not mind taking care of the sheep. Every day 
his mother made blankets. Chief Rain Cloud sold many 
blankets. 



Little Bear was very happy when there was enough 
money to buy a pony. He found a white pony that he 
liked best. This was the one he bought. 



QUESTIONS: 



1. What was Little Bear’s job? 

2. Why did he not mind working? 

3. What was the father’s name? 

4. What did Little Bear dream about at night? 

5. How did Little Bear's mother help him 
get a pony? 

6. What would be a good name for Little 
Bear ’s pony? 

7. Why did Chief Rain Cloud want his son to 
work? 



43 






II. COMPREHENSION 



13B 

TEACHER KEY: 

1. He watched the sheep every day. 

2. He would be able to earn money for a pony. 

3. Chief Rain Cloud 

4. He dreamed about having a pony of his very own. 

5. She made blankets from the wool to sell. 

6. White Cloud. White Star (Accept any reasonable answer.) 

7. So he would learn to be on his own and could 
some day make a good chief. 



14 



Cl. and C2. (continued) 

Starfish are not really fish at all. They are 
animals that live in the sea. 

A starfish looks like a star. Most starfish 
have five arms. Some even have more! At the tip 
of each arm, the starfish has an eye. So they 
have as many eyes as they have arms. 

This animal is not like other animals. If the 
starfish loses an arm it can Brow a new one. If the 
starfish is cut in half, each piece Brows into a 
whole new starfish. 

A starfish is not Bood to eat. Dry starfish are 
very pretty. Some children look for dry starfish 
when they go to the sea. The children like to take 
them home. 



QUESTIONS : 

1. How* many arms do starfish usually have? 

2. Tell three unusual things about starlish. 

3. Where do starfish live? 

4. Is the starfish a fish? Read the sentence that 
answers the question. 

5. Why do children look for starfish? 

6. Why is this animal called a starfish? 

7. What can the starlish do that people wish thev 
could do? 



14B 



15 



II. COMPREHENSION 



TEACHER KEY: 



five 

Accept any three of the following: 

a . 

b. 

c . 

d. 

e . 



They look like stars. 

They are not really fish. 

They have so many arms. 

They have as many eyes as they nave arms. 
If cut in half, each piece grows into a ne 
starfish. 

If it loses an arm, it can grow a new one. 



3. 

4. 

5. 



f 

the sea 

No. "Starfish are not really fish at all 
They are pretty. Children collect them. 



6. It looks like a star. 

7. Grow new parts — Child’s answer should reflect 
the idea of regeneration. 



D1 . Reads for facts 

D2. Reads for sequence of events. 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following 

selections silently. Then have him read them orally so 
that you can supply unknown words which might be 
necessary to understanding. Read the questions that 

g o with the selections. Permit the child to refer 
ack to the select ionsto formulate his answers. 



Use each of the following selections in this manner. 
Selections 1, 2 and 3 emphasize the individual skill 
evaluation, and selections 4 and 5 emphasize the 
incorporation of these in one exercise. 



9 






16 



II. COMPREHENSION 



17 



II. COMPREHENSION* 



Dl. and D2. (continued) 



Selection 4. 

Ginn and Company 

Your Town and Mine . p. 73 

From "Wool for Our Clothes. 



Dl. and D2. (continued) 

Selection 4. 

Ginn and Company 

Your Town and Mine , p. 73. 

Adapted from "Wool for Our Clothes. 



When the bags of wool reach the woolen mills, 
each fleece is pulled into pieces. The pieces are 
placed in piles. The best wool goes into one pile 
the next best into another. The wool that is not 
so good goes into still another pile. No dark wool 
is mixed with the white wool. 

The piles of wool must be washed in warm water. 
The wool comes our clean and white, but then it must 
be combed. 

Today big carding machines comb out the wool 
quickly . 

(cont lnued) 



QUESTIONS : 

1. Name in order three things that are done to wool 
when it is brought to the factory. 

2. What is another name for a woolen factory? 

3. Select a title for the selection. 

A. How Wool is Washed. 

B. A Woolen Mill. 

C. Big Machines Today. 

4 . Tell what kind of wool goes into each pile. 

5. What kind of water is used for washing the wool” 

6. Why must the wool be combed? 



CopyrUht 0 l%n, 
of lliv pub I IhIiits i 



r* i nn h tatmpdm', Krprtntfd willi 






r» 



18 



II. COMPREHENSION 



17B 



TEACHER KEY: 



1. a. pulled into pieces 

b. sorted into piles 

c . washed 

d. combed 

(Accept any three of the above four if 
they are in the proper order.) 



2, a mill 

3, A Woolen Mill 

4, a. good 

b. next best 

c, not so good 

5, warm 

6, It is the sheep’s hair and could get tanl^d like 
people’s hair* 

To make it straight (so it can be made into cloth)- 

To make it easier to separate, 

NOTE: Since question 6 is inferential, accept 

any reasonable answer. 



Dl. and D2. (continued) 

Selection 2. 

Laidlaw Science Series 
Science , 3, pp. 24-25 

"Meteors and Meteciites." 

Have you ever seen a bright flash or streak fn the 
sky? It seldom lasts more than a second. Some nights 
the sky seems filled with these flashes. Many people 
describe the flashes as "shooting stars." Actually, 
these flashes are made by small bits of matter that 
enter the earth's atmosphere. These traveling particles 
are called meteors. Most <of them are no larger than a 
grain of sand. The flash takes place about 100 miles 
above the earth s surface. 

When a meteor hits the earth’s atmosphere, it 
becomes very hot. The heat is caused by friction 
between the all' and the meteor. The heat is usually 
enough to burn up the meteor. Friction with the 
atmosphere is important also to spacemen. Spacecraft 
have special heat shields to protect the spacemen. 

(continued) 



Copyriulii © 1¥66, l.nldlnw Hroilirrs. Reprinted with the permission 
of tin* pnl* I i slier , 



45 



19 



II. COMPREHENSION* 



Dl. and D2. (continued) 



Selection 2. 

Laidlaw Science Series 
Science , 2, pp. 24-25 

"Meteors and Meteorites. 



QUESTIONS: 

1. What are meteors? 

2. How large are most meteors? 

3. Where does the flash take place? 

4 . Why does a meteor become hot? 

5. What group of men needs to know about 
friction with the atmosphere? 

6. How are these men protected from the heat 
of friction? 



19B 

TEACHER KEY: 

1. traveling particles that enter the earth’s 
atmosphere 

2. no larger than a grain of sand 

3. 100 miles above the earth’s surface 

4. because of the friction between the air and the 
meteor 

5. spacemen 

6. by special heat shields 



(continued) 



20 



II. 



20B 



COMPREHENSION* 



Dl . and D2. (continued) 
Selection 3. 

Follett Publishing Company 
Working Together , p. 67 

"Making Bread." 



Teacher key: 

1. stands 

2. stirred 

3. cut off 

4. put into pans 



5. rises again 



In a baxery , bread dough is mixed by big 
machine**- These mix</4ough for many, many loaves 
all at ■’ehe time, i'he dough stands still until 
it becomes light. Then it is stirred some more. 

A machine cuts off Just enough dough for 
a loaf of bread. It drops the pieces of dough 
into pans. After the dough rises again, it is 
ready to be baked. 



QUESTION : 



List in order five things that happen to bread in 
a bakery between the time it is mixed and the time 
it is baked. 



(continued) 



WORKING TOGETHER by Mclnitri’ .ind Hill. Copyrlulit 0 1959, 1962, 
1965 by Follett Pub 1 1 all l ns Co. 



OPO fJOD— 464 — 3 




46 



21 

II. COMPREHENSION 
Dl. and D2 . (continued) 

Ships have many ways of sending messages to other 
ships or to places on land. When a ship travels through 
a storm or fog, it uses its whistle or horn to tell where 
it is. A ship in trouble sends up flares and rockets, 
either by day or by night, to call for help and to 
tell where it is. The code signal, ”NC,” is an inter- 
national signal used in calling for help. It is like 
the signal, "SOS,” which is also used to call for help. 
Ships send these signals by flags, radio, or blinking 
lights. 

QUESTIONS: 

1, Name five ways a ship may send a message. 

*• ways?* 1 t0 156 “ ble t0 

3 ‘ a^sa i'?or h 8pcaks U he 8 can t understand t cal l^fo^help^ 6 

from another ship? 



21B 



TEACHER KEY : 



1. 



blinking lights. 



horn , 
io , 



2 • dif ferent n methods°of d signaHng t are 1 necessary 

to meet different situations. 

3 ' WsSs g?St r sssa.« 



22 



a . 

b. 

c . 

d. 



II. COMPREHENSION 



El, Adjusts reading rate to... 



Type of material 

1) Factual 

2) Fiction 

Level of difficulty 
Purpose 

Identification . „ 

Reading for general Information 
Skimming for specific information 

Familiarity with the subject 



TO THE TEACHER: Rate of reading must always Ire 

considered as a function of type and dif f iculty ol 
material to be read and purpose for reading. Never 
theless pupils in the middle elementary grades are 
at a level of skill development that permits an 
instructional focus on general rate devel opment. 
Pupils should be encouraged to lead widely irom 
materials that are comfortably within ^heir 
independent reading level and to push foi rate 
increase with such materials. 

In directed reading for different purposes, pupils 
should be encouraged to adapt fheil i ate to their 
purpose for reading. Very simply, they shouia come 
L rpaiwe that studv-tvpe reading , recieationai 
reading and 1 reading to 1 get specific information can 
and should be done at varied rates. 

Encourage pupils to set goals in terms of time to 

be spent in reading chapters of ^ b S?^Lim-k Have 

tional reading, and lor. assigned classwoik. Have 
them keep records in which then actual and . 
iSp“red-?o fitei can be compared, and check in class 
to see that high rates are not obtained a * * h ® ' £nrt«? 
of comprehension. Completed assignments and 1 ep°rts 
on recreational reading can serve as a f°ujce foi - nn 
informal comprehension checks. Informal obseivation 
should be made throughout the year. 



23 

II. COMPREHENSION 

po Gains additional skill in use of punctuation as 
E2- guide to meaning (semicolon, colon, dash, anu 
added uses of the comma). 

TO THE TEACHER: Select a .P ar “j;VaDh from a textbook 

or basal reader and have the pupil lead s ^ 

then have him read it orally and observe his 
intonation patterns for evidence of attention t 
punctuation. 



47 



3 



24 



II. COMPREHEN ION- 



25 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E3. Selects main idea ol paragraphs. 



E4, Reads lor sequence of events* 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the following 

paragraphs. 



TEACHER: Read the paragraphs below. Think about what 

all of the sentences together say . Make up one sentence 
in your own words that says what all of the sentences 
tell you. 



1. Some days we work with scissors and 

colored paper in art class. Other days we 
use paints and brushes, Sometimes we make 
pictures with cloth or yarn. Once in a 
while we work with clay. 



TEACHER: Read the paragraph below. Then do as you 

are asked below. 



It was almost dark when the pilot reached 
Centerville Airport, He nervously wondered if 
the men at the airfield would hear him coming. 
The radio on the airplane was dead, so the 
pilot could not call for lights. He began to 
circle the field, praying that he would be 
heard and receive help. Suddenly the lights 
flashed on and he could see the runway below 
him very clearly, 



I. Which of these could not have happened either 
while the pilot was hSfvTng trouble or shortly 
afterwards? 



2. We wear play clothes when we play because 

they usually do not tear or soil easily. 

At night we wear pajamas because they are loose. 
For parties we wear our dress-up clothes. 
Sometimes we dress up in costumes for fun. 



TO THE TEACHER: Paragraph One should reflect the 

idea that in art class many materials are used to 
make things. Paragraph Two should reflect the idea 
that we wear different clothes for different purposes. 



A. The pilot decided to land on the dark runway 

B. The pilot thought he was very lucky. 

C. The pilot was very angry with the men at 
the airfield. 

D. The plane landed as soon as the lights on 
the runway went on. 

E. The plane was kept in the hangar until the 
radio was repaired. 

F. The pilot made one more attempt to use his 
radio . 

G. The men at the airfield ignored the sound of 
the plane. 

H. There was not fuel left in the plane. 

I. The pilot circled the field until he found 
the right spot to land. 

J. The plane was kept in the hangar and the 
whole engine was taken apart. 



II. Now put the things you think did happen in the 
r ight order . 

A. These things happened before the runway lights 
went on. 

B. These things happened shortly after the runway 
lights went on. 



26 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E5. Is able to gain meaning from... 

a . Words 

b. Sentences 

c . Paragraphs 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the selections 

on the following cards silently. Ask the related 
questions and investigate incorrect responses by 
encouraging him to justify or explain them. Allow 
the pupil to refer to the selection to locate answers. 



Select ions land 2 arc written at fourth grade reading 
level. Selections 3 and 4 arc written at fifth grade 
reading level. Selections 5 and 6 are written at 
sixth grade reading level. 



27 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E5a ; 

F.5b ; 

E5c . (cont’d.) 



Selection IA 
Harper k Row. 

The Scientist and His Hypotheses , p. 88. 
’’The Emperor Penguin.” 



Emperor penguins, it seems, are always on hand 
to greet the explorers who come to Antarctica. As 
an expedition approaches land, these friendly 
creatures are waiting on the shore. Seeing a man, 
the penguins waddle over to take a better look. 

Penguins cannot fly. They use their wings and 
flippers to protect themselves. An emperor penguin 
weighs almost ninety pounds and is about three feet 
tall. It stands and walks upright. 

The emperor hen lays her eggs on the bare ice. 

She holds the egg on the top of her feet. A roll of 
fur on her stomach keeps the egg warm until it 
hatches. The penguin holds the baby chick in this 
way for some time. The fur protects it from the 
cold temperature. 

Both parents help to care for the young. Mr. and 
Mrs, Penguin are good parents. They watch their 
young closely. 

(continued) 



Copyright © 19*5, Harp or t, Row, liu*. Reprinted with the permission 
of the publisher. 




48 



28 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E5a ; 

E5b ; 

E5c. (cont'd.) 

Selection IA, 

Harper k Row, Q 

The Scientist and His Hypotheses , p. 88 

"The Emperor Penguin." 



QUESTIONS i 

1 . What might make us say, "Penguins like company?" 

2. What makes penguins different from most birds? 

3. Describe the penguin's height and weight. 

4. How dcr we know that a penguin walks differently 
from a person? 

5. Why does the hen hold the baby chick on her feet 
after it hatches? 



6 . 



There are two phrases of two words each which 
tell us about the weather in Antarctica, rind 
one of them. 



(E5a-c continues on following card) 



29 



II, COMPREHENSION 



E5a i 
E5b; 
E5c . 



(cont 'd . ) 



TO THE TEACHER: Introduce the word incubation . 

Have the pupil read the following selection 
silently . 



Selection IB. 

Field Enterprises Educational Corporation 
The World Book Encyclopedia , P, pp. 213-214. 



"Penguin. 



The female emperor penguin lays her eggs on 
open ground in midwinter. The male usually helps 
to hatch the egg. During incubation, the penguin 
keeps the egg in a pocket-like flap of skin on its 
abdomen, close to the tops of its feet. The parents 
pass the egg from one to another by .juggling it on 
their feet so it does not touch the ice. Usually 
only one egg is laid, although some penguins lay 
two or three. Penguin eggs are white or green ish- 
white . 



TO THE TEACHER: Ask the child to read both articles 

on penguins. On a separate sheet of paper have him 
list tne points which are the same in both articles 
in one column; the points which seem to be different 
in another column; and the points which are in one 
article but not the other in a third column. 

(E5a-c continues on following card) 



Reproduced from The World Rook Encyclopedia . Copyright © 1966 
by Field Enterprise* Educational Corporation, 




TEACHER KEY : 

1. They are waiting on the shore when the explorer 
explorers arrive. 

They waddle over for a better look at men 
who come to Antarctica. 

2. They cannot fly. 

3. The penguin is about three feet tall and 
weighs about 90 pounds. 

4. "Penguins waddle . " (stated) 

A penguin holds an egg on its feet untJJ the egg 
hatches (inferential) 

5. It needs to be protected from the cold temperature. 

6. "cold temperature;" 

"bare ice." 



30 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E5a; 

E5b ; 

E5c . (cont ’d) 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the selections 

on the following cards silently. Ask the related 
questions and investigate incorrect responses by 
encouraging him to .justify or explain them. Allow 
the pupil to refer to the selection to locate answers. 



Selection 2. 

Harper k Row 

The Scientist and His Method , pp. 124-125. 
"From Place to Place." 



Many animals move from place to place as the 
temperature changes with the various seasons. Their 
traveling is called migration . 

This migratory habit is typical of animals living 
in the temperate zone. Some animals migrate from one 
zone to another. Birds and other animals travel many 
miles to seek winter quarters. 

Some birds travel over the same routes and 
arrive at the same place at about the same time each 
year. Scientists believe the birds may use the sun 
and the stars to guide them along their routes. 

The rose-breasted grosbeak is one of the migratory 
bird* found in the United States. It winters in the 
tropics, then returns to the North to nest and raise 
a family during the summer. (continued) 



Copyright © 1965, Harper and Row, Inc, Reprinted villi the 
perm in si on of t| u « publisher. 



49 



31 



II. COMPREHENSION 



32 



II. CpMPREHENS ION* 



E5a-c . 

Selection 2. (cont'd.) 



E5a ; 

E5bj , . V 

E5c. (cont'd.) 



In their .journey north the grosbeaks often 
fly through several severe spring storms. The 
storms may slow them down considerably. Yet they 
somehow make up fcr the delay. At about the same 
time each year they can be seen arriving at their 
spring nesting grounds. 

The arctic tern is a champion among bird 
travelers. This bird nests as far north as a 
few hundred miles from the North Pole. In 
late August, the arctic tern leaves its home in 
the North and flies south. It goes all .the way 
to the shores of Antarctica. 

Young arctic terns make the long trip with 
their parents. In fact, the migration begins at 
about the time the downy chicks have first learned 
to fly. The .journey covers a H { stance of eleven 
thousand miles. 

(continued) 



Selection 2. 

The P |c ien t ist and His Method , pp. 124-125. 
‘'From Place to Place." 



QUESTIONS; 

1. What event in nature determines when birds travel 
from place to place? 

2. In what climate zone do migratory birds and animals 
typically live? 

3. Why do you suppose tropical birds don't usually 
migrate? 



4. What word tells you that scientists have some 
ideas but are not positive about birds 



5. Why do you think the word ."champion" is used 
to describe the arctic tern? 



6. What is so impressive about the young tern? 



7. 



Some workers harvest crops in Texas in spring 
and in Wisconsin in late summer and early fall. 

t.n m-JirVonf Ufm'ICPl’C? 



(continued) 



32B 



33 



II. COMPREHENSION 



TEACHER KEY: 

1. Temperature changes with the seasons. 

2. temperate 

3. no seasonal change in weather.; 
adjusted to living, eating, nest building 
in hot climate 

4. believe; 
may 

5. It probably flies the farthest of any bird; 
It flies almost from pole to pole; 

It is the best flier. 

6. Right after they have learned to fly,, they 
fly 11 ,000 miles . 

7. because they travel 



E5a; 

E5b ; 

E5c. (cont'd.) 






Selection 3. 

Harper It Row 

The Scientist and Tomorrow , p. 



200 . 



"Birds. 



Birds are almost everywhere. But, wherever they 
live , birds are well adapted to their surroundings. 
Observe the birds near your home. What special features 
do they have? How do they differ from birds that live 
somewhere else? 

A bird is an animal with feathers. It is also a 
vertebrate. It has a backbone. There are about nine 
thousand species of birds. Birds of one sort or. 
another can be found throughout the world. They get 
around. Many of them migrate from one part of the 
country to another, 

A bird has three kinds of feathers. These three 
kinds are (1) down feathers, (2) contour feathers, and 
(3) quill feathers. 

The soft down feathers keep a bird warm. The down 
retains heat. The contour feathers protect the bird. 
They cover the bird's body. The quill feathers are 
found in the wings and tail. They help the bird 
to fly. * ^ 

Different birds have different types of feet. v * 

Song birds have feet suitable for perching. 

(continued) 



Copyriwhl © HbJ, Harper it Kov Inc, Keprinted with the 
permission of tin* publisher. 



34 



35 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E5a-c . 

Selection 3. (cont d.) 



They have three front toes and one rear toe, A 
woodpecker has two front toes and two rear toes. 

Its feet are suitable for climbing* Ducks, geese, 
and pelicans have webbed feet. They paddle through 
water with their feet. 

Beaks differ among hirds, too. Hawks and owls 
have hooked beaks. They use them to catch small 
animals. The woodpecker has a chisel-like beak. 

It drills into trees with its beak. The beak of u 
hummingbird is a slender tube. The hummingbird 
sucks nectar from flowers through its tubular beak. 

Birds do not have teeth. They have a special 
organ that grinds their food for them. This organ 
is the gizzard. Farmers feed chickens sand and grit. 
The sand and grit remain in the gizzard to grind 
the food. 

All birds hatch from eggs. The female lays the 
eggs. If the conditions are right, the eggs will 
hatch. Temperature is one thing that makes a 
difference in the hatching of eggs. Many birds 
sit on their eggs to keep them warm. 



II. COMPREHENSION 



E5a ; 

E5b; 

Efx:. (cont'd.) 



Selection 3. 

Harper & Row 

The Scientist and Tomorrow . 
"Birds . " 



200 . 



QUESTIONS: 

1. How many species of birds are there? 

2. What three kinds of feathers do birds have? 

3. Why do birds need three kinds of feathers? 

4. How do birds ' feet limit where they can live? 

5. What do birds that have hooked beaks eat? 

6. What is the function of a bird’s gizzard? 

7. Why does a bird's sitting on eggs keep them 
warm? 



(continued) 



35B 



II, COMPREHENSION 



TEACHER KEY: 

1, 9,000 

2, down, quill, contour 

3, warmth, protection, flight 

4, some are adapted for perching; 
some for climbing; 

some for swimming. 

(Accept any reasonable answer.) 

5, small animals 

6, It grinds food, 

7, It retains body heat; keeps air from 
circulating. 



36 



E3m; 

85b 

E3c! (cont’p.) 



IX. COMPREHENSION 



Recent Presidential Administrations 

During the Eisenhower administration in the 1950/2 
■any programs were approved for doing things within tme 
country .For example f big power stations were built in 
the West for changing water power tjto electricity . 
Gasoline taxes were increased to make more money for 
building new roads and improving old i ones. A new 
Cabinet department was created called the Department 
of Health , Educat ion f and Welfare. Many things were 
done to help the farmer so that he would rece ive » 
fair price for his crops. Some of the surplus food 
crop* were shipped to other countries that couldn t 
h food of 



grow enough 



of their own. 



In the early 1960’s during the Kennedy adminis- 
trat ion more programs were devised to lielp the American 
people. The minimum hourly wage was raised to $1.25 
per hour and Social Security payments were increased. 
Farmers continued to receive help from the Federal 
government. Congress approved an important medical 
education bill which would help pay for medical 
educations of about 10,000 students. Before President 
Kennedy had a chance to put other programs into action, 
he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. However, his 
successor, President Johnson, has carried on with many 
of Kennedy's proposed programs. 

QUESTIONS: 

1. What three American presidents are mentioned in 
this article? 

2. Why was the gasoline tax increased? 

3. Why do you think it was necessary to create a 

new cabinet post for health, education, and welfare? 

4. What kind of help have farmers received from 
the Federal government? 

5. Why did President Kennedy not complete the 
programs he had planned? 

6. What do you think is an advantage of having a 
medical education bill? 



51 



36B 



TEACHER KEY: 



1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 



Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson 

To make more money for building new roads and 
improving old ones. 

These were big areas which needed someone's full 
timlattention. (Accept any reasonable answer) 

Price controls were put on cr °Ps*nd surpius food 
crops WvU’e shipped to other countries. 

He was assassinated. 

It helps 10,000 students become doctors who might 
not otherviee have the opportunity. 



37 



E5m; 

E5b; , At . . 
E5c . (cont'd.) 



II. COMPREHENSION 



Nutrition 



ferent food substances for growth and energy. 

Our food comes from plants and animals. 
ereen Plantcellsour bodies absorb vitamins, minerals, 
carbohydrates , Sts, and protoins. W the g' _ et 

body building elements for growth and life. we g 



37B 

TEACHER KEY: 

1. Plants and animals 

o Thpv ffive ua vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, 

2l and y P roteins which are all body building elements. 

3. to build food compounds 

4. the process of absorbing food into our bodies 

5. The animals the tiger eats have earlier eaten green 
plants. 

6. Vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins 

7 Different foods contain different body _. r \ 

elements that we need. (Accept any reasonable answer.) 




1 

III. STUDY SKILLS 

A1 . Follows simple directions. 
TEACHER : 

1. Jump three times. 

2. Walk to the door and back. 

3. Smile and clap yodr hands. 



4. Get a piece of paper and a crayon and 
draw a picture of a dog. 



5. Find a book on the shelf and show me a 
picture . 



TO THE TEACHER: The game. "Simon Says." provides a means 

for observing a child^s ability to follow directions. 



III. STUDY SKILLS 

A3, Shows development of motor coordination (eye and 
hand). 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the child copy the following symbols 

in the space provided directly below. 



TO THE TEACHER: The following questions may help you 

assess each student’s performance: 

1. Does the child have adequate form perception? 

2. Can the child make adequate spatial and constructional 
judgments when given several symbols to reproduce? 

3. Does the child make drawings that are markedly larger 
or smaller than the copy? 

4 Can the child reproduce the figure as a total or must 
he produce it a small piece at a time? 

5 Does the child find it necessary to rotate the paper 
in order to make a diagonal line or form? 



III. STUDY SKILLS 

A2a. Shows independence in work. 

A2b. Accepts responsibility for completion 
and quality of work. 

TO THE TEACHER: You can observe informally to see 

whether pupils at this level have acquired the positive 
approach to work/study situations that will serve asa 
base for future development of efficient study skills. 

Some specific observations can be suggested but there 
will be a need for general observation as well. Be alert 
to the specific problems of the child who does neat work 
but only at the expense of extended, painstaking effort. 



The pupil shows independence in work by . . . 

asking questions that are necessary 
for clarification; 

not asking que 
already clear; 



1 . 

2 . 

3. 



not asking questions when the task is 
’ lie 



keeping the necessary tools (pencil, 
paper, crayons, scissors, etc.) at 
hand. 



The pupil shows acceptance of responsibility 
for completion and quality of work by u .. 

1 . 



making a reasonable effort to do neat 
work; 

pacing himself to complete a task 
acceptably in the alloted time. 



. . 


L 


1 


1 


0 


T 


II 


4- 


o 


M 























III. STUDY SKILLS 

A4. Uses picture clues to find answers to 
questions. 

TO THE TEACHER; Ask the questions based on 
the following picture. 




QUESTIONS : 

1. Why are the birds staying in the tree 
instead of looking for worms? 



2. What is the cat thinking about? 

3. Is it summer or winter time? 



5 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



6 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



Bla. Follows directions when working in a group. 



Blc. Follows written directions. 



Bib. Follows directions when working independently. 



TO THE TEACHER: Observe the pupil over a two-week period 

to determine whether he is able to follow directions when 
working in a group and when working alone. You may note 
a difference In ability to follow directions in the two 
situations. 



-Some children will 
vidual attention bu 
from the group but 



?erform satisfactorily when given indi- 
not otherwise; others will take cues 
be unable to proceed independently. 



A pupil may or may not be able to follow a sequence of 
directions; he may or may not be able to generalize from 
directions for one task to a similar one. 




1. Color 3 balls blue. 

2. Put brown X's on two birds. 

3. Draw a circle around one car and color the other 
cars red. 

4. Draw a line under the biggest ball. 

5. Color three boats black and two boats green. 

6. Put an X on the plane that is by the cars. 

TO THE TEACHER: Students should do this independently. 

You may, however, pronounce unfamiliar words for the 
child. 



7 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



t 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



B2. Has adequate work habits. 



B3. Recognizes organization of ideas in sequential order. 



TO THE TEACHER: The observations here will be similar to 

those suggested on card III. A2. Development will show 
changes In degree rather than kind. It is suggested that 
completion of worksheets not be the sole or major criterion 
in assessing this behavior. The total class activity pro- 
gram should be considered. 



TO THE TEACHER: Read the selection to the pupil only if 

necessary. Ask the pupil to tell three things Tom did in 
the morning in the order in which he did them. 



Mother called, "Get up, Tom’. Time for school. 
Tom got up and dressed. He ate eggs, toa^t , 
and milk for breakfast. Good-by* Mother , said 
Tom. I'll see you after school. Tom looked 
before he crossed the street. He got to school 
on time. 



GPO 809-464-4 



54 



o 

ERLC 



9 


SO 


III. STUDY SKILLS 1 


III. STUDY SKILLS 


B4. Summarizes material. 1 


B5. Begins to make judgments and draws conclusions. 


TO THE TEACHER: Observe the pupil* s ability to verbally 1 

summarize his experienced. One suggested method ox op- I 

servation is to listen as he shares experiences with his 
classmates (show and tell). Another method involves 
asking the child to tell you about one of £is experiences 1 

Observe if the child is brief, covers the main points of I 

his experiences, and does not dwell on details. 1 


TO THE TEACHER: Read the following to the pupil and then 

ask him to tell how the story ended. 

The response should reflect both Mary's feelings and her 
actions. Question, if necessary. 





Mother gave Mary a penny. Mary put the penny in 
her pocket. But she did not see the hole in her pocket. 
She ran to the candy store. The man said the lollipops 
were one penny. Mary reached inside her pocket for the 
penny .... 


SUPPLEMENTARY PARAGRAPH 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil read the following para- 

graph. Then ask him to tell you what it was about. The 
summary should reflect the fact that animals are useful 
to farmers in many ways. | 

Some animals help the farmer in his fields. Some make his 
corn safe from mice. Others keep watch over the barnyard. 

Many animals give meat to the farmer's family. 





it 

III. STUDY SKILLS I 


12 

III. STUDY SKILLS 


B6. Uses table of contents. j 


Cl. Uses picture dictionaries to find new words* 


TO THE TEACHER: Ask the pupil to answer the questions 1 

that are based on the following table of contents. 1 

Table of Contents 1 

The Thing 9 j 

The Thing Comes Back 30 J 

The Bear Trap 40 1 

The Bear Trap Works 50 


TO THE TEACHER: This observation must be made sponta- 

neously in order to assess whether the pupil feels a 
need to find the meaning of a word that is new to him. 

Determine whether the pupil turns to the dictionary when 
the need is there, whether he is systematic and efficient 
in looking for the word. 


QUESTIONS: (Teacher reads.) 

1. On what page would you begin to read about the 
bear trap? 

2. Where do you think the story took place? 

3. What 'animal was the story about? 

4» Does the book have more than 40 pages? 

How do you know? 





55 



13 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



14 - 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



C2. Groups words by initial letters# 

TEACHER: Put these words in alphabetical order. 



duck 



C3. Explores library as research center. 

TO THE TEACHER: Note the child's behavior in the 

Instructional Materials Center or library, watching 
for increasing independence and readiness to use 
resource people on nis own initiative. 



cup 



said 



name 



bump 



will 



house 



ride 



tree 



15 

ill. STUDY SKILLS 

C4a. Reads and follows directions by himself. 

C4b. Uses table of contents without being reminded 
to do so. 

C4c . Uses dictionary and glossary independently when 
appropriate. 



TO THE TEACHER: Observe the pupil's behavior when he 

is doing independent seatwork or preparing committee 
work with a group. 



16 

III. STUDY SKILLS* 



C5. Begins to read naps. 



TO THE TEACHER: Hand the child the nap card. When he 

has studied it, ask the following questions. He nay 
refer to th$ map for answers. 



TEACHER: 

1. How many roads are there into the park? 

2. If you were at the camp and wanted to go 
swinning, which direction would you to? 

3. Is it farther f*rom the canp to tfie lake 
or to the mountains? 



4. What is the highest point in the park? 



56 



O 

ERIC 



Ifeft 



17 

E 



TEACHER KEY: 

1 . two 

2. south 

3. mountains 

4. Cook's Peak 



IS 




ISB 



III. STUDY SKILLS.’ 



Dl. Begins to U3C index of books, 



Index 

cats 

dogs 

hippo pot asuses 

sharks 

snakes 



pp. 15 - 21 
pp. 25 - 30 
pp. 54 - 56 
pp. 35 - 40 
pp. 50 - 52 



TEACHER KEY: 



1 . back 



2. pp. 25-30 



3. 

4. 



5. 



6 . 



PP 

PP 

PP 

PP 

PP 

PP 



35-40 

54-56; 

50-52. 

15-21; 

25-30; 

50-52. 



alphabetically; 
by beginning letters. 

(Accept any reasonable response.) 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil (s) answer the following 

questions, using the index above as his re for end*. 



1. In which part of a book would you look for the index? 

2. On which pages would you look to learn what to feed 
a collie? 



3. On which pages would you learn more about a kind of 
fish? 



4. If you were doing a report on a zoo. which page* 
would be helpful? 

5. If you wanted to read about pets, which pages would 
you read? 

6. How is an index arranged? 




III. STUDY SKILLS 

D2. Reads simple maps and graphs, 
a) Simple maps 

TO THE 'TEACHER: Hand the child the map card. When he 

has studied it, ask the following questions. He may refer 
to the map for answers. 

1 . How many miles is it from Big Tree to Spyglass Hill? 



i9B 

TEACHEU KEY: 

1. 4 miles 

2. 3 miles 

3. North (or Northeast) 

4 . West 

5. Pirate's Cave 



2. How far is it from Spyglass Hill to the treasure? 

3. Which direction must Johnny travel from Pirate* s 
Cave to the treasure? 

4 . To get from the treasure back to Big Tree, which 
direction would he travel? 

5. Which is closer to the treasure, Cop*s Cove or Pirate’s 
Cave? 






20 



21 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



o 

•8 



t X 

w 

•H 

s: 



u 

G 

a 

u 



•o 

r** 

o 



•o 

c 

a 

o 



J2 



CM 

Q 




D2b. Can read simple graphsi 
1) Picture graphs 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil read the paragraph and 

look at the picture graph. Ask him the questions below 
the graph. He may refer to the graph for answers. 



Bill’s Cub Scout Den was having a contest to see who 
could sell the most candy. They kept a record of sales. 
The record looked like this at the end of the contest. 




1. How many boxes of candy canes does each candy cane 
stand for? 

2. Who won the contest? 

3. Who won the second prize? 

4. Who sold more, Bill or Dick? 

5. Which boy sold the fewest boxes of candy? 




58 



Z2 



III. STUDY SKUAS 



23 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



D2b, Can read simple graphs* 
2) Bar eraDhs 



D3. Realizes printed statements may be either fact or 
opinion. 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the students, read the following,, 

sentences silently and label them lact or opinion. 



Tom’s brother plays on a softball team. They use 
a bar graph to keep a record of how many games they win. 



Softball Came* Won 




1, What do the numbers along the bottom of the graph 
stand for? 

2, What do the numbers on the left mean? 

3, In what year did the team win the most games? 

How did they win? 

4, In what year did the team win the fewest games? 

How many did they win? 

5, How many more games did they win in 1962 than in 1961? 



2 * 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



^ _ Roses are red. 

Violets are blue. 

Sugar is sweet. 

__ — — — And so are you. 

— Ice will melt if the room is very warm. 

Strawberry ice cream tastes better than 
chocolate ice cream. 

. My mother is the best cook in the city. 
_ The bark on a tree makes no noise, 

TO THE TEACHER: Observe the pupil's ability to 

differentiate between fact ana opinion in class 
discussions, etc. 



2S 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



D4 , Has beginning outlining skills. 



D5, Follows Directions. 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the paragraphs below 

silently and fill in the outline. You may pronounce 
unfamiliar words for the pupil. 



Invertebrates 



Animals that have jointed legs are called inverte- 
brates. They are alike in some important ways. All 
invertebrates have hard skin that protects their bodies, 
-- I—-— All of them, of course, 



lUVtTlCIJlflVCo ii4* vw; HKiu 

They reproduce by laying eggs, 
have jointed legs. 



Invertebrates may be different in some ways. Some kinds 
live in fresh water. Others live in sea water. Some inver- 
tebrates live on land. 



TO THE TEACHER: Observe the pupil over a two-week period 
to determine whether he is able to follow directions when 
working in a group and when working independently. 

Some children will perform satisfactorily when given indi- 
vidual attention but not otherwise: others will take cues 
from the group but be unable to proceed independently. 



t this stage of development, a pupil should be able to 
ollow a sequence of directions, to generalize irem airec- 
ions l'or one task to a similar task, to follow written 



of directions. 



Invertebrates 

I, Invertebrates are alike in some ways, 

A. 

B. 

C. 

II, In some ways, invertebrates may be different. 

A. 

B. 

C. 







III. STUDY SKILLS 



D6. Has adequate work habits. 



TO THE TEACHER: The observations here will be similar to 
those suggested on cards III, A2 a I’d III. B2. Development 
will show changes in degree rather than kind. 



At this stage of development the pupil should be able to 
work on independent projects, should have a longer atten- 
tion and concentration span, and should make constructive 



use of free time. 



Z7 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



El. Increases and broadens dictionary skills. 



TO THE TEACHER: Strict sequential leveling of the several 

skills listed is not possible. The list should bemused as 



competence with each skill 



a) Uses alphabetical sequence in looking up words. (See 
separate card, III.Ela.) 

b) Uses guide words as aid in finding words. (See separate 
card, III.Elb.) 

c) Uses diacritical markings for pronunciation aida. (See 
separate card, III.Elc.) 

d) Selects appropriate meaning of a word to fit context. 
(See separate card, Word Recognition. Level El.) 

e) Recognizes need for additional meanings of known words. 

PROCEDURE: Keep a record of words with special or multiple 

meanings that occur in daily reading lessons over a period 
of time. Construct a brief, informal test from these words. 



f) Uses dictionary to find exact spelling of a word. 

PROCEDURE; The important thing to observe is whether the 
child has a rationale for attempting to look up a word he 
cannot spell. That is, does he simply withdraw when his 
first attempt is not productive or does he test other hy- 
potheses in a systematic manner? 



g) Understands the special sections of a dictionary. 

PROCEDURE: Use an informal group quiz or a question- 

discussion session to determine whether the student is 
able to use the dictionary to obtain the special informa- 
tion it contains. 



2a 



III, STUDY SKILLS 



Ela. Alphabetizes words. 

TEACHER: Number the words 

alphabetical order, 

grand 

death 

book 

advance 

block 

limit 

blouse 

add 

group 

lazy 



in each box to show their 



plastic 


view 


ranch 


melt 


marble 


mask 


new 


wash 


quarter 


valley 


written 


race 


vaul£ 


plenty 


reach 





29 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



Elb. Uses guide words as aid in finding words. 



TEACHER: 
at tops of 
to answer 



ere are some guide words as they might appear 
pages in a dictionary: Use these guide words 
ho fnllowimr ouestions 



j leapfrog 


300 


Lee 


j"" leech 


301 


legislate’ ^ 


| legislation 


302 


leper 1 



1. What is the last word on page 300? 

2. What is the first word on page 301? 

3. What is the last word on page 302? 

A, Would you expect to find learn on page 300? 



TEACHER* Tell me whether the first underlined word comes 
before or after the second underlined word, 

1. Would dance come before or after doomed? 

2. Would flash come before or after frontier? 

3. Would mud come before or after much ? 



4. Would sleep come before or after smash? 

5 , Would yesterday come before or after yellow? 



5. Would you expect to find lever on page 302? 

6. Tell on what page. 300. 301. or 302. you might expect 
to find the following words. 



left 


leash 


leave 


leopard 


legal 


led 


lemonade 


left 




60 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



30 

III. STUDY SKILLS 

Elc . Uses diacritical markings for pronunciation aids. 

TEACHER: Pronounce these words. Use the special spelling 

in parenthesis to help you. 



detonator 


(det 'e n*' ter) 


Kahoolawe 


(ka-hoo la-wP) 


sympathetic 


(sim' pa-thet' ik) 


amiable 


(3' mi-a- b* 1) 


opprobrium 


(© pr5 y bri-em) 


rogue 


(r5g) 


surreptitious - 


(sur' ep' tish'' ©s) 


brachycranial * 


(brak- i~kra y -nc=©l ) 


syzygy 


(siz'-a-jc) 


euphemism 


(yoo / R-miz'm) 



TO THE TEACHER: As the child tries to pronounce unfamiliar 

words, such as those listed above, observe his success in 
using (1) simple diacritical markings, (2) primary accent 
markings and (3) secondary accent markings. You may wish 
to use other words as a test of this skill, perhaps words 
from daily work which the child cannot pronounce. 



32 

HI. STUDY SKILLS 

E2 . Utilizes the encyclopedia ; 

a) Locating volumes 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil read the paragraphs below 

and answer the questions. 



31 



E2. Utilizes encyclopedia , 

a) Uses guide letters to find in forma tion on a 
given subject. 

b) Uses alphabetical arrangement to locate 
information . 

c) Understands the purpose of topical headings. 

d) Understands the index. 

e) Uses encyclopedia with greater facility to find 
information . 



f) Understands and uses 


1> 


Topical headings 


2) 


Cross references 


3) 


Bibliographies 



g) Uses the index volume efficiently. 



TO THE TEACHER: Observations regarding efficient uae of 

encyclopedias are most appropriately made by teacher* 
responsible for science and social studies instruction ana 
by the IMC director or librarian. 

The skills listed above are most appropriately deaoastrated 
in regular work sessions. Informal observations should be 
sufficient; informal tests can be devised as needed. The 
following assessment cards may be used to supplement the 
informal tests devised. 

Where deficiencies are noted, there should be agreement 
among the science and social studies teachers and the IMC 
director or librarian as to who should be responsible for 
teaching each of the several skills. 



33 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



E2. Utilizes the encyclopedia, 
d) The index 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil use the index below to 

answer questions. 



One of the best places to look for information is an 
encyclopedia. Since more than one volume is needed for all 
of the information found in encyclopedias, only topics 
listed under one or two letters of the alphabet can be 
placed in one volume. Each volume is also numbered. 

Look at the set of encyclopedias pictured. See how 
quickly you can find the number of the volume in which each 
of these topices may be found , 



Below is an index from an encyclopedia. It tells 
what topics are discussed in the Space section of the 
encyclopedia. 

Use the index to answer the questions on the right. 
Tell the topic, volume, and page number where you would 
expect to find information to answer the question. 



1. birds - — 

2. India 

3. water — 

4. Greek art _ 

5. West Virginia 

6. Lyndon Johnson 

7. Oysters — 

8. atomic power — m 

9. Texas 

10. King George III - 




SPACE 



Space satellites. 
S- 298-300 


1 . 


How can a satellite 
serve as a space 
station? 


Space stations. 
S-300-301 


2. 


What problems will men 
face in space travel? 


Space suit. 

S“ 104“ 105, 
picture S“104 


3. 


What does a space suit 
look like? 


Space travel . 

S-301-309 
development of. 
S-301-303 

earth-moon distances. 
S-306 

flight plan. S-307 
future of. 

S-307-309 
history of. 

S-295-297 
problems of 
S-299-300 


4. 


How is a space suit 
made? 


5. 

6. 


What did scientists know 
about space travel in 
1946? 

Will trips to the moon 
or other planets be 
fairly common by 1986? 



61 






54 - 

III . STUDY SKILLS 



E3. Uses maps, charts and graphs. 

a) Gains skill in reading and interpreting 
political maps. 

b) Begins to read and interpret simple graphs. 

c) Reads and interprets several kinds of maps. 

d) Reads and uses captions, keys and legends of 
maps . 

e) Selects appropriate maps to determine 

1) Direction 

2) Distance 

3) Land formation 

4) Climates 

5) Time zones 

6) Populations 

f) Reads and interprets additional kinds of graphs. 

g) Answers questions requiring the interpretation 
of maps, graphs, tables. 

h) Gains skill in using many potential types of 
sources to solve a problem. 



TO THE TEACHER: These skills are most appropriately taught 

within the context of social studies instruction, with some 
support from the mathematics area. There should be a formal 
unit of study where the skills arc explicitly taught, and 
most observations regarding skill development can be made at 
that time. Specific observations to be made will be dic- 
tated, to a great extent, by the particular instructional 
materials used. 

The list should serve both in planning the skills unit and 
in assessing skill mastery systematically. 



36 



35 

III. STUDY SKILLS 

E3. Uses maps, charts, and graphs * 

a) Maps 

TEACHER: Use this map to help you answer the questions 

below . 




1. The United States is bordered on the north by 

^ — , on the south b> . on the 

east by ^ — ^ — and on the west by — — 

2. Dallas is about _ _ miles from Hew Orleans. 

3. Chicago is about . miles from New York. 

4. in which direction i$ Seattle from Los Angeles? 

5. Point to the location of the city whore you live. 

6. About how far is it from Charleston? 

7. What direction is it from Dallas? 

8. Is it closer to San Francisco or. Seattle? 



37 



III. STUDY SKILLS 

E3. Uses maps, charts, and graphs, 

b) Charts and tallies 



III. STUDY SKILLS 

E3. Uses *aps, charts, and graphs, 

c) Graphs 



TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil read the paragraph and 

study the table below. Then have him answer the questions. 
The pupil may refer to the table for answers. 



TEACHER; Read the paragraphs and study the graphs below 
to help you answer the questions. 



SIXTH GRADE ATTENDANCE AT JEFFERSON SCH< 
Number Absent 

March April May June 


DOL 

Total 


Room 201 


10 


9 


8 


4 


31 


Room 202 


9 


10 


6 


5 


30 


Room 203 


12 


9 


10 


3 


34 


Room 204 


8 


10 


8 


0 


26 


Total 


39 


38 


32 


12 


121 



1. Susan spent $8.00 last month. She made this circle 
graph to show how she speat the money. 




About how much money 
did Susan spend for 

a) lunches? 

b) movies? 

c) savings? 

d) other expenses? 



The sixth grade classrooms at Jefferson School had 
a contest to see which room would have the best attend- 
ance, They kept a record of absences. At the end of the 
contest, tne table looked like the one above. 



♦Remember, your total must be $8.00. 



(continued on next page.) 



1, Which room had the fewest absences? 

2, During which month were there the fewest absences? 

3, During which month wore there the most absences? 

4, What was the total number of absences during the 
four months? 

5, How many pupils in Room ?03 wore absent in April? 




62 



3d 



III. STUDY SKILLS 

E3. Use« maps, charts, and graphs# 
c) Graphs (continued) 

2. John made this line graph to show how 
spelled correctly on each spelling test, 
words on each test. 

spelling progress 


man; 

The] 


j wore 
re wei 


Is he 
-e 20 


Week o 






















Week 7 
Week 6 
Week 5 
Week 4 
Week 3 
Week 2 
Week 1 


























































































































0 2 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2< 



No. of words spelled correctly 



1. Did John improve his spelling? 

How do you know? 

2. How many words did he Spell correctly on the first 
test? 

3. How many words did he misspell on the fourth test? 
A. When did he have a perfect paper? 

5. Qa which test did John misspell She most words? 



40 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



E4. Uses IMC or library effectively, 

a) Understands fiction books are alphabetised by 
author . 

b) Begins to use card catalog to find information . 

c) Understands and uses author, title and subject 
cards, 

d) Locates books on shelves, 

e) Uses cross reference cards. 

f) Uses other reference materials: 

1) Atlases 

2) World Almanac 

a ) Magazines* and subject index to children’s 
magazines 

g) Locates and uses audio-visual materials: 



1) Card catalog 

2) Equipment 



TO THE TEACHER: Observations regarding use of the IMC 

will be made by the IMC director or librarian. 

designed for use in a specific IMC set ring anu w 
devised by the IMC director. In other settings the iko 
director or librarian should devise a checklist that 
be useful to her. 



39 



S3. 



III. STUDY SKILLS 

Uses maps, charts, and graphs 
Graphs 



TO THE TEACH HI: Have the pupil study the two bar graphs 

below and answer the questions. He may refer to the 
graphs for answers. 



HEIGHT^ 07 SOKE DAMS IH 
THE UNITED StATES 




The two graphs above are called bar graphs. Study them 
to help you answer the.pe questions. 

l whv is the' graph on the right called a vertical bar 
* graph? The graph on the left a horizontal bar graph? 

2. Which dam is highest? 

3. Which dam is lowest? 

4. How high is Shasta Dam? 

5. About how much higher is Hoover Dam than Grand Coulee 

Dam? 



41 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



X4. Supplement 

IMC SKILLS CHECKLIST 



Name 



I can check out and return books properly. 

I can use a bookmark to indicate the place. 

I can use the book supports on the shelves. 

I turn pages by the upper right hand corner. 

I know the parts of a book: 

cover table of contents 

bibliography index 

body title page 

I know the Dewey Decimal System of Classification. 

l know the ten general classifications. 

I can locate non-fiction books numerically 
and place them in the proper order. 

I understand that books are arranged 

numerically from left-to-right on the 
shelves. 

I can locate fiction books numerically by the 
* author. 

_ I can use the card catalog. 

I understand that all cards are arranged 

alphabetically. 

I, know and uso the three basic types of 

cards. 

I know and use 11 See” and 11 See also 11 cards. 




63 



42 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



45 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



E4. Supplement (cont'd.) 

___ I know how to use encyclopedias. 

I use guide letters to find information 

on a given subject. 

I use alphabetical arrangement to find 

information. 

I understand and use tbe index, 

I understand and use topical headings. 

I understand and dse cross references. 

I understand and use bibliographies. 

I understand tbe importance of a copyright 

date , 

I can use special reference aids. 

I know how to use atlases. 

___ I know bow to use tbe World Almanac . 

_ I know how to use tbe Index to Children’s 

Poetry . — — — ■ - - 

I know how to use Bartlett's Familiar 

Quotations , ‘ 

I know how to use Webster’s Biographical 

Dictionary . 

I know bow to use magazines. 

I know how to use the subject index to 

children's magazines. 

I know bow to use tbe vertical file. 

I can use the card file to locate audio- 
visual materials. 



E4. Supplement (cont'd.) 



am able to operate audio 

tape recorder 

filmstrip projector 

opaque projector 
film projector 



visual equipment: 

record player 
filmstrip viewer 
overhead projector 
__ listening stations 



- — I have developed respect for materials and equipment 
in the IMC. 

I have developed respect for the rights r,nd needs 
of others. 



I am faailiar with tbe kinds of audio-visual 
material available. 



44 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



45 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



E5. Recognizes and uses with facility the various parts 
of texts and supplementary books and materials. 



TO THE TEACHER: The focus here should be upon pupil's 

Practical use. of their skills at locating information. 
Application of these skills is most easily observed as 
pupils prepare researched reports. Therefore, at least 
once each semester a research-type report should be 
assigned and each child's approach to the task observed 
for demonstrations of ability to use texts and supple- 
mentary books and materials efficiently. 



E6. Organizes information, 
a) Gains skill in nototakingr 

1) Begins to take notes in own words. 

2) Learns to take notes selectively* 

3) Arranges ideas in sequence. 

4) Selects main ideas. 

5) Selects supporting details. 

6) Keeps notes brief. 

7) Shows ability to work from own notes. 

8) Identifies source of materials by use of: 

a) Bibliography 

b) Footnotes 



TO TOE TEACHER: As a result of continuous observation, 

the teacher should be satisfied that the child can take 
notes that arc useful to him. Idiosyncratic approaches 
should be tolerated: that is, there should be no insist- 

ence upon a particular form or sequence of notetaking. 
Outlining, underlining in personal books and brief sum- 
maries are aH acceptable. Stress should be placed upon 
restatement of important points in the pupil's own lan- 
guage. The two cards which follow this one say be help- 
ful in assessing some notetaking skills. 

The test of success in notetaking is whether or not the 
pupil is able to use his own notes for the purpose for 
which they were intended: evaluation, then, Must be In 
terms of specific purpose. The checklist can serve as 
a guide to systematic observation; but. again, the stress 
should be on point seven: Shows ability to work fro* own 

notes , 



/ 



o 



64 



4b 


47 


III. STUDY SKILLS 


III. STUDY SKILLS 


16a. Gains skill in not staking# 


E6a. Gains skill in notetaking. 


TEACHVI: lead tbo four numbered sentences. Choose the 
phrase that best explains vbat each sentence is about. 


TO THE TEACHER: Have the child read the paragraphs below 

silently and take brief notes on the material. 


1. Tfce shelter belt is a line of trees or shrubs which 
havs been planted to protect the soil of a region froe 
•rind and erosion. 


Simple Plants 


a) What is the shelter belt? 
h) Shelter belt prevents soil erosion, 
c) Trees or shrubs protect the soil. 


All plants are classified into several large groups. 

Plants made of on ly one cell or like cells form the 
simplest group. The plots in this group are called 
thallophytes. These plants do not have true roots, stems, 
or leaves . 


2. More than 200 operations for the asking of a single 
shoe are usually handled by eight departments in a shoe 
factory. 

a) Shoe factory needs eight departments, 
h) How to make a shoe. 

c) 200 operations, eight departments to make 1 shoe. 

3. The flycatcher is the name of two families of birds 
which eaten flies and other insects in the air. 

a) Flycatchers catch flies. 

b) Insects caught in air by flycatcher birds. 

c) Flies and insects caught by birds. 

4. When death comes by drowning, it is really death by 
suffocation. 

a) Suffocation causes drowning death, 
h) Death comes by suffocation, 
c) Drowning is one way to die. 

TO TUI TKACUK: Since the child is given a choice of 
phrases rather than having to write nis own, this card 
is appropriate at grade four. 


One group of thallophytes called algae (al'je) con- 
tain chlorophyll and make their own food. Algae live in 
water or in moist places on land. The green scum you 
nave seen floating on water is algae. In sonic areas algae 
is used as food. Other uses of algae are as sources ol 
fertilizer and iodine. r 

a - P 1 ® °i h f r groups of thallophytes called fungi (fun'jl) 
do not contain chlorophyll and get their food hy living on 
other plants and animals. Fungi can be found almost every- 
where. Some fungi are useful to man as a source of food 
or to help fight disease. Other fungi, such as rust, smut 
and blight, destroy food crops planted by farmers. 


f 

48 


49 


III. STUDY SKILLS 


III. STUDY SKILLS 


Z6b. Understands and uses outlining In work# 


E6h. Understands and uses outlining# 


1) Uses correct form of outline. 

2) Con find main ideu> 

3) Makes sample outline, 

4) Outlines topics in more detail 


TO THE TEACHER: Have the pupil read the following selec- 

tion and fill in the outline found on the next card. He 
may refer to the selection to help him complete the outline. 


5) Uses own outline for oral and written reports. 

6) Uses outline to organize thinking in appropriate 
areas . 

TO THE TEACHER: At the Intermediate levels the child is 
broadening his ability to outline. He Is responsible for 
independent select Ion of the main idea and Important sup* 
porting details. His ability to outline should he judged 
ovor a period of time In suen classes as science ana 
social studies. 

One of the complicating factors in a child's ability in 
this area is the loose structure of much textbook material. 
Another complicating factor Is the variation from child to 
child In the need for supporting detail to make the out* 
line a personally useful tool rather than a formal end in 
Itself. In addition to form therefore, utility should be an 
important guideline In helping you to make your judgment 
about the child's skill. 


For many years, the people of China were the only ones 
who knew the secret of making silk. They were very secre- 
tive, hut the secret was finally discovered hy others. It 
was surprising for many to learn that the silk the Chinese 
made into cloth came from the body ox on insect, the silk- 
worm. 

Today silk is made in many countries. Silk making is 
far from easy. Silkworms are hard to raise. They do not 
like cold weather. They do not like noise. Only the leaves 
of the mulberry tree will satisfy their fussy appetites. 

A silkworm is fully grown when it is only four or fivs 
weeks old. At that time, it is ready to apin its cocoon. 

The cocoon is made as the worn spina a long silk thread 
around its body. This thread is all one piece. 

At the silk factory, cocoons are made Into cloth. The 
cocoons are placed into warm water to soften the fibers. 
Girls carefully unwind the long thin thread from each co- 
coon. The fibers from several cocoons, at least four, are 
twisted together to make a silk thread. This thread is 
then made into cloth. 


PROCEDURE: In addition to your Informal observations, 

described above, you should check periodically to see 
that the pupils know the structure of a formal outline. 

You may have the pupil outline material from a text- 
book: out be sure that the material is well-written mo 
as to lend itself to outlining. Or. you may ask the 
pupil to make an outline upon which he would base a talk 
or report. Or. you may use the following assessment cards. 





so 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



£! 

III. STUDY SKILLS 



E6b. Outlining ((Mint'd.) 



The article you .just read is easy to outline because 
there. is only one topic in each paragraph. First, 
think of a title for the article. Then, write the 
main topics of the paragraphs beside the Rowan nu- 
merals in the outline. There are details in each 
paragraph, too. Write at least two of them under 
each wain topic . 



(Title) 



A. 



B. 



E6c. Summarizes material, 

1) Writes summary of a story in three or four sentences. 



SUGGESTED PROCEDURE: Have the pupils read a selection 

(several paragraphs) and write a summary ; in three to rift® 
sentences. The notetaking selection on Simple Plants, 
page 46, could be the material used. Check to see that 
the summary covers the main points and that the sequence 
or main organization is preserved. 



NOTE: The pupil should be able to summarize material in 

his own words. Obviously some* words and phrases from the 
selection are efficient aids in summarizing. These have* 
become ithe pupil's "own words if they have meaning for 
him and are, therefore, acceptable. 



C. 



II. 



A. 



B. 



C. 



D. 



2) States important points expressed In n discussion. 



SUGGESTED PROCEDURE: Contrive a situation in which an 

issue important to the pupils is discussed. Have them 
write a summary of the Important points expressed. In 
each summary, look for the main issue, mnin points of 
view and objectivity. 



III. 



A. 



B. 

C. 



A. 

B. 

C. 

D. 



•Remember, you may only find two details in some paragraphs. 



sz 

HI. STUDY SKILLS 
E7. Evaluates information# 

a) Realizes printed statements may be either fact or 
opinion# 

TO THE TEACHER: Have the students read the following 

sentences and label them facts or opinions, 

Rich people never buy used cars. 

Lazy people are not interested in having money. 

Never believe a person who is a good storyteller, 

TV violence causes people to behave violently. 

Every letter has a postmark to show where it was 

mailed, 

A lame man may be a good swimmer. 

Scientists have found that Mars has seasons in 

which the color of its surface changes. 

The above sentence proves there is life on Mars. 

TV commercials always exaggerate. 



S3. 

III. STUDY SXILLS 



E7b. Checks statements with: those in other sources to 
evaluate validity. 



TO THE TEACHER*: Observe student's ability and initiative 

in checking other sources when a 'point is questioned in 
science or social studies. If informal situations do not 
occur, the teacher and librarian may find examples of con- 
flicting information in reference books and pose the prob- 
lem to a group, noting their ideas for further research. 

A suggestion would be to compare Southern news coverage 
and a Midwestern news account of a civil rights case or 
an attempt to integrate a Southern school. 



TO THE TEACHER: Observe the pupil's ability to differ- 

entiate between fact and opinion in class discussions, 
etc. 



54 

III. STOTT SKILLS 

S 7 o. Evaluates relevancy of materials to topic# 

tom TKACEXK: 1h« following is a type of axerciae 
which you sight uas to estlaate the child's ability to 
determine potentially relevant information. 

TEACHER: Which of thaae book* would JFgbably contain,, 
information relevant to the topic of "photoeyntheiii? 

a. Ancient Civilisations 

b. jjja World Book Encyclopedia . P 

c. 2 . 5 . Camara 

d. Tho Tlrat Beck of Planta 
a. Isa Sawyer 

f. a mclanca textbook 

TO m TEACHER: Beyond basic relavanca. the ■ubtlor 

element a of raletanca seem to be 

creative and interpretive reading Skills. These slgftt 
involve a child's ability to convince the reader or 
listener of a relationship which he may or may not hare 
perceived. 



S< 0 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



I7c. Evaluates Information in terms of his own 
experience# 

TO THE TKACHES: This is a nebulous but important skill. 
Observations must be made opportun 1st ic ally as the PUPIIb 
show their ability and willingness to evaluate new Infor- 
mation in terms of both actual and vicarious experience. 

for example, pupils might die actual experiences with 
certain products to confirm or negate advertising claims: 
they might contrast their actual experiences in visiting 
an area with the lmpresslonc they had— from all sources*" 
before making the visit. 

You should be alert to use situations in which pupils can 
be encouraged 

idormalio^^Ons way to"make the basic" point is to^have 
several pupils^ witness a _*f| 8 ed_ incident askjthem^to a _ 



alert to use situations in which pupils cai 
to draw upon their personal experiences in 
its. drawing conclusions and evaluating new 
Ons way to make the basic point is to have 
,1 pupiis witness a staged incident, ask the* to . 
up sye-wltness accounts independently, and then 1 st 
them compare the several accounts and note discrepancies. 



5? 



III. STUDY SKILLS 



E7d. Compares various viewpoints on the some topic# 

SUGGESTED PROCEDURE: Ask the pupil (s) to gather points 
of view on an issue in the current local or national news v 
(from radio end television news reports, newspapers, etc.) 

Discuss possible reasons for differences of opinion and 
have each child examine tho basis for his own opinion on 
the leeue. Note his ability to examine objectively point* 
of view that differ from hie own and hie ability to modify 
hla views in the light of new facts. 



A suggestion would be to have tho 
accounts of an athletic event. For 



lldren examine two 



example, a Chicago 

■porta column and a Madison sports column on Monday fol- 
lowing a* Packer a- Bear a football game. 



S7 

III. STUDY SKILLS* 

E7f . Identifies propaganda# 

TEACHER: Specify tho type of propaganda device being 
used in the following statements. 



1. Nine out of ten people Interviewed prefer Brand A 
to Brand B. 

2. The candidate is a regular guy, an ordinary man who 
understands your problems. 

Too Drysdale ueee Gillette Blue Blades. 

The Beat lee recommand peace talks about flat Nam. 

6 . The mayor la working to promote patriotism, honssty, 
justice, end good huaan relations by his platform. 

6 . A number of experts ere convinced that safsty prob- 
lems are due to faulty autos&blla manufacture. 



TO THE TKACHKR: This Is a grade elx skill. 



67 



O 

ERIC 



573 

III. STUDY SKILLS 

TEACHER KEY: 

1. bandwagon - Everyone is doing it. 

2. Plain folks * The person they wish us to admire is 

P no different from the ordinary person. 

3. te.stimonial - Endorsement by a celebrity » 

4. transfer - To transfer our feelings from one thing 

to another. 

n, glittering generalities - An expression of ideas thac 
* most people like. 

6. card stacking - Telling only part of the story. 



5 & 

III. STUDY SKILLS 

E8. Follows directions. 

TEACHER: See how well you follow these directions. 

Directions Test 

Can you follow these directions? 

X. Read all of these directions before doing anything. 

2. Write your name at the top of thiB page. 

3. Make a circle around the words, "Direction Test" . 

4. Draw three large BquaroB at the upper right hand 
corner of this page. 

5. When you get to thiB point, Btand up and lcudly say 
your name. 

8. Put a circle in each corner of this page. 

7. Get up, quickly walk to the front of the room, crawl 
back to your seat. 

8. Draw a triangle on the back of this page. 

9. If you have followed the directions so far, say, 
"Yes, I have!" out loud. 

ID. Now that you have read everything, follow only the 
first three directions. 



GPO 609—4 64—2 

68