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ED 039 959 


RC 004 340 





Myers, James E. 

Community Background Reports: Education on the Hoopa 
Reservation, National Study of American Indian 
Education, Series I, No. 2, Final Report. 

Chicago Univ., 111. 

Office of Education (DREW), Washington, D.C. Bureau 
of Research. 



OEC-0-8-0801 47-2805 

EDRS PRICE ‘ EDRS Price MF-$0.25 HC-$2,.20 

DESCRIPTORS Agency Role, ^American Indians, ^Discipline, 

Discriminatory Attitudes (Social) , Dropouts, 
^Economic Factors, ^Educational Attitudes, 
Interviews, ^Parent School Relationship, 
Questionnaires, Salary Differentials, Self Concept 
IDENTIFIERS ^California, Hoopa Indians 


•'Education on the Hoopa Reservation" is a part of 
the final report of the National Study of American Indian Education. 
Geographic and historical descriptions are preceded by a review of 
the economy of the Hoopa community. The problems of prejudice, 
discrimination, and segregation in the community conclude Part I of 
the document. Part II reports the state of education on the Hoopa 
Reservation today. Information from the administration, the reachers, 
the parents, the Board of Trustees, and the Tribal Council was 
gathered by interview, and students reacted to a questionnaire. 

Topics included in the interviews and questionnaire lend themselves 
to how each group perceives the school and curriculum. Recent 
educational innovations developed with Federal money are also 
discussed. A table on high school leavers is appended. (LS) 


' ; ■ 'Xr^-;?*' 







PROJECT OEC-0-8-(ig01^-2805 



Community Background Reports 

Series I 

No. 2 


James E. Myers, Ph.D. 
Associate Professor of 
Chico State College 
Chico, California 


• \ 

The attached paper is one of a number which make up the Final 
Report of the National Study of American Indian Education. 

This Study was conducted in 1968-69-70 with the aid of a grant 
from the United States Office of Education, OEC-0-8-080147-2805, 

The Final Report consists of five Series of Papers: 

I. Community Backgrounds of Education in the Communities 
Which Have Been Studied. 

II. The Education of Indians in Urban Centers. 

Ill .Assorted Papers on Indian Education--mairily technical 
papers of a research nature. 

IV. The Education of American Indians--Subs tantive Papers. 

V. A Survey of the Education of American Indians. 

The Final Report Series will be available from the ERIC Document 
Reproduction Service after they have been announced in Research in 
Education . They will become available commencing in August, 1970, and 
the Series will be completed by the end of 1970. 





!• History of the Reservation and Its Schools 
. II« Economic Life 

A» Income «»•»••••«••••••• 

B* Employment 

C* Housing ••••«••«••*#•♦•« 

0* Public Health Services «••#«••• 
E« Tribal Economic Programs 
IIU Prejudice^ Discrimination, and Segregation 


IV. The Schools Today 

A. High School • • • • • 

I. Physical Structure and Pad titles 

.2. Enrollment 
3* Dropout Rate 
4. Truancy 

B. Elementary School 

I* Physical Structure and Facilities 
2* Enrollment 
3* Dropout Rate 
4* Truancy 

V. Operation of the Schools 
A. Board of Trustees 
B» Financial Support 

C. School Calendar and Indian Ceremonies 
0. Discipline 

E. Extra-Curricular Activities . • • • . 

F. Recent Educational Inoovatlpns . • . 
VI* Perception of Education 

A. Students 

B. Parents 

C* Teachers and AdmInI strators • • • • . 

D. Board of Trustees ••*••••••* 

E. Tribal Council 

VII. Summary and Conclusions 




This Is a report on the education of Indiana attendina Dubtic 
schools on the Hoopa Indian Reservation In California.* ^ ^ 

Full-time residence on the reservation was established by 
the researcher from the first week of September. 1968. to the last 
«j»ek of December, 1968 . Prior to this f5ur-n»nth period of reel- 
oence, six brief exploratory visits were made to the reservation 

visits have 

been made since the residence period. 

the research period I attended such school-related fun- 
CVfons as faculty meetlngsf student clubs, PTA meetings, athletic 

and off-campus student field trips. 

Tribal Council meetings, a series of town hall meet- 
ings, court hearing, BIA-sponsored meetings, and community develop- 
ment meetings. Every effort was made to accrue as many observation 
experiences as possible In the school and the community during the 
Tieio residence. 

In addition to conducting structured Interviews and adminis- 
tering various questionnaires, unstructured Interviews were con- 
tinuously generated with Indian and non-Indian teachers, parents, 
students, and adults. Significant aspects of these conversations 
were recorded In a field diary and constitute a vital part of my 
perception of education on the Hoopa Reservation. 

The researcher visited the Hoopa schools for a total of fifty 
days during the fall term, 1968. During this time he observed all 
grades from K to 12, and assumed full-time substituting duties 
totalling seventeen days In the high school and one day In the ele- 

♦ufif substituting experience was extremely valuable 

in that It allowed a closer and less threatening contact with the 

evaluation^"**” students, thus providing a more valid 

It Is Important to note at the outset that almost everyone In- 
volved In the study, the students, parents, teachers, principals, 
superintendent. Board of Trustees, and Tribal Council, cooperated 
!?i ii?® ^ generously with the researcher during the entire period 

percentage of people Interviewed gave 
willingly of their time and somehow managed to remain patient and 
understanding through It alt. My sincere thanks are extended to them. 

was made possible by grants from the National 

the National Science Foundation, 
and a sabbatical leave from Chico State College. 



The Hoopa Reservation was established by Congress In 1864^ 

The tweive«m1ie square reservation (86,074 acres) Is located In the 
Hoopa Valley, a flat stretch of land about seven miles long and one 
mile wide In northeastern Humboldt County, California (Map !}• 

The Trinity River, a fast«»flowlng stream of some volume cuts through 
the length of the reservation and the valley* State highway 96 
passes through the reservation, connecting with Highway 299 twelve 
mites south at the little town of Willow Creek (Map II }* 

The area surrounding the valley Is mountainous and richly 
covered with pines, Douglas f1rs| and cedars* Various species of 
oak trees grow on the valley floor* Rainfall Is In excess of forty 
Inches annually, and although jsnow falls heavily on the surrounding 
mountains, the valley floor receives little snow* 

The first sustained Caucasian Infiltration Into the valley oc- 
curred In 1850, after the discovery of gold on the Trinity* In 1855, 
the Government established a military post In the valley to cope with 
various problems that wero: continuously arising In the surrounding 
area* The military post remained until 1892, even though Justifi- 
cation for Its presence had tong passed* 

In I893| a federal boarding school was established on the reser- 
vatlon* The school remained In operation until the early t930*s, at 
which time It was converted to a public elementary school* The 
school prohibited the use of Indian languages, washing out with soap 
the mouths of any child caught speaking one, or. In soma cases, 
brutally whipping the child* The rigid, milltary-llke disciplinary 
procedure, with Its physical punishment and removal of home-vl siting 
privileges. Is remembered quite well today by those Indian adults 
In their middle forties and older who attended the boarding school* 
Very few Indians who attended this school have fond memories of It* 

A Tribal Council member who attended the school recat ledt 

Once two boys deserted* They were 
brought back and taken to the small 
boys* dorm* The disciplinarian hand- 
cuffed them to a bench and strapped 
them ten or fifteen good licks* We 

Map 2 - SCHOOLS 









page 3 



ii86d to brag about who gbt the moat tickene* 

Got to be a prestige mark, but man did It hurt. 

They used a rubber hose or leather strap with ► 

a handle on It, Either way, It hurt like hell. 

In 1953, the high school moved from the Inadequate building 
•t shared with the elementary grades In the former boarding school 
Into a new modern facility containing grades K-12, In I960, a 
modern gymnasium was completed* In 1963, a new elementary school 
was completed across the street from the high school. In I96i, 
seven additional elementary school classrooms were constructed* 
Beginning In the fall, 1969, a ^middle school," consisting of 
grades 6-7«8, wlH commence operation In the elementary school 
bul Idings, 

Today, In terms of both Indian population and total acreage, 
the Hoopa Reservation Is the largest In California* In 1968, 1245 
of the approximately 4045 Hoopa Valley residents were of Indian 
descent* Of the 1245 Indians, 981 were registered on the Hoopa 
tribal roll as Hoopa Indian** The remaining 264 Indians represented 
various Indian ancestries, but most were Yurok or Karok* The White 
population of the valley In 1968 was approximately 2800* 

Driving on Highway 96 through the reservation one notices the 
typical rural setting visible throughout much of Northern California* 
Dirt and gravel roadways lead off the main road and disappear Into 
nests of older wooden frame houses, small trailers, and mobile homes. 
Cattle and horses, protected by an open^range law, roam casually 
through unfenced fields, roads, snd yards. 

Although small businesses are spotted here and there on either 
side of the highway for about a three-*ml!e strip on the reservation, 
there Is a central cluster of business establishments containing 
two gasoline stations, small restaurant, bait shop, small drive-in 
cafe, bank, laundromat, American Legion Hall, auto parts shop, auto 
wepafr garage, post office, trailer park, grocery and hardware 
store, and a substation of the county sher1ff*8 office, 
mentary school, high school. Tribal Council building, and BIA Held 
Offine are located In a common area approximately one mile south 
of this center. 

Although the BlA no longer has sny official responsibility 
for the education of Indian children on the Hoopa Reservation, snd 
although Its role In the control of other areas of the Indlan*s life 

Although It Is customary for the pre-contact population to be 
referred to as Huoa * the modern population and the tribe are known 
ss Hoopa * The language continues to be referred to as Hup^# 



In HoopE has diminished considerab* ' over the years* Its very 
presence continues to draw the traditionally negative response 
from the Xndlan community* 

In terms of survival the Hoopa have benefitted from the ufw 
Interrupted occupancy of the valley* The proportion of survivors 
Is one of the highest in California* I Although the 
is high, the more than 100 years of contact have decimated the 
fulf<»blood population to the point YJhere today there are only a 
ha|f«dozen Indians who can possibly claim to be full^blood* 


The century of contact has also resulted In a steady deterlor** 
atlon of old customs* Probably less than fOO Indians can speak 
Hupa today* and almost no 8Chool**age children are ®hle to speak 
the Indian language* The major dances are still held* acorn soup 
and eels are still eagerly consumed (but not so much by . 

age children), and varying degrees of belief In Indian spirits and 
the power of good and bad •medicine" continue to be In evidence. 

The acculturation level of Indians on the reservation today 
ts such that Bushnefl suggests the term •Indian American" Is more 
accurate than the traditional designation "American Indian* 

^Kroebar ascribes the high survivor rate to three causesi 
1 naccesaab 1 1 1 ty of the region and Its comparative poverty In goldf 
early establishment of a reservation! and the absence of lax ad- 
ministration that normally characterized California reservations. 
A. L. Kroeber. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of 
American Ethnologyt Bulletin No. 78. I9&U. 

2john H. Bushnell, "From American Indian to Indian American! 

The Changing Identity of the Huoa.»‘ <\merlcan Anthro oologlBt. vol. 70» 
no. 6, p. 1108. Bushnell uses the spelling Hupa for Hoopa* 



Of the 370 Indian families living In Hoopa, 171 have annual 
Incomes of $3000 or leas# If one uses the Council of Economic Ad- - 
visors* 1964 figure of $3000 or less annual Income as a definition 
of poverty! then over forty-sl?. r^er cent of Hoopa*s 1258 Indians 
live In poverty* In 1965 the n family Income was §4500| In 
1966, $4300t and In I967t $3600# 

A major Income for tribal roll members Is derived from the 
salt of timber on the reservation# The trlbe*s annual earnings 
are divided among the tribal roll members and paid on a quarterly 
basis# The average share In past years has been about $1200 for 
each roll fnember# but with the recent rise In lumber costs the 
payment Is expected to rise# Fifty per cent of the chlldren*s 
shares are paid to the parents, with the balance going Into a fund 
payable when the child reaches the age of eighteen# 

The BIA holds a $1 million reserve fund for the tribe, which 
draws a four per cent Interest rate# The money Is available for 
emergencies and was lest used during the 1964 flood on the reser- 



The lumber Inclustry Is the primary source of employment In 
Hoopa# In addition, the BIA Field Office and the Klamath-Trinity 
Unified Schooi District offer employment opportunities# 

Unemployment on the reservation Is high, occurring at a rate 
three to four times higher than In the rest of Humboldt County# 

In a report from the California State Department of Employment 
dated July 3i, 1968, unemployment on the Hoopa Reservation wae I3#5 
per cent as compared to 5#3 par cent In ihe rest of Humboldt County# 
Due to the seasonal character of the lumber Industry, the above 
rate fluctuates annually from is#9 to 2I#2 per cent# Such unem- 
ployment Is classified by the United States Department of Labor as 
••persistent and substantial ,•» since the rate was more than seventy- 
five per cent above the national rate In 1965 and 1966, and more 

than 100 p^r cent above It In 1967#* 

\ _ 

•Data on Income and employment provided by Mr# v/lllle Cotegrove, 
California State Department of Employment community worker assigned 
to Hoopa# 

page 6 

Housing on the reservation Is^poor# A report by the Cali- 
fornia Commission on Indian Affairs disclosed that In 1963# out 
of 153 Hoopa houses surveyed# 83 needed complete replacement* 

Only 48 houses met the Public Health Department's standard of 

*• <f 

Approximately 14 families are completely without Indoor bath- 
rooms or water* One of the 14 families has 9 people living In two. 
rooms under one roof* Another of these bathroom! ess homes Is 
occupied by a blind man* 

Teachers live In trailers and houses located mostly In the 
Immediate Hoopa Valley# although a few teachers have chosen to 
live In Willow Creek, 12 miles south of Hoopa# due to Inadequate 
housing on the reservation* There Is general agreement by school 
Officials and teachers that one of the primary problems In re- 
cruiting and keeping teachers In Hoopa Is the poor housing situation 
on the reservation* 

P ublic Health Services 

A sixteen-bed hospital Is located on the reservation* Two 
physicians practice In Hoopa# but there are no dentists# optome- 
trists# veterinarians# or drug stores* 

Proper sewage disposal and water purification programs are In 
dire need* There Is also need for such health services as dentil 
care# Immunization# pre-natal Instruction# proper nutrition# and 
care for the elderly* 

Tribal Economic Proaram^^ 

The Tribal Council clearly recognizes that Job creation Is 
the key to Improved economic conditions on the reservation* Dis- 
satisfied with the overall Indian unemployment rate and the very 
few Indians holding key positions In the local lumber Industry# 
the Tribal Council hired an engineering consultant firm to do a 
feasibility study on the tribe building Its own mill or buying an 
existing mill located on the reservation* The Council visualized 
a new mill employing sIxty-fIve people with an annual payroll of 
J500#000# and annual profits ranging from $225|000 to $750,000* 

State Advisory Commission on Indian Affairs# Progress Report 
to the Governor and the Legislature on Indians In Rural and Reser- 
vation Areas* Sacrameniot State of CalTfornla# 1966# p* 93* 


p«g« 7 

In October 9 19689 eligible tribal roll votere were presented 
three measures to vote ont I) to establish a management board to 
operate a sawmill and chip plant. 2i to buy for $1. 1 ml I Mon an 
existing local lumber mlll9 or 3) to construct a new $3.6 million 
facility# All three measures were turned down, with only 186 of 
the 563 eligible voters voting# The Tribal Council chairman 
placed the blame for the "no** vote on too much prosperity In the 
tribe# a fear' that, revenue to finance the proposals would come 
out of per capita payments# and a "no" vote from the Indians re- 
ceiving old age payments# However, the most popular explanation 
for the rejection of the proposals was that the Council failed to 
communicate to the Indian community the details Involved In the 
various alternatives# 

Undaunted by the rejection of the mill proposals# the Tribal 
Council Is currently exploring the possibility of developing I) a 
tan (oak baseball bat factory which would also produce furniture 
legs and hockey sticks# 2) camping and recreation sites to attract 
tourists# and 3) small scale production of Indian pottery and 

Pfeludtce. Discrimination, and Seoreoatlon 

From observation and Interviewing there Is little evidence 
that Indians are segregated from non-Indiana In Hoopa In regard 
to housing# and no evidence of segregation In redtaurants and 
education# Most Indian adults believe the lumber mills discriminate 
against them In hiring# firing, and Job placement. The Indian 
community has also made public charges of police brutality by law 
enforcement officers# whom they describe as anti-Indian# 

In the reservation schools there Is no segregation# and dis- 
crimination against Indians appears to occur In only Isolated 
Instances# In fact# the complete Integration of Indian and non- 
Indlan students fs one of the most striking aspects of Hoopa schools 
In the high school# mixed Indian-White couples stroll around the 
campus holding hands# hugging and kissing, careful I y overlooked 
by teachers and seemingly oblivious to the good-natured taunts of 
gel low students# Athletics, student body offices, clubs, and 
various other extra-curricular activities show no Indian-White 

Probably as a result of this complete Indian and White inte- 
gration In the schools# Indian students have a strong self-image# 
Indeed, ft was not unusual to hear White students going to great 

^Negroes are excluded from this commendable mutual acceptance# 
In casual discussions, Indian and White students freguently referred 
to Negroes as "niggers#" "coons," and other derogatory slang terms# 

page d 

lengths of genealogical explanation to convince the researcher 
that they had a modicum of Indian blood and should also be con* 
sldered as Indian.^ 

Casual conversations with school personnel often turned up 
tow*level prejudices against Indians* usually based on stereo* 
typical. Images of what Indians are supposed to be like {**These 
Indian kids are natural artists,** **Indlan children are Just great 
with their hands," "Indians are tremendous natural athletes")* 
However, on the basis of Information gathered from observations, 
questionnaires, structured and unstructured Interviews of teachers, 
principals, superintendent, and Trustees, not one Individual pro** 
fesslonally Involved with the schools could be described as anti* 
Indian or having prejudices against Indians of sufficient strength 
to result In discriminatory teaching techniques* 

When one moves away from the school scene and Into the com- 
munity at large, however, there Is a noticeable anti-Indian pre- 
judice among many Whites* AM In all, Indian and White relation- 
ships are better on the Hoopa reservation than on many Indian 
reservations In the United States today* But "better" Is a relative 
term In this case, and affords little solace to the Indian* 

The prejudiced Whites harbor many Invidious myths about con- 
temporary Indians, but the most prominent beliefs are two old bug- 
bears that have been heaped on the American Indian by generations 
of Whitest sins growing out of per capita payments and the stereo- . 
typed portrayal of Indians being lazy and unwilling to accept 
responsibility* Both of these spectres, false as they are, con- 
tinue to enter into discussions of all phases of Indian life In the 
valley* They are particularly devastating when applied to the 
Indlan*s economic existence* 

The per capita payment Is obviously welcomed by the Hoopa, 
especially In those cases where It spells the difference between 
survival and non-survival. However, In accepting the payment, 
which Is Justly his, the Indian also exposes himself to the Indig- 
nity of unfair Indictments from some members of the White community 
and even from some valley Indians not on the tribai roil (and thus 
not eligible for per capita payments)* One Influential White In 
Hoopa stated! 

Would you want to work If you had all that 
money coming In on a regular basis tike that? 

Hell, that*s another big reason they don*t 
try to do well In school* Soon as they are 

^During the Interviews, Indian students were asked If they 
had non-Indian friends* The answer was unanimously "yes*" When 
asked If their Indian friends were any different than their non- 
Indlan friends, the answer was unanimousiy "no," accompanied by an 
Immediate look of wonderment and statements such as, "Should they 
be?", "I don»t understand what you mean,** "That’s a funny question." 


page 9> 

•- . I 

old tnough to drop out of school t they can go 
hunting and fishing alt they want and live off 
their per capita like kings* l*d like to do 
that myself* 

In shortf because of the Imagined security the per capita 
payment supposedly provides^ Indians are described as not being 
motivated to do well In school 9 having no desire to better them- 
selves economi ca 1 1 y, and displaying llttlSf If anyi of the drive 
and ambition that supposedly marks the White man* 

Allied with the per capita sins# but applied so frequently 
end with such harm against Indians In Hoopa that It deserves a 
separate notatlont Is the Image of Indians being lazy« A WNte 
ml 1 1 worker In Hoopa saldt 

Everyone who has ever worked with Indians In 
mills knows they got some good points* 8 ut 
everyone also knows about **InJun holidays** 

Every mill Pve worked In has trouble on 
Monday mornings because the Indians don*t 
show up for work* They get tanked up over 
the weekend and come Monday 9 they are either 
too hung over or Just too lazy to come In* 

A lot of people around here think the mills 
are prejudiced against Indians because there 
aln*t any Indians In key positions In the 
milts* The truth Is Indians don^t take the 
better jobs because they don*t want the extra 
responsibl iity* 




Hfch School 

Physlcat Structure and Fact There are eighteen 

general classrooms In the high achoolf plus a bandroom^ mechanical 
drawing room, wood shop, auto shop, and a library* 

Hot lunches (35 cents) are served In the high school cafe- 
teria to both elementary and high school students* Students who 
bring bag lunches from home also eat here* Many students walk 
to a nearby grocery store and either supplement their hot lunch 
or lunch completely on the soda pop, candy, and potato chips sold 
there* A room off the cafeteria serves as a combination teachers* 
lunchroom and workroom* Coffee may be obtained here by teachers 
throughout the day* 

A library containing 11,000 volumes Is available throughout 
the school day and Is staffed by a full-time librarian. The 
library Is open 30 minutes before the start of the school day 
end 30 minutes after the end of the school day. The library ap- 
pears to have good student useage and contains a checkout desk, 
librarian's office, reading tables, and an A-V equipment storage 

For a school this size, the play area Is minimal* During lunch 
hour, a few dozen students engage In a touch football game on a 
packed dirt surface between the bandroom and wing three of the 
high school, but most of the high school students saunter along 
the outside covered walkways or stand In the cafeteria after 
lunch and listen to music from the Jukebox located there* 

. . giLrolJyent * In December, 1968, Hoopa High School enrolled 
pup 1 1 s in grades 7*I2* Thirty-three per cent of this number 
were Indian (139 pupils), and sixty-seven per cent (285 pupils) 
were non-Indian (Table l). Eight per cent more Indians attended 
grades 7-8 than attended grades 9-12. 

The Hoopa Valley High School serves an area of approximately 
1000 square mites* The 7-8 grade students attending the high 
school reside within the Hoopa Valley, but students In grades 9-12 
are transported from several surrounding communities In which the 
Klamath— Trinity Unified School District maintains five elementary 

Teachers* There are twenty-two teachers, one counselor, two 


page II - 

table I 

(DEC. 1968)* 





Yota 1 





























Tota 1 




♦Sourcei Principalis Office, Hoopa Valley High School* 

page 12 

llbrarlansf and a principal on the faculty of the high school (grades 
7*»t2t plus a remedial reading class and an Educable Mentally 
tarded class}* Two of the faculty are Indian* 

dropouts * Indian students comprised twenty«flve per cent of 
Moopa Valley HI gh School’s total enrollment of 524 students In 
1967 - 68 # During the 1967-63 academic year, twenty-one Indian stu- 
dents were classified by the school as dropouts# Thus# approxi- 
mately one-quarter of the Indian students attending high school 
dropped out# The non-Indian dropout figure was twenty-three, or 
IO#5 per cent of the non-Indian student body* (see Appendix for a 
more detal led breakdown of dropouts)# 

- T ru ancy # Truancy Is a major problem In the district’s schools# 
In 1965-66 there were 6239 unexcused absences during the school 
year# In the first six months of the 1966-67 school year, there 
were 4164 unexcused absences In the six schools of the district, a 
fact which resulted In the district losing §7745* By far, the 
largest percentage of unexcused absences In the district occurred 
In the Koopa schools# The high school counselor stated that It was 
not unusual for as much as twenty-five per cent of the high school 
student body to be absent on some days# He expressed a belief that 
the attendance problem was due to the distance some students had to 
travel, combined with weather and road conditions, plus a lack of 
^’oncern on the part of the parents# 

The high school principal concurred that transportation problems 
contributed to the high truancy rate, but addedt 

I do feel, however, that If we could provide the 
kind of school program that would appeal to a 
fairly large segment of the population, we would 
partially eliminate the attendance problem# 

Quite frankly, some of our students are disen- 
chanted with the aca*demlc curricular offering 
at the high school, and we need to do something 
to make school more meaningful for this group, 
for example, vocational training. Job experience, 

Elementary School 

Physlcaj structure and Tael titles # The elementary school con- 

done Board member questioned the higher dropout rate for 
Indian students# He stated the reason the records show a higher 
percentage of Indians than whites dropping out of school was that 
the Indians remained In the valley and were readily recorded as 
dropouts, while many Whites moved out and were listed on school 
records as ••transferred to another schoot#** while In fact many would 
have swelled the non-Indian dropout rate had they remained In the 

O ,x. ’ • . ' • 

ERIC ..." 

p«g* 13 . 

ttins thirteen general claeeroomet plus three additional ctase** . 
rooms located In the high school* There It also a small library** 

The elementary children have staggered hot lunch periods In 
the high school cafeteria when ft is not occuoled by the high 
school students* Students bringing their lurtch from home also eat 
In the cafeteria* A small combination teachers* lunchroom and 
work room Is located In the main office of the elementary school* 
Coffee may be obtained here throughout the day* 

The elementary school has both a grass-covered play yard and 
an asphalt-covered play yard* There are swingsf monkeybars* 
tether ball poiest and basketball courts* 

Enrol Iment * In December, J 968# the Hoops Elementary School 
enro l ied a iota I of 422 pup1ls» of whom- fifty-seven per cent (240 
pupils) were Indian and forty-three per cent (182 pupils) were 
non-Indian (Table II)* 

Teachers * There are sixteen teachers and a principal on the 
faculty (grades K-6, plus two special education classes)* One 
teacher Is Indian* 

^Starting In September, 1969, grades 7 and 8 w1 1 1 move from 
the high school andlocate In the elementary school, while grades 
2 and 3 and the kindergarten wilt move from the elementary school 
to the high school* 


hoopt * 
page 14 

TABLE 1 1 


T Individuals 



























Combination (t&P) 











, 31 

Special Education 




























Special Education (Intermed) 




Tota 1 




Percentage Indian • 57 
Percentage non-Indian - 43 

^Sources Principal *8 Office, Hoopa Elementary School* 


Board of Trustees 

A Soard of Trustees consisting of seven elected members com- 
prises the governing unit of the Klamath-Trlnl ty Unified School 
District* The District Includes Hoops Valley High Schootf and 
five elementary schoolSf Hoopa, Pecwany OrleanSf WeltchpeCf and 
Trinity Valley* 

The seven trustees. represent seven geographical areas In the 
dlstrlctf but each trustee is elected for a four-year term by 
people from the entire district*,, The Board meets once a month 
during the school year and arranges Its meetings so that at least 
one meeting will be held at the school In each geographical area. 

One trustee Is Indian* He has been Chairman of the Board 
for the last twenty years and a member for the last thirty years* 
Three of the six remaining trustees are married to Indians* 

Financial Support 

Hoopa Valley High School and Hoopa Elementary School are 
publicly operated schools in the Klamath-Trl nity Unified School 
District* In l968-69t the district operated on a $1 million 
budget* Of this total flgurSf approximately forty per cent was^ 
derived from local taxation, forty per cent from state apportion- 
mentSf and twenty to twenty-five per cent from P.L* 874 monies* 

The County School Office (Humboldt County) provides special 
consultants and Audio-Visual materials to the district* 

Johnson-0* Mat ley funds are not available to California Indians 
although there are hopes In the Indian community that these funds 
will be restored to them* 

School Calendar and Indian Ceremonies 

There Is apparently no conflict between the school calendar 
and traditional Indian ceremonies* Two Important religious dances 
are held today, the White Deerskin dance and the Jump dance* Both 
are held biennially In September* The Brush dance, a medicine 
ceremony, Is held every year around July 4* 

Boarding Schools and Dormitories 

There are no boarding schools or dormitories on the Hoopa 


page 16 

Reservation or In the Kfamath-Trlnlty Unified School District today, 
nor are there any competing private or parochial achooia In the 

PIsclofIna Rules and Practice 

Most of the high school teachera and the principal have aasumed 
s very lenient attitude toward diaciptihe* Although numeroff?^ rules 
regarding discipline exist, there are constant Infractions t.nd 
the students have recognized the lack of enforcement* Some teachers 
readily admitted that It was easier to excuse troubletnakere from 
the classroom than have them stay In and cause disruptions* As a > 
resutt, throughout the day there Is a stream of students who stroll 
slong the walkways, stand outside classroom doors, enter other class* 
rooms to visit, talk to friends through open wlndowsf and meet In 
restrooms to chat and puff on cigarettes*' 


Students enroute to the principalis office for disciplinary 
action often proceed with an air of triumph, waving and shouting 
their destination to friends In the walkways and classrooms along 

the way* 

At the present time there Is no vlce*prlnclpaf , thus the 
principal Is forced to contribute a large part of his day to hand* 
ling discipline cases* viflthln eight weeks after the start of the 
fall semester of 1968, two high school teachers resigned, primarily 
because of their Inability to cope with student behavior In the 

In structured Interviews and In casual conversations, both 
students and parents unanimously noted poor disciplinary practices 
In the high school as a primary matter of concern* 

In the elementary school the disciplinary situation Is quite 
different* The principal frequently stresses to the faculty the 
Importance of discipline* Student violators are promptly punished 
by the principal and. If the situation demands, spanked on the seat 
with a stout paddle* Very few elementary students are out of the 
elassrooms during class hours, and the lunch periods and recesses 
are carefully monitored* 

I In order to prevent students from gathering, smoking, and 
sabotaging the plumbing fixtures In the restrooms during class 
hours, the school recently began a policy of locking bathrooms 
sxcept during lunch hour and between classes* Students now must 
get a key from a teacher If they wish to go to the bathroom 
during class time* This maneuver has not deterred the smoking 
practices of at least the 7*8 graders, who, between classes and 
whenever the situation permits, dash behind nearby baseball bleachers 
and light up* 

pas* 17 


Extfa>Currtcutar Acttvttfee and Athletics 

Tht high school has a Pep Clubf gifis* and boys* athicttic 
clubs (Block Hf GAA), Bible Club, FFA Club, Key Club, and a Ca||« 
formla Scholarship Federation Club* 

With ninety-five per cent of the student body being bussed 
within ten minutes after the last period, all organizations and 
meetings must be held during the lunch hour* 

The athletic program Is very Important to the school and the ‘ 
community* The Hoopa High Warriors compete with other high schools 
In baseball* football, basketball, and wrestling* The community 
turns out In large numbers for all home games and many people travel 
considerable miles, often over poor mountain roads, to lend sup-^ 
port to the team* 

School dances are held In the evening about once a month, and 
there are assorted school carnivals, pot luck dinners, and PTA-* 
sponsored activities* (See section on Students for additional 
observations on activities*) 

Recent Educational Innovations and Practices 

Qperatl on Headstarx > Operation Headstart programs have been 
offered on the reservation In the sumir ‘ s of 1967, 19^, and I969* 

Upward Bound * An Upward Bound program Is available to Hoopa 

students* In 1968, four )ndlan students from Hoopa were 
enrol led in the program at Humboldt State College* 

gjiucatlonal Opportunities Act > Twelve of the twenty-two 
Indians graduating from Hoopa High In 1969 were accepted Into four- 
year colleges under the Educational Opportunltf es Act. Eight are 
attending the University of California (Davis), three are at Chico 
State College, and one Is attending Humboldt State College* 

Teacher Training Program for American Indians * Humbo I dt State 
College recently received approval for a grant of money from the 
United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to 
start a program which will train eighteen American Indians for 
careers In elementary school teaching* The Hoopa Valley schools 
will play a substantial role In the training program* 

Center for Community Development . Established In 1966, the 
Center for Community Development at Humboldt State College has re- 
cently begun to Initiate various community development programs 
In the Hoopa Valley* In cooperation with the Tribal Council, the 
Center has sponsored an Indian language workshop and a series of 
townhall meetings. It has also cooperated with the Councii In pre- 


page 18 

% . 

paring various proposals for government funds* The Center recently 
submitted a proposal to the BIA for funds necessary to establish 
a Center branch office In Hoopa* 

Tribal Scholarships * Teo boys and two girls each year receive 
$4DD scho j arsh i p s from the tribe* There are also two $200 tribal 
scholarship awards* 

Extension Programs# The College of the Redwoods (Eureka) 
offers extension courses In the evenings at Hoopa High School* In 
Springy I969ii the offerings werei buslnessy typingy health educatlony 
fire service workshopy and welding* In nearby Willow Creek the 
college offered evening extension courses in landscape drawingy 
grammar and compositlony basic reading and wrltlngy cultural geo* 
graphyy programmed mathy elementary algebra, math review, and plane 




Not eurprl singly, there is no single perception of the schools 
In Hoops* Although perceptions vary within large segments of the 
community, it Is possible to construct perception profiles from 
such Important school-community categories as students, parents, 
teachers and administrators, Board of Trustees, and the Tribal 
CouncI !• 


There appears to be a distinction between the fifth grade and 
the twelfth grade Indian students^ attitude toward school* Most of 
the fifth graders were enthusiastic and positive about school, 
teachers, and curriculum, while the majority of Indian seniors ex- 
pressed dissatisfaction with school and curriculum* However, the 
seniors generally expressed a positive attitude toward the teachers 
and principal* 

In 1967 Hoopa High School conducted a Self-Study In preparation 
for the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) visi- 
tation committee* The Report Indicated that approximately sixty 
per cent of the students believed their teachers were "good or above 
average teacher*" 

If you stay In your present school for four 
years, you will have worked with 20 to 30 teachers* 

How many of these would you expect to be good or 
above-average teachers (select one).* 


Per Cent 















^Hoopa Valley High School, Self Evaluation Report of the 
H oopa Valiev High School . 1967, p* 32E. 


page 20 

The current study aleo shows positive support for the teachers 
In Interviews with Indian students In grades and 5# the 

question^ **How well does you teacher do her (hts) Job7**» elicited 
the following responsesi 

Number of respondents 

Responses olvlng this response 

I 2th grade (N » 22) 

Teacher does **a good Job*" 4 
Teacher does "a pretty good Job*" 8 
•Some teachers good^ some bad*" or "O.K." 4 
Teacher does "not too good" a Job* 2 
Teacher does a "poor" or "bad Job*" 3 
No response I 

8th grade (N « 27) (N * I3)» 

Teacher does "a good Job*" 

Teacher does "a pretty good Job*" 
Teacher does "0*K*" 

Teacher does "not too good" a Job* 
Teacher does a "poor" or "bad Job*" 
No response# 

(N o 14) 

teacher does "a good Job*" 

Teacher does "a pretty good Job#" 
Teacher does "0*K*" 

Teacher does "not too good" a Job* 
Teacher does a "poor" or "bad Job*" 
No response* 

StjLorade (N - 28) 

Teacher does "a good Job*" 

Teacher does "a pretty good Job*" 
Teacher does "0#K*" 

Teacher does "not too good" a Job* 
Teacher does a "poor" or "bad Job*" 
No response* 

















♦This Is a class which had at least four teachers this year 
and was finally combined with another 8th grade class to be taught 
by one teacher and a teaching assistant* 

pagt 21 

Although the eenfore supported thetr teacher* they were less 
supportive of the school Itself* They claimed Hoopa High Is poor 
In quality and suffering from a lack of ••school spirit*** In the 
Interviews with Indian students In grades 12, 8, and 5, the ques» 
it on **How does your school compare with other schools you know?. 
Is It better or worse?**, elicited the following responses! 

Number of respondents 


oivlnq this response 

h oradt (N » 22) 







No response 


8th grade (N * 27) 




No Response 





5 th grade (N • 28) 

••Better** 19 

••same** 7 

••Worse** 0 

No Response- 2 

Clearly, the phrase ••lack of school spirits did not mean 
failure to support the schooMe athletic teams or other student 
body events; rather It was a commonly used term referring to a 
negative attitude toward the schoolas an academic Institution* 

It Is not probable that one could find any high school where 
the students did not complain about their school In one way or 
another, but In this small high school, the only high school within 
a small district, such complaints quickly become superficially 
standardized and are offered up to the researcher without any 
serious consideration as to thetr accuracy by the student* This 
fa not to say the school Is free from academic problems; It simply 
suggests that the students were responding In many Instances more 
out of habit and tradition than out of serious and accurate re- 


pag't 22 

Unfartur^tetyt the teachers and the parents are also caught 
up fn this phenomenoot resulting In an InvIdlouSf mutual ly rein- 
forcing cycle being maintained over the yearsf regardless of facta 
In support of or contrary to the actual situation* Pupils state 
that the school compares poorly with other schools* even though 
most of the respondents had never attended another school* Teachers 
believe the students compare poorly with other students and soon 
find little trouble In confirming their beliefs* 

There was a unanimous belief that teachers were far too lenient 
In disciplining and were doing the students a disfavor by not ex- • 
pecting them to toe the tine* Many students suggested that the 
school wide lack of firm discipline was probably based on the fear 
that If the teacher Is a strong disciplinarian he may be accused 
of being antl-lndlan* therefore* It Is better to **go easy** 

Easy grading procedures anr Insufficient amounts of homework 
were also frequent complaints from the students* 

The eighth and twelfth grade students frequently cited the 
small size of the high school as being Its chief appealing factor* 
The high school stuoents also agreed that another redeeming factor 
of the scheiol was that It provided them with a chance to get to- 
gether socijalty during the^ day. 

A majority of Indian seniors Interviewed (17/22) said edu- 
cation beyond high school was very Important and 14/22 claimed 
they would continue to go on to college* Most of the seniors 
(16/22) do not Intend to remain or return to the Hoopa Valley 
after high school graduation (It boys and 3 girts)* 

The question, "What Is the highest grade that you would 
like to finish?" elicited the following responses from the 
Indian studentsi 

Number of respondents 

12th graders (N 22) 

"Finish high school" 5 
"Go to a vocational or trade school*"' 3 
"Go to a jun'.' college" 6 
"Finish four of college" 8 

6fth graders • 27) 

"Finish high school" 18 
"Go to a vocational or trade school? 0 
"Go to a junior college" I 
"Finish four years of college" 8 


page 23 

Almost all the Indian students Interviewed enthusiastically 
expressed their desire that the school offer something on Indian 
history and culture. The students were not as enthusiastic about 
Indian languages being taught In the regular curriculum. Many 
suggested the possibility of the language being taught on an 
elective basis either during the school day or In the evenings,^ 

-.u graders were generally enthusiastic and positive 

about school white the serilors were dlssatlsfledf may partly be 
accounted for by the fact they have spent less time In the system . 
and have yet to adopt the "poor attitude* appraisal. 

It Is also possible that the negative attitude toward school 
may be an outgrowth of the boredom produced by routine and Isolation 
In the Hoopa Va I ley. One bright and verbal senior gtrMs comment 
Is typical of many of her classmates! 

l*m bored with the whole damn thing. Get up at 
six In the morning, eat, catch the bus^ listen 
to sickening freshman girls giggle and talk 
about the stupid boys they want to be chased by, 
go to P«£*t dress down, shower, get dressed, go 
to class, listen to the same old crap we had 
before all day, and we had before last year, 
and the year before that. Then you catch the 
bus, go home, do some chores, eat, sit around, 
watch TV, go to bed, I*m so tired of It all 
I can hardly wait to get out of the valley, 

A senior boy eehoid the above compfslntss 

X*M never come back to Hoopa, aln^t nothing 
her^ man, I mean nothing. When I left to go to 
Parker (Arizona) I found out that there Is more 
In life than fishing and hunting, Parker Is 
small, but lt»s swinging compared to this place. 
During most of the year Hoopa aln*t wild with 
recreation, but when winter sets In and the 
Jolly-Kone closes up at seven andithe drlve«»fn 
movies shut down, man, lt*s even worse. 

*A I though most of the students and parents Interviewed Indl- 
cated the school should teach Indian history and traditions on an 
elective basis and as part of the regular curriculum. It was gener-^ 
ally felt that an Indian language should not be offered In the 
regular curriculum, but should be taught after regular school hours# 
Two problems are eulckly evident here. Most of the parents of 
BChool-age children cannot speak an Indian -language today. Also, 
which language should be taught, Hupa (Athabascan ), Yurok (Algon- 
klan), or Karok (Hokan)? Most of the Indldh children In the district 
schools come from homes where one of these languages was once spoken, 
8y offering one language, the school would very likely alienate^ 
ERjc;h 08 e families who have a different linguistic background. 

page 24 

A lot of Hoopa Indiana around hare think thay 
ara leaving for good whan they gat out of high 
aehool* What a JokaS They*! I all coma back and 
go to work In the woods or on the green chain. 
Big deals 

The iaek of raeraational faciiitias on the reservation is a 
most ear ious problem. When school is out for the day^ the students 
ara bussed away within moments. The only students remaining on 
campus ara those partlc4patlng in athletics* They will be picked 
up after practice by family or friends. Those bussed away immed«» . 
lately after school find little to do once they reach home# Some 
do such chores as cutting or packing In flrewood« taking care of 
younger sibsf or cleaning the house* Most young people will 
watch television, eat dinner, and return to the television set 
until bedtime. During good weather months the monotony is broken 
by fishing and hunting# The young people who have cars drive to 
the smaH dr I ve« In cafe or simply cruise up and down the reser^ 
vatlon roads. Frequently carloads of youngsters will drive to 
Vi i low Creek to attend the drive-in movie located there# 

In answer to the question, *What do you do after school?**, 
Indian students gave the following responses* 


Number of respondents 
q<vtnq this response 

12th qradera (N « 22) 

•watch T.V," 

*Do things with frlendw,* 
•Play sports#" 

"Do homework." 

^Do chores at home#* 

"Work at a Job#* 

*Ride around In my car.* 
"Hunt and fish#* 









8th graders (N * 27) 

"Watch T#V#" 

"Do things with friends." 

"Do homework#" 

"Do chores at home#* 

"Hunt and fish** 

"Play around with brothers and sisters#* 
•Visit older relatives who live nearby#* 





page 23 

Acttvftfea held at the 8choof « Evening dances are held In 
the hTgh schooi gyinnasium apout once a month and are well-*atten- 
d<$d^ School carnivals and sports events attract many parents as 
well as students* Basketball and football games draw students and 
adults from throughout the valley as well as the surrounding corn* 

A proposal to the Housing and Urban Development Agency for 
funds to build a recreation center on the reservation was turned 
down by the government In the spring of 1969. The proposed 
million center would have served the Indians and non-Indfans In 
the Hoopa area and would have provided an arts and crafts workshopt 
cooking and home eeono/ples facIHtteSf space for social gatherlngSf 
space for a senior citizens meeting roorr.^ swimming poolf playing 
courts for votteybaM^ basketball^ and badminton, archery range 
and a gold course* Xn addition, space would have been provided 
for a tribal council office, child-care center, Operation Headstart 
facilities, library, museum, health center, and a Job training 


Generally, the parents feel the schools are doing a good Job 
In Hoopa* But the majority of parents who expressed approval of 
the schools, Just as those who felt the schools were not doing a 
good Job, based their opinions on a remarkable lack of evidence* 
Hearsay and Isolated Instances of satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, 
allowed most parents to formulate strong opinions pro and con* re- 
garding their appraisal of the schools* 

Although sOHie Irsdlan parents gyestioneci xhe success of the 
schools In educating their children, no parent questioned the value 
or need of an education* Every Indian adult Interviewed clearly 
perceived the need for at least a high school education, and most 
felt their children should continue on to Junior college, college, 
ior a relocation vocational training school* 

The single most frequent parental response to the question, 
"What do you like about the school?" was, "Its small size*" 

Lenient discipline practices and tow academic standards were most 
often cited by parents as their primary dislike of the schools* 

There seems to be general recognition by older parents whose 
children are no longer In school that discipline problems In the 
school spring from a home situation that tolerates disrespect 
for elders* An eighty-eight year old Indian lady, still keen of 
mind and quite alert, noted that Indian children today are not 
taught manners and respect for the elders when they are at home, 
"natural I y, they won*t behave In school*" She added, 

page 26 

The way you treat anything when It 1$ young Is 
going to determine how It will act when It Is 
oldery whether you are talking about plants, 
animats or children* Children In Hoopa today 
are terrible* when 1 was a young girt 1 re«» 
member a man who used to carry his old mother 
around In a basket# She would get Into the 
basket and he would put It upon his head and 
take her with him when he went places# Imagine 
that happening today with these young kids# 

A grandparent placed the blame for disciplinary problems on 
- the grandparents# She observed that many children In Hoopa have 
working parents, resulting In the grandparents* caring for the 
youngsters# The grandparents realize they are living In a dif- 
ferent age and tend to allow their charges to be disrespectful# 

One young female teacher, out of desperation for a solution 
to her disciplinary problems, requested the parents of her children 
to come to school In the evening for a meeting where she could 
solicit Ideas and suggestions they might have regarding classroom 
management# Thirteen parents, all mothers, attended the meeting 
and a most all placed the blame for the wild behavior on the 

One parent Indicated the eighth graders were a discipline 
problem because their seventh grade teacher was weak# The other 
parents quickly agreed# During the short meeting the parents 
suggested, ••Slap him down, honey>? ••Shut his mouth but good,*^ 

••Ut me know about It and .hhdM I think twice before sassing you 
again# •• 

The teacher Inquired If they, the parents, wanted her to 
Inform them of misbehavior and have the disciplinary action meted 
out at home# In a huff, one parent retorted, "Honey, I Just told 
you, slap him dowrti right; there when It happens# If you welt until 
comes home It won*t do any good#** There was general agreement 
that If the school dldn*t discipline the children then how could 
the home possibly discipline them# The discipline problem was not 
resolved at the meeting# 

Two mothers remained after the meeting to thank the teacher 
for asking for their advice and encouraged her to be stronger# 
Judging from the questions and responses, only one of the thirteen 
parents actuafly felt the problem might be related to a tax dis- 
ciplinary attitude at home# 

Most parents Intervlwwed admitted that their Involvement In 
school affairs was minimal, usually amounting to a s>ort visit with 
a teacher at parent— teacher conferences or occasionally meeting 


pasa 2? 

with the principal to talk about a chlld^a dlaclpllnary problem#^ 

The superintendent and both principals are aware of the need 
for more parental Involvement and are beginning to take steps to 
bring It about* In the Spring term, I969f the principal of the 
elementary school Invited parents to the school to ask their advice 
and assistance In reorganizing the grades Into a middle school 

concept* Sixteen parents attended the meeting and set up a policy 
advisory committee to aid the school In offering a successful 

Teachers and Administration 

Both the faculty and the administration generally assume the 
same view as the Board of Trustees, l«e*, education In the district 
Is for all children, not only for Indian children, and whatever 
educational problems exist do so without regard to any Indian non** 
Indian factor* 

All teachers Interviewed fsit there was an urgent need for 
the school to offer more remedial reading, devote more time and 
effort to teaching basic communication skills, and to expand the 
vocational education program to both Indian and non«Indlan children* 

In Interviews conducted with ten Hoopa high school and etemen** 
tary teachers, the respondents listed the following problems as 
being common to Indian studehtst I) poor readers and unable to 
follow directions, 2) poor work habits, 3) poor motivation, 4) do 
not socialize well, and 3) lack of Interest In school* Although 
the Interview question pertained specifically to Indian student s? 
the teachers generally felt the same problems characterized many 
nornlndlan children as welt* 

The teachers also expressed a need for more parental Involve** 
mentt noting that parents seldom voluntarily come to the school* 

Most of the teachers felt that Indian history and traditions 
should be taught In the schools and were apologetic that they them* 
selves did not know more about local Indian culture* There was 
unanimous agreement that little if any local Indian history and 
culture was being taught* 

The principals and tHe superintendent shared the teachers* 
feelings about the difficulty In drawing a line between Indian and 

'^In the 1967 Self-Evaluation Study, 41.8 per cent of the Hoopa 
High School student body indicated that most parents do not cooperate 
with the school In promoting student activities and Improvement of 
ciasswork* Hoods Valiev High School Self Evaluation Report * op* cit * 
p* 32 £• 


pagt 28 

nof>*Intltan children* One administrator notedi 

For each Indian fow-achlever there Is a non- 
Indian low-achiever* For each Indian who 
achieves above grade level f there Is a non- 
Indian who does likewise# 

The same administrator also stated that total school achievement 
In reservation schools Is behind the national average due to 
problems related to a migrant population, trensportatf on, and dif- 
ficulties In recruiting and keeping teachers* 

Another administrator believes It Is extremely difficult for 
him to visualize problems of Indian disadvantaged children from 
problems of non-Indtan dl sadvantaged children* He concluded that 
the schools are not meeting the needs of disadvantaged Indians and 
non-Indians to the same extent they are meeting the needs of "middle- 
class" Indians snd non-lndlans* 

Similarly, both the WASC visitation commlttee^s evaluation 
report and the Hoopa Valley High School Self Evaluation Study, both 
prepared for a wASC accreditatton study, drew no distinction between 
Indian and non-Indian students** 

Further evidence of both the school and the Board^s philosophy 
that the schools should not develop any practice or philosophy that 
would underline the fact that Indians and non-Indians comprise the 
student body In each of the district schools are the two evaluation 
documents, both compiled In 1967 for a WASC accreditation study* 

One document Is a self-evaluation of the Hoopa High School by its 
AHmfnlstrators, teachers, and students* The other document Is the 
report of a six-member evaluating team from outside the district* 

The self-evaluation report Is 156 pages In length and covers such 
topics as school philosophy, curriculum, sociological characteris- 
tics of the student body and the community, and the objectives, 
problems, and accomplishments of every academic unit In the school* 
Yet, In the entire document mention Is msde of Indians on only one 
page, and on that page the reference Is historical, referring to 
the early days of Indian boarding school education on the reservation* 

The WASC Visitation Committee Report la 20 pages long and men- 
tions Indians only once, and the mention Is identical to the histor- 
ical statement made In the aelf-evatuatlon report* 

Thus, If these evaluation reports were the only contact one 
had with the Hoopa High School, there would not be the slightest 
hint that Indians and Whites attend the school together today* 

Self Evaluation Report of the Hoopa Valley High School * op* cit* * 

of Schools and Coi leges* vI gI tat Ion Com- 
mittee Report of the Hoopa Valley High School* Klar/^Tth-trrnf^^ 

Uni f led Sc hoQ I P i str i ct ♦ 1967* 

pa^e 29 

Mot., of the teachers fntervfewed p faced the biame for the 
perceived poor quality of the schools on the family* Whatever the 
problems being dfscuseedy the teachers were quick to point to the 
failure of thehome to direct and encourage the schooi-age children 
to do better In school* However* neither the teachers nor the 
administrators extended his thought to the point of a vacuum 

The teachers expressed concern over the high teacher turnover 
fate and felt the turnover was harmful to the education program* 
They suggested numerous reasons for the high turnover ratei poor 
housing* Isolation* and lack of things to do were most often cited 
as reasons for leaving* 

Many teachers admitted they were originally drawn to the area 
by the rural character of the Hoopa Valley* but once this appeal 
wore off they became Immensely bored* Some teachers were attracted 
because they discovered It was possible to teach In Hoooa without 
California credentials (five of the six teachers In the first three 
grades did not have creJentlals)* Once the experience was gained* 
the teachers would move on to another area* The low salary celling 
was also noted as a reason for the turnover rate*2 

The teachers frequently complained about the poor disciplinary 
behavior In the high school* although no one listed this as a reason 
for the high turnover rate* The complaints about discipline were 
registered by the »*8tronvg*» teachers as well as the "lax** teai lers* 
with the latter group seemingly resigning themselves to the feeling 
there Is •little I can do to tighten up the rules this fate In the 

As so often Is the ease* an entire schoot^s character can be 
established for good or bad* by one or two faculty members who by 
their actions usually manage to bring the attention of the school 
to the community* During the research period two teachers qualified 
for this dubious distinction* The two cases are mentioned In this 
report because of the tendency of a community and the students to 
color their perceptions of an entire school by the spectacular be«* 
havlor of one or two faculty members* 

*The Waxes use the term •vacuum Ideology^ In their study of 
Sioux education on the Pine Ridge Reservation# "By ’vacuum Ideology’ 
we mean the disposition of administrators and school officials to 
support pot fetes and programs (such as the establishment of nursery 
schools) with the assertion that the Indian home and the mind of 
the Indian child are meager, empty* or lacking In pattern** M* wax 
and R* wax, "Formal Education In an American Indian Community** 

Social Probtems (Supplement* vof* it* no* 4* 

^The 1968 Klamath-Trlnlty Unified School District salary schedule 
ranged from $6600 for the B*A* (no additional 'jnlts) to $10*520 for 
the M*A* (plus 15 units and 12 steps)* 






page 30 

One of these teachers was a young woman with no prior teaching 
experfencot and highly Idealistic In her expectations of the academic 
and social behavior of Junior high school children* starting the 
aemeeter with an avowed policy of student freedom (**¥00 can do 

1^ i ^ A f i«% 4 ' a <1 tt\ 

%«orv vfiviv / 

for her eighth grade elassy the youngsters promptly turned the 
classroom Into chaos* ^?lthln a few weeks she attempted to Initiate 
$ome order by modifying the original policy with a poorly received 
dfacusslon of the necessity of certain norms of behavior in a demo« 
cracy and the Importance of self-dlscIpllne* 

With each passing day the classroom situation deteriorated 
further and further, and before the semester was a month over she 
was reduced to tears In class almost dally* 

The teacher felt she was dedicated and. Indeed, she had come 
to Hoopa with the express purpose of helping Indian children* She 
labored Into the early hours of the morning preparing special 
classroom materials for the students* She consulted other teachers, 
the county curriculum consultant, and eventually requested the 
parents of her children to come to a meeting to discuss the class*-^ 
room problems* At this meeting the teacher. In addition to seeking 
aid on the discipline problem, explained her desire to teach the 
children units on sex, drugs, and alcohol, "They need this Infor- 
mation badly, and nowt Just look around the room and you can see 
what they are thinking*** The parents were not receptive to her 
appeals for their approval to go ahead on the controversial units* 
One parent said the teacher was too young and Inexperienced to be 
teaching children such sensitive subjects* 

The other teacher had taught In the Hoopa schools for several 
years* His career at both schools was undistinguished and spotted 
with reports of physical cruelty to chi Idren. During the semester 
of this study he carried on two to three weeks of classroom scol- 
dings and haranguings against the students, culminating one day 
in a hard kick to the rear end of a seventh grade boy* The teacher 
vtas immediateiy dismissed from teaching duties by the admin I strati on 
and within the week had tendered his resignation* 

Board of Trustees 

Tha Board of Trustees Is firmly united In its view that the 
schools In the district must serve all children and not design a 
curriculum, recruit a faculty, or establish goals that would In 
any way highlight the Indian population In the schools* 

The Board contends that Indian children would do better In 
school If their parents would take a more active Interest In the 
schools# The Board members also complain that the Tribal Council 
and the Indian convfiuntty are quick to complain about Education, 

iwv.^1 vr 


page 31 

but never come to Board meetinge to m&ke their complaints known* 

The Trustees deny that they are slighting the Indians and 
point out that the Chalrinan Is Indian and three other Trustees 

4Sl • ' 

^ t w 

4 A 1*1 ^ 

«KAf f I cr VI ■ “ “ 

T M *1 H 
A lit 

IM « Cl I IO« 

member responded! 

l)/ ft* ** M* ** #1 ^ *lS iM» 4# 4^ W 4 4«t A *.«k «» IT wm B ^ ^ i ^ ^ » »0m^ B B 

•viit;f f V cmi ifMvw u I i S| vfic 1 1 i uo i v/Quiii; | i 

So what difference does that make? Just because 
you are married to an Indian or have Indian chil- 
dren In school, Isn^t going to make you a better 
or more representatl ve Board member In terms of 
helping Indians# The Chairman of the Board may 
be Indian all right, but he lsn»t Hoopa* Besides, 
there Is a difference between Indians* Some are 
bureaucratic, some answer only to certain groups 
on the reservation, some are smart, and some are 

The Board apparently sets the example, or at least condones, 
the lenient attitude toward discipline that prevails In the high 
school* For exanple, the Board voted a nlne^'week suspension Hhe 
time remaining In the Fall term) for a senior boy who sat In the 
bleachers at a football game and shouted obscenities at the coach* 
After the game the boy followed the team Into the locker room and, 
when ordered out by the coach, cursed him again and attempted to 
strike him with his fists* The boy was one of five varsity foot- 
ball players who had been dropped from the team two weeks earlier 
because the five had attended a drinking bout prior to the game 
arsd were still under the Influence when they took to the field* 

The year before, the same boy had become enraged at the biology 
teacher and knocked him down with his fists* Both the principal 
and the coach recommended ..that the Board be lenient# After an 
extended discussion Involving commentary on the boy^s home, choice 
of friends, and the positive side of hfs school behavior, the Board 
agreed on the relatively light suspension* 

Although the Tribal CouncH^ places the blame for any edu- 
cational problems on the Board, most of the Indian parents voiced 
an awareness of the difficult Job faced by the Board and are gener- 
ally supportive of Its efforts and Its Individual members* 

Trlba I Councl i 

By and large, the Tribal Council has taken the position that 
the schools are not serving the needs of Indian children* Council 
members point to the high Indian dropout rate, the low number of 
Indians v;ho have gone on to college, low standards of achievement, 
lenient grading policy, soft discipline, poor vocational program, 
absence of local Indian history and culture In the curriculum, and 
the high teacher turnover rate as prominent Indicators of the fall 

*f th* sschoofs. Th# Councfl sdmfts the situation could be Im- 
proved by getting Indian parents to take a more active Interest 
in education, but blame the school personnel for not taking a 
Stronger interest In bringing the parents to the schools. 

nAtiMPvl I 

egpp r — — 

t A i 

i I # 4^ A ^ 1 

— . * 

Thu TrIhftI — , 

_ - -- » »» ^na-vfvee s III ifAin^ vriff primary oiame 

Tor the sHuatlon on the Board of Trustees, arguing that the 
Board cannot understand the problems of Indian education when six 
df It seven members are White* 

*w A ^5® Council also resents the Board*s oft stated stand 

that education In Hoops Is for all children regardless of racial 
or ethnic background* The CouncI I recognizes the democratic neces* 
sity of such a position, but feel In this Instance It Is so much 
meaningless verbiage being used by the Board to cover up the fact 
that the Indian student Is not getting a fair shake* 

The Council claims the Board Is giving y>roof of Its tack of 
concern for Indians when It falls to take advantage of the various 
Indian educational funds available from private and governmental 
sources* One Cou»icfi memtser stated* 

We recognize there are more white kids than 
Indian kids In the schools and that all the 
children have an equal right to an education* 

But, the fact Is, the school board sits on Its 
ass and says there are no funds for the kind 
of remedial education we want the schools to 
teach In the summer and the evenings* 

wo arenH going to sit back and let them staff 
us any longer* Right now the Tribal Council Is 
seeking funds through the National Congress of 
American Indians to help out* But, these funds 
csn be used for Indian education only, we are 
going to get the Board to find an agency to 
match funds for the White kids* 

..A The Tribal Council has recently estcblleheb an education com- 
mittee, out the committee has not been In existence long enough 
to make a statement representing the CouncI I ♦s thoughts on edu- 
cation* Such a statement Is sorely needed because at present 
the CouncI I, divided among Itself on the Issues and lacking factual 
evidence of education of Indians In Hoopa, Is unable to epecifl** 
cel ly state what educational problems actually exist and what 
educational needs and goals are desireable for Indian students* 



Similar to schools everywhere in the United States, the 
two schools on the Hoopa Indian Reservation have their share 
of problems, the most evident of which are little parental involve- 
ment in school matters, lack of communication between the schools . 
and the home, disagreement over curriculum, lack of supplies and 
equipment, insufficient number of textbooks, and student discip- 
I i nary prob I ems • 

In addition to these widely occurring educational problems, 
there are problems typical of public schools on Indian reservat ions, 
such as poor communication between the Tribal Council and the 
school, white teachers who are unaware of or have little interest 
in the Indian culture or lack the skill to deal with it, high 
teacher turnover rate, and a high absenteeism rate. 

There are also problems largely unique to oublic schools 
located on Indian reservations with Indian and White children in 
attendance. For example, charges that teachers favor White chil- 
dren; reluctance to include courses in the curriculum that cater 
specifically to either Indian children or White children; and a 
tendency to scapegoat the school if either group of children fail 
to achieve as well as the other, drop'Out faster than the other, 
or require disciplinary measures more often than the other* 

Finally, there are problems effecting education that relate 
specifically to this particular reservation because of its geo- 
graphical, social, political, and economic character • Noteworthy 
here would be the fact that ninety-five per cent of the students 
have to be bussed, thus curtailing an effective after-school 
activity program. There is a lack of community agencies capable 
of augmenting the efforts of the school. There are also few stores 
and shops, no sanitation district, no fire protection district, 
and very few youth organizations. Unemployment is a most serious 
problem and remains a constant threat due to the single-industry 
nature of the area. Complex problems also emanate from confusion 
over the question of spheres of responsibility assigned to or as- 
sumed by the Federal Government, Tribal Council, state, county, and 
the local school district. 

The Hoopa schools have come a long way from the pre-1930 
"shame for being an Indian" educational philosophy. Today, a 
substantial public educational system exists on the reservation 
with many outstanding favorable factors evident; 

page 34 

f' The schools are completely Integrated and show 

no evidence of discrimination* 

2* The -students accept each other, drawing no 
social barriers based racial background* 

3« Ar< excellent nucleus of teachers exists^ balanced 
In age and Increasingly aware of the unique problems 
confronting public schools on an Indian reservation* 


4* The principals and the superintendent Justly enjoy 
the respect of their teachers and the parents* They 
entourage Innovation and work hard to l«prove edu- 
cation In the Hoopa schools* 

5* An active Board of Trustees Is sensitive to the 
complex problems of the district’s schools and re- 
ceptive to innovative proposals of professional edu- 

6* The Tribal Council Is concerned about education 
of Indian children and has created a Committee on 
Education* The Council and the schools are beginning 
to come together to discuss problems of the schools 
on the reservation* 

7* The schools are recognized by the people as the 
bulwark of the community, reaching beyond education 
of the young and opening their doors to public 
meetings, Indian meetings, and community social 

8* The parents recognize the Importance of education* 

9» The students recognize the Importance of education* 

Twelve of the twenty-four graduating Indians In the 
1969 class have enrolled In college* 

It Is difficult to understand why the WASC evaluation re- 
ports omitted any reference to the mixed Indian and White student 
body, especially since the teachers, staff, administrators, students 
parents, and the Board constantly talk about the mixture* If 
either Indian or White cnildren were the target of dl scrlmlnatlon, 
or If school achievement of one group were markedly out of line 
with the other, then one might be suspicious of the motivation 
behind the omission* Since this Is cle*«*ly not the case, and In 
view of the fact that Interview and questionnaire data Indicated 
that teachers, students, and parents are desirous of the school 
offering Indian history and culture, then an open, forceful, and 

P*gt 35 

proud philosophical stance reflecting the fact the Hoopa 
student body Is Indian and non«lndlan should be aasumed* 

A similar argument can be mustered against the Board* s 
position that schools In the district must serve all children and 
not design a curriculum or establish goals specifically for 
Indian or non*lndlan children* 

With this thinking the Board Is apparently equating the 
teaching of Indian history and culture vrith the notion that this 
somehow would not be fair to the non-Indlan children. The fact 
ISf every child going to school In area rich with an Indian 
history stands to gain by learning that history* If there Is 
anything td the .belief that schoolc should reflect the local culture 
of which they are a part, then here Is concrete Justification* 


page 36 



f\e Tuc uTnu Qr.unni cnn tmf dart Twn 

W V V « fW *V*W« VTVW 

(GRADES 7-^12; OCTOBER 1968)* 


0 ' 

113 students left school 

69 transferred to another school (19 Indian, 50 non*Indtan) 

26 dropouts (for reasons unknown) (16 Indian^ tO non«»Indlan) 

2 expelled (I Indian) 

3 went to work (I Indian) 

5 got married 

2 got married hut. went to adult education and graduated (I Indian) 

4 dropped out due to pregnancy (I Indian) 

2 for health reasons (1 Indian) 

Total Dropout SI 21 Indian 

2^ non^Indlan 

|966«»f967 School Year 

ITS students left school 

104 transferred to another school (22 Indian, 82 non-Indian) 

39 dropouts (for reasons unknown) (20 Indian, 19 non-Indian) 

3 expelled (3 Indian, 2 non-Indian) 

9 went to work 

It got married (3 Indian, 8 non-Indian) 

2 dropped out due to pregnancy 

4 health reasons (2 Indian) 
t death 

2 Joined armed forces (I Indian) 

I mid-year graduate 

Total Dropouts* 29 Indian 

45 non-Indian 

1968-1969 (to date) 

14 students left school 

8 transferred to another school (2 Indian, 6 non-Indian) 

5 dropped out (2 Indian, 5 non-Indian) 

1 got married t 

•Source* Principals Off Ice, Hoopa Valley High School* 


p«g* 37 



I!;. TO™S;! s.’^l °' "• "“"••■ T». A..rlc. 

*^'“****’Am«rl ran*e tyHo logy!! Bu iKt i ° 

i"*”®" Affairs, Progress Renort tn the 
^ Ygrror and the Legislature on In djans Tn Rural and Keser, 
jtg^lon Are^, sacramentot StatT^of Call/ornla, t 9 S 6 '^~ 

iJrtian Education In an American 

1964#” Community," Socia I Probtemo (Supplement), Vol# It, No* 4, 

Western^Assoclatlon of Schools and Colleges (WASC). Visitation Com-s 

tlnrlfld^ h£l°ulst^g^^ schoal, . KTa-^th.Trlnl S