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DOCUMENT BESOME 



ED 053 833 



RC 005 507 



TITLE 



INSTITUTION 
SPONS AGENCY 
PUB DATE 
NOTE 



Smaller Communities Program: Wallowa County, Oregon. 
Combined Economic Base Report and Applicant 
Potential Report; An Evaluation of the Economic and 
Human Resources of a Rural Oregon County. 

Oregon State Dept, of Employment, Salem. 

Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 

Mar 68 
89p. 



EDRS PRICE 
DESCRIPTORS 



IDENTIFIERS 



EDRS Price MF-J0.65 HC-S3.29 

Economic Factors, *Economic Research, Employment 
Services, Jobs, ♦Low Income Counties, ^Manpower 
Needs, Manpower Utilization, *Occupational 
Information, Resources, Rural Areas, *Rural 
Economics, Surveys 
Oregon 



ABSTRACT 

of the Oreg 
the program 
stated, the 
economic ad 
the occupat 
of this obj 
labor area 
pertaining 
document in 
Northwest, 
socioeconom 
agriculture 
payrolls an 
vocational 
graph, 13 t 



Prepared by the Smaller Communities Services Program 
on Department of Employment, this 1968 report summarizes 
findings with relation to Wallowa County, Oregon. As 
overall objective of the program was promotion of the 
justment of specific rural, low-income areas — including 
ional adjustment of individual residents. In furtherance 
ective, a mobile team of 1 supervisor, 1 counselor, 1 
analyst, and 6 temporary personnel collected information 
to Wallowa County. The findings are reported in the 
terms of the area’s relationship to the Pacific 
recreation areas, general description of the area, 
ic factors, historical notes, population trends, 

, nonagr icultural industries, employment distribution, 
d spendctble income, natural resources, the labor force, 
training, study methodology, and occupational groups. One 
ables, and a 9-item bibliography are included. (MJB) 



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STATE 

DEPARTMEN1 




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U S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, 
EDUCATION & WELFARE 
OFFICE OF EDUCATION 
THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRO- 
DUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM 
THE PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIG- 
INATING IT POINTS OF VIEW OR OPIN- 
IONS STATED DO NOT NECESSARILY 
REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDU 
CATION POSITION OR POLICY 



SMALLER 
COMMUNITIES 
PROG 




APPLICANT' 

OCCUPATIONAL K 
AND 

ECONOMIC BASE REPORT 
FOR 

WALLOWA COUNTY 
OREGON 



PUBIIC CMPlOYHEPn SERVICE 




local 6TATC national 



STATE OF OREGON 
DEPARTMENT OF EMPLOYMENT 



O 





SMALLER COMMUNITIES PROGRAM 
WALLOWA COUNTY. OREGON 

COMBINED ECONOMIC BASE REPORT AND APPLICANT POTENTIAL REPORT 
AN EVALUATION OF THE ECONOMIC AND HUMAN RESOURCES 
OF A RURAL OREGON COUNTY 





i 



STATE OF OREGON 
DEPARTMENT OF EMPLOYMENT 

J. N. PEET, COMMISSIONER 

PREPARED BY 

OREGON STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 
ELDON CONE, DIRECTOR 
HAROLD TAPP , RURAL AREA REPRESENTATIVE 

MARCH 1968 



1 



3 




r. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Frontispiece 1 

Table of Contents 3 

Relationship to Pacific Northwest 4 

Introduction 3 

Recreational Areas 6 

General Description 7 - 10 

Historical H - 12 

Population Trends 13 - 14 

Agriculture 15 - 17 

Nonagr icultur al Industries 18 - 21 

Employment Distribution 22 - 25 

Payrolls and Spendable Income 26 

Natural Resources 27 - 29 

The Labor Force 30 - 41 

Methodology 42 - 43 

Occupational Groups Defined 44 - 46 

Bibliography 47 

Acknowledgements 48 



& 

; 



RELATIONSHIP TO PACIFIC NORTH 




The map t 
cation oi' 
Pacific C> 

There arc 
south cen 
Enterpr i s 
e levatioi., 
Joseph, vv, 
elevation 

Listed be 
miles, fr 
politan a 

Port 
Seat 
Sal 1 
San 

It is 31 ~ 
route fro 



5 



LATIONSHIP TO PACIFIC NORTHWEST 




The map to the left depicts the general lo- 
cation of Wallowa County in relation to the 
Pacific Coast and Northwestern United States. 

There are two excellent airports in the 
south central part of the county; one at 
Enterprise with a 2,500 foot runway and an 
elevation of 3,900 feet, and one south of 
Joseph, with a 3,900 foot runway and an 
elevation of 4,200 feet. 

Listed below are the distances, in airline 
miles, from Enterprise to the nearest metro- 
politan areas, in all directions: 



Portland 270 Miles 

Seat t le 310 11 

Salt Lake City 440 ” 

San Francisco 660 11 



It is 317 miles by the most direct highway 
route from Enterprise to Portland. 



5 



6 



INTRODUCTION 



The Smaller Communities Services Program of the Oregon Department of Employment is 
used as a means of expanding the services of the agency to cope with the needs of 
rural, low income areas. Many of these areas are served only partially and inade- 
quately by the present system of permanent Employment Service local offices. The 
overall objective of the program is promotion of the economic adjustment of these 
areas, including the occupational adjustment of the individual residents. In fur- 
therance of the overall objective, the major responsibilities of the program are to 



(a) Determine the current and potential manpower resources of the area. 

(b) Determine the current and projected future manpower needs of the area. 

(c) Provide employment counseling and placement assistance to residents 
of the area with relation to jobs both within and outside the area. 



(d) Assist the community in cataloging and evaluating its economic re- 
source . 

(e) Cooperate with other agencies and community groups in developing 
programs for economic development. 

The Smaller Communities Services Program is operated by the Oregon Department of 
Employment under the authorization of, and with funds provided by, the Bureau of 
Employment Security of the U. S. Department of Labor. 



The herein report is a 
County, Oregon. These 
period of three months 
one labor area analyst 
ly for the study. The 
to printing. 



summary of the program findings with relation to Wallowa 
findings are the result of field work performed over a 
by a Mobile Team composed of one supervisor, one counselor, 
and six temporary personnel hired in Wallowa County express- 
report was received and approved by county officials prior 



******* 



5 



o 

ERLC 



7 



WALLOWA COUNTY RECREATIONAL AREAS 




On the adjacent map, the i 
of recreational facilitie 
these symbols: 



Forest Camp . . 
State Park . . . 



Commercial Re 



Some of the Forest Camps, 
at high elevations in the 
the county, require four-iv 
to reach. 



Map of Wallowa County showing location of recreation 
areas. Numbers on above map correspond to numbers of 
maps which are available from the U.S. Forest Service 
on a 2 n to one mile scale. 



6 




8 



9 





9 



SMALLER COMMUNITIES PROGRAM 
WALLOWA COUNTY, OREGON 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



AREA DEFINITION AND LOCATION 

Wallowa County is located in the extreme northeastern 
corner of the State of Oregon, being bounded on the east 
by the State of Idaho, on the north by the State of 
Washington, on the west by Umatilla and Union Counties, 
and on the south by Baker County. 




Enterprise, the county seat, is located in the south 
central part of the county and is 317 highway miles, or 
approximately 270 airline miles nearly due east of the 
nearest metropolitan area, Portland, Oregon, and approxi- 
mately 640 airline miles northeast by north of San 
Francisco, California. 

TOPOGRAPHY 



Wallowa County has a total land surface of approximately 
3,200 square miles, all lying at a considerable eleva- 
tion, and more than half of which may be classed as 
mountainous with peaks ranging up to a maximum of 10,000 
feet. A broad dissected plateau occupies the central 
portion of the county, with elevations ranging from ap- 
proximately 2,800 feet to 4,000 feet. There are also 
some minor finger valleys scattered along the Imnaha 
drainage in the eastern part of the county. Drainage of 
the area is generally to the north through deeply in- 
cised canyons. Principal rivers are the Minam and 
Wallowa which flow into the Grande Ronde at the north- 
western edge of the county, and the Imnaha which flows 
into the Snake River npar the northeastern corner of the 



CLIMATE 



Generally speaking, the dim. 
the semi-arid intermountain ' 
throughout most of the year 
the normal year having measu 
days tend to be hot on the c 
are cool. Winters can be se 
higher elevations. There is 
ing season of slightly more 
average is not an absolute; 
and has, although this is a 
wide range in annual precipi 
high of 60 ‘nches in the sou 
low of 12 inches on the cent 
precipitation at Enterprise, 
also at near an average elev 
13 inches. Most of this co 
early spring and practical] 
is in the form of snow. Som 
summers on the higher peaks, 
glaciat ion . 



1 



10 



SMALLER COMMUNITIES PROGRAM 
WALLOWA COUNTY, OREGON 



GENERAL 



DESCRIPTION 



OCATION 



rated in the extreme northeastern 
>f Oregon, being bounded on the east 
o, on the north by the State of 
?st by Umatilla and Union Counties, 
i^aker County. 

ty seat , is located in the south 
county and is 317 highway miles, or 
rline miles nearly due east of the 
area, Portland, Oregon, and approxi- 
iles northeast by north of San 
a . 



total land surface of approximately 
all lying at a considerable eleva- 
half of which may be classed as 
aks ranging up to a maximum of 10,000 
cted plateau occupies the central 
y, with elevations ranging from ap- 
et to 4,000 feet. There are also 
lleys scattered along the Imnaha 
ern part of the county. Drainage of 
y to the north through deeply in- 
cipal rivers are the Minam and 
into the Grande Ronde at the north- 
county, and the Imnaha which flows 
near the northeastern corner of the 



county. All of the streams rise within the county and 
the major ones have their headwaters in the high Wallowas 
which form the southern boundary of the county. There 
are more than 50 lakes in the higher elevations, but only 
five of these are fifty or more acres in extent. Wallowa 
Lake, which covers 1,600 acres, is the largest and also 
the most accessible. 

CLIMATE 



Generally speaking, the climate is that of the rest of 
the semi-arid intermountain west. Sunshine prevails 
throughout most of the year with less than 100 days in 
the normal year having measurable precipitation. Summer 
days tend to be hot on the central plateau but the nights 
are cool. Winters can be severe, particularly in the 
higher elevations. There is an average frost-free grow- 
ing season of slightly more than four months, but the 
average is not an absolute; frost can come in any season, 
and has, although this is a rare occurrence. There is a 
wide range in annual precipitation which ranges from a 
high of 60 inches in the south central mountains to a 
low of 12 inches on the central plateau. Annual average 
precipitation at Enterprise, the county seat (which is 
also at near an average elevation) is slightly more than 
13 inches. Most of this comes in the late winter and 
early spring and practically all at the higher altitudes 
is in the form of snow. Some snow remains during most 
summers on the higher peaks, but there is no appreciable 
glaciation. 

(Continued next page) 




A 



11 



Description (Cont. ) 
RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER AREAS 



Wallowa County has no Federal highways within its bound- 
aries but is served by State Route 82, which connects 
with U . S . Highway 30 at La Grande, and State Route 3, 
which links the county with the State of Washington to 
the north. A branch line of the Union Pacific Railroad 
serves the Wallowa valley with connections to the main 
line, also at La Grande. Aside from the two State high- 
ways mentioned, there are no paved roads leading out of 
the county, although there are two unimproved roads lead- 
ing out of the north part of the county. The Grand Can- 
yon of the Snake River, which forms the eastern boundary, 
and the high Wallowas and the Sawtooth range, which form 
the southern boundary, would present some pretty sticky 
problems to anyone thinking of building a road in either 
direction . 



Thus, the only effective relationship is with Union County, 
of which La Grande is the county seat. This relationship 
extends to some similarities of climate, labor force char- 
acteristics and industry. There is some commuting out to 
work in Union County by Wallowa County residents, but 
practically no commuting in. 



GENERAL 



Of slightly more than two million acres of land in Wallowa 
County, approximately 856,000 acres, or about 42.2 percent, 
are in private ownership. Of this acreage in private own- 
ership, 721,367 acres, or nearly 36 percent of the total 
land area, is in farms and grazing land. Of the total 
1,177,256 acres in public ownership, 1,158,125 are feder- 
ally held and the balance is about equally divided between 
state and local holdings. 



Almost one-half of the federally held lands are in poorly 
accessible terrain, partly above the timber line, and gen- 
erally of no value except for recreation purposes. The 
remainder is mostly in timber stands, although some of 
these stands have been removed from multiple use to form 
a part of a wilderness area of nearly 200 square miles, 
partly in Wallowa and partly in Union and Baker Counties. 



8 



Almost all of the nearly thr 
in farm land lies on the cer. 
Wallowa Valley. However, thi 
farm lands on each side of i 
part of its length. The cou 
cessible portions by approxi 
highway, 41 miles of paved c 
225 miles of surfaced or gr 
common carrier passenger tra 
county, although the mail st 
once daily as far as La Gra 



THE INDUSTRIES 



The industry of Wallowa Coun' 
on pages 15 through 21; ho 
will be very brief. 



The basic industry of Wallow 
manpower usage and wage and 
Of some 525 farms in the corn 
ed as commercial and 298 ot 
excess of $5,000 each. Full 
exceeded the total employmen 
industry. Total value of fa 
in excess of $5,860,000. Li 
ucts usually account for appi 
total farm sales. Here, as < 
mechanization of farms has a 
agricultural employment. 



Lumber and wood products proc 
the bulk of the manuf act urine 
the dominant nonagr icultur al 
ever, this segment of industi 
recent years and presently o 
its former prominence. Retai 
is in an upward trend, both v 
employed and percentage of tl‘ 
Trade is to some extent seasc: 
factors as tourism and seasor 
dustries . 



I/ 



* * * 

U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Bu 



Agricultural Census. 



ihways within its bound- 
e 82, which connects 
, and State Route 3, 
tate of Washington to 
Union Pacific Railroad 
;innections to the main 
from the two State high- 
d roads leading out of 
vo unimproved roads lead- 
county. The Grand Can- 
rms the eastern boundary, 
iwtooth range, which form 
sent some pretty sticky 
ailding a road in either 



Almost all of the nearly three-quarters of a million acres 
in farm land lies on the central plateau known locally as 
Wallowa Valley. However, there are scattered strips in 
farm lands on each side of the Imnaha River, over a good 
part of its length. The county is traversed in the ac- 
cessible portions by approximately 80 miles of State 
highway, 41 miles of paved county road, and approximately 
225 miles of surfaced or graded county road. There is no 
common carrier passenger transportation operative in the 
county, although the mail stage does take passengers 
once daily as far as La Grande. 

THE INDUSTRIES 

The industry of Wallowa County will be more fully treated 
on pages 15 through 21; hence, the description here 
will be very brief. 



nship is with Union County, 
seat. This re latior^hip 
climate, labor force char- 
is some commuting out to 
bounty residents, but 



n acres of land in Wallowa 
res, or about 42.2 percent, 
is acreage in private own- 
36 percent of the total 
ng land. Of the total 
hip, 1,158,125 are feder- 
ut equally divided between 



held lands are in poorly 
, the timber line, and gen- 
creation purposes. The 
rands, although some of 
rom multiple use to form 
learly 200 square miles, 
(Union and Baker Counties. 



The basic industry of Wallowa County, both in relation to 
manpower usage and wage and salary income,/ is agriculture. 
Of some 525 farms in the county in 1964,—' 404 were class- 

ed as commercial and 298 of these had product sales in 
excess of $5,000 each. Full time farm operators, alone, 
exceeded the total employment in any one nonagr icultural 
industry. Total value of farm products sold in 1966 was 
in excess of $5,860,000. Livestock and livestock prod- 
ucts usually account for approximately two-thirds of the 
total farm sales. Here, as elsewhere, consolidation and 
mechanization of farms has caused a downward trend in 
agricultural employment. 



Lumber and wood products processing, which account for 
the bulk of the manufacturing employment, was at one time 
the dominant nonagr icultural industry of the county. How- 
ever, this segment of industry has seriously declined in 
recent years and presently offers no signs of resuming 
its former prominence. Retail trade, on the other hand, 
is in an upward trend, both with regard to actual numbers 
employed and percentage of the overall total employment. 
Trade is to some extent seasonal, being affected by such 
factors as tourism and seasonal employment in other in- 
dustries. 



******** 

1/ U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1964 
Agricultural Census. 




13 



A 



SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS 



HOUSING 



Wallowa County has suffered an almost 16 percent popula- 
tion loss in the past 16 years, with more than 75 percent 
of the loss coining in the past seven years. Construction 
of new housing has therefore been at a minimum, although 
there has been isome activity in this respect in and 
around the Enterprise area. The 1960 census lists 32 
percent of the housing in Wallowa County as being either 
deteriorated, dilapidated, or lacking in plumbing. As 
near as could be determined by the Mobile Team, the per- 
centage of substandard housing in the county is still 
about the same today. Some housing has been abandoned 
and has probably progressed from deteriorating to dilapi- 
dated. However, it appears likely that some of the popu- 
lation which left the county in the past seven years were 
probably residing in substandard housing during their stay 
in the county. 

By far, the majority of the presently occupied housing is 
well-kept, neat in appearance, and generally indicative of 
householder pride. The same standards seem to apply to 
most of the occupied business premises, although there 
are a few spots in all the incorporated areas which should 
be removed in the interests of general appearance. 

Sound modern housing, either for rent or for sale, is scarce 
although reasonably priced when found. Facilities for 
transients are minimal except at Enterprise, and even in 
that town they are sometimes scarce. There are four trail- 
er courts in the county, with a total space for 33 trailers, 
aside from the spaces at Wallowa State Park near Joseph, 
which can be used on a limited term basis only. 

SCHOOLS 



Wallowa County schools have a total enrollment of 1,580 
and a total instructor personnel of 97, exclusive of cer- 
tificated personnel in administrative and librarian posi- 
tions. Latest report available (that for the 1964-65 



school year) indicates approximate 
the instructor personnel had at le 
degree. The county ranks fourth a 
in median school years completed l: 
of 25 years. Contact with high sc 
of registration, counseling and to 
Unit with the impression that an e 
done from an academic standpoint, 
school. Vocational training faciJ 
are limited and there are no faciJ 
training beyond high school. WhiJ 
people contacted in the course of 
interested in vocational training, 
that even fewer were interested in 
such training. ( 

CHURCHES 4 

Almost one-half of the people ovei 
Iowa County are church members. T 
churches embracing 12 different dc 
four of the congregations have mem 
Three have less than fifty member^ 
churches are pastored by lay minis 
or no financial support from theij 

FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SERVIC 



Most of the major fraternal organi 
clubs have active groups in Wallow 
service clubs, the Jaycees and Lio 
Three national farm organizations 
county . 

RECREATION 



Wallowa County offers what is prob 
recreational area in the State of 
ing, boating, swimming and mountai 
the more prevalent activities. Fo 
scenery alone is well worth a trip 
is both stream and lake fishing av 
abounds in big game and upland bir 
fowl. Wallowa Lake, which covers 

( 



ACTORS 


school year) indicates approximately three out of four of 
the instructor personnel had at least a baccalaureate 
degree. The county ranks fourth among all Oregon Counties 
in median school years completed by persons over the age 
of 25 years. Contact with high school youth in the course 
of registration, counseling and testing left the Mobile 


t 16 percent popula- 


Unit with the impression that an excellent job is being 


more than 75 percent 


done from an academic standpoint, at least through high 


years. Construction 


school. Vocational training facilities in high school 


a minimum, although 


are limited and there are no facilities for vocational 


respect in and 


training beyond high school. While only a few of the 


j census lists 32 


people contacted in the course of the Household Study were 


unty as being either 


interested in vocational training, it seems worth noting 


y in plumbing. As 


that even fewer were interested in leaving the county for 


obile Team, the per- 
e county is still 


such training. 


has been abandoned 
eriorating to dilapi- 


CHURCHES 


hat some of the popu- 


Almost one-half of the people over the age of 13 in Wal- 


past seven years were 


lowa County are church members. There is a total of 18 


sing during their stay 


churches embracing 12 different denominations, but only 
four of the congregations have memberships of 100 or more. 
Three have less than fifty members. Some of the smaller 


v occupied housing is 


churches are pastored by lay ministers, who receive little 


nerally indicative of 
ds seem to apply to 


or no financial support from their churches. 


es, although there 
xed areas which should 


FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SERVICE CLUBS 


al appearance. 


Most of the major fraternal organizations and service 
clubs have active groups in Wallowa County. Among the 


t or for sale, is scarce 


service clubs, the Jaycees and Lions are the most active. 


d, Facilities for 


Three national farm organizations have chapters in the 


erprise, and even in 
There are four trail- 


county . 


1 space for 33 trailers, 
te Park near Joseph, 


RECREATI ON 


basis only. 


Wallowa County offers what is probably the best outdoor 
recreational area in the State of Oregon. Fishing, hunt- 
ing, boating, swimming and mountain climbing are among 
the more prevalent activities. For the less active, the 


enrollment of 1,580 


scenery alone is well worth a trip into the area. There 


97, exclusive of cer- 


is both stream and lake fishing available. The area 


>e and librarian posi- 


abounds in big game and upland birds, as well as water- 


it for the 1964-65 


fowl. Wallowa Lake, which covers approximately 1,600 

(Continued next page) ^ 



o 

ERIC 



4 



Description (Cont. ) 

acres, has excellent facilities for small boat launching. 
Camping spaces are available on a first-come basis in a 
state park south of the lake. In addition, there are 
several private facilities including one ski lift, as 
well as some forest camps within easy range. The lake 
and the state parks are easily reached over a paved, all- 
weather road. Excellent airports near Enterprise and 
Joseph offer accommodations for private planes. The 
whole area is dotted with forest camps. 




WALLOWA LAKE FROM THE SUMMIT OF HOWARD MOUNTAIN. PHOTO COURTESY 

10 



There are no locally < 
Television viewing is 
Isolation and limited 
of cultural attractior 

There are municipal 1 i 
Joseph. There is als- 
with excellent selecti 
mobile service to the 
and Imnaha. 




16 



for small boat launching, 
a first-come basis in a 
In addition, there are 
uding one ski lift, as 
n easy range. The lake 
reached over a paved, ali- 
as near Enterprise and 
private planes. The 
l camps. 



There are no locally originating entertainment facilities. 
Television viewing is available via cable and translator. 
Isolation and limited population restricts the importation 
of cultural attractions to a degree. 

There are municipal libraries at Enterprise, Wallowa and 
Joseph. There is also a we 1 1 -maintained county library 
with excellent selection at Enterprise, which offers book- 
mobile service to the communities of Flora, Troy, Lostine 
and Imnaha, 




i FROM THE SUMMIT OF HOWARD MOUNTAIN. PHOTO COURTESY WALLOWA CHIEFTAIN. 



16 



17 



HISTORICAL 



Wallowa was the last of all Oregon Counties to be settled. 
Although it doubtless experienced some visits from hunt- 
ers and trappers during the early years, it was generally 
by-passed by the western tide of immigration. When one 
looks at the general topography of the county, this is 
not hard to understand. Actually, the county is easily 
approachable only from the west. Hence, it was not until 
good free land started to become scarce in the more set- 
tled areas to the west and north that anyone thought of 
pushing over the hills to the east and into the soil -rich 
Wallowa Valley. The first visitors of record were the 
Tulley brothers, F. C. Bramlett, and a man named Masterson 
in 1871. Bramlett came directly from Douglas County, but 
the other three drove stock over from the Cove District 
in Union County. Bramlett settled on land a few miles 
east of the present town of Joseph, and so became the 
first resident in what is now Wallowa County. The other 
three, with several others (Proebstel, Coright, Beggs, 
Johnson and Powers, to name a few) returned and took up 
land in 1872. This group also appears to have built the 
first road into the valley. Settlement must have contin- 
ued to be very slow, since early historians note that a 
James Wilson, who arrived in 1875, was the twenty-first 
settler in the valley. By 1878, the settlement had ex- 
tended to the present Imnaha where one John Johnson was 
the first settler to take up land. 

The first post office appears to have been established at 
Lostine in 1878, followed by one at Joseph in 1879. By 
1884, Joseph also had a newspaper, "The Chieftain," since 
moved to Enterprise. 

1/ History of Union and Wallowa Counties. 

Western Historical Publishing Co. (1902) 



18 



The first school in the county 
fluence of Bear Creek and the l\ 
in the present town of Wallowa i 
1876. Sad to relate, the schoc 
undertaking, turned out to be 
continued. A public school wa- 
in 1879 and was taught by "a t c 
period of three months. A new 
same year at the settlement ol 
Harold Burleigh. It was not ur 
built at Joseph, with a second 
tine in the same year. By 188' 
organized, there were 24 schoo! 
total enrollment of 749 out f : 
age. However, there were no lr 
prior to 1908. 



As late as 1902, only a little 
850,000 acres of land in privf 
propriated. A historian of \i 
claims were filed against 56. cl 
same historian notes that therl 
tion from the cattle growers o| 
of a railroad being built inte 
ed a railroad "hostile to the: 
historian, because it would "c| 
cessitating the building of 
work for the cowboys and herdel 
for (sic) their point of view. I 
and settlement, and the conveij 
into small farms, thus compel, 
flocks and herds to retrench 
abandon his pursuit entirely.’! 

Eventually, in 1908, the railJ 
main line of the Union Pacifi f 
and probably no one benefited 
the ranchers. As an aside, i 
the average size of all rancho 
from just over 1,200 acres in 
in 1964--and is still climbing 
was under 600 acres prior to 
the ranch owners at the turn 
have been without foundation. 



19 



L 



Counties to be settled. 



emigration. When one 
the county, this is 
the county is easily 
Mence , it was not until 
carce in the more set- 
hat anyone thought of 
and into the soil -rich 
s of record were the 
nd a man named Masterson 
rom Douglas County, but 
rom the Cove District 
on land a few miles 
, and so became the 
owa County. The other 
tel, Coright, Beggs, 
returned and took up 
ears to have built the 
ement must have contin- 
nistorians note that a 
, was the twenty-first 
he settlement had ex- 
re one John Johnson was 



-iave been established at 
at Joseph in 1879. By 
"The Chieftain," since 

rount ie s . 

. (1902) 



The first school in the county was built near the con- 
fluence of Bear Creek and the Wallowa River (approximately 
in the present town of Wallowa) by one M. S. Anderson in 
1876. Sad to relate, the school, which was a private 
undertaking, turned out to be unprofitable and was dis- 
continued. A public school was set up on the same site 
in 1879 and was taught by "a teacher named Hase"l/for a 
period of three months. A new school was built in the 
same year at the settlement of Alder, being taught by one 
Harold Burleigh. It was not until 1881 that a school was 
built at Joseph, with a second school being built at Los- 
tine in the same year. By 1887, when the county was first 
organized, there were 24 schools in the county, with a 
total enrollment of 749 out of 1,396 persons of school 
age. However, there were no high schools in the county 
prior to 1908. 

As late as 1902, only a little over 440,000 of the present 
850,000 acres of land in private ownership had been ap- 
propriated. A historian of that day noted that homestead 
claims were filed against 56,000 acres during 1901. The 
same historian notes that there was considerable opposi- 
tion from the cattle growers of the area to the proposal 
of a railroad being built into the valley. They consider- 
ed a railroad "hostile to their interests," states the 
historian, because it would "cut through the ranges, ne- 
cessitating the building of ... fences and making extra 
work for the cowboys and herders. What is still worse 
for (sic) their point of view, it encourages immigration 
and settlement, and the conversion of large cattle ranges 
into small farms, thus compelling the owner of extensive 
flocks and herds to retrench and perhaps to eventually 
abandon his pursuit entirely." 1 / 

Eventually, in 1908, the railroad connecting with the 
main line of the Union Pacific at La Grande was built, 
and probably no one benefited from it quite as much as 
the ranchers. As an aside, it seems worth noting that 
the average size of all ranches in Wallowa County went up 
from just over 1,200 acres in 1959 to nearly 1,400 acres 
in 1964--and is still climbing. Since the average size 
was under 600 acres prior to the railroad, the fears of 
the ranch owners at the turn of the century appear to 
have been without foundation. (Continued next page) 



n 



o 





■ 







HISTORICAL (Cont.) 

Unlike the other counties in eastern Oregon, Wallowa has 
never had a "mining excitement," although some prospect- 
ing has been done and some mineral values have been dis- 
closed. From a historical standpoint, the area is 
chiefly noted for being the home base of the redoubtable 
young Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indian tribe. The 
Chief, who might well have been the man who invented the 
phrase "strategic retreat," in that he beat his white 
adversaries over every mile of a 1,400 mile retreat, only 
to lose his war to the elements in the last ten miles, 
also bears some historical resemblance to Homer. More 
than half a hundred towns in northeastern Oregon, south- 
eastern Washington and northern Idaho, who sought Chief 


One of the Joseph citizens i 
across the street. As one ; 
quaintly put the matter, th< 
in use, immediately came to 
was wrong. The upshot of tf 
robbers were either killed < 
fortunately, the one who go: 
carrying the money. Today, 
ture of the area and conseq. 
County would probably be th* 
bank robber would choose to 
100 percent success of the i 
early days, it does seem ock 
made at that time. 


Joseph 1 s scalp while he was alive, now honor him with 
historical markers erected to his memory. His body is 
now buried at Nespelem, Washington, despite occasional 
attempts to place it elsewhere. 

At this late date, it appears that the cause of Chief 
Josephs war had its origins in Wallowa County, although 
not a single battle of the war was fought in that area. 

Because Wallowa County has been almost exclusively an 
agricultural area from its first settlement, it has miss- 
ed much of the uproarious wildness that characterized 


Anyone reading the Wallowa i 
day is bound to be struck b;>, 
which are no longer in exist 
Prairie Creek, and Lost Pra# 
not today recognizable as to 
long time residents still rc 
once were by name. Most of 
these former towns have move 
the county, or have left the 
of roads in the county has i 
this . 


the beginnings of most western counties. The cattlemen 
got along with the sheepmen--and vice versa. There were 
never any of the bitter feuds between families or groups 
that occurred in some other localities. But not all of 
the citizens were completely law abiding; there was the 
matter of the Chinese massacre in the spring of 1887, 
for instance. Ten Chinese miners in the Snake 3iver Can- 
yon were set upon and killed by a group of six white men, 
whose names were later learned, but none of whom were 
punished. A considerable amount of gold was taken from 
the miners after the massacre. According to reports of 
the time, one of the desperadoes decamped with the gold, 
leaving the rest with no profit for their trouble. 


* * + 


Then there was the case of the two bank robberies, about 
four years apart. The first, in Enterprise, in 1891, ap- 
pears to have been a well-organized affair, and completely 
successful. The second in Joseph, in 1895, was not so 
successful— or more unlucky, depending on one’s viewpoint. 

12 





Oregon, Wallowa has 


One of the Joseph citizens witnessed the holdup from 
across the street. As one chronicler of the episode 
quaintly put the matter, the citizens, seeing the guns 


lough some prospect- 


in use, immediately came to the conclusion that something 


ilues have been dis- 


was wrong. The upshot of the matter was that all of the 


* the area is 


robbers were either killed or captured except one. Un- 


3 of the redoubtable 


fortunately, the one who got away was the one who was 


ndiari tribe. The 


carrying the money. Today, because of the isolated na- 


nan who invented the 


ture of the area and consequent get away problems. Wallowa 


le beat his white 


County would probably be the last place in Oregon where a 


)0 mile retreat, only 


bank robber would choose to operate. But, in view of the 


ie last ten miles, 


100 percent success of the only two efforts made in the 


'e to Homer. More 


early days, it does seem odd that more efforts were not 


stern Oregon, south- 


made at that time. 


>, who sought Chief 
m honor him with 


Anyone reading the Wallowa County annals of an earlier 


nory. His body is 


day is bound to be struck by the number of place names 


Respite occasional 


which are no longer in existence. Leap, Chico, Fruita, 


he cause of Chief 


Prairie Creek, and Lost Prairie, to mention a few. are 
not today recognizable as towns, although a few of the 


long time residents still refer to the areas where they 


owa County, although 


once were by name. Most of the one-time population of 


ought in that area. 


these former towns have moved into the larger towns of 


st exclusively an 


the county, or have left the county altogether. Advent 
of roads in the county has largely been responsible for 


tlement, it has miss- 


this . 


hat characterized 
ies. The cattlemen 


******** 


c versa. There were 
n families or groups 
es . But not al 1 of 
ding; there was the 
e spring of 1887, 
the Snake River Can- 




oup of six white men, 
none of whom were 
gold was taken from 
rding to reports of 
amped with the gold, 
their trouble . 




Fank robberies, about 
;erprise, in 1891, ap- 
affair, and completely 
‘n 1895, was not so 
ng on one's viewpoint. 






21 



POPULATION 



The population of Wallowa County has been subject to vio- 
lent fluctuation at times during the past quarter of a 
century. In general, the trend has been down. The House- 
hold Study conducted by the Mobile Team of the Smaller 
Communities Program in September of 1967 located a few 
more people than previously estimated, but the difference 
is very slight. 

The high point in county population was reached at an 
estimated 8,400 persons in July of 1943. The 6,100 popu- 
lation found in 1967 represents a 27 percent loss from 
the all time high, or an approximate 20 percent loss, 
from the U.S. Census figure of 1940. As nearly as can be 
determined, the 1940 figure was fairly close to the one 
which had been maintained for nearly twenty years. 

A number of reasons enter into the population loss in the 
county. To begin with, the basic industry of the county 
is agriculture. The loss of farm families because of 
mechanization and consolidation is pointed up by the fact 
that the number of farms in the county was reduced by 38 
percent in the ten years ending in 1964 and estimated 
farm employment was down by almost 30 percent during the 
same period. 

Secondly, the abnormal population peak of 1943, along 
with the two lesser peaks since that time, appear to have 
been caused by cyclical employment in the lumber industry. 
In Wallowa County, as elsewhere, lumber workers tend to 
migrate in or out of a given area, as the need for workers 
expands or contracts. There are now but two small mills 
operating in the county, and their operations appear to 
be fairly steady and assured for the immediately foresee- 
able future. 



It now appears the population 
at, or near, the present leve 
in farm population and employi 
families of workers in the set 



One factor worth noting is the 
population. In ”950, 12.7 pet 
above the age of 20 in Wallow; 
over age bracket. By 1960, t J 
16.8 and, at the time of the 
of 1967, one of every five po^ 
ty were also above the age of 
the national figure for these 

Another noteworthy trend in tl 
Wallowa County is the fact thJ 
number the males in the totai 
ber females in the under 17 
numbered in the 18 through 4- 
is an at least partial explai* 
dition to the loss of populat] 
entire households, Wallowa Coi 
exporter of persons in the lbl 
households residing permanent! 
data available, it appears thl 
be footloose than the single 

Continued improvement of roaol 
hold the population at the prl 
the Household Study, approximl 
muting out of the county to w| 
employment . Considering the 
to nonmanufacturing, and con^l 
employment to population, it 
muter jobs may be holding aro| 
lation in the county. 



22 







loPULATION 


It now appears the population of the area will stabilize 
at, or near, the present level, with continuing losses 
in farm population and employment being offset by the 
families of workers in the service and trade industries. 


■Iowa County has been subject to vio- 
■ imes during the past quarter of a 
■the trend has been down. The House- 
Iby the Mobile Team of the Smaller 
In September of 1967 located a few 
Kiously estimated, but the difference 


One factor worth noting is the trend toward aging in the 
population. In 1950, 12.7 percent of the population 
above the age of 20 in Wallowa County were in the 65 and 
over age bracket. By 1960, this percentage had risen to 
16.8 and, at the time of the Household Study in September 
of 1967, one of every five persons above the age of twen- 
ty were also above the age of 65. This is nearly double 
the national figure for these same age groups. 

Another noteworthy trend in the population statistics for 
Wallowa County is the fact the females now slightly out- 
number the males in the total . Males continue to outnum- 
ber females in the under 17 age group, but are badly out- 
numbered in the 18 through 44 year age brackets. There 
is an at least partial explanation of this trend; in ad- 


linty population was reached at an 
Ins in July of 1943. The 6,100 popu- 
represents a 27 percent loss from 
: an approximate 20 percent loss, 
figure of 1940. As nearly as can be 
figure was fairly close to the one 
\ined for nearly twenty years. 


dition to the loss of population through out-migration of 
entire households, Wallowa County has been a consistent 
exporter of persons in the 18 through 24 year group, from 
households residing permanently in the county. From the 
data available, it appears the single male is more apt to 
be footloose than the single female. 


nter into the population loss in the 
ih, the basic industry of the county 
loss of farm families because of 
isolidation is pointed up by the fact 
;irms in the county was reduced by 38 
^ars ending in 1964 and estimated 
lown by almost 30 percent during the 


Continued improvement of roads into the area may help to 
hold the population at the present level. At the time of 
the Household Study , approximately 150 workers were com- 
muting out of the county to work, mostly in manufacturing 
employment. Considering the ratio of manufacturing jobs 
to nonmanufacturing, and considering further the ratio of 
employment to population, it appears that these 150 com- 
muter jobs may be holding around 600 of the present popu- 
lation in the county. 


al population peak of 1943, along 
:>eaks since that time, appear to have 
"Cal employment in the lumber industry, 
s elsewhere, lumber workers tend to 
a given area, as the need for workers 
There are now but two small mills 
nty, and their operations appear to 
assured for the immediately foresee- 


********* 




13 



o 

ERIC 



23 





24 



jOWA COUNTY POPULATION TRENDS 1950-1967 



1950 

TOTAL 


TOTAL 


1960 

MALE 


FEMALE 


TOTAL 


1967 

MALE 


FEMALE 


2,145 


2,375 


1,237 


1,138 


2,033 


1,036 


997 


213 


246 


125 


121 


214 


122 


92 


249 


173 


80 


93 


184 


84 


100 


362 


282 


131 


151 


245 


111 


134 


1,084 


824 


401 


423 


610 


289 


321 


1,074 


913 


474 


439 


810 


384 


426 


835 


902 


480 


422 


681 


355 


320 


710 


664 


357 


307 


562 


284 


278 


592 


723 


380 


343 


766 


359 


407 


7,264 


7,102 


3,665 


3,437 


6,105 


3,024 


3,081 







1950 








1955 


1960 








1965 






1970 




































! 






'' 111 
' ‘ \v.' 


Ill 


ilffi 

■ | 

. ■ - fj 


llli 

ISP: 

slip! 

urn 


ip:"' 

. 1 ■ 


sii 

' i 

Pfl 


S;;. 

itlii 

.. '■ •• : 


•?.< | 


mmm, 

:> 

■SPA: A : : . ■■■■■ :■> 

':sP::CP P : -s 

' ' ' ' A j ‘ . ' ' 

p . K x - 


Jsiltlf- %-i 
IlSlillli 

UBiB 

:V V 

- ;''vp.'p:p v : ; 
-,P :• 


Ilf? 

m 

"-vJ 


.,,x;:p' : 'v :;s: A. 


/ ,1 








PRC 


)JEC 


TED 

1 





o 

ERIC 



25 



AGRICULTURE 



The latest (1964) Agricultural Census shows 721,367 (or 
35.5 percent) of Wallowa County * s 2,033,920 acres of land 
surface in farms. At the time of the census, there were 
525 separate holdings classed as farms, with an average 
acreage of 1,374. That Wallowa County is following the 
national and state trend toward fewer and larger farms 
is established by the fact that the 1959 Agricultural 
Census shows 600 separate holdings averaging 1,215 acres 
in extent. During the five-year period ending in 1964, 
the average valuation per farm was up from $57,441 to 
$85,976. Average value per acre increased from $48.08 
to $62.16. During this period the number of farms in 
every size category below 2,000 acres showed a decrease. 
In some size categories the decrease was as much as 25 
percent. However, the number of farms with 2,000 or more 
acres increased by almost 15 percent. 

Approximately 40,000 acres of Wallowa County farm lands 
are under gravity irrigation, with some additional land 
being under pump. Almost all of the irrigated land lies 
along the Wallowa and Lostine Rivers, near the central 
part of the county. 

Generally, there is a fairly good depth of soil over most 
of the Wallowa Valley, although there is a slight drain- 
age problem in some of the lowlying areas, which is ag- 
gravated at times by early season over -irrigation . Com- 
mercial fertilization is a practice in connection with 
only about 31,000 acres of the total farm land, although 
this practice is increasing. The total value of farm 
sales appears to fluctuate somewhat from year to year. 

In 1964 the total value was off more than 15 percent from 
1959, but 1966 was again up to the 1959 figure. Current 
estimates for 1967 are up more than $1 million from 1966. 



Usually, the greater part of 
come is from livestock and J il 
also shown a consistent upwarj 
the income fluctuation comes, 
has been as high as $3 milli' 
over a period of eight years.1 

Household Study interviewers 
time operators on 424 farms 
were another 72 farm owners 
either full time employed oJ 
for full time work off the ft 
tired and using farm producti 
come. The total of 424 farrf 
has been a further drop in til 
three years since the Agricu] 
ever, the Household Study di( 
size of farm, hence no addit : 
in that respect. 

More than one-half of the la4| 
acres) is in forage crops, 
from 1.5 to 3.3 tons per acn 
season. This yield is excluj 
post-harvest pasturage. 

Small grains account for mos 
of the cultivated acreage, wl 
peas, either for drying or pj 

Livestock and livestock prodl 
proximately 65 percent of thl 
in an average year. Beef cal 
around 75 percent of the toll 
average year. Dairying, whil 
of both agricultural and nonl 
dwindled to a point where il[ 
percent of the total agricujl 

Several factors militate agal 
cation. Perhaps the greatest 
amount of grazing area in go| 
able on public lands. Unlik 
apparently has never been sol 
deer and elk herds in some af 
browsing and cropping, kept 



26 



E 



us shows 721,367 (or 
,033,920 acres of land 
he census, there were 
rms , with an average 
mty is following the 
ver and larger farms 
1959 Agricultural 
averaging 1,215 acres 
riod ending in 1964, 
up from $57,441 to 
icreased from $48.08 
number of farms in 
res showed a decrease, 
se was as much as 25 
arms with 2,000 or more 
nt . 



Usually, the greater part of the total agricultural in- 
come is from livestock and livestock products, which has 
also shown a consistent upward trend since 1959. Most of 
the income fluctuation comes in crops. Total crop income 
has been as high as $3 million and as low as $1.7 million 
over a period of eight years. 

Household Study interviewers located a total of 332 full 
time operators on 424 farms in September 1967. There 
were another 72 farm owners residing on farms who were 
either full time employed off the farm, were available 
for full time work off the farm, or were partially re- 
tired and using farm production to supplement other in- 
come. The total of 424 farms would indicate that there 
has been a further drop in the number of farms in the 
three years since the Agricultural Census of 1964. How- 
ever, the Household Study did not go into such data as 
size of farm, hence no additional information was gained 
in that respect . 

More than one-half of the land under cultivation (39,000 
acres) is in forage crops. Hay yields (all types) average 
from 1.5 to 3.3 tons per acre, depending largely on the 
season. This yield is exclusive of forage secured by 
post-harvest pasturage. 

Small grains account for most (30,000 acres) of the rest 
of the cultivated acreage, with small lots usually in 
peas, either for drying or processing. 



owa County farm lands 
some additional land 
he irrigated land lies 
rs, near the central 



depth of soil over most 
lere is a slight drain- 
lg areas, which is ag- 
over -irr igat ion . Com- 
;e in connection with 
al farm land, although 
total value of farm 
fit from year to year. 

:>re than 15 percent from 
? 1959 figure. Current 
^n $1 million from 1966. 



Livestock and livestock products are the source of ap- 
proximately 65 percent of the total agricultural income 
in an average year. Beef cattle, in turn, accounts for 
around 75 percent of the total livestock income, in an 
average year. Dairying, which was once an important part 
of both agricultural and nonagricultural economy, has 
dwindled to a point where it provides only around three 
percent of the total agricultural income. 

Several factors militate against agricultural diversifi- 
cation. Perhaps the greatest of these factors is the 
amount of grazing area in good condition which is avail- 
able on public lands. Unlike some areas, the summer range 
apparently has never been seriously overgrazed. The large 
deer and elk herds in some areas have, through continuous 
browsing and cropping, kept deleterious brush on the range 

(Continued next page) 



15 




■27 



AGRICULTURE (Cont.) 



to a minimum, with the result that the ranges are gener- 
ally in good shape. The Chesnimnus ranger district of 
the U.S. Forest Service has one of the largest grazing 
districts in the nation in point of grazing permits. The 
volume of grazing permits for the Bear-Sleds ranger dis- 
trict is not available, but it seems worth noting that 
only 166,000 of the total 264,000 acres in this district 
is in commercial forest land. Presumably a portion of 
the remaining 98,000 acres do carry some grazing permits. 
In addition, some of the privately owned forest lands 
offer grazing permits for a small fee. 



The second factor which tends to keep the area tied to 
the livestock industry is the climate or, more specifi- 
cally, the growing season. Because it is possible, even 
though not probable, that frost can come at any time dur- 
ing the normal growing season, most of the agricultural 
operators are reluctant to turn to any type of crop that 
can be affected by a late spring, early fall or even a 
midseason frost. Even so, the early history of agricul- 
ture in the area does show extensive fruit raising activi- 
ties, particularly in the area around Joseph and Enter- 
prise. Around the turn of the century, Wallowa County 
apples were consistent prize winners at state-wide exhibi- 
tions. At the time of the latest agricultural census 
(1964) a total of approximately 8.5 tons of fruit of all 
kinds were reported harvested, with a total sales value 
of less than $1,000. 



Finally, there is the fact that most of the full-time ag- 
ricultural operators have holdings of a size to make cat- 
tle raising economically feasible. Where this is feasi- 
ble, cattle raising is certainly the least bothersome 
method of wresting a livelihood from the soil. There is 
not the dependence on outside help, nor is there a hectic 
harvest season involved. 



The position of Agriculture in the county could probably 
be bettered by some additions to the staff of the Exten- 
sion Service. The county is the only one in the state 
which does not have the services of a Home Extension 
Agent. The net result is a work load division on the two 
agents who are in service, which they cannot reasonably 
be expected to handle. Their jobs are made doubly difficult 



16 



by the apathy of the if 
to serve, toward cone. 
This tendency toward 
ing; certainly it ant' 
years. But it is al > 
Agriculture is to rem: 



* 

'iS-f. 



:«s^l 






JK*/. 






j* h, 






ELK HUNTERS SELDOM GO HOt 
COUNTY. PHOTO BY WALTER 



28 



ult that the ranges are gener- 
hesnimnus ranger district of 
s one of the largest grazing 
point of grazing permits. The 
for the Bear-Sleds ranger dis- 
t it seems worth noting that 
i’64,000 acres in this district 
nd . Presumably a portion of 
do carry some grazing permits, 
rivately owned forest lands 
a small fee . 

nds to keep the area tied to 
the climate or, more specifi- 
Because it is possible, even 
frost can come at any time dur- 
son, most of the agricultural 
turn to any type of crop that 
spring, early fall or even a 
the early history of agricul- 
extensive fruit raising activi- 
area around Joseph and Enter- 
the century, Wallowa County 
ze winners at state-wide exhibi- 
latest agricultural census 
lately 8.5 tons of fruit of all 
ted, with a total sales value 



that most of the full-time ag- 
holdings of a size to make cat- 
easible. Where this is feasi- 
rtainly the least bothersome 
Lihood from the soil. There is 
ide help, nor is there a hectic 



re in the county could probably 
ons to the staff of the Exten- 
is the only one in the state 
rvices of a Home Extension 
a work load division on the two 
which they cannot reasonably 
eir jobs are made doubly difficult 



by the apathy of the majority of those they are trying 
to serve, toward concerted action on a county wide basis. 
This tendency toward individualism is one of long stand- 
ing; certainly it antedates the present agents by many 
years. But it is also one that needs to be modified if 
Agriculture is to remain the prime industry of the county. 

******** 




ELK HUNTERS SELDOM GO HOME EMPTY HANDED FROM WALLOWA 
COUNTY. PHOTO BY WALTER KLAGES , COURTESY WALLOWA CHIEFTAIN. 




A 



29 



TABLE II 



AGRICULTURAL INCOME TRENDS WALLOWA COUNTY 1964-1967 



LIVESTOCK & LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS 


1964 


1965 


1966 


1967 


Cattle and Calves 

Hogs 

Sheep and Wool* 

Dairy Products 

Poultry (Incl. Turkeys) 

Miscellaneous Animals 


$2,205,000 

264.000 

583.000 

204.000 

14.000 

20.000 


$2,925,000 
325, COO 
531,325 
197,000 
13,000 
15,000 


$3,588,000 

306.000 

445.000 

218.000 
11,000 
40,000 


$3,777,000 

322.000 
512,436 

188.000 
1 1 , 000 
31,000 


Total Livestock 


. $3,290,000 


$4,006,325 


$4,608,000 


$4,841 ,436 


CROPS 










All Grains** 

All Hay 

Grass and Legume Seeds 

Forest Products 

Miscellaneous Crops 

Soil Bank and ACP Payments 


$1,310,091 

170.000 
88,000 

112.000 
6,000 

162,274 


$1,372,135 

228,000 

79.000 
160,000 

69.000 
107,721 


$1,634,204 

328,009 

42.000 
100,000 

37.000 
125,921 


$1,816,144 

1,053,000 

15.000 

75 .000 

10.000 
115,351 


Total Crops 


$1,848,365 


$2,015,856 


$2,267,134 


$3,084,495 


Total Gross Agricultural Income 


$5,138,365 


$6,022,181 


$6,875,134 


$7,925,931 



* Includes wool incentive payments. 

** Includes diversion and price support payments. 



0 




30 



NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES 



GENERAL 



Although agriculture provides more jobs for Wallowa Coun- 
ty workers than any other single industry, the total of 
all nonagricultural workers, including the self-employed, 
is approximately four times the number of full time agri- 
cultural workers, farm operators included. 



who work part time in full time job^ 
solve the cause of this proved inccr. 
assigned ranged from inability to sc: 
an emergency basis to a reluctance o 
selves to work a full time job. The 
substantiated somewhat by the numbei 
ported part time employment, and a]- 
not have worked more if work had bee 
Some employers also frankly stated 1 
to split a job between two workers L 
gency kept one of the two off the jo 
could generally rely on the other o>. 
until the absent worker returned. h 
lying reason for this situation may 
ment picture is confused, in that mo 
working than there were actual jobs, 
one could be willing to concede thai 
week is an accomplished fact. 



Many of the county’s workers find employment in both ag- 
riculture and nonagricultural industries, and a sizeable 
percentage of all workers are simultaneously employed in 
both agriculture and nonagricultural industry. Cases in 
point are the owners of small producing farms who also 
hold full time wage and salary jobs in other industries. 
There are also a few persons who are self-employed in 
nonagricultural industry, who operate farms in addition. 



The extent of the distortion is poii 
that almost 38 percent of the wage . 
the county are female. This compare 
age of around 35 percent, and a stat 
gon of approximately 32 percent. Ir. 
areas in Oregon already studied by t 
percentage of females in the wage an 
been in the neighborhood of 25 percc 



MANUFACTURING 



In order to avoid a duplication of counts, the Mobile 
Team was forced to establish criteria for categorizing 
those persons in dual employment. Had this not been done, 
employment summaries in Table III would have shown more 
people working than were actually employed in the county. 
Generally speaking, the decision as to the occupational 
or industrial group in which an individual worker belong- 
ed was made on the basis of which of the dual jobs re- 
quired the greater portion of the time of the individual 
worker. At the time of the study (September 10-16, 1967) 
there were 118 dually employed workers in the county, of 
whom more than 70 were combining farm operation with non- 
agricultural wage and salary work. 

The Mobile Team encountered one other unusual situation 
in the county which further clouds the picture of total 
employment in the county. This is the number of females 



Manufacturing accounts for approximn 
all the nonagricultural wage and sal 
County. This segment is almost excl 
wood products processing, with the e 
newspaper and two dairy products pre 
the nature of lumber processing, ver 
ployed, and these mostly in the cler 
setting this fact, insofar as future 
be concerned, is the further fact th 
every three workers in manufacturing 
45. Since most of those above the a 
under the age of 55, this would indi 
ward early withdrawal from the labor 
this industry. Actually, from an an 
dential householder reports, it appe 
pattern formed by owners of small ac 



18 



JLTURAL INDUSTRIES 



nrovides more jobs for Wallowa Coun- 
ther single industry, the total of 
urkers, including the self-employed, 
times the number of full time agri- 
ra operators included. 

workers find employment in both ag- 
cultural industries, and a sizeable 
kers are simultaneously employed in 
nonagr icultur al industry. Cases in 
of small producing farms who also 
md salary jobs in other industries, 
persons who are self-employed in 
.try, who operate farm's in addition. 

duplication of counts, the Mobile 
-tablish criteria for categorizing 
1 employment. Had this not been done, 
in Table III would have shown more 
vere actually employed in the county, 
the decision as to the occupational 
in which an individual worker belong- 
isis of which of the dual jobs re- 
:irtion of the time of the individual 
of the study (September 10-16, 1967) 
e employed workers in the county, of 
re combining farm operation with non- 
:i salary work. 

untered one other unusual situation 
further clouds the picture of total 
unty. This is the number of females 



who work part time in full time jobs. Attempts to re- 
solve the cause of this proved inconclusive. Reasons 
assigned ranged from inability to secure replacements on 
an emergency basis to a reluctance of the workers them- 
selves to work a full time job. The latter reason is 
substantiated somewhat by the number of females who re- 
ported part time employment, and also reported they would 
not have worked more if work had been offered to them. 

Some employers also frankly stated that they preferred 
to split a job between two workers because, if an emer- 
gency kept one of the two off the job for a few days, they 
could generally rely on the other one to work full time 
until the absent worker returned. Whatever the under- 
lying reason for this situation may be, the total employ- 
ment picture is confused, in that more persons are shown 
working than there were actual jobs. Unless, of course, 
one could be willing to concede that the twenty-four hour 
week is an accomplished fact. 

The extent of the distortion is pointed up by the fact 
that almost 38 percent of the wage and salary workers in 
the county are female. This compares to a national aver- 
age of around 35 percent, and a statewide average in Ore- 
gon of approximately 32 percent. In most of the rural 
areas in Oregon already studied by the Mobile Team, the 
percentage of females in the wage and salary workers has 
been in the neighborhood of 25 percent. 

MANUFACTURING 



Manufacturing accounts for approximately 27 percent of 
all the nonagr icultur al wage and salary jobs in Wallowa 
County. This segment is almost exclusively lumber and 
wood products processing, with the exceptions being one 
newspaper and two dairy products processors. Because of 
the nature of lumber processing, very few women are em- 
ployed, and these mostly in the clerical occupations. Off- 
setting this fact, insofar as future replacement need may 
be concerned, is the further fact that more than one of 
every three workers in manufacturing is above the age of 
45. Since most of those above the age of 45 are also 
under the age of 55, this would indicate a tendency to- 
ward early withdrawal from the labor force of workers in 
this industry. Actually, from an analysis of the confi- 
dential householder reports, it appears that there is a 
pattern formed by owners of small acreages, of working in 



o 



32 



the lumber industry through their middle fifties. Whether 
they give up their nonagricultur al employment at about 
that time because holding two jobs is too physically de- 
manding, or because their financial needs become less 
stringent by that time, is a matter for conjecture. At 
any rate, it does seem worth noting that almost one- 
fourth of those employed in the lumber industry have at 
least a partial attachment to the labor force outside 
that industry. 

Most of the raw material processed by the lumber industry 
in Wallowa County is either pine or fir. There are no 
plywood, hardboard, or by-products plants in the county. 
Since most of the processing is primary, the percentage 
of skilled jobs in the overall total is relatively small. 
Employer hiring requirements are not stringent, except 
in the technical and management occupations. Although 
nearly one-half of the jobs in this industry have been 
lost from the county in the past ten years, there is no 
oversupply of experienced labor, unless one includes the 
approximately 100 residents of the county who are commut- 
ing out of the county to jobs in lumber elsewhere. Pre- 
sumably, most of these workers would prefer to work clos- 
er to home, and could so be classed as surplus lumber 
workers in Wallowa County, even though they are steadily 
employed. There is an ample supply of raw material in 
the form of standing timber to keep lumber processing at 
its present level indefinitely, if the log harvest is 
used within the county . In fact, the present operations 
could be expanded, if all of the logs harvested were pro- 
within the county. There is room for even greater 
expansion, if secondary processing were to be added to 
the present operations. In addition, some types of sec- 
ondary processing provide work that would be suitable 
for women, or at least is being done by women in other 
pine processing areas. 

So far as could be learned by the Mobile Team, there are 
no present plans for expansion of any sort in the wood 
products industry of Wallowa County. There will be a 
sizeable replacement need in the next five years, if op- 
erations stay at the present level. It appears likely 
that most of the replacements will be hired at the entry 
level, however, with little in the way of training or 
experience required. 



So far as could be ascertained, 
other than wood products is presc 
cause of distance from markets, t 
no further expansion of the prese 

GOVERNMENT 

Almost one of every three wage an 
Wallowa 1 County work in some capac 
cause of this unusually high perc 
public education was analyzed sep 
ernment employment. 

(a) Education - Close to on 
cent) of all the wage and salary 
are employed by the educational 3 
three-fourths of the workers in e 
professional or administrative j 
are in clerical occupations, and 
service and miscellaneous other 

Professional jobs in education al 
quirement of baccalaureate degree 
the latest available report indie 
cent of those employed in these 
required minimum of education. 1 
percentage of the teachers lacki 
gree, the county also has an unu 
of younger teacher s--although pre 
latter group do have a degree. 

No expansion of employment in th<j 
presently contemplated, although 
gram would probably be helpful, 
in any of the occupations used wd 
bile Team. 

(b) Noneducat ion - More thar 
and salary workers in the county i 
ious branches of government in fj 
cation. Roughly one-half of thei 
ment, at the city or county leveJ 
local government facility is the] 
employs slightly more than half 
ment workers. 



o 

ERIC 



33 



34 



their middle fifties. Whether 


So far as could be ascertained, no new manufacturing 


ultural employment at about 


other than wood products is presently contemplated. Be- 


wo jobs is too physically de~ 


cause of distance from markets, there will probably be 


inancial needs become less 


no further expansion of the present plants. 


a matter for conjecture. At 




h noting that almost one- 


GOVERNMENT 


the lumber industry have at 




to the labor force outside 


Almost one of every three wage and salary workers in 
Wallowa' County work in some capacity for Government. Be- 
cause of this unusually high percentage, employment in 


ocessed by the lumber industry 


public education was analyzed separately from other gov- 


■ pine or fir. There are no 


ernment employment. 


products plants in the county. 




ig is primary, the percentage 


( ;.) Education - Close to one in every ten (9.6 per- 


rail total is relatively small. 


cenv) of all the wage and salary workers in the county 


s are not stringent, except 


are employed by the educational facilities. Approximately 


?ment occupations. Although 


three -four ths of the workers in education are employed in 


s in this industry have been 


professional or administrative jobs, another one-tenth 


; past ten years, there is no 


are in clerical occupations, and the remainder are in 


-abor, unless one includes the 


service and miscellaneous other occupations. 


s of the county who are commut- 




es in lumber elsewhere. Pre- 


Professional jobs in education all carry the normal re- 


<ers would prefer to work clos- 


quirement of baccalaureate degree as a minimum. However, 


e classed as surplus lumber 


the latest available report indicates that some 28 per- 


even though they are steadily 


cent of those employed in these jobs had less than the 


le supply of raw material in 


required minimum of education. In addition to the high 


r to keep lumber processing at 


percentage of the teachers lacking a baccalaureate de- 


tely, if the log harvest is 


gree, the county also has an unusually high percentage 


n fact, the present operations 


of younger teacher s--al though practically all of this 


of the logs harvested were pro- 


latter group do have a degree. 


There is room for even greater 




ocessing were to be added to 


No expansion of employment in the educational field is 


n addition, some types of sec- 


presently contemplated, although an adult education pro- 


work that would be suitable 


gram would probably be helpful. No shortages of workers 


being done by women in other 


in any of the occupations used were reported to the Mo- 
bile Team. 


1 by the Mobile Team, there are 


(b) Noneducation - More than one of every five wage 


ision of any sort in the wood 


and salary workers in the county are employed by the var- 


rwa County. There will be a 


ious branches of government in functions other than edu- 


in the next five years, if op- 


cation. Roughly one-half of these are in local govern- 


^nt level. It appears likely 


ment, at the city or county level. The largest single 


?nt s will be hired at the entry 


local government facility is the county hospital, which 


le in the way of training or 


employs slightly more than half of all the local govern- 
ment workers. 

(Continued next page) 

19 



.vErJc 



34 



GOVERNMENT (Cont.) 


% - 

Approximately 40 percent 
Service occupations and t 


A wide variety of skills are involved in local govern- 
ment employment. However , aside from the professional 


to seasonal fluctuation. ' 


and technical occupations used in the hospital, hiring 


Except for skilled mechar 


requirements are rather sketchy. No expansion in local 


hiring requirements in t r 


government is presently planned but, because of the high 


Generally speaking, for t 


percentage of females and the numbers of present workers 


completion of high schor 1 


in the upper age brackets, a sizeable replacement need 


waived occasionally. En 


in the next five years is indicated. 

Employment with state agencies is minimal. Most of the 


training their own employ 
cational requirements arc 


state services are offered on a casual or itinerant ba- 


Both the preponderance oi 


sis from La Grande, Baker or Pendleton. There is no 


of those now employed whc 


present prospect of additional state employees being out- 


point to sizeable replace 


stationed. The Oregon State Game Commission and the 


In addition, if the recre 


State Highway Commission, with a total of approximately 


anything like its potent’ 


20 permanent employees are the only sizeable state agen- 


considerable expansion it 


cies in the county. Normally, all jobs with any of the 


sonally. New hires wilJ^ 


state agencies are filled from Civil Service lists. 
Federal employment in the county lies mainly with two 


An oversupply of potently 
able . 


agencies: the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Postal 

Department. The Postal service uses a total of 24 work- 


SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOLc 


ers, with no expansion being presently in prospect, and 


This industry division, t 


very little replacement need indicated. The Forest Serv- 


11 percent of the total r 


ice has a total of 70 employees, not including those on 


jobs in the county, offe] 


contract work. Except for a very few entry laborer jobs 


ety of any of the major : 


all occupations used by this agency have strict Civil 


percent of the division v 


Service requirements concerning education or experience 


are employed in the perse 


which cannot be waived. There are a number of seasonal 


keeping occupations. Abe 


jobs with this agency which carry less stringent require- 


workers in this division 


ments, and which vary from vear to year. 


few are past the age of t 


Except for the professional and a few of the technical 


The Service industry o ff( 


occupations, there is an ample supply of workers in the 


portunity for expansion c 


area for the filling of any presently prospective needs. 


the county. Since most c 
nection with recreation, 


TRADE 


the employment increase \ 
However, because of the ‘ 


ilmp loyment -wi se , Trade is the third largest segment of 


source, it also appears ‘ 


industry in Wallowa County. Wage and salary workers in 


longer than in those are; 


this industry are predominantly female, A goodly percent- 
age of those employed work on a part-time basis, curing 


cationer s . 


at least a part of the year. There is normally a seasonal 


Most of the jobs which cc 


rise in employment, which occurs during the tourist season. 

20 


would require a minimum c 



o 

ERLC 



A 



s are involved in local govern- 
er, aside from the professional 
ns used in the hospital, hiring 
sketchy. No expansion in local 
planned but, because of the high 
nd the numbers of present workers 
ts, a sizeable rep ■ *'"«ment need 
is indicated. 

gencies is minimal. Most of the 
red on a casual or itinerant ba- 
er or Pendleton. There is no 
itional state employees being out- 
State Game Commission and the 
>n, with a total of approximately 
are the only sizeable state agen- 
>rmally, all jobs with any of the 
:ed from Civil Service lists. 

;he county lies mainly with two 
?st Service and the li.S. Postal 
. service uses a total of 24 work- 
being presentl/ in prospect, and 
: need indicated. The Forest Serv- 
>mployees, not including those on 
for a very few entry laborer jobs 
' this agency have strict Civil 
ncerning education or experience 
There are a number of seasonal 
vhich carry less stringent require- 
rom year to year. 



Approximately 40 percent of the jobs in Trade are in the 
Service occupations and these are the ones most subject 
to seasonal fluctuation. 

Except for skilled mechanics for dealerships, employer 
hiring requirements in this industry division are minimal. 
Generally speaking, for the sales and clerical positions, 
completion of high school is required, although this is 
waived occasionally. Employers express a prefeience for 
training their own employees, hence experience ana edu- 
cational requirements are seldom important. 

Both the preponderance of female workers and the number 
of those now employed who are in the upper age brackets 
point to sizeable replacement need in the next few years. 
In addition, if the recreation industry is expanded to 
anything like its potential, there will probably be a 
considerable expansion in Trade employment, at least sea- 
sonally. New hires will probably be at the entry level. 

An oversupply of potential workers appears to be avail- 
able. 

SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS 

This industry division, which accounts for approximately 
11 percent of the total nonagricu It ur al wage and salary 
jobs in the county, offers the widest occupational vari- 
ety of any of the major industries. Approximately 57 
percent of the division workers are female, most of whom 
are employed in the personal service or public house- 
keeping occupations. About three of every ten of the 
workers in this division are above the age of 45, and a 
few are past the age of 65. 



onal and a few of the technical 
in ample supply of workers in the 
any presently prospective needs. 



is the third largest segment of 
mty. Wage and salary workers in 
^minantly female. A goodly percent- 
vork on a part-time basis, during 
.year. There is normally a seasonal 
ich occurs during the tourist season. 



The Service industry offers what is probably the best op- 
portunity for expansion of any of the industry groups in 
the county. Since most of the expansion would be in con- 
nection with recreation, it follows that a large part of 
the employment increase would be of a seasonal nature. 
However, because of the type of natural recreational re- 
source, it also appears that the season could be much 
longer than in those areas which cater only to summer va- 
cationers. 

Most of the jobs which could be created by expansion 
would require a minimum of training or experience, and 



ERJC 

H3B&SI329 

3 £ 



36 



could be readily filled by local availables. A few of 
the jobs would probably entail outside the area recruit- 
ing, but none should be difficult to fill. In addition 
to the number of jobs which might be created by potential 
expansion, there wi.ll be a sizeable replacement need in 
the next five years. Some of these, such as those in the 
repair trades, may not be easy to fill, due to lack of 
any local training programs. 

TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS AND UTILITIES 

Although providing very little in the way of wage and 
salary employment, this division does offer considerably 
more in the way of public service than is usual for a 
small, remote area. As is usual in less populated areas, 
some of the Utilities are lodged in Government. On the 
other hand, there are a few jobs in Transportation which 
would ordinarily belong to Government in most areas. 

Most of the major occupational groupings are represented 
in division employment, but less than ten percent of the 
jobs are held by females. Nearly one-half of those em- 
ployed are past the age of 45, which would indicate a 
modest replacement need. Offsetting this, there is no 
presently planned employment expansion; hence, the future 
need for workers will probably be minimal. The railroad 
into the area is being rebuilt with heavier steel which 
will make for greater capacity but will probably not mean 
additipnal workers. 

CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION 

Less than three percent of the nonagr icultur al wage and 
salary workers of Wallowa County are employed in this 
division. Employment is highly seasonal and the division 
offers almost no wage and salary work during the winter 
season. There is a very high ratio of self-employed con- 
tractors to wage and salary workers. 

No construction projects of any size are presently con- 
templated in the county; hence, employment will probably 
continue minimal for the immediately foreseeable future, 
with no anticipated demand for additional workers. 



finance, insurance and real e 



Wage and salary workers in th 
outnumbered by those who are 
total employment is near minii 
chance for expansion in the w 
in the Service industries. Mi 
division job holders are fema 
is surprisingly young for thi 
Presently, most of the hires 
classifications, with complet 
about the only hiring require 
of expansion would probably i 
hires in the sales or managers 
of promotional material. 



The financial segment of thi> 
one locally owned independent 
wide chain and one extension 
Lending capacities of the twc^ 
sufficient to cope with any r 
mand . 




TIMBER PRODUCTS ADD TO THE 



o 

ERIC 



37 



38 



local availables. A few of 
itail outside the area recruit- 
lifficult to fill. In addition 
Ich might be created by potential 
la sizeable replacement need in 
|e of these, such as those in the 
easy to fill, due to lack of 
|ms . 

[tions and utilities 



little in the way of wage and 
|ivision does offer considerably 
service than is usual for a 
usual in less populated areas, 
lodged in Government. On the 
few jobs in Transportation which 
po Government in most areas. 

ional groupings are represented 
>ut less than ten percent of the 
Nearly one half of those em- 
f 45, which would indicate a 
Offsetting this, there is no 
ent expansion; hence, the future 
bably be minimal. The railroad 
built with heavier steel which 
acity but will probably not mean 



)f the nonagri cult ural wage and 
i County are employed in this 
highly seasonal and the division 
i salary work during the winter 
high ratio of self-employed con- 
iry workers. 

" of any size are presently con- 
hence , employment will probably 
immediately foreseeable future, 
nd for additional workers. 



FINANCE, INSURANCE AND REAL ESTATE 

Wage and salary workers in this division are considerably 
outnumbered by those who are self-employed. Presently, 
total employment is near minimal, but there is a good 
chance for expansion in the wake of probable expansion 
in the Service industries. More than one-half of the 
division job holders are female, but the entire group 
is surprisingly young for this particular industry. 
Presently, most of the hires are effected in the entry 
classifications, with completion of high school being 
about the only hiring requirement. Any serious amount 
of expansion would probably involve at least a few new 
hires in the sales or management levels because of a lack 
of promotional material. 

The financial segment of this division is represented by 
one locally owned independent bank, one unit of a state- 
wide chain and one extension of a Union County bank. 
Lending capacities of the two institutions are probably 
sufficient to cope with any reasonably foreseeable de- 
mand • 

r> 




TIMBER PRODUCTS ADD TO THE WEALTH OF WALLOWA COUNTY. 



21 




38 



t 

t 

* 



l 

\ 



o 




DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATIONAL GROT 
T4BLE 111 WALLOWA COUNTY 






(Week Ending 


September 


16, 1967) 




MAJOR 

OCCUPATIONAL 

GROUP 


Total 

Employment 
In Group 


% of 
Total 
Empl . 


Female s 
in 

Group 


Female s 
% of 
Group 


Under 

22 


22 to 
34 


NONFARM SELF-EMPLOYED 


292 


13.7 


53 


18.1 


0 


28 


FARM OPERATORS 


332 


15.6 


49 


14.7 


0 


27 


UNPAID FAMILY WORK -1/ 


106 


5.0 


48 


45.3 


36 


8 


FARM WAGE WORKERS, 
YEAR AROUND 


70 


3.3 


0 


-- - 


1 


4 


FARM WORKERS, SEASONAL 


No seasonal workers reported in survey week. 










NONAGR I CULTURAL WAGE 


AND SALARY 


3/ 


PROFESSIONAL, TECH. & 
MANAGERIAL 


139 


6.5 


54 


38.8 


2 


32 


CLERICAL 


165 


7.7 


142 


86.0 


21 


41 


SALES 


131 


6 . 6 


86 


61.0 


13 


43 


SERVI CE 


248 


11.7 


188 


75.8 


38 


81 


FARM, FISHING & 
FORESTRY 


64 


3.0 


0 


-- - 


6 


8 


PROCESS WORKERS 


20 


1.0 


0 


-- - 


2 


5 


MACHINE TRADES 


137 


6.3 


0 


-- _ 


4 


56 


BENCH WORK 


19 


.9 


4 


23.2 


2 


5 


STRUCTURAL OCCUPATIONS 


105 


4.8 


0 


-- - 


8 


15 


MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS 300 


14.1 


26 


8.2 


37 


91 


TOTAL 


2,128 


100.0 


650 


30.7 


170 


444 


1/ Includes agricultural. 

22 






2/ Less than 26 weeks. 3/ 




A 



)N OF EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS , SEX AND AGE 

WALLOWA COUNTY 

(Week Ending September 16, 1967) 



Total 
mployment 
In Group 


% of 
Total 
Empl . 


Female s 
in 

Group 


Females 
% of 
Group 


Under 

22 


22 to 
34 


35 to 
44 


45 to 
54 


55 to 
64 


65 & 
Over 


292 


13.7 


53 


18.1 


0 


28 


89 


101 


38 


36 


332 


15.6 


49 


14.7 


0 


27 


98 


71 


72 


64 


106 


5.0 


48 


45.3 


36 


8 


10 


9 


27 


16 


70 


3.3 


0 




1 


4 


23 


23 


18 


1 



No seasonal workers reported in survey week. 



NONAGRICULTURAL WAGE AND SALARY 



139 


6.5 


54 


38.8 


2 


32 


49 


41 


11 


4 


165 


7.7 


142 


86.0 


21 


41 


62 


39 


2 


0 


131 


6.6 


86 


61.0 


13 


43 


29 


26 


19 


1 


248 


11.7 


188 


75.8 


38 


81 


54 


50 


21 


4 


64 


3.0 


0 


-- - 


6 


8 


27 


16 


7 


0 


20 


1.0 


0 


-- - 


2 


5 


3 


4 


5 


1 


137 


6.3 


0 


-- - 


4 


56 


29 


38 


9 


1 


3-9 


.9 


4 


23.2 


2 


5 


5 


3 


3 


1 


105 


4.8 


0 


-- - 


8 


15 


36 


33 


12 


1 


S 300 


14.1 


26 


8.2 


37 


91 


85 


57 


30 


0 


2,128 


100.0 


650 


30.7 


170 


444 


599 


511 


274 


130 


agricultural . 






2/ Less 


than 26 


weeks . 


3/ Does not 


include 


commuters 


-out . 




40 



DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY, SEX AND AO 


INDUSTRY 

GROUP 


Total Wage 
And Salary 
Employment 


Females 

in 

Group 


Under 

22 


22 to 
34 


35 to 

44 , 


CONTRACT 

CONSTRUCTION 


35 


1 


6 


6 


11 


MANUFACTURING 


357 


16 


38 


88 


98 


TRANS., COMM., & 
UTI LI TIES 


69 


6 


2 


19 


21 


TRADE 


256 


194 


47 


69 


61 


FINANCE, INSURANCE 
& REAL ESTATE 


37 


20 


3 


11 


18 


SERVICE & MI SC. 


144 


86 


18 


41 


29 


GOVERNMENT 

(Noneducation) 


303 


1X2 


15 


92 


87 


GOVERNMENT 

(Education) 


127 


69 


4 


51 


54 


TOTAL 


1,328 


504 


133 


377 


379 






42 



ION OF EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY, SEX AND AGE GROUPS 



TABLE IV 



Total Wage 
And Salary 
Employment 


Females 

in 

Group 


Under 

22 


22 to 
34 


35 to 
44 


45 to 
54 


55 to 
64 


65 & 
Over 


35 


1 


6 


6 


11 


7 


5 


0 


357 


16 


38 


88 


98 


110 


23 


0 


69 


6 


2 


19 


21 


16 


11 


0 


256 


194 


47 


69 


61 


43 


32 


4 


37 


20 


3 


11 


18 


2 


3 


0 


144 


86 


18 


41 


29 


39 


14 


3 


303 


112 


15 


92 


87 


79 


24 


6 


127 


69 


4 


51 


54 


11 


7 


0 


1,328 


504 


133 


377 


379 


307 


119 


13 



lE^C 

■ 



42 



ERIC 



TABLE V 




DISTRIBUTION OF BMP 


INDUSTRY 

GROUP 


Total Wage 
And Salary 
Employment 


Females 

in 

Group 


Professional 

Technical 

Managerial 


Clc 


CONTRACT 

CONSTRUCTION 


35 


1 


1 




MANUFACTURING 


357 


16 


4 


U 


TRANS., COMM., & 
UTILITIES 


69 


6 


4 


J 


TRADE 


256 


194 


3 


It 


FINANCE, INSURANCE 
& REAL ESTATE 


37 


20 


6 


2 1 


SERVICE & MI SC. 


144 


86 


2 


1. 


GOVERNMENT 

( Noneducation) 


303 


112 


24 


8 i 


GOVERNMENT 

(Education) 


127 


69 


95 


12 


TOTAL 


1,328 


504 


139 


165 


24 




43 



DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATIONAL 



Total Wage 
And Salary 
Employment 


Females 

•in 

Group 


Professional 

Technical 

Managerial 


Clerical 


Sales 


Servi' 


35 


1 


1 


1 


0 


0 


357 


16 


4 


16 


7 


3 


69 


6 


4 


4 


1 


0 


256 


194 


3 


18 


88 


102 


37 


20 


6 


21 


10 


0 


144 


86 


2 


12 


25 


40 


303 


112 


24 


81 


0 


87 


127 


69 


95 


12 


0 


16 


1,328 


504 


139 


165 


131 


248 



r 




44 



GROUPS WITHIN INDUSTRY DIVISIONS 



Farm , 
Fishing , 
Forestry 


Processing 


Machine 

Trades 


Bench 

Work 


Structural 


0 


0 


0 


0 


33 


0 


20 


90 


0 


9 


0 


0 


0 


1 


8 


0 


0 


16 


3 


18 


G 


0 


0 


0 


0 


13 


0 


25 


15 


5 


51 


0 


6 


0 


32 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


64 


20 


137 


19 


105 



45 



DIVISIONS 



Machine 

Trades 


Bench 

Work 


Structural 


Misc * 


Self- 

Employed 


0 


0 


33 


0 


22 


90 


0 


9 


208 


4 


0 


1 


8 


51 


14 


16 


3 


18 


8 


159 


0 


0 


0 


0 


39 


25 


15 


5 


7 


54 


0 


0 


32 


22 


0 


0 


0 


0 


4 


0 


137 


19 


105 


300 


292 



o 

ERIC 

-■ ~ m r* 

» 4 o 



PERCENT OF TOTAL 



PAYROLLS AND SPENDABLE INCOME 



GOVERNMENT 



SERVICE & MI SC. 




TRANSPORTATION, 
COMMUNICATIONS ' 
& UTILITIES 



Total reported net income fo 
sources in Wallowa County in 
which complete data are avai 
$9.7 million. On the basis 
by the Mobile Team, this wou 
net income of $5,094 per hou 
After an allowance of 25 per 
taxes of all kinds the net 
proximately $7.3 million, oj 
marketing program. 

The bar chart to the left of 
payrolls, as compared to ind 

Only a little over one-thir* 
county comes from payrolls c 
surance. Surprisingly enoug 
the highest salaried jobs in 
siderably lower average wage 
However, in addition to car r 
salaried professional worker 
many minimum salaried worker 
laneous occupations. Highe: 
Transportation, Communicati 



CONTRACT 

CONSTRUCTION 



FINANCE, 
INSURANCE & 
REAL ESTATE 




PERCENT OF 
SALARY WORK 

PERCENT OF 



26 



O 

ERLC 



47 









PAYROLLS AND SPENDABLE INCOME 




Total reported net income for tax purposes from all 
sources in Wallowa County in 1965 (the latest year for 
which complete data are available) was approximately 
$9.7 million. On the basis of total population as found 
by the Mobile Team, this would indicate an approximate 
net income of $5,094 per household or $1,588 per capita. 
After an allowance of 25 percent of the net income for 
taxes of all kinds the net spendable income would be ap- 
proximately $7.3 million, or enough to support a sizeable 
marketing program. 

The bar chart to the left offers information on industry 
payrolls, as compared to industry employment. 

Only a little over one-third of the total income of the 
county comes from payrolls covered by unemployment in- 
surance. Surprisingly enough Government, which carries 
the highest salaried jobs in the county, also pays a con- 
siderably lower average wage than does Manufacturing. 
However, in addition to carrying a large bloc of well- 
salaried professional workers, Government payrolls show 
many minimum salaried workers in the Service and Miscel- 
laneous occupations. Highest average wages are paid in 
Transportation, Communications and Utilities. 



FINANCE, 
INSURANCE & 
REAL ESTATE 



PERCENT OF TOTAL WAGE 
SALARY WORKERS 



AND 



PERCENT OF PAYROLL DOLLARS 



ERIC? 









NATURAL RESOURCES 



WATER 



Over a period of many years, the water resource of Wallowa 
County has been given the attention of many professional 
engineering firms and governmental agencies . Among the 
agencies who have studied this resource more than once, 
and for more reasons than one, are the U.S. Geoloyical 
Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Corps of Engineers, 
the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, 
the Soil Conservation Service, and the Oregon State Water 
Resources Board. Data developed by these agencies and by 
private engineering firms have all been incorporated in a 
rather comprehensive report entitled ’’The Grande Ronde 
River Basin” (Oregon State Water Resources Board, Sept. 
1960) under the subheadings ’’Wallowa Basin” and ’’Imnaha 
Basin . " 

In general, the herein report adopts the findings of the 
above mentioned report, in toto . There is one exception: 
in their report, the State Water Resources Board takes 
the position that there is no potential for industrial 
expansion in Wallowa County which might cause an increas- 
ed need for water. While this position is probably cor- 
rect insofar as immediate probabilities are concerned, 
the area does have some potentials which might alter the 
situation in the future. Factually, any industrial ex- 
pansion, of whatever nature, will cause an increased need 
for water, if for no other purpose than domestic or muni- 
cipal use. The findings of the Mobile Team pretty conclu- 
sively establish that no available labor pool exists in 
Wallowa County. Hence, any degree of industrial expansion 
would necessarily mean added inhabitants. 



In any case, the well-supported 
Water Resources Board are, in ve 

1. The surface water supply 
present or foreseeable future ne< 
and Imnaha River sub-basins, who 
cipal, or irrigation use. Possil 
late season irrigation needs in 

2. Apparently, no studies ha 
ground water supply, probably bei 
foreseeable need. However, it d< 
in quantity does exist. There a: 
in the Wallowa sub-basin, with a 
mately 150 square miles, all wit! 
a ground water source. This prol 
true for the Imnaha sub-basin, j 
through a fold too narrow to al J < 
luvial- mater ial . In addition, tl 
Imnaha and its tributaries is mo 
for alluvial material being depo: 

3. There is little or no nee< 
ures in either basin. 

4. There is little or no pot< 
power development in either basil 
the terrain will not allow for ct 
of any size. 



49 



50 



RESOURCES 



s, the water resource of Wallowa 
attention of many professional 
irnmental agencies. Among the 
this resource more than once, 
one, are the U.S. Geological 
ion, U.S. Corps of Engineers, 
ieology and Mineral Industries, 
ice, and the Oregon State Water 
r eloped by these agencies and by 
have all been incorporated in a. 
:t entitled "The Grande Ronde 
? Water Resources Board, Sept, 
as "Wallowa Basin" and "Imnaha 



i>ort adopts the findings of the 
i toto. There is one exception: 

? Water Resources Board takes 
:• no potential for industrial 
ty which might cause an increas- 
this position is probably cor- 
probabi lit ies are concerned, 
:>tentials which might alter the 
Factually, any industrial ex- 
te, will cause an increased need 
F purpose than domestic or muni- 
af the Mobile Team pretty conclu- 
ivailable labor pool exists in 
ly degree of industrial expansion 
ied inhabitants. 



In any case, the well-supported findings of the State 
Water Resources Board are, in very brief: 

1. The surface water supply is sufficient for any 
present or foreseeable future needs in both the Wallowa 
and Imnaha River sub-basins, whether for domestic, muni- 
cipal, or irrigation use. Possible exceptions would be 
late season irrigation needs in the Wallowa Basin. 

2. Apparently, no studies have been made of the 
ground water supply, probably because the lack of any 
foreseeable need. However, it does seem likely a supply 
in quantity does exist. There are three alluvial areas 
in the Wallowa sub-basin, with a total area of approxi- 
mately 150 square miles, all with excellent potential as 
a ground water source. This probability does not hold 
true for the Imnaha sub-basin. The Imnaha flows generally 
through a fold too narrow to allow for deposition of al- 
luvial material. In addition, the gradient of both the 
Imnaha and its tributaries is mostly too steep to allow 
for alluvial material being deposited. 

3. There is little or no need for flood control meas- 
ures in either basin. 

4. There is little or no potential for hydro-electric 
power development in either basin. Generally speaking, 
the terrain will not allow for construction of reservoirs 
of any size. 

(Continued next page) 



27 




50 



NATURAL RESOURCES (Cont.) 

5. Full development of a water based recreational 
industry is more or less hampered by the same factors af- 
fecting power: any reservoirs created would necessarily 

be too small to allow for a combination of boating, water- 
skiing, fishing, etc. Presently a recreational asset to 
the area are more than 50 small lakes around the head- 
waters of the Wallowa and Imnaha Basins. Not mentioned 
in any of the data made available to the Mobile Team, is 
the fact that some of these lakes are gradually being 
filled by eroding detritus from the surrounding steep 
terrain. Since these small lakes are important not only 
to recreation but to wild life, it appears some steps 
should be taken looking to their replacement, even though 
the replacements will of necessity also be rather small. 

In general, all of the data made available to the Mobile 
Team (including the cited report of the Water Resources 
Board) agree that impoundment of the late spring and early 
summer surface water run-off for use in regulating stream 
flows through later release would be highly desirable. 

There is likewise a general agreement that any one im- 
poundment constructed would necessarily be so small as 
to have little practical value for this purpose. In short, 
more than one impoundment would probably be necessary, 
which causes some doubt as to the economic feasibility. 

TI MBER 

The latest available timber inventory for Wallowa County 
is contained in Forest Survey Report #134, published in 
April of 1960, by the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range 
Experiment Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
Any data with regard to the timber resource of the county 
subsequent to that date are piecemeal, and apt to be con- 
fusing. As a matter of fact, even Report #134, which is 
very complete and detailed, is in some respects confusing 
to the lay reader. 

As an instance: The Oregon Blue Book, which is an official 
publication of the State of Oregon, gives the total land 
surface of Wallowa County as being 2,035,840 acres. The 
U.S. Department of Commerce, in their evaluation of the 
same area found 2,033,920 acres. However, the Forest 

28 



Service, in their report n 
acres. The difference is 
and therefore relatively u 
that the missing 20,000 ac 
million board feet of timb 

Report #134 notes a total 
land of some 878,110 acre- 
approximate ly 34 percent , 
volume of 7,289,000,000 bo 
live sawtimber was also sh 
board feet were reported t 
than one percent of the tc 
of the softwoods, approxim 
osa pine, and approximate! 
Th<? remainder of the softw 
a half dozen species, with 
predominating. ( 

The average annual cut fra* 
was noted as being slight.!, 
feet, during a five-year pi 
the time of the report, ap 
total timber harvest was f 
remaining 35 percent, or ft| 
feet , came from federal ow 

Presently the timber harve 
million board feet annual]; 
between federal and privat- 
nished by the Oregon State 
are only 239,000 acres of | 
with a total volume of 585 
able timber, which is bein 
lion board feet annually, 
owned timber is approximate 
annually, to which there mi 
which presently averages a 
There are some indications 
eral lands could be slight 
done or not, it appears the 
approximately 100 million l 
seeable future. 

In connection with the date 
be noted that the figure oi 







■based recreational 
By the same factors af- 
Bed would necessarily 
Btion of boating, water- 


Service, in their report note a total of only 2,011,830 
acres. The difference is only an approximate one percent 
and therefore relatively unimportant except for the fact 
that the missing 20,000 acres could possibly carry several 
million board feet of timber. 


■recreational asset to 
Bes around the head- 
Bsins. Not mentioned 
Bo the Mobile Team, is 
Bre gradually being 
B surrounding steep 
Bre important not only 
■ appears some steps 
Bplacement, even though 
1 also be rather small. 

Bailable to the Mobile 
B the Water Resources 


Report #134 notes a total acreage in commercial forest 
land of some 878,110 acres, of which 296,200 acres, or 
approximately 34 percent, were privately owned. A total 
volume of 7,289,000,000 board feet (Scribner Scale) of 
live sawtimber was also shown, of which 1,488,000,000 
board feet were reported to be in private ownership. Less 
than one percent of the total volume was in hardwoods and, 
of the softwoods, approximately 34 percent was in Ponder- 
osa pine, and approximately 28 percent was in Douglas fir. 
The remainder of the softwoods were shown scattered among 
a half dozen species, with white fir and western larch 
predominating. 


Be late spring and early 
Be in regulating stream 
be highly desirable, 
ent that any one im- 
arily be so small as 
this purpose. In short, 
obably be necessary, 
economic feasibility. 


The average annual cut from all commercial forest land 
was noted as being slightly in excess of 90,000,000 board 
feet, during a five-year period preceding the report. At 
the time of the report, approximately 65 percent of the 
total timber harvest was from privately owned lands. The 
remaining 35 percent, or approximately 31.5 million board 
feet, came from federal owned lands. 


ory for Wallowa County 
rt #134, published in 
hwest Forest and Range 
artment of Agriculture. 

resource of the county 
eal, and apt to be con- 
Report #134, which is 
some respects confusing 

!ok, which is an official 
\ , gives the total land 
i 2,035,840 acres. The 
leir evaluation of the 


Presently the timber harvest is estimated at nearly 100 
million board feet annually, and is about evenly divided 
between federal and privately owned timber. Data fur- 
nished by the Oregon State Tax Commission indicate there 
are only 239,000 acres of privately owned forest land, 
with a total volume of 585 million board feet of merchant- 
able timber, which is being harvested at a rate of 50 mil- 
lion board feet annually. The allowable cut from federal 
owned timber is approximately 46.6 million board feet 
annually, to which there must be added a nonregulated cut 
which presently averages around five million board feet. 
There are some indications that the present cut from fed- 
eral lands could be slightly increased. Whether this is 
done or not, it appears there is a faily firm supply of 
approximately 100 million board feet of logs for the fore- 
seeable future. 


However, the Forest 


In connection with the data on timber resource, it should 
be noted that the figure of 239,000 acres and 585 million 


.ERIC 





board feet of sawtimber furnished by the Oregon State Tax 
Commission for 1967 does not necessarily represent a de- 
cline from the figure of 296,000 acres and approximately 
1,5 billion board feet furnished in Report #134 by the 
Department of Agriculture. The two agencies have differ- 
ent methods of estimating and, by Tax Commission methods, 
both the acreage and the sawtimber volume in 1958 was con- 
siderably less than the figure cited in Report #134. 

MINERALS 



Much of Wallowa County is in rugged and partially inac- 
cessible terrain. In addition, the winter climate is 
particularly rigorous and the combination makes prospect- 
ing for, or development of, mineral deposits more than a 
little difficult. The majority of the known commercial 
mineral deposits are located in the Wallowa mountains, in 
the southern half of the county. The Wallowas are made 
up of a fault block about 50 miles long, averaging about 
one-third as much in width, and having a northwest trend. 
The northeast scarp is generally abrupt, rising from 4,000 
to 6,000 feet above the floor of the Wallowa River valley. 
The southwest side of the range benches off, and drops 
more gradually into the Powder River Basin. 

Principal rock types are greenstones of Permian and 
Triassic age overlain with marine sandstones and shales 
of Mesozoic age, interbedded with crystalline limestone 
or marble and intruded during the Cretaceous age by grani- 
toid rocks of the Wallowa batholith, particularly in the 
central portions of the ranges. Subsequent to the grani- 
tic intrusions and during Tertiary time massive lava flows 
covered most of the area, un-eroded patches of which ob- 
scure large areas of the older rocks insofar as prospect- 
ing may be concerned. 

Generally, both the granitoid batholith and the layered 
formations are cut by dikes. These are mostly basaltic 
and noncommercial in character but some dikes relating 
to the granitoid intrusions occasionally carry some min- 
eralization of economic potential. However, most of the 
known metallic mineral occurrences are located along, or 
near, lime stone -gr anodior ite contacts in a tactite zone 
and frequently contain copper, scheelite, gold, silver 
and molybdenite. 



Limestone, suitable for industrial, 
chitectural purposes, is probably t 
all mineral deposits in the area, 
of this resource is currently hampc 
mass markets, and consequent transp 
ever, this limitation must be recog 
and almost certainly will, eventual 
demands in the northwest increase a 
supply become depleted. 

The older formations in the Snake R 
precious metal and copper prospects 
tential, but due to the inaccessabi 
have never been more than superfici 

There are some known gold placer de 
value on the Imnaha River. Because, 
and the narrow fold through which t 
deposits have never been prospected 

Withdrawal of the Eagle Cap Wildern* 
consideration certain lands which o 
greatest potential for scheelite ar.< 
because of the lack of any consider 
ment work having been done even in 
to the deposition of metallic and/o 
it appears that much of the terrain 
formations (pre-Tertiary) is worthy 
ther investigation. However, this 
as an outright recommendation. 



RECREATIONAL 



Wallowa County has what is undoubtc 
tential for recreation based indust 
Counties. Unlike many other areas, 
offer a basis for almost year aroum 
boating, swimming and camping durin 
large herds of elk and deer for the 
snows and relatively bare slopes fo 

Considering all of the natural adva: 
roads and facilities for air travel, 
more has not been done to exploit t 




53 



I by the Oregon State Tax 
ssarily represent a de- 
acres and approximately 
in Report #134 by the 
wo agencies have differ- 
Tax Commission methods, 
r volume in 1958 was con- 
ted in Report #134. 



ed and partially inac- 
he winter climate is 
ibination makes prospect- 
al deposits more than a 
f the known commercial 
he Wallowa mountains, in 
The Wallowas are made 
? s long, averaging about 
saving a northwest trend, 
abrupt, rising from 4,000 
the Wallowa River valley. 
:enches off, and drops 
iver Basin. 

ones of Permian and 
c sandstones and shales 
h crystalline limestone 
e Cretaceous age by grani- 
ith, particularly in the 
Subsequent to the grani- 
ry time massive lava flows 
ded patches of which ob- 
ocks insofar as prospect- 



tholith and the layered 
ese are mostly basaltic 
at some dikes relating 
sionally carry some min- 
1. However, most of the 
es are located along, or 
tacts in a tactite zone 
cheelite, gold, silver 



Limestone, suitable for industrial, agricultural and ar- 
chitectural purposes, is probably the most valuable of 
all mineral deposits in the area. Commercial development 
of this resource is currently hampered by distance from 
mass markets, and consequent transportation costs; how- 
ever, this limitation must be recognized as one that can, 
and almost certainly will, eventually change as industrial 
demands in the northwest increase and present sources of 
supply become depleted. 

The older formations in the Snake River Canyon may contain 
precious metal and copper prospects having commercial po- 
tential, but due to the inacce ssabi lity of the area, these 
have never been more than superficially prospected. 

There are some known gold placer deposits of undetermined 
value on the Imnaha River. Because of the steep gradient 
and the narrow fold through which the river flows, these 
deposits have never been prospected to bedrock. 

Withdrawal of the Eagle Cap Wilderness Area removes from 
consideration certain lands which offered probably the 
greatest potential for scheelite and limestone, hence 
because of the lack of any considerable amount of develop- 
ment work having been done even in those places favorable 
to the deposition of metallic and/or industrial minerals, 
it appears that much of the terrain occupied by the older 
formations (pre-Tertiary) is worthy of at least some fur- 
ther investigation. However, this is not to be considered 
as an outright recommendation. 



RECREATIONAL 

Wallowa County has what is undoubtedly the greatest po- 
tential for recreation based industry of all of Oregon's 
Counties. Unlike many other areas, the natural resources 
offer a basis for almost year around activity: fishing, 

boating, swimming and camping during the summer months; 
large herds of elk and deer for the hunting season; deep 
snows and relatively bare slopes for skiing. 

Considering all of the natural advantages, including good 
roads and facilities for air travel, it seems strange that 
more has not been done to exploit this resource. 



29 



o 

ERLC 



54 




LABOR FORCE SUMMARY 



THE LABOR FORCE OF WALLOWA COUNTY 
(Week ending September 16, 1967) 



LABOR 
( 52 weeks end 



1. TOTAL, 16 and over 



4,072 



TOTAL having done some 



2 . Retired * • ■ 

3. Unable to work 1 / 

4. Able, but not available 

5. Available, but not seeking work 

6. TOTAL, not in active labor force 1,749 



423 

91 

1,012 

223 



Employed full time all 
Employed 40 to 51 week^ ( 
Employed 30 to 39 week^ 



7. Unemployed & actively seeking work 51 

8. Self-employed, nonagr icultur al industry 292 

9. Farm operators 2/ 332 

10. Unpaid family workers 3/ 106 

11. Farm wage workers (year around) 70 

12. Nonag. wage and salary workers 1,472 

13. TOTAL, active labor force 2,323 

14. Commuting to work outside county 144 

15. Empl . nonag. wage & salary, in county 1,328 

16. Percent of #15, working 30 or more hours 78% 



Employed 25 to 29 weeks 
Employed less than 25 w 

Seeking work 20 weeks o 

(a) 20 to 25 week 

(b) 26 weeks or m 

Worked part-time all 5.'' 



1 / Under age 65. 

2 / Does not include farm operators working majority of time 
3 / Includes both agricultural & nonagr icultur al family entei 
4/ Includes self-employed, both farm & nonfarm, and farm waq 



30 



FvH 



LABOR FORCE SUMMARY 



' WALLOWA COUNTY 
tember 16, 1967) 



LABOR FORCE STATUS 
(52 weeks ending September 16, 1967) 



4,072 

423 

91 

1,012 



g work 223 

T force 1,749 

king work 51 

tural industry 292 

332 

106 

around) 70 

irkers 1 , 472 

2,323 

county 144 

-y, in county 1,328 

30 or more hours 78% 



TOTAL having done some work 4/ 2,581 

Employed full time all 52 weeks 1,128 

Employed 40 to 51 weeks ...... 397 

Employed 30 to 39 weeks 256 

Employed 25 to 29 weeks 169 

Employed less than 25 weeks -584 



Seeking work 20 weeks or more of last 52 



(a) 20 to 25 weeks 11 

(b) 26 weeks or more 32 

Worked part-time all 52 weeks 47 



Under age 65. 

Does not include farm operators working majority of time off the farm. 
Includes both agricultural & nonagricultural family enterprises. 
Includes self-employed, both farm & nonfarm, and farm wage work. 



cri ERJC 

, y 

— 



56 



LABOR FORCE OF WALLOWA COUNTY 



Of the 6,105 persons in Wallowa County in September of 
1967, 4,072 or approximately 67 percent were 16 years of 
age, or older. Of the 4,072 persons who have passed 
their 16th birthdays, a total of 2,323, or slightly more 
than 57 percent, are in the active labor force. The 
number who are actively in the labor force closely ap- 
proximates 38 percent of the total population. 

In addition to those actively in the labor force, there 
is a pool of employable availables amounting to slightly 
more than three percent of the total population. These 
people stated to the Mobile Team a willingness and abil- 
ity to accept employment, but were not in active search 
for work. In the main, this group is composed of females 
and their passive attitudes toward employment, appears 
to stem partly from lack of financial motivation, and 
partly from previous lack of success in finding work. A 
few do have a good degree of financial motivation, but 
have not, for domestic reasons, been engaged in gainful 
employment for many years. 

Of the more than 2,300 persons in the active labor force 
2,160 were either employed or self-employed in some type 
of work, either agricultural or nonagr icultural during 
the week ending September 16, 1967. Another 106, or 
slightly more tnan four percent, were engaged to varying 
degrees in unpaid family work, both farm and nonfarm. 
"Unpaid family work" as that phrase may be used in this 
report, means any work in connection with a farm or other 
enterprise operated by the immediate family of the worker, 
and for which l.'ie worker is not paid in cash or in kind. 

It specifically does not include domestic duties nor does 
it include farm or household chores performed by a minor 
for a relative who is responsible for his keep. 



Another 51 or slightly more than 
labor force were totally unemplo 
work at the time of the study, 
move-ins, and some were recent 1 
Service. Only a few were long-t 



The active labor force of the coi 
than two-thirds male: 30 percent 
ployed, 80 percent of the unpaid 
percent of those unemployed duri: 
female s . 



Wallowa County has what is probat 
age of females in nonagr icultur a 
3 ny county in the State of Oregoi 
misleading, however, because of 1 
ing part time, some of them in fi 
not for these part time workers 
total active labor force might be 
would probably remain in the cat* 
seeking work. Most, it is belie\ 
group who are ready to work, but 

As a group , the labor force of Wl 
older than average, with a high p 
employed, both agricultural and r 
past the normal retirement age oi 

Almost ten percent of the nonagri 
workers of the county commute to 
ployment. Almost without excepti 
the lumber industry, and most of 
ing Union County for their employ 
weekend commuters — those who work 
or Raker., returning home on weeke 

Table VII on pages 33 through 3 c 
position of the labor force in te 
for which they appear qualified. 



RCE OP WALLOWA COUNTY 



ons in Wallowa County in September of 
proximately 67 percent were 16 years of 
f the 4,072 persons who have passed 
ays, a total of 2,323, or slightly more 
are in the active labor force. The 
tively in the labor force closely ap- 
cent of the total population. 

ose actively in the labor force, there 
oyable availables amounting to slightly 
arcent of the total population. These 
the Mobile Team a willingness and abil- 
loyment , but were not in active search 
main, this group is composed of females 
attitudes toward employment, appears 
sm lack of financial motivation, and 
:jus lack of success in finding work. A 
degree of financial motivation, but 
astic reasons, been engaged in gainful 
iy years. 

2,300 persons in the active labor force 
employed or self-employed in some type 
gricultural or nonagr icultural during 
sptember 16, 1967. Another 106, or 
■j four percent, were engaged to varying 
family work, both farm and nonfarm, 
rk" as that phrase may be used in this 
'work in connection with a farm or other 
?.d by the immediate family of the worker, 
, worker is not paid in cash or in kind. 
>es not include domestic duties nor does 
l* household chores performed by a minor 
3 is responsible for his keep. 



Another 51 or slightly more than two percent of the active 
labor force were totally unemployed and actively seeking 
work at the time of the study. Some of these were new 
move-ins, and some were recent layoffs from Trade and 
Service. Only a few were long-time unemployed. 

The active labor force of the county is slightly more 
than two-thirds male; 30 percent of those gainfully em- 
ployed, 80 percent of the unpaid family workers and 70 
percent of those unemployed during the study week were 
female s . 

Wallowa County has what is probably the highest percent- 
age of females in nonagricultural wage and salary work of 
any county in the State of Oregon. The percentage is 
misleading, however, because of the number of women work- 
ing part time, some of them in full time jobs. Were it 
not for these part time workers, it seems likely that the 
total active labor force might be reduced, although some 
would probably remain in the category of those actively 
seeking work. Most, it is believed, would revert to the 
group who are ready to work, but not seeking employment. 

As a group, the labor force of Wallowa County is slightly 
older than average, with a high percentage of the self- 
employed, both agricultural and nonagricultural, being 
past the normal retirement age of 65. 

Almost ten percent of the nonagricultural wage and salary 
workers of the county commute to other counties for em- 
ployment. Almost without exception, these are workers in 
the lumber industry, and most of these commute to adjoin- 
ing Union County for their employment. There are a few 
weekend commuter s--those who work as far away as Pendleton 
or Baker., returning home on weekends, only. 

Table VII on pages 33 through 36 offers a tabular ex- 
position of the labor force in terms of the types of work 
for which they appear qualified. In addition to the 



(Continued next page) 



31 




57 




active labor force, there is included in the tabulation 
approximately 80 percent of the more than 200 persons who 
stated they were willing and able to accept employment, 
but were not actively seeking work. Occupational classi- 
fications for this group were assigned on the basis of all 
information available, including that gained through coun- 
seling interviews in many cases. 

Also included in the tabulation are all self-employed per- 
sons, as well as unpaid family workers. Self-employed 
farm operators are shown under major group 4, whereas 
those in nonagr icu ltur al self-employment are listed gen- 
erally in major group 1, either as managers or, as in the 
case of doctors, lawyers, and other professional persons, 
in the professional group. Some of the nonprofessional 
self-employed persons are also shown under a working title 
other than manager. Thus, many of the self-employed con- 
tractors are shown as structural workers, rather than as 
contractors, because they seldom hire outside help. This 
was also true of some of the owners of small, family op- 
erated establishments in Trade and Services, where the 
time spent in management was negligible when compared with 
the time spent in other work in the establishment. 

Table VUI-a on page 37 depicts the education and voca- 
tional training of all persons above the age of 18 in the 
county. Table VUI-b on the same page provides the same 
information for those persons above the aoe of 18 who 
were found to be in the labor force. The higher degree 
of educational attainment by those in the labor force is 
not unusual, but does perhaps need some comment. Gener- 
ally, the bulk of those with fewer years of education or 
vocational training are in the upper age brackets, and 
are no longer in the labor force. Also, there is a small 
scattering of females who left school early to be married, 
and who have never been in the labor force. Perhaps the 
most noteworthy factor brought to light by these two ta- 
bles is lack of vocational training among the county’s 
inhabitants. As shown by Table IX, on page 38 this lack 
of interest in vocational training is still a prominent 
factor in the Wallowa County labor force. 



enrolled in grades 10 throuc 
the Mobile Team: 64 seniors 

All of those registered eitt 
educations with the complet; 
in some doubt about whethej 
schooling. About one-thirci 
cational training upon comp 
one-half were planning to 1 
ployment elsewhere. 

Exclusive of those who expc 
there should be approximate 
11th year dropouts entering 
time basis, annually. This 
the number of jobs that is 
employment of the county ea 
times the number of replace 
workers who will probably 1 
Thus, it can be seen that 
Wallowa County to continue 
force entrants. 

Of the prospective labor f c 
Mobile Team, almost all ap 
toward sc If- improvement , p 
elders. Many of the junio 
the labor force on a part 
have excellent job attitud 

* * 



Certainly worth more than passing attention are the po- 
tential labor force entrants of the county. These are 
the youngsters who could normally be expected to complete 
high school in the next three years. Of the total 384 



32 




ided in the tabulation 
»re than 200 persons who 
to accept employment , 
Occupational classi- 
gned s on the basis of all 
hat gained through coun- 



He all self-employed per- 
Hrkers. Self-employed 
Bjor group 4, whereas 
■loyment are listed gen- 
■s managers or, as in the 
H=r professional persons, 
the nonprofessional 
Mown under a working title 
If the self-employed con- 
Bworkers, rather than as 
■hire outside help. This 
Irs of small, family op- 
Id Services, where the 

■ igible when compared with 

■ he establishment . 

■he education and voca- 
ftove the age of 18 in the 

■ page provides the same 
■ve the age of 18 who 
Ice. The higher . degree 

■ e in the labor force is 
■d some comment. Gener- 

■ r years of education or 
)per age brackets, and 

Also, there is a small 
::hoo 1 early to be married, 
ibor force. Perhaps the 
) light by these two ta- 
mg among the county’s 
[X, on page 38 this lack 
rig is still a prominent 
or force. 

g attention are the po- 
the county. These are 
y be expected to complete 



enrolled in grades 10 through 12, 193 were registered by 
the Mobile Team: 64 seniors, 61 juniors and 68 sophomores 
All of those registered either planned to terminate their 
educations with the completion of high school, or were 
in some doubt about whether they would continue their 
schooling. About one-third of them were planning on vo- 
cational training upon completion of high school. Over 
one-half were planning to leave the county to seek em- 
ployment elsewhere. 

Exclusive of those who expect to continue their education 
there should be approximately 60 high school graduates or 
11th year dropouts entering the labor force on a full 
time basis, annually. This is approximately five times 
the number of jobs that is expected to be added to the 
employment of the county each year, and roughly three 
times the number of replacements that will be needed for 
workers who will probably leave the labor force each year 
Thus, it can be seen that the present prospects are for 
Wallowa County to continue to be an exporter of labor 
force entrants. 

Of the prospective labor force entrants counselled by the 
Mobile Team, almost all appeared to be well motivated 
toward self-improvement, perhaps far more so than their 
elders. Many of the juniors and seniors are already in 
the labor force on a part time basis, and were found to 
have excellent job attitudes. 



'ars, Of the total 384 



i 

i 




GO 



S' 



!• 

:V 

>• 

f‘; 1 

V. 



k- 

I 




OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE LABOR FO 





PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION 


SECOI 


MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 1 

PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL & 
MANAGERIAL 
Sub-Group (00 - 01) 


Emp loyed* 


Unemployed 


Available 


Employed* 


Architecture & Engineering 


4 


0 


0 


0 


Life Sciences (04) 


18 


0 


1 


0 


Medicine & Health (07) 


16 


0 


1 


0 


Education (09) 


95 


1 


2 


0 


Archival Sciences (10) 


2 


0 


1 


0 


Law & Jurisprudence (11) 


6 


0 


0 


0 


Religion (12) 


15 


0 


0 


3 


Writing (13) 


3 


0 


1 


0 


Art (14) 


0 


1 


0 


0 


Managers & Officials, N.E.C. (18) 


221 


0 


0 


33 


Miscellaneous in Major Group (19) 


4 


0 


3 


0 


TOTAL in Major Group 


384 


2 


9 


36 



* Includes nonagricultural self-employed. 




62 



iCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE LABOR FORCE 



-PRIMARY CLASS I FI CATION - 



Employed* Unemployed Available 



-SECONDARY CLASSIFICATI ON- 



Employed* 



Unemployed Available 



ng 



,-E.C. (18) 
Group (19) 



4 

18 

16 

95 

2 

6 

15 

3 
O 

221 

4 

384 



O 

O 

0 

1 
O 
O 
O 

0 

1 
o 
o 
2 



0 

1 
1 
2 
1 
O 

0 

1 
o 
o 

9 



O 

O 

O 

O 

O 

O 

3 

O 

O 

33 

O 

36 



0 

1 

0 

1 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
2 



o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

.0 

0 

1 
1 



ral self-employed. 



(Continued next page) 



ERLC- 



62 



33 



LABOR FORCE (Cont.) 


PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION 




Employed 


Unemployed 


Avai labi 


MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 2 
CLERICAL & SALES 
Sub-Group (20) 

Stenography, Typing, Filing 


61 


1 


11 


Computing & Account Recording (21) 


55 


2 


12 


Material & Production Recording 


32 


1 


0 


Misc. Clerical (23 & 24) 


36 


3 


25 


Sales, Services (25) 


6 


0 


0 < 


Sales Tangibles (26 - 29) 


130 


1 


22 * 


T0TA.L in Major Group 


320 


8 


70 


MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 3 
SERVICE 

Sub-Group (30 & 35) 

Domestic & Misc. Personal Service 


65 


4 


20 


Food & Beverage Preparation or Serv. 


,(31) 116 


7 


19 


Barbers, Beauticians & Related (33) 


19 


0 


4 


Lodging & Related (32) 


12 


4 


11 i 


Amusement & Recreation (34) 


10 


1 


0 


Apparel Service (36) 


12 


2 


10 


Protective Service (37) 


27 


1 


1 


Building & Related (38) 


9 


0 


4 


TOTAL in Major Group 


261 


19 


69 



34 




PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION 


SECONDARY CLASSIFICATION 


Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 


Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 


61 


1 


11 


1 


3 


7 


(21) 55 


2 


12 


5 


2 


1 


)g 32 


1 


0 


1 


0 


0 


36 


3 


25 


9 


4 


3 


6 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


130 


1 


22 


11 


3 


6 


320 


8 


70 


27 


12 


17 


'/ice 65 


4 


20 


3 


5 


1 


r Serv . ( 31) 116 


7 


19 


14 


9 


2 


d (33) 19 


0 


4 


0 


0 


2 


12 


4 


11 


1 


1 


1 


10 


1 


0 


0 


2 


0 


12 


2 


10 


1 


4 


1 


, 27 


1 


1 


0 


0 


0 


9 


0 


4 


0 


0 


1 


261 


19 


69 


19 


21 


8 





( er|c 

^jflEBBTLaaaaa 



64 















PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION 


SEC( 




Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 


Employed 


MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 4 
FARMING, FISHING & FORESTRY* 
Sub-Group 
Plants (40) 


13 


1 


I 


8 


Animals (41) 


445 


2 


1 


29 


Misc. Farm (42) 


3 


1 


1 


21 


Fishery & Related (43) 


8 


0 


0 


0 


Forestry (44) 


61 


2 


0 


1 


Agricultural Service (46) 


9 


0 


0 


0 




— 


— 


— 


— 


TOTAL in Major Group 


539 


6 


3 


59 


MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 5 
PROCESSING 
1 Sub-Group 

Food & Related (52) 


13 


5 


19 


— ; 

2 


Wood & Wood Products (56) 


7 


0 


0 


4 




— 


— 


— 


— 


TOTAL in Major Group 


20 


5 


19 


6 


MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 6 
MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS 
Sub-Group (60 - 61) 

Metal Working or Machining 


4 


0 


0 


0 


Mechanics & Machinery Repair (62 - 63) 


98 


0 


0 


5 


Printing Occupations (65) 


4 


0 


0 


0 


Woodworking (66) 


62 


1 


0 


3 


Machine Trades, N.E.C. (69) 


3 


0 


0 


1 


— — 


— 


— 




TOTAL in Major Group 


167 


1 


0 


9 


* Includes Farm Operators. 






















f 



PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION 


SECONDARY CLASSIFICATION 


Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 


Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 


13 


1 


1 


8 


1 


0 


445 


2 


1 


29 


5 


0 


3 


1 


1 


21 


2 


0 


8 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


61 


2 


0 


1 


3 


0 


9 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


• — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


539 


6 


3 


59 


11 


0 


13 


5 


19 


2 


1 


6 


7 


0 


0 


4 


1 


0 


■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


20 


5 


19 


6 


2 


6 


4 


0 


0 


0 


1 


0 


(62 - 63) 98 


0 


0 


5 


2 


0 


4 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


62 


1 


0 


3 


2 


0 


f 3 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 






— 


— 






167 


1 


0 


9 


5 


0 










(Continued next 


page) 



,ERJC 

LU.-|-i~-n i 

U KJ 




35 



fcv. 

S* 

ft 

& 



sv 

m 

p 



O §L 

ERICf 



LABOR FORCE (Cont . ) PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION SECC 



MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 7 

BENCH WORK OCCUPATIONS 
Sub-Group (70 - 72) 


Emp loyed 


Unemployed 


Available 


Employed 


Repair of Metal Products 


3 


0 


0 


0 


Rep. of Textile or Leather Prod. (78) 


16 


0 


2 


0 


TOTAL in Major Group 


19 


0 


2 


0 



MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 8 
STRUCTURAL OCCUPATIONS 
Sub-Group (82) 

Electrical 


15 


0 


0 


0 




Excavating, Grading & Related (85) 


41 


0 


0 


3 




Sub-Group (84,86,89) 
All Other Construction 


73 


3 


0 


2 






— 


— 








TOTAL in Major Group 


129 


3 


0 


5 




MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUP: 9 
MISCELLANEOUS 












Sub-Group (90) 
Motor Freight 


69 


3 


0 


3 




Misc. Transportation (91) 


36 


0 


0 


0 




Material Handling (92)., 


126 


2 


2 


6 




Logging (94) 


118 


0 


0 


2 




Utilities (95) 


42 


1 


0 


0 




Other Miscellaneous (93,96,97) 


40 


0 


1 


3 




— 


— 








TOTAL in Major Group 


431 


6 


3 


14 





36 



67 



•PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION 



SECONDARY CLASSIFICATION 





Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 


Employed 


Unemployed 


Available 




3 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


d.(78) 


16 


0 


2 


0 


1 


_3 




19 


0 


2 


0 


1 


3 





15 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


(85) 


41 


0 


0 


3 


0 


0 




73 


3 


0 


2 


_1 


0 




129 


3 


0 


5 


1 


0 



69 

36 

126 

118 

42 

40 

431 



3 

C 

2 

0 

1 
O 
6 



O 

O 

2 

O 

O 

J_ 

3 



3 

O 

6 

2 

O 

3 

14 



1 

1 

3 

1 

O 

_1 

7 



O 

O 

3 
O 
O 

4 




68 



EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE LABOR FORC 

WALLOWA COUNTY 



i 







(Week Ending September 16, 1967) 

EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF PERSONS 18 AND OVER 
(Whether in the labor force or not) 



SCHOOL YEARS COMPLETED 




MALE 


FEMALE 


YEARS OF VOCATIONAL 


TRAIN 


0 through 


4 years 




63 


31 


One year 




5 through 


8 years 




206 


159 


Two years 




9 through 


11 years 




413 


386 


Three years 




12 years 






929 


1,192 


Four or more 




13 through 


15 years 




63 


71 


None 


> 


16 years or 


more 




192 


153 






TOTAL 18 years of age 


& over 


1,866 


1,992 


TOTAL 










EDUCATION AND 


TRAINING OF PERSONS IN THE LABOR FORCE 
(18 years old and over) 


SCHOOL YEARS COMPLETED 




MALE 


FEMALE 


YEARS OF VOCATIONAL 


TRAIN 


0 through 


4 years 




22 


7 


One year 




5 through 


8 years 




133 


19 


Two years 




9 through 


11 years 




362 


31 


Three years 




12 years 






851 


553 


Four or more 




13 through 


15 years 




42 


29 


None 




16 years or 


more 




127 


83 






TOTAL 18 years of age & over 
in the labor force 


1,537 


722 


TOTAL 






EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE LABOR FORCE 

WALLOWA COUNTY 



(Week Ending September 16, 1967) 

EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF PERSONS 18 AND OVER TABLE VI I I -a 

(Whether in the labor force or not) 



MALE 


FEMALE 


YEARS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING 


MALE 


FEMALE 


63 


31 


One year 


379 


680 


206 


159 


Two years 


136 


46 


413 


386 


Three years 


3 


63 


929 


1,192 


Four or more 


17 


0 


63 


71 


None 


1,331 


1,203 


192 


153 








1,866 


1,992 


TOTAL 


1,866 


1,992 



EDUCATION AND 


TRAINING OF PERSONS IN THE LABOR FORCE 
(18 years old and over) 


TABLE 


VUI-b 


MALE 


FEMALE 


YEARS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING 


MALE 


FEMALE 


22 


7 


One year 


249 


406 


133 


19 


Two years 


81 


34 


362 


31 


Three years 


3 


51 


851 


553 


Four or more 


13 


0 


42 


29 


None 


1,191 


231 


127 


83 








1,537 


722 


TOTAL 


1,537 


722 



37 



O 

ERIC 



JL 



70 



EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE LABOR FORCE 


TABLE IX VOCATIONAL TRAINING 


INTERESTS 




EDUCATION OF THOSE AV/\ 


(Persons 18 years of age and over) 




BUT NOT SEEKING W 


WALLOWA COUNTY 
September 10 - 16, 1967 




Of the 223 persons in Wallowa Count 




MALE 


FEMALE 


willing to accept employment, but w 
ing work, only 175 registered for w 


TOTAL Persons in Age Group 


1,866 


1,992 


vided the Mobile Team with enough i 
an occupational classification. ( To 


TYPE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING PREFERRED: 




Pertinent data with regard to educa 


Technical 


4 


17 


training and current attachment to 


Clerical 


4 


52 


contained in Table X, below. 


Sale s 


1 


17 




Service 


5 


19 


SCHOOL YEARS COMPLETED I 


Farm, Fishing & Forestry 


27 


1 




Processing 


3 


9 


0 through 4 years J 


Machine Trades 


21 


0 


5 through 8 years .1 


Bench Work 


2 


19 


9 through 11 years J 


Structural Occupations 


18 


0 


12 years 1 


Miscellaneous Occupations 


1 


2 


13 through 15 years 1 


Total Interested in Vocational 
Training 


86 


136 


16 and over J 


Interested in Professional 
Training 


9 


16 


YEARS OF VOCATIONAL Til 


TOTAL Interested in Training 


95 


152 


None 1 

One year 1 


Not Presently Interested 
In Training 


1,775 


1,840 


Two years 1 

Three years 1 

Four years . 1 


OF THOSE INTERESTED IN VOCATIONAL 
(a) Total now employed 


TRAINING: 

84 


13 


TOTAL YEARS WORKED IN pI 


(b) Willing to leave the area 








for training 


9 


5 


None 1 


(c) Willing to leave the area 
for employment 


9 


4 


Less than one 1 

One to two 1 


(d) Could finance own training: 




Two to three 1 


1. If available locally 


73 


128 


Three or more M 


2. If out of area 


0 


0 




(e) Assistance needed, amount: 
1. Free tuition, only 








22 


19 


****** -1 


2. Tuition, plus 








subsistence 


2 


0 




3. Tuition, subsistence 








3Q and allowance 


7 


5 













71 



7 



EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE LABOR FORCE 



TRAINING INTERESTS 
ears of age and over) 

OWA COUNTY 
10 - 16, 1967 

MALE FEMALE 

p 1,866 1,992 



EDUCATION OF THOSE AVAILABLE FOR, 

BUT NOT SEEKING WORK 

Of the 223 persons in Wallowa County who stated they were 
willing to accept employment, but were not actively seek- 
ing work, only 175 registered for work, or otherwise pro- 
vided the Mobile Team with enough information to enable 
an occupational classification. (Table VII, pages 33-37). 



NG- PREFERRED: 
4 

4 
1 

5 

y 27 

3 

21 

2 

18 

:>ns 1 

at ional 

86 



17 

52 

17 

19 

1 

9 

O 

19 

O 

2 

136 



Pertinent data with regard to education, vocational 
training and current attachment to the labor force are 
contained in Table X, below. 



SCHOOL YEARS COMPLETED TABLE X 

O through 4 years O 

5 through 8 years 14 

9 through 11 years 136 

12 years 67 

13 through 15 years 2 

16 and over 4 



al 



9 



16 



ning 



95 152 



1,775 1,840 



YEARS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING 



None 121 

One year 36 

Two years 44 

Three years 22 

Four years . . * 1 



OCATIONAL TRAINING: 



ed 84 13 

the area 

9 5 

1 the area 

9 4 

m training: 

locally 73 128 

;a O O 

>d , amount: 

. only 22 19 

5 

2 O 

sistence 

a 7 5 



TOTAL YEARS WORKED IN PAST FIVE 



None 103 

Less than one..*.. 72 

One to two 26 

Two to three 17 

Three or more ........** 5 



********* 



o 

ERIC. 



72 



p 




LABOR FORGE ENTRANTS 



•PRIMARY CLASSIFICATIONS 



OCCUPATIONAL GROUP 


QUALIFIED 


ENTRY , 
6 DIGIT 


ENTRY , 
5 DIGIT 


Professional, Technical 
& Managerial (Group I) 


0 


0 


1 


Clerical & Sales (Group II) 


1 


2 


1 


Service (Group III) 


3 


5 


2 


Farming, Fishing and 
Forestry (Group IV) 


15 


3 


0 


Processing (Group V) 


0 


2 


1 


Machine Trades (Group VI) 


0 


3 


3 


Bench Work (Group VII) 


0 


1 


0 


Structural (Group VIII) 


0 


0 


3 


Miscellaneous (Group IX) 


9 


3 


6 




Total Primary 


Classifications. 





ENj 
6 D] 



a 



ij 

c 

c 

c 

<; 

Total Sec 



Kirom information gained through interviews with high 
school seniors, it appears there will be in excess of 60 
young persons entering the labor force on a full-time 
basis, annually, in Wallowa County. 



percentage of these also 
there are no present plan-.: 
the county , to the point w 
be provided for them. 



Also on the basis of these interviews, it appears that 
approximately one-half of those going directly from high 
school to the labor force plan to out-migrate. There 
are no data with regard to those who plan to continue 
their education, but it seems safe to assume that a fair 



Nevertheless, since these 
the county, and there is u 
not prefer to stay in the 
provided for them, it seem 
could be learned of their 



73 



LABOR FORGE ENTRANTS 



TABLE XI 



PRIMARY 


CLASSIFICATIONS 


SECONDARY 


CLASSIFICATIONS 




ENTRY , 


ENTRY , 


ENTRY, 


ENTRY , 


ENTRY , 


QUALIFIED 


6 DIGIT 


5 DIGIT 


6 DIGIT 


5 DIGIT 


4 DIGIT 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


4 


0 


3 


5 


2 


2 


5 


1 



15 3 O 

0 2 1 



11 O O 

Oil 



VI) 



) 



0 3 3 

0 10 



0 12 
0 2 0 



1) 

IX) 



o 

9 



O 

3 



O 

7 



O 

3 



O 

2 



Total primary Classifications, 



64 



Total Secondary Classifications 47 



ed through interviews with high 
pears there will be in excess of 60 
g the labor force on a full-time 
allowa County. 



percentage of these also plan to leave the county, since 
there are no present plans for industrial expansion in 
the county, to the point where gainful employment could 
be provided for them. 



these interviews, it appears that 
f of those going directly from high 
orce plan to out-migrate. There 
!rd to those who plan to continue 
it seems safe to assume that a fair 



Nevertheless, since these youth will become available in 
the county, and there is no reason to believe they would 
not prefer to stay in the county if employment could be 
provided for them, it seems advisable to categorize what 
could be learned of their occupational potential. 



39 



o 



ERLC 

H3B&SI329 . 

. va 



l 



74 



LABOR FORGE STATUS BY AGE GROUPS 
(PERSONS 16 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER) 

WALLOWA COUNTY 



(Week Ending September 16, 1967) 



AGE GROUP 


TOTAL IN GROUP 


1/ 

EMPLOYED^ 


UNEMPLOYED AND 
ACTIVELY SEEKING WORK 


AVAILABLE 

SEEKI 


16 through 21 
years 


459 


178 


22 


J 

13 


22 through 34 
years 


794 


484 


9 


41 


35 through 44 
years 


810 


652 


7 


71 


45 through 54 
years 


681 


546 


12 


53 


55 through 64 
years 


562 


282 


1 


14 


65 years and 
over 


766 


130 


0 


31 


TOTAL 


4,072 


2,272 


51 


223 



1/ Includes commuter s-out „ 



40 



75 



LABOR FORCE STATUS BY AGE GROUPS 
(PERSONS 16 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER) 

WALLOWA COUNTY 

(Week Ending September 16, 1967) 

GROUP 






7ER1C 



1/ 

EMPLOYED^ 


UNEMPLOYED AND 
ACTIVELY SEEKING WORK 


AVAILABLE, NOT 
SEEKING 


NOT 

AVAILABLE 


178 


22 


13 


246 


484 


9 


41 


260 


652 


7 


71 


80 


546 


12 


53 


70 


282 


1 


14 


265 


130 


0 


31 


605 


2,272 


51 


223 


1,526 




76 



COMMUTING PATTERNS 



/ PLACES COMMUTING TO 

COMMUTING ( 



FROM 


TOTAL 


ELGIN 


LA GRANDE 


UMATILLA 


OTHER* 


Lost ine 


41 


21 


15 


3 


2 


Wallowa 


36 


18 


9 


9 


0 


Enterprise 


38 


22 


9 


3 


4 


Joseph 


12 


3 


0 


7 


2 


F lora 


17 


0 


2 


6 


9 


TOTAL COMMUTERS 


144 


64 


35 


28 


17 



* Includes weekend commuters. 



Areas commuted from and/or to, as shown in Table XIII may be misleading to some extent. For 
instance in areuS "Commuted from," the name of the town denotes only a mailing address. Most 
of those commuting lived outside the incorporated areas. Similarly, in areas "Commuting to, M 
La Grande includes some workers commuting to places between La Grande and Elgin. "Other" in 
the "Commuting to" column includes workers commuting to the State of Washington, as well as 
some workers who are employed in Umatilla and Baker Counties and return home on weekends, only. 

I 

Practically all of those commuting are lumber workers. Most of those commuting to Elgin and 
La Grande are mill workers, while those commuting to Umatilla County are loggers. Two pro- 
fessional workers and five clerical workers are also in the commuter group to La Grande. In- 
cluded as commuters are four truck drivers who work part time in Wallowa County and part time 

1 in Union County for a firm headquartered in Union County. 

r There are no commuters into Wallowa County, so far as could be determined. 




77 



METHODOLOGY 



In order to determine current manpower use and secure a 
projection of future manpower need in Wallowa County, 
all employers of five or more workers were personally 
interviewed, and all employers having one, but less than 
five workers on their payrolls were contacted by tele- 
phone. All employers were asked to detail their current 
employment by occupation, sex and age; whether there 
were any current vacancies in any occupation; and their 
estimates of employment in each occupation for September 
1969 and September 1972. 

Employers of five or more persons were asked to state 
their minimum requirements, in terms of training and/or 
experience in hiring for individual occupations, and 
whether or not in-plant training was provided. 

Concurrently with the gathering of data in respect to 
current manpower use and future manpower need, procedure 
was set in motion to gather data with respect to the 
skills and educational profile of all county residents 
above the age of 16, whether in the labor force or not. 
This procedure consisted of a Household Study, encompass- 
ing every household that could be located in the county. 
Actual work of gathering data for this study was done by 
local residents, hired in five different localities 
throughout the county expressly for this purpose. Thor- 
ough training was afforded to those hired, prior to the 
start of the study. Since each study worker was thorough- 
ly familiar with the area to which they were assigned, 
there is no reason to believe that any household in the 
county escaped attention. Of some 1,904 households con- 
tacted by survey workei s , complete data were secured for 
1,822. Partial data, consisting of the total in the 
household, and age, sex, marital status and physical con- 
dition of each member, were secured from 48. households. 
There were 34 instances where no data could be secured 
directly from the household, but the study workers were 
able to secure the total number of persons in the house- 

42 



hold from neighbors, or 
data secured from the 1. 
95.7 percent of the tota 
and, with the age, sex, r 
acteristics data contain* 
accounted for 98.2 percer 

Schedules used by the Hot 
signed to cover the folic 
tion: 

1. Length of time the 
and type of present resit 
farm, rural nonfarm or ir 
there are no urban areas 

2. Total number in hoi! 

ken into three groups: t ij 

10 to 15 years of age, ar 

3. Age, sex, marital n 
household and physical cc 
household over the age of 

4. Attachment to the J 
household over the age of 

5. Attachment to the i 
member over the age of 
the survey week. 

6. Occupation (s) in h 
the age of 16 reported h;j 
survey week, or the 52 we 

7. For each household 
sought work during the 52 
week, the principal work 
five years, if any, and t 

8. Which members of th 
to move elsewhere for per 
work desired and the mini 



DOLOGY 



hold from neighbors., or by other means. The complete 
data secured from the 1,822 households accounted for 
95.7 percent of the total population found in the county 
and, with the age, sex, marital status and physical char- 
acteristics data contained in the abbreviated reports, 
accounted for 98.2 percent of the total population. 



t manpower use and 
r need, in Wallowa 
e workers were per 
rs having one, but 
Is were contacted 
'sked to detail the 
>x and age; whether 
n any occupation; 
ach occupation for 



secure a 
County , 
sonally 
less than 
by tele- 
ir current 
there 
and their 
September 



Schedules used by the Household Study workers were de- 
signed to cover the following 15 items of basic informa- 
tion: 

1. Length of time the household had been in the county, 
and type of present residence location; whether rural 
farm, rural nonfarm or in an incorporated area. (Note: 
there are no urban areas in Wallowa County) . 



ersons were asked to state 
in terms of training and/or 
dividual occupations, and 
ining was provided. 



ring of data in respect to 
ture manpower need , procedure 
data with respect to the 
ile of all county residents 
r in the labor force or not. 

: a Household Study, encompass- 
;uld be located in the county, 
it a for this study was done by 
ive different localities 
?ssly for this purpose. Thor- 
to those hired, prior to the 
each study worker was thorough- 
t o which they were assigned, 
we that any household in the 
Of some 1,904 households con- 
-omplete data were secured for 
isting of the total in the 
arital status and physical con- 
2 secured from 48. households, 
ere no data could be secured 
d, but the study workers were 
umber of persons in the house- 



2. Total number in household, regardless of ages, bro- 
ken into three groups: those under 10 years of age, those 

10 to 15 years of age, and those 16 years of age and over 

3. Age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of 
household and physical condition of each member of the 
household over the age of 16. 

4. Attachment to the labor force of each member of the 
household over the age of 16 during the survey week. 

5. Attachment to the labor force of each household 
member over the age of 16 for the 52 weeks ending with 
the survey week. 

6. Occupation (s) in which each household member over 
the age of 16 reported having worked, either during the 
survey week, or the 52 weeks ending with the survey week. 

7. For each household member who reported having 
sought work during the 52 weeks ending with the survey 
week, the principal work performed during the preceding 
five years, if any, and the type of work sought. 

8. Which members of the household, if any, were ready 
to move elsewhere for permanent work, with the type of 
work desired and the minimum wage acceptable. 



" 5 ° 

ERIC 

E JMff 

* 



79 







9. Which members of the household, if any, were ready 
to leave home for temporary work, with the type of work 
desired and minimum wage acceptable. 

10. Which members of the household, if any, were avail- 
able for seasonal agricultural work, including the crops 


All respondents who report 
complete registrations for. 
scheduled points throughou 
who reported being ready t 
ing work. 


interested in and the minimum wage desired. 

11. For those household members who were operating a 
farm, whether or not they were available for full time 
nonfarm work, with the type of work, wages desired, maxi- 


Those respondents who repo 
training were furnished pr 
and given appointments at 
throughout the area for re 


mum commuting distance willing to travel and whether or 
not taking such a job would reduce the size of the farm 
operation . 

12. Which household members, if any, were commuting to 
work outside the county, with the type of work involved 
and the location. 

13. The number of years of completed schooling for each 
member of the household over the age of 16, the number of 


In addition to the data de 
man resource of the area, < 
ing the natural resources, 
problems of the area. Mos 
through research into repo 
agencies, (see Appendix A ( 
sarily compiled through ac 
industries, government off* 
both within and without th< 


years and type of vocational training, if any, and whether 
or not this vocational training had ever been used in his 
work, or of help in obtaining work. 

14. Which members of the household, if any, were now 
interested in vocational training, and the type of train- 
ing, if interested. 

15. For those members of the household who were inter- 
ested in vocational training, the extent to which they 
would be able to finance their own training. 


All data with regard to pre 
future manpower need, alone 
occupational profiles of ti 
to key punched documents ar 
ly in the Central Office oi 
ployment . Actually, only i 
formation is published in 1 
limitations of space and ge 
ing additional information 
potential of the people of 
request to: 


With regard to items 4 and 5 of the basic data, the sched- 
ules were also designed to show whether or not the sched- 
ule respondent was self-employed, either farm or nonfarm, 
a wage worker, either farm or nonfarm, or was engaged in 
unpaid family work. Also, if the respondent was employed 
less than thirty hours during the survey week, whether 
they were in addition either seeking work, ready for work 
but not looking, engaged in domestic duties, attending 
school, retired, or unable to work. This same informa- 
tion was also developed for the 51 weeks preceding the 
Household Study, including the number of weeks spent in 
each category. 


Smaller Communi 
Oregon State En 
Room 413 - Labo 
Salem, Oregon 



80 



: the household, if any, were ready 


All respondents who reported seeking work were asked to 


jorary work, with the type of work 


complete registrations for work with the Mobile Team at 


\ge acceptable. 


scheduled points throughout the county, as were those 


: the household, if any, were avail- 


who reported being ready to work but not actually seek- 
ing work. 


cultural work, including the crops 
minimum wage desired. 


Those respondents who reported an interest in vocational 


)old members who were operating a 


training were furnished preliminary registration forms, 
and given appointments at specific times and places 


:hey were available for full time 


throughout the area for return of these forms. 


2 type of work, wages desired, maxi- 
? willing to travel and whether or 


In addition to the data developed with regard to the hu- 


would reduce the size of the farm 


man resource of the area, data were also developed cover- 


members, if any, were commuting to 


ing the natural resources, business trends, and economic 
problems of the area. Most of this was accomplished 
through research into reports of studies made by various 


ty , with the type of work involved 


agencies, (see Appendix A on page 47) but some was neces- 


^ars of completed schooling for each 


sarily compiled through actual contacts with operating 
industries, government officials and professional workers, 
both within and without the 'county. 


Id over the age of 16, the number of 
itional training, if any, and whether 


All data with regard to present manpower use and possible 


I training had ever been used in his 


future manpower need, along with data used to set up the 


staining work. 


occupational profiles of the labor force were transferred 


i : the household, if any, were now 


to key punched documents and will be retained indefinite- 
ly in the Central Office of the Oregon Department of Em- 


lal training, and the type of train- 


ployment. Actually, only a portion of the developed in- 


trs of the household who were inter- 


formation is published in this brochure, because of 
limitations of space and general interest. Anyone wish- 
ing additional information concerning the occupational 


raining, the extent to which they 


potential of the people of the area should address his 


ice their own training. 


request to: 


4 and 5 of the basic data, the sched- 
2 d to show whether or not the sched- 
lf-employed, either farm or nonfarm, 
farm or nonfarm, or was engaged in 


Smaller Communities Services Program 


Also, if the respondent was employed 


Oregon State Employment Service 


s during the survey week, whether 


Room 413 - Labor and Industries Bldg. 


either seeking work, ready for work 


Salem, Oregon 97310 


ged in domestic duties, attending 
hable to work. This same informa- 
2 d for the 51 weeks preceding the 
j-ding the number of weeks spent in 


43 



ERJC t o 1 

* 



OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS DEFINED 



PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 



FARMING, FISHERY , FORf 



This category includes occupations concerned with the 
theoretical or practical aspects of such fields of human 
endeavor as art, science, engineering, education, medi- 
cine, law, business relations and administrative, manage- 
rial and technical worlt. 



This category includes 
ing, harvesting, catch 
and animal life and th 
concerned with providi 
t ivit ies . 



Most of these occupations require substantial educational 
preparation (usually at the university, junior college, 
or technical institute level) . 

CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS 



This category includes occupations concerned with pre- 
paring, transcribing, transferring, systematizing, and 
preserving written communications and records, collecting 
accounts and distributing information. 

SALES OCCUPATIONS 

Includes all occupations primarily concerned with assist- 
ing or influencing customer choice of products, commodi- 
ties or services. It also includes some occupations in 
customer service closely identified with sales transac- 
tions but where there is no actual participation in the 
sales process (eg: carpet layers, drapery hangers, de- 
livery boys, etc.). 

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 



Includes those occupations concerned with the performance 
of services for persons which require either contact or 
close association with the individual for whom the serv- 
ice is performed; occupations concerned with protection 
of public or private property, occupations related to 
the servicing of buildings; occupations in cleaning, 
dyeing, and pressing; and attendants in amusement and 
recreation facilities. 



PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS 



Includes occupations a 
compounding, heat or c 
ing materials or prodi4 
adherence to formulas 
ed in some degree. Op 
is often involved. 

MACHINE TRADES OCCUPAX 



This category includes 
ing, tending, operatin 
machines to work such 
and - stone. The relati 
is of prime importance 
plexity at which the w 
levels, understanding 
combined with the exer 
knowledge of related s 
print reading, etc. A 
coordination of the ey 
cant factor. This cat 
repairmen . 

BENCH WORK OCCUPATIONS 



This category includes 
hand or bench machine 
used to fit, grind, ca, 
inspect, repair or sim 



44 



82 



CUPATIONAL GROUPS DEFINED 



CCUPATIQNS 

rned with the 
fields of human 
iducation, medi- 
strative, manage- 



ntial educational 
junior college, 



?rned with pre- 
ematizing, and 
.cords, collecting 



FARMING, FISHERY, FORESTRY AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 

This category includes occupations concerned with grow- 
ing, harvesting, catching and gathering land and aquatic 
and animal life and the products thereof, and occupations 
concerned with providing services in support of these ac- 
tivities. 

PROCESSING OCCUPATIONS 



Includes occupations concerned with refining, mixing, 
compounding, heat or chemical treating or similarly work- 
ing materials or products. Knowledge of a process and 
adherence to formulas or other specifications are requir- 
ed in some degree. Operation of equipment or machinery 
is often involved. 

MACHINE TRADES OCCUPATIONS 



?rned with assist- 
:oducts, commodi- 
? occupations in 
i sales transac- 
icipation in the 
:y hangers, de- 



th the performance 
ither contact or 
or whom the serv- 
r with protection 
ons related to 
in cleaning, 
amusement and 



This category includes occupations concerned with feed- 
ing, tending, operating, controlling, and setting up 
machines to work such materials as metal, paper, wood, 
and' stone. The relationship of the worker to the machine 
is of prime importance in establishing the level of com- 
plexity at which the work is performed. At the higher 
levels, understanding of machine functions is frequently 
combined with the exercise of worker judgment based on 
knowledge of related subjects such as mathematics, blue- 
print reading, etc. At the lower levels of complexity, 
coordination of the eyes and hands is the most signifi- 
cant factor. This category also includes mechanics and 
repairmen . 

BENCH WORK QCCUPATI ONS 



This category includes occupations where body members, 
hand or bench machine tools or a combination thereof are 
used to fit, grind, carve, mold, paint, sew, assemble 
inspect, repair or similarly work a variety of objects. 



0 



ERIC 






83 



o 

ERJC 



The work is usually performed in a set position in a 
mill, shop, or plant, at a bench, work table or conveyor. 
The more complex of these occupations requires the use of 
worker judgment; in the less complex, the worker follows 
a standardized procedure. 



STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS 



Includes occupations concerned with fabricating, erecting, 
installing, paving, painting, repairing, and similarly 
working structures or structural parts, such as bridges, 
buildings, roads, motor vehicles, cables, airplane en- 
gines, girders, plates, and frames. They involve the 
use of hand or portable power tools in working such ma- 
terials as wood, metal, concrete, glass and clay. Ex- 
cept for factory line production, the work is usually 
performed outside a factory or shop environment. 



MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS 



Includes occupations concerned with transportation serv- 
ices; packaging and warehousing; utilities; amusement, 
recreation, and motion picture services; mining and log- 
ging; graphic arts, and activities not elsewhere classi- 
f ied . 




MINING AND PACKAGING OF HIGH GRADE PEAT MOSS IS ONE OF 
THE NEWER INDUSTRIES OF WALLOWA COUNTY. 



INDUSTRIES DEFL 



CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION 



This group includes all firms primarij 
struction by contract, whether of bui. 
pipe lines, excavating or general con: 
includes specialty contractors, such 
conditioning, roofing, flooring, elect 
or plastering. Construction is constt 
additional alteration or demolition, 
pre-fab materials or equipment by a cc 
within this division. However, when ■ 
is made by the vendor or manufacturer 
or equipment, it is not considered as 



MANUFACTURING 



With the exceptions hereinafter noted4 
eludes all establishments primarily er 
combining or adding to materials or si 
purpose of enhancing the value or usal 



Not included in manufacturing are sucl 
processing of raw materials on a farm 




THE STREAMS OF WALLOWA COUNTY ARE WELL 
FINGERLINGS BY THE STATE OPERATED HATCH 



84 



85 




a set position in a 
. work table or conveyor. 
Lions requires the use of 
;>lex, the worker follows 



th fabricating, erecting, 
^airing, and similarly 
parts, such as bridges, 
cables, airplane en- 
is. They involve the 
dIs in working such ma- 
. glass and clay. Ex- 
. the work is usually 
bop environment. 



ith transportation serv- 
utilities; amusement, 
ervices; mining and log- 
es not elsewhere classi- 




ADE PEAT MOSS IS ONE OF 
COUNTY. 



INDUSTRIES DEFINED 



CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION 



This group includes all firms primarily engaged in con- 
struction by contract, whether of buildings, highways, 
pipe lines, excavating or general construction. It also 
includes specialty contractors, such as painting, air 
conditioning, roofing, flooring, electrical, plumbing, 
or plastering. Construction is construed to mean new, 
additional alteration or demolition. Installation of 
pre-fab materials or equipment by a contractor comes 
within this division. However, when such installation 
is made by the vendor or manufacturer of the materials 
or equipment, it is not considered as construction. 

MANUFACTURING 

With the exceptions hereinafter noted, this division in- 
cludes all establishments primarily engaged in altering, 
combining or adding to materials or substances for the 
purpose of enhancing the value or usability. 

Not included in manufacturing are such activities as 
processing of raw materials on a farm, fabrication at a 




THE STREAMS OF WALLOWA COUNTY ARE WELL SUPPLIED WITH 
FINGERLINGS BY THE STATE OPERATED HATCHERY AT ENTERPRISE. 



45 




85 



MANUFACTURING (Cont. ) 

construction site by a contractor, or processing for re- 
tail sale on the premises of firms ordinarily engaged in 
retail trade. 

Treated in this study as separate divisions of manufac- 
turing are: 

1. Lumber and wood products, which includes logging and 
other operations in connection with commercial tree farms; 
primary processing of lumber and veneer, prefabrication 

of wooden buildings or structural members thereof, and 
manufacture of shaped wooden products. 

2. Paper and allied products, which includes the manu- 
facture of pulps from wood and other cellulose fibres; 
the manufacture of paper and paperboard, and the conver- 
sion of paper and paperboard into various products. 

3. Other manufacturing, which includes all manufactur- 
ing operations not specifically covered in groups one 

and two, above. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Railroads, motor carriers, warehousing, water transpor- 
tation; airlines, freight forwarding, pipe lines, and 
local and suburban transportation. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Telephone and telegraph; radio and television broadcast- 
ing, and commercial shortwave systems. 

UTILITI ES 

Light, heat and power, whether electric or gas; water 
supply, and sanitary services. 

WHOLESALE TRADE 

Includes all establishments primarily engaged in selling 
merchandise to retailers or other industrial, commercial, 



or professional users withe 
chandise purveyed. 

RETAIL TRADE 

Includes all establishment* 
merchandise for personal, i 
and in rendering service ir 

FINANCE, INSURANCE AND REA1 

In addition to banks and ti 
business of whatever nature 
it agencies, holding compar 
modifies and contracts, owi 
of real estate. 

SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Under service, this group : 
ing places; trailer parks; 
and amusement services; mec 
other professional service: 
(other than government opei 
organizations and other sei 
animal husbandry, and hort: 
formed on a fee or contrac' 

Under miscellaneous is inc^ 
ing, forestry and mining, i 
encompasses more than one i 
salary employment. 

GOVERNMENT 

This industrial group incli 
and international activiti< 
cial and administrative fui 
owned and operated busines: 
ties, hospitals, and other 

Treated separately are all 
educational field. 



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Btractor, or processing for re- 
Bof firms ordinarily engaged in 


or professional users without regard to the type of mer- 
chandise purveyed. 

RETAIL TRADE 


Separate divisions of manufac- 


Includes all establishments primarily engaged in selling 
merchandise for personal, household or farm consumption 
and in rendering service incidental to the sale of goods. 


Bucts, which includes logging and 
Btion with commercial tree farms; 
Ber and veneer, prefabrication 
Buctural members thereof, and 
Ben products. 


FINANCE, INSURANCE AND REAL ESTATE 

In addition to banks and trust companies and insurance 
business of whatever nature, this division includes cred- 
it agencies, holding companies, brokers, dealers in com- 
modities and contracts, owners, lessors and developers 


Bducts, which includes the manu- 
1:1 and other cellulose fibres; 
S\nd paperboard, and the conver- 
Brd into various products. 


of real estate. 

SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Under service, this group includes hotels and other lodg- 


, which includes all manufactur- 
ically covered in groups one 


ing places; trailer parks; personal, business, repair, 
and amusement services; medical, legal, engineering and 
other professional services; educational institutions 
(other than government operated) ; non-profit membership 
organizations and other services such as agricultural f 
animal husbandry, and horticultural services when per- 


, warehousing, water transport 
forwarding, pipe lines, and 
ortat ion . 


formed on a fee or contract basis. 

Under miscellaneous is included such activities as fish- 
ing, forestry and mining, where no individual activity 
encompasses more than one percent of the total wage and 
salary employment. 


radio and television broadcast- 
wave systems. 


GOVERNMENT 


lether electric or gas; water 
?ices . 


This industrial group includes all federal, state, local 
and international activities such as legislative, judi- 
cial and administrative functions as well as government 
owned and operated business enterprises, such as utili- 
ties, hospitals, and other such services. 


its primarily engaged in selling 
or other industrial, commercial, 


Treated separately are all government activities in the 
educational field. 


fl ~ o 
C ERJC 


87 



APPENDIX 




Selected Reference Materials: 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Part 39, Vol. 1, 1960 report. ( 

History of Union and Wallowa Counties. Western Hist. Publ. Co. (1902). > 

The Grande Ronde River Basin. Oregon State Water Resources Board (1960). 

Wallowa Valley Improvement District No. 1. Soil, Agricultural and Economic 
Report. Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station (1933). 

Bulletin #3 (1938); Bulletin #14A (1939); and Bulletin #12, (1941). Oregon 
State Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. 

Census of Agriculture for Years 1954, 1959, and 1964. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 

Annual Reports, Agricultural Extension Service 
Wallowa County, Oregon „ 1964 through 1967. 

Summary of Oregon Certified Personnel Information 
Oregon Department of Education. (1965). 

Certificate of Population Enumerations and Estimates of Incorporated Cities and Counties. 

Portland State College (1967). 



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Smaller Communities Services, as a unit of the Oregon Department of Employment, 
takes this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of 
the following groups in making this report possible: 

To the Wallowa County Board of Commissioners, and specifically to Stanley 
Farris, Chairman of the Board, for their sponsorship of the project, in- 
cluding the donation of a telephone and other utilities. 

To the Wallowa County Library for the donation of office space used by 
the Mobile Team while in Wallowa County. 

To the Community Action Panel, for furnishing clerical help and other 
valuable assistance in furtherance of the project. 

To the schools of the county for the use of their facilities in inter- 
viewing, registering, counseling, and testing of adults. 

A word of thanks is also due to the many employers who took time out from their own 
business day to cooperate in furnishing information for the study, which could not 
otherwise have been secured. This is also true of the many householders who willingly 
complied with requests for information in connection with the study. 

Finally, a word of thanks to the Press and Radio media of the county, who kept the 
public well-informed of the objectives and progress of the study. 

********** 



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