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DOCUMENT RESUME 

ED 078 252 AC 014 A30 



TITLE 



INSTITUTION 
REPORT NO ' 
PUB DATE 
NOTE 



Better Group Meetings: An Aid to Better Management. 
Supervisory Development Conference Series* Training 
Guide. 

Veterans Administration, Washington, B.C. 

VA-TG-5-18-1 

Mav 59 

43p. 



.EDRS PRICE 
DESCRIPTORS 

i 



MF-$0.65 HC-$3*29 

♦Conferences; Federal Programs; ♦Group Dynamics; 
Guides j ^Leadership Training; *Management Education; 
Professional Personnel; *Supervisory Training 



ABSTRACT 

A guide to conducting group meetings is presented* It 
contains the following sections. I. Participating in Meetings! A* 
Purposes: (1) to discuss the uses and benefits of the meeting as a 
tool of group participation and get an appreciation of meetings as 
dynamic situations; (2> to define the word "meeting" and discuss the 
uses of meetings; and (3) to examine the responsibilities of meeting 
manbers; B. content of Session: Introduction; What Is a Meeting?; Why 
Meetings?; Responsibilities of Meeting Members; and Closing; and C. 
Appendices: A. People in a meeting are not static, but DYNAMIC; and 
B. Responsibilities of Meeting Members. 11. Leading Meetings: A. 
Purposes: (1) to discuss the role of the meeting leader; and (2) to 
examine the various steps in a meeting, tracing them through the 
determination of need, the preparation, the conducting of the 
meeting, and the tollo%#*up; B* Content of Session: The Functions of 
the Meeting Leader; Meeting Steps; Planning tne Meeting; Leading the 
Meeting; and Closing; and C* Appendices: Planning the Meeting; and 
Leading the Meeting. Ill* The Progress of Meetings: A. Purposes: (1) 
to discuss methods that are effective in influencing the progress of 
meetings — statements, visual aids, questions, and the gxoup; and (2) 
to discuss the characteristics of VA staff meeting; B. Content of 
Session: Introduction; Statements; visual Aids; Questions; The Group; 
Characteristics of VA Staff Meetings; and Closing; and C. Appendices: 
A* Self -Appraisal List for Meeting Leaders; B. Bibliography on 
Meetings; and C. Suggestions for Practice Meetings. (For related 
documents, see AC 014 (CK) 



FILMED FROM BEST AVAILABLE COPY 



rTRAINING GUIDE 



US OEPARTMEKT OF HEALTH. 
EOUCATION 4 WELFARE 
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
EDUCATION 
THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN QEPRO 
DuCEO EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FBDM 
THE PERSON DR ORGANIZATION OQiOlN 
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STATED DO NOT NE^'ESSABlLV REPBE 
SENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
EDUCATION PDSIT.ON OR PDHCV 



TG5-I8-1 




CO 




1 

Sup^rvisp*ry 
Development 
Conference 
Series 



BETTER GROUP MEETINGS 



^ OFFICE OF PERSONNEL 7 

> VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 



LMAY 1959 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

General Information and Suggestions for the 

Conference Leader - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- iii 

SESSION I Participating in Meetings- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- I 

n Leading Meetings - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 13 

HI The Progress of Meetings - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 25 



i 



GENERAL INFORMATION AND SUGGESTIONS 
FOR THE CONFERENCE LEADER 



The information in TG 5-18, Guide for the Supervisory Development Conference Series» 
applies to the three sessions of **Better Group Meetings: An Aid to Better Management**. 
In addition, the following information should be noted* 

1 ♦ Use of the Film» **All I Nee d Is A Conference* * 

The film, **A11 I Need Is A Conference**, which is available in the VA Film Library, 
may be integrated with the training sessions* Two methods of use are ao follows: 

a* Three Sessions 

If three sessions are used, the presentation and discussion of the film may be 
used in place of Session III as outlined in this guide. The following time schedxile 
is suggested: 

(1) Introduction: 5 to 10 minutes. Tell the members to watch for different types 
of personalities and the way the leader handles them* 

(2) Presentation of film: 25 minutes 

(3) Discussion: Devote the remaining time to discission of the Cilm* Because 
the film is being used as an alternative form of Session III center the dis- 
cussion on the problem of dealing with the personalities around the meeting 
table* Use pages 26 through 37 of the manual accompanying the film* 

b. Four Sessions 

If four sessions are used, the film may be presented in a fourth session* A time 
schedule similar to that above ca*i be used* The discussion portion can be used 
as a general summary of the first three sessions with emphasis on the human 
relations aspect. 

2» Practice Meetings 

As the guide itself stresses » only with experience can you acquire the art of meeting 

participation* Practice in taking part in meetings is an essential part of this unit* 

Appendix III-C gives suggestions for conducting such practice meetings* 

i ) 
v.. 



iii 



SESSION I 
PARTICIPATING IN MEETINGS 
SUMMARY SHEET 

A. PURPOSES 

1. To discuss the uses and benefits of the meeting as a tool of group participa- 
tion and to get an appreciation of meetings as dynamic situc tions* 

2. To define the word **meeting** and to discuss the uses of meetings, 
3* To examine the responsibilities of meeting member s« 

B. CONTENT OF SESSION 



Topics for discussion 


Pages 




2 




2 




3 




5 




7 



C. APPENDICES 



Title 


Pages 


I-A People in a meeting are not static, 
I-B (HO#l) Responsibilities of Meeting 


9 
11 



1 



SESSION I 
PARTICIPATING IN MEETINGS 



INTRODUCTION 



Topical outline 


Discussion Material 


Introduce general 
topic 


The series of conferences we are starting today are for the 
purpose of exploring the general topic **Better Group Meetings: 
An Aid to Better Management". 






BETTER GROUP MEETINGS: 
AN AID TO BETTER MANAGEMENT 




Explain your role 


My function as the Conference Leader will be to assist by par- 
ticipating with you in the discussions and attempting to stimxilate 
discussion by submitting questions to the group* 


Introduce topic 
of session 


In this first session we shall be concerned with the problem of 
how meeting members can participate effectively. But first 
let's discuss meetings in general for a while* 


WHAT IS A MEETING?^ 


Topical outline 


Discussion Material 



Uses of meetings Q. What are some of the uses to which meetings may be put? ) 

- To present a body of new information 

- To answer questions 

- To commvmicate purpose and attitude 

- To explain procedure f 

- To show operations 

" To develop new skills* habits» and attitudes 

- To solve problems 

- To formulate programs 

- To develop policy 

- To get ideas 

- To exchange opinions 

Definition of a Q. In the light of these uses how would you define a meeting? 

meeting 

Give the members time to out a definition on v^hich 

there Is fairly general agreement . An example of the tyne 
of definition vhich they may develop is as follows: 

- A meeting is a group of people brought together under leader- 
ship to accomplish one or more of the following purposes: 

to receive or exchange information, to receive instruction, or s 
to solve a problem. 

er|c 2 



WHY MEETINGS? 



r 



Topical outline 



Benefits of 
meetings 



Emphasize group 
participation 



People in a meeting 
afe not static, but 
dynamic 



Discussion Material 



Q. What benefits can be obtained from meetings? 

- They use the knowledge and experience of the group 

- They assure better understanding of what is to be done and 
how it is to be done 

- They increase employee cooperation 

- They build job and organizational loyalty 

- They increase employees* sense of belonging 

- They create feelings of importance and stiengthen self- 
confidencf* 

- They contribute toward development of employee abilities 

To illustrate the benefit of vsin^ the knov^leafic nnri experi- 
ence of the ^rovp you may wish to use the visual nia foe/ow. 




or NEW 
IDEAS 



Area of Common Agreement 



These benefits emphasize the point that, regardless of the pur- 
pose of the meeting, there should be as much group participa- 
tion as possible. There will be certain limitations imposed by 
the topic and the nature of the meeting. However, the more 
closely the goal of maximum possible group participation is 
approached, the more likely will be the success of the meeting. 

As an illustration of the tendency to forget this principle there 
is the story of the Hollywood executive who assembled his staff 
for a **meeting*\ Alter talking for a very long time, without a 
word having been said by anyone else during the session, he 
sighed happily and said, **Thank you, gentlemen. It always does 
me good to get together with you and exchange ideas'*. 

Q. It has been said that people in a meeting are not static, but 
dynamic. What are some of the ways in which people at a meet- 
ing differ? 

- They differ in the feelings and attitudes they bring to a meeting 

- They differ in the way they participate 

- They differ in the ability to communicate and to receive com- 
munication 



ERIC 



3 



The invisible 
committee and 
hidden agenda 



Considering the 
dynamic aspect of 
groups 



- They differ in their ability to work with others etfectively 

- Groups of three or more persons tend to breaK nto sub- 
groups 

- Group atmosphere differs frcm one group to another 

- Members and groups are not constant in feelings, attitudes, 
etc. They change even during the course of a meeting 

- Members are affected by outside influences 

If the h'ist noint JSn'f hrouiiht out by the firoun, mention it 
yoursel f. 

Q. These outside influences are sometimes referred to as the * 'in- 
visible committee and the hidden agenda''. What are some of 
these outside influences? 

- Type of supervision under which a person is working, i.e., 
restrictive or permissive 

- Resistance to change 

- Desire to dominate group 

- Dislike of other persons at the meeting 

- Fear of a member that taking part in a group discussion may 
lessen his influence 

- Financial problems 

- Family problems 

- Health problems 

To illustrnte the voini that people m ri meetm^^ nre not 
sintic, but dynamic^ you may \^ish to use the visun! ma nna 
expl nnat i on shown in Appendix I 'A. It cnn he or opened m 
advance or developed on the blackboard. 

Not understanding the people around the table and not knowing 
how to work with them are common causes for the failure of so 
many meetings. The dynanuo aspect of groups makes it more 
difficult, but not impossible, to obtain the benefits of meetings 
and the advantages of group participation. 

Q. What should a meeting member or leader keep in mind about the 
dynamic aspect of groups? 

- Don't try to be a psychologist or sociologist 

- Try to be sensitive to group behavior 

- Try to realize that his attitude toward other members of the 
group will largely determine the success of a meeting 



4 



RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEETING MEMBERS 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Primary respon- 
sibility of the 
meeting member 



Preparation 



rv 

J 



Ways of partici- 
pating 



Listening 



For our next area of discussion iet*s change from considering 
the meeting as a whole and concentrate on the responsibilities 
of meeting members* 



We have stressed the meeting as a group effort. Its success 
rests not only on the meeting leader but on the meeting member 
as well* 

Q* What would you say is the primary responsibility of the meeting 
member? 

- Willingness to work with others 

- Cooperation 

Q. What can a member do to prepare himself to attend a meeting? 

- Note down the time and place in a way to be reminded of it 
before the meeting 

- If requested to bring certain charts* data, etc* « make arrange- 
ments to gather them before the meeting. Keep them simple* 

- Come prepared to di -^s the topic* Have questions and 
suggestions in mind 

a* Make noteff of points ne does not understand 

b* Think of questions he wants to ask or disagreements he 
wants cleared up 

c* Make notes of ideas he wants to present 

- Arrange his schedule so he will be on time for the meeting 

O. What are the different ways in which a meeting member par- 
ticipates? 

- By speaking 

- By the way he listens 

- By the attitudes or manners he shows 

- By the ways in which he thinks 

Q* What can a member do to be a good listener? 

- Give undivided attention to the discussion 

- Listen thoughtfiilly 

- Try to get the meaning the speaker is trying to convey 

- Listen before he questions 




ERIC 



5 



Attitudes or 
manners 



Thinking 



S*>eaking 



Follow-ups 

- Taking action 



Q« What are the prefer attitudes or manners for a member to bring 
to a meeting? 

- Remember that he shares the responsibility for the success 
or failure of th^ meeting 

- Discuss problems invob'ing* his work without becoming de- 
fensive and touchy 

- Subordinate individual interests to the common goal 

- Try to understand the other fellow^s point of view 

- Be tolerant of opinions with which he disagrees 

^ Remember the unseen audiience which each member brings 
with him 

Q« What are some of the ways of thinking that make a good meeting 
member? 

- Consider his opinions and ideas, not his emotions 

- Integrate into his t^dt^kiug worthwhile new ideas ivanced by 
other members 

* Use his thinking to help the leader keep the discussion lively, 
balanced, and forward moving 

a« Develop ideas and questit^ns that keep the discussion mov- 
ing toward the objective 

b Consider causes, difficulties, and results of past actions 

c« Seek common areas of Agreement and find ways to recon- 
cile conflicts 

d« Develop recommendations and possible solutions and con- 
clusions 

Q« W)sd are some of the things for a member to remember when 
speaking? 

- Give the group the benefit of his experience. Don^t clam up - 
contribute 

- Speak his mind freely, clearly, amd concisely 

• Keep to the point 

- Speak to ifhe group and not only to the meeting leader 

- Avoid monopolizing the discussion 

- Ask questions when there is something he doesn*t understand 
If he doesn't understand, there are probably others in the 
same boat 

- If he disagrees, say so and state hi$ reasons* This helps to 
identify ^e points of difference 

Q* What are some of the follow*ups that might take place after a 
meeting and what would they require on the part of the members? 

- Taking action ; The group has decided that a certain action is 
to be taken* Do the members understand what is expected of 
them? 



6 



- Planning 


- PlanninR: The Krouu ha« decided that certain planning mii»t 
be done* Do the members know what their participation in 
this planning will be? 


- Recommending 


- Recommending: The sroup decides to recommend a c^^rtain 
course of action* Have the ir^mbers consideredwhat will have 
to be donet if the recommendation is accepted? 


- Discussing 

further 


-* Discus sinR further: The sroup is unable to reach & decision 
and decides on further discussion* Do the members know 
what common agreements^ if any, were arrived at? Do they 
have- sufficient information to try to work out possible ac- 
ceptable solutions before the next meeting? 


CLOSING 


Topical outline 


Discussion Material 


Summary 


Ask one or more members to stmmnri zc the s. "s/on, if time 
permi ts» 

We have seen that the task of a neeting member is far from a 
simple one* The things we have discussed in thij session will 
helpt but they are not rigid rules or formulas* The important 
thing is actually trying them out. Only through experience can 
you acquire the art of being a good meeting member* 


HANDOUT 


distribute HO Kl (Apvenaix l*H), "Kesponsihi 1 i t ics of Jfoof. 
in< Jfemhers". The handout prohnhly aiffer in some ro- 
spects from the ai^cassion. Point out that the conclusions 
in thrs ana other hnndouts thnt y^ill be drstributea ore not 
necessarily more correct than those the fkroup rc/iclied, hut 
ore intenaea to stimulate furthfir thought. 

In our next session we will discuss the role of the meeting 
leader* 


Close session 


Announce time ana pt/ice of next session. Close session. 



APPENDIX I*A 
(TG 5-18-1) 



Pcqpke in a meeting are not static, but DYNAMIC 




^ (Sets next page for explanation of chart*) 



ERIC ' 



This chart illustrates the fart that people in a meeting are not static, but DYNAMIC. 



!• Members differ in feelings and attitudes : Mr. A has come to the meeting with a 
closed mind; Mr. B, on the other hand, is the * initiator ** type who keeps bringing up 
new ideas. 

2. Group members differ in the way they participate: As indicated by the size of the 
circles Mr. C contributes very little while Mr. D tries to monoplize the discussion. 

3. Members differ in the ability to communicate and to receive communication: Mr. E 
has come to the meeting with sealed lips and communicates very little. Mr. B, the 
initiator, communicates quite a bit but, as the arrows indicate, the reception varies. 

4. Groups differ in their ability to work together effectively: Mr. T is the foul ball in 
this meeting and is keeping the group from getting started. 

5. Groups of three or more persons tend to break into sub-groups ; Mr. G is an expert 
in the field the group is discussing. He has rallied a little sub-group of his own, as 
indicated by the line which separates £, F, and G from the rest of the group. 

^» Group atmosphere differs from one group to another : This atmosphere depends a 
great deal on the leader, Mr. H. 

7. Members and groups are not constant in feelings, attitudes, etc. : They change during 
the course of a meetingi For example, if tiie topic should change one of the other 
members could become the expert it place of Mr. G. 

8. There may be an invisible committee and a hidden agenda: In addition to the in- 
fluence of the persons sitting at the table, there are outside influences which represent 
an invisible committee. These are shown by the words outside the big circle. These 
outside influences cause feelings and motivations which the members bring with them 
and which result in members, or even the entire group, approaching the task with a 
certain slant. This creates a hidden agenda. 



ERLC 



iO 



APPENDIX I*B HO #1 

(TG 5-18-1) 

i RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEETING MEMBERS 

A meeting is a group or cooperative effort. Its success rests not only on the meeting 
leader but upon the meeting members as well. The responsibilities of the members in- 
clude preparation, listening, attitudes, manners, thinking, and speaking. 

1. Preparation 

a. When notified of a meeting note down the time and place in a way to be reminded 
of it before the meeting. 

b. Gather necessary materials before the meeting. Keep them simple. 

c» Come prepared to discuss the topic. Have questions and suggestions in mind, 
d. Be on time for the meeting. 

2. Listening 

a. Give undivided attention to the discussion. 

b. Listen thoughtfully. Try to get the meaning the speaker is trying to convey. 

c. Listen before you question. 

3. Attitudes and Manners 

a- Remember that you share the responsibility for the success or failure of the 
meeting. 

b. Discuss problems involving your work without becoming defensive or touchy. 

c. Subordinate individtial interests to the common goal. 

d. Try to understand the other fellow *8 point of view. 
e» Be tolerant of opinions with which you disagree. 

f. Remember the unseen audience which each member brings with him and which 
may cause reactions you didn^t expect. 

4. Thinking 

a. Consider your opinions and ideas » not your eniotions. 

b. Integrate into your thinking v/orthwhile new ideas advanced by other members. 

c. Use your thinking to help the leader keep the discussion lively, balau'.ced, and 
forward moving. 

(1) Develop ideas and questions that keep the discussion moving toward the 
objective. 

(2) Consider causes, difficulties, and results of past actions. 

» (3) Seek common areas of agreement and find ways to reconcile conflicts. 

(4) Develop recommendations and possible solutions and conclusions. 



ERLC 



11 



#1 APPENDIX I-B 

(TG 5-18-1) 

Speaking 

a. Give the group the benefit of your experience. Don*t clam up contribute* 

b. Speak your mind freely, clearly, and concisely* 
c* Keep to the point. 

d. Speak to the group and not only to the meeting leader* 
e* Avoid monopolizing the discussion* 

(1) Give others an opportunity to speak* 

(2) Subdue any desire to show off or make a speech* 

(3) Don*t interrupt others* 

(4) Shun private side discussions* 

f* If there is something you don*t understand, ask questions* If you don*t understand, 
there are probably others in the same boat* 

g* If you disagree, say so and state your reasons. This helps to identify the points 
of difference* 



SESSION U 

^ LEADING MEETINGS 

SUMMARY SHEET 

A. PURPOSES 

!• To discuss the role of the meeting leader* 

2. To examine the various steps in a meeting, tracing them through the deter- 
mination of need, the preparation, the conducting of the meeting, and the 
follow-up. 

B. CONTENT OF SESSION ^ 



Topics for discussion 


Pages 




14 




15 




15 




17 




19 



C. APPENDICES 



Title 


Pages 




21 
23 



r 



SESSION II 
LEADING MEETINGS 



THE FUNCTIONS OF THE MEETING LEADER 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Introduction 



Discussion is of 
value to both 
meeting leaders 
and n\embers 



The functions of 
the meeting leader 



In the first session we were concerned with the responsibilities 
of the meeting members. In this session we shall be concerned 
with the role of the meeting leader and how he prepares for, 
participates in, and leads a meeting. 



LEaUING MEETINGS 



Q. Discussion of this topic can, of course, be of value to those who 
are called upon to lead meetings. In what ways can it also be of 
value to those who participate in meetings as members? 

- It enables them to understand better the role they play as 
members 

- The member can occasionally become the leader, as when he 
says, **What have we agreed on up till now?", or when he asks, 
**Aren't we getting off the track?" 

Q. What are the functions of the meeting leader? 

- To motivate each member to think of the group as sharing 
responsibility foi the success or failure of the meeting 

- To stimulate members to think and discuss 

- To encourage members to be active contributors rather than 
passive listeners 

- To assist the group to convert diverse thinking into unified 
ideas and plans 

- To promote and secure group effort 

Q. These functions apply, of course, to the problem solving type of 
meeting. Do they also apply to the type where information or 
instruction is given? 

- They do apply - although in lesser degree - because even in 
the informational and instructional type of meeting the leader 
should encourage as much group participation as possible 

Q. In carrying out his functions what is the most important thing 
for the leader to remember? 

- He should remember that he is dealing with people, and that 
his attitude towards these people will largely determine the 
results he gets 



MEETING STEPS 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Let*s trace the steps you go through in planning and leading a 
meeting. Then we'll go back and discuss them in more detail. 

Q. What are the steps in planning and leading a meeting? 



1. 


Determine need for meeting 


2. 


Prepare for meeting 


3. 


Present the topic 


4. 


Present or get facts and ideas 


5. 


Evaluate facts and ideas 


6. 


Draw conclusions 


7. 


Develop plan 


8. 


Follow-up 



Q* Do all of these steps apply to the informational and instructional 
meetings? 

- The informational meeting normally stops after the presenta- 
tion of facts and ideas 

- The instructional meeting normally stops after the evaluation 
of facts and ideas 

The ^rouD mcty, of course, aecide on ri di fferent set of steps 
from those above. Jr. such case cidjvst the quest ions that 
follov^ in accoraarice with the particular steps selectea by 
the ^roup. Jn any event point out that aiscuss ioh^^won* t 
always follovi the logical order of the steps, hih more 
likely will skip around. 



PLANNING THE MEETING 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Determining need 



Going back to the first step, what questions might you ask your- 
self about the topic in order to determine whether to hold a 
meetii^? 

- Is there a need or a problem? Is the information already 
available or has a study already been made? 

- Does it, i.e., the topic, lend itself to the meeting method? For 
example, does it require long study and factfinding? A meet- 
ing cannot economically do this sort of th\ng. Am I sure that 
calling a meeting is not simply a way of postponing a decision 
which should not be postponed? 

- Does it lend itself to a less expensive method? Meetings are 
expensive and I must balance this cost against the potential 
benefits « 



- Has the right climate for productive meetings been estab- 
lished? For example, if participation has previously been 
discouraged, suddenly asking the group to work together on a 
problem will probably yield little or no results* 



15 



- If the problem solving meeting is indicated, am I willing to 
accept or consider the thinking of the group? If I first solve 
the problem to my own satisfaction, and then try to lure the 
group to the same conclusion, the deceit will usually be 
obvious, and the results will be bad. 

- Is the topic timely? Is this the appropriate time to tackle it 
or should it be deferred? Can the action be postponed until 
the recommendations of the meeting group are obtained? 

- Is the topic workable? Can it be adequately covered or should 
I limit it to certain phases or portions? 

- Is the topic one that I and the members can do something 
about? Can we take action, make a decision, make recom- 
mendations, or even decide that nothing should be done? 



What are the things you should do in preparing to lead a meet- 
ing? 

- Prepare yourself 

U Assemble and screen information 

2. Prepare outline in such detail and in such manner as the 
particular meeting may require* This may include one 
or more of the following: 

a. The topic or over-all objective 

b. Immediate objectives 
c* Definitions 

d. A prepared opening statement 

e* Points which may be discussed 

f* Questions which may be asked 

g* Examples and board work 

3. Assemble material* This may include the following: 

a* Written materials - instructions, orders, pamphlets, 

handouts, case studies, skits, etc* 
b* Graphic materials - charts, diagram s, graphs. Posters, 

etc* 

c* Films, film strips, and slides 

- Prepare the members 
1* Select the members 

2* Notify the members and give them the necessary details, 
such as date ana time, place, persons attending, topic of 
meetingf etc. 

- Prepare the meeting place 

1* Check the room facilities - availability of room, heating, 
light, ventilation, arrangement of tables and chairs 

2* Check arrangements for demonstration materials -black- 
board or chart pad; chalk, eraser, or crayon; film, film 
strips or slides; projection equipment 



3. Check the facilities for convenience of members - pen- 
cils, papers, ash trays, name plates 



- Adjust the preparation in accordance with the meeting. Many 
meetings are informal and the preparation will not usually 
take very much time* However, it is important and should not 
be overlooked. 



LEADING THE MEETING 



Topical outline 


Discussion Material 


Presenting the 


Q. 


What are some of the things to keep in mind in presenting the 


topic 




topic? 






- Start on time 






- Put the group at ease by 






1* using a friendly, informal manner, 






2. speaking in a normal, conversational voice, 






3* greeting the group cordially. 






4. making sure the members are acquainted, and 






5* telling an appropriate story. 






- Explain the plan of procedure, if it has not been established 






by previous meetings 






- Arouse the interest of the members 






1* Appeal to the members in terms of their own self-interest 






2. Appeal to the members* loyalty to the organization, to the 






groui>, and to the objectives being served 






3* Show need and desire for their thinking and cooperation 


• 




4. Make it clear that the meeting is tobe a group effort 






5* Chart the amount of experience and show the amount of 






experience that is being brought on the topic 






6* Show interest* To gain the interest of the members the 






leader must show enthusiasm himself 


Presenting or 


Q. 


In presenting facts, as in an informational meeting, what are 


getting facts and 




some of the points to observe? 


ideas 








- Emphasize important facts and ideas 






- Show the relationship between ideas 






- Use expressive words which are within the vocabulary of the 






group 






In getting facts and ideas what are some of the things to do? 






- Start the discussion by 






1. asking a question on which someone is sure to have some- 






thing to say 



17 





2. using demonstrations* illustrations* examples » motion 
pictures, film strips, slides, posters, etc. 

3* using an interesting case 

- Keep the discussion moving and on the beam by 

1. using questions that will keep the discussion forward 
moving 

2* restating and rephrasing opinions or thoughts expressed, 
when necessary, for emphasis or clarity 

3. summarizing or having the group summarize frequently 

4. analyzing the progress of the discussion 

- Use the thinking of all the members 

If this point is mentioned, tell the ^roup that it wi// he 
ai scvssca in more aetail at the next session, 

- Use the blackboard 


Evaluating facts 
and ideas 


c 

Q. What are the points to observe in evaluating facts and ideas? 

- Avoid obvious experting 

- Encourage the group to weigh and analyze facts and ideas 

- Get group agreement 

- Summarize frequently 


Drawing con- 
clusions 


Q* How do you go about drawing conclusions? 

- Consider possible alternatives 

- Select alternative 


Developing a plan 


Q. What are some of the things to consider in developing a plan? 

- Determine plan of action 

- Determine responsibilities in carrying out the plan of action 

- Final summary 

- Close on time 

1* If there is important unfinished business, defer it for 
another meeting* 

2. If the purpose of the meeting is achieved before the end of 
the scheduled period, bring the meeting to a close* Don't 
protract it simply to fill in the allotted time* 


Following-up 


Q. What are some of the actions that might be required in follow- 
ing-up? 

■ Prepare a report if it serves a usefull purpose and only in 
such detail as indicated by the meeting 



18 



r 



• Complete foUow-»up assignments such as taking action, plan-* 
ning, recommending, or discussing further 



CLOSING 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Summary 



HANDOUTS 



Close session 



Ask one or more members to summarize the session, if time 
permits. 

We might sum up this session briefly by stating that the job of 
the meeting leader is to help the members to apply coopera- 
tively their experience and knowledge or, to promote and secure 
group effort* Even in those meetings where the conclusions are 
largely predetermined, the leader should encourage the mem- 
bers to develop the topic as much as possible* The caution 
mentioned at the end of the first session applies to this session 
also - that is, the things that we have discussed are guides, not 
rigid rules or formulas* 

Distribute HO HI (Appenaix ll-A), "Planninf^ the Keetinf^**, 
and HO #J (Appendix II-B), "Leadinfi the M^etin^". 

In our next session we will discuss the progress of meetings* 

Announce time and place of next session. Close session. 



ERIC 



19 



APPENDIX n-A 
(TG 5-18-1) 



HO #2 



PLANNING THE MEETING 



DETERMINE NEED 

!• Is there a need or a problem? 

2. Does the topic lend itself to the meeting method? 

3. Does it lend itself to a less expensive method? 

4. Has the right climate for productive meetings been established? 

5. If the problem solving meeting is indicated, will the thinking of the group be ac- 
cepted or considered? 

6. Is the topic timely? 

7. Is it workable? 

8. Is the topic one that the members can do something about? 
PREPARE YOURSELF 

K Assemble and screen information. 

2. Prepare outline in such detail and in such manner as the particular meeting may 
require. This outline may include one or more of the following: 

a. The topic or over-all objective. 

b. Immediate objectives. 

c. Definitions. 

d. A prepared opening statement. 

e. Points which may be discussed. 

f. Questions which may be asked. 

g. Examples and board work. 

3. Assemble material. This may include the following: 

a. Written materiais-instvuctions, orders, pamphlets, handouts, case studies, 
skits, etc. 

b. Graphic materials ^charts, diagrams, graphs, posters, etc. 

c. Films, film strips, and slides. 

PREPARE THE MEMBERS 

1. Select the member&i 

2. Notify the members and give them the necessary details, such as date and time, 
place, persons attending, topic oi :neetingi etc. 

PREPARE THE MEETING PLACE 

1« Check the room facilities - availability of room, heating, light, ventilation, ar- 
rangement of tables and chairs. 

2. Check arrangements for demonstration materials - blackboard or chart pad; 
chalk, eraser, or crayon; film, film strips, or slides; projection equipment. 

3. Check the facilities for convenience of members - pencils, papers, ash trays, 
name plates. 



ERIC 



21 



APPENDIX n*B HO #3 

(TG 5-18-1) 

LEADING THE MEETING 

PRESENT THE TOPIC 
1* Start on time. 

2. Put the group at ease* 

3. Explain the plan of procedure, if ithat not been eiUbliihed by previous meetings. 

4. SUte the objective. 

5. Arouse the interest of the members. 
PRESENT OR GET FACTS AND IDEAS 

1. In presenting facts, as in an informational meeting. 

a. emphasize imporUnt facts and ideas, 

b. show the relationship between ideas, and 

c. use expressive words which are within the vocabulary of the group 

2. In getting facts and ideas 

a. start the discussion, 

b. keep the discussion moving and on the beam, 

c. use the thinking of all members, and 

d. use the blackboard. 
EVALUATE FACTS AND fflEAS 

1. Avoid obvious experting. 

2. Encourage the group to weigh and analyze facts and ideas. 

3. Get group agreement. 

4. Summarize frequently. 
DI^W CONCLUSIONS 

1. Consider possible alternatives. 

2. Select alternative. 
DEVELOP PLAN 

1. Determine plan of action. 

2. Determine responsibilities in carrying out plan of action. 

3. Final summary. 

4. Close on time. 



23 



HO #3 APPENDIX n-B 

(TG 5-18-1) 

FOLLOW-UP 

1. Prepare report if it serves a useful purpose and only in such detail a* indicated 
by the meeting. 

2. Complete follow-up assignments. 



Er|c 24 



SESSION ni 
THS PROGRESS OF MEETINGS 
SUMMARY SHEET 



K. PURPOSES 



!• To discuss methods which are effective in inHuencing the progress of meet- 
ings - statements* visual aids, questions » and the group* 

2* To discuss the characteristics of VA .ntaff meetings* 



B« CX)NTENT OF SESSION 



Topics for discussion 



Introduction - -- -- -- -- -- 

Statements - -- -- -- -- -- - 

Visual Aids - -- -- -- -- -- 

Questions - - 
The Group - -- -- -- -- -- - 

Characteristics of VA StAff Meetings 
Closing - -- -- -- -- -- -- 



C. APPENDICES 



Title 



III-A (HO #4) Self-Appraxsal List for 
Meeting Leaders ------- 



III-B (HO #5) Bibliography on Meetings 
UI-C Suggestions for Practice Meetings 



Pages 



26 
26 
27 
2& 
30 
33 
34 



Pages 



35 
37 
39 



ERIC 



25 



SESSION m 
THE PROGRESS OF MEETINGS 



Topical outline 



Introduction 



INTRODUCTION 



Discussion Material 



In the first two sessions we discussed the responsibilities of 
the meeting members and the role of the meeting leader* In 
this session /e shall be concerned with the question of the 
progress of iie meeting* 



THE PROGRESS OF MEETINGS 



Q. Certain methods have been found effective in influencing the 
progress of meetings in such ways as starting discussion or 
changing the direction or speed of discussion. What might these 
methods be? 



Statements 
Visual aids 
Questions 
The group 



STATEMENTS 



Topical outline 


Discussion Material 




Q- 


What could we include under the term "statements"? 






- facts 






- cases 






- opinions 


Uses of statements 




What are some of the ways in which statements can be used in a 






meeting? 






- To start discussion 






- To channel discussion 






" To end discussion 






- To summarize 



26 



VISUAL AIDS 



Topical outline 


Discussion Material 




Q. 


What are some examples of visual aids? 


visual aids 








- Blackboard work 






- charts and graphs 






- diagrams 






- films 






- models 












- samples 






- exhibits 






- posters 






- photographs 




Q. 


What are some of the uses of visual aids? 


aids 










- To focus attention 






When this use is mentionea, you can dramatize it by displaying 






a small object which you have placed in your pocket before the 






beginning of the session. Point out hovt all eyes focused on 






the object. 






- To make points clear by showing a real object, showing mo- 






tion, showing actual operations 






- To save time 






- xo gain varieLy 






- To stimulate and organize discussion 






- Tc^ keep discussion on the track 


Hints for use of 


Q. 


The blackboard is the most readily accessible and inexpensive 






visual aid available to the leader. Can you suggest some hints 






for use of the blackboard? 






- Try out blackboard work in advance 






- Plan proper sequence of board work 






" Place blackboard in best position 






- Condense material, at the same time making sure that the 






meaning is clear 






- At first opportunity erase material no longer needed 






- Avoid talking to blackboard 






- Pon*t stand in front of blackboard work 



27 



Cautions about 
visual aids 



" Write, print, or draw quickly, neatly, and legibly 

- Develop the board material while talking 

- Allow time for group to copy, where desirable 

- Keep board work flexible, so that adaptations can be made 
when necessary 

- Don't have too much board work 

Q. What cautions should be kept in mind about visual aids? 

- They are auxiliary devices 

- Showing them -s not the primary purpose of a meeting 
" They are a means and not an end 



QUESTIONS 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Uses of questions 



Hints for effective 
questioning 



Q. What are the uses of questions in influencing the progress of a 
meeting? 

- To start discussion 

- To stimulate interest and thinking 

- To obtain information 

- To emphasize particular points 

- To change the direction of the discussion 

- To keep on the track or get back on the track 

- To clarify the thinking of the group 

- To summarize 

Q. The framing of questions that stimulate thinking and discussion 
and that bring forth significant responses is quite difficult, but 
there are a number of things that will help you to avoid the pit- 
falls that await the unwary. What are some of the things you 
can do that make for effective questioning? 

- Show by the questions that you are interested and enthusiastic 
about the subject matter 

- Ask questions in a natural manner that indicates confidence 
in the members* ability to answer them 

- Don*t antagonize 

- Don't put members on the spot. Try to ask questions which 
members will have the knowledge and ability to answer or 
which at least will not cause them embarrassment 

- Word questions clearly 



ERLC 



28 



Questions directed 
to the leader 



- Ask questions which will be thought provoking* They shouldn't 
be so easy as to encourage slovenly thinking, nor so difficult 
as to discourage effort* Avoid questions that can be answered 
with a simple **yes" or **no" 

- Ask questions with a definite purpose in mind 

- give the group time to answer the questions 

- If, after allowing sufficient time* the question isn*t answered, 
rephrase it 

- Listen to the answers* A good meeting leader is a good 
listener 

- Preserve a neutral response to the answers* **That's one 
thought" rather than "That's right" or "That's wrong" 

- Don't insist on being the switchboard through which all ques- 
tions must flow* It is better for the group to be as self- 
sustaining as possible 

To i I Ivstrate the caution on not being the "switchboard" you 
may wish to use the visual aid belov^. 



NOT LIKE THIS- 



MEMBERS 



^BUT THIS 



MEMBERS 





LEADER 



LEADER 



Q. A Looint which arises, particvlarly in the problem solving meet- 
ing, is that of questions directed to the meeting leader. What 
should the leader do with such questions? 

- In nnost cases he should direct the questions back to the group 

- There are some situations when it is suitable for the leader 
to answer a question 

Q. What are the situations when it is suitable for a leader to answer 
a question directed to him, and what are the cautions that should 
be observed? 

- When the leader has some special knowledge about the subject 



29 



The meeting leader can and should become a meeting member 
when he has special knowledge about the subject. However, 
he should first give the members an opportunity to offer the 
information. 

When the topic has been fully explored and a conclusion 
reached 

The leader should emphasize, however, that it is only one 
man^s opinion and that it is the opinion of the group which is 
important. 

When it becomes unavoidable, as for example, when there is 
closely divided opinion in the group 

In such cases the leader should stress that it is his personal 
opinion, emphasize the merits of other positions, and try to 
turn the situation into judging what^s right rather than who^s 
Hght. 



THE GROUP 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Types of groups 



The quick group 



- The slow group 



The resistant 
group 



The last method is by using the characteristics of the whole 
group and the individual group members. 

Q. Are there any types into which groups fall? 

- The quick group 

- The slow group 

- The resistant group 

Q. What can the leader do with each of these groups to assist them 
to work effectively? 

- The quick group 

a. Slow down group without squelching, if they are going too 
fast. 

b. Give it to them fast. 

c. Ask tough questions. 

d^ Don^t pit yourself against them. 

e. Let them argue ideas out with each other. 

- The slow group 



a. 
b. 
c. 
d. 
e. 
f. 

g- 
h. 



Explain topic thoroughly. 
Do more telling than usual. 
Don^t go too fast. 
Ask easy questions. 

Ask provocative questions; try to get them arguing. 

Find points of common agreement. 

Show enthusiasm yourself. 

Use effective aids to understanding. 



The resistant group 



a. Indicate sympathetic understanding, but not necessarily 
agreement. 



30 



Types of individual 
situations 



1. Overly-talka- 
tive 



2* Highly argu- 
mentative 



3* Quick-* helpful 



4» Rambler 



5. Side conver- 
sationist 



c* 
d. 



Try to find out the cause of resistance. If necessary, face 
issue frankly and ask **Why?'' 

Find responsive members and use them to swing the group 
Seek angles of the topic that affect personal interests of 
some members 



Of course a meeting group will not usually be consistent within 
itself, and the problems which arise, therefore, may be those 
due to individuals. You have probably met some of these problem 
children at meetings. 

Q. Who are some of these problem children, and what can you do 
to get them working with the group? 

As each type is suggested list iWn the board. Ask for a 
brief description of the type and the things that the leaaer 
can do, A number of types are listed below to serve as back^ 
ground material for the discussion. 



1 ♦ Overly-talkative 



ERLC 



Show-off; eager beaver; or just 
plain gabby. 



- Ask him difficult questions 

- Cut across his talk with a summarizing statement and 
direct a question to someone else. 



Highly argumen- 
tative 



Combative personality; profes- 
sional heckler; or upset by emo- 
tional problems. 



- Try to find merit in one of his points and get agree- 
ment on it; then move on to something else. 

- As a last resort, talk to him privately and see if you 
can win his cooperation* 



3. Quick -helpful 



Has right answers, but keeps 
others out. 



- Cut across him tactfully by questioning others. 

- Suggest, **Let's get several opinions**. 

- Use him to summarize. 

- Be sure he understands you appreciate his help. 



4. Rambler 



Talks about everything except 
subject; gets lost. 



- When he stops for breath, thank him, rephrase one of 
his statements, and move cn. 

- Ask direct questions of others. 

- Indicate in friendly manner that he is off the topic. 

- Last resort - glance at watch. 



Side conversa- 
tionist 



May be related, but is always 
distracting* 



Pause and let others listen; it may be pertinent. 
First call him by name, then draw him into the dis- 
cussion by asking for his opinion. 

First call him by name, then ask by direct question 
if he has something to add to the general discussion. 



31 



6. Poor voice or 
choice of words 



7« Obstinate 



8* Griper 



9. Wrong subject 



10* Definitely 
wrong 



II. 



Personality 
clash 



12. Superior 
attitude 



6. Poor voice or 
choice of words 



Voice not clear; can't find proper 
words; ideas mr.y be good, but 
he can't convey them. 



- Repeat his ideas in your own words t but say, **Let me 
repeat that'* rather than, **What you mean is . . ." 

- Protect him from ridicule. 



Obstinate 



Won't budge; prejudiced; may 
simply not see the point. 



- Try to get others to help him see the point. 

- If time is short, tell him frankly that it is necessary 
to get on with the meeting. 



8. Griper 



Pet peeve; professional griper; 
or may have legitimate complaint. 



- Tell him the problem is how best to operate under the 
present system. 

- Direct attention to topic of discussion. 

- Indicate pressure of time. 



Wrong subject 



Off-the-beam. 



- Direct attention to topic of discussion. 

- You might say, **Something I said ma,y have thrown 
you off the subject, but the question we are considering 
at the moment is • . .'* 



10. Definitely wrong 



- Say ** That's one way of looking at it", and go on. 

- Ask additional questions, such as **Would we be able 
to reconcile that with . . •?"» but don't embarrass 
him. 



II. Personality clash 



A clash be t w e e n two or more 
members . 



- Emphasize points of agreement as much as possible. 

- Cut across with direct question on topic. 

" Bring a sound member into the discussion. 

- Ask that personalities be left out. 



12. Superior 
attitude 



Not disposed to help; attitude ex- 
pressed by, ''I had to find out the 
hard way, son. Youdo the same". 



- Sell him on the fact that the meeting is a cooperative 
effort. 

- Flatter him by te:Iing him how much the others could 
benefit by his experience. Don*t overdo it or the group, 
will resent it. 



ERIC 



32 



r 



13* Won't talk 



13 ♦ Won't talk 



Bored; indifferent; hesitant; in- 
secure; afraid* Try to determine 
what is motivcting him, and use 
one of the following approaches* 



- Find his interest* 

- Call on him for his experience or opinion* 
" Use direct, provocative questions* 

" Ask a direct question, which you are sure he can 
answer* 

- Ask for his agreement* 

" Compliment the sensitive person the first time he 
talks; be sincere* 

- If the sensitive person is seated near you, ask his 
opinion so that he^li feel he is talking to you rather 
than to the group. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF VA STAFF MEETINGS 



Topical outline 



Discussion Material 



Characteristics 
of the VA staff 
meeting 



The typical VA staff meeting is the one with which we will be 
mostly concerned in our day-to-day work* What are some of 
th^ characteristics of the VA staff meeting? 

- They are usually a mixture of types* 

- They are usually held on a regular basis* They should not be 
scheduled so often that they become thin or routine, nor so 
rigidly that they can*t be skipped when there is no real need* 

- Usually it is known who will attend* This is an advantage for 
the leader, but he must be even more alert for personality 
clashes or problems which may be intensified by a series of 
meetings* 

- Generally they are less formal than the pure type of meeting* 

- Preparations generally need not be extensive* However, any 
meeting requires some preparation, and planning should not 
be overlooked* 

- The notice of the meeting need not be elaborate* The most 
important thing is for the members to know in advance, when- 
ever possible, the items to be discussed* 

- In the staff mixed-purpose meeting the job of the meeting 
leader is more difficult than in the pure type of meeting* He 
must be able to adjust methods quickly* He will also be the 
supervisor of the group and will have special knowledge 
about the subject* To a much greater extent than usual he 
must be both a meeting leader and a meeting member* He 
mustnH dominate; but neither can he abdicate* 



33 



CLOSING 



Topical outline 



Summary 



HANDOUTS 



Close session 



Discussion Material 



Ask one or more members to summarize the session if time per- 
mi ts,. 

Remember t^at meeting participation, for both the members and 
the leader cannot be reduced to a rigid formula* The meeting 
techniques require adaptation depending on the experience and 
capabilities of the individuals and the circumstances of the 
particular meeting* 

Af. we mentioned before, only with experience can you acquire 
the art of meeting participation, either as a member or a 
leader. To help you make this experience more fruitful we 
have two handouts* One is a "Self -Appraisal List for Meeting 
Leaders*** This list is designed to help you improve as a 
meeting leader; many of the questions also indicate what to do 
to improve as a meeting member* The other handout is a 
bibliography in case you want to do any further reading* 

Distribute HO %4 (Appendix JJJ-A), ^Sel f-Appraisal List for 
Meeting Leaders'', and If Oi^ 5 (Appendix III-B), ''Bibliography on 
Meetings" * 



Make necessary announcements for practice meetings,: 
pendix III-C for suggestions on practice meetings.: 

Close session. 



See i4p- 



34 



APPENDIX m-A 
(TG 5-18-1) 



HO #4 



SELF-APPRAISAL LIST FOR MEETING LEADERS 



This scale will not give you a numerical score, nor will it tell you whether you are an 
excellent or a good meeting leader* Rather, it is designed to help you find out for yourself 
the areas where you need improvement. The scale may be used for periodic self-appraisal. 
Such self-examination may prevent you from becoming routinized in meeting practice, 
periodic checks may also disclose errors or prevent the developing of habits of which you 
might otherwise be unaware. (In addition to self -appraisal the scale may be us«d for 
evalaating others. Many of the questions also indicate what to do to improve as a meeting 
me.ii^^er.) 

For each question place a check in the appropriate column. A check in column 1 means 
that you feel you need improvement; one in column 2 means that you consider yourself 
satisfactory or better. A check in column 3 means that you feel that the question does not 
apply to the particular meeting on which you are rating yourself. 







COLUMN 






1 


2 


3 


1. 










2. 


Did the notice of the meeting contain the necessary 








3. 


In particular did the notice give the topic and 
subordinate topics in enough detail to allow 








4. 


Were the room facilities (heat, light, ventilation. 








5. 










6. 










7. 










8. 










9. 










10. 










11- 


Were the members aware of a real problem 








12. 










13* 










14. 


Was I able to keep the discussion moving and 








15. 










16. 










17. 


Did I encourage the group to analyze points as they 









35 



HO #4 



APPENDIX m-A 
(TG 5-18-1) 



18* Did I avoid expressing my own opinions and 

dominating the situation? - -- -- -- -- -- - 

19» Did I display enthusiasm? - - -- -------- 

20* Did I adapt my vocabulary to the group? - - - - - 

21* Did I prevent a monopoly of the discussion 

by a few members?- - -- -- -- -- -- -- - 

22« Did I check side tracking and lack of attention? - - 

23* How well did I handle, or let the group handle » 
other individual situations, such as the griper, 
the rambler, personality clashes, etc? ------ 

24* Did I present pertinent and interesting case 

material? - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 

25* Were my questions well framed?- - -- -- -- - 

26* Did my questions provoke discussion? ------ 

27* Were my questions well distributed? ------- 

28* Did I refer questions back to the group, rather 

than answer them myself?- - -- -- -- -- -- 

29« Did I make effective use of charts and other 

visual aids? - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 

30* Was my board work well planned and organized?- - 

31* Was my board work neat, legible, auid quickly done? 

32* Did I budget time wisely during the meeting? - - - 

33* Did I summarize periodically?- - -- -- -- -- 

34* Was there general acceptance or agreement by the 
group of the proposed action or solutions reached ?- 

35* Was a plan developed to put the group agreement 
into action? - 

36* Did I summarize, or have the group summarize at 
the conclusion of the meeting?- - -- -- -- -- 

37* Did I close the meeting on time?- - -- -- -- - 

38* Did I prepare a report of the meeting? ------ 

39* Did I check to determine that the follow-up 

assignments were completed? - -- -- -- -- - 



COLUMN 


1 


2 


3 







































































































































36 



APPENDIX m-B 
(TG 5-18-1) 



BIBUOGRAPHY ON MEETINGS 



HO #5. 



AMERICAN MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION. A Guide toSuccetiful Conference Leadership. 
New York, 1948. 

BUSCH» HENRY M. Conference Methods in Industry. New York: Harper and Bros., 1949. 

Conference Leadership. Civilian Personnel Pamphlet No. 32, Departnrient of the Army. 
Washington, D. C, 1949. 

Conference Leadership. Esso Standard Oil Company, Esso Training Center Publication, 
1947. (Digests appear in Personnel 24:328-340, March 1948, and Personnel 25:31-46, 
July 1948.) 

DALE, EDGAR and SPAULDING, SETH, editors. How to Have a Successful Conference. 
Columbus, OhioSUte University, 1950. 

FISHER, WALDO E. Conference Leader's Guide. Pasadena: California Institute of 
Technology, 1948. 

GLASS, JOSEPH G. How to Plan Meetings and Be A Siuccessful Chairman. New York: 
Merlin Press, Inc., 1951. 

HANNAFORD, E. S. Conference Leader ship in Business and Industry. New York: McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, 1945. 

HEGARTY, E. J. How to Run A Meeting. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1947. 

HEROLD, DON. How to Harness A Conference. Hammermill Paper Company, Erie, Pa., 
1942. 

NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL CONFERENCE BOARD, INC. Techniques of Conference Leader- 
ship. Studies in Personnel Policy, No. 77. New York^ 1951. 

STRAUSS, BERT and STRAUSS, FRANCES. New Ways to Better Meetings. New York: 
The Viking Press, 1951. 

UTTERBACK, WILLIAM E. Group Thinking and Conference Leadership. New York: 
Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1950. 

These are just a few of the books and pamphlets on meetings. Through your local library 
facilities you can refer to these and other sources* 



APPENDIX m-C 
(TG 5-18.1) 



SUGGESTIONS FOR PRACTICE MEETINGS 



The following suggestions mre offered for conducting the practice meetings: 

I. PRACTICE ON THE PREPARATION OF A MEETING OUTLINE 

1. PUce on the board the item headings for the meeting outline below and review 
briefly-- 





MEETING OUTLINE 


1. 


The topic or over -all objective. 


2. 


Immediate objectives. 


3, 


Definitions. 


4. 


Opening statement* 


5. 


Points which may be discussed* 


6. 


Questions which may be asked. 


7. 


Examples and board work* 



2. Ask the trainees to think of a suitable topic or to choose one from a list of sug 
gestions* A topic which poses a problem is preferable for the purpose of the 
practice meeting. A list of suggestions couldinclude such items as the following: 

a. What should the supervisor do to orient new employees? 

b* What should be included in an inventory of the duties of a supervisor? 

c. How can time and effort be budgeted? 

d. How can the supervisor best carry outhis responsibility for on-the-job train- 
ing? 

3. Have the trainees prepare a meeting outline using the material on the hoard as a 
guide* Caution them that the outline is a guide and should be prepared only in 
such detail as required by the topic. 

4. Circulate among the trainees and assist them during this preparation* 

5. Call for volunteers to lead the practice meetings at the next session or make 
assignments* 

6. Schedule the renuining trainees. 
7* Suggested time: 1^ hours* 

n. PRACTICE MEETINGS 

1* Have trainees c<mduct meetings in order determined above. If practice in pre- 
paring meeting outlines is not used, prior arrangements should be made for 
selection of leaders and topics* 



ERLC 



39 



APPENDIX m-C 
(TG 5*18*1) 



2* Sttggetted time: 15 minutes for practice meeting and 15 minutes for evaluation* 
Cut off both the practice meeting and the evalux.tion when the allotted time has 
been reached. 

3. Participatioo of group members: Request the group members to participate as 
helpfully as possible to carry out their member responsibilities and to enhance 
the confidence of the leader* Ask them also to keep certain points in mind so that 
they can offer constructive criticism of the conduct of the leader. 

4* Evalxiaticm: Before each practice meeting select 6 to 10 points from the Self- 
Appraisal List for Meeting Leaders » Appendix in- A* Ask the members to con- 
centrate their post-meeting criticism on these points* This will make it eas^.er 
for the members to perform their dual function. 

Explain that the practice meetings will be too short for most of them to reach the 
objective* Point cut that the primary factor is the progress of the meeting toward 
the objective; the secondary factor is the use of the techniques* As an example, 
evC' ybody may be participating furiously, bui this is uselesp if the discussion is 
standing stilL Ask the group to keep in mind that criticisms of the leader should 
also be examined to determine whether they »e criticisms of the members* 

5« Problem situation s : If desired, role playing may be used in the later practice 
meetings, provided the group agrees to this experiment* Ask for volunteers to 
play the roles of ''problem children**, such as the very talkative member, the 
shy person, or the employee with a gripe* It is suggested that leaders be rotated 
for each drmonst^ration of a problem situation* The group should thendisct:>s 
what devices the leaders used, which were successful, and what other devices 
might have been used? 

6* Number of prachce meetings: It is strongly rvconuneaded that eac' person in 
the group be allowed to lead at least two practice meetings* More, uf course, 
can be arranged, when necessary* 

7* Other variations : 

a* Use of observers: It is difEcult for a person to participate in a meeting and 
to observe the meeting at the same time* One way to avoid this problem 
,o ask two or three trainees to act as bservers* Affer the practice meeting 
is Hnished they are called upon to evaluate the performance of both the 
leader and the members* 

b. Use of recording devices: A device can be used to record the practice meet- 
ing* After it is played back the trainees can evaltute themselves as 'veil as 
the other persons* The ev/iuation should be in terms of the "Self- Appraisal 
List for Meeting Leaders*'* rather than in terms of diction or other matters 
relating to public speaking* 

c. Use of "bugg groups* *: Alarge training group can be split into "bugg groups** 
and several practice meetings held at the same time* The entire training 
group can be reassembled for the evaluation portion, If this tech:^i<iue is 
used, be sure that enough space is available so that the "bu2£ groups** con*t 
interfere with one another* 




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