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DOCUMENT EESUME 



ED 081 082 



EA 005 303 



TITLE 



INSTITUTION 
PUB DATE 
NOTE 



Curiosity and Creativity Among Pupils in Open Plan 
and Architecturally Conventional Schools — A 
Progress Report* Studies of Open Education No. .7. 
York County Board of Education^ Aurora ' (Ontario) . . 
Mar 73 

9p. ; Reprint of the agenda item C.2, (d) (iii) of the 
meeting of the Board of Education. . (March 26, 1973) 
Related documents are ED 067 725, EA 005 302, and EA 
005 304 ' 



EDRS PRICE 
DESCRIPTORS 



IDENTIFIERS 



MF-$0.65 HC-$3.29 

♦Comparative Analysis; ^Creativity; ^Curiosity; 
Elementary Schools; Grad^ 2; Grade 5; *Open Plan 
Schools; School Architecture; School Design; 
Statistical Data; Test Results; ^Traditional 
Schools 

Ontario; York County 



ABSTRACT 

Two open plan elementary schools were chosen together 
with the two traditional schools that most matched in size, location, 
and socioeconomic backgrounds of pupils; and standardized tests of 
curiosity and creativity were administered to students in grades 2 
and 5* The results of the analyses show that some differences exist 
on a few of the tests among the four schools, but the differences are 
not systematic and do not point to any real distinctions among the 
schools. - (Author) 



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Studies Of Open Education 

No. 7 Curiosify and Creativity Among Pupils in 

Open Plan and Architecturally Conventional 
Schools — A Progress Report 

. ; (Reprint of the agenda item C.2.(d)(iii) of 
the meeting of the Board of Education, 
26 March 1973.) 




STUDIES OF OPEN EDUCATION 



Titles In Series: No. 1 
No. 2 
No. 3 

No. 4 
No. 5 

No. 6 
No. 7 



The Open Plan School as a Response iro 
Change (Jan, 1970) 

A Day in the Life; Case Studies of Pupils in 
Open Plan Schools (\Aay 1970) 

Anatomy of Open Education: A Barebones 
Summary of Its Assumptions as Related to 
Practices in Elementary Education and an 
Overview of Its Accomplishments (revised 
Sept. 1970) 

"Open Education: A Selected Bibliography" 
(revised Oct. 1970) 

Reading and Mathematics Achievement of 
Grade 1 Pupils in Open Plan and Architec- 
turally Conventional Schools (Sept. 1971) 

Reading, Spelling, and Mathematics Achieve- 
ment of Grade 2 Pupils in Open Plan and 
Architecturally Conventional Schools (Mar. 
1973) 

Curiosity and Creativity Au;ong Pupils in 
Open Plan and Architecturally Conventional 
Schools — A Progress Report (Mar. 1973) 



Research Office 

Division of Planning and Development York County Board of Education 



C.2.(d)(iii) 

YORK COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION 



STAFF REPORT 

CURIOSITY AND CREATIVITY IN "OPEN PLAN" AND 
"TRADITIONAL" ELEMENTARY SCHOOL — A PROGRESS REPORT 



In 1970 the board authorized a series of sfudies to discover whether there 
were differences in the "performance" of pupils in "Open Plan" and more conven- 
tionally constructed schools. Among the longitudinal studies which evolved by 
1971 was an investigation of curiosity and creativity in pupils in four schools chosen 
for study • 

These studies, the first phases of which are reported on the following pages^ 
are being directed by York University psychologist Dr. Hy. I. Day, a leading 
authority in this field. 

An interim report of the pilot study (1970-7]) with grade 5 pupils was made 
to the York County Board in October 1971 . Cost of that project was shared with 
OlSE, the York County Board providing $2,500. 

The longitudinal study, beginning with grade 2 in 1971-72, Is funded 
[omtly by the Ministry of Education ($18,000) and, in 1972, also by this board 
($1 ,500). Work with this year's grade 3 pupils in the four schools is well advanced. 

The Ministry of Education grant for the present funding cycle expires on 
April 30, 1973.. Dr. Day has applied for a renewal of the grant. However, a 
change in the Ministry's calendar for grants means that funds, if awarded, will not 
be available to Dr. Day until July 1, 1973. 

No specific provision for funding of Dr. Day^s work was nri^cle in the York 
County 1973 budget. A general research fund has been proposed in that budget. 

RECOMMENDATION > 

That a sum not to exceed $300 be made available to Dr. Day to permit his 
team to continue their work with this board in the period May and June 1973. 



ERIC 



March 26, 1973. 

For further information contact the 
Director or Brian Burnham, Research Office. 



33 



"CURIOSITY AND CREATIVITY OF GRADE 5' PUPILS IN 
OPEN PLAN AND OTHER SCHOOLS'' 

A FI NAL REPORT TO THE YORK COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION 

by Dr. Hy . I . Day 
Psychology Deparirrrent, York University 

1 . Purpose of Study ' 

Most studies comparing Open Plan and "traditional" schools use criteria of 
success based on the goals of traditional programs; viz. achievement in "academic 
subjects. 

'This study attempted to look at differences using two common goals of open 
education, curiosity, and creativity, 

2. Testing Program 

Two Open Plan schools, Meadowbrook and Whitchurch Highlands, were 
chosen together with the two most matched in size, location (urban-suburban and 
rural) and socio-economic backgrounds of pupils; viz. Maple Leaf and Kettleby. 
The tests used included the Torrance Tests. of Creativity, the Haywood Motivational 
Preference Inventory, and the Day Test of Specific Curiosity. 

Some tests were given to all grade 5 students: (a) .group curiosity measures, 
(b) individual curiosity measures, (c) creativity measures. 

Some tests were given to only 12 grade 5 students from each of the four 
schools: (a) curiosity, (b) creativity. 



ERIC 



3. Results and Discussion 

Just as no differences are generally found between Open Plan and tradi- 
tional schools on criteria of success based on academic achievement, differences 
were not found in curiosity and creativi^y. See Tables 1 and 2. 

We can only speculate on the possible reasons: 

(a) No differences actually exist 

(b) Differences exist but we have insensitive measures 

(c) Other differences, not measured in this study, are more influential than 
are curiosity and creativity differences 

(d) Open Plan schools are not very open plan; traditional schools are not very 
traditional 

(d) Teachers are not necessarily committed to either philosophy and simply 
teach the only way they know regardless of the title of the school 

(e) Many of the students in Open Plan schools may have spent up to four years 
in traditional schools and so behave like "traditional" students. 



March 1973. 33 n 



TABLE- 1 



ALL STUDENTS FROM THE FOUR SCHOOLS 



Curious personality (TSC) 
Curious personality (IM) 
Eagerness to understand ambiguity 
Fluency in guessing 
Creative fluency 
Creative flexibility 



n.s. 



n.s. 



n.s, 



Meadowbrook & Kettleby higher 
Maple Leaf highest 
Maple Leaf highest 



.s. = no significant difference 



33 b 



TABLE 2 



48 STUDENTS CHOSEN AT RANDOM, 12 FROM EACH SCHOOL 



Curiosity . 

- Personality test (TSC) 

- Personality test (IM) 

- Desire to experience 

- Exploration time 

- Number of questions asked 

- Type of questions asked 



n .s . 



n .s . 



n .s . 



n.s. 



n ,5 . 



n .s . 



Creativity 

- Mosaic construction - aesthetic • 

- Mosaic Construction - originality 

- Story writing quality 

- Story writing originality 

- Eagerness to understand ambiguity 

- Fluency In guessing 

- Creative fluency 

- Creative flexibility 

- Creative originality 

- Creative elaboration 



n .s. 



n .s. 



Whitchurch & Maple Leaf higher 



n.s. 



n .s . 



Meadowbrook & Kettleby higher 
Maple Leaf highest 
Mapfe Leaf highest 
Maple Leaf highest^ 
Maple Leaf highest 



33 



'^CURIOSITY, CREATIVITY, AND ATTITUDl TO SCHOOL 
OF GRADE 2 PUPILS IN OPEN PLAN AND OTHER SCHOOLS" 



AN INTERIM REPORT TO THE YORK COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION 



by Dr, Hy. I . Day 
Psychology- Department/ York University 

1 . Purpose of Study 

This study was designed to test the effectiveness in fostering the develop- 
ment of curiosity, creativity and a positive attitude towards schooling of two Open 
Plan schools of the York County Board. It was proposed to follow children in the two 
schools over three years, starting in grade 2 in 1971-72, and to compare the changes 
in their test results with those of children in two "traditional" control schools, sel- 
ected because of their similarity in size and location to the two Open Plan schools. 

2. Year I AcMvity (1971-72)' 

Data were collected and analysed for 19 measures on 297 pupils in grade 2 
in the four participating schools. The scores are from curiosity, creativity, and 
attitude to school tests administered by Dr. Day and his assistants and from ability 
and achievement tests administered by school staff under the direction of the Research 
Coordinator of the York County Board. The children In the four schools were com- 
pared and some of the results are appended in Table 1 . An analysis of variance of 
these '''^ta was conducted. 

The results of the analyses (Table 2) show that some differences exist on a 
few of the tests among the four schools. But the differences are not systematic and 
do not point to any real distinctions among the schools. The data will serve as a 
base-lfne for analysis of Year (I date. 

3. Year II Work (1972-73) 

We are presently in the process of collecting data from the same students 
who are presently in grade 3. Similar tests are being administered to those given 
last year. All students in grade 3 classes in the four schools are being tested, but 
analysis will be done only of tho."^e who were in the same school last year. 

It is expected that all the data will be collected by the end of March and 
analysed during the month of April. A further report comparing changes over one 
year for the four schools will be submitted later. 

A detailed description of the study, including the tests, is available from 
the Research Office, the York County Bnard of Education. 



March 1973. 



c 



TABLE 1 

MEANS OF SCORES FOR THE FOUR SCHOOLS TESTED 



TEST 


Meadowbrook 
(OPEN Urban) 


Whitchurch 
(OPEN Rural) 


Mapie Leaf 
(Trad. Urban) 


Kettiebv 
(Trad. Rural) 




N = 99 


N =-• 38 


N - 102 


N = 49 


Mosaics Ae5t-h;;;>ic 


4.33 


5.26 


5.71 


4.70 


Mosaics Originality 


3.77 


4.24 


5.99 


4.29 


Story Aesthetic 


4.73 


4.34 


4.61 


4.45 


Story Originality 


5.37 


4.92 


5.43 


5.20 


Exploration Time 


251 . 


275. 


278. 


4n. 


Preference for Complexity 


6.81 


8.14 


7.08 


7.21 


Preference for Novelty 


9.20 


10.0 


10.4 


7.92 


Attitude to Schooling 


2.18 


2.30 


1 .95 


3.96 


Ability (IQ) • 


105. 


in . 


104. 


107. 


Mathematics (Achievement) 


2.58 


3.31 


2.80 


2.81 


Reading (Achievement) 


2.87 


3.12 


2.58 


2.81 



TABLE 2 

F SCORES FOR ALL THE TESTS USED IN THE FOUR SCHOOLS 



TEST 


Type 
(Open vs. Trad .) 


Location 
(Urban vs. Rural) 


Inf-eract-ion 
(Type X LocoHon) 


Mosaics Aesthetic 


3.77 


.039 


22 .05**** 

1 


Mosaics Originality 


29.42**** 


8.70****' 


26.94**** 


Story Aesthetic 


. 0004 


0 .808 


0. 140 


i 

Story Originality 


.255 


1 .01 


0.112 


Exploration Time 


22 01 *'*^* 


20.14**** 


9.83*** 


Preference for Complexity 


1.23 


6.02* 


4.07* 


Preference for Novelty 


.713 


2.78 


10.42*** 


Attitude to Schooling 


2.27 


5.01* 


3.98* 


Ability (IQ) 


1 .06 


4.00* 


0.182 


Mathematics (Achievement) 


2.86 


18.60**** 


17.55**** 


Reading (Achievement) 


4.71* 


3.09 


0.0157 



* p .05 

** p .01 

*** p .005 

**** p .001 



ERIC