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DOCUHENT RESUME 



ED 085 360 SP 007 528 

TITLE Clinical Approach to Teacher Education, 

INSTITOTION Boise State Coll., Idaho. 

PUB DATE Nov 73 

NOTE 20p. 

EDRS PRICE HF-$0.65 HC-$3.29 

DESCRIPTORS Child Development; *Clinical Experience; ^Elementary 

Education; Internship Programs; Practicums; 
*preservice Education; *Student Teaching; *Teacher 
Education ; Teacher Supervision 

IDENTIFIERS Distinguished Achievement Awards Entry 



ABSTRACT 

The Clinical Approach to Teacher Education at Boise 
State Colleges places its students into two concurrent classes which 
run for two consecutive semesters and which emphasize the integration 
of theory and practice. Its ultimate goal is the development of a 
culminating year--long internship for the study of child behavior, 
curriculum, and methodology within a clinical setting of the school 
and the college. Four professors comprise the elementary education 
tean responsible for this program.^ They have dual assignments: as 
professors who teach and model effective strategies and as clinical 
professors in a given elementary school who supervise the prospective 
teachers. Each sequence of study is revised and finalized by the 
entire team. Prospective teachers generally spend ona-half day in a 
clinical student teaching assignment followed by an afternoon class 
on campu3 at Boise State. At any given time the student teachers" 
clinical schedule may be altered to give them all-day teaching 
experiences in their respective classrooms or intensive, in-service 
workshops. Placement for the two semesters' student teaching is done 
by cooperative efforts of the building i^rincipal and the clinical 
professor. The clinical professor spends a minimum of three mornings 
d week in his building. (A social science course outline is 
appended. ) (Author/JA) 



ERIC 



FILMED FROM BEST AVAILABLE COPY 



I, A Brief Description of the Clinical Approach to Teacher Education 
at Boise State College, 

Recognizing the basic humanistic premise that if educational methodology, 
subject matter, and theory is to have value and applied meaning it must be 
tied to real classroom experiences, the Clinical Approach to Teacher Education 
at Boise State College places prospective teachers in two concurrent classes 
during two consecutive semesters which emphasize such integration of theory 
and practice. 

The concurrent classes provide for a direct and immediate application of 
the theory of curriculum and methodology to the school classroom situation. 
The ultimate goal of the clinical approach is the development of a culminating 
intern- type year encompassing the areas of child behavior, curriculum, and 
methodology within a clinical setting of the school and the college, 

A team of four professors - each carefully chosen and with complementary 
competencies in content areas - comprise the' Elementary Education team res- 
ponsible for the clinical program. These professors have integrated dual 
assignments: professors who teach and model effective strategies, content, etc. 
and clinical professors in a given elementary school whose major function is 
careful supervision and pre-service education of prospective teachers. 

Each professor on the elementary team has the responsibility of planning, 
preparing, and presenting to the elementary team the sequence of study for 
his area in methods. This includes a listing of required texts and reserve 
texts, sequence of learning experiences, evaluation techniques, teaching 
assignments, and grouping procedures. This is finalized and revised by the 

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entire team into a solid humanistic, student-centered course of study which 
is a fundamental part of the student teaching experience. 

Prospective teachers generally spend one-half day in a clinical student 
teaching assignment followed by an afternoon methods class on campus at Boise 
State, At any given time the student teacher's clinical schedule may be 
altered to give them all day teaching experiences in their respective class- 
rooms or intensive, in-service workshops aimed at providing additional depth 
to their education. Student teachers are assigned to two consecutive semesters 
'^f student teaching - a primary and an intermediate experience. Placement 
is done by cooperative efforts of the building principal and the clinical 
professor. The clinical professor spends a minimum of three mornings a 
week in his building. 

This approach to teacher education provides a practical, humanistic and 
meaningful design for the education of prospective teachers. 



ERIC 



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II. Comprehensive Explanation and Analysis of the Clinical Approach to 
Teacher Education at Boise State College- 

The Elementary Education program at Boise State College is built upon a 
humanistic teacher educa'iion philosophy developed by clinical professors, 
classroom teachers, building principals, and administrative personnel. The 
educational thrust is aimed at providing prospective teachers an integrated, 
child-centered teaching experience which stresses the mating of teaching 
strategies, teaching competencies, and curriculum content to the cognitive, 
af f ective-emotional, and physical needs of children. To adequately achieve 
this, the main elementary program is offered during two consecutive semesters 
each year': fall and spring - by two concurrent five-hour courses each semester 
* (Curriculum and Methods, TE 351 and TE 352, and Student Teaching, TE 471 and 
TE 472). The intent and design of this is to translate humanistic theory and phil- 
osophy into meaningful classroom experiences by pre-service and in-service teachers. 

A team of four specialists comprise the Elementary Education staff. 
These professors have been carefully selected for complementary strengths 
and specialities. Dual roles are performed by each team member: curriculum 
specialist and clinical professor. Curriculum areas of speciality are: 
Science, Dr. Jerry Tucker; Social Science, Dr. John Jensen; Language Arts, 
Miss Clara Burtch; and. Mathematics, Dr. Robert Friedli. Each professor assumes 
the role of team leader and coordinator when his area of speciality is being 
covered in teaching methods and strategies (TE 351 and TE 352). This assign- 
ment carries the specific responsibility of planning and presenting to team 
members the content, direction, and learning experiences for that segment 
of study. The devp?oped outline is carefully evaluated by the team well in 



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advance of actual implementation. Changes and modifications are made and 
the team leader takes the responsibility of directing the teaching-learning 
experiences. This is done through a weekly team planning meeting each Wednesday 
morning. At this planning session the master teaching schedule is revi'ewed 
for timing and content. The weekly schedule is then carefully reviewed in 
light of: (a) concepts to be taught, (b) objectives, (c) learning experiences 
to be used, (d) needed materials and readings, (e) grouping plans to be used, 
and (f) how all of the foregoing relate to the student teaching experience.. 
Additionally, students with specific or special problems in either methods 
or student teaching are professionally evaluated. Many courses of action can 
be determined and students may be placed with other team members for additional 
evaluation. 

TE 351 and TE 352 (Methods, fall and spring semesters) are scheduled for 
the early afternoon: 1:40 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. Mondays and Wednesdays, and 
1:15 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. Tuesdays and Thursdays. The sequence of study is 
language arts and mathematics fall semester, and science and social studies 
spring semester. Throughout the academic year there is careful consideration 
to the integration of all academic areas into a solid methodological base 
recognizing the interrelatedness of the disciplines. In addition, various 
teaching strategies are used by the elementary team in order to provide proper 
teaching models for students. 

TE 471 and TE 472 (Student Teaching, fall and spring semesters) are done 
in a clinical setting. Students are assigned to one of six clinical schools 
and may spend an entire academic year there having a primary and intermediate 
experience, or, they may be moved to another clinical school should a more 
productive experience be possible. Each member of the elementary team is 

ERIC 



assigned to one or two schools and serves therein as a clinical professor. 
In essence, this means that in any given week a professor is in his assigned 
school for a minimum of three mornings. As the clinical professor for that 
school, the major responsibility is helping student teachers: (1) gain com- 
petency in classroom management and discipline, (2) gain competency in the 
use of various teaching strategies and methodologies, (3) develop deeper in- 
sights and understandings of childrens' growth and development, (4) develop 
competencies in student and self-evaluation, and (5) develop a deeper respect 
for self and others. This is accomplished by the use of cooperative planning 
with classroom and student teachers, video-taping, interaction analysis 
techniques, classroom observations, seminars, etc. In addition, the clinical 
professor provides close support for helping classroom teachers fulfill their 
cooperative roles. 

Generally, the clinical professor and the building principal jointly 
decide upon student teacher - cooperative teacher placement. Some training 
in supervisory techniques for cooperating teachers is provided by the clinical 
professor assigned to a particular school. Each teacher is requested by the 
college faculty and the building principal to inform either party if for some 
reason they do not feel a total commitment to the clinical program. 

The clinical approach to teacher education brings together a variety of 
professional educators in a program that stresses the humaneness of relation- 
ships, the interrelated needs of teachers and learners, and shared respon- 
sibility for learning by all with the ultimate focus on children and the most 
logical ways of helping them learn - such as learning centers. 



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Student teachers are continually evaluated on a daily basis. The cooper- 
ating teachers work very closely with the clinical professors. If a problem 
becomes evident in the student teacher's performance, then the clinical 
professor and the cooperating teacher work together to help t\\e student re- 
solve it. A competency based evaluation form is utilized at mid-semester 
and at the completion of each semester. Students are requested to evaluate 
themselves. Additionally, the clinical professor and the cooperating teacher 
evaluate the student teacher's performance. Three-way conferences are common 
end results. ^ 

Hence, by. identifying schools where student teachers are part of the 
professional staff and accepted, the clinical professor has the opportunity 
to work with all concerned in an optimum atmosphere. 

Data collected by the cooperating teacher and the clinical professor 
is used to correct deficiencies. recognized in the prospective teacher. Video- 
tapes and other instruments are utilized for data collection and analysis. 
When doubts exist on the part of the clinical professor and/or the cooperating 
teacher about a student teach.er's ability, the building principal is also re- 
quested to evaluate the student teacher and make recommendations and suggestions* 
In extreme situations, another clinical professor may be called into the eval- 
uative process. 

The final responsibility for student grades rests upon each individual 
professor. In methodology classes checklists of assignments, student confer- 
ences, performance criteria, and professor's observations are the basis for 
grades. In the student teaching experience, grades are arrived at by confer- 
encing of clinical professor, student teacher, and cooperating teacher. 

-6- 



The following study exemplifies two typical days in the life of a pros- 
pective teacher in the clinical program at Boise State College. 

Jenny p. has reached her senior year of college at Boise State. She 
is enrolled fall semester in two concurrent educational classes for a total 
of ten semester hours. Aside from this, she has a Child Psychology class and 
an Instructional Media class. 

For the first two weeks of the semester she spent a full day from 8:00 
a.m. to 2:30 p.m. in her clinical school. She became acquainted with the 
building and teachers; and, she spent several days getting grounded in her 
assigned classroom learning how to organize the classroom environment and 
children for the beginning school year. 

As formal instruction began she worked with a small group of children 
in one subject • Later^ she took over two groups in a content area and as 
the semester progressed, she assumed full responsibility for teaching through- 
out the morning in several different curricula. 

Each day, Jenny arrived at school at 8:00 a.m. and met with her cooperating 
teacher, Mrs. Moore. Together they reviewed her lesson plans and discussed 
in detail her objectives, materials to be used, learning experiences, and means 
of evaluation. Children with special needs, concerns, or problems were also 
discussed. After this, Jenny arranged the various materials throughout the 
room which were needed and prepared to greet the children. 

At 9:00 a.m. she welcomed 35 noisy, bustling fourth graders. For the 
first 10-15 minutes she called roll, collected money for lunches, took lunch 

-7- 



& 

count, and conducted opening exercises. 

With the completion of opening exercises, Jenny moved her children into 
reading groups. She had worked with the classroom teacher to carefully place 
each child with ether children who needed similar reading experiences. Moving 
from group to group - helping some children work on word attack skills, others 
on comprehension, and others on free reading, a careful record was maintained 
on each child's activities. T'his record was also reviewed with the cooperating 
teacher. During this period, the clinical professor dropped by and spent 15 
minutes watching Jenny, the children, and the program in general. In a quiet 
corner he made a couple of suggestions as to how to help some children who were 
having problems, reinforced Jenny's teaching behavior, and chatted about her 
performance with the cooperating teacher. 

At 10:15 a.m. Jenny took the children out for recess. 

At 10:30 a.m. Jenny brought the children into a carpeted corner of the 
room and played a brief tape of different kinds of music. She then led the 
children in a discussion of how the music made them feel. Returning to their 
desks and listening to a similar tnpe being played, the children individually 
wrote down on 5" by 8" cards words which described their feelings. These became 
spelling words as the unit developed. 

Next, Jenny organized role playing experiences with the children for verbal 
^ expression of their emotions and feelings. Again, she carefully noted and 
recorded pertinent data. 

At 11:45 a.m. after accompanying the children to the lunchroom, Jenny 



joined Mrs. Moore for lunch and rechecked tomorrow's outline oi activities. 

At lil5 p.m. she arrived on campus for her methods class. As part of the 
Language Arts curricula, her class was investigating language experience 
approaches to the teaching of reading. Her professor asked the class to spend 
30 minutes individually, or in pairs, along the Boise River which flows through 
the campus. Their task was to use all their senses to find out all they could 
about what was around and about them. They then individually found some quiet 
place and wrote and illustrated their experiences along the river. The following 
day they shared their work, discussed how to do this with the children in their 
classes, and the theoretical basis for this approach to the teaching of reading. 
Spinning off from this was an intensive discussion of how language experience 
approaches might be integrated with other curricular areas. 

A few weeks later all student teachers in the clinical program were re- 
leased from methods for two weeks and assigned to their respective classrooms 
for two weeks all day. The clinical professor at this point spent all day 
Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday in the school working with them. 

The first few days, during this period of time, Jenny taught as usual in 
the morning and assisted in afternoon activities. As confidence and insight 
developed, she assumed the responsibility for teaching her first full day. 

On her first full teaching day, she arrived at school at 8:00 a.m., met 
with Mrs. Moore, and carefully reviewed her lesson plans for the entire day. 
She implemented suggested changes and then prepared the materials she needed 
for the day. 



-9- 



When children arrived at 9:00 a.m. Jenny took charge of opening exercises. 

Around 9:15 a.iu. the children moved into language arts. Here, some children 
read in small basal groups, others had conferenced on bocks individually read, 
others were adding to card lists of words they would like to know. Many of 
these words were new spelling words. When the motivation began to lag, Jenny 
grouped the children around a table filled with a variety of interesting manip- 
ulative objects - rocks, pine cones, model airplanes, playing cards, etc. 
She asked the children to select something special to them and to write a story 
about it. Later, they would share their stories. 

Following recess, upon their return to the classroom, Jenny played warm- 
up games to motivate the children's interest in math. The children were then 
introduced to the mathematics laboratory Jenny had developed in her methods 
class. Here were a multitude of manipulative objects, games, assignment and 
task cards which offered several options for expanding understandings of 
key math concepts. Textbooks were available as reference materials. Again, 
children worked individually or in small groups. Jenny busily moved among them 
answering questions - posing questions and listening. Mrs. Moore provided 
support by working with individual students who needed special help. 

At 11:30 a.m. Jenny helped the children to the lunch room and joined Mrs. 
Moore for lunch. The clinical professor was there to strengthen rapport with 
teachers and student teachers by eating and visiting with them. 

Back in the classroom, Jenny initiated afternoon activities by passing 
a copy of the daily newspaper to each child. Her objective was to get children 
to feel real life situations of people in the news. She suggested the children 

"10" 



take out crayons and circle the articles, pictures or cartoons they like^i the 
best. As she moved among the children, the clinical professor came in, sat 
down among the children and participated in the experience. As soon ^ the 
children completed their pictures and cartoons, Jenny asked what they had 
circled and why. As the discussion proceded, children played various roles 
of people in the news. Again- she asked questions about feelings, attitudes, 
and values. After reinforcing Jenny with a few positive comments, the 
clinical professor slipped out to another classroom. 

At 1:40 p.m. Jenny called the children back to a table with various colored 
solutions on It. She demonstrated a discrepant event and asked the children 
to hypothesize about what happened. She then organized the children into small 
groups based on their hypotheses, gave each group the same kinds of colored 
solutions and materials, and sent them to various centers to experiment, to 
search for answers. The lesson ended with the children sharing results of 
their experiments, and other questions they wanted to investigate further. 

At 2:40 p.m. when the children went to art, Mrs. Moore and Jenny evaluated 
the day's teaching. 

Throughout the day the clinical professor had been in and out of Jenny's 
classroom. He had seen her in a number of teaching experiences and had a good 
picture of her classroom performance. 

As can be seen in the foregoing case study, the Clinical Approach to 
Teacher Education at Boise State College has at its base a strong thrust for 
providing humanistic educational experiences for both teachers and children 
in today's schools by constant emphasis being placed on identifying and meeting 

"11- 



individual needs and learning styles. This unique p^rogram is making sig- 
nificant contributions to the development of Personalized Education. 



-12- 



Name of Program: 



Clinical Approach to Teacher Education 



Institution: Boise State College 



President: Dr. John Barnes 



Campus Public Infor- 
mation Officer: 



Faculty Members: Miss Clara Burtch, Dr. Robert L. Friedli, 

Dr. John Jensen, Dr. Jerry Tucker 

Titles: Miss Clara Burtch, Ast, Prof, of Teacher Education 

Dr. Robert L, Friedli, Ast. Prof, of Teacher Ed. 
Dr. John Jensen, Asc. Prof, of Teacher Education 
Dr. Jerry Tucker, Asc, Prof, of Teacher Education 



Signature: 




Title: Ast. Prof, of Teacher Education Date: November 16, 1973 



ERIC 



The Department of Teacher Education at Boise State College has a phil- 
osophy that stresses teaching and learning as a humanistic process whose 
success or failure is directly correlated to meaningful interaction between 
and among teachers and learners. Additionally warm, accepting relationships 
are stressed. Knowledge of content areas, classroom management, and ways 
and means of effective evaluation are also considered to be high priority 
in the success of a teacher, but only to the extent that he is capable of 
communicating with others. Communication, in turn, is based on trust, 
understanding, and empathy - the very essence of meaningful relationships. 

To achieve this, the education of prospective teachers at Boise State 
College is done in a clinical classroom setting, integrating teaching method- 
ology and teaching experiences. Students observe professors modeling teach- 
ing behavior they are to develop; and, they have learning experiences in methods 
which demonstrate how to set up similar experiences in their own classes, 
what the children will experience, and how to evaluate pupil progress. In 
turn, they are frequently visited (as often as 3 times a week) by their major 
methods professor who has a dual role as a clinical professor in their school. 

Such integration of method and theory is viewed by the Elementary Education 
Team in Teacher Education at Boise State College as the most logical and 
practical way of producing effective, humanistic classroom teachers. 



? ' ' • ■ ' ABSTRACT/ INFORMATION FORM - 1974 DAA PROGRAM 

; (Please note: This information will be the basis for the description of your institution's 
[DAA entry in the official DAA booklet given at the Annual Meeting and subsequently distri- 
cbuted widely.) ' 

: Please Type or Print : 
Name of Program Submittedj _2 " 



Institution (complete name)^ 
President: 



'Campus Public Information Officer 



Faculty Member Responsible for Program: 

Title of the Faculty Member j 

Signature : 



Title: ' ^ * Date; 



-Please describe in 150-200 words the program v/hich you have entered in the 1974 AACTE 
(Distinguished Achievement Awards. A sample is included below to give a general idea of 
fthe kinds of information we need. Your abstract will be the basis for reporting your 
J^cntry in Excellence in Teacher Education.* Please continue on back if extra space is needed. 

V-SAMPLE: I'ypothctic.-^il Ssf^jplo Dcscrlptizr.: Recogni-ir.j; the necessity for public school 
■i: : • ' ' teaclic:rs to h.'ve a corMLn-^inr c-Jucution as v:cll a5 realizing t];c need for continu- 
ally, updutin;; the e leir.er.ivir/ science curriculum, the Colle;;^ of Saint Alplionsia 
-Joi'.ci)h, tci;cthcr v.ith the .sci'.ool clstrict of Stockton, New :;.x:?.pshire, bci^-n in i9C9 
the Advance Learnir-g for Scic::cc T:»ac];ors Prograr,; (ALSTP) . The prct;ram, initially 
funclc'J by a .\?.tior.al Science Founcarion ^vant, fcntures . a .six-v/eck sun-j::er institute 
during \.'hich nicrtibcrs of the coljer^e ritaff instruct teachers -throur.hout the school 
district. Also, 30 cca5u]i:u:ts fror. the coJ lore's science and eclucaticn depart- 
ments visit cacl: cf the clor.cntary. schools during -the year . Featured in the six- 
v/eek institute are effective v;ays to teach eaviron.T.cntal studies , usinf, the 
neighborhood as key resource. The proi-ra::\ h:is had sufficient ir.pact to project a 
sijnilar one for socondarv science teachers. . ' 



ERIC 



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