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DOCOHBIT RB80BB 



BO 097 251 

AOTHOR 

TITLE 

SPOHS 

BOFSiO HO 

COBTRICT 

HOT! 

EDRS PRICE 
DESCRIPTORS 



SO 007 812 



in Greece. 
Vashlcgton^ 



D.c. Bureau 



IDERTIPIERS 



KazaeiaSf Andreas R. 
Education and Hodernisatlon 
Office of Education (DBEV) , 
of Research* 
BR-7-1111 

OEC-1-7-71111-5232 
254p. 

HF-10.75 RC-$12.60 PLUS POSTAGE 
♦CoaparatiTe Education; Cultural Background; 
♦Educational Developsent; *Edttcational History; 
Greek; *Hodern History; Political Influences; 
Relevance (Education) ; Social Influences; Traditional 
Schools 

♦Greece; Hodernization 



ABSTRACT 

This history of Greek education traces the path of 
■odernization froa the e serge nee of Greece as an independent state in 
the early 1800 *s up to the present date. Educational philosophy and 
content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of 
those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events descrihes the 
structure of education as it has evolved and the battles that brought 
about a popular* practical aspect to curricula. In this straggle the 
use of desotic or popular Greek is a real as well as sysbolic issue. 
The slow progress of sodernization, ispeded sost recently by the 1967 
silitary takeover is described as the result of Greek pride in a 
cultural heritage eabodied in traditional, classical education. 
Reforss achieved in 1964 are seen as indications of what say cose 
with tise. Greek terss are used throughout the history and are 
defined in a glossary at the end. (JH) 



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TABLE OF C011T2NTS 

CHAPTER I. A llEW STATE III AN OLD CULTURE: PERSPECTIVES 22 pp. 

CHAPTER II. IWDEPEWDENCE, CONSOLIDATIOH OF THE CrXEIC 40 pp. 
STATE, AND EDUCATION 

CHAPTER III. THE ERA OF THE GRAND IDEA 17 pp. 

niiAnisu IV. I'KUM vii;wiZFJ.ne to karamanles 16 pp. 



CHAPTER V. THE COIMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND THE 39 pp. 

ICARI^^NLCS REFORI-IS 



CHAPTER VI. THE PAPANDRIZOU REFORllS AND THE GREAT DEBATE 39 pp. 



CHAPTER VII. THE PRESENT STRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL 34 pp. 

SYSTEII 



CHAPTER VITI. HIGIER EDUCATIOD 32 pp. 



CHAPTER DC. CONCLUSION: TRADITION AND MODERNITY IN 5 pp. 

GREEK rJDUCATlOU 



GLOSSARY 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



CHAPTER I I-l 
A NEW STATE IN AN OLD CULTl»Et PERSPECTIVES 



As an independent state contemporary Greece is a relatively modern cre- 
ation. It was established in the early decades of the nineteenth century after 
a revolutionary war (1821-1829) against the Ottoman Empire and the timely inter- 
vention of England, France, and Russia, the then great European powers. Indeed, 
Greece's present boundaries were not settled until after the Second World War. 

Born in an era of optimim about human progress and the perfectibility of 
man, the new Greek nation-state was inspired and consolidated by a curious 
admixture of ideas, doctrines, socio-economic conditions and cultural strands. 
There were first the Western European Enlightenment and the French revolutionary 
ideology with its emphasis on freedom, equality, and national sovereignty. 
Secondly, there were two major cultural and ideological strands which the re- 
surgent Greeks perceived to be indigenous to their tradition, namely, ClaSblcal 
Hellenism and Bysantine Orthodox Christianity. The spirit and language of 
ancient Hellas, in particular, animated a neo-Hellenic cultural revival which, 
in turn, reinlorced the doctrines of emancipation from foreign rule, na':ional 
identity, and independence. And thirdly, there were several external and in- 
ternal forces and events j an unprecedented economic and educational awakening 
on the Greek peninsula and in the various Greek communities out side ,^power 



iThe original Greek Kingdom (1332) encompassed the Peloponnese, Attica, 
Boetia, Rotmeli, the Island of Euboea, and several other sutaller islands, in- 
cluding the Cyclades. In 1864 the Ionian Islandt (Corfu, Cephalonia, Zakynthos 
and Ithaca) were ceded by Great Britain. Thessal.r, in the middle of the Greek 
Peninsula, was added in 1881, and after the Balkan Wars (1913) the larger terri- 
tories of Epirus, Macedonia (including the important city of Salonica), Crete 
and the Aegean Islands (Lemnos, Chios, Samoa, Mytilene, etc.) were anrexed. 
Western Thrace was incorporated in 1923 after the Greco-Turkish War and the 
so-called Asia Minor Catastrophe. The Dodecanese, with the island of Rhodes, 
was ceded by Italy in 1947* 



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1-2 

strusglc «mon'» the major European countries for Influence In Southeastern 
Europe and the Mediterranean, the weakenlns of the Sultan's power over the 
pvovlnces and the hl^h seas, .ud the general post-Napoleonic European climate. 

The aforementioned conditions may have provided powerful weapons and the 
necessary -rounds to rally the Qreeks and phllhellenes behind the cause of 
political Independence and to create a sense of national consciousness and 
Iden-.lty. But they did not furnish easy and workable sul^^ellnes to build 
a viable polity, a socially and culturally cohesive nation, and a dynamic 
economy. Greek national development has been characterlted by political 
instability, economic scarcity, cultural ambivalences, and the institution- 
alization of ideas and patterns that have hindered modernization. 
Political Perspectives . In the political realm, there have been frequent 
disruptive, at times disastrous, conflicts amon-^ the major institutions of 
the monarchy, parliament, and the military. The Greek monarchs and the 
military have often Interfered in the political affairs of the country, 
acting in their assumed capacity of beinr; the custodians of national tradition*, 
Greek culture and the social order in -eneral. In the twentieth century alone, 
there were five military interventions (1909, 1924, 1925, 1936, 1967), the 
last two resulting in ths dissolution of parliament, the suspension of the 
Constitution, and the settln.<» up of tisht military dictatorships. 

There are some interesting parallels between the military coups of 
Au'»ust 4, 1936 and April 21, 1967, their pre- conditions, and the regimes they 
helped let up. A brief comment on them would help clarify one aspect of 
recent Greek political life. 

Both events were preceded by street riots, strikes, unrest and a paralysis 
of parliamentary .'government or what mi-'ht be called political immobillsmc. 



1-3 

This was In part due to another feature of Greek politics, which has created 
instability, namely, fragmentation or a splinter party system. In both 
cases several unsuccessful attempts to form a f^overnment were made and \ 
apolitical caretaker ^governments were appointed. In 1936 such <;overnment 
was headed by General Metaxas who shortly thereafter persuaded the Kin?, to 
dissolve the Chamber of Deputies (the Boule ) , suspend the Constitution, 
declare martial law, and with a mere stroke of the pen, proclaim himself 
dictator. In 1967, the apolitical government appointed Just prior to the 
coup d'etat, was headed by P. Kanellopoulos, the leader of the National 
Radical Union (ERE), the minority ri-rht^wing party. And this time the coup 
was staged by a 'jroup of Junior arnqr officers who Agoin dissolved the 
Chamber and declared martial law, suspended key articles of the Constitution, 
imprisoned politicians and others, and established another military dlcta«» 
toriai rer;ime. Prior to both military take--overs, mass rallies were 
scheduled to take place in Salonica (on August 5 in 1936,. 'and on April 28 
in 1967). These rallies were publicised by certain ''roups, chiefly rightist, 
as si<^.nalling the be;;ini^of a leftist revolution that would ultimately 
destroy lon^ cherlshei traditions, e.^;., Hellenism and Christianity, esta* 
bllshed institutions such as the Church, the monarchy, the Greek family, 
and Greek education, and ^^enerally would recast Greek society and culture 
alon^ non«Greek, non«»Christian and non«»Ue8tern lines. In 1967 the parallel 
of a Haoist«»type cultural revolution was often invoked by malcontents, »and 
a downri'^ht Communist take«»over was said to be imminent. Among the grounds 
for Justifying; both interventions was an alleged communist conspiracy by 
inside and outside forces. Therefore the military, always actin,'; in tthe 
best interests of the country, had to step in and Vsave the faation.' 



1-4 

The established re^.ltnes after the two coups embarked upon campalr'.ns of 
intimidation and terror. There was imprisonment of political leaders, of 
alle<Ted communists or 'lommunist sympathizers, of people who were friends of 
undesirables" or who were associated with reforms made previously (this was 
particularly true of the 1967 regime, which is still in power). There was 
dismantling of many enactments and measures by previous governments (again 
this was more intense after 1967). University professors and school-teachers 
were fired or forced to re8i«;n, and were told what to say and write. Censor- 
ship of the press and other media was strictly enforced and the regimes 
vowed to cleanse the Greek Ausean stables of moral decadence and political 
corruption. In turn Greece was to return to the purity' of its traditions. 
Thereby, it would follow logically the historic course which had its 
roots in the ancient and Byzantine periods and which was charted with the 
creation of an Independent state in the nineteenth century. The institution 
of monarchy was retained in both instances. Finally, neither the Metaxas 
nor the Papado'^oulos (the present) coups were followed by any substantial 
orf*anized opposition. Indeed, there was complete disintegration of any 
sort of liberal or even communist organizations or movements. 

Political instability and the emer-^ence of authoritarian regimes have 
been influenced and can partially be accounted for by the fragmentation, 
factionalism and splinterim that have been so prevalent in Greek political 
party structure since the early days of the state. Suffice to mention that 
since World Mar II no less than 95 parties emerged out of which only 13 
entered more than two electoral contests. One could say that all these 



2 One exception was the abortive counter coup by King Constantine in 
December 1967. But Its ephemeral collapse and tha unchallenged subsequent 
actions of the military government regarding the monarchy and other aspects 
of Greek institutional life have demonstrated the weakenss of the opposition. 



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splinter {[groups had at one time or other fallen under three major alif^nmenta: 

Rl.^ht (Conservative), Middle or Center (Liberal), and Left^which has always 

been the weakest in terms of representation. But frequent shifts from Risht 

to Center and Center to Ri^ht have occurred, often not because of new leader-* 

ship (political leadership in Greece except for the Left has retained an 

amasin^ constancy) but because of graft, sell-outs, dissatisfaction with 

existing leaders, and the like. 

The cycle of Greek political pathology (fracmentation and factionalism, 

in pobilisme , breakdown of parliamentary government, shifts in loyalty, frequent 

government chan«;e8, military coups, etc.) has been explained in terms of 

several factor s« Probin,"; into Greek culture, in the anthropological meaning ' 

of the term, some have seen in the structure of interpersonal relationships at 

the family, clan or village levels a po&sible explanation for the political 

behavior of the Greek. It has been noted that the Greek lamily has been 

and 

basically author iter ian,/^the interpersonal relationships, hierarchical. The 
role of each family member Is clearly specified; relationships are regulated 

by a series of loyalties which carry duties and obligations; and the individual 

3 

exists only in so far as he is a member of a family group. These cultural 
characteristics are said to obtain in larger social units, e.g., the clan 

tthe larger family), the village, and th^ eparchia (province). Loyalty to 
one*s family and family^clan (which also Includes cousins, aunts, uncles) is 
especially noticeable when it comes to questions of protecting or defending an 
individual who has been accused of wrongdoing by an outsider. Members of one's 

^ SecAa%iantla Pollls Koslln, ''The Megale Idea-- A study of Greek Natlona?-* 
llsm, Ph.D. dissertation. The Johns Hopkins Unlveislty, Baltimore, Maryland, 
195C, pp. 9£f. 1 am Indebted to this source for 'edit of the comments on the 
cultural aspects of Greek political behavior. * . . 



1-6 

sroup are always right and IC Is their duty to support others in the same 
4 

sroup. Such cultural attributes, which have been carried Into urban centers* 
have been used to Interpret politically relevant concepts. such as Individualism, 
autonomy and authority. Accordln.«5 to Adamantla P. Koslln, the Oreek Interpre- 
tation Is different from that ef the Western liberal democracies. She writes: 

The West Is characterized by a sense of Individual respon- 
sibility for behavior and Individual determination of :^roup member- 
shlo. The emphasis on Individualism, Individual dl'jalty and 
Individual choice, unencumbered by a priori group memberships 
and L^roup loyalties Is tdtally forel^.n to Greek society. Indivi- 
dual autonomy Is unknown... 

Obedience to any person or Institution, or adherence to any 
law outside the recognized system of group loyalties and r;roup 
memberships Is rejected. An Individual owes his alle:*lance to «ls 
family- clan and vlllar^e. His laws are the laws of these groups 
and Institutions. Government, le^al law, abstract Justice, all 
have little meaning and possess little reality for a Greek. ^ 

The circumscribed network of loyalties to lonedlate groups has fostered 
separateness, disunity, and fragmentation. The traditional emphasis on 
Individual loyalty to the family :^oup was tfter Independence tranr.lated Into 
personal ties toward political fl'^ures, whllo the bond that existed between 
peasant and landlord eyolvcd into a tie betwean voter and deputy once 
representative institutions were established.' According to Keith R. Legg: 
••implicit in these relationships is a quid pro quo arrangement: in the for- 
mer, the peasant provided service in return for protection; In the latter, 
he provides a vote in return for personal favors." ^ Such a cultural pattern. 



Ibid . . p. 12. 
' Ibid ., pp. 9, 21., Also see pp. 201f£. 

^ Keith a. Le?,",, * Political Recruitment and Political Crisis: The Case 
of Greece,'' Comparative Political Studies p. 529. 



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1-7 



which emphasises personal relations and poUticlan-voter ties based on the 

-vrantln*; o£ favors, cannot but undermine the establishment of a stable party 

system and the le'»ltlmacy of political Institutions and roles. Further, It 

undermines Internal national solidarity and the very lefjltlmacy lof government 

operations. Writing about the period 1910-1936, Ler;^ summarised as follows: 

Political participants. Cor the.anost part, remained rooted 
In sublect orientation. Favors were bestowed by Individuals; 
benefits were not occasioned by cltlsen status. The know- 
ledge that 'general regulations could be evaded through 
personal relationships further undermined loyalty to natlonnl 
symbols or obedience to national Institutions. . .Since Indl- 
vldxial favors were tied to the actions of specific leaders, 
there was a tendency to equate loyalty to Individuals with 
loyalty to the political system Itself. The legitimacy of 
the system— the operation of the state Institutions— depended 
upon the '^ood relations amonr; the members of the political 
elite. Questions of le'^itlmacy— questions about Government 
operations--were continually raised as leaders clashed over 
national identity, institutional forms, foreign aligbments, 
and above all, over control of the state machinery itself. 
In fact, from this third period, modern Greek history is 
replete with crises of le'^.itlmacy and ^.ntegration atemmin'', 
from personal conflict. The political system was challenged 
and upset, either through the clashes of major figures or 
throuTh domesti military pressures, y 

Another area that may help to understand better the Greek political 

culture and the many stresses of the political system is education, or paideia, 

to use a mere appropriate and inclusive term. A more detailed account of 

Greek education since independence and of the recent conflicts that have 

surrounded it is bein<> told in the chapters that follow. Viere we mi^ht 

point to a rather general Interpretation of Greek political behavior in 

the context of Greek paldela. 



By paldela we mean thu sum total of attitudes, values, norms, ideals 
and orientations, consciously espoused and articulated by the modern Greeks. 
The closest Enr;lioh translation would be ^^culture,' not in the anthropolor;ical 
Sw'Dsa. 




bid. . p. 550. 



Educational Perspectives 

The educational structure and institutions, the curriculum, the values 

and orelntatlons which were souf*ht through schools, as they emer-'.ed and were 

consolidated in the fifty years or so after Independence (until about 1C80), 

reflected a variety oc traditions and Influences. Chief anions them, Indeed 

the most dlstin'^uishing attributes of the emer'^ln'; Greek paidela , were the 

lilready mentioned Interrelated cultural strands, concepts, or ideolofjles, 

namely, classical Hellenism and Byzantine Orthodox Christianl':y. The Helleno-> 

Christian ideal, as it Is conmonly known, has continued to pervade Greek 

thinkin** about education and was even incorporated in the Constitution. 

Article 16 of the 1952 constitution, which was in force until the military 

coup of 1967, states: 

In all our elementary and secondary schools education 
should aim at the moral and intellectual training of youth -a 
and the development of their national consciousness 
accordin'': to the ldeolo?;lcal principles of the Helleno- 
Chrlstlan clvlllEatlon. 9 

More recently. Prime Minister Papadoj^poulos has often invoked the Helleno- 

Christian ideal as an actlvatin'^, force i:o resurrect Greece. According to 

him, the nation deviated from <:his ideal In the 1960's, it had lost Its 

moorin'^s and was driftin'; aimlessly headin,*; for catastrophe. In order to 

put the country on an even keel the He lleao- Christian values and norms had 

to be "restored . !7hat was needed was a return to basic principles and 

traditions. People's values, beliefs, .and attitudes had to be re-orlented 

by rediscoverin*^, the essence of Oreek paideia . In short, the country had to 

be resurrected by bein^ traditionally' re-educated. Papadopoulos characterised 

a Greek-Christian, the epitome of the educated ';reek, as: 



The New Constitutio n of Gr eece, (1952) , Article 16. 



lover of fatherland (complete self-sacrifice for its sake) 

lover of wisdom (philosopher) 

lover of lav, order, and freedom 

brave, proud, hospitable, and a lover of the 3^ 

temperate, magnanimous, charitable, etc. 

For our purposes here «l.at is important is how the Helleno- Christian ideal 
or the cluster of values under Hellenism and Christianity has found expression 
in educational forms and institutions and how it -has been interpreted or 
translated into action. When one probes into these questions one is led to 
conclude that from its formative period Greek pa ideia has been largeiy a 

closed' system entailing a set of interrelated and interlocking cultural and 
normative patterns. To put it differently, It has been monolithic" and 

totalitarian (in the sense of all-inclusive), it has been a "monoculture . 
Schools have tended to support and reinforce such a culture, and during periods 
of attempted change or moderniza'-.ion tho.'.e nurtured in the Helleno-Christian 
civilicatljn acted as reactionaiy forces in the interplay between conservative- 
traditional and liberal-modernist elements. 

DLilng the formative period of Greek national development and today 
the cluster of values under Hellenism entailed devotion to and love of 
fatherland, its preservation and protection from outside dangers. Patriotism 
and nationalism have been an integral part of Greek citizenship, and schools 
as well as churches and para-ecclesiastical organisations, studiously sought 
to provide them. But freedom, for example, invariably has meant freedom 
from external subjugation, by Turks, Italians, Germans and recently communists. 
It did not consider the threat or suppression of political and personal liberty 
by internal forces. It seems that in the fight for independence and national 
sovereignty freedom as a personal attribute stemming from a new view of 

George Papadopoulos, Our Creed (Athens: 1968), Vol. II, pp. 79 ff. 



I- 10 

self was lost. In Greek culture," a student of Gt tek politics has noted, 
individual responsibility has meaning only Within the context of fulfilling 
one's obligations and preserving one's loyalties," not responsibility for 
onaaelf to enibself.^^ In citisenship training in the schools the child is 
constantly reminded of his obligations and duties (love of country, obedience 
to laws, respect for religion and ancient monuments, military responsibili- 
ties), seldom, if at all, of his rights. 

Caa4>ounded with such a concept of freedom has been an "ethnocentric 
sonse of patriotism and nationalism also inculcated in schools. 

Another indication of the 'illiberal" way Hellenism has been communicated 
has been the demand for devotion and deference to the authority of classical 
Hellas. The ancients have always been presented as prototypes for emulation 
and the schools, intellectuals, and other institutions have sought to incul- 
cate attachment and veneration. As it is shown in Chapter III, in the mid- 
decades of the nineteenth century there was a strong entrenchment and 
institutionalization of Attic Hellas. 

One, of course, could argue that studying the ancients implied incul- 
cating values of the ancients such as elenchos'*, critical thinking' , 
*'Socratic dialogue , true philosophy and the like. These, however, have been 
conspicuously absent in the aocialisation of the modem Greek through the 
schoolb. 

XTie same inflexibility and "closedness" is to be found with respect to 
the cluster of values under 'Christian.' The Christian ethos, which was to 
be imbued in children, consisted of "devotion to the divine," the Orthodox 
Church, love of fatherland and its leader th« Vin^» obedience to the laws and 



Adamantla Pollia, "Political Implications of the Modern Greek Concept 
of Self, Irltiah Journal of Sociology (Mnrrh, 1965), p. 33. 



I-U 

principles of the land, and so on. Since the Second World War ^ para-ecclesias- 
tical organisation.!, such as (Life) saw to it that euch values were 
disseminated. Zoe established a network of operations that extended even to 
the remotest villages, and had organised a information-ring that impregnated 
every aspect of government, the military, the Court, the schools, the Univer- 
sities, and the local village coffee-shop. 

Given the cementing an** Institutional consolidation of the Helleno- 
Christian values. Liberals and quasi- liberals have always run against strong 
opposition when even modest efforts were made to change the schools or the 
curriculum. We discuss several such episodes in the .main body of this study, 
the most recent being the reforms enacted by the Centrist government of 
George Papandreou in 1964 (Chapter VI). But even the Liberals themselves 
have been placed in a quandary and confronted with an insoluble and paralyi 
ting dilemoa. Even a modictm of social reform was often construed as an 
attack against the nation and Its Helleno-Christian paideia . Greek liberals 
themselves (e.g., Venizelos and Papandreou) were nurtured in the values they 
sought to change. Often, once in power, they did not act differently from 
others. But more fundamentally, an attack against such values raised the 
psychological problem of an attack again -ft themselves. Hence at times of 
crisis, the usual defections form the party, the stalemates, the squabbles, 
and all the paraphernalia of political immo bilisme . 

Soc lo- Ecffloml c Pe rspe^'tives 
Greek national development and modernisation in no small part have been 
affected by the scarcity of human and natural resources, the absence of 
large-scale industry, and the general structure of the Greek economy and 
society. Since ancient times travellers and poets have eulogised ^on and 



o 

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1-12 

idealised the beauty and serentiy of the rugged Greek landscape, the blue 
seas and the azure skies, the bucolic life of th > villagers with their 
wooden ploughs and primitive threshing floors, the shepherds, the fishermen, 
and the peasant women spinning their distaffs or working on their looms. 
Such aspects of the Greek life and landscape may have Inspired romantic vi 
visitors but they have hardly contrlbut-d to the development of a strong 
economy. 

More than 75 per cent of the total area of the Greek peAinsula 
(51,246 square miles) It* covered by forests, mountains, eroded ravines, or Is 
barren. Arable land Is not plentiful (only about 26.4 per cent of the total 
surface Is .cultivated), and Is to be found mostly In the plains of Thessaly, 
Macedonia, and Thrace. The country Is not blessed with many natural resources 
it has no coal or oil deposits, only lignites. Its principal minerals are 
nuigneslum, carbonate, chrome ore. Iron pyrites, and bauxite (aluminum ore). 
Of these, baunlte and magnesltim are the most plentiful and In 1970 accounted 
for 67 per cent of the value of mineral and ore exports. 

Much of the country's subsistence has always depended on agriculture, 
forests, and fisheries. Agricultural .products Include wheat, barley-oats, 
sugar beet, alfalfa, vines, currants, tobacco, olives, and cotton. Accordlnt; 
to the government statistics for 1972, agriculture accounted for 17 per cent 
of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and yet engaged 41.7 per cent of the 
economically active population. (In 1965, agriculture provided 27 percent of 
CNP and supported 53 per cent of the total population). What has generally 
been recognized as a structural factorvhlnderlng rapid development In this 
sector Is the fragmentation of land holdings. This Is rendered more acute by 
the dowry system and the existence of traditional laws of Inheritance which 



1-13 

lead into further subdivision of farm land into small and scattered plots. 

Such fragmentation is taore prevalent In Crete vhece it has been estimated 

that it takes a Gretan farmer an average of ten minutes to walk to his nearest 

plot and ninety minutes to his farthest. Greece, according to Brian Dicks, 

12 

'has the lowest agricultural land per capita values in the Balkans.' 

Other factors limiting agricultural productivity have been soil aroaion, 
shorta;;e of water, poor and exhausted soil, low level of technology, and, in 
the words of a recent government document, the low educational 3vel 
(general and technical) of the Greek farmer. In 1965, only 14.5 per cent 
of the cultivated land was irrigated. This marked a substantial improvement 
compared to the 1958 ststistics (about 10.2 per cent). Even so, the water 
potential of the country is sufficient for only 45 per cent of the present 
cultivated area. Soil erosion has been partly perpetuated and intensified 
by the many goats and sheep that are allowed to grace freely on the land. 

All post-Second World War governments have recognised the problems of 
Greek agriculture and have sought to improve the overall agricultural autput, 
often linking this with improvements in education. Changes have been made 
in the institutional and organisational bases of farming (better use of 
fertilizers, modernisation of cooperatives and. methods of farming, programs 
of research and education, regional development schemes, etc.) and, despite 
the persistence of certain problems ^substantial improvements have been recorded. 
For example , output in wheat increased from 1,515,000 tons in 1968 to 1,969,000 
tons in 1972. Yet agriculture has gradually been losing ground to other 



^ Brian Dicks, The Greeks; How They Live and Work (Newton Abbot, Devon.*. 
David & Charles, 1972), P~. 96. * 

^^Center for Planning and EconAmic Research, Plan for the Long- Range 
Dev elopment of Greece (Athens: August, 1972), Part B, p. 24. 

^Sor the agricultural policy of the present government, see Ibid., 
^00. 23£f. 

ERIC 



I- 14 

sectors of the economy and its share in the formation of the Gross National 

Product (GNP) has been steadily declining compared to substantial increases 

in the industrial sector and in the services. 

Until recently Greek industrial development was rather negligible. 

Until 1930, the Greek economy was based predominantly on agriculture and 

commerce. Between 1911 and 1930 manufacturing contributed no more than 10 

per cent of the total national income, and it did not occupy more than 14 

per cent of the country's total labor force. Moreover, "industrial activity 

16 

was concentrated primarily in light confner good industries.' As late 
as 1954, food, beverages, tobacco, clothing and footwear accounted for 62.5 
per cent of the total manufacturing product. If one added wood products, 
furniture, chemicals and basic metal and metal working industries, the 
percentage would rise to 80.5. In 1961, the manufacturing industry contri- 
buted no more than 18 percent of GDP, compared to 30-35 per cent for such 
industrial nations as England, U.S.A., Belgium, Denmark and Italy, and . 
occupied only 13 per cent of the total labor force. And as regards the total 
value of the country's exports, manufactured goods contributed only 3.4 per 
cent in 1963, and 11.6 per cent in 1966. 

One of the reasons for the relative underdevelopment of Greek industry 
was its deficient structure. It was characterised by an inordinately large 
number of manufacturing units belonging to an equally large number of business 
firms. In 1958, for sxample, there were 109,236 units (including organised 
artisan workshops) belonging to 104,824 business firms. Added to this was 
another structural weakness, namely, that the major part of the manufacturing 



*5 Dicks, op.cit . . p. 98. 

George Coutsoumaris, The Morph olo>^y of Greek Industry (Athens: Center 
of Economic Research, 1963), p* 21. 

ERIC 



1-15 

activity was carried out by small-scaU eatablishments, in terms of persons em- 
ployed. In 1930, 93 per cent of the establishments employed up to 5 persons, a 
situation which by 1958 had rot substantially changed. (In that year the per- 
centage was still 85). 

A factor that has beer, found to contribute to industry's productive effic- 
iency is the composition of the labor force. In this connection, Coutsoumaris, 
in 1963, observed that "the educational level of the Greek manufacturing force 
is relatively low, even among major establishments," and that in certain industri- 
al groups there was a relatively high percentage of apprentices.^^ The same 
%»riter also noted that the majority of the firms used inferior methods of pro- 
duction and that "technological inefficiencies are omnipresent independently of 
firm sice. ' 

More so than in the case of agriculture, the past decade has witnessed con- 
siderable improvement and expansion in the industrial sector. Both quantitative 
and qualitative improvements have been noted. The average annual growth rate of 
industrial production during the 1958-72 period was 9.6 per cent; in 1971, in- 
dustrial output contributed 32.0 per cent of the Gross National Product; and In 
1971, industrial exports accounted for 42.2 per cent of the value of total ex- 
ports compared to 15 per cent in 1961. This was partly due to the construction 
of industrial complexes such as Esso-Pappas and F^chiney which have added new 
exports of alumintan, nickel, iron products and liquid fuel. Yet the great ma- 
jority of manufacturing units rsamain as small family businesses; and in 1971, 
still only 16 per cent of the economically active population was engaged in the 
"secondary sector." Even the rather optimistic government sources point to 
needed fundamental changes in the economic structure and in the development of 
human resources If the growth goals are to be iccomplished. 

17 Ibid ., p. 75. 
l^lbld., p. 308. 

ERIC 



I - ir. 

Edu catio nal I nplicatlons 

Since the 1950 's, fireeV povcrnnGnts hnve stresserl the sipniflcance of 
education for economic development and the ncei^ for educational chanp.e to 
boost industrial pronth and to help bring about the socio-economic transfomn- 
tion of thft courtry. The two major educational reform episodes— in 1959 under 
the Piphtlst (ERE) p,ovemnent of Constantine Karananles and in 1964-65 under 
the Centrist (EK) government of George Papandreou— sought, among other things, 
to expand educational opportunities, modernize the structure and content of 
the system, and strengthen technical and vocational education. It was believed 
that such changes would make the educational system more efficient and would 
provide the necessary skills and manpower for rapid industrialization and 
economic gro\*th. Similar views on the economic aspects of schooling wf.re 
expressed in reports by foreign exoerts (e.g., Lionel Elvin of the University 
of London Institute of Education), by the Committee on Education in 1957-58, 
and by the O.E.C.D. Mediterranean Regional Project (1965), in the writings 
of leading educational reformers (fe.g., E.P. Papanoutsos) , and in the plans 
for economic development. The most recent such plan (1972) noted that despite 
the growth of general and technical education in the last ten years (1961-1971) , 
the structure and quality of the Greek labor force lagged substantially behind 
that of developed countries. Among the several reasons for this phenomenon was 
the absence of vocational guidance and the fact that youth turned away from 
technical and vocational training. The plan, accordingly, called for 
(a) the modernization of the educational process and programs, (b) the extension 
of free education, (c) the coordination of vocational with general (humanistic) 
education, and (d) the channeling of students into technical and scientific 
branches. Priority, according to the plan, should given to the development 
of the 'human factor. "^^ 



l^pian for^the Lonp -Ra nge Development of Greece, op.cit. . pp. 90ff., 195, 



ERIC 



I - 17. 

The techno-economlc ramifications of schooling has been the most noticeable 
novelty In Greek educational thinking In the post-Second T^orld VJar years, and 
a more detailed discussion will be found In Chapters V and VI of this report. 
It will suffice to mention here that when the reformers, planners, and critics 
referred to the improvement of the educational system so that It would meet 
contemporary techno'^economlc needs or that economic development required changes 
In education, they Invariably stressed technical and vocational schooling. 
The argument has been that the demands of a growing economy require the applica- 
tion of technological skills and that such skills are best developed In formal 
technical and vocational Institutions. While the first part of this argument 
may be true, the second Is open to serious doubts. To answer this. Information 
is needed on a host of relevant questions: Are technical skills or competencies 
for Industrial growth Indeed developed in formal Institutional settings? Are 
the facilities and environment conducive to skill development better provided 
in schools or by Industry and by "on the Job training?'* To what extent is 
formal technical training accepted and actually utilized by employers? Would 
the people who go through technical schools actually seek careers based on their 
training? Would, for example, graduates of middle-level technical schools 
seek employment as middle-level technicians? Is the structure of Incentives 
(wages, conditions of work, prestige, etc.) such that technically trained 
individuals would be attracted to jobs commensurate with their training, or 
would they go to such schools because they were the only ones available within 
their reach, and once they finished they would seek another job that had no 
relation to what they wera trained for? What light does the past experience 
of Greece throw on thsse questions? None of the proposals, statements or plans 
addressed themselves to such questions of thA education-development problem. 
In all the plans global estimates of manpower requirements were made based 

ERIC 



on the questionable asaumptlon that achoola and Individuals are going to behave 
according to certain prescribed patterns. 

In addition, as noted earlier. It could be said that In Greece there Is 
a strong entrenchment of certain educational Institutions and patterns of thought 
which are not conducive to anticipated development wals. Modem Greek £aldela. 
as will be demonstrated later In thin report, has remained essentially 
••humanistic- In Its orientation, with major emphasis given to classical-literary 
studies. Technical and practical education has not received comparable attention 
and. despite references to the importance of the technological civilization. 
Greek Intellectuals, pedagogues and policy-makers have reacted violently against 
any efforts to curtail the classical-humanist Ic-llterary component of the cur- 
riculum. Classical humanism allied with Orthodox Christianity became entrenched 
m the University of Athens, which, through Its School of Philosophy has exerted 
a determining Influence In educational policy and practice. 

Social and Demographic Per spectives 
Observers and students of Greek society have often coimnented that there 
18 no hereditary aristocracy In Greece of the type encountered In other European 
countries, that many of the leaders In politics. Industry, conmierce. admlnlatra- 
tlon and the professions come from humble origins, and that the boundaries 
between social classes are relatively easy to cross. One Creek writer charac- 
terised Greek society as * continuous, integrated and dynamic." She wrote: 

Nobility is not recognised, and a slave is free upon 
entering the Greek borders. There are no problems 
racial and religious discrimination. There are no marked 
boundaries between proletariat and bourgeoisie nor between 
••masses" and "leader ship . '• The members of the government, 
parliament, public administration, the army, the --hurch. 
and the universities come from every social bracket and very 
often from poor and peasant families. As the country and her 
industry are young, the doors are opening, less in the upper 
brackets and more in the lower, but moving quickly enough to 
keep social unity by mobility. 20 



20K.0. Antonakakl, GreelLEduc^tlon^^ 
Structure. (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 195^), p. 109. 



ERIC 



I - 19. 

Alec P. Alexander, an American economist » who studied the background of Greek 
Industrialists, connented that Greece was free from feudal-aristocrat Ic survivals 
which have been found to Inhibit the growth of entrepreneurshlp In other 
countries. Instead, society In Greece "Is largely a blend of bourgeois and 
peasant element: s, there are no sharp lines of demarcation between classes and 
there Is a considerable degree of social mobility." He noted that the upper 
classes do i^.ot constitute a homogenous group iield together by "class origin, 
tradition or education," t^lle the line that separates the middle classes from 
the bulk of the urban population (e.g., white collar workers, small merchants 
and shopkeepers, craftsmen and skilled workers) Is "Indefinable." Referring 
to his study of Industrialists, Alexander t<rind that "the fathers of about 
40 per cent ...were of such 'lower' class origins as craftsmen, farmers or 
shopkeepers." Further, "one In five smong native bom Industrialists, was 
bom In a coraiunlty vlth a population of fewer than 2,000 Inhabitants," which 
mesnt that such communities were generally rural and very poor, and "a high 
proportion of Greek Industrialists Is self-made. 

Similar characteristics, e.g., absence of a hereditary aristocracy and 
class rigidities, and mobility, have been observed to exist In mral commuclLles 
as well.^^ 

These descriptions and characterisations are based for the most psrt on 

Impressions and anecdotal evidence. Sociological and anthropological reeearch 

In Greece has been rather scanty and the structure of Greek society Is a 

relatively unexplored subject. Based on equally Impressionistic and anecdotal 

observations one could dravf a somewhat different picture. 

" ... « ■ • 

^^Alexander, op.dt. , pp. 77-80. 

^^Sec, for example, Irwin T. Sanders, Rainbow In the Rock: The People 
of Rural Greece . (Cambrldgei Harvard University Press, 1962), pp. 280-281. 

ERIC 



t - 20. 

It is true that with the V/ar of Independence the granting of titles viae 
proscribed and any vestiges of Ottoman feudalism disappeared* The new Greek 
"aristocracy" in the emerging state consisted of prominent war heroes who had 
been granted land, a few merchants and ship owners, and government officials 
and administrators. In the course of the nineteenth century, and with the 
acquisition of new lands, a small "landed aristocracy" emerged. But the 
'bourgeois revolution* of 1909 (the Goudi) and the land reforms in the 1920* s 
put an end to any incipient Greek ''aristocracy," while successive military 
interventions had the unanticipated consequence of curtailing the growing .< - 
political and economic power of certain individuals and families. Nevertheless, 
as in most countries, a class structure ^as always existed in Greece, there 
have been wide economic gaps among occupational groups, great disparities have 
existed between the urban and rural populations, and with such gaps and dis- 
parities have gone educational inequality, power, prestige and exploitation. 
^±th the establishment of industrial complexes recently, one can even say that 
Greece has its "captains of industry.'' And one should not ignore the wealthy 
Greek shipping magnates. 

rural and 

The economic and cultural disparities between the^urban areas, particularly 
the greater Athens and the Salonica regions, have been subjects of frequent 
discussion and study by travelers, economic observers, and other writers. 
The greater Athens area alone, which includes about 29 per cent (2, SAO, 000 
in 1971) of the entire Greek population (8,769,000 in 1971), literally dominates 
the economic, political, cultural, and intellectual life of Freece* John 
raropbell and Philip Shcrrard observed that 'Greece is dominated, even paralysed, 
by the influence and attraction of its capital city, which is at once political, 
coiwwjrclal and demographic.**^^ In the early 1960*8, Athens dominated every 
branch of economic activity "not only in comparison to any one of the regions, 

^ ^^John Campbell and Philip Sherrard, Modern Greece (New York; Frederick 
ERXC' W68), p. 



I - 21. 

24 

but in relationship to the aggregate of all regions taken In sum.*' Comparing 

the standard of living In Athens and in village coinmunltles, Andreas Papandreou 

had this to say: 

The per capita incoi&e of Athens is probably 5 times 
the per caoita income of mountain coomunitles. Thus, 
while Athens enjoys a standard of living comparable, say, 
to that of Italy, the standard of living of mountain 
conmunitles closer to that of Asian countries. Such 
evidence ac ic available on personal distribution points 
to a highly skewed income distribution. 

Even with an annual economic grot^h rate of 6.3 per cent from the mid*1950*s 

into the 1960's, income Inequalities among regions and classes increased. 

According to Papandreou* 

....income inequality both in respect to regions and 
in respect to income classes increased. In a very real 
sense, the fruits of the economic growth went to the few. 
Athens became relatively richer, while the rest of Greece 
became relatively poorer— and this is especially true of 
the farmer whose lot, in some instances, worsened not only 
relatively but absolutely. 25 

Since the time Papandreou vrote, Salonlca grew to be a major Industrial 

center. Today Athens and Salonlca, whose population was 557,000 Inhabitants 

in 1970, virtually control all activities in Greece. 

Rural Greece Is quite different from the urban regions. Until quite 
recently (1951) the majority of the Greek population (about 58 per cent) 
lived in villages and towns of less than 5,000 Inhabitants, and about Af) per 
cent In villages of less than 2,000 Inhabitants. Even today, over 40 per cent 
of the population lives in small rural coomunlties. 

The poverty of some of the rural regions in the southern Peloponnese, 
in flpirus, and in some of the islands, e.g., in Crete, is proverbial. And 



24For details see Denny Stavros, "Educational Aspirations and Expectations 
of Fourth Year Students in Ten Greater Athens Gymnasia: A Study of the Relation- 
ship of Sodo-Economlc Ctatus and Several Intervening Variables to Projected 
Educational Attainments," Ph.D. Dissertation, Hayne State University, Detroit, 
Michigan, 1971, pp. 52ff. 



25Quoted from Stavros, op.cit. , p. 52. 



1-22 



80 arc the cultural charactcrlsClcs oi: vhat the urban duellers often 
dcrosatorlly refer as eparchtotes (prcvlnclels) or chorlotcs (vlllacers). 
The contrast betTTcen the style of life, the economic conditions, educa- 
tion, poller, etc., of ths Greek peasant and the dueller of the lOolonahi 
section in Athens is wel l-lcnam even to tourists. And contrary to 
coninonly-held vie\7s, a Creek villaoe, as Sanders writes, has a rich 
"social texture," a "status system," with the villacc notables, e.c., 

the coranunity president, the teacher, the doctor, and the priest, con- 

26 

stituting the "elite," and a class structure. 

Vlith regional, econoraic, and class disparities one also observes 
educational imbalances, a theme which is more fully developed later in 
this report. Compared to the ten major regions into which Greece is 
divided in the Census reports, the greater Athens region has the loi7- 
est rate of illiteracy (7.5 per cent in 1971, compared to about 27 per 
cent in Thrace and 14.2 per cent of the national total), and the 
highest proportion of people — 10 years of age and over v;ho completed 
secondary and higher education. Ac to socio-economic opportunities, 
25.9 per cent of students enrolled in higher educational institutions 
in 1969-70 cone from the professional, technical, managerial, executive, 
etc., and clerical occupational groups, which constituted about 13 per 
cent of the economically active male population. 



Sanders, 0^. Clt . , pp. 275-201. 

27 

Computed from: National Statistical Service of Greece, Results of the 
Population and Housinn Census . 1971. Sample Elaboration, Vol. 1, 
(Athens, 1973), 



ERIC 



II - 1 



CHAPTER II 

INDEPENDENCE, CONSOLIDATION OF THE GREEK STATE, AND EDUCATION 

The War of Indepeni'.>r:ce against the Ottomans in 1821-1829 signified 
note than Just a political event— the eutablishment of a separate and 
independent state— or a Greece for the Greeks, It also signified the 
"rebirth," "resurrection," "revival," or "rejuvenation" of the Greek 
nation and culture vhich wore traced to ancient Hellas and tnedieval 
Byzantium, and whose continuity was interrupted by the Ottoman conquerors. 
Modernity in the new state^ therefore, in large part connoired the revival 
of older cultural values, attitudes, and states of mind, particularly in 
education. 

The character of the Greek cultural revival, which gave lopatus to 
the revolutionary movement and colored the post-independence period, 
reflected a concatenation of internal and external influences. In the 
course of Ottoman rule (1453-1821) Greek culture was predominantly 
defined in terms of the Orthodox Christian values, and was marked by 
skepticism, if not outright hostility, to Western European currents of 
thought. Beginning with approximately the mid-eighteenth century, certain 
socio-economic, political, and intellectual factors in Greece proper and 
in Europe, challenged the relatively "static" condition of the Orthodox 
Creeks and fostered what has been called a "Neo-hellenlc Enlightenment." 
This was a blend of Orthodox Christianity, a reconstructed classical 
hellenitm, and European Enlightenment, and the French revolutionary ideology. 
Any analysis of Greek modemication oust begin with an examination of this 
pre-revolutlonary cultural revival. 



ERIC 



11-2 



The Challenge of Hodernity : Neo-Hellfttiic Enlifthtenment and Revival 
Alfred North Uhltehead has renatked that "in the eighteenth century 
France carried the 'White Man'a Burden* of Intellectual advance.**^ Among 
the outside influences on the content of the Greek national renaissance 
that of France was the taost pervasive and far-reaching. The "agentn" of 
the France-Greek contacts were Greek emigres residing in France, merchants 
and travellers of both societies, and Greek intelligentsia (Phanariotes 
and higher clergy) in Constsntinople and other territories of the Ottoman 
Empire, and French intellectuals. 

The FravV.s, being unable to penetrate the East by direct attack in 
earlier periods, sought an "Ideological infiltration" into the more advanced 
Ottoman connunlties. The French "ideologie" contained the.()rinclple8* . 
of liberty, virtue, patriotism, and love of fatherland, and attacks on 
tyranny, despotism and the suppression of man. The Ottoman vas the epitome 
of misrule and tyranny. But related to the broader "ideologie" was the 
French revival of a romantic classicism, which was potent among tho Groekji. 
Particularly in the hands of translators, the ideas of justice, liberty, 
partiotism, and the like were often interwoven with classical Greek 
parallels. For example, Frenchmen and Greeks singled out such writings 
as Fenelon's Les Aventures de Telemague and Barthelemy's Anacharsis to 
bolster their ideology of justice, liberty, and tyranny, and to arouse Greek 
feeling of identity with the classical "ancestors," as well as ^. sense of 
cultural and ethnic continuity. Translations of French works were made 
mostly by Greek liberal intellectuals. But they were supported acd often 

^ A. A. Whitehead, Adventures of Ideas (London: 1948), pp. 40-41. 



ERIC 



11 - 3 



spearheaded by the French themselves. The French, In^additlnn, donated 
Greek printing presses and French bnoks. 

Intimately connected with the French Intellectual donors, were 
Greeks who were completely absorbed by the French spirit o£ the Enlighten- 
ment, the French revolutionary ideology, and the French-colored romantic 
hellenism. Two outstanding examples of Greek intellectuals residing 
abroad were Adamantios Koraes and Rhigas Fheraios. Koraes was in the best 
tradition of the French "phllosophes" : rabidly democratic ("like his an- 
cestors,'* as he himself said), a passionate devotee of the power of 
education and the written word, and a great believer in progress and the 
perfectibility of man. Like the French romanticists, Koraes sought to 
create a sense of cultural continuity and national identity among the Greeks. 
He reminded the Greeks that they were heirs to the illustrious ancients, 
extolled them to recapture the spirit of their forefathers, and urged them 
to overihrow tyranny and establish a inodem stat^ similar to the Republiiiue 
Fran<^ise. In his many writings, French and Greek, he constantly talked 
about ttie "renascence of the nation." This he sought to inspire through 
ttie purification and elevation of the Greek language as a connon vehicle 
of communication and as a co«inecting link between ancient and modem 
Greek. He edited classical Greek texts with "didactic" introductions in 
which he urged the Greeks to pay more attention to education 'and language; 
and he sent books, mostly French, to 'all parts of the Greek world. 

Fheraios, who lived in Vienna, was more of a revolutionary activist. 
He translated French writers; and penned tte fi£ery and revolutionary 
"Mar Song," paraphrased by Lord Byron as "Sons of Greece Arise." This 
Gr 4k version of the "Marseillaise" and other patriotic songs by Fheraios 



ERIC 



ir. - 4 



were snuggltd into Greece end beeene heutehold songs. But Pheralos else 
organised or pertlclpeted In revolutionary cells whose aim vas to overthrow 
Ottecnan rule. He died violently in the hands of the Turks in Belgrade in 
ITVb. 

The intellectual and revolutionary activities of overseas Greeks were 
not limited to France or to Greeks directly influeuced by the French. One 
such example was John Kapodistrias who later became the first Gor emor of 
independent Greete. Kapodistrias was a diplomat and an educational statesman. 
Bom on the Ionian islfnd of Corfu, he rose to high position— foreign 
minister^-in the service of Czar Alexander of Russia. During his diplomatic 
missions and after, he travelled extensively in European capitals. Before 
becoming the head of the new Greek state, he served as Secretary of the 
Ionian short-lived Septlnsular Republic and as General Director of Schools. 
He was instrumental in the establishment of the Association of the Lovers 
of the Muses in 1813. The purpose of this organisation, whose members 
included eminent Greeks and Fhilhellenes from all over Europe, was the 
promotion of the "sciences," particularly of Greek philology and literature, 
the publication of ancient Greek texts, and the support of promising but 
poor Cveek youths for higher studies in Greece aid abroad. Although 
ostensibly an Intellectual enterprise performing the functions of an 
institution of higher learning, the Association was clearly part of the 
general movement of national enlightenment ultimately leading toward 
national independence. 

In line with the general tenor of the times, Kapodistrias placed high 
value upon education as an instrument of moral and political uplifting 
and progress. "The spread of education and the acquisition of freedom," 



ERIC 



11-5 



accovdltig. to his biographer, "conotitutie for Kapodistrias two coextensive I *- 
2 

meanings." Kapodistrias was also impressed by the ideas and methods •t 
Pestalossi as developed by de Fellenberg in Switzerland, and by the 
monitorial system instruction of Joseph Lancaster, which he introduc^f) 
into the Ionian Islands and later into free Greece. 

Finally, Kapodistrias* conception of educational values is particularly 
relevant in view of his role in the bmilding of the new nation* For 
Kapodistrias education'-nnd religion were inseparable, a..viaw which he 
sought to implement when he assumed the reijns of government. One indication 
of this was that the newly created Ministry of Public Education included 
the administratioi^of religious affairs as well. During the War of 
Independence the position of the Church had considerably diminished; and 
both Roraes and Pheralos were not particularly impressed by the previous 
record of the Church, nor by its liberalism or intellectual vitality. In 
contrast, Kapodistrias sought to restore its position. iPundamentally he 
believed fhat good education must be based on the ethical principles and 
spiritual values of Christianity. Hence he labored to improve the education 
of priests and to put within the reach of every person "the book of prayer 
called the Synopsis, modifying it in such a way that everyone, in praying 
to God, knows and understands what he is saying, and in that way he will 
also become accustomed to read and speak his native tongue correctly."'' 

The introduction of such outside elements into Greece was facilitated 
by several Iccal circumstances. In the first place, it was quite clear that 
Ottoman power over the Greek provinces was considerably weakened, particularly 

2 Helen E. Koukkos, Ho Kapodistrias kai \A Paideia . 1803-1822, (Athens, 
1958), p. 32. 

^ Quoted from William Kaldis, ^ohn Kapodistrias and the Modem Greek 
State . fti.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin, 1959, p.'^7S. 

ERIC 



II-6 

In the Peloponnese and Eplrus. Close vi<>ilance over what was openly broufi(ht 
In or amu'>Bl«<l was difficult to maintain. The sultans were harrassed both 
by the European powers, especially Russia, by powerful provincial Bovernors, 
and by local insurrectionist plots. Secondly, the socio-economic picture 
of Greeee underwent a noticeable transformation. Villages , cities, and 
ports witnessed an unprecedented economic and commercial vitality* Villa?«es 
in Thessaly (e.;.^ Ambelakia), and in the Volos and Za<>ori regions prospered 
in local manufacturing, and became commercial thoroughfares between Greece 
and Germany, Venice, Constantinople, and even Moscow* The volume of 
shipping in Salonika and the islands of Hydra and Spetsai increased 
considerably. After the French Revolution, the Greek merchant marine 
became the commercial carriers of most shipping in the Eastern Mediterranean 
and the Black Sea. 

The internal weakenin^^ of the administration and the rise of commercial 
activity affected the traditional socio-economic structure of the Greek 
ethnic community (the Greek Orthodox millet). The clerical hierarchy around 
the Patriarch and the Fhanariote aristocracy continued to occupy a hi^h 
position ivi the general social and power structure. But a new *'middle** 
class of prosperous and cosmopolitan merchants was taking shape. Some of 
these people were no lon<;er satisfied with the traditional type of instruction 
in <;rammar, rhetoric, and do^ma provided xi most of the ^ocal schools « 

A third propitious factor in this interchange between Greece and 
Western Europe was a marked increase in the number of schools, particularly 
in the economically and comer cially active cities, towns, and villafjes* 
This ' educational awakening** was evident on the Greek mainland, Constantinople, 
Anatolia and other Ottoman territories, as well as in Greek communities. 



ERIC 



11 - 7 



' The' intelligentsia were all caught in 

the spirit of post-revolutionary France and the romantic hellenism discussed 

above. Many Greeks began learning French, especially in the academies of 

the Danubian principalities, of Jaanlna, Constantinople, Kydonies, and 

Athens; and there were translations of foreign books (particularly French), 

most of which were of a revolutionary nature. It is interesting to point out 

that among the foreign books translated there were books on physics, chWstry, 

mathematics, and astronomy as well. Greeks also subscribed to many foreign 

journals. A devotion to hellenism accompanied such intellectual revival. 

Ancient Greek names were bestowed on children at their christening and tit 

newly launched ships; students at Kydonies stopped using the "romaic" 

language, and spoke ancient Greek instead; and when Napoleon landed 

Corfu, the local bishop presented him with a copy of Homer's Odp^y as a 

4 

reminder of the mythical ancebtry of the people. 

Tlie reception of ideas from the outside was not, hwever, of a uniform 
nature. And here is where the position of tl^TJhurch aid the traditional 
aristocracy was important. Since the famous schism of 1034, the Greek 
Church nurtured an antipathy toward the "heretical" West, and as late as 
1815, there were references to "those Frankish dogs." The liberalism of 
the French Revolution was not particularly welcomed by the Church, as 
exemplified by the appointment of Gregory V, a known anti-Westerner, as 
patriarch in 1797. In his "Patrike Didaskalia" Gregory argued that the 

4 For many of the details on the romantic neo-hellanism, I am indebted 
to the excellent study by S. A. Sophroniou, French Inflaence on Greek Poetry 
in 1857-1912 . Master's Thesis, University of London, 1957. 



ERIC 



II - 8 



new Idea of liberty vas the work of the devil. Yet even the official 
position of the Church, let alone that of Individuals anong the higher 
clergy, was not always consistently reactionary. While maintaining that 
It was harmful to read and translate Western religious, liberal, and 
philosophical tracts, or even the works of the classical pagans, they 
tolerated Voltaire, and accepted Buffon*s bock on botany as well as trans- 
lations of Plato. More often than no;., however, the Church was conservative. 
Indeed the Patriarch later renounced the revolution, although this did not 
save him from the Turkish wrath. Despite ambivalences, the Phanarlote 
aristocracy In the cuter regions of the Ottoman Empire were among the first 
agents In the cultural communication between the Greeks and the West, and 
the consequent Greek revival. Many of the centers of Greek learning were 
n the outskirts of Greece proper (the Danublan principalities. In particular) 
ite the Phanarlote princes were supreme. Some of the first Greek printing' 
sses were established at lassy and Bucharest, and the first Greco-Franco- 
'.an dictionary was compiled at the Instigation of the Phanarlote Prince 
Ai.exander Mavrogordatos. Liberal Greek Intellectuals took refuge In the 
courts of the Phanarlote princes. The Phanarlote aristocrats In Constantinople 
reflected the Inconsistent position of the hierarchy of the partlarchate. 
Some of them, In fact, were urging the patriarch to excommunicate the 
leaders of the secret revolutionary society known as Phlllke Hetalrela . 

In broad outline, such was the nature and scope of the neo-hellenlc 
social and cultural awakening in the half-century or so preceding the 
decisive event of the Greek Revolution. Underlying the Inconsistencies, 
paradoxes, and conflicts of this national rejuvenation there appeared to 
be consensus on one major objective: independence from the Ottomans. The 



ERIC 



II - 9 



movement for independence was further reinforced by the power scramble among 
the major powers. In the face of Ottoman decay and the possible disinte- 
gration of the Empire, Russia, in particular, wanted to have the llon*s 
share of the spoils. National Independence movements were aided and 
abetted, and Russia assumed tie protector's role of the downtrodden Greek 
correllglonlsts. She provided refuge for Greek etnlgres; It was through 
Catherine the Great's encouragement and military support that the first 
abortive uprising of 1770 took place; and It was In Odessa that the 
effective yecret revolutionary society—the Phil ike Hetalrela — was first 
organized In 1841. The first signal for a national resurrection came 
from Prince Ypsllantl, another of the "northern" princes. More successful, 
however, was the uprising In the Morea In the South. 

Independence and Kapodlstrlas 
The call for Independence was sounded In 1821 and the revolutionary 
war lasted until 1829. In the meantime, while the war was being waged, a po- 
litical pattern began to emerge, which was Influenced by the Involvement 
of the major European powers. Simply stated, a power struggle revolved 
around three major groups: Francophiles, Anglophiles, and Russophlles. 
Each of these groups drew support from the several elite and middle strata 
of the society. The English "party" headed by Alexander Mavrocordatos was 
supported by the Greek shipowners; the "Friends of France," led by John Kolettls, 
represented the Interests of the "upper middle" strata and the various 
chieftains of the revolution; and the chief supporters of the Russian "party" 
Included large estate holders, partlclan families, and the Church. Two of 
the most prominent leaders of this "party" were Theodore Kolokoatronis , the 
revolutionary leader, and Andreas Metaxas. 



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II - 10 



The Third National Assembly of 1827 elected John Kapodlstrlas as the 
flrat governor of Greece, thus temporarily at least, giving the Russophlles 
the upper hand. The first government of free Greece, therefore, took the 
shape of a republic; and, paradoxically, it was supported by people who 
admired the Imperial court of Russia* 

As noted earlier in this chapter, Kapodlstrlas had an abiding faith 

In the value of education and was quite well-acquainted with contemporary 

pedagogical movements. Specifically he eiqihaslzed the spread of basic 

elementary schooling, and within a few months after his landing at Nauplion, 

over twenty primary schools were added to the existing ones. Kapodlstrlas 

must also be credited with the Introduction into the Greek state system of 

the Lancasterian method 6i Instruction, a feature that continued well into 

tfie nineteenth century. His purpose was ultimately to establish elementary 

schools in every province and village. As to more advanced Instruction, his 

avowed policy was stated as follows: 

When this basis for national regeneration has been solidly 
established, the govertaent, without delay, will Institute central 
schools in the different provinces of the nation, where pupils leaving 
the schools of mutual Instruction can receive a higher education 
In the letters, sciences, and the arts. 5 

Kapodlstrlas' conception of the rature of education, particularly its 
relation to religion, was discussed earlier. It should be added that the 
curriculum of the primary schools and the few existing "Greek schools" 
Included reading, writing, arithmetic, religion, modem Greek, ancient 
Grec ancient history, geometry and Geography. French, Italian, English 
and Latin were taught in some schools, while more advanced students were 
also exposed to physics, metaphysics, and chemistry. 

^ Kaldls, op. cit ., p. 173. 



n - u 



Kapodistrlas* administration did not lust lo' and thus It Is difficult 
to say more as to vhether he vould have translated his alms and Intentions 
Into practice.^ While he was still In power the Congress of Vienna decided 
to Install a radically different form of government, a monarchy. This 
course was supported by both the Francophiles and the Anglophiles. After 
searching for a monarch In the courts of Europe the lot fell on young Otto 
of Bavaria. Kapodistrlas was assassinated in 1831, and In 1833 Otto, still 
under age> landed In Greece. Thus another external factor, the German, 
entered Greek national development. For all practical purposes the story of 
modem Greece as a nation-state begins with the monarchy of Otto established ^ 
at this tine. Significantly also, during the half century or so after 1833, 
the structuire of modem Greek Institutions ms well as the modern cultural 
outlook of the Greeks In lArge part was consolidated. 

Institutional Consolidation 

The Monarchy 

Perhaps the most Important aspect of the Institutional structure of 
the new state was the monarchy. The powers assumed by the king were enormous; 
and until 1843, Otto, advised mainly by Bavarians and supported by Bavarian 
troops^ ruled absolutely. A power struggle between the Bavarians and Greeks 
resulted In the victory of the latter, and In 1843 Otto was forced to accept 

S Kapodistrlas* administration, as well as his role In education, continue 
to be a subject of Intense controversy. George Flnlay, the most famous 
historian of modem Greece Is devastatlngly critical. See George Flnlay, 
A'Hlstorv of Greece; From Its Conquest by the Romans to the Present Time . 
B.C. 146 to A.D. 1864 (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1877), Vol. VII, 
pp. 48-49. A recent Greek . 'Student of the 'Governor Is qiore complimentitty. 
See Helen E. Koukkos, Joannes Kapodistrlas ; Ho AnthrSpos— Ho Agdnlstee 
(Athenf, 1962), p. 52. 



ERIC 



II - 12 



a constitution. By then most Bavarian advisers and administrators had le£t» 
except for a few servants personally belonging to the King. But conflicts 
continued and in 1862 King Otto was dethroned and forced into exile. Volun- 
tarily this time, the Greek leaders opted for the continuation of the 
monarchical form of government, and accepted as their new king another 
foreign prince, George of the House of Glucksburg. A new constitution was 
soon ratified. But for a republican interregnum in the 1920*8 and 1930*s, 
the government of Greece since then has remained a constitutional monarchy. 

The "Georgian Constitution" continued to grant the King considerable 
power: he was declared "irresponsible;** he could appoint and dismiss his 
ministers, and all officers and officials; and he could suspend or prorogue 
Parliament. Such powers were indeed exercised by King George on several 
occasions: for example, in 1866 when Parliament was promptly dissolved, 
and in 1892, when the king dismissed M. Deliyiannis, whom, according to 
a foreign source, he found "obstinate in his financial dilatoriness.'*^ 

From the orientation of this study it is inportant '.to point out that 
within a few decades of its existence, the monarchy consolidated itself. It 
was invested not only with considerable constitutional power but it emerged 
as a major regulator of political life and an arbiter of national culture. 
Otto's foreign extraction and the fact that he was a Roman Catholic in an 
essentially Greek Orthodox state were a source of friction and criticism. 
But this was more than offset by a broader acceptance that the King 
represented tie new state, provided stability, and acted in its best 
interests. Influential families, particularly those Fhanariotes who 

7 R.A.H. Bickford-Smith, Greece Under King George (London: Richard Bentley 
and Son, 1893), p. 263. 



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11 - 13 



emigrated from Constantinople to Athens, lent support to the monarchy; 
these and others sought royal favor. Under a sort of spoils system the 
king vas able to dispense favors to potential supporters or withdraw them to 
«ny • that posed a threat. Syibbollcally and In actual practice the king 
and queen were the patrons of the arts and of several literary and social 
welfare societies. Although still a controversial question, many ascribe the 
foundation of the University of Athens— at the time called the Othonlan 
University— to Otto's Initiative. Not least among the factors which helped 
In the rooting of the monarchy on the Greek soil In these crucial early 
years, was Otto's forceful, active, "Intriguing," and personally striking 
queen, Amelia. 

The position of the monarchy was directly or tacitly strengthened by 
the nature of recruitment Into the civil bureaucracy, by a precarious system 
of political office-holding, by the Church, and by the attitude which 
the Greeks were already displaying toward political leaders. Recruit- 
ment Into the various levels of the bureaucracy rested on a "spoils system? 
•sinister s made clean sweeps of subordinates at every change of government. 
The position of the ministers themselves rested largely with the king. 
Moreover, they did everything to maintain themselves In power. A contenporrry 
observer sumnarlsed the whole matter as follows: 

Every minister Is ready to do anything for the sake of keeping 
his place... They know that their position Is precarious, that no 
ministry had lasted. ..They only think, therefore, of keeping In their 
places, and of making the best of their temporary tenure of State 
affairs... the king never finds any resistance either In his ministers 
or In any of the other officials. All feel themselves to be either In 
fault, or at least Incapable; they know that their fortune holds by 
a thread, and that even If they had more talent and honesty, the 
111-huoor of the King, or the caprice of the Queen, might overthrow 



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11 - 14 



them: experience has taught them that the only virtue prized at 
Court la obedience; and they obey.*' 

Religion and the Church 

The outstanding characteristic of the new posir^nvv of the Oreek church 
was its virtual independence from the patriarchate of Constantinople and 
its establishment as a state church. Henceforth it was centrally administered 
by a five-member holy synod. The relationship between king and church was 
underscored by the royal prerogative to name a royal connissicner to the synod, 
who acted as a sort of supervisor of the ecclesiastical affairs and always 
countersigned ecclesiastical acts and decisions. The oath taken by the mem- 
bers of the synod illustrates the close relationship between church and crownt 

Majesty, upon the sacred character with which we are Invested, 
we certify that, ever faithful to your Majesty, our king and our 
master, submissive to the constitution and the laws of the country, 
we will not cease to apply all our efforts to accomplish, with the 
aid of God, our duty in the administration of the Church, preserving 
Intact, like all the other orthodox churches of Christ, the holy 
apostolical and synodlcal canons, as well as the holy traditions. 
As witness of this oath, we invoke the All-powerful. May He grant 
to your Majesty long days and perfect health, maintain your kingdom 
unshaken, render it prosperous, aggrandise it, and fortify it for 
all ages.^ 

By constlttAtional provision. Orthodoxy was established a? the state 
religion, and proselytism was forbidden. At the same time, however, other 
recognised religions were "tolerated." This alluded mainly to Moslems, 
Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Jews, all of whom were not considered to 
be ethnically Greeks. Greeks were almost entirely Christian Orthodo;c and 
constituted by far the largest ethnic group in the country. 

B Edmond About (Francois Valentin), Greece and the Greeks of the Present 

Day (Edinburgh: Thomas Constable & Co., 1855), pp. 150-151. 

^ Quoted in About, op. dt .. p. 184. 



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11 - 15 



As expected^ the Introduction of a ••ley" governmental structure 
(monarchy, parliament » etc«) restricted the previous political authority of 
the Church. Further, the re-organization of the school system (discussed 
below), considerably restricted the power of the church over a vital social 
and cultural activity. But religion as a body of doctrines and beliefs, 
and as an organised social institution— the Church— continued to be a most 
vital element in the new nation-state. Priests, bishops, and archbishopd, 
were generally held In reverence, particularly among the ordinary folk. 
In the ordinary village the priest was the unofficial community head, while 
the bishops were the unofficial heads of the areas in their sees. Priestly 
power was enmeshed in superstition and folklore. Among the God-fearing 
peasant folk a priest's prayer was believed to cure the sick, avert 
epidemics, and terminate draughts.^^ Moreover, local priests or bishops were 
by law included in provincial or municipal bodies. 

Religion and the Church were particularly important in the field of 
education and the general cultural orientation of the people. Religious 
instruction and other religious exercises (for example, church attendance 
on Sundays and holidays) were compulsory for all school children. Religious 
"toleration** as a constitutional principle was considerably circumscribed 
by the prohibition of proselytlsm and by reactions against foreign 
missionary schools* The role of the church had even wider ramifications. 
Although not directly involved in the formulation of social policy, the 
Church provided ideological and cultural support for the evolving institutions 

10 

See, for example, the account by J. Theodore Bent, The Cyclades or 
Life Among the Insular Greeks (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1885), p. 72. 



ERIC 



II - 16 



and policy orientations. The Church did not relinquish its traditional 
function of articulating and guarding the cultural ethos of the nation, 
or the ideals, values, and aspirations of the common Greek. It was the 
Bishop of Patras that signalled the uprising in fhA Morea in 1821; and 
priests fought in the Revolution literally with guns and figuratively with 
icons and prayers. The ideology of an expanded Greek State — the Grand Idea 
— which pervaded Greek national life down to the first decades of the 
twentieth century, was In part fanned by many clergymen who continued to look 
toward Russian help to reestablish the older Christian Byzantine Empire. 
To the Church, faith ( pistis ). nationalism (ethnikismos) , Hellenism 
(Hellenisfflos ) , and education ( paideia) were inextricably interwined. In 
the langijage policy (to bt discussed below) the Church supported the purists . 
a policy generally favored by the Crown and the more "conservative" elements 
of the society. Western intellectual currents continued to be held suspect, 
as was too much of secular learning. "Young priests," a visitor was once 
told by a Greek monk, "rarely go to the University to study. There are 
schools at Nauplia and some ether places where they can obtain quite as much 
learning as they will need, and it Is found advisable to give them no more. 
Philosophy atheises them; and by the time they have completed their academic 
course, they are but too ready to abandon tha sacred office. "^^ 

• 

Aspects of Scciety and Culture 
In certain respects the revolution had a tnajcr impact upon the social 
organization of the new nation and the cultural outlook of the people* In 
others I it solidified what was already emerging during the pre-revolutlonary 
period • 

rr Henry M. Baird, Modem Greece; A Narrative of a Residence and Travels 

in That Country (New Yorkl Harper & Brothers, 1856), pp. 218*2ia 

ERIC 



II - 17 

Slavery and the bestowal o£ aristocratic titles were declared illegal, 
while the principle of equality in a generic sense was readily promulgated.. 
Some foreign observers acclaimed the "democratic idea" of the new Greeks 
and the absence of an "aristPcracy." Writing at the close of the nine- 
teenth century, Bick ford -Smith, an Englishman, eulogized; 

As the tourist ride& about the interior, he is surprised 
perhaps at the Innocent consnunisri of his muleteer, who, rafter 
drinking, passes his master the cup; who, unless restrained, 
will sleep in the same room as his lordos (milord), but is 
somewhat reccneiled when he discovers that his servant (at a 
shilling or two a day) Is a briefless barrister, or a 
politician out of work. Neither In public nor in private is 
heed paid to social standing; the democratic idea, which 
permeates Greek life from Court to court. Is perfectly sincere; 
exclusiveness there means unsociability. A Greek Is quite as 
willing to extend his acquaintance downwards as upwards; In 
fact, tn him generally up and down simply mean money, and the 
absence of it.^-^ 

Cltarly the author was contrasting Greece with contemporary England with 
its hereditary aristocracy and Its rigid class system. Greek society was 
not entirely similar to the English, but clear social divisions, neverthe- 
less, existed. At the very top was the Court, and those who assembled around 
it. Among these, there were several Phanariote families which established 
themselves in Athens after the Revolution. A description of some of the 
characteristics of these "aristocrats" is quite revealing: 

...[they] dreos in the Frfach fashions, and ride on English 
saddles. They speak a purified Greek; they knew French, and 
often other languages; they resemble other European nations; 
their wives are ladies, who get their gowns from Paris. 

High in the social heirarchy were also Included some of the heroes of inde- 
pendence (for example, Kanaris, Karalskakis, Miaoules, and Botsare's), members 
of old "noble families" of Austrian, Venetian, or Serbian origin, those who 

12 Bickford-Smith, op. cit .. pp. 289-290. 
13 

About, op. cit .. pp. 29-30. 



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II -:I8- 



had "struck oil In one shape or another,' and an emerging group of professional 
"legislators** or politicians* 

At the lowest rung of the social ladder, there were the peas.int :!arniers 
and workers of various sorts, who constituted over 80 per cent of the entire 
population. In their mode of earning a livelihood and In their cultural 
attributes the peasant population remained essentially the same as before, 
tied oo a folk religion, and a patriarchal authoritarian folk Culture. But 
It was from this group that some of the revolutionary flghteri emerged and 
these formed a separate group In the growing Athenian society. Unlike the 

elites described above, the so-called **pallkaria" adhered to local and 

14 

predominantly '*orlental*' habits of thinking and living. 

In between these extreme?, there were civil servants, skilled workers, 
shop-keepers, and traders, "large** landholders, the bulk of the clergy, 
lawyers, doctors and teachers. 

A classification of the population according to occupation in 1840 shows 

the following distribution: Of a total of about 25,000 economically active 

people, about half were shepherds or workers In agriculture, and 20 per cent, 

•*siflall lend owners;** about 5 per cent (12,196) were listed as shop keepers 

and 2.7 per cent (6,090) as wholesale traders; abcut 7 per cent (15,347) 

were **mechanlcs** , and 8 per cent sailors and soldiers. The rest Included 

1,391 civil servants, 110 lawyers, 208 doctors, 276 merchants and bankers 

and 2,755 **largft land proprietors.** Interestingly, in 1838 there were 4,645 

15 

priests and monks and only 358 teachers. 



14 

Ibid . 

15 

F. Strong, Greece as a Kingdom , 



ERIC 



11 - 19 



By 1870 the population of Greece had increased from 856,470 to 1,325,479 
inhabitants. However, it continued to be overwhelmingly rural and agri- 
cultural: eighty-six per cent were listed as farmers and "farmers and 
shepherds." Industrie;! continued to be in their infancy. They were 

limited largely to domestic manufactures (fabrics, manufacture of silk, etc.). 

16 

In 1867, "there were 22 factories employing steam power, and about 9 per 
cent of the total labor force was engaged in "industries." Teachers had 
increased to 1,613, doctors to 797, while the civil service had soared to 
5,343, and priests to 6,649,^^ perhaps the largest ratio relative to 
population in the whole of Europe. 

Nationalism 

The Greek V7ar of Independence is quite rightly viewed in the context of 

the nationalist moventents of the period following the French revolution. A 

dominating characteristic of such nationalism was political independence 

from an outside power and an intense feeling of patriotism and freedom. The 

political culture of post-independence Greece displayed these characteristics. 

Edmond About 's observation was quite typical of contemporary accounts. "I 

have recognized in the Greeks," he wrote, "two political virtues— the love 

of freedom, and the feeling of equality; a third oust be added— that of 
18 

patriotism." '*Ihe characteristic of the Greek that struck me most," 
16 

A. R. Rengabe, Greece: Her Progress otwl Present Conditio n (New York: 
G. P. Putnam & Son, 1867), pp. 49-50. 
17 

Greece, Tmema Demosias Oikonomias, Statistike teis Hellados . 1870, 

p. 2). 
18 

About, op. clt . . p. 42. 



ERIC 



II - 20 



echoed Armstrong In 1893» *W8 hlo Intense patriotism**' But what 

precisely was the nature or content of the Greek conception of freedom and 

of Greek patriotism? 

Freedom Invariably connoted political Independence^ l«e»» freedom from 

external subjugation* And In the context of the times » a Greek^s freedom 

was largely Interpreted In relation to the external overlord and enemy, namely, 

Ottoman Turkey* A free Greek Implied one who was not a Turkish subject* 

The extent to which his political and personal Independence were drcum* 

scribed by the Internal power structure or by European Influences was not 

as markedly obvious as that of national Independence or sovereignty* The 

Greek constitution of 1862 reveals that a Greek's rights were more than over* 

shadowed by his obligations and duties; moreover his freedom had serious 

It 

qualifications* For example, while the press was declared **free and 
*'censorshlpV prohibited, publications could be seised **ln case of Insult to 
the Christian religion, or to the person of the King,*' Furthermore, only 
Greek cltlsens were allowed to publish newspapers* And while all Greeks 
were declared "equal before the law," only Greek cltlsens were admitted Into 
the public service. 

Confounded with the con. pt of freedom iras an "ethnocentric" sense of 
patriotism and nationalism* To be a Greek Impllid citizenship In the new 
state; but It also Implied membership In the Greek Orthodox Church, and 
affinity with all other ethnic Greeks, l*e», the members of the larger Greek 
nation outside the boundaries of the new state* These were enslaved Greeks 
who must be liberated from the Ottoman Turk* The following Invocation 
reveals the Greek concept of nation and "fatherland" with unusual clarity. 



19 

Armstrong, 



11 - 21 



The Fatherland, children o£ the Greeks, la not your plain or 
hill, the cross of your village church, or the stnoke of your hearts 
arising to the sky, nor the tops of your trees, nor the monotonous 
song of your shepherds. The fatherland la Thessaly for the 
Akamanlan; Cyprus and Crete for the Athenian; Olynpos, Flndos, 
Athoa, for the hlll-bom Arkadlan, and the haughty ranges of 
Taygetos. The Fatherland Is all Greece by blood from Malea and 
the Ionian Islands to the Phoenician Sea. The Fatherland Is 
whatsoever part of the fair earth speaks the language— our 
harmonious Greek language; It Is whatever causes the throbblngs 
of our breast; It Is the bond of religion, the bloo'd-llbatlon 
which our bretheren, our parents, from all the comers of the 
Hellenic land, have effered on the altar of our rebuilt native 
land. The Fatherland Is the sharing of the Hellenic name. 
Freedom's sweetest and holiest link. The Fatherland Is our heaven's 
fair blue, the sweet sun that lights us, the tranquil sea that flows 
round us, the fertile lands from Thrace and the Euxlne to the Lilbyan 
Sea. The Fatherland id all our fellow-cltlsena, great and small, 
rich and poor. The Fatherland Is the nation which we ought to love, 
worship, serve, and defend with all the powers of our minds, with 
all the might of our hands, with all the energy and all the love 
of our souls. 

And the rather caustic About observed: "To say the truth, the Greeks like 

none but Greeks. If they like foreigners. It Is In the same way that the 

21 

sportsman loves game." 
Neo»Hellenlsm 

The emerging conception of Greek and Greekness was also colored by 
the neo-hellenlc romanticism described earlier In this chapter. Fanned by 
a Western romantic type of phll-hellenlsm, the Independent Greeks further 
encouraged and consolidated an ancestral awe and a cult for Arcadian Hellas. 
They perceived a continuity In Greek civilization, which was merely Inter- 
rupted by the Romans and the Ottomans. Often, In fact, modem Greek hellenlsm 
even sought to revive the ancient Athenian civilisation and bypass the 



Quoted In Blckford-Smlth, op. clt ., pp. 310-311. On the expansive 
character of the Greek nation— the Grand Idea— also see Lewis Sergeant, 
Greece (London: Sampson, Low, Karston, Searle, & Rlvlngton, 1880), p« 129. 

21 

About, op. clt .. p. 55. 



ERIC 



II - 22 



Christian Byaantlne Interval. One of the far-reaching consequences of this 
created Identification with classical Hellas, vhlch was particularly 
Important In the educational development of the country, was the final 
dichotomy of the Greek language, a problem known as dlRlossy* 

Dlglossy has essentially meant two language forma: the pure (katharevousa) , 
and the polular or demotic ( demotlke) . In part dlalossy was Influenced by 
demographic and sociological factors. In the course of time, the rural and 
largely Illiterate population developed a popular sort of spoken Greek which 
included several "foreign" words and Idioms. The higher clergy, the 
phanarlotes, the aristocracy, and the Intelligentsia, who were also the 
educated segments of the population, developed a more rarefied or "pure" 
form of Greek that was nearer to the classical and New Testament form. But 
the neo-hellenlc romantic revival reinforced this language dichotomy, and 
the pure form was associated not only with "being educated," but also with 
being more authentically Greek. The classical revivalists and the "continuity" 
theorists and partisans deprecated the "barbaric" ana peasant demotic and sought 
to universalize the katharevousa . By the mid-1850' s, Soutsos, for example, 
was writing that iy a-^uhett time "the language of the ancients and of ours— 
the moderns— will become one and the same." Now that the Greeks were 

"attlclalng,", that Is, they were using the ancient Attic dialect, the professors 

22 

of Berlin and Paris would stop calling them "barbarous." 

With independence, the katharevousa was declared the official language 
of the state. It was the form taught In the schools and was even used In 
poetry with disastrous effects. Already during the decades following the 



22 

See Sophronlou, op. clt .. pp. A3-A4. 



ERIC 



II - 23 



creation of the new state It emerged as a socially divisive force, supported 
by the upper classes » the Court » and the Church, and criticised by those vbo 
wanted to see Greek culture imbedded in the indigenous tradition. In time, 
an attack against the katharevousa was construed as an attack against the 
nation and its religious and cultural traditions* 

Education in the New State 

The structure and cultural orientation of the new nation state were 
intimately connected with education. The organization and administration of" 
the educational system, the types of schools and the curriculum, and the 
general educational outlook provide one of the clearest ways to understand 
the nature and content of the emerging Greek society and culture. 

Before the accession of King Otto, an educational pattern was already 
visible. There were ^'common*' schools for the masses, and a few, more 
selective secondary schools. In struction was carried largely along the 
Lancasterian lines. The importance of education was stressed both by 
most revolutionary leaders and by foreign philhellenes. And despite the 
ravages of war, several types of schools (common, hellenic, lyceums, and 
others) were set up. By 1829, Kapodistrias claimed that 6,000 children 
were attending schools for mutual instruction; and from scanty evidence^ 
more than 15 » 000 children in a total population of 693,000 people were 
in schools of some sort. In the same year, a *'gymnasion" or "central school" 
was established in Aegina; in 1831 » another was planned in Nauplia; and by 
then» a "normal school" for the training of teachers was operating. 

These educational establishments were supported by private and government 
contributions. The curriculum of the common schools included religion. 



ERIC 



II - 24 

Greek, arithmetic, Geography, alinple natural history, oualc and gymnastics, 
that of the central school, included Greek, French, mathematics and geography. 

During Otto's reign education was reorganised and considerably expanded. 
Indeed In form and orientation modern Greek education, as ve know it today, 
was basically consolidated during these early years of Greece's national 
existence. Under the Influence of Usurer, one of the three Bavarian regents, 
the Elementary Education Law of 1834 was enacted, followed in 1836 by another 
legislative decree governing secondary education. In 1837, the educational 
system was <^apped by the Othonian University of Athens. 

Elementary Education 

The new law provided that elementary schools be established in each 
municipality and that they should be financed and controlled "as required 
by law on municipalities." Elementary education was declared cooqpulsory 
for all children from the ages of five to twelve, with separate schools for 
boys and girls. Authority and responsibility for all educational matters 
(appointment, transfer and dismissal of teachers, and supervision of schools) 
were vested in the central Ministry of Education. The administration of 
education was conducted through several bodies at the central, provincial, 
district, and local levels. Local boards consisted of the mayor as presi- 
dent, the highest local church official, and 2 to 4 municipal councilors. 
They provided teaching materials, took care of school buildings, inspected 
schools at least once a month, and kept an eye over the teachers, reporting 
any irregularities to the district or provincial administrator (eparch or 
nomarch) . 

The law alfio specified in detail the qualifications, classification, 
and salaries of teachers and the subjects of the curriculum. The elementary 



ERIC 



II • 25 



schools taught religion^ reading^ writing^ and arithmetic ^ the Greek language » 
drawing, singing, elementary geography, Greek history^ elementary natural 
science, gymnastics, gardening ^practical agronomy, bee-keeping and silk- 
making* 

One of the novel characteristics of the law was that henceforth 
responsibility for popular education was placed in the hands of ^'public** 
authorities, vis., the central government apd the local municipalities* 
Education ceased to be an exclusively private or church affair* It took 
some years before the local authorities or the government took their mandate 
seriously, but the basic principles of state education were laid early in 
the nation's existence* 

Secondary Educ&i:ion 

Accciding to the 1836 legislative decree, post elementary education 
was organised into two types of schools: the hellerlc schools and the 
gymnasia * The hellenlc school included three classes or grades, and its 
purpose was two fold: (a) mainly to prepare for the upper stage, the 
gymnasion » and (b) to provide a *'self-contained*' education for those who 
did not want to continue their schooling but wished to seek employment that 
did not require a B ymnasion or university training* This type of school 
was named hellenlc, i*e*, Greek, because of the major eiq>hasis given to 
Greek in the curriculum (12 weekly hours in each class out of a total of 
29-31)* Other subjects taught were religion, geography, arithmetic, physical 
history, history, French, drawing, and in the third year Latin^ anthropology, 
ethnics, geometry and physics* 

A full gymnasion was a four-year school; it extended the general 



ERLC 



II - 26 



encyclopedic training of the Hellenic school; and Its sole purpose was to 
prepare for the university. Its curriculum Included Greek, Latin, religion, 
history, geography, mathematics, physics, French, and in the fourth year, 
logic and Introduction to philosophy. 

Hellenic schools and gymnasia were modeled largely on the German 
Latelnschulen and Gymnasia respectively. The type of education provided 
In them reflected a blend of contemporary German neo-humanlsm (the German 
schools emphasizing Latin and the Greek counterparts relying on classical 
Greek), and the romantic neo-hellenlsm discussed earlier In this chapter. 
The curriculum was heavily classical, literary, and linguistic. In the 
^tvmnaslon only about 22 per cent of the entire time was allotted to mathe- 
matics and science. In both the hellenlc schools and the evmnasla classical 
Creek held a monopoly, despite the provision that modem Greek be Included; 
and the teaching of the classical languages was defined largely In terms 
of grammar and syntax. "Twenty years after their operation," according to 
a Greek source, "secondary schools taught only classical Greek, because the 
teachers believed that, through the Intensive teaching of the ancient tongue, 
Greek youth would be able In a short time to converse In the language of 
Xenophon."^^ 

Another consequence of contemporary neo-humanlsm and neo-hellenlsm was 
the virtual suppression of the popular (demotic) form of modem Greek. The 
pure language (katharevousa) was not only the official language of the state 
but also the only type of modem Greek taught In the schools, Including the 
elementary. 



23 

S. G. Tsoumeleas and P. D. Fanagopoulos , He Ekoaldeu se mas sta Teleutal« 
100 Chronla (Athens: Demetrakos Co., 1933), pp. 83-84. 



ERIC 



II • 27 



Finally^ it is relevant to point out that secondary schools were 
selective lnstltutlons«»*educatlonally and socially* The gymnasia t in 
particular 9 although supported by state funds ^ recruited their students from 
the more affluent segments of the population* Horeover^ they were regarded 
as schools for the intellectually able pupils who ultimately would become 
the leaders of the society* 
The University of Otto 

In the emerging educational system^ the German influence was most 
saliently evident in the first institution of higher learning^ at first 
called the University of Otto* The university conslated of four faculties: 
law^ T^cdicine^ theology, and philosophy which included literary, mathematical, 
and scientific studies* Professors were appointed by royal decree; and in 
the early years of its existence, many professors were Germans* The course 
of studies, the methods of Instructing and examining, and the system of 
appointment, tenure, end promotion of the members of the staff bore the 
Imprint of the North German prototypes. 

Form its inception, the university was conceived to be a national 
institution intimately bound up with the political, social, and intellectual 
life of the aew state, indeed of the larger Greek nation* With the abdica- 
tion of King Otto in 1862, its name was changed to the National University » 
The inauguration of the institution was marked by pcap and ceremony. Present 
at the ceremony were the King, all political and military leaders, part of 
the diplomatic corps, the higher clergy, future students, listeners, and 
"btithusiastic crowds.'* Both professors and students (drawn from Greeks at 
home and abroad) soon became embroiled in the political life of the nation* 
Professors were consulted on political matters; and after 1843 the university 



B£S1 COFV A'«r.!LABl£ 

II - 28 



vas represented in the Parliament. In 1839, when the cornerstone vas laid 

for the permanent headquarters of the university. King Otto indicated the 

general educational orientation of the institution. 

In this institution Greek youth must be taught the ethical 
and scientific knowledge which alone can educate the spirit and 
the heart, and enable the worthy man to fulfill his lofty goals 
set for him by the divine providence. Greek youth should not 



will be picked and charged with the lofty responsibilities of 
Greek society. And for these reasons they must try to become 
worthy of the endeavors of their forefathers, which are carried 
out for them by their contemporaries. 24 

Higher education being conceived largely in ethical, spiritual, and 
"humanistic" terms, the faculty or school of philosophy was assigned a 
preeminent role. At the official inauguration of the institution the dean 
of the school came after the rector in speech protocol and spoke longer than 
any of the other deans. 

Other Educational Institutions 

In addition to the previously mentioned state schools, there existed 
also some private schools, run by non-Orthodox religious groups (Jewish, 
Roman Catholic, and Protestant). In their curriculum, such establishments 
were generally similar to the state schools, and they vere subject to 
inspection and to special government regulations. Those Greeks who sent 
their children to tie private schools were in part motivated by the teaching 
of foreign languages, particularly French which was taught extensively in the 
Jesuit institutions. 

The rather restrictive religious tolerance mentioned earlier was clearly 
reflected in the general attitude toward this type of private education, 
especially the attitude of the Orthodox Church. Proselytization was for- 
bidden. But even such activities as the reading of portions of the Bible 

HellSnlkos Tachydromos . July 9, 1839 




ERIC 



II - 29 

and the recitation of the Lord's Prayer were held suspect and evoked open 
hostility. 

The education of priests was often stressed by Koraes and Kapodlstrlas. 
It was generally believed that the average Greek parish priest was poorly 
educated, If at all. In 1844, a seminary was established, known as the 
RlzarloctEcclesiastlcal School, for the purpose of educating upper clergy- 
nan; and In 1856, three lower ecclesiastical schools started for the lower 
clergy. These religious schools were at the level of the hellenlc schools 
and the gymnasia . 

Finally one should mention several efforts made through private 
Initiative to provide technical and comnerclal skills, as well as some 
literary and educational associations. 

Educational Expansion and Opportunities 

Contemporary accounts, views, and reports by Greeks and foreigners 

generally present a complimentary picture of the educational progress made 

within a few decades after Independence. One Inpresslon was that 

the Greeks valued education highly. "I have no where seen," wrote C.C, Felton, 

an American classical scholar and president of Harvard College, in 1861, 

"such ardent enthusiasm for literaly Improvement among the youth in both 

26 

sexes as in Greece."*^ And at about the same time, the Englishman 
Matthew Arnold singled out the Greeks among all the Europeans as a people 

Z3 See, for example, an account of the earlyBifflcultles encountered 
by the American missionaries. Dr. and Mrs. Hill, who set up a pchool for 
girls in Athens in 1831, in Daniel Qulnn, "Education in Greece," in the 
U. S. Bureau of Education, Report of the Commissioner of Education for the 
Year 1896-97, Vol. I, Fart I, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1898, 
pp. 328-329. 

26 

C.C. Felton, The Schools of Modem Greece (Boston; 1861), p, 29 



ERIC 



11 - 30 



"ardently desirous of knowledge."*' 

Judging by such Indexes as school attendance, level of literacy, and 

growth of other educational activities (e.g., literary societies and printing 

presses) , one would conclude that progress was substantial for a nation with 

extremely limited resources and In the throes of consolidating Itself* In 

1830, Greece Is said to have had 71 connon schools with approximately 7,000 

pupils. (Some writers raise the number to over 9,000).. V/hen the secondary 

law of 1836 was promulgated, there were, according to one source, only three 

28 

hellenlc schools, and one gymnaslon . In 1840, the number of common schools 

Increased to about 252 and In 1851-52 to over 350. By 1866, according to 

i 29 
Rangave, the number of such schools stood at over 1.000. 

In his official report to the King, the Minister of Education stated 

that In 1855-56 there were 88 hellenlc schools (80 public and 8 private) 

with a total enrollment of 4,452 pupils, and 11 gymnasia (7 public and 4 

private) with approximately 1,182 pupils. In the same year, there were 

590 students attending the University of Otto, 75 the military academy 

57 — 

Matthew Arnold, "Popular Education In France," In Paul Nash, ed.. 

Culture and Che State: Matthew Arnold and Continental Education (New York: 

Teachers College Press, 1966), p. 89. 

^® J. Gennadlus, A Sketch of the History of Education In Greece 
(Edinburgh: Moray Place, 1925), pp. 26-29. Another source, however, 
lists 3 gymnasia. See G. Chasslotls, L* Instruction Publloue Cheg les 
Grecs (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1881), p. 270. 

29 

A. R. Rangabe, Greece: Her Progress and Present Position (New York: 
G. P. Putnam & Son,, 1867), p. 83. 



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II - 31 



o£ Evelpidon, and about 500 polytechnlcal schools. 

All in all, in a population o£ slightly less thrv^ I million, in 1855, 
about 59,000 Individuals were at some sort of educational establishment. 
By if^lO, of a total population of one and one half million, about 74,000 
were attending schools, and about 33 per cent of the males and 7 per cent 
of the females were literate. In 1872, C. K. Tuckerman, an American *whr 
had served as minister resident of the United States in Athens, eulogized 
as follows: 

In Greece... it may be safely asserted that no roan, woman or 
child bom in the kingdom since the organization of free institutions, 
is so deficient In elementary knowledge as not to be able to read 
and write. The cost of public instruction constitutes 0.053 of the 
total expenditure of tho State, a larger percentage than Is paid for 
these objects by either France, Italy, Austria or Germany, and in 
proportion to her resources, years and population, she stands 
undeniably first in the rank of nations— not excepting the United 
States— as a self-educated people.'^'' 

While attendance seems to have been comparatively high, there were 
disparity " among regions, between urban and rural areas, auong boys and 
girls, and in opportunities for schooling. Qualifying Tuckerman' a eulogy, 
another contemporary observer noted that "The enthusiastic youth who filled 
the schools and colleges were drawn mostly from the principal cities and a 
few favored islands. "^^ Relative to their pqpulatlon, the tpovinces of 
Attica and Boeotia, and within them Athens, had the largest number of schools 



30 

K« C. Christopoulos, Genike Ekthesis Pros ten A. Megaleioteta tou 
Hypourgou ton Ekklesiastikon kai tes Demosias Ekpaideuseos. Peri tes 
katastase5s t6s Demosias Ekpaideuseos en He l ladi. 1855-56 (Athens: Andreas 
Koromelas, 18S7>, pp. 7-11. 

31 

C. K. Tuckerman, The Greeks of Today (New York: 6. P. Putnam & Sons, 
1872), pp. 179-180. 

32 Edson I. Clark, The Races of European TurVcy '(Hew York: Dodd Mead & 
Co., 1876, p. 203. 



ERIC 



II - 32 

33 

and enrollnents. Village children had conslderalby fewer chances to 
attend gyanasla or the university, than city children. This was partly 
dut to the costs Involved In living away from home and to the fact that 
many village parents were not quite sure about the value of further educa- 
tion. Peasant pav Ats preferred that their children attend the village 
school, If one existed, and then help them In their own activities. School 
attendance on the part of girls was considerably lower than that of boys. 

In addition to the above discrepancies, coppulsory elementary school 
attendance was not enforced; nor. local coomunltles carry out their 
statutory responsibilities. In the secondary schools (hellenlc and gymnasia) « 
not allfchlldren who atf'-ded were able to complete the course. And regular 
attendance at the university was rather uneven. 

It Is also relevant to commont on factors bearing upon the quality of 
Instruction In the existing schools. First and foremost was the quality and 
status of the teachers. Th . Elementary Law of 1834 specified In detail the 
classification and qualifications of teachers. Teachers classified as first 
grade were required to possess knowledge of, and be able to (each the 
Christian religion, reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic, drawing, Greek 
history, geography, elements of geometry and mechanics, physical training, 
singing, elements of botany, agronomy, gardening, bee-keeping, silk-making, 
and what is required for every day life in the physical sciences. Teachers 
classified as grade three were expected "at least lO be able to read, write 

33 

Christopoulos, op. dt .. p. 13. Next in else of school population 
were Eupola and Laconla. 

^ For further details, see Ch. Lephas, Historia tes Ekpaldeuscos 
(Athens, 1942), pp. 21-50. Alto see Christopoulos, op. dt .. pp. 18-19. 



ERIC 



11 - 33 



and count; to be able to explain the gospel and to sing; and to have some 

35 

knowledge of trees, gardening, sllk-naklng and bee-keeping." For several 
reasons (poor and unsteady pay, living conditions, etc.) many unsuitable 
and unqualified Individuals were Instructing the* young. As a consequence of 
this, the government at one point accepted as a teacher anybody who "In the 
presence of other teachers prepared and subodtted in his own hand-writing an 

application In which he declared that he knew reading, writing and the four 

36 

operations of arithmetic, as well as the elements of religion." In the 
absence of lay teachers, often priests conducted classes. 

Physical facilities In certain villages were deplorable. Where there 
were no schot.! buildings, and this was not uncoonon, the local church was used 
as a school; and In certain v laces classes were conducted In the open alr« 

Lastly, the "efficiency" of schools must be assessed In terms of the 
way teaching and learning were carried out and the actual content of 
Instruction. Reports by contemp rary inspectors reveal that in many schools 
the monitorial system was not effective In teaching the basic rudiments of 
knowledge. Language Instruction did net go beyond formal grannatlcal 
exercises and reading aloud from textbooks, and religious Instruction 
consisted of recitation of prayers. "Generally speaking," an Inspector 
wrote, "except for a mechanical sort of reading, writing and arithmetic, 

Greek children are taught northing else, nor are they morally educated In 
anything. "37 



35 

Lephas, op. clt ., p, 170. 

36 

Ibid., p. 171 

37 

Tsoumeleas and Fanagopoulos , op. clt .. p« 25. The some source 
contains several other excerpts from Inspectors' reports on tlie general 
condition of eltnentary schools in the villages* 



FRir 



11 - 34 



Modernity In the Emerging Educational Culture 
Less than fifty years after the call to national Independence was 
sounded In 1821, the new Greek state displayed several features often 
associated with societies well along the path of modernization. In the 
political sphere, power was consolidated In a constitutional monarchy, and 
administration filtered down from the center through a clearly defined 
structure. The new state assumed functions which previously were performed 
by the Church, the family, provincial landlords, and a variety of other 
agencies. From the legal standpoint, citizens enjoyed state protection and 
they were equal before the law. In the socio-economic domain, class 
boundaries could be crossed and there was a noticeable absence of a strongly 
entrenched hereditary aristocracy. Cities began to grow, and* channels 
between town and country were more easily traversed. More so than in the 
other sectors, education in the new state compared quite favorably with 
contemporary and in several respects more advanced European nations. A 
"modern" educational structure took shape, which combined the centralization 
of the German system with the community responsibility of the French. There 
was a graded system of schools from the elementary to the university; and 
attendance as well as literacy were, by the standards of the day, quite 
high. The subjects in the curriculum and the methods of instruction were 
in large part similar to those in Western European schools. In short, 
were one to confine oneself to such structoral aspects of education and to 
the society at large, one would have to conclude that Greece in mld>nlneteenth 
centruy was as "modern" as contemporary France, Germany, or England and 
perhaps more "modem" than many of the n^v; nations today. But modernization 
is much more complex and multi-faceted. The Greek experience during the 



ERIC 



II - 35 



early years of Its national history provides an Interesting variation of 
this concept In general and educational modernization In particular. To 
get at the roots of this variation we also probed Into the values and 
orientations of the new nation state. Rathar than repeat vhat has already 
been sald» we might conclude by briefly commenting on the emerging 
Greek '^educational culture for education was the larger Greek culture vrlt 
small • 

One cluster of values pervading all levels and types of education, 

especially popular education, may be described as Christian Orthodox values. 

The purpose of elementary schools, according to a report by the Minister of 

Education to the king, Is not merely to teach reading, writing, and arlth* 

metlc; more Important than that, **they should contribute to the moral develop* 

ment of the people,** a task which could only be accomplished If the teachers 

were themselves Imbued with "Christian virtue.** In essence, the Christian 

culture which the teachers should possess and which they should seek to 

import to their pupils consisted of *'davotlon to the divine,** and to the 

Orthodox Chuirch, love of the fatherland ( patrls ) and its leader (the king), 

obedience to the laws and principles of the land, and a harmonious existence 
38 

with others. 

These **Chrlstlan** values were supported by most agencies in the society 
and guarded especially by the Orthodox Church. As stated above, religious 
instruction and religious exercises (prayers, going to church on Sundays and 
holy days, etc.) were compulsory; and priests and bishops sat on school 
coflanittecs. Orthodoxy was further indirectly sought by instructing the youth 
in the classical erA the pure forms of the Greek language, for these media 
were closer to New Testament Greek. 



38 

^ Christopoulos, op. clt .t p. 27. 

ERIC 



XI - 36 



Another and. In the minds of the Greeks, releted duster of values nay 
be subsumed under the broad concept of neo-hellenlsm. Neo-hellenlsm entailed 
devotion to and love of the fatherland. Its preservation, protection from 
outside dangers, and Its expansion. Patriotism was an Integral part of 
the concept of Greek citizenship which the schools studiously sought to promote. 
Love of country ( phllopatrla) . as the aforementioned Minister's report 
Indicates, was both a political and a religious value. In the emerging 
Greek educational culture they were Inextricably bound. "Phllopatrla," 
according to a eArcular Issued some years later by the Ministry of Religion 
and Public Education, "Is the twin sister of religion." "The loftiest and 
noblest purpose of any school," It continued, "has always been the religious 
and nationalistic (patriotic) upbringing. "^^ 

Neo-hellenlsm entailed devotion to classical Greece as well. The 
ancients were the prototypes for emulation and were soon venerated as 
Confucian cult objects; the schools in their turn sought to Inculcate such 
attachment and veneration. In their "return to classical Hellas" the 
Greeks were Influenced by the romantic revival of Vestern Europe. 

The classical Greek educational values and outlooks which the modem 
Greeks sought to revive, must perforce be described in general terms. 
Primary emphasis was placed on the Intellectual and moral aspects of 
education; the application of knowledge to practical activities or to 
technological a^ivancement was outside the scope of "classical" or "neo* 
classical" education. This was clearly manifested in statements about what 
education is and in the instltutionalliation oof neo-hellenic culture in the 
schools. All levels of education, particularly the post-elementary, were 
'•n- i r ■ r " 

57^ 

Ch. Lophas, Wonothesia Meses Eknaideuseos (Athens: 1915), pp. 4-5. 



II • 37 



dominated by a clasBical^literary-lingulstlc type of humanistic learning: and 
within this conception of huinanistn^ Greek learning was the tnost pervasive. 
Another manifestation of institutionalized neo-hellenism was the language 
policy with its stress upon purism built on classical Attic models* 

The emerging educational culture ^ therefore » signified an alliance 
between Orthodox Christian and classical Greek humanism* The two were 
inextricably bound in the Greek ethos. Moreover » they defined Greekness 
and a national cultural identity. The consequences of such a cultural 
orientation were several. From the vantage point of ^'building a nation** 
it provided the necessary myths to consolidate national consciousness. But 
it also created a **totalistic/' unflexible^ and narrowly ethnocentric 
educational ideology. In many respects^ therefore^ despire the trappings 
of modernity 9 the emerging educational ^'monoculture*' was incipiently **anti» 
modern.** Educational modernity in the new state was founded on values and 
orientations essentially **looking backwards** » and it was largely perceived 
in pre*8cientific and pre^industrial terms. 

Schools were perceived as agents to socialise the young into unquestioned 

acceptance of the authority of the ancient s^ the Orthodox religion ^ and the 

new institutions of the state. **But as yet/* a foreign writer observed ^ 

*'the knowledte of the Greeks » universally diffused as it is ^ is a mere 

school-boy knowledge." He continued: 

To the great body of the people ^ that political 
intelligence and training which would fit them to form a just 
opinion upon important questions^ and to exert a controlling 
influence in public affairs ^ is entirely wanting. . .The peasantry 
are quiet « peaceable » and loyal ^ and never think of resisting 
the government^ whatever course it may pur sue. 

40 

Clarke op. cit ., pp. 285-286. 



ERLC 



II - 38 

"The Greeks," About wrote, "fancy that their ancestors knew everything. "^^ 
Tuckernan echoed: "The young are too much inpressed with the glory and 

42 

grandeur of the ancient, and the superlative merits of the modem Greek." 

There is finally another aspect af Greek education as it relates to 
modemizatinn and national development, worthy of further comment. This 
pertains to the links between the educational system and the emerging 
occupational structure, an area very much discussed in current studies of 
education and development. The organisation of the new state created a 
multiplicity of occupational functions and the schools were expected to supply 
the necessary personnel or "manpower." Major occupational sectors were the 
civil service, clerical careers in business and commerce, and the free 
professions. Since the country was overwhelmingly agricultural and non* 
Industrial the "market for technical skills was extremely limited. 
Moreover, as stated above, the emerging educational culture did not support 
the development of practical and technical skills. Nor did the institutional 
framework allow for alternative types of schooling and skill formation. At 
first this flltuation did not pose serious problems for the civil service, 
business and commerce, and the existing free professions (law, medicine, 
teaching and the ministry) were able to absorb the products of the schools 
and the univetsity. But in the course of time serious problems were created. 
This was particularly evident in imbalances In the enrollments of students 
in the university. Within very few years of its creation, the faculty of - 
law was registering a disproportionate number of university students. 
Lawyers could either practice their profession or enter politics. But soon 

51 — 

About, op. cit .. p. 173. 

42 

Tuckerman, op. cit., p. 184. 

ERIC 



II • 39 



the country was flooded with such Individuals , many of vhom were either 

unemployed or underemployed* Although one of the major occupational outlets 

of those studying In the faculty of philosophy was teaching, not all graduates 

ambarked upon teaching careers* Again many sought some civil service Job or 

a career in politics. To top it all, most educated people gravitated to 

Athens. Accounts by foreign observers are replete with references to 

political ^^hangers on,^^ unemployed lawyers, and the like. On abundance 

of politicians and lawyers. Clark wrote; 

...in no other country in the world does so large a proportion 
of the educated class of young men look to political life as a 
permanent profession and source of livelihood .The legal 
profession is greatly overstocked, and the mercantile houses 
have already a crowd of applicants for every vacant post. 

Too often the yo^ng man finds himself prepared for active 
life with nothing* before him but to become a hanger on of some 
political clique, in the hope that in some way, and at some time, 
he may secure some office, and so climb to power. The class of 
professed politicians, always needy, hungry, and ready for any 
service, honorable or dishonorable, is thus constantly recruited 
and enlarged. 

Some saw these imbalances as a consequence of the overemphasis on 

literary education in the schools. Thus, for example, Felton criticised the 

Greeks and their schools for **a somewhat extravagant estimate of literary 

education.** This, according to him, had mischievous effects. 

Many young men, who should be cultivating the earth, 
taking care of the flocks, or learning the mechanical arts, 
are content towaste their lives in the petty and ill-paid 
offices, in the gift of administration. Education in the 
schools is valued as a stepping stone to these insignificant 
appointments. In short with all their intellectual capacity, 
there is in many of the Greeks, not otherwise deficient, a 
want of practical sense. ^ 



53 — 

Gl.rk, op» clt ». pp. 286-87. Also see About, op. clt .. p. 173 and 

Blckford-Smith, op. clt .. p. 194. 

^ Ffelton, op. cit .. p. 31. 



ERIC 



II - 40 



This raises a question often asked with respect to new nations today. 
Was it the curriculum o£ the schools that created the imbalances in 
occupational preferences (i.e., preferences for certain white-collar jobs 
despite their being overcrowded) or was it the occupational structure itself 
and the existing system of incentives— monetary or otherwise? The answer 
must be sought in both contexts. Given the low prestige of practical, 
technical, or agricultural careers, it was unrealistic to eiq^ect high 
aspirations for them. • Further, most Institutions in the new state, including 
the schools, were governed by what has been described as a rigid "monoculture." 
Here again, the formative period of Greek national development created the 
mechanism for possible constraints to accelerated modernization and change. 



ERIC 



Ill - 1 



CHAPTER III 
THE ERA OF THE GRAND IDEA (1863-1923) 

The Greek educational experience since the accesaion of George I in 
1863 coincides roughly vith tvo major stages in national development. Until 
1923, Greek national development vas activated by the ideology of the 80« 
called Grand Idea (Megale Idea). This was a period of ultra-nationalism, 
of incessant conflicts with the arch-enemy, the Ottoman Empire, of unpre- 
cedented territorial expansion and "growth," and of victories and defeats. 
It was also a period of further consolidation of the socio-political and 
educational institutions, and the entrenchment of the educational culture 
discnssed in the previous chapter. With the collapse of the Grand Idea, 
the nation entered another turbulent phase, marked by severe internal con- 
flicts and tribulations including a republican interregnum, military 
dictatorships, two devastating wars, fear of CooDunism, ambivalence towards 
"liberal" movements, and constant political instability. Education continued 
to grow quantitatively; and in 1928-31 a reorganization took place. 
Basically, however, its underlying values and its orientation remained the 
same; it was not until the 1960* s, that an attempt was made to bring about 
changes in these respects. 

The Era of the Grand Idea (18b3-1923) 
"Hellas is where there are Hellenes." So ran an ancient definition 
of Greece, and the modem Greeks literally sought to build their nation on 
that premise. Unlike his predecessor. Otto, King George was crowned 
"King of the Hellenes;" and, following the practice of the Byzantine Emperors, 
added "Basileus" (King, he who reigns) after his name. When Constantine 



ERIC 



Ill - 2 



succeeded his father, Genrge I, to the Greek throne, there was controversy 
as to whether he should be crowned Constantine I or Constantino XII » the 
latter title signifying that the modern Constantine was the direct successor 
of Constantine Faleologus, the last Byzantine Emperor. He was crowned 
Constantine I« But popular sentiment at a time of unprecedented jingoism 
fanned by victories over the Ottomans lent credence to a common adage that 
"Constantine lost it (referring to the loss of Constantinople in 1453], and 
Constantine will regain it [referring to the recapture of the coveted City]." 

There was much that happened from 1863 to 1923 to bolster the dream 
of the Grand Idea. Despite some setbacks, i.e., the failure of early 
attempts to annex Crete and the Greek defeat by the Ottomans in 1897, the 
Greeks, with (rapport from the great powers, and from their Slavic neighbors, 
managed to push the Ottomans out of Crete, Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and 
Western Thrace. Greece joined the Allies during the First World War, and 
shortly after, they led a confident amy into Asia Minor, the heartland of 
the Ottoman Enpire. They pushed swiftly eastward and were within a few miles 
from Ankara, while allied forces were stationed in Istanbul. But then there 
was disaster. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk rallied a demoralized Turkish army 
together and swiftly pushed the Greeks into the Aegean Sea. Ataturk 
toppled the Istanbul government and reigned supreme on Anatolia and. clastern 
Thrace. An armistice was agreed upon and a treaty was negotiated, which 
among other things, called for an "exchange of populations." Over one-million 
and a half ethnic Greeks residing in Turkish lands were exchanged for about 
three-quarters of a million ethnic Turks residing on Greek soil. Only a 
small minority of Greeks remained in Istanbul and some other cities (probably 
not more than a quarter of a million) and about one hundred thousand Turks 
in Greek Thrace. This marked the demise of the Grand Idea. 

ERIC 



Ill - 3 



The Ideology of the Grand Idea influenced other aspects of Greek 
national development. It reinforced and further consolidated the Greek 
conception of nationalism and its associated Helleno-Chrlstian ideas; 
it strengthened the socio-political and educational organization established 
during Otto*s reign; and it colored the nature and content of the Greek 
educational culture # 

The content of '^Greekness** and Greek ''nationaliam*' as it developed 
in the nineteenth century and as it was colored by the ideology of the Grand 
Idea was analyzed in the previous chapter* Vith the advent to power of the 
Cretan nationalist El»ftherios Venlselos, Greek nationalism continued its 
expansive, anti«-Ottoman character and thcoght* 

Veniselos vas bom and became nationally known in Crete which was 
still under Ottoman hands. But his activities against the Ottoman over- 
lords were not directed toward the establishment of an independent Crete; 
he considered himself as belonging to larger Hellas Instead, and struggled 
for the unification of the island to the motherland* And when he assumed 
power in Athens as prime minister in 1910, his vlsioa was for a greater uni- 
fied Hellas stretching north into Macedonia and Thrace^ East into the Aegean 
Islands, and reaching into Western Asia Minor and Constantinople, The 
Cretan wars, the Balkan War, the First World War, and the Asia Minor War 
were fought in the name of the unredeemed Greek bretheren and the glory of 
an expanded and unified Greece, So strong was the Grand Idea, that it 
determined the popularity of the monarchy and the political leaders, 

Venizelos and Constantino I dominated Greek political life from 1910 
to 1923* The interplay of internal forces associated with these two men 
illustrates the developing conflicts and ambivalences of twentieth century 
Greek national development. 



BEST Cu- ■-■'^^ 



III - 4 



Gonstantine was the first Greek sovereign that could be said to have 

been Greek-bred and Greek-oriented. He was bom in Greece and professed 

the Greek Orthodox creed. Moreover, like his Greek contemporaries, he was 

ttdbued with the spirit of Greek national iiiumiibiIhii i inmiiiil iiii. and he 

envisioned the day when he would enter Constantinople in triuo^h, and 

there crown hinself as King of the Hellenes in the hallowed Byzantine 

cathedral of Saint Sophia. These characteristics endeared him among many 

people who had been ambivalent about Greek royalty. Even today children 

are reminded of the great ''stratelates" (the commander-in-chief). A very 

recent sixth-grade civics textbook describes him as follows: 

...he was commander-in-chief of the heroic Greek arnqr. His 
bravery and love toward cur army and particularly toward the 
soldiers, were Indescribable. A soldier from Sparta wrote to 
his mother: "Mother, our Constantino ' s care of us as if 
we were his children, he watches us 1. n eagle and runs like 
our father.*" 

Constantino was indeed a military man. He was educated almost 
exclusively in mi^tary studies. His militarism was considerably 
strengthened by his connections with Germany and the German Kaiser Wilhelm II 
whose sitter, Sophia, Constantino had married. Constantine himself 
received his military education at the Kriegsakademlc In Berlin. Some of 
the king's closest advisers, and notably colonel Metaxas,^ were themselves 
schooled in the German military and authoritarian atmosphere of the times. ^ 

Constantine was also monarch In the Greek meaning of the t^rm. Al- 
though in theory George I and Constantine were"con8tltutional sovereigns" 

I 

N. Alikatos, Agoge tou Politou (Athens: Hermes Press). 

2 

Metaxas had been brc 'ohl up in Germany where he was known as 
"little Moltke." Metaxas was wt:e general, who in 1936, established a 
fadst dictatorship. 

3 

Edward S. Forster, A Short History of Modem Greece. 1821-1940 
^London: Methuen & Co., 1941), p. 74. 



they constantly interfered in the political process and the affairs of the 
country. "There can be little doubt," Forster has written, "that the 
Kaiser deliberately set himself to mould the impressionable Constantine to 
his own views of the function of i sovereign as the All-Highest and sole 
controller of the destiny of his people rather than the constitutional ruler 
and interpreter of the people's will."^ Ambivalence toward monarchy con- 
tinued (George I was assassinated in 1913 and Constantine was forced to 
abdicate in 1917 and in 1922). But the monarchy as an institution con- 
tinued to draw support from powerful groups (the Church, and segments of 
the military, the political, and the economic establishments). The feelings 
of the people oscillated. In times of triumph the kings* popularity was high; 
in times of disaster, it was low. In general, by this time the monarchy 
was invested with a mantle of respectability, stability, mystique, and the 
usual veneration of a princely state. Despite the non-partisan role of 
the monarch, a Conservative royalist "party'' took shape which came into 
oanflict with the more "liberal" Venizelists (the followers of Venlselos). 

Like Constantine, Venizelos In many respects was a national expansionist.. 
Also he was not a republican, that is, he was not against the institution of 
the monarchy. In the sumner of 1916»when popular feeling ran high against 
the King's pro-German policies, Veniselos addressed the people and ended 
with these words: "The Liberal Party is no enemy of the Crown, the Dynasty, 
or your Person; It is the respectful guardian of our free Constitution; only 
those who are exploiting the Crown are, in fact, your worst enemies, 
can seek to persuade you otherwise."^ 

Venizelos is credited with the creation of the Liberal Party, the 
first such party organized in free Greece. It was the party of the "bare- 
footed" as the conservative and staunch pro-royalists contemptuously 

ERIC 



Ill - 6 



described it. The Venizelist liberalism was a right-o£-the-center 
social ideology. It sought to bring about changee • the socio-political 
spheres within the framework of a constituticnal monarchy. The 
activating ideal was to "rejuvenate" and reconstruct the nation, which 
in many respects had changed considerably since independence. Externally, 
the Venizelist liberals continued the policy of an expanded and United 
Greece, which Implied the liberation of the captive brethren living 
under Ottonv .1 domination. Internally, they sougl>t to coordinate commerce, 
industry, and agriculture, justice, and labor conditions (in 1911 the 
principle of combinations in*:o trade unions was recognized and in 1912 a 
National Labor Board was established), and to reform the administration and 
the civil service (more secure tenure and elimination of the spoils system), 
the national police, prisons, and the like. Venizelos and the Liberal 
reformer - were also responsible for the revision of the Constitution, and 
for considerable activity in education. 

Much has been said about the quarrels and differences between Venizelos 
and the King. The Cretan Liberal infused Greek politics with an aura os 
stability and respectability that did not exist before; and this undercut 
royal maneuvering in office holding and dispensing of favors. The King and 
his "party" represented a conservative "eatabllshoeAt" and any attempts at 
change unavoidably had repercussions on the power of such an establishment. 
But by and large the differences between the two men revolved around 
foreign affairs; the monarch inclined toward a pro-German policy while 
Venizelos advocated a stand on the side of the allies. In Internal matters 
Venizelos and the liberals were not radical reformers. They were neither 
anti-tnonarchlsts nor anti-establishment. Their reforming activities were 
essentially limited to social welfare areaa, to communications, and to the 
Sfuoot^<!r functioning of the administrative state apparatus. 

o 

ERIC 



Ill - 7 



Although Veniselos sought to bolster Industry and commerce, the 
Greek economy remained essentially a "small agricultural-commercial 
economy," Manufacturing, limited largely to small domestic industries, 
occupied a rather minor place in the economy. Over 70 percent of the 
population vas rural and agricultural (small farmers and shepherds). 
Yet, some progress was registered in this sector. By the First World Vlar, 
manufacturing contributed about 10 percent of the national income, and 
to\m8 such as Athens, Patras, Volos, and Piraeus developed into 
important commercial outlets for t' e agricultural products of the 
hinterland. 

Conflict and Controversy Over Education 
The nature and scope of the emerging Greek liberalism was clearly 
reflected in the cultural tad educational spheres. A new generation 
<»f literary writers and educators bom in Greece and influenced by the 
indigenous atmosphere sought to infuse Greek education and culture with 
a more "progressive" spirit. They reacted against the romantic neo- 
hellenlam of their predecessors and the arid classicism and formalism in 
education. But the forces of tradition proved t<» be too strong for any 
substantial concrete educational changes . And in structure as veil a6 
orientation, Greek education remained essentially the same. 

Enrollments continued to increase at all levels of schooling. 
At the International Conference of Vienna In 1873 Greece won the second 
prize for s^condairy mahonl «tt«ndAOO« and Woacern European* continued to 
pmise th» Greeks for their Interest in and love of education. In 1914, 
Lucy Burnett, one such observer, wrote that "tha Greeks can now claim to 



ERIC 



- 8 



6 

be, vith one exception, the most highly educated nation in Europe." 

It is not clear, however, what index was used for such an assessment. For 

after an initial spurt, as illustrated by the Vienna Conference, school 

7 

enrollments did not keep up with the dramatic overall population increases. 

In 1899, G. Theotokes, the Minister of Education, noted that of all 

European countries, Greece surpassed only Portugal, Ruuiania, and Russia 

8 

in school enrollments relative to the population. And although by the 
First V7orld VJar, the percentage of children at school relative to the 
population had increased from 4.2 (1895) to 7.2, Greece continued to lag 
behind most European countries in both attendance and levels of literacy. 
In addition, there were striking regional disparities and imbalances in 
boy-girl enrollments. Considerably fewer girls than boys were at 
school , 

During the period under consideration, several attempts were made to 
bring about changes in the administration and organissation of the 
educational syscem. In 1889, Theodokes submitted to Parliament nine decrees 
which sought to lengthen elementary education to six years, to abolish the 
middle hellenic schools, and to xtend the gymnasion course to five years. 
Theodokes also pressed for the enforcement of the law affecting elementary 
education, the revision of the curriculum, the improvement of teacher 
training and school facilities. None of his proposals were accepted. 

" g 

LucyM. J. Gorwett, Greece of th e TIell enes (New York: Charles 
Scrlbner's Sons, 1914), p. '60. 

7 

Owing to the large territorial expansion the population of 
Greece had increased from 1,457,894 In 1870 to 5,016,889 In 1920 and 
6,204,684 In 1928. 

C 

See T?;ou(i)«l«as and Panagopoulos, 0£. cit. , p. 56. 



Ill - 9 



But In the- cnsuln;* years, several adDlnistratlve Innovations vere tnade* 
For example. In 1895 permanent Inspectors were appointed for each 
province ( nomos ), and teacher tenure became more secure; In 1905 an 
Educational Council was established In the Ministry of Education, and 
In 1911 compulsory education was constitutionally enforced* 

The Impetus for educational reform ^alned monientur* after 1917. and 
coincided with the broader national movement for expansion and readjust- 
ment discussed previously* Venlzelos and TslrlnoUos, the Minister of 
Education enlisted the cooperation of "progressive" educators, notably 
Glenos and Delmouzos, and nev; plans for an educational reorganization 
were submitted to parliament* The plans called for six-year compulsory 
elementary education for all children and tV7o types of «condary schools: 

(a) practical three-year schools for lower middle class children, and 

(b) six-year gyrnasla for the children of the upper middle classes* 
Beginning with the third class, the gymnaslon course would be diversified 
Into the classical-humanistic and the practical-scientific tracks* The 
three-year schools would prepare for immediate employment or for 
secondary vocational schools* The gymnasia would provide general 
humanistic and "scientific" education and would prepare for institutions 
of higher learning* 

As Mith previous proposals at comprehensive reorganization, the 
Tsirlmokos-'^lenos plans met with fierce opposition and were ultimately 
rejected* But there was one significant development during this period* 
In 19l7j the demotic language was introduced into the elementary schools* 
This rather modest pedagogical innovation symbolized the impact of a 
new educational movement which centered in the place of the "demotic" 

o 

ERIC 



III-IO 

language In Greek life and thought. "Detnotlklsmos" or "demotlcism," 

as the movet.<ent la commonly knovm, extended beyond the narrow confines of 

pedagogy and language Instruction In the schools. It was a social and 

cultural movement as veil anf^ cut at the roots of modernization In the 

neti nation. Its Curnlnf; point Is often taken to be the decade of the 

inrOi, and note particularly, the appearance of Psvcharls' The Journey In 

ICBT: Demaras, the dlstlnj5ulshed historian of rodern Greek literature, 

puts It as follows: 

The generation of the 1800 gives form to the previous 
diffused Intellectual and linguistic elements. The 
phenomenon parallels closely social developments and 
expresses a novel Creek movement. / new enlightenment be- 
gins. Its leading personality was Psycharia; its creator 
was Palat as. ^ 

The generu -ion largely responsible for the "net* enlightenment" 
consisted mainly of Greek Intellectual emigres residing abroad, and of 
local figures who were born in the Islands and outer provinces and who 
did not belong to the existing social and Intellectual establishment. 
"Their background," according, to one source, "was lower middle class 
'their fathers were artisans, teachers, priests, farr>ers and lower civil 
servants V, they sent their sons to ,*thens to finish the university, and 
the sons devoted themselves to literature." This new generation 
reacted against the intellectual content and form of the writers since 
the revolution. Such writers sought to imitate foreign and ancient models, 

^K. Th. Demaras, Historla tgs Neohellgnikfs Logotechnlas (Athenai: 
Ikaros, second edition, 1968), p. 252. 

^^Elias Papas terlopoulos, K. Palamast Henas EpanastatSs Ston Katro 
tou (Athena, 196?), p. ?5, 



ERIC 



Ill- 11 

and to revive the archaic /^ttic language ♦ Their ^^rl tings were notoriously 
uncritical in their ^*;or8hlp of the classic authors ^ and their themes vere 
taken from the ancient and medieval post. They completely Ignored the 
contemporary vorld and the indigenous popular tradition* The result was 
an artificial 9 porpous, and arid literary culture which did not strike a 
responsible chord in the hearts of the ordinary Greeks* These Intellectual 
propensities created cultural r.nd social splits and lack of communication 
arnono; the various segments of the society. They also had deleterious 
conseruences in education and In the general building of the new nation* 

The new v^riters souf^ht instead to ^ive respect and vitality to the 
local popular tradition and the contemporary vorld # Their linguistic 
mediun was the demotic rather than the pure form and their themes were 
taken from the ^'living popular tradition/' The revival of the literary 
and educational culture was expressed in a variety of rvays: through the 
appearance of new periodicals ^ j^cumals^ and pamphlets » and the compila* 
tion of local folklore^ through an unprecedented poetic creativity ^ 
through novels and satires ^ and through the establishment of literary 
and educational associations « The new literary enlightenment was wide in 
scope and its purpose was to reorient Greek culture or "paidela/' Since 
education in the more restricted sense of the organised content of the 
Greek culture was regarded as one of the basic desiderata for such 
reorientation^ it became a focal point in the attempted cultural renascence. 
As with the larger movement it centered ^ in ''demoticism/* and was often 
described as '^educational demotlclsm.*' 

Educational Demotlclsm 

DemotlclsM spread rapidly in the icTimediate decades following; Fsycharls* 
publication of The Journey . But while the demotlclst fervor spread anion/; 



ERLC 



III-12 

teachers, doctors, laviyers, poets and novelists, the schools continued In 
the purist and pseudo-classical tradition. The elementary school teacher 
was mainly preoccupied with the teaching of Attic forms, and 

his effectiveness was judged by the successes he had In the entrance 
examinations Into the mlddle-hellenlc schools. Trom the first grade 
children were drilled In conjugations, declensions, syntax, and exceptions, 
and In a vocabul&ry they never used In their everyday life. The elemen- 
tary school was a mere adjunct to the hellenlc school despite the fact 
that only one-tenth of chll(lren ever attended the latter Institution. 
The pure form of the lansuage completely dominated the hellenlc schools, 
the ^ytanasla and the University of Athens. 

The demotlclst spokesmen considered this state of affairs as a major 
stumbling block In the development of education and the nation at large. 
In 1910 an Educational Association ( Ekpaldeutlkos Homllos ) was organized 
which Included the leading educational demotlclsts of the day, notably 
DeUou^os, Glenos, and Trlantaphyllldes. The Association embarked 
upon a campaign of popular enlightenment In the value of demotlclsm; and 
It sought to lnfluei.ee political opinion so that the demotic would be 
Introduced into the schools. Meanwhile, in 190C, J*. Delmouros , a young 
teacher who had recently returned from his studies in Germany, was asked 
to direct a newly established higher school for Girls in Volos. The Volos 
experiment was short-lived. The school closed three years after its 
openins and Dcmouzos was dismissed. But this abortive enterprise became 
a cause celebre in the annals of r.u)dem Greek educational history. 

Delmou-'os, who had studied theology, literature and pedagogy abroad, 
introduced the popular language in the school and sought to i.iake tlie 
curriculut., particularly history, classical literature, and natural 



ERIC 



III-13 

history more relevant to the lives of the pupils. Children spent less 
time on classical <^ranimar and explication of the classical texts and more 
on the nieaning and spirit of the ancients* The classical myths and 
alle<>orie8 were translated into ran's perennial struj^gle with himself ^ 
his fellow man, and his environnent. According to Delmouzos' own testi- 
mony, there was general enthusiasm auong the pupils to learn; the 
f;irls discussed school experiences with their parents and friends, and 
enga«;ed in projects during off»school hours. \Jhen the school closed and 
Delmour^os was dismissed, letters were sent to the authorities supporting 
the actions uf the teacher and urging his return* 

Within a short tire after its opening, the school and its director 
became the center of controversy. A smearing campaign was waged against 
Delmouzos and his nev7 pedagogy. According to the critics, Delmouzos* 
teachings undermined the main pillars of Greek culture, namely, religion, 
farily, nationalism, and language. Delmouzos uas labelled a revolu- 
tionary, an atheist, even a socialist. His use of the demotic, the *hairy* 
lanf^uage as it was by then derogatorily called, was viewed as an expres- 
sion of an anti-* religious and anti-national social ideolof^y. Not unex- 
pectedly, atrong those X'7ho led the attack was the local bishop. In 1911 
the school was closed and Delrouzos* activities were investigated. 
Three years later he was tried but fi.nally he was acquitted. Subsequently 
Delmouzos attentpted to introduce his ideas into a pedagogical academy, 
but af^ain there was public furor and trials. The demoticist reforme 



The full story of the Volos experiment vividly presented in 
Delmouzos' book. To Krypho Scholeio (The Secret School ), (Athens: 1950). 



ERLC 



III-14 

lived until 1956^ havln;> served for brief periods as Professor of 

Pedap.ogy at the University of Salonlca and as Minister of Education. 

Uhen he died all Greece mourned him, and Intellectuals hailed him as one 

of the p.reatest modern Greek teachers and educational thinkers! 

The Volos episode Illustrates the nature of the controversies and 

the Interplay of forces that surrounded ^^educational demotlclsm" and the 

broader Greek culture In the opening decades of the present century* 

Tlie ^'language question'' was linked with rellgloni family^ national 

consciousness I political Ideology (llberal-progresslvlsm and conservative 

traditionalism) I even bolshevlsm and masonlstn. Earlier, the demotlclst 

taskaratos had written: ^'The language cuestlon Is not so much phlloglcal 

as It is social « The nuestlon revolves around what fortn of the language 

will contribute to the Improvement, education and well->belng of the 
19 

nation." i^nd In his Introduction to The Journey , Psycharls linked the 

demotic with nation building. 

Two things are required for a nation to become a 
nation: extension of Its territorial boundaries, and 
the creation of Its own literature. VJhen It demon* 
strates that It knows i^hat the value of the popular 
language is and v;hen It Is not ashamed of this linguistic 
forn, then we will see that It has become a nation « 

Languar;e soon becan^e a burning aoclo-polltlcal Issue* The transla-* 

tlon Into the demotic of the New Testament caused public riots In /thens 



^^Ouoted from M, Trlantaphyllides, Demotlklsmos kal Antlthras8 
(Athena: 1960> , p« 166 « 

^^Ouoted from J, K# ICordatos, Historla tou Glosslkou mas Zetematos 
(G« Loukatos, 19A3), p. 117. 



ERLC 



111-15 

and the do« 'all of the goverrment. After 1910 rival organizations were 
set up around the tv;o forms of the languace (t\i Jen)Otike and the kathare- 
vousa). The derooticiat Educational Association vas countered by "Patria," 
an organization whose purpose vas to protect ''national traditions and 
ideals." The demoticist camp included the Rallla brothers, well-known 
business entrepreneurs in England and India, Greek intellectuals living 
abroad such as Eftaliotes and Vlastos, leading literary figures, such as 
Palamas, Droslnis, Ilavilis, Fallis and Xenopoulos, the linguist** Psycharis 
and Triantaphyllides, the folk-lorist PolitSe, and the already mentioned 
Delmouzos and Glenos. On the opposite side, the purist cause was . 
supported by the formidable University of Athens and the Church. In 
addition, the purist camp included all the traditional and conservative 
elements in the society, including the monarch, which were also the more 
numerous and powerful. The educational demoticism of Delmouzos and 
Glenos was countered by the purism of Exarchopoulos , who dominated 
pedagogical thought in the School of Philisophy of the Tjniversity (which 
trained all secondary school teachers) down to the decade following the 
Second World Vlar. The attack against demoticism in general was headed by 
Ilistriotes and Hadjidakis, also professors at the University of Athens, 
who incited the students to public protests and street rioting against . 
the "hairy" radical demoticists. 

The upshot of the situation was that in 1911 the language question 
was discussed in Pnrliament. This resulted in a constitutional provision 
(article 107) which declared the katharevousa the official language of 
the state. But the controversy continued during the period of the 



ERIC 



III-16 

Venlzelos ascendancy and, as noted earlier, aev) plans for a comprehensive 
reorganl'^atlon of education. The only accompllshn^ent, hovever, vjas the 
introduction o2 the derotic in the elementary schools in 1917. The purists 
continued the reaction even aeiainst such a modest change. After a tem- 
porary reversal, the demotic v;as reinstated In 1923. Thereafter it 
continued to be the language of the first four z^^ades of the elementary 
school. But it dominated the upper two grades and the post-elementary 
levels of education. The sharpness of the issue, however, was not 
blunted, '^fter the Second World Vlar a full-scale debate erupted again, 
and a najor breakthrough occurred in 196': when the Papandreou government 
pushed through Parliairent the now famous '*iSducational Reform of 196A«'' 
This episode is discussed ranre fully in Chapter VI. 

The dernoticist controversy reflects the nature and scope as well 
as the strains and stresses of educational modernization in the early 
decades of the twentieth century. Its agents included mainly Greek 
intellectuals; living abroad, others who studied in Western Europe or were 
exposed to VTestern ideas, and individuals from the Islands, and the outer 
regions of the nation. T :?y were <;enerally dratm fror tiiddle and lower 
n'iddle socio-econotric strata. Around the demoticist cause there also 
gathered the contemporary liberal social and political elements of the 
country. But deroticism and liberalism faced the opposition of the Greek 
socio-political and educational establishment which in the end proved to 
be too strong for any substantial change to be brought about. The 
opposition included the Church, generally the intellectuals associated 
with established institutions (e.g., the university and the gymnasia )^ and 
the conservative political groups. The establishment perceived itself 



ERIC 



III-17 

as the guardian of the Ireek cultural and educational traditions and 
Ideals vjhlch became Institutionalized and perpetuated after the revolu- 
tion. The country was still In the formative stage of national and 
cultural integration, and thus still In a state of fear and Insecurity. 
As a conseruence, the Invoking of emotion-ridden concepts and symbols 
such as faith, language, nation, and the classical heritage, was devaa- 
tatlngly effective in stultifying even i odest efforts at change. The 
establishment charged that demotlcism undermined the very foundations of 
the new state and was an ei^jression of "dark forces" seeking to create a 
social and cultural revolution that would de-hellenize and de-Christianize 
the Creek nation. 

But the failure of the nascent soclo-educational liberalism of this 
period cannot be explained solely in terms of the strength of an inflexible 
establishment. Liberalism itself was b.^set by ambivalences and lack of 
coordination. Tor example, the poslt5.on of Venlselos and his liberal 
followers on the language issue was rather unclear. They supported the 
Glenos proposals which led to the 1917 language reform. But at the same 
time they reiterated the previous policy that the katharevousa was the 
official language of the state and thus stymied any attempts to elevate, 
the place of the demotic. Translations of holy texts were explicitly 
forbl0^en. The Venizellsts liberals gradually became completely pre- 
occupied with other political questions and had lost their original 
social reformist zeal. Soon after 1917, the mo«*t activist wing in the 
Liberal party lost its power and the party was liberal only in name. 
Education once again was In the hands of traditional conservative elements. 



ERIC 



IV - 1 



CHAPTER IV 

FROM VENIZELOS TO KARAMANLES (1928-1957) 

The Asia Minor catastrophe aiu^ the consequent exchange of populations 
between Greece and Turkey mark a turning point in Greek history. The 
collapse of the Grand Idea was followed by political, social, economic 
and ideoT.cgical confusion. King Constantine was discredited and forced 
to abdicate. His son, George II, was soon forced into exile and a republic 
was proclaimed. Within the period 1923-1936 there were military inter- 
ventions and dictatorships and constant political instability and government 
change;.. The restoration of George II iu 1935 was soon followed by the 
Metaxas dictatorship, the Greek analogue to the contemporary German and 
Italian fascism. 

From rhe Greek standpoint, the Greco-Turkish agreement of 1923 meant 
an iriflux cf about a million and half refugees in a country of about five 
million people • Among the beneficial effects of this forced migration was 
an Increase in technical and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover, many of the 
refugees were settled in rural areas and thu3 more land was opened to 
cultivation. But the refugee settlement also created serious problems. 
Most of the newccmers were destitute aud illiterate. Although they were 
ethnically Creek, they spoke various dialects, some of which were incompre- 
hensible to the local inhabitants. Many suffered from all the psychological 
problems of the uprooted: insecurity, nostalgia for their homes, persecution, 
discrimination, and the like. In general the refugees added to the economic 
and politlcail instability of the country as well as to the larger problem 



ERIC 



IV • 2 



of social and national Integration* 

Suppori:ed by the new inmlgrants and In the face of constant political 
uncertainty^ the peacenaker and leader Venlzelos made a dramatic polltl« 
cal comeback and In 1928 a coalition party of Venlzellsta and liberals von 

an overwUdlmlng victory at the polls « Venlzelos again became Prime Minister. 

♦ ■ — 

The second Venlzellst administration (1928«*1932) was preoccupied with several 

external and Internal problems. Among the latter Venlzelos again sought 

to restructure and reorient Greek education, which, It was widely felt, 

was anachronistic. The constitution provided for slx«*year free and rompul* 

sory elementary education. But In many parts of the country only four^year 

elementary schools existed, If at all, and generally the law was not enforced. 

Illiteracy was Increased because of the refugees. In the rural areas It 

was over 70 per cent, aivicag women It exceeded 90 per cent. At the secondary 

level, there was dissatisfaction with the middle hellenlc schools. The 

available: facilities for non«»classlcal types of Instruction and training 

were limited « Both the hellenlc schools and t:he i>vmnasla were predominaatly 

literary humanistic in their orientation; and compared to the commercial, 

technical, or other more practical schools, they enrolled) fhe overwhelming 

majority of the students. Enrollments among girls were far behind those of 

boys, and there were glaring regional disparities. Access into the gymnasia 

and the instifutions of higher learning was not well-controlled, nor was it 

based on achievement criteria. There was a plethora of gymnasium graduates 

who could not be absorbed by the economy and certain faculties at the 

1 

university of Athens, e.g., law and theology^ combined to be overcrowded. 



1 

For fuller details about education during this periodi see E. G. Hears, 
Greec e, Tod ay: The A ftermath of the Refugee Im pact (Stanford: Stanford 
University Press, 1929), pp. 229 ff." Also see George Sakellarioj^, '•Greece,* 
Educational Yearbook, 1926, edited by I. Kandel (New York: The Macmlllan 
^ Company, 1927), pp. 228*^253. 

ERIC 



IV - 3 



The 1920^8 and the Second Venlgellst Administration 



In a pre-election spoach In 1928, Venlzelos declared himself favor 

of vocational education and the restriction of classical studies to the 

''selected few'* who would be the future leaders of the society. And when 

he became Prime Minister he urged the people In the rux*al areas to send 

their children to technical » vocational and other types of practical schools 

rather than to the gymnasia t Others called for the Improvement of elementary 

education: Its universal diffusion and the better preparation of the 

teachers. George Papandreou, who became Minister of Education In 1930, 

articulated the social Ideals and goals of Greek education as follows: 

Since education b'^^ongs to the State It Is obvious that 
It should be the carr: r of the mind of the State under whose 
direction It operates. Consequently the Ideals of education 
are also the Ideals of the State. The Ideals of our national 
education are the Ideals of Gteek democracy. ^•The ultimate p^ ^pose 
' of education la the f6rmatlon of.men*.;The old aristocratic .lew 
of life views Intellectual and moral cultivation as the privilege 
o of one class. At the opposite end. stands the exclusive pre* 
ference for popular (mass) culture. Democracy reconciles these 
two polarities. It recognlres thac no true culture can exist If 
It Is not shared by the popular masses • Therefore, It regards 
as Its goal and moral Intellectual elevation of all men. 
But at the same time, It considers the accomplishment of high 
culture as Its goal and glory. • .Education Is not a profession. 
It Is mainly a * mission. 2 

During the period 1929-1932 a series of laws were passed affecting 
all aspects of the educational system. Two enactments pertained to ^he 
s!!ructure of elementary and secondary education, the first successful 
attempt at a reorganization of education since the Bavarian period. 



2 

Excerpts from George Papandreou^s speechc^s during the period 
1930*32, as quoted by Ch. Lephas, ed. , To nomothetlkon Ergon tou 
Hypourgelou Patdelas katt T hreskev matS n^ Hycourgelon G. Papandrepu , 
1930*1932*. Pi ild(^la (Athenal: Demetrakos Co., 1932), Vol. 11, pp. vl*vlll. 



ERIC 



IV - A 



The Elementary Law reaffirmed the previous provision of compulsory 
attendance; it stated that elementary education included schools of general 
or 'vocational education; and it defined the purpose of elementary schools 
as "the elementary preparation of pupils for life and the provision of the 
basic elements for the formation of good (virtuous) citizens.' The course 
of studies was to last for six years and the curriculum would include reli- 
gion, the three K*s, history, geography, elements of natural history, physics, 
chemistry, agriculture and practical life, music, calligraphy, drawing, 
handicraft and physical education. Ni<;ht schools (for children who were 
fourteen years old end had not had the six years of compulsory schooling) 
were to teach the three R's, exegesis of Sunday's gospel and Acts of. 
the Apostles, national history and geography, and were to provide "the rudi- 
ments of vocational knowledge according to local needs." 

According to the Secondary Law, the previous hellenlc schools were 
abolished. Henceforth the full secondary course was to extend over six 
years (following the six-year el(>aientary school), and was to be provided 
in gymnasia and scientific (practical) lycea . The secondary stage would 
also includelall types of "normal' schools (didaskalela) , semigymnas ia , and 
middle schools for girls. Admission into the secondary schools required 
successful cpmpletion of the full elementary course and the passing of an 
entrance examination. 

The curriculum of the gymnasia was to include religion, ancient and 
modem Greek, French, « .a thematics- cosmography, physics, natural history 
and chemistry, philosophy, history, geography, music, drawing, calligraphy 
and handicraft, hygiene, physical education, and l^tin as an optional subject. 



ERIC 



IV - 5 



After the third class (grade 9) a six-year secondary school was to be divided 
into two sections: classical and * practical. The curriculum of two lower 
classes of the six*year lyceum was to be identical with that of the gytnnasiu mt 
but in the other classes the emphasis would be on mathematical and scien- 
tific scudies. 

The main purpose of secondary education was defined as ^*the 'scientific* 
preparation of those who will follow higher studies* But, the Law added, 
secondary education *^also offers the general education which is necessary 
for social life, and like elementary education, aims ar. the formation of 
good (virtuous) citizens.** 

The post- 1923 decade also witnessed an expansion of commercial educa- 
tion, the establishment of a new university--the University of Salonica--and 

the growth of the several foreign- sponsored (including many American) educa- 

* 

tional or quasi-educational enterprises. On the American educational activi- 
ties in Greece, an observer vrote: 

T*ie American educational and pseudo-educational enterprises 
in Greece stress the practical features. The schools pay marked 
attention to agriculture and the industrial trades in order to 
prepare their pupils for a useful life in their communities. 
Like the Creek schools they teach cultural subjects, but unlike 
the Greek schools they pay much greater attention to biology, 
physics, chemistry, and mathematics than to history and literature. 

During the second Venizelist period there was indeed a noticeable 

decrease in the number of pupils attending secondary general schools (from 

about 96,000 in 1928 to about 57,000 in 1932). But soon after, the same 

trend as before continued. The semigymnasla and gymnasia i which were pre- 

3 

The full text of the laws cited above is found in Ch. Lephns, 

Nomothesia Stolcheiodous Kai Meses Ekpaideuseos (Ath%ai: I.D. Kollaroff, 
1933, Vol. II., pp. 155-193, 409-A37. 

4 

Hears, 0£. cit. , p 245. 



ERIC 



IV • 6 



donlnantly literary and classical) absorbed the overwhelming proportion of 
students, while vocational, technical and agricultural schools lagged In 
both attendance, parental Interest, and prestige. In 1938, there were 
349 classical gymnasla t 15 Ivcea ^ 11 practical xlvlc* (astlca ) schools, 
and 31 conosorclal schools. Of a total of 78,000 students enrolled In public 
secondary schools, 68,000 were In the gymnasia, 3,100 In the lycea and only 
475 attended the civic schools. All In all, there were 123 technical-* 
vocational schools (agricultural, commercial, industrial, merchant marine, 
and handicraft schools) with an enrollment of 13,360 pupils.^ This uneven 
distribution of enrollments continued after the Second Uorld War and character- 
ised Greek education in the 1950*s and 1960*8, a characteristic of Greek 
education which will be discussed more fully later in this chapter. In the 
meantime, it would be helpful to conment further on the educational picture 
during the inter-war years. 

The 1929 reforms were designed to meet existing deficiencies, to 
modernize the educational system on the lines of contemporary pedagogical 
and social thought, and to accomplish certain goals. It was felt that the 
extension of compulsory popular education to six years would elevate the 
educational level of the population, especially since the vast majority of 
the children did not continue their education beyond the elementary school. 
This arrangement also seemed to be in accord with practices in other coun- 
tries. Thft elimination of the hellenic middle school was occasioned by 
several factors. A major cae was that of its twofold function, viz. , pre- 
paration for life and preparation for the gymnaslon , the hellenic school. 



Aee A. A. Pepelals, The Image of the Past and Economic Back* 
wardness, ' Human OrBAization , Vol. 17 (Winter '58-^59), pp. 20. 



ERIC 



performed solely the latter. Yet only a small minority of its graduates 
entered the gvmtiasion . The restriction in the number of classical symnasift 
and the extension of their course to six years were aimed at providing a 
continuous and adequate type of general academic instruction for the selected 
intellectual few, the future leaders of the society. Further » it was felt 
that such a restriction would result in a greater flow of students into 
practical and/or technical-vocational schools. 

In the thought of both Veniselos and Papandreou, two of the moving 
forces behind the reforms of the period 1929-1932 » one detect j a rather 
elitist conception of education in^ contemporary European meaning of 
the term. The classical gymnasion was be the school for the select few, 
the future leaders. The majority of the pupils would enter technical and 
vocational schools of shorter duration so that they would get Jobs in the 
productive .sectors of the economy. The asstimption was that the gymnasia 
would recruit the intellectual elite from all socio-economic strata. 

The objectives anticipated by the reformers were not accomplished. 
As pointed out above, no substantial change in the flow of students into the 
various types of post-elementary schools took place; students continued to 
prefer the general <iv mnasia to the practical schools. Recruitment into the 
gymnasia and subsequently into institutions of higher learning was not 
based solely on achievement criteria. In essence, the social composition 
of these institutions remained substantially the same; urban, middle and 
upper classes had more advantages than rural or working classes. 

Finally, it is important to point out that the content and orientation 
of Greek education were not affected by the organisational changes. .Schools 



ERIC 



IV - 8 



taught pretty inuch the same subjects and to the same extent as before; they 
sought to foster the same attitudes and values; and they vere based on the 
traditional concepts of Hellenism and Christianity. 

The Setond World War and Its Aftermath 
One of the paradoxical aspects of the educational policy under the 
Metaxas dictatorship (1936-1941) vas the encouragement of the demotic lan- 
guage in the schools and in other spheres of intellectual life. During this 
period, and vith government approval, a grammar of the demotic language 
appeared. But soon after Greece entered the var, a violent reaction again 
erupted. It was dramatized around the person of Kakrides, a professor of 
classical literature at the University of Athens. Kakrides published a short 
essay Greek Classical Education' In vhich he argued that classical learning 
as taught in the schools had the opposite effects upon the education of the 
students from those expected. Students were unable to enter the spirit of 
the ancients because of the undve emphasis given to form, grammar, and 
language. Further, he maintained that the modern Greeks should cease to 
worship and emulate the ancients as absolute models. He urged that modern 
Greek civilization should seek to establish its own identity using the 
classical tradition as one of several sources, not least being the modern 
popular t«.*adition. To do so, he concluded, language teaching in the schools 
must be revised. The study of the demotic should be extended, and such non- 
functional remnants as accents should be eliminated. The views of l(akride*s 
created pandemonium. The School of Philosophy of the University conducted 
hearings at which Kakrides was asked to apologize and recant his views. 
Kakrides refused. His case was then {.resented to the Senate and then to thr 



ERIC 



IV - 9 



disciplinary consnittee of the university. At the sane time a report 
was sent to the Ministry of Education. A * trial was held and 
Kakrides was suspended from his chair for two months. He resigned 
from his post and subsequently was appointed to a similar position 
at the University of Salonica. Under the government of George 
Papandreou in the 1960 's he was appointed President of the newly 
established Pedagogical Institute. With the dissolution of the 
Institute after the 1967 coup d'etat he went back to his post at the 
University of Salonica. In 1968 he resigned in protest against the 
dismissal of professors by the military government. 

The persecution and trial of Kakrides were reminiscent of the 
attack and trial of Delmouzos discussed in the previous chapter. Again 
the question of language was at the center of the dispute. Again it 
had wider ramification^ . Ral^rides was branded as leftist, radical, 
trouble-maker, even a communist sympathizer. He was undermining the 
basic foundations of the nation: language, the classical tradition, 
the holy and unquestioned patrimony.^ 

Chief among Kakrides' opponents was Exarchopoulos, professor of 
pedagogy at the unlverf^ity, a former teacher of Kakrides, and the 
same man who was also prominent in the reactions against demoticism 
earlier in the century. Exarchopoulos continued to dominate pedagogy 
in the University of Athens, which turned out all gymnasium teachers 
until the 1950 *s. 

6 

The proceedings of the trial, toget!>cr with the various memoranda 
and decisions of the School, the Senate, the Disciplinary Comnittee 
and the Ministry of^Education, were reprinted in book form. See ]{£ 
Dike t5n Tonon (Athenai: I. D. Kollaros, n.d.). 



ERIC 



IV - 10 



Ex^opoulns represented the traditional concept of educational 

culture discussed in the preceding chapters. In 1945 vhen the 

country was liberated from the Germans, he called for a "radical 

transformation' and ''reorientation" of the educational system. Among 

other things, he suggested the extension "^of compulsory elementary 

education to eight years, the establishment of a network of different 

types of post' elementary schools, including technical and vocational 

ones, vocational guidance, provision for the handicapped, further 

education, and improvement of teacher training. He also called for 

better methods of teaching (i.e., the introduction of such things as 

unified instruction ), improvement of examinations, better textbooks 

and the like. Yet Exarchopoulos contended that the general humanistic 

gymnasion should remain highly selective and the dominan*: type of 

secondary education. And in defining the ideals and aims of Greek 

education he reiterated the well-known Greek homilies: love of 

country and national ideals, "the religion of our fathers," and the 

iC 

ethnic traditions. Moreover, according to Exahopoulos, the schools 

A 

should seek to eradicate the prevailing individualism" of the Greek 
culture and the propensities toward materialism. In short, one finds 
few, if any, novel ideas that would transform the basis of Greek 
education, namely, the Greek educational culture.^ 

Post-war D eficiencies arj An achronisms 

The educational u '3lo>.rtion and destruction of the Second World 
War was scon followed equally devastating Civil War. By 1950, 



7 



See N. I. Exarchopoulos, Pros Anamorohosi n te s Hellcnikes 
Ekpaideuseoa (Athenai: Petros Detdetrakos, 1945). 



ERIC 



IV - 11 



over 70 percent of the school buildinss were either totally or 
partially destroyed or turned into ramshackle abodes of owls and 
bats;" 90 pei :ent of school equipment was lost; 7 percent of the 
teachers were killed or died of starvation; about half of the entire 
teacher corps was incapacitated or absent; and thousands of children 
were left orphans, sick, or emotionally disturbed. Continued 
political and economic instability created administrative chaos and 
general pedagogical confusion. Observers >- foreign and domestic 
found education deficient by reason of ' antiquated methods," inadequacies 
in the training of teachers, tisht political control, hidebound 
curricula, and high wastage or drop-outs. Educational and social 
stability and advancement were further hindered by the problem of 
diglossy," by lack of opportunities, by regional and educational 
imbalances, aiid by the fact that what the schools taught had little, 
if any, relation to the conditions of modem Greek life. In 1948, a 
team of Americans writing on behalf of the Twentieth Century Fund, 
found general intellectual stagnation, an indiscriminate emulation 
of the West and an arid attachment to the past. "Moat Greeks of 
the cultivated circles, they wrote, "suffer from a haunting sense of 
the present inferiority of the nation compared with the past ages of 
its glory. One manifestation of this feeling is an exaggerated 
nationalism; another is a pathetic effort to adopt the latert styles 
of thought, dress or custom in Paris or New York."^ 
— g 

Frank Soother, et. al. Report on the Greeks; Findings of a 
Twentieth Century Fund. Team Which Sjurveyed Conditions i n Greece in 1947 
(New Yoric: The" Twentieth Century Fund, 1948)', pp. 134-133. 



ERIC 



I\- - 12 



One of the major tasks of the governments after the cessation of 
both wars was to rehabilitate the system. By 1951, over 95 percent of 
the elementary school children were back in some sort of school, and 
183,570, the highest number ever recorded, attended secondary schools. 
However, the rehabilitation of the ststem did not eliminate what were 
felt to be fundamental weaknesses. Criticisms were voiced against 
virtually every aspect of the educational system and numberous proposals 
for reconstruction were made. In 1951 under another liberal government, 
a new plan for the organization of education was put forward. It 
called for the elimination of all gymnasia and semi-gymnasia , and the 
division of secondary education into two cycles: a three-year 

gynnasion (grades 7-9) followed by a three-year lyceum consisting of 

9 

two streams (classical and practical-scientific). Because of swift 
changes in the government and proposals remained on paper. 

Criticisms and dissatisfaction continued. Although elementary 
education was compulsory, a large number of pupils did not complete 
the entire pourse. (Of those entering the first grade, only about 
1/3 managed to reach the sixth). About 60 percent of elementary 
schools were one-room, one teacher establishments. Only about 45-A8 
percent of elementary-school graduates continued their education in 
some form of uecondary school; and about 30 percent of secondary- 
school graduates entered institutions of higher learning. Of the 
yearly intake Into the gymnasia, less than half graduated. In 1951, of 
a total of 734,000 students enrolled in pott-elementary (secondary) 

9 

See K. P. Papanoutsos, "Schedule of an Educational Reform," 
Paideia . Vol. 5 (August-September, 1951), p. 317. 



ERIC 



IV - 13 



schools, only about 25,000 or about 10 percent attended technical 

schools. In 1956-57, the general distribution was as follows: 203,000 

In the general gymnasia . 9,330 In the coonerclal gymnasia , about 25,000 

in lower and upper secondary technical schools, about 5,000 in lower 

and upper secondary commercial schools, 2,192 in agricultural schools, 

and about 10,000 in others (home economics, fine arts, etc.)* short, 

only abeut 25 percent of students attending secondary schools received 

acme sort of education other than that provided in the general classical 

10 

gymnasia , and a much smaller percentage, full-time education. 

Imbalances existed on several other indicators: urban-rural, 
Athens versus the rest of the country, regional, and on the basis of 
socio-economic status. Although fees were minimal, living costs, 
books, and other small items barred village children from attending 
gymnasia, all of which were located in cities or towns. Attending 
universities presented more severe hardships. 

The picture is familiar to students of comparative education. 
But in few other countries does one observe the rather monolithic 
structure that characterised Greek education in the early 1950* s. In 
this connection, it will be instructive to comment further on one 
crucial aspect of Greek education, namely the gynnaston . 
The Gymnasion 

In its nature, scope, and functions the Greek gymnasion may be 
regarded as a member of the European family which has boasted of the 

10 

See Kingdom of Greece, National Statistical Service, Statistical 
Yearbook of Greece. 1957 (Athens: National Prinitng Office, 1957), 
pp. 128-147. 



ERIC 



IV - 14 



French lycee , the English Grammar school, and the German Gymnasium , 
tot^U^Ox^^^ArSiiri^^ As noted elsewhere in 

this study, the gytnnasion vas introduced into Greece by the Bavarians 
under King Otto and it vas infused vlth the Bavarian neo-classical 
humanism. In the course of time, it epitomized the Greek conception 
of a liberal education, and it sought to instil the humanistic, reli-* 
gious, and national Idi^als as interpreted in the modem Greek nation. 
In essence humanism vas defined almost exclusively as Greek classical 
literary education. 

Socially, the gymnasion conferred status and prestige; it controlled 
access into the universities and the professions, and it donina. #d the 
secondary level of education. (About TS^p^rcent of students were 
enrolled in public and private gymnasia .) The curriculum vas uniform, 
heavily academic, heavily literary, and' heavily classical. (See Table I ) 
Of the total veekly hours, 30 percent vere devoted to classics (Greek 
and Latin), 24 percent to Classical Greek, 30 percent to Greek (ancient 
and modern), 46 percent to literary-linguistic studies i and 65 percent 
to the humanities. Less than 9 percent of the hours vera spent on 
science, and less than 20 percent on science and mathematics. Eighty-* 
five percent of the school *s subjects vera academically oriented. The 
content vas heavily oriented to the past. The ancient past received 
more attention than the Bysantine and both, more than the modem and 
the contemporary. In the study of ancient Greek and Latin, the emphasis 
vas on Grammar, syntax, and form; in short, the main aim vas to learn 
the logic and structure of the language rather than the ideas and 
spirit conveyed through it« There vas greater stresa on some ancient 



ERIC 



IV 



14a 



TABLE I 

PROGRAM OF STUDIES OF SIX-YEAR GYMNASIUM 
WITH HOURS ALLOTTED PER SUBJECT 



Subject Cla88 hcure by fttadea per week 

l8t_ 2nd Jrd ^ /♦th 5th 6th Total 



1. 


Religion 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


12 


2. 


Ancient Greek 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


51 


3. 


Modern Greek 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


18 


4. 


Latin 


- 




3 


3 


3 


3 


12 


5. 


French 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


17 


6. 


History 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


4 


18 


7. 


Mathematics , 

Vrf u If ^ ci|' n y 




A 








5 


22 


8. 


Science 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


19 


9. 


Geography 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 




8 


10. 


Home Economics 
(Only In Gymnasia 
for girls) 




•* 








m 


m 


11. 


Hygiene 










1 


m 


1 


12. 


Handicrafts 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 




7 


13. 


Music (singing) 


2 


2 


1 


1 






6 


14. 


Philosophy 










2 


2 


4 


15. 


Physical Education 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


18 




Total Class Hours 
(per seek) 


35 


35 


35 


35 


36 


37 


213 



ERIC 



IV- 15 

11 

authors and less or none on others. 

In the postwar years, particularly In r.he 1950*8, the >>vmnaslon 
became the center of controversy. It was felt that Its central 
educational and social position was a m^Jor factor In stlfUn?, techni- 
cal or other forms of practical education. The majority of students 
iravltated Into the f*,ytpnaslon which was tied to the entrance require- 
ments of the universities. Yet only about 30 percent o£ the cymnaslon 
'>raduate8 manaijed to enter Institutions of higher learnlnf;. The rest, 
ran^ln** from 12,000 to 18,000 sour^ht Immediate employment. In thla 
they encountered difficulties. The most preferred occupations 
(clerical and civil service) were saturated; and In some cases pull- 
was needed. Further, for such limited opportunities, the r ymnaslon 
".raduates had to compete with about 2,000 others who dropp -* out of 
hl^'.her Institutions. Another problem was created by the fact that the 
orientation of -^.ymnaslon students had been away from manual or tech- 
nical careers. So when they entered the labor market, they were not 
equipped with the necessary skills, or with the appropriate mental 
outlook. The result of . all these factors was that a larr;e number of 
rrymnaslon (graduates and drop-outs was either unemployed or under- 
employed. 

The ^.vmnaslon was also criticized on pedar^.o^lcal and Ideological 
grounds. The curriculum, described aoove, was hidebound and formal. 
The Helleno-Chrlstlan ldeolor;y was an Impressive and wel7,hty Ideal. 
But In the minds of many It often degenerated Into an empty shibboleth, 

^^For the program of studies In the ;vmnaslon and the distribution 
of subjects, see Vasllelon tis Hellados, Hypour<;elon Threskevmaton kal 
Ethnlkgs Paldelas, Progrananata Analytlka kal Horolo?.la Dldakteas Hvles 
(Athenal: Ethnlkon Typo'jraphelon, 1955). 



IV- 16 

or was exploited by certain ^roups to perpetu«^<* vested interests* 

Hellenism and Christianity were not clearly delinedt and they did not 

provide concrete plans or policies cor educational chan'^e. At best, 

they were not sufficient. Of course, we want our schools to turn 

out ^Greeks* and 'Christians/ * Papan outsoa vrote, 'but this is not 

suf ficient. • .we must also see to it that our youth are *enlif;htened* 

on the bi-^, problems of the contemporary world, and that they are 

12 

equipped for Khe hard stru^^gle of life,' Related to this issue was 
the concept of humanism' and humanistic education. Here af.ain, 
althou,3h a noble anv^ hi^h-^ sound in ideal espoused by everybody, it 
often was used as a catchall to perpetuate a heavily classical, 
literary, and to some an arid type of trainin^;. 

Recor.nizin<3 a widely held view that the educational system must 
be modernised in order to meet the demands of the chan^^^ing economy and 
polity, the "government in 1957 appointed a special committee to make 
a comprehensive study of the system and to propose f^,uide lines for 
chan(;e. In 1958, tha Committee on Education, as it came to be known, 
presented a report which si^^nalled the be^^innin^ of a series of le'^is- 
lative enactments and controversies unparalleled in the history of 
modern Greek education. The fermimt for educational reform culminated 
in the now famous Papandreou scheme of 1964. 



^''e. ?• Papanoutsos, Agones kal Ar:onia Yia ten Paidela (Athenai: 
Ikaros, 1965), p. 23. 

o 

ERIC 



* 



V - 1 

cnmsR V 

THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND 
THE KARAMMILES REFORMS 

Th« shortcomings and Inadequacies of the system were brought to the 
fore by publicists, educators, and political leaders who had shown particu- 
lar Interest In educational problems. Since the end of the war, several 
proposals for change were made In journals, newspapers, at public meetings, 
and In parliament. By 1957, when the Committee en Education was appointed, 
almost all who spoke abovt education and particularly those who counted 
felt that the existing situation needed drastic re«>examinatlott. Reform was 
in the air. 

Following the Committee's report, particularly in the 1960's, the 
clamor for change reached a high cresendo. During this "second phase*', 
previous factors acquired greater slgvtlflcance and new ones were addad. 
Of the highest Importance was the performance of the Greek economy, partlcu* 
larly the manufacturing Industries. Low production wac attributed In part 
to technological Inefficiencies and to the low educational level of the 
labor force. This was brought to the attention of policy makers and edu- 
cators through a barrage of studies, reports, and econo<nic development plans. 
Manpower studies, in cur^, produced estimates of anticipated total manpower 
needs in the various occupational categories. To educational reformers ona 
Af the messages of these economic considerations « hanmered further by 
•conomlsts — was that something must be done with technical and vocational 
•ducat ion. 

ERIC 



V • 2 



Tha need to strengthen this aspect of education vas felt earlier 
than the appearanc^f the economic literature* It vas even expressed by 
the staunchest clas.ilcists. But the fftonomic literature taken within the 
context of development ^ Greece's association with the European Economic 
Community I and international competitioni considerably reinforced the ur* 
gency of the problem. Technical training vas for all intents and purposes 
outside the mainstream of the educational system* It was largely provided 
through private initiative^ in evening classes ^ or through several ministries* 
In the main^ it was outside the functions of the Ministry of Education* 

All reform proposala and plans paid particular attention to techni- 
cal and vocational training as a major educational implication of econoMc 
development* Where and how it should be pvovided raised .seme questions ^ 
but in general it was fAlt that such training was the responsibility of for- 
mal institutions* Clearly, however, bringing technical education within 
the system as a whole ral^ed questions as to what its relationship was going 
to be to general education. There were variations in the several plans , 
and these will be described bolow* But in all of them the two types of edu- 
cation were viewed as substitutes rather than as complementary* 

Economic development considerations also provided further suvp^rt 

for the expansion of educational provision whether, for example, six 

years of compulsory schooling was sufficient for agricultural and industrial 

growth and ior the revision of the curriculum* In its Report on Greece, 

0«E«C*D**8 Mediterranean Regional Project put it as follows; 

It is useless to enroll vast numbers of young people 
in schools unless the education they acquire is relevant 
o to aedem life* The curricula should be designed to 
ERJC create a wide cultural outlook which, though linked to 



V - 3 



traditional values i would ensure an understanding of 
modern life and create the intellectual flexibility 
required in an era of rapid social change t They should 
be balanced and co-ordinated, not only as regards the 
relative proportions of specialised and general studies, 
but also as between the different levels of educational 

Development and manpower plans of necessity set up global educa- 
tional estimates and their recommendations— as the one cited above — 
do not provide clear-cut directives for school change. Mbreover, they 
seem to regard the educational system as a malleable and manipulable in- 
stitution« Educational reform must ultimately enliat the support and en- 
t husiasm of those most directly involved with educational natters. In 
Greece, this responsibility has been largely in the hands of educational 
"experts", university professors, and some political leaders. The ideo- 
logical orientation of such people has depended to an equally large part 
on the political and institutional interests they represent. 

The Committee cn Educatio n (1957-1958) 
What has been said in the last paragraph above is cleier^ illus- 
trated by the composition of this famous committee. Of the eleven members; 
five were professors at the University of Athens, one was the president- 
elect cf the University of Salonica, one was the president of the Athens 
National Polytechnic, and one the director of Marasleios Pedagogical 
Academy; that is, eight were members of the academic community. The com- 
mittee also included a member of parliament, an honorary member of the 

1 

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development ^ The Medi - 
terranean Regional Project » Greece (Paris: OECD, 1965), p. 33. Hereafter 
cited as M.R«P. Report. 

o 

ERIC 



BEST CC^^V /""M ABIE 



V - 4 



Higher Educational Council , and E* ?. Papanoutaos^ philosopher ^ teacher i 
educational critic, and publicist* The Consnlttee allegedly was non- 
partisan and representative of various segments of educational opinion* 
Except for Papanoutsos, however ^ all other menibers belonged to a rather 
consenratlve? wing. The power of the University of Athens Is ev^ldent« Two 
of the five tneinbers were known staunch classicists and purists. There 
were no economists^ no business representatives i and no schoolmen of oiy 
kind. ' 
General Principles 

The members of the Conodttee agreed upon certain general princi- 
ples which formed the conceptual basis of their recommendations. First , 
top priority should be given to the improvement of education **fov upon the 
good and productive functioning of the educational institutions depends 
not only the promotion of * intellectual civilisation* but also the econom- 
ic development of the country » and therefore the future of our people.** 
The economic and political significance of education was underscored as 
follows: *%}ithout grod education our national income cannot be increased » 
nor can our social welfare and stability be ensured.** Second, the State^ 
without further delay » should **demonstrate its interest by generously 
offering all the necessary economic means for the support of education and 
by mobilizing all its resources for educational growth and productivity.** 
The State should not be parsimoniouL in its spending but must indeed find^ 
as soon as possiblei the necessary financial resources ^ **so that the country 
will acquire sufficient and well-equipped school buildings as well as 
qualified and well-paid teachers.^* Third, the existing pattern of school 
organisation and the curriculumi which dated as far back as 1929 and in 



ERIC 



V - 5 



sone respects 1911 ^ needed to be modernised, for they were not In accord 

with the newly-created needs and social demands » Once again the Committee 

stressed the economic ramifications of **hls aspect of education when It 

noted that thousands of young people were coming out of school every year 

without possessing the necessary theoretical and practical skills for 

**productlve work**. This was felt be partly the result of the neglect 

of technical and vocational education. Accordingly, a fourth principle 

was that such a type of education should be strengthened* The fact that 

thousands of young people every year entered Che labor market without any 

specialised vocational preparation should be of great concern for It cre«> 

ated serious dangers **for the economic condition of the country as well ae 

our social stability/* A fifth principle was what may be called the **demD«- 

cratlsatlon** of education. In democratic countries such as Greece studies 

of longer duration should not be the privilege of the few, those who have 

the economic vtama. For political, social > and economic reasons » and for 

the well-being of all, the special talents of the able children of the 

masses must be recognised and fully developed. Hence the State ouat pro« 

vide sufficient financial assistance for talented needy youth to enable 

them to secure an education commensurate with their abilities and Incllsa- 

tlons* Finally I the Conmlttee reaffirmed that the humanlsltc Ideal » in^ 

spired by the Hellenic and Christian spirit, should constitute the founda- 

tlon of Greek education. It continued: 

...Its [education's] purpose will be to give to 
society young men and women who have free convictions t 
are Inspired by high Ideals, are faithful to God and 
country (Fatherland— jjatrls) , love their neighbor, and, 
in their own person as well as In that of others, 
honor **man** as the crowning point of creation. 



ERIC 



V - 6 



"Motivated (directed) by this noble Ideal," the Committee went ou."th«i 

• •. > 

Greek school should slve a prominent place In its curriculum to the bene- 
fits of * classical* education, not In the narrow but In the broader sense 
of the term.'* It elaborated: 

...the benefits of classical education do not only 
Include the priceless, for the mind, treasures of the 
works of the ancient Greek authors, but also mathematics 
and science in which the Greek intellect has excelled. 
Slnto msthematlcs are the basis of the physical odences... 
there Is no opposition between classical education and 
the positive sciences ... 

Particular attention should be paid to the "continuity of the Nation 
during Its long historical course." Through education, "Hellenism" 
should become a viable concept In the students' conscience. But students 
should be teyght that there are three forms of Hellenism — ancient, medl* 
eval (Byzantine), and modem — differentiated by particular characteristics. ^\ 
The Oraanleatl on of the Educational System 

The Connlttee endorsed the six-year compulsory elementary schools 
as the common base of the educational pyramid. It was pointed out that at 
the time not all children between the age of 6-12 were able to receive com- 
plete elementary education (of the total number of pupils— about 180,000— 
entering the first grade, at least one-third did not complete tl-e six-year 
course); clasnes were overcrowded (In some cases there were as many as 100 
pupils In a classroom); there was a serious shortage of el<>:mentary school 
teachers; and as many as 507. of the elementary schools were monotaxla. I.e., 
one-room establishments wlth'r^one teacher for all classes. 

Porlsmata Epltropes Paldelas. June 24. 1957-January 10. 1958 
(Athens, 1958), pp. 20-23. Hereafter cited as Porlsmata. 



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BEST cor/ liVnlLABLE v - 7 



A major concern of the Committee was secondary education. The 
six-year gynnaslott . which dominated this level of education, was criti- 
cised as being a "monolithic" type of school. For a long time the pride 
of the Greek educational system, the academic gynnaslon with Its humanistic 
(meaning largely classical) emphasis could no longer meet all the demands 
of the changing Greek society. The gymnaslen stifled any significant 
growth In scientific, technical ^r vocational education. It forced 
large numbers of students, who did not possess the ability to continue 
febelr studies In higher Institutions, to pursue the school-leaving 
certificate. The consequence of this was that as many as 50% of 
those entering gymnasia dropped out after the second or third ysar (grades 
0 or 9). Further, there was an overabundance of gynmaslon graduates who 
were not able to enter higher Institutions. This resulted In what one 
member o the Connlttee called "an Intellectual proletariat". And gen- 
erally the standards of secondary education suffered because of the In- 
creasing numbers of students who found themselves In the g)rmnasla» but who 
did not possess the requisite Intellectual competence. 

To obviate these anomalies, the Connlttee proposed that secondary 
education be organized Into two three-year self-contained cycles of gym- 
naslon studies. The first cycle was to be known as pro-gymnaslom (grades 
7-9). It would be open to graduates of the elementary school, who had 
passed a "lenient examination" In Greek and mathematics. One of the pur- 
poses would be the completion of elementary general education, i.e., 
the widening of Intellectual horlsons and the strengthening of religious 
and moral training. Another purpose would be the provision of the nec- 
essary preparatory schooling for higher studies In the second cycle and 



ERIC 



V . 8 

for the various middle-level occupations. The second cycle vould be 
highly selective and differentiated. Admission into it would depend on 
the successful completion of the pro-gymnasion course and the passing 
of a "stringent exairlnaCion" . It was to consist of four main types of 
schools: (a) classical gymnasia (ultimately nuoibering 200) with emphasis 
on "literary and historical studies"; (b) twenty classical gymnasia 
stressing mathematics and the physical sciences; (c) twenty lycea emphasising 
modem foreign languages; and <d) ten evening gymnasia and/or lycea for 
students employed during the day. 

In its conception of the scope of secondary education the Com- 
mittee also included "Vocational" education of various kinds. It re- 
pudiated the narrow definition, namely, that vocaticnal education de- 
noted special technical training in the performance of certain vocational 
skills. Instead, it proposed technical preparation (theoretical and prac- 
tical) and a broad general education as its constituent elements. Voca- 
tional education, thus interpreted, was to be regarded as a type of 
paideia. fcr its technical component "requires intellectual effort and 
promotes intellectual creativity," The State should continue to encourage 
inrtvtfte Initiative, which hitherto was largely responsible for vo- 
cational education. At the same time, however, for economic reasons 
(general economic growth), as well as for "individual success',' It is in- 
cumbent upon the Sta'-.e to coordinate and expand this form of education. 

The Committee recommended that no vocational training be given 
in the elementary schools because it was too early in a child's life 
and because it would Jeopardize elementary general education. Throe 
main types of vocational schools were proposed: (a) "lower vocational", 



ERIC 



V - 9 

for graduates of elementary schools, to train skilled laborers and lower- 
level technicians, masons, carpenters, tailors, etc.,; (b) "middle voca- 
tional," for graduates ef pro-gvnaiasia . to train adddle-level technicians — 
electro-technicians, contractors, veavers, nurse assistants, bookkeepers, 
etc.; and (c) "higher vocational", for graduates of the ^tvanasia , lycea , 
and "ndddle vocational" schools, to train radio teehnlclals, accountants, 
social fforkers, nurses, and the like. For working youths over the age 
of 14, the Committee recommended that vocational technical training be 
provided by industries through a system of arprenticeship combined with 
one-day-a-week attendance at sdiools attached to factories. For graduates 
of elementary schools in at least 100 rural communities, one-year general 
«ricultura\ courses were proposed. Lastly, creation of a unified system 

of administration, supervision, and control under the Ministry of Education 

, 3 

was stressed. 

Turning to higher education,^ the Connlttee recotimended the founding 
of a third university. This would be accompliahed in stages beginning 
with the establishment of "theoretical" branches or "faculties". A third 
university was deemed necessary for the general intellectual development 
of the country, particularly the promotion of scientific research. The 
Conmittee called for the expansion of existing departments in the satting 
up of new rlepartments under the existing faculties, e.g., (a) departments 

3 

Ibid , pp. 23-28. 

A 

The term higher education encompassed the two existing universi 
ties (Athens and Salonica), the National Polytechnic, the Higher ScHl )1 
of Economics and Business Sciences, the Panteios Higher School of Political 
Sciences, and the Higher School of Agriculture. The Pedagogical 
Academies (elenentary teacher training schools), the higher vocational- 
technicv^l schools and the military academies were not included. 



ERIC 



V . 10 



of German, similar to those of English and French, in the faculty of 
philosophy, (b) departments of statistics in the faculties of ph>«io« 
and mathematics, (c) post-graduate training programs in the faculties 
of theology for priests-theologians vho intended to minister to Greek com- 
munities overseas, and (d) increase in the number of professorships in 
the departments of political and economic sciences of the faculties of 
law. The Committee felt that an "office of international relatioos" 
should be established in the two universities and the national poly- 
technic, whose purpose would be the cultivation of scholarly contacts 
with other higher institutions abroad. It would publish annually a report 
on "the educational and original works" by the Greek institutions and 
their program of studies which would also be translated into foreign 
languages. Certain other minor changes were recounended concerning the 
internal administration and general operation of higher Institutions. 
And the Government was urged to continue its support of higher education, 
indeed to increase it substantially so that buildings, workships, class- 
rooms, hospitals, clinics, libraries, residence halls, recreation halls 
and the like would be extended and improved.^ 
The Curriculum 

The Committee on Education called for a revision of thw curriculum 

of all levels of education. Elementary studies, according to it, should 

center "in national and religious training according to the principles 

of the Greek (Hellenic) and Christian traditions." Further: 

The knowledge provided should be of an ^essential* 
as well as practical nature and should be acquired not 
through passive memorization, but through self-activity 
and critical thinking; the Intellectual world of the 
elementary school should be rooted in ^he immediate 

5 

id Ibid ., pp. 28*31. 

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V - 11 



physical and social environment of the child » and It 
should be Jn close relationship to the national folk- 
lore (songs, dances, tales, customs, ethnic art, etc.)* 
and the content of the curriculum should reflect the 
demands of contemporary society. 

On the sensitive language question ^the majority view was that the 
denotlc (free of dialectal Idioms) should be "the language of the elemen- 
tary school." However, the Committee also recommended that. In fifth and 
sixth grade readers, "texts" written In the "slirpllfled Katharevousa" 
should also be included. The grammar of this latter pure form was not to 
te taught, "systematically." In general, according to the Committee, 
"the teacher should try to instill In the conscience of the child the con- 
viction that the official language of the state (the Katharevousa) and the 
popular language (the demotic), which Is also the language of literature, 
are equivalent branches of the same national tree-trunk and their dif- 
ferentiation Is due to the long history and the rich Intellectual heritage 
of the nation."^ 

In secondary schools,, the Committee went on, more attention should 
be paid to the "spirit of classical learning" rather than the form; more 
time should be spent and more material covered In the teaching of mathe- 
matics; modern languages (French and English, in particular) should be 
strengthened; and students should be trained to express their ideas with 
"correctntDS, logic, and clarity". For the first cycle of studies, the 
pro-gymnaslon . the following recommendations were made: 

1. Eellglfin: Teaching should In the main be based on 
the Bible, the Acts of the Apostles and the Church hymns* 

Modem Greek ; The pure form ( katharevousa ) should be 
taught methodically through grammar and syntax... In 
the readers, aside from texts in the katharevousa . texts 
from recognised authors of modern Greek literature should 
be included so that students will cultivate the demotic 
language. 

O 6 
ERLC Ibid. , pp. 39-40. 



V - 12 



3« Ancient Greek : Opinion vas divided « The majority 
proposed that ancient Greek should start from the first 
class (grade 7) • The minority opinion vas that such 
teaching should be restricted to those vho intend to 
continue their studies in the second cycle or opt for it. 
The others should study the ancient texts in translation 
and dt^vote their extra time to practical subjects, e« g«, 
agriculture or handicrafts.^ 

4. Modern Foreign Language t Fre^^ch or English* 

5. Citizenship Ed ucatio n; Basic rights and duties of 
the Greek citisens to be taught in the third class 
(grade 9) . Two members (both from the University of 
Athens) held the view that this should not be a separate 
subject. 

6. Geography ; No specific recommendations except that 
it should be part of the curriculum* 

7. Handicrafts » music » the study of the local environment 
and physical education. 

For the classical gymnasia of the second cycle, the Committee 
suggested that some relaxation be made on the amount of formal classwork 
devoted to such major subjects as ancient and modem Greek and mathe* 
matics, so that students will have greater freedom to work on their own« 
On the specific subjects for the literary classical gymnasia it 
recommended that: 

1. Religious instruction be mainly on the texts of the 
New Testament (especially the Epistles of St« Paul)» on 
Church authors » and hymAography* 

2. The teaching of French or English be strengthened* 

3. Ancient Greek be taught from original and complete 
texts (not Gxcernts) • It should concentrate on great 
authorsi e«g.» Horner^ Demosthenes^ Thucydides^ Plato^ 
Sophocles. 

4« Likewise » modern Greek works of literature be taught 
in their complete version* It should concentrate on 
established authors not the very recent ones* In 
connection V7ith the teaching of modern Greek literature » 
the two forms of the language should be studied* 



7 

It is important tt> note that the first position was held by 
^11 the members from the University of Athens)* 



V - 13 

5. In the highest class (grade 12) a general review of 
the entire Greek national literary tradition should be 
taught. 

6« Latin be Included In all classes. 

1. Mathematics and physics be strengthened ^ and elements 
of advanced algebrai analytic geometry^ etc«i be added. 

8. In the higher classes elements of economics and law 
be Included and taught by a lav specialist. 

9. Under philosophyi psychology be taught in the 11th grrde, 
and in the \lt\\^ logic and history of the major philosophy ;al 
systems 9 especially the Greek. 

10. In t^e history course^ general history 9f art (ancient^ 
Bysantine and modem) more attention be given. 

And these, of course , did not Include geography, drawing, music, and 

physical education. 

All of these recommendations would apply to the scientific 

gymnasia , except that the classical content would be restricted and the 

mathematico-scientific Increased. In the lycea , Latin would be dropped 

and the hours for modem foreign languages (at least two) would be 
8 

Increased. 

Technical and vocational schools should not only train the young 
for particular vocations; they should also provide for their religious, 
humanistic and 'Apolitical** (citisenship) upbringing. The products of 
these schools should be well-equipped workers and good Greek cltleens. 
To accomplish this task, their curriculum, in addition to the special vo^ 
catlonal subjects, should include religion, Greek, mathematics and civics 
(cltieenshlp training) . 

As to higher education, the Coinnittee emphasized that its tvo 
characteristics are (a) research and the general promotion of scholarship » 

8 

Ibid ., pp. 45-49. 



ERIC 



V - 14 



and (b) the training of scholars (scientists). I.e., self-contained men 
who are able "to apply the conclusions (findings) of their discipline 
to life and promote (develop) their fields of study." (p. 64). Higher 
studies should aim at education "in depth." This means that the number 
of subjects (courses) taken by students should be relatively small. Only 
those indispensable as foundation subjects for more specialized work 
should be included in the requirements, plus one subject of general edu- 
cation (e.g., philosophy, literature, o.- history). In addition, special 
care should betaken in all institutions so that all students should 
learn adequately at least one modern foreign language. This would not 
only broaden their intellectual horisons; it would give them a valuable 
tool to follow developments in their discipline. 
The TraininR of Teachers 

The Committee stressed that the training of elementary and secondary 
school teachers was in need of improvement. Teachers were poorly 
paid and few. The State should satisfy "the teachers' Just and reasonable 
salary requests." 

It was felt that the existing two-year course In the pedagogical 
academies, which followed a full six-year gymnasion , was sufficiently 
long for elementary school teachers. There should be greater Job security 
for and improvement in the training of the teaching staff of the pedagogical 
academies; the salary scale of those teaching educational subjects 
(e.g., methods of teaching, educational psychology and philosophy of edu- 
cation) should be the same as that of the others; and the preparation of 
these latter members of the staff should be upgraded. It was recommended 
that holders of a doctorate be appointed as professors of education; that 
one of the members of the faculty hold a degree in mathematics (such am 

o 

ERIC 



individual would also be responsible for methods of teaching oathenatics 
and physics) ; that elements of the history of philosophy be introduced 
as a subject; and that a new professorship in ancient, medieval and modem 
Greek literature be established.^ 

There seemed to be greater concern with the training of secondary 
school teachers. This became particularly complicated because of the 
division of studies into two cycles. Three viewpoints were expressed. 
The sajority opinion was that teachers of both cycles (prcgynnasia and 
gyiBPasia or lycea) should have the same preparation, salary, and promo- 
tion scales. All holders of the same certificate or degree would be ap- 
pointed to schools of the first cycle, and after a ce tain period plus 
the passing of examinations, they would be promoted to positions in the 
second cycle. A second view was that the secondary school teaching staff 
should be divided into two categories; <a) second-degree teachars for 
the pr o-gvttpasia . but teachers to be educated in special departments of 
the faculties of philosophy, theology, and physics-mathematics for a perioc 
of th'^* yaars; and <b) first-degree teachers for the gymp.asia and lycea . 
who would receive the normal four-year education in the aforementioned 
faculties. Second-degree teachers, according to this view, in addition 
to their area of specialisation, should be prepared to teach related aub- 
Jects (for exsmple, a teacher of literature would teach religion, a theolo- 
gian Greek or history, and a physics teacher would teach mathematics 
and geography), and even such subjects as foreign lan{;uages, music and art. 
If they wished to be reclassified, such teachers would be required to 

9 

Ibid., pp. 42-43. 



ERIC 



V - 16 



attend the respective faculty for another year and receive the appropriate 
diploma (degree). A third view, held by only one menber of the Comnittee, 
was that the training of all secondary school teachers should be the 
sane, and should be acquired in the respective university faculties. All 
teachers, however, would be required to have preparation In one' additional 
subject such as foreign language, music, and art. 

Secondary school teachers, the Committee continued, should have 
sufficient professional training, including methods of teaching of the par- 
ticular subject. Such teaching should have theoretical and practical com- 
ponents, the latter In experimental or other types of schools. An exami- 
nation would '*iven at the end of professional education, and a special 
"title" or "certificate" be issued. All members except one expressed the 
wish that two "Institutes of Educatior." be established at the universities 
of Athens and Salonica. The purposes of these univerAlty-level 
establishments would be to conduct research into problems of education, 
particularly as they are manifested in Greece, to keep abreast of inter- 
national educational movements, and to provide special training for edu- 
cational personnel. Finally, it %fas recomnendcd that in-service training 
(six months to a year) be organized for all teachers. 

10 

Ibid., pp. 54-57. 



ERIC 



V - 17 



Reactions to the Report 

The report of the Committee on Education evoked considerable coninent, 
iDth laudatory and critical. The powerful School of Philosophy of the 
University of Athens and the Association of Greek Philologists^^ bitterly 
denounced vhat they termed "an attack on the classical l ymnasion ," and 
vhat they felt was an undermining of the Helleno-Christian huoanistic 
tradition. They recognized that there was a need for the strengthening 
of technical and vocational education, but this should be done without in 
any way affecting the supreicaey of the classical pattern. 

Another organization that spoke strongly against the report was the 
Christian Social Circle. In a special memorandum submitted to the Prime 
Minister, the Minister of National Education, and the Parliament, this 
group of right wing intellectuals was particularly critical of tlie Com- 
mittee's views on the longuage question. The language o£ the Greek schools, 
the Christian Social Circle emphasized, must be that which is provided in 
article 107 of the 1952 Constitution, namely, the simplified Katharevousa . 
The Committee's recommendation to establish parity of the two linguistic 
forms (the demotic and Katharevousa), and to abolish the teaching of the 
grammar of the pure form in elementary schools was "equivalent to the 
unconstitutional and antinational ostraclzation of the official language 
of the State from its education system, with the result that 857. of the 
''Creek people who do not go the gymnasia will be estranged from even the 
language of newspapers." In addition to being the medium of official 

U 

The Association of Greek Philologists devoted a special Issue of its 
journal Platon to a critique of the Committee's conclusions. See "The Frobleci 
of Education: The Views of the Association of Greek Philologists on the Con- 
clusions of the Committee on Education," Platon. Special Issue . 1958. 



ERIC 



V . 18 

transactions and scientific treatises, and approxinately 4/5 of the news- 
papers « Katharevousa is close to the language of the Bible and the divine 
liturgy (something of special oignificance for the Greek people) and 
"Generally it is the language which links the nation to its glorious history 
and traditions." 

The Christian Social Circle also criticized the Report's recommendation 
of secondary reorganization (it would have been better if elecentary education 
were extended to eight years, or secondary education organized into three- 
year lower schools and four-year gymnasia and practical lycea) ; the neglect 
of mathematics and physics in the revised curilculum; the differentiated 

preparation of secondary school teachers; and what It felt was a narrow 

12 

coceeptlon of vocational education. 

Similar vievis were expressed by K. D. Georgoules, well-known Greek 
scholar and General secretary of the Ministry of Education in the previous 
{jovemment of General Papagos, and at the time Director of the Secondary 
School Teacher Training College. At a meeting of the Christian Circle, 
attended by members of the Committee, members of the Supreme Educational 
Council, political leaders including P. Kanellopoulos and St. Stephanopoulos* 
and the general secretary of the Association of Sacondary School Teachers, 
Gebrgoules criticized the composition of the Committee, the ideological 
underpinnings of the Report, and its provisions concerning language, the 
organization of schools, higher education and vocational education. 
Gebrgoules said that he had declined an invitation by the Minister of 
Education to be a member of the Committee because, among other reasons, he 
did not consider the setting up of a Committee as the best way to investigate 
the deficiencies rf the educational system and to advise the governmert, 

12 

National Education: Speachas and Conclusions of the Christian Circle , 
^j^nd edition (Athens, 1967), pp. 8-12. 

ERIC 



V - 19 



He favored the mechanism of the existing Supreme Educational Council. As 
to the substance of his criticisms, Georgoulea found the Connittee's concept 
of humanism ( anthrepisaes) unclear and incomplete* it did not include 
physical culture, nor did it explicitly assert the value of the combined 
"Helleno-Christlan'* ideal. His vievs about language and reorganisation 
of schools were Identical to thoae of the Christian Social Circle (indeed 
the latter borrowed from Georgoules). He rejected the Connittee's recom- 
mendations concemin({ "lenient" and "stringent" examinations at the end 
of the firat and aecand cyclea respectively. "There are no lenient and 
strict examinations," Gebrgoules said, "but only fair examinations conducted 
according to well-eatablished procedures." He also criticised the proposal 
that the study of ancient Greek in the pro-gyanasion be supplemented by the 
use of translations of the Greek classics. "Authentic translationa," 
according to Georgoules, "present only the skeleton of concepts and deprive 
the text of its educational and aesthetic value." Further, they do not 
cultivate proper Judgment. Incidentally, Georgoules also noted that similar 
views concerning translations had from time to time been espoused by 
"nationally suspect movements" which sought to destroy national solidarity. 
Finally, he felt that in its discussion of vocational and technical education 
the Connittee ignored two fundamental principles, namely, vocational 

guidance and the "study of vocationa," meaning the relationship between 

13 

vocational education and the broader occupational life. 

Reactions to the Report were made by repreaentatives of the Aasociation 
of Secondary School Teacher8(0*/\ •M.E*) and the Teachers* Association. 

— n~ 

A. 0. Georgoules, A Speech on the Conclusions of the Committee on 
Education (Athens, John Sideris, n.d.), reprinted in National Education . 
S£* S^** PP* 2*38. 

ERIC 



V - 20 



P. Dorbadakes, the general secretary of 0./\.M.£., criticised the division 
of secondary studies into tvo three-year self-contained cycles. The 
Coonittee's assumption that this reorganisation would alleviate the problem 
of the unemployed gytmasion graduate was false. Such unemployment was not 
due to the school structure, but to Job opportunities (there were too few 
Jobs in the agricultural and the industrial sectors). The three-year 
division would have deleterious effects on the level of education of 
secondary school graduates. On the language question, Dorbadakes adopted 
a moderate course. Bo^h forms, according to him, should be taught in the 
elementary and secondary schools. The difference between OA'M.E.'s views 
and those of the Committee was that in the elementary schools the Katharevousa 
should be taught systematically in the two upper grades. And cn vocational- 
technical education, he felt that no significant step forward was made by 
the Committee: it did not consider probably occupations In the next ten to 
twenty years on the basis of the growth of the Greek economy and the existing 
government development plans, and It did not make estimatas.'of needed 
expenditures. 

E. P. AsSmakopoulos, president of the Teacher's Association, commented 
that some members of the Committee had never been involved in education and 
therefore they were not aware of its demands and needs, and he criticised 
the fact that the membership did not include representatives from the 
teachers* associations. He felt that In the upper elementary grades (fifth 
and sixth) the language instruction ibo«tld be that of the country's press, 
i.e., the nixed language or simple Katharevousa . As with the representative 
of 0. M.E., Asemskopoulos held a middle-of-the-road position. He was 

15 

P. Dorbadakes, "The Conclusions of the Cotanlttee of Education," 
Ibid., pp. 130-134. 

ERIC 



V - 21 



critical of both the "prngresslves" who favored the demotic as the language 
of elementary schools and those who wanted an archaic Katharevousa bordering 
on the ancient Attic dialect. 

The CoBsnlttee on Education; A Conmentary 

It has already been pointed out that the composition of the Committee 
left much to be desired. The absence of teacher representatives or edu- 
cational practloners Is difficult to Justify. Fui'ther, one of the 
Coonlttee's major concerns was the educational deme Js of techno-economlc 
development, particularly In the area of techalcal and vocational training. 
Yet no menber of the Committee can be said to have had any expertise In 
how technical skills are developed, nor In the relationship between edu- 
cation and economic growth. E. P. Fapanoutsos, a key member, had spoken 
and written extensively on technical and vocational education, but his 
general orientation lay more In the pedagogical or "educational " aspects 
of the subject rather than In how It Is woven Into the processes of 
economic development. D. Plppas, President of the Athens National Polytechnic, 
was a llmenologlst (an expert on ports), uhlle L. Zervas was 
a professor of physical sciences. Added to this was the rather unusual 
presence of two professors of law (Ch. Fraglstas of Salonlca and A. Tslrlntanls 
of Athens), neither of whom had any strong background In economics or any 
branch of the pedagogical aclences. 

Many critics argued, with good reason, that most members of the 
Connlttee knew very little about the educational problems of the country 
and for that matter about problems of education (meaning largely formal 

15 

E. P. Asemakopoulos, "The Conclusions of the Ccmnlttee on Education," 
Ibid ., pp. 135-143. 



ERIC 



V - 22 



schooling) In general. In his "Educational Remlnlscencea (Memoirs)," 

prepared at the request of the present author, E. P. Papanoutsoa, who wrote 

noat of the Report, made the same point: 

The only things the academic professors (vlth the exception 
perhaps of Mr. C. Bones) knew directly were the organisational 
and educational affairs of the university faculties, and It was 
mainly from this optical angle that they looked at the subject 
of Education ( Paldela) . Their ideas were general and they 
expressed the views of the conservative circles. Among these 
one should include G. Palalologos (who had served as General 
Secretary under the Ministry of T. Tour covasi lis...). As 
a matter of fact one of them (the technologist D. Plppas) was 
so ignorant and so Insistent on his anachronistic educational 
"ideas" that on many occasions he was infuriating. (It was he" 
who seriously maintained that we should return to the old 
organisation of the Bavarians: four-year gvmnasion . andthat 
we should begin the teaching of the Katharevousa . the only 
Greek language, in the first grade of the elementary schools.)''^ 

Papanoutsos has also maintained that the ideological orientation of the 

majority oa the Comnittee was conservative. And this was perhaps not 

unexpected in view of the fact that the Comnittee was appointed by a 

right-wing government, that of Premier Constantlne Karamanles. 

The linking of educational with political conservatism has not been 

uncommon in modem Greek social thought. Conservatism in education by 

and large has signified adherence to unsullied traditional values and 

ideala such as purity in language (Katharevousa), classicism (unquestioned 

loyalty to the Greek classics which ihottld be studied in the original), 

religious orthodoxy, and literary humanistic learning, progressivlsm or 

liberalism has denoted educational demotlciiim (the elevation of the demotic 

form of the Greek language) and » rather broad interpretation of the 

Helleno-Christian ideal which has always been considered as the Ideological 



R — 

E. P. PapanouttOfl, "Educational Reminiscences (Memoirs)," Unpublished 
document, pp. 60-61. I am most grateful to Mr. Papanoutsos for prefer ing 
this invaluable docutrcnr at ny request* 



ERIC 



V - 23 



foundation of Greek culture end education* Among spokesmen of the 

conservative-traditional ideolo.:^ were the previously mentioned Georgoules, 

C. Vourvere's, another emire.nt cla'^sical scholar, 1. Theodorakopoulos, 

Professor of Philosophy at the University of Athens and wember of the 

18 

Coomlttee, P« Bratsiotes, member of the Academy and Professor at the 

19 

University of Athens, and C« Spetsieris, Professor of Pedagogy at the 
University of Athens* 

Of the two universities, the University of Athens, particularly the 
Faculty or School of Philosophy, had consistently taken a conservative 
stand in education. By tradition dating back to its foundation in 1837, 
the University of A hens has assumed the role of defining and preserving 
the ideals of Greek culture; and its School of Philosophy has assumed the 
role of defining and articulating the goals and content of education* 
Still under the influence of nineteenth century German classical neo- 
hunanism and German educational idealism, the School has consistently 
fought the demoticists (the latest example was the persecution and trial 
of Kakrides referred to earlier) , and any attempts to circumscribe the 
educational and cultural centrality of classical learning* Among other 
things, this has meant strong reaction against any attempts to ^restrict 
tYm influence of the classical yymnasion , to shorten the amount of time 
devoted to the study of ancient Greek or to read the ancients in translation* 

— n~ 

9*!e Constantine I* Vourveres, Classical Education (Athens, 1957). 

18 

P* Bratsiotes, "National Education and the Helleno-Chrlstian 
Civilization," reprinted in National Education . 0£* cit* . pp* 75-84. 

19 

See C. Spetsieris, The Values of the Helleno-Christian Civilitation 
(Athens, 1965)* 



ERIC 



7-24 



In mentioning the University of Athens one must bear in mind the central 
place it has occupied in modem Greek life and thought. 

Most political leaders, intellectuals, and other elites received their 
education at the University of Athens. In addition most secondary school 
teachers of literature, religion, history, cl.issics, languages, mathematics 
and so forth vere graduates of this institulion. Athens has controlled 
access to the professions ; the world of letters and the arts, and to 
educational and political leadership positions. The significance of the 
University of Athens in educational policy-making has equally been great. 
Education poli^v-makers have frequently enlisted the cooperation of the 
university in formulating and carrying through their plans of action. In 
most cases the School of Philosophy in particular has deliberated, issued 
memoranda, made statements to the press, and generally sought to influence 
policy. Its views are never taken lightly: they are discussed in Parlia- 
ment, in scientific and literary Journals, in the newspapers, at soetings 
of teacher organisations, and at round-table conferences. 

In view of the above, and given the overrepresentation of the University 
of Athens on the Committee, one is not surprised at the relative absence 
in the Report of any views or recommendations that could becalled "radical." 
Except for the rather mild modifications concerning language in the 
elementary schools, tra^dtional values, orientations and assumptions or 
what may be called the traditional educational "culture," centerlne^ in the 
Helleno-Christlan ideology, were upheld as the foundation and essc'vu-: of 
Greek education at all levels. One finds the persistence of the theory 
of faculty psychology and its associated doctrines of mental discipline 
and transfer of training; the view that certain areas of study, notabl>' 
classical Greek and mathematics, are Intrinsically superior for intellectual 



V - 25 



development; a rather restricted Interpretation of humanistic education 
(again mostly revolving around the classical literary traldtlon) ; the 
attitude that the authority of Orthodoxy and the classical civilization 
should be unquestioned; and the notion that Hellenism and Christianity 
arc Interdependent and mutually reinforcing. 

Despite the llp-servlce paid to the techno-economlc significance •f 
education and the claims made on behalf of technical and vocational 
education, one detects the Implication that such an educational orientation 
Is at best a necessary evil. Technological civilizations promote the 
material and- hence the bannr (in Aristotle's words the "banausic") aspects 
of human life. True culture and consequently education must be concerned 
with the essence of man which Is spiritual and which can be sought through 
the study of the humanities or through classical education. As stated 
above, there were some variations In Interpretation, but basically all 
those who articulated the uoais of Greek culture and the Greek educational 
Ideology agreed on fundamental principles. Hence, It Is really doubtful 
whether another group of Greek Intellectuals and educators could have 
come up with radically different views and recommendations. 

The Policy of the Karamanles Government! The Re forms of 1959 

The Report of the Conmlttee on Education was presented to Prime 
Mlnlstar Karamanles amid pomp and ceremony. It was reported that the 
Prime Minister expressed great satisfaction and that at long last he had 
an educational program before him which he was going to put Into effect 
quite soon. On the 21st day of March, 1959, he announced that the Covcrnmenc, 
having taken into account the conclusions of the Committee and the views of 



ERIC 



V - 26 



other authorities, was submitting certain ^^legislative and administrative 

y 

measures^ based on the various suggestions and recommendacione. One of 

the planned changesi Karamanles pointed out^ was **the reform of Greek 

20 

education in favor of vocational and technical education/* Another 

statement issued the same day reaffirmed the Government's intention to 

give a techno-^economic bent to education and outlined the main provisions 

of the new measures. A more detailed announcement was made on March 23 ^ 1959 ^ 

21 

by Mr. G. Voyatzes^ the newly appointed Minister of Education. 

The Prime Minister's statement implied that the new measures were 

basedy in part^ on the Coninittee*8 recommendations # But in his '^Educational 

Memoirs/' E. P. Papanoutsos bitterly noted that the Committee's Report 

wai« buried in the cupboards of the Ministry of Education and forgotten* His 

recollections are rather interesting! 

The fate of the Conclusions of the 1957 Committee on 
Education was rather strange. Before Parliament had completely 
finished its work it was dissolved^ elections were proclaimed^ 
the National Radical Union won, and Constantine Karamanles 
formed the new government • We were all anxiously waiting for 
something new and decisive to happen in the educational sector. 
For, when at a ceremonial gathering in the Ministry of Education 
(pictures were taken, the speeches were taped for radio, and 
the press gave the event extensive publicity) the Prime Minister 
received the Report from the chairman of the Coionittee, he 
expressed satisfaction, and he announced that the Government 
now had a program for the improvement of education, which he 
was going to put into effect rather soon# But events took a 
different turn from that foi^een by our optimism^ Mr. A. 
Gerokostopoulos, who had directed the work of the Committee 
and who had become familiar with educational matters, was not 
retained as Minister of Education. He was replaced by the 
inexperienced Mr. G. Voyatzes (a civil engineer) who had 
served as Minister of Commercial Navigation in the previous 
government • To ^he post of General Secretary was appof ^ted 
Mr. Ch. Solomonides , a politician and literary writer, who was 
also a stranger to the field of education* The situation 



20 

Kingdom of Greece, Ministry of National Education and Religion, Studies 
and Coordination Service^ Bulletin of the Studies and Coordination Service , 
Vol* C. No, V-Vl (1959)* 
21 

^ Ibid ., pp, 9-18, 

ERIC 



V - 27 



grew worse a little later when Mr. P. Kanellopoulos entered 
the government as Deputy Prime Minister. In those years 
Mr. r. Kanellopoulos was shifting politically and was 
espousing more and more extreme conservative views. Such a 
reputation brought him closer to those politico-literary 
circles which allegedly were worried about the dangers that 
awaited the "helleno-christian" upbringing of the youth 
of our country following the "very daring" recommendations of the 
Conmittee on Education. With the cooperation of^the theologian, 
P. Bratsiotes, his Christian Circle, K. Georgoules, and the 
Association of Classical Philologists known as "Platbn," these 
circles organized themselves for the purpose of reacting against 
any deviation from ancestral traditions on the part of the 
National Coicmittee . 

One afternoon, Papanoutsos goes on, Kanellopoulos called him in his office 

for a "conference." There he found Mr. Voyattes (the Minister of Education), 

Mr. K. Tsatos, another member of the new Cabinet, and the latter *8 

close friend, Mr. I. Theodorakopoulos . The purpose of the meeting was 

to discuss the form and the program of studies of the gvmnasion , within 

the framework of basically a "humanistic education." Whereupon Papanoutsos 

referred to the Committee's Report ana stated that the Government had 

before it concrete proposals. All it had to do was to study them and 

decide accordingly. Mr. Tsatsos and Mr. Voyatses were inclined to agree 

with Papttuoutsos but Mr. Theodd'rakopoulos "started developing his very 

conservative ideas which had not found a favorable response from most 

members of the Connittee." It was clear, according to Papanoutsos, that 

'At, Kanellopoulos had no intention of paying special attention to the 

work of the Commiteee. Unfortunately the Report was completely forgotten. • 



?2 

Papanoutsos, o£. ci t . , pp. 64-6!). 



V - 28 



In any case, one year after the appearance of the Report of the 
Comnlttee on Education, i.e., in 1959, the government pushed through 
Parliament seven pieces of legislation affecting several aspects of the 
educational system, e.g., the organisation and administration of general, 
technical and vocational education, the supply of teachers and super- 
visory personnel, the pedagogical academies, and the school for kindergarten 
23 

teachers. 

Whether by Intent or happenstance, the views of the Committee and 
the Karamanles government converged on certain broad policy goals and 
principles: That educational policy must consider the social and techno- 
economic needs of the coutftry, that technical and vocational education 
should be coordinated and strengthened, that secondary education should be 
made more flexible and democratic, that the curriculum should be revised 
and modernised, and that education should be basically humanistic. 
Karamanles Klnself seemed to have had a broad vision o£ humanism* 
"Humanistic education," he once said, "Is Indispensable for everyblvlllsed 
man... But, under such a slogan, It Is a mistake to stifle contemporary 
trends In the applied sciences and the technical training of youth. 
There Is no contradiction between these two educational Ideals." Affirming 
that the humanistic Ideal should continue to pervade Greek education, the 

53 — 

^ The text of the main law Is In Kingdom of Greece, Legislative Decree 

M . 3971, "On Technical and Vocational Education, Organisation of Secondary 
Education and Administration of Education," Government Gaaette , I, No. 187 
(September 7, 1959). Also see Kingdom of Greece, Legislative Decree 
No. 3973, "On the Unification and Coordination of the Administration of 
Vcoatlonal Education," Government Gasette . I, No. 187 (September 7, 1959). 



ERIC 



V - 29 



governement sought to implement the abovementioned goals by reorganizing 
secondary education and restructuring technical and vocaticnal education. 

Government policy deviated from the recommendations of the Committee 
in the organisation of secondary education. Instead of two " self-contained" 
cycles, the new measures provided for a "two stage" t^ymnaeion t a three- 
year "junior" or lower and a three-year "senior" or higher stage. The 
primary alia of the "new gymnasion" would be to provide a general education; 
a secondary aim, professional or vocational training. The curriculum 
of the Junior stage, uniform in all schools, was to be based on the 
concept of "general humanistic paideia ." basically denoting such subjects 
as ancient and modern Greek, religion, and modem foreign languages. In 
addition, the curriculum would include mathematics, physics, history, 
geography, handicrafts, music, physical o«ducatlon, and civics. During 
this stage the interests and abilities of the pupils wuld be determined 
and appropriate educational and vocational gulunnce provided. At the 
succentffful coiopletion of the three-year course, students would receive 
a school-leaving certificate for further education in the senior stage 
or upper school, or in technical and vocational schools, and for entrance 
into minor clerical occupations. 

To provide flexibility, parity, and better vocational orlentatlou, 
the upper stage was to be differentiated into eight streams or types of 
gymnasia ; purely classical, scientific, technical, economic, agricultural, 
maritime, foreign language, and home economics. Each of these schools 
or btdnches was to perform a dual function: prepare for higher studies 
in corresponding university faculties or higher -^.stltutions and for 



ERIC 



V - 30 



direct employnent in corresponding occupatlonel categories. All school- 
leaving certificates would be regarded as equivalent for entry Into 
Institutions of higher learning. In order to tnake this possible, and 
ensure the acquisition of humanistic culture, a core of subjects (ancient 
and modem Greek, one modem foreign language, physics and nathenatlcs) 
vould be required of all students In all types of schools. Tables II 
and III Indicate the weekly tine-tab^ e of the various types of schools 
as developed after the 1959 reform... 

TABLE II 

Program of Studies of Junior Stage (Gradjs 7«9) with 
Hours Allotted per Subject 



Subject Class Hours by Grades per Week 







2nd 


3rd 


Total 


1. Religion 


2 


2 


2 


6 


2. Ancient Greek 


7 


7 


8 


22 


Modern Greek 


4 


4 


4 


12 


Modem Foreign Languages 
(Fr. or Eng.) 


3 


3 


3 


9 


5. History 


3 


3 


3 


9 


6. Civics 


m 


m 


1 


1 


7. Geography 


2 


2 


2 


6 


8. Mathematics 


4 


4 


4 


12 


9. Physics (Science) 


4 


3 


5 


12 


10. Eaudicrafts 


2 


2 


1 


5 


11. Music 


2 


2 


1 


5 


12. Physical Education 


3 


3 


2 


8 


13. First Aid 


m 


m 


1 


1 


14. Home Economics (for girls) 


2 


2 


2 


6 


15. Study of the Efivlronnant 


1 


1 


m 


2 


Total Class Hours 
(per week) 


39 


38 


39 


116 



ERIC 



V - 31 



TABLE IXI 

Program of Studies of Senior Stage (Grades 10-12) in 
Different Branches With Hours Allotted Per Subject 





Subject 




Class Hours by grades per 


week 








ls( 






2nd 






3rd 




1. 


Beligl.cn 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2. 


Ancient Greek 


8 


6 


7 


8 


6 


7 


8 


6 


7 


3. 


Mbdern Greek 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4. 


History-Civics 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 


2 


5. 


Latin 


3 


_ 


3 


3 




3 


3 




3 


6. 


Mod. For. Languages 


3 


3 


9 


9 


3 


9 


9 


3 


9 


7. 


Math-Cosnography 


4 


7 


3 


4 


6 


3 


5 


8 


4 


8. 


Physics-Science 


3 


6 


2 


4 


6 


3 


4 


6 


4 


9. 


Geography 


1 


1 


• 

1 


1 


1 


1 




- 


- 


10. 


Handicrafts 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 




- 


2 


- 


11. 


Music 


1 


1 


1 














12. 


Hygiene 








1 


1 


1 








13. 


Physical Education 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


14. 


Philosophy 








2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


15. 


Home Economics ( iris) 


2 






1 






1 






Total (oot counting 
Home Economics) 


36 


36 


36 


37 


37 


38 


37 


38 


38 



A comparison between the curriculum of the old and the '*new" classical 
gs-mnasia shows that in the latter the numbei^f hours devoted to ancient 
Greek decreased by kbout one weekly hour per class, and that devoted to 
modem Greek increased by the same amount. The amount of time allotted 



V - 32 



to modem foreign languages increased by about one weekly hour per class, 
and English vas Introduced (previously it was French) . There were some 
even minor increases in the time allotted to mathematics and science. 
In history one hour en civics was added in the last class. One should 
also mention the modicum of time allotted to "first aid** and to study 
of the environment in the lower school. In general, the distribution 
of studies in termsjof humanities vs. sciences, literary-linguistic versus 
other subjects, etc., remained substantially the same in the new gynnasia 
which were also to be the most widely provided. In the other branches or 
schools (scientific, economic, etc.) *'here were variations in emphasis 
depending on the type. But the amount of time allotted to religion, 
ancient and modern Greek, history, geography, philosophy and such 
*'mlnor'* subjects as physical education, music, hjgiene, and the like 
remained substantially constant. 

There were no substantial variations in the syllabi for each course 
in the classical schools. Conceivably teachers approached their subject 
differently or injected a different content. However, in a system such 
as the Greek which has been dominated by university entrance examinations 
and where teachers are expected to follow the prescribed syllabi to the 
letter, it is unlikely that such a curriculum change took place. 

Spokesmen for the reforms .taw the differentiation of the upper 
8ta<' t as an attempt to bridge the gap between the general-humanistic 

25 — 

For the program of studies and the syllabi, see G. Th. Fitsinos, 
ed., Ta Analytika kai Horologia Frogrammata ton Gymnasion (Codes) . 
(Athens, 1963). 



ERIC 



V - 33 



and vocational education, and as part of the gove iinent policy to give 
a "techno-economlc" bent to the secondary system. ^'^ In connection 
with the latter point, it should be mentioned that the 1959 laws provided 
that all coimnercial practical schools were to be converted into commercial 
gymnasia; all urban practical schools into vocational schools; and many 
classical gymnasia into technical equivalents. 

The measures perceived to bear more directly 6n the techno-economlc 
emphasis were those relating to the^rganization, expansion, and coordination 
of technical and vocational schooling. This form of education was believed 
to have been neglected to a degree that was affecting negatively the 
economic development of the country. Vocational schools were under the 
supervision and administration of several ministries, and In proportion 
to the stvmnasia . they catered to a small number of students. In 1958-1959, 

there were 39,82A youths attending vocational schools compared to 239,648 

26 

who attended gymnasia . 

Legislative decree No. 3971 authorized the establishment of a three- 
graded system of schools: (a) two four-year higher technical schools 
for "sub-engineers," attached to the National Polytechnic of Athens and 
the Polytechnic of the University of Salonica; (b) six three-or four- 
year secondary technical schools for technical assistants and foremen; 
and (c) lower vocational schools (one to four years In duration) for 
craftsmen and skilled agricultural xwrkers. All three types of instl 
tutlons would provide both general education and vocational training, 

25 

See, for example, N. A. Antonakaki, "The General Principles of 
Reform of Education," in Kingdom of Greece, Ministry of National Education 
and Rcligf at* Studies and. Coordluatlon Service, Bulletin . Vol. C, No. 
V-Vl (1959), pp. 37-39. 
26 

Ibid., pp. 22-23. 

ERIC 



V . 34 



the emphasis on the latter to depend on the grade of school. The law also 

authorized the establishment of a college for teachers of vocational 

and technical education, a general directorate for technical education 

in the Ministry of Education, and two higher educational councils for 

the preparation of curricula, the study of text-books, and personnel 

administration. Another decree (No. 3973) placed all kinds and levels 

of technical and vocational schools, except three special schools, under 

the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and established a co-ordinating 

council for vocational education again under the central Ministry* 

Reactions to the 195 9 Reforms. Com ments and Observations 

As with the Report on the Coanlttee on Education, certain groups 
criticised the 1959 measures as inimical to the traditional Helleno- 
Christian humanistic ideal. Again the strongest criticism came from the 
School of Philosophy of the University of Athens. In a special announcement 
in March, 1959, when the government proclaimed its plans, the School 
objected to the proposed organisation of secondary education into Junior 
and senior sections. Such an arrangement, it said, "would militate against 
the humanistic education of the pupils, for it would render the adequate 
organisation of the curriculum of the senior section impossible*'* The 
School also criticised the proposed equivalence of school-leaving 
certificates. This would create a situation whereby graduates of 
technical or other practically-biased gyanasia would seek admission to 
the theoretical departments of the viiiversities for which they would be 
ill-prepared, instead of going directly into vocations for which they 
would be trained. Such equivalence, would, furthermore, not be recognised 
by foreign universities, thus the value of the avanasion studies would be 
lowered* 

ERIC 



V - 35 



The School of Philosophy did not object to the strengthening of 

technical education and the replacenent of weak gymnasia by technical 

schools. But it cautioned against the employment of teachers who did 

not possess the requisite scientific and pedagogical knowledge and 

27 

"moral and national sentiments." 

Two months later, in a special memorandum on the same subject, the 

jtehool accused the government of using technical education as a "slogan" 

28 

in order to "cripple classical education." 

The projected establishment of technical and other practical gymaeU 
was also criticised by the Federation of Secondary School Teachers. 
Although this grcup applauded the attempts to develop technical and 
vocational education, it expressed "strong doubts" at the desirability 

of setting up "mixed" gymnasia where both general vocational 

29 

instruction would be offered. 

Following the 1959 enactments, some changes took place, but in 
general they were not as far-reaching as some had optimistically predicted. 
At the administrative level two general directorates (one for general 
education and the other for vocational education) were set up within the 
Ministry of Education. In addition, the Studies and Co-ordination .service, 
established in 1956 for the purpose of conducting research into problems 
of education and advising the Ministry on educational legislation, seems 
CO have become more active under the leadership of Mrs. M. Dendrinou 

Z7 

Reported in Ethnlkos Keryx (national Herald) . March 27, 1959. 

28 

Reported In Eleutheria . May 14, 1959. 

29 

Reported in Ethntkos Keryx (National Herald) . March 27, 1959. 



ERIC 



V 



Antonakaki who played an important part in the 1959 changes. In pursuing 
the policy of giving a practical bent to Greek education, commercial 
secondary schools were renamed conoercial gymnasia ; the nuid>er of practical- 
scientific sections in the gymnasia was increased; some new types of 
gymnasia (agricultural, technical, foreign language, home economics) 
were established, although they appeared to be new "only in name;" and 
•ix technical secondary schools began operating In the provinces. As 
to curriculum, in the lower secondary stage the time devoted to mo.thematlrcc 
and physics was increased somewhat, and a short time was allotted to 
civics, first aid, and "study of the environment." As noted above, 

new programs of study for the gymnasia we re drawn, but these, for the 

30 

moat part, remained on paper only. 

The climate that surrounded both the Committee's Report and the 1959 
reforms reflected a basic conflict in the pedagogical mind of contemporary 
Greece, \fhile there was a general recognition of the need to revamp 
the entire system of education and to strengthen technical and vocational 
education, there was also a strong backward pull of a deeply entrenched 
tradition of classical-Christian humanism. This tradition, represented 
moat purely by the School of Philosophy of the University of Athena, the 
Church, and secondary school teachers organisations continued to exert 

30 

For developments and unsolved problems in the immediate years 
following the 1959 reforms, see Kingdom of Greece, Ministry of National 
Education and Religion, Studies and Coordination Service, Bulletin of the 
Studies and Coordination Service . Vol. C, Nos. 5-6 (in Greek), Vol. D. 
No. 1 (in English), Vol. D., Nos. 2-3 (in Greek), Vol. E., No. 5 (In 
English), and Vol. E., No. 6 (in Greek). Included In this series is a 
report by a foreign expert, Lionel Elvin, Director of the Institute of 
Education, University of London; Vol. E, Nos. 3-4 (1962). 



V - 37 



a powerful Influence In the formation of educational policy and Indeed 

In the minds of moot peopjc. An analysis of the debates shows that those 

responsible for the nev legislation were as much the apologists as the 

critics of the "eoek tradition. In answer to the objections of the 

School of Philosophy, Mr. Voyatses, the Minister of Education, stated 

that the school had "misrepresented" the decisions of the government. 

The proposed technical gywoasla as well as all the other technical and 

^ ^ 31 

vocational schools were going to be based on a humanistic education. 
In his first official announcement of the plans. Premier Karamanles 
stated that the decision to shift part of the emphasis on education to 
the economic-technical training of youth "should not be Interpreted as 

abandonment of the traditional humanistic Ideal which will continue t« 

32 

be the basis of all forma of Greek education." And in introducing 
the bills to the Greek Parliament, C. Aposkltes vigorously defended 
the proposed changes, but at the same time asserted that "under no circum- 
stances" should the Hcllcno-Chrlstlan Ideal be sacrificed, for a general 
humanistic education "constitutes the roots and the trunk of Greek 
educatlon."^^ Ho wonder then that Classical Greek continued to be a 
requirement in all the senior streams and in most of the technical schools. 

The twin principles that educational policy must consider the demands 
of the economy and that In the education of youth schools should pay more 



31 

Reported In Ethnlkos Keryx (National Herald), March 27, 1959. 

32 

Prime Minister's Office, Information Department, OfflclalAnnojmce^ 
ment of the Prime Ministe r o n the Educational Refo nui* of March 22. 1959. 
Ref. No. 5460, March 23, T9T9, p. 1. 
33 

Speech Delivered bv C. Anoskites. Member of Pa rliament from Arcadia, 
on the Education Bill 3971. June 23, 1959, pp. 6-7. 



ERIC 



V - 38 



attention to occupational opportunities and "human resource development" 
seems to have become "respectable" elements 'n the Greek conception of 

paideia . Yet, neither the Committee's racomoendations nor the govern- 
ment 'a policy reveal any clear understanding- of precisely how schooling 
it or should be related to techno-eeonomlc needs or Is to be woven into 
the processes of economic growth. It is now recognised that the organi- 
sation of skill development, particularly at the middle-level of technical 

competency, is much more complicated than the mere building of technical 
and vocational schools or the Introduction of practical studies Into 
the curriculum. One needs to know more about people's preferences 
regarding educational outcomes and about the motives, aspirations, and 
expectations concerning different types of schooling. Equally relevant 
for policy guidelines is knowledge about the conditions under which 
various kinds of competencies and skill s are fostered and cost-benefit 
assessments of althenative methods of training. Throughout the report 
und the policy plans one detects the questionable assumption that in 
all cases technical competencies and skills and different vocational 
aspirations are best developed through formal technical or vocational 
schooling or through changes in the curriculum. Further, neither the 
Committee nor the government considered societal factors which influence 
what goes on inside the schools. In this connection there were conspicuous 
gaps on such questions as the utilisation and effective allocation of skills, 
the attitudes of employers toward schooling, the structure of Incentives 
(employment rewards and opportunities), and the educational require- 
ments for employment. While the Committee and the government talked 
about Greece's technical manpower needs, they did not seem to pay 



ERIC 



V - 39 



much attention to how people vould be attracted to make different choices. 
Once again they aseutned that by manipulating schools ^ the necessary 
supply would be automatically forthcoming. 

Nevertheless^ one should rot underrate the fact that new Ideas ^ 
albeit deeply enmeshed In traditional ones^ were exposed to public 
debate. There were signs that the stranglehold of age«-old Institutions 
and views beginning to loosen. Or at leaat there was a continuing 
clamor for change. 



ERIC 



CHAPTER VI 

THE PAPANOREOII REFORMS AIID THE GREAT DEBATE 

Discontent and a clamor for change continued In the 1960'8. Indeed^ 
dissatisfaction over the existing state of affairs seems to have increased, 
despite the very recent le.^islative enactments. Undoubtedly this was 
partly due to political reasons. Educational policy in Greece, as it should 
have become clear by now, has always been the storm-center of partisan 
political controversy. Not unexpectedly, therefore, the political circles 
which were not sympathetic to Kar :manl£8 and his rulin.-* ERE (National Radical 
Union) castl<»ated the 1959 reforms. Partisan animosity, however, was also 
accompanied by the kind of criticism discussed in the previous chapter, 
oarticularly the belief that th« sovernment, despite much rhetoric, was 
not taking steps to brin'j education more in line with the techno-economic 
needs of the country. Georf»e Papandreou, for example, the leader of the 
Center Union party, charrjed that the "sovernment was parsimonious in the 
allocation of funds to the schools and did not view education as a form 
of investment. Motivated by political but also ideological reasons, 

liberals' and prosressives char:^.ed that fjross rejjional disparities 
were not alleviated and soco- economic factors affected differential access 
to schools, particularly the universities and -other institutions of higher 
learning. Schools, according to many, continued to be inefficient, over- 
crowded, and controlled by vested Interests. 

Concern over the inadequacy ^of the educational system, however, was 
more r;enerr.ll«ed. This was evident when education wac discussed in relation 
to the development of the country* 



ERIC 



VI-2. 

D's velopment and Education 

Greece's association with the European Common Market, the world-wide 
Impact of technology, and the world-wide push for modernisation hlghllshted 
the inadequacies In the socio-economic structure and tn skill and manpower 
development. The Ministry of Education throuf5h Its Studies and Coordination 
Service issued reports, memoranda, and other documents stressing educational 
and manpower shorta<>es, particularly of scientific and technical personnel, 
and generally emphasizing the need for an educational-economic readjustment. 
Some of these were prepared for the Or'^anleation for European Economic Co- 
operation (O.E.E.C.) or the Or'janization for Economic Co-operation and 
Development (O.E.C.D. ) set up in 1961, and of which Greece was a member. 
In a report to the Governlnr; Committee for Scientific and Technical Personnel 
of O.E.E.C. In 1960, Mrs. N. D. Antonakakl, head of the Studies and Coor- 
dlnatlortServlce, spoke favorably on the 1959 reforms and the ensuing 
developments, but also noted that there were "no exact data on the existing; 
and necessary technical and scientific personnf.l in Industry, education, 
reseaxch and agriculture. On the basis of what was available, she pointed 
to 8horta'?es of teachers, particularly of physics and foreign languages, 
of technolo:5lsts and scientists, e.^., enr^.lneers, physicists, agricultu- 
ralists, and of ' technicians and skilled workers. The plannln;^ of new 
technical schools, accordin.-; to Mrs. Antonakakl, would improve the supply 
of lower-levi2l technicians but for the time being the 8horta,'3e will 
continue because the graduates are 4,900 from lower schools and C50 from 
secondary and upper secondary while the younr; men and women entcrin'* 
Industry each year arc about five times as much."^ In another document, 

l TralnlnT~of Scientists. Enf^ineers and Technicians in Greece. Brief 
summary of data prepared for the Governing Committee for Scientific a nd 
Technical Personnel of the Orp.anlzatlon for European Economic Co-operation 
by the Greek Delj-atlon . 1960. 

ERIC 



VI-3 

a memorandum to the Committee on Scientific and Technical Personnel of 

n«E«C«D«9 submitted in November 1961, Hrs« Antonakakl wrote that there 

was ' a "^reat need for personnel at all educational levels from both the 

quanta "latlve and qualitative noints of view/*' Fur>:her, she underscored 

^:he chronic shortage oZ hlrrhly^quallfled scientific and technical 
2 

personnel] « 

The same theme constituted thmaln body of a report by \U D« Elvin, 
Director of the Institute of Education of the University of London, prepared 
on behalf of the Committee on Scientific and Technical Personnel of 0«E«C.D. 
and submitted in the Spring of 1961 • Elvin referred to the ^,oals and 
targets of the Flve-Year Plan (1960-1964), and the government' a reco![;nition 
of the need to take special steps *^to develop scientific and technical 
education at all levels* Elvin accepted the official projections for the 
economic '3rowth of the country, the assumptions made concerning the role 
of education, and the educational implications draim from them. Chief 
amonr, these was that the development of certain basic "growth sectors in 
the economy, e*<;«, a.'^riculture, mininr;, electrical enerr;y» and engineering, 
could be accomplished only by strengthening relevant technical and vocational 
education at the university and pre-university levels. Elvin also accepted 
the 'government's ''.eneral framework of educational reform as set in the 1959 
laws. He felt that f^overnment ' s policy to ;;ive top priority to secondary 
education and to coordlnaire and strengthen technical- vocational preparation 
was basically sound. In general, Elvin*s opinion was that the state of 
Greek education and the Greek economy was encoura'^inf;. There were, of course, 
serious constraints, imbalances, and shortcoming's: there were shortages of 

2 

See Kin'^dom of Greece, Ministry of Education and Religion, Studies t^nd 
Coordination Service, Bulletin^ Vol. E, No. V (Athens, 1962), pp. 8-11. 



ERIC 



VI-4 



scientists, technicians, and teachers; too many Greeks studied overseas 

and never returned; higher Institutions were too restrictive, poorly 

equipped, Inadequately staflied, and 'generally they needed to be modernlied; 

and the curriculum of the schools required considerable Improvement. Further, 

there were Inconsistencies in the area of technical education. Parents 

wanted their children to shift towards scientific studies, which meant 

r,oln<; to secondary school and then to the university. However, one could 

not enter technolor:lcal'' or 'higher technical" Institutions from ' secondary" 

technical schools. Also, despite a ".reat demand for It, technical education 

suffered from low prestljje. Yet, Elvln's report was marked by optimism. 

Prosress was slow. The herltaf;e of the past bequeathed difficulties and 

there were many gaps, but the present proj'.resslve trend was noticeable. 

Elvln concluded: 

The government has made si ;nlf leant chan'»es In 
secondary education and Is fally conscious of the need to 
Improve scientific and technical education at all levels. 
While It does not maintain a passive position vls-a-vls 
those who follow tradition exclusively. It Is aware that what 
Is required Is a hew form df synthesis, whereby the new 
methods of education will not Ignore traditional Greek 
education but will be Interrelated with It. A lar.'^e ,iroup 
of Intellectuals support the new educational policy, some 
rather cautiously, others encouraging Its Implementation 
at a faster pace. One thln3, however, cannot be avoided: 
the extension of educational policy demards r^reater 
expenditures. ^ 

Meanwhile the Karamanles -government had announced the first Five-Year 

Plan (1960-1964) In the hl<>^ory of the country. The alms, according 1:0 

Karamanles and other ■■'overnment spokesmen, were to chanp.e the economy 

from a predominantly a-^rlcultural basis to an Industrial one,' and to 

3The entire text of Elvln' s report was translated Into Greek and was 
issued by the Studies and Coorrllnatlon Service. See Kln<?dom of Greece, 
Ministry of National Education and Rell3lon, Studies and Coordination 
Service, Bulletin . Vol. E, No. III-IV. (Athens, 1962). 



erJc 



VI-5 

raise the living standard of the people to the level of highly Industrialized 
European countries."^ In the Plan^ attention was ?,i.ven to the human factor 
and technical education." The Government, It was stated, "Intends to develop 
to a wide extent Its policy with respect to vocational preparation,' for 
It recon'!lzed that there was a stron* relationship between the country's 
educational level, particularly the scientific and technical, and economic 
development. It would emphasise general pre- vocational education, voca- 
tional tialnlnr* accordln,*; to the specific needs of each productive sector, 
preparation of hl^'.h- level manpower, foreign technical assistance, and 
would wa'^.e an attack a.^alnst Illiteracy.^ 

The Plan called for the establishment of lar^e industrial enterprises, 
the Improvement of agriculture, and the setting, up of a3rlcultural coopera- 
tives. To meet the heeds that would be created, the sovernment Intended, 
In addition to the steps already taken in vocational education, to set up 
new private and public centers for Industrial and a<;rlcultural training 
and to educate the farmers. '= In the 'services' sector, the Plan stated 
that the number of commercial and technical schools would be Increased, 
and the quality of education In the secondary schools would be Improved. 
The <>overnment would continue to support specialized courses throunh 
Institutes or throu,^h a?,encles, such as the tourist enterprises, that had 
shown Initiative. For the tralnln", of 'hl^.her level manpower,' e.:»., 
scientific and technical personnel, business directors, and the like, 

^See Thomas Anthem. 'Greece's Flve-Year Plan, Contem porary Review , 
Vol. 195 (March, 1959), pp. 140-144. 

^Kln;;dom of Greece, Ministry of Coordination, Flve-Year Plan 
(Program) for the Development of the Country. 1960-1964 (Athens, 1960), 
pp. 167-169. (In Greek). 



ERIC 



VI- 6 

' preparatory and cultural courses' were ii'.olnr* to be or'^.anlzed and there 
would be an up^radlm of secondary education t^lthin the framework of the 
recent leoislatlon. At the secondary level, r»,overninent policy would seek 
to (a) ' create a scientific and technical branch which would be a continuation 
of compulsory general education,'* and (b) differentiate the secondary course 
Into various tracks ' each of which would lead to a school- leaving; certi- 
ficate either for Immediate entry to a vocational career or for completion 
of hlRher studies.' ^ 

The Importance attached to the economic development of the country was 
further evident by the establishment In 1961 of the Center for Economic 
Research. Supported by the Greek Government, the U.S. Mission to Greece 
and by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, the Center was expected to 
fulfill three functions: 

(1) Basic research on the structure and behavior of the 
Greek economy, (2) Scientific prop:rainnin'» of resource allocation 
for economic development, and (3) Technical-economic training 
of personnel for key positions in i^overnment and industry. 

In this Greco-American effort at co-operation, whose ultimate aim was 

"to help in creatinf* a better life for the Greek people," the Karamanles 

government invited Professor Andreas Papandreou, the son of Georf.e Papandreou 

and at the time chairman of the Department of Economics of the University 

of California at Berkeley, to become the director. Andreas Papandreou 

recruited several promlsin"^, Greek economists, most of whom had studied 

in the United States, and enlisted the cooperation of foreign experts. 

Soon a flood of publications was Issued, and the Center became an important 

advisory or<»an or the iiovernment as well as a lively Intellectual community 

^Ibld. , pp. 170-176. 



ERIC 



VI-7 

of scholars, researchers, planners, and policy makers. The Center's in»ain 
task vas the carrying out of research on key aspects of the Greek economy.' 
Inevitably, however, investi'^atlons into the economic sector involved, 
explicitly or implicitly, considerations of the educational system, especi- 
ally those aspects bearin^: upon economic development. For example, in one 
of the Center's research monof^raphs on the structure and performance, 
of Greek industry, G. Coutsourmaris called for chan':;es in the educational 
system. 

Reformin'^ the educational system in a vay that would 
provide a continuous stream of technically well-trained 
youn<7 persons adjusted to Industry requirements and 
devising ways of attractin-* this stream to the expanding 
hi<»h productivity industries are also of primary importance. 
The well-known Japanese industrial advance is largely 
attributed to the co-ordination of these two elements. 
Instead, the Greek educational system is hi<3hly imba- 
lanced in training human resources for industry, while 
policy intervention up to now has greatly contributed to 
directin'* trained young people to stagnating, traditional, 
and low- productivity industries. Lar^e imbalances in 
technical skills are primarily found, as was indicated, 
at the supervisory and mana'^erial levels. ^ 

The most detailed assessment of educational needs in relation to 
development was made by the Mediterranean Regional Project (M.R.P.) on 
behalf of O.E.C.D. The final report was published in 1965, one year after 
the Papandreou reforms and it was prefaced by Mr. Stephanopoulos, the 
Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of Coordination in the Papandreou 
rrovernment. Mr. Stephanopoulos stated that the government (meaning, that 
of Mr. Papandreou) reco';nl2ed the extremely important role of education 
for the social and economic development of Greece, and, therefore, embarked 



'Gcor-je Coutsoumaris, The Morpholo'-^y of Greek Industry , Center of 
Economic Research, Research Mono^.raph Series, No. 6 (Athens, Greece, 
1963), p. 362. 



ERIC 



VI- c 

g 

on a broad reform of the educational system, meaning 4;he 1964 changes. 
The bulk of the work on the M.R.P. report, however, was completed in 
1962-63. Hence there is only passin^ reference In it to the 1964 reforms. 
The report lefers mainly to the 1959 chani^es which provide the educational 
framework for its recommendations. This is rather strange in view of the 
fact that the Papandreou government did not consider the Kararoanles meastires 
of 1959 adequate and indeed supplanted them vhen it came to power. 

Rapid industrialization, according to the M.R.P. , presupposed the 
efficient utilization of "all the economic resources of the country- 
natural, physical, capital, and human resources," and that the last of 
these held "the key to economic growth.' Further it was assumed that 
the development of human resources rested larjely on the educational system 
which suffered frrm inadequacies and deficiencies. Hence the attainment 
of the ivelopment objectives and the projected manpower structure for 
the period 1962-1974 necessitated several educational readjustments. 

One of themajor weaknesses from the standpoint of human resource 
development was in technical and vocational education at the secondary 
level, in which the number of students relative to the population was 
"the lowest in Europe.' Many of the private institutions, which accounted 
for £5 per cent of the students in 1961, were neither efficient nor well 
ori^anized; classrooms were overcrowded; equipment was ' inadequate and of 
low quality;- and there was an extrement shortar'.e of laboratories." 

g 

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education 
and Development, The Mediterranean Re'iional Project t Greece (Paris; 
O.E.C.D. , 1965), pp. 13-14. Hereafter cited as M.R.P. Report. 



ERIC 



VI-9 

Moreover, technical and vocational education was concentrated in the Greater 

Athens area; most oE the teachinr! was done In evening classes; and It 

attracted ruoinly children from low Income families. Substantial Increases 

In enrollment took place between 1955 and 1961. But pupils were still 

unwilling, to enter technical and vocational schools because of the stronr. 

tradition of classical education, unsatisfactory classroom and teachlns 

conditions, and the impossibility of enterin-' hifjher education throui-;h 

such schools. The H.R.P. felt that in time these constraints would be 

overcome, and it calculated that by 1974 enrollments should Increase by 

104 per cent (from 42,451 to 86,500) with the greatest increase in public 

9 

technical and vocational schools (from 4,940 to 51,100). 

Another weakness of Lne educational system was the overcrowding in 
hi^,her institutions, especially in the science and technolo-jy schools 
where expansion in numbers has been most rapid and where inadequate lab- 
oratory space is a serious handicap to students.' The result was a high 
drop-out rate, and an increase of students studyln<> overseas. In (general 
the system of hi.'^her education, according to the M.R.P. report, has been 
slow to adapt itself to the needs Imposed by modern technology. To 
satisfy the projected manpower requirements total enrollments in the 
various faculties must increase to nearly 46,000 in 1974 (an approximate 
increase of 62 per cent above the level of 1961) with the lar'-,est relative 
increases in the science and technolorjy faculties (a required r^rowth of 
over 80 per cept).^^ 

^Ibld. , pp. 24, 56-60, 165-167. 
^^Ibid. , pp. 23, 60-63, 167-168. 



ERIC 



VI- 10 



The report of the Mediterranean Re^^lonal Project commented on several 

other educational ueakncssos which had a bearing on social and economic 

development. Amonz these were certain deficiencies which were believed 

to affect the quality of the educational system. They included comparatively 

hi<»,h teacher/pupil ratios, expecially in secondary 'general schools* 

shorta'^es of equipment and school buildings of all types, an inadequate 

salary structure for teachers, poor utilization of existing supplies of 

teachers, absence of educational research, and limited opportunities as 

well as inappropriate curricula Cor children in rural areas, and questions 

were raised concerning: i^he adequacy of the curriculum for the children 

between the a^'^es of 12 and 18. Unfortunately in this resoect the report 

was too <;eneral: 

Curricula in this branch of education (secondary general) 
need to be directed towards intef^rating courses of study 
suitable both for pupils who will enter the labour force 
after any sta'je of their secondary education and for 
those who will continue their studies at a higher level. 
The majority of children leave school some time between 
the ases of 12 and 13. It is desirable that at whatever 
starve they leave school they should have received an 
education that is complete for some purpose, rather than 
having been "wasted** because it depends for its useful- 
ness on some subsequent education. On the other band, 
secondary schools must also prepare those pupils 
who will be proceedin ; to higher education to take full 
advantage of their university studies, and for this 
purpose a thorou.';h . foundation in basic principles is 
required rather than trainin:^, for a particular line of 
work. Devisin<> a curriculum that will meet both these 
objectives simultaneously is not an easy task but is 
extremely important and deserves attention. 



11 



Ibid., p. 87, 74ff. 



ERIC 



Vl-U 

By 1963-64, when the Karamanles rl7.ht-wln?> government was replaced by 

che Papandreou Center Union government, educational reform ar^.ain seemed to 

be In the air. And the ".cneral notion that It was demanded by the need for 

development sesmed to have become a matter of ''conventional wisdom." One 

source put It as follows: 

The entire leadership of our country, the Intellectual, 
political and economic, has pronounced categorically that 
on the one hand our educational system has long ceased to 
respond to current conditions, and on the other, that 
reformation of education must consider the development plans 
of our society. At the same time, public opinion, without 
exaggeration Is anxiously awaltln'* the new educational 
orientation. 

Public opinion and the Greek leadershop did not have to wait Ion';. 
On November 3, 1963, the Center Union Party won by a small majority and 
Geor^,e Papandreou, the new Prime Minister, also retained the office of 
Minister of Education. Papandreou 's Interest In education was well known 
and of lon<; standing. He Immediately called In Evan^elos Papanoutsos, a 
respected philosopher and educationalist, and asslsned to him the Important 
post of General Secretary of the Ministry of Education. In the second 
elections of February 1964, Papandreou and the Center Union Party won an 
overwhelming majority and were .^Iven the mandate to rule the country. He 
appointed Loukls Akrltas as Under-Secretary of Education and reaffirmed 
his trust in Papanoutsos by ^Ivln", him all the power to restructure and 
reorient the educational system. 

?apantoutsos*s educational activities dated back to the 1920 's when as 
a Creek emigre In Alexandria, E^ypt, he served for ten years (1921-1931) 

12 

K. G. Aphendras and D. P. Chloureas, Techni cal and Vocational 
Education In Greece (Piraeus: I. Liontes Bros., 1926), p. 41 

^^Papandreou had served as Minister of Education under VeniEelos in the 
early 1930's, and throughout hls'lon'T political career he had often written 
and spoken about education. 



VI- 12 

as a teacher in a- Rymnaslum . He had studied at the School of Theology of 
the University of Athens, In Germany where he read philosophy, classical 
literature and peda«,or»y, and In /France. Accordln', to his own account. In 
Germany and France his pedaf^o-^ical awareness came less from beln-^ exposed to 
the lectures of Spran^er (Berlin), Kroh (Tubingen), and Fauconnet (Sorbonne) 
and more from visits to the pro?,res8lve schools of the time and from his 
acquaintance with pro:»resslv*: German educational circles. His exposure to 
English and American educational Ideas came much later. Papanoutsos came to 
know G. Papandreou In 1930, when the latter was appointed Minister of 
Education, who asked him to take over the directorship of a newly established 
teacher tralnln- college In Mytllene. From 1931-1944 Papanoutsos served as 
professor or di^rector of several teacher training! colle<;es which were renamed 
pedafSO«;lcal academies. Orlslnally a political conservative, he later 
switched and became associated with the Venlzellst liberalism. In educational 
matters he chan'ied from a purist to an ardent demotlclst, and he became known 
for his efforts to bring about changes in the structure, content and jeneral 
orientation of the Greek system. From 1944 to 1965 Papanoutsos' educational 
activities centered in the central Ministry of Education. During these 
twenty years, he wrote, I 'entered' and 'left' the Ministry of Education 
five times: two as General Director and three as General Secretary.' 
At the same time he continued writing about education in the press, he started 
and edited the journal Paldela, later chan.-'ed to Paideia Kai Zoe , and, as 
mentioned earlier, he served on the famous Committee on Education (1957-58). 

^^E. P. Papanoutsos, Educational Memoirs , op. cit . . p. 19. In each 
case, however, he held office for a very short time. All in all he held 
these, posts for five and a hali: years. 



ERIC 



VI- 13 

Papanoutsos' views on the reform of Greek education vere adumbrated In the 
immediate years followin'> the Second World War. Subsequently they were 
refined and elaborated but not radically chan^,ed. Chief amon'» them were: 
that the demotic lan'>ua";r should be accorded a lef^ar* status in education 
analo^,ous to the katharevousa ; that Greek education should continue to be 
pervaded by the humanistic spirit, but in a less restricted sense than the 
traditional classical humanism; that secondary schooling should be more 
difrerentiated than the traditional rather 'monolithic' six-year f^ymnasium , 
and divided into two cycles or stages; that education should be expanded 
and more attention should be paid to vocational and technical education; and 
that the curriculimi and methods of teaching in the schools should be modern- 
ized, i.e., brought more in line with modern psychological and pedagogical 

theories. In addition, as early as 1951 he drew attention to- the economic 

IS 

significance of education, particularly of technical education. Ton years 
later in an editorial to his Journal Paideia Kai Zoe, Papanoutsos criticized 
post-var ".overnments for not taking decisive action to adapt education to the 
new demands of national life. He blamed them and the schools for underemploy- 
ment amon", youth and for. emigration. The entire educational system was anti- 
quated. He identified as major educational problems: (a) low teacher salaries; 
(b) the pscv Jo-classicism that pervaded secondary education and the fict that 
the gym na sium was the only avenue for those who wanted to continue their educa- 
tion beyond the elementary school; (c) the unplanned rjrowth of gymnasia and 
r.raduates which had resulted in overabundance of gymnasium graduates who could 
not be absorbed by the economy; (d> the low status and poor condition of 

^ ^Ibid . . pp. 33-34. Also see Papanoutsos, Design of the Educational 
Program,' Paideia . No. 59-60 (15 September, 1951), pp. 317-329. 



ERIC 



« 



VI- 14 

technical and vocational schools; and (e) overcrowding in the universities and 

higher institutions. And he reaffirmed the economic sisnlficance of educati^- . 

The relationship between education and the other sectors of 
the national life, particularly the economy, is two-sided. 
On the one hand, sood education, '^'.eneral and vocational, is 
a precondition for the economic development of the country; 
the qualitative and quantitative improvement of agricultural 
production and the pro'^^ress of existin'^, Industries as well*as 
industrialization cannot take place without a generally and 
specifically educated labour force of all levels, i.e., 
technicians, civil servants and loaders* On the other hand, 
economic growth is a precondition for sood education, for in 
oui^times education has ceased to be a cheap pommodity; ' It 
requires many and, more than before, educated personnel, well 
equipped laboratories and teaching * aides" (more complicated 
and expensive than books and paper), and more teaching sp.ice, 
that is stronf* economic means for investments and running; 
expenses. 

By 1963, when he was appointed to the important policy making position 
of General Secretary, Papanoutsos' ideas about the weaknesses of Greek 
education and what needed to be done about It were well-known. What indeed 
was done immediately after the second Papandreou *ov^rnment was sworn into 
office in 1964 wac not surprlsinr^. Nor, «^ we shall argue later, were the 
controversy and reaction that erupted soon after the Educational Reform Act 
of 1964 was presented to the public. 

The Educational Reform Act o*' 1964 
It Is an ef tabltshed fact that Papanoutsos wrote both the text of ihe 
Act (Legislative Decree Ho. 4379) entitled 'On ^^e Orrjanization and 
Administration of General Elementary and Secondiiry) Education** and the 
prefatory statement (Introductory Report) appended to it. According Lo 



Papanoutsos, Editorial, Paideia Kai Zoe (October, 1961), p. 191. 



VI-15 

Papanoutsos himself: 

I personally drafccd chc loxt ^Iter a short consultation with 
the Prime Minister. I had been ready for a Inn^, time and i 
Icncw that Mr* Papandrcou was In full af^reement wl;:h the 
f^cneral lines ol my thinking --It Is for this reason that I 
had accepted his offer to become General Secretary. The 
new element w*^ Lch he (Mr. Papandreou) added was free educa- 
tion by the S Jte, a promise which he had made durinn; his 
pre-election speeches. 

The prefatory statement was detailed and comprehensive. It presentiid 
the rationale and the underlying. Ideology of the entire educational reform 
associated with the ahort-llved Papandreou Government (1964-1965). For 
this reason and the fact that the Act of 1964 was later singled out by the 
military 'Government as a key element In the dangerous liberal Ism** and 
antl-Hel lenlsm that alle<;edly were sappln^^ the moral fibre of the Greek 
society* the prefatory statement merits further elaboration. 
Prefato ry Statement to Lenlslatlv^ Decree 4379/1964 

At the outset the basic principles upon which the reforms and Greek 
education would be based were noted. 

A New Humanism : As In the past, education would be humanistic In character , 

but titere was a broader Interpretation of humanism. 

There Is f;eneral consensus. «.. that our National Education 
should be basically humanistic In character. This Is demanded 
both by our lon*^ standln^; tradition and by tiie meanln^; of noble • 
(hl3h-soundln'>) education. But the humanism that will pervade 
all the levels of our National System of Education, must be of a 
kind that ls/\ot attached to a passionate worship of dead forms 
of the past or is antithetical to the positive sciences and the 
technical arts (the possession and pride of ov\ a^e). Faithful 
to the deeper meaning; of Greek education and the Christian faith, 
such humanism must embrace the "^reat intellectual currents of our 
a'^^e and must aim at the Improvement and the refinement of man^s 
Individual and social llfe..o 



^^Papanoutsos, Educational Memoirs ^ op. clt , , p. 68. 
18 

The Kln<^dom of Greece, Ministry of National Education and Rellfilon, 
On the Or^>anlgatlon and Administration of General Education (Elementary and 
Secondary) > Le<;islative Decree 4379/1964 (Athens: National Prlntinj; Office, 




VI- 16 



The traditional conception of humanism, represented, as mentioned In the 
previous chapter, by such Greek scholars and educational spokesmen as K. 
Vourveres, A. D. Gebrsoules, and I. Theodorakopoulos , was defined almost 
exclusively in terms of ctlasslcism (mostly ancient Greek learning) and 
Christianity (specifically the Greek Orthodox Relision). Considerable 
emphasis was placed on the study of the classics in the original, which 
was justified on disciplinary (it trained the faculties of the :mind), 
intellectual, moral, patriotic, and even religious grounds. Other educa- 
tional spok<38men, however, particularly those associated with educational 
demoticism, talked about such values as freedom, respect for the 'dignity 
And honor c' all men. Justice, and the like as also being part of a humane" 
or humanistic culture. About twenty years prior to the Papandreou reforms, 
A. Delmouzos, the hero of the Volos experiment earlier in the century, wrote: 

Humanism is such an ideal. It is based on the Principles: 
(a) that each individual has the right to live and develop 
himself freely accor' cng to his natural potential; and (b) 
that all men and nations possess that right. Humanism, 
therefore, as the ultimate value recognizes man and his 
freedom. But .<it recognizes man lA'aH his psychical world 
and its fullest development according to his ability and 
potential. It is the soul, the intellect that elevates man 
above his animal level. .. .Man's freedom also is defined by the 
same right in life which other men possess as individuals, 
groups or nations; that is, freedom is not immunity, but the 
recognition and affirmation of the bonds which normal group 
life and virtue demand. 

Referring specifically to the roI«a of the school in accomplishing the 
'humanistic ideal, Delmouzos added: 



1964), p. 11. The quotations from the Prefatory Statemftnt were translated 
by the author. Excerpts from the actual decree are taken from the English 
translation by Geor'*e Ravanis and John Dennis. Hereafter cited as Legis- 
lative Decree 4379/ l<o4. 



ERIC 



VI-17 



The school must lay the foundations for social virtue* In the 
youn{;cr [generation: above all, to love and respect nan as an 
ultimate value; to appreciate and love Individual and national 
freedoo: and sacrifice themselves for It; to understand one's 
duty to oneself, to others and to the society In vhlch one 
lives; to develop a feellns for Justice, sincerity and soo<lne88 
and wllllnsness to help and cooperate with others for the 
general .7,ood; and to develop moral fortitude and conscientious- 
ness for the benefit not only of themselves but of society in 
general. 19 

By 1959 this broader conception of a very basic ideolonical aspect of 

Greek education had been espoused by a politically and educationally diverse 

group of individuals. Amonr^ the leaders of the Democratic Front, Kartells 

called for a positive- scientific" type of humanism. Karamanles of the 

National Radical Union Party (ERE), while Prime .Minister, is reported to 

have said: Humanistic education is indispensable for every civilized man... 

But, under such a slogan, it is a mistake to stifle contemporary trends in 

the applied sciences and the technical trainin'; of youth. There is no 

contradiction between these two educational ideals. Many educators, by 

and large, echoed the views of Delmouzos and Papanoutsos, which are discussed 

below. The followins statement by A. Ntokas, which appeared in the Journal 

Paideia kai Zbe . illustrates the new trend: 

...today humanistic education cannot be based on the old 
conception of the humanistic idea; it is necessary that it 
be transformed into a multifaceted ideal, which, while 
related to the past, will be abased on the multifarious aspects 
of modern civilization. 20 

Papanoutsos, who was responsible for the prefatory statement, had expressed 
his views on the subject of humanism In education on several occasions. In 



Translated from A. Delmouzos, Meletes kai Parerr;a (Athens, 1958). 
Originally published in De mocratike EpitheSresfe . May, 1946. 

A. Ntokas, Anthroplsmos , Techni'.ce, Neoellenike zbe (Humanism, 
Technique, and Modern Greek Life)," Paideia kai Zbe Vol, 8, No. 38 (December 
1959), p. 262. 



ERIC 



VI- 18 

1952 he criticized those who claimed that any vocational or practical 

orientation In the schools vas Inconsistent with the humanistic Ideal which 

should be the "axis of every stage of the educational system. "Yet nan,, his 

intellect and virtue (arete) are revealed and realized, Papanoutsos wrote, 

In life's action (praxis). The most difficult, the most human, and the mosi: 

sacred of life's actions, he went on. Is vocational activity, what each 

|21 

one has set out to do and promote for himself and society as a whole." 

In ooA of his weekly columns in the Athenian dally, To_Vema, five years 

later (1957), Papanoutsos continued his attack on those who saw a contradiction 

be'-ween technical-scientific, as v;ell as vocational, and general education 

insofar as the humanistic ideal was concerned. ''Of course wc want our 

schools to turn out 'Greeks' and 'Christians',*' he stated, "but this Is not 

sufficient. . .we must also see to it that our youth are 'enlightened' on the 

bl3 problems of the contemporary world, and that they are equipped for the 

hard struf^gle of life. He criticised the formalism and imitational nature 

of the narrowly clasr.icsl and alexandrine notion of humanism, and noted that 

today the natural sciences are a profound philosophy and the technical arts 

demand of man not only a cultivated mind, but an ethical element as well.''. 

An enlir;htened and well orsanized educational system must combine both Ideals, 

(the scientific and the humanistic ) according to Papanoutsos, and must 

22 

aim at the creating of the "living and - whole man. 



E. P. Papanoutsos, Anthrcplsmos kal Epangelma (Humanism and Vocation),' 
in AfT.ones kal A.^onla Yla ten Paldcla (Strusgles and Agonies About Education) 
by eT^pT Papanoutsos, Athens: Ikaros, 1965, pp. 27-28. 

22 

Papanoutsos, Synairese. Ochl Antlthese (Combination not Antithesis),'* 
in Ibid . , pp. 24-25. 



ERIC 



VI -19 



Papanoutsos elaborated cn the new humanistic principles that underlay the 

1964 reforms in an unpublished statement shortly after the Act. 

Allow me to explain to you the mcrning of this humanism as it 
was captured by our lawgiver. It will be enough to mention a 
notion created by the ancient Greek literature and philosophy: 
the notion of ••philanthropy ( philanthropia )" . To understand 
this term, which has nothing to do with the Christian charity- 
we must remember that it first appeared in the vocabulary of 
Aeschylus in the 5th century B.C. The philanthropic feelings 
of Prometheus are responsible for his tragic fate. According 
to Plato **philanthropia*' was what stimulated Socrates in his 
pedagogical work. Aristotle goes further; he considers the 
•'philanthropon** to be a moral standard which he uses as the 
criterion of the authenticity of the characters in drama. 
Combining all these varieties of experience^ we can sum up 
their content in this way: I am man's friend when I honour and 
respect him, have faith in him as a being second to none in 
existence; when I "identify** myself with him realizing that the 
nature and fate of men is common; when I am convinced that 
Justice must reign in life (the evil man will not triumph, or 
the good man will never be humiliated by misfortune) then I am 
proud of my human nature, I enjoy the happiness of living among 
human beings. . . 

•••Reformation of the educational system doesn't mean only the 
improvement of school organization and revision or change of 
subjects and training methods. It chiefly means a new spirit and 
a new line in our educational work. We deeply believe that this 
new spirit is a sound and authentic humanism: it can be expressed 
by a formula simple but which must be taken to the hearts of our 
educators. We shall tell them: "Teach your students to be man's 
friends, to believe in him, to respect and honour him by respecting 
their neighbours and themselves* And for this reason, to feel 
proud of being man. 

Teach them that: 

"Homo res sacra homini** 

"Man is something sacred for Man" 

as Seneca used to say. 

23 

Let that be their credo. The rest will follow. 



23 

Papanoutsos, **The Recent ucational Reform in Greece and its 
Philosophy , " mimeographed . 



VI-20 



And In a radio speech broadcast over the Central Radio Station of Athens > 

Papanoutsos said that the aim of the refortn was to create a new type of man, 

a citizen of Greek democracy who would be a free man, free from Ignorance, 

24 

superstitions, and 'wild Imaginations,* an ethically self-sufficient* man. 
Free education and oquallt y of opportunity : A principle that was rather un- 
usual Insofar as official policy statements were concerned was that Greek 
education should cease to be the prlvlle'^.e of the few but must be freely and 
equitably provided and distributed. This was felt to be of national economic 
and social sl?,nlf Icance. 

It is unnecessary to praise the Importance of free education. 
This law (decree) stems from the conviction that the basis of 
and guarantee of a true democracy rest on equality — without 
discrimination- -of all citizens to acquire the benefits of 
education. There Is no worse form of social Inequality than an 
educational system which Is the privllerjc of the well-to-do. A 
nation, which does not provide equal opportunities for all Its 
citizens to be educated and .to develop their abilities is not 
worthy of being called a democracy. More than that, it would be 
injurious to the Welfare of the nation if its human resources-- 
the most precious capital' —remained unexploitcd and inactive 
through lack of education. At a time when Greece is facing 
stiff competition in the international economic arena, she has 
only one sure hope of national survival: through education ot 
equip her citizens with the jneans t-o exploit her natural 
resources and to develop the material and intellectual civiliza- 
tion of the country. Traditionally the most noble product of 
this land has been its intelligent and dexterous human beinr;s« 
Therefore, we must not be parsimonious in our expenditures to 
provide education for them. Besides, it has been recognized 
and proclaimed universally that educational spending is a 
particularly productive form of investmentt^^ 

As steps in the direction of free and expanded opportunities, all costs were 

to be abolished in publicly supported schools :and the State would assume all 

financial responsibility. In addition, and this was felt to be a major 



Papanoutsos 9 Educational Memoirs , op.clt. , p. 72. 
^ ^LefTislative Decree 4379/1964 . op.clt . > pp* 16-17* 



ERIC 



VI-21 

Innovation, compulsory education would be extended to 9 years (ages 7 to 15). 
To support such a change, it was noted that in the last twenty years the 

culturally and economically advanced nations Increased the years of 
compulsory schooling;. They had done so on the widely held conviction that 

the economic well-beln^ and Intellectual welfare of a nation presupposes 

hl'»h levels of education. The Prefatory Statement drew attention to slow 

Industrial growth and the cact that, compared with the other European 

countries, Greece was amonj» the least favored" on the question of compulsory 

school attendance. Finally, the entrance examinations into the gymnasia 

(the new thrcc-ycar secondary schools following the six-year elementary 

26 

schools) were to be abolished. 

The Prefatory Statement pointed to several other features of Greek 
education that needed change: teacher- training, and the tralnln'» of 'super- 
visory personnel*. Changes in these areas were specified in detail in the Act. 
Legislative Decree 4379/1964 

Or'Tanlzatlon of General Education ; The Act endorsed the six-year elementary 
school but provided that secondary education should consist of two types of 
schools: a three-year «;yffinaslum . following the elementary sta<>e, and a 
three-year lyceum . Entrance into the gymnasium would not require examinations, 
but admission into the lyceum would, after <^raduatlon from the jytmasitmi. 
It was also stressed that the three types of schools — elementary, 'gymnasia . 



Ibid . , pp. lC-20. 



ERIC 



VI-22 

and lycea \9o\xld be independent, under separate administration, with 

separate staff and records, (Article 1). 

The most novel features of these provisions v;ere the abolition of 

entrance examinations into the new gymnasium and the division of the six* 

year traditional secondary school, the old ^vmnasion . into two self* 

contained and Independent units. Each of these units would have Its own 

objectives and pro.'^ram of studies, and it would be adapted to the educational 

demands of the whole society. The new r^ymnasium would serve the needs of 

the majority of students who did not continue their education beyond the 

third class (ninth ':;rade or a^^e 15), But the lyceum would be reserved for 

the intellectually select who have the ability, the means and the desire to 

continue their education and enter universities or other institutions of 
27 

higher learnin<». 

The abolition of secondary entrance examinations and the division of 
the secondary stase were found to be consonant with another provision, 
I ely, free education, and the extension of compulsory school attendance to 
nine years (Articles 3 and 4), The latter measure was to be applied 
gradually as facilities and other prerequisites permitted. 
The types of schools: Articles 7 through 12 delineated the 7,oals and 
curriculum of the three types of schools. Except for a chanse in the 
linguistic form, nothing, substantially new was added with respect to the 
elementary school; it was to continue to provide a reli^,i<ius, moral and 
national education, and to offer the pupils the elements of '^.eneral culture,* 
The curriculum would include religion, the Greek language, history, mathematics, 



Ibid , t pp, 13-16. 



ERLC 



VI-23 

elements of science, seo.^jraphy, arts and crafts, study of the environment, 
singing and physical education. 

The t^ymnaslum would continue the religious, moral, and national training 
of youth: It would Instruct pupils "in order to approach the ancient Greek 
world. Its history and art, and to know* the Important works of Greek 
literature of modern times;- and It would encoura<»e them ' towards a thought- 
ful Investl'^.atlon of their natural environment and social reality, as well 
as their vocational orientation. The wording may have been different from 
that of previous statements, but the substance was the same. Where the Act 
deviated from tradition was in the way the ancients should be studied, and 
In the postponement of the study of ancient Greek: 

In the ryronaslum the teaching of Classical Greek literature 
shall be carried out through accepted translations of classical 
works into Modern Greek. In the special school editions of works 
in prose, the ancient text should be juxtaposed with the trans- 
lation so that the pupil may be able to get an elementary 
knowledge of the Attic dialect. (Article C, Sec. 3). 

The first approach by the pupils to Classical Greek shall be 
done in the third grade of the gymnasium through a weekly three- 
hour course in the grammar of the Attic dialect accompanied by 
exercises in composition based on passages from ancient texts. 
(Article 3, Sec. 4). 

As we shall see later, both these provisions, particularly the use of 

translations, were the subject of Intense criticism and controversy. In defense 

of this Innovation it was noted that in all the countries of the West the 

youth study the ancients through translations and come to know them "Alas.* 

more fully and profoundly than us, who pride ourselves that we are thilr 

descendants and heirs. The aim should be to enter the spirit of the ancients, 

to illuminate the mind through the light of ancient learning, and this 

could be done through good translations. Besides not everybody is able to 

learn ancient Greek well; and often the pupil spends too much time learning 



ERIC 



YI-2U 

the language rather than coming into contact with its "beautiful world of 
ideas. 

In its general purpose, the lyceum (grades 10-12) bore strong similar- 
ities with the upper three grades of the previous six-year gymnasion. It 
was to provide more advanced general education for those intending to eater 
the free professions, posts in government or private agencies, or institutions 
of higher learning. As with the institution it sought to supersede, pupils 
in the lyceum were to gain a deeper understanding of and insigtitj Into the 
Hellenic (ancient, medieval and modern) and Christian cultural traditions, 
A rather novel feature was the statement that students were also to "gain a 
fuller and clearer knowledge of the structure and the laws of the natural and 
social world, and aspire to a better adjustment in life." (Article 10, Sec* 1)« 

More significant changes were made in the scope of the curricialum, in the 
types of wgi^er secondary schools and tracking or streaming. As noted earlier, 
the 1959 Act established different types of schools (classical, scientific, 
foreign language, technical, home economics, economic and maritime gymnasia ). 
Except for the latter two, such a diversification was abolished; the lyceum 
would be uniform in "educational aims and curriculum," Also previously 
there were two main curriculum tracks in the upper three grades of the more 
prevalent classical gymnaslon, namely th<3 classical aiid the practical- 
scientific tracks. This arrangement also was terminated, primarily because 
it was felt that the early specialization was educationally and intellectually 
unsound. Instead the law stipulated the following: 



Ibid, . p, 2h 



VI-25 

The detailed syllabus and tlcetable of the two iqpper classes 
of the lyceuoi contain subjects common to all students of the 
same class (grade), and subjects selected by the students 
themselves. The combination of these subjects forms two cycles 
(streams) of studies. The first is characterized by a bias 
toward the literary and historical subjects, and the second one 
toward mathematics and science, Froca the second lyceum grade 
onward pupils shall attend one or the other stream. A transfer 
from one stream to another is allowed at the beginning of each 
school year in the third lyceum grade or in the second lyceum 
grade for those who failed in the promotion examinations from 
the second to the third grade. (Article 10, Sec. U). 

As to innovations in the curriculum, certain new "social science" 

subjects were to be introduced, e.g., elements of democratic government and 

law, elements of economics, and introduction to sociology. In addition 

elements of philosophy (introduction to philosophy, logic, and methodology 

of sciences) was to be added. (Article 10, Section 2). The objective of 

these subjects, the Prefatory statement explained, will be to broaden \the 

pupils* intellectual horizons" and to lead them "to coo^rehend and appreciate 

the great ideological currents of our age.' 

The curriculum ; Several aspects of the curriculum have already been noted 
above. The law further abolished latin as a cocqpulsory subject; henceforth 
it would be amon& the optional subjects and in its place more ancient Greek 
would be taught in the lyceum . The dropping of Latin, another controversial 
element , would allow more time to be spent on the study of ancient Greek 
which was rather weak. And, in any case it was felt that the Greeks had a 
richer classical heritage, namely ancient Greek, "in which works of unsurpassed 
intellectual value have been written. "^^ 



29ibid., p. 27. 
3Qlbid.. p. 25. 



VI-26 

Systematic study of ancient Greek, i.e., "in Its granunatlcal and 
syntactical f orn" would begin .in the first class of the lyceum (grade 10) , 
Since some preparatory work will have been made in the gymnasium, the lyceum 
atidents would be better able to understand the original texts. 
Modern Greek ; the language question ; The Act paid attention to the perennial 
"language question, " another politically and educationally explosive Issue, 
This, of course, revolved around the katharevousa-demotike form of the modern 
Greek language. In this connection, it would be relevant to mention that 
Fapeuioutsos, the architect of the new reforms ^had been an ej^onent of demotldsm 
for some time. Bad., in 19^3) Fapanoutsos and K. Amantos, Minister of 
Education, and with the cooperation of lybnoles Trlantaphyllldes, another 
famous deootldst, drafted a short bill which they submitted to the Regent, 
Archbishop Damaskenos. The bill contained three articles: "(l) The 
demotlke , the modem Greek koine , is a .national language whose fundamental 
significance for Greek education is recognized; (2) the demotic language 
is thereby designated as the language of teaching and text-books in 
popular education (elementary schools); and (3) the demotic language, 
together with the modern Greek literature, should henceforth occiqpy a 
fundamental place in the curriculum of the secondary schools and institutions 
of higher learning which prepare secondary school teachers." This bill 
was never passed and in the years that followed, Fapanoutsos continued to 
press for the establishment of the demotlke as the offlci?.! language of 
elementary schools and its elevation to an equal status as the katharevousa. 



Fapanoutsos, "Educational i^molrs»" op. clt. , pp. 27-28, 



ERIC 



VI-27 



In the Prefactory Statement it was claimed that the "illiteracy" among 
youth, meaning gaps in their edicational preparation, was in ". large part 
due to the unsettled language problem. Its confused status was "the 
outcome of tt «> insincere tactics and policies of those in charge of educational 
affairs in the last twenty years," These peqple were reluctant to recognize 
the national, educational, cultural and moral claims of the popular, people's 
living language, "the language of our folksongs, our national anthem, and 
practically all of our literature,""^ 

Article^ was devoted to modern Greek in the schools and it read: 

1« The popular language, Demotike, in a form both orderly and 
non-dialectal, as it has been shaped into a panhellenic means 
of e:q?ression by the Greek people and by recognized authors of 
the nation, shall be freely used in speech and writing by those 
teaching or taught at all levels of education, from the lowest 
to the highest, 

2, Demotike is the language of the "«L.^ntary school, of 
instruction there, and of elementary school texts. Pupils 
of the last two grades of the elementary school shall read 
passages from the Gospels and texts in the purist Greek 
language (katharRvouaa) sinqply to become familiar with it, 

3, The grammar and syntax of katharevousa shall be taught 
in tl'ie gymnasium and the lyceum, and it shall be coordinated 
with the teaching of Demotike and Classical Greek in the 
classes in which Classical Greek is taught. In parallel, 
pupils of secondary schools shall sitpplement and systematize 
their coagprehension of grammar and syntax in the field of 
demotike ut!ing as standards the texts of modern Greek authors 
distinguished for their literary value and disciplined language, 
(Article 5). 

The academic certificate ; An important other innovation was the 
establishment of the "academic certificate," perceived to be analogous to such 
such titles as the French baccalaureat and the German Habit ur . The 
academic certificate, awarded after the passing of examinations iconducted 



32 Legislative Decree 4379/1964. op, cit ., p, 28, 



ERIC 



VI-28 

on specified dates in various ;:itie8 of the country, would be of two typos : 
type A for humanities , which would entitle one to register in the schools 
of theology and law, and type B for natural sciences and technology which 
would enable one to enter the schooji.8 of physics and mathematics , medicinal 
dent/.ctry, veterinary medicine , agriculture) as well as the higher poly- 
technics. Both types would be equivalent for purposes of admission into 
all other higher institutions. 

The academic certificate was a measure believed to alleviate some of 
the problems associated with the entrance examinations into the universities 
and other higher institutions. Hitherto the examinations were held by 
the various schools in Athens and Salonica causing considerable hardship 
both on the part of the candidates and the professors. Papers were graded 
by university professors. The new ttxaminations for the academic certificate 
would be based on the subject-matter taught in the lycea and would be 
marked by special teachers applying uniform criteria. These wauld be 
secondary school teachers under the supervision of university professors. 
The training of teachers : According to the Act, prospective elementary 
teachers would receive longer professional training in three-year Instead 
of two-year pedagogical academies. The courses were to include the usual 
humanistic studies (languages, history, and religion), science and mathematics, 
pedagogical studies, social sciences (sociology, economics, and elements of 
democratic government and law), folklore, music, home economics, artistic 
drawing, physical education, and vocational guidance, (Article \6), 

To meet certain shortages of secondary school teachers, e,g,| physics, 
mathematics and modern foreign languages, a scheme of intensive training 
in special programs was to be introduced "through the addition of a third 



ERIC 



Vl-29 

semester to a given academic year during the summer '.cnths of June, 
July I August and September*" (Article 1^)« 

The Pedagogical Institute ; Another major innovation was the establishment 
of the Pedagogical Institute, (Article 21) • This unit would be located 
in Athens and it was to be under the authority of the Ministry of Education, 
Its functions were rtated as: 

a. Scientific research in educational matters of a theoretical 
and practical nature, 

b. The in-service training of the teaching staff of every 
type of school, 

c. The guidance of supervisory personnel of education toward 
the proper performance of their duties. 

And more specifically: 

A, To gather data and prepare studies: 

a. To define the subject-matter in all types of schools, 

b. To ascertain the most appropriate methods of teaching and 
education in general, 

c. To organize rationally the administration and the general 
functioning of schools, 

B, The organization of courses » seminars » discussions and conferences: 

a. To raise the scientific level of competence of persons engaged 
in education, 

b. To inform participants of modern tendencies and methods of 
school work, 

c. To guide them toward the methodology of scientific research 
on school problems, 

C, The guidance of the administrators of the various school districts: 

a. To appraise with precision the needs of schools and to discover 
ways of meeting these needs. 



VI-30 

b. To test and assess correctly the abilities and achievements 
of teachers and students. 

c. To become not only worthy supervisors of educational employees, 
but also cultural leaders in the area of their activities. 

The decree specified in great debail the various types of 

personnel of the Institute, indicating numbers, rank and qualifications. 

The Pedagogical Institute was to absorb the educational functions 

of certain existing establishments, e.g., the Secondary Teachers Training 

College and the School of Educational Workers for Vocational and Technical 

Education (SELETE), as well as the in-se-vice training functions for 

elementary school teachers, which were performed by the universities of 

Athens and Salcaica. (Article 23). And with the establishment of the 

Institute, the powerful Supreme Council of Education would discontinue. 

(Article 2k). The administrative and disciplinary tasks of this body 

would be taken over by three oen^^ral official boards of education. 

(i\rticle 27). 



ERIC 



VI - 31. 

T echnical Fducatlon and Npv Universitie s* The Papandreou reforas, which 
were believed to be necessary for the promised national reconstruction, Included 
technical education and the establishment of new universities. In nay, 1965, 
two proposals, dealing with these aspects of education were submitted to the 
Secretary of Parliament (Boule) . 

Thi proposed legislative plan "On Technical Education" reiterated previous 
statements about the economic significance of technical education and Its 
neglect In Greece. Despite the changes following the 1959 enactments, enroll- 
ments In the various types of technical and vocational schools continued to 
lag behind those In Reneral schools. (In 1964-65, 55,000 students were 
registered In public and private technical schools compared to 350,000 in 
per tal secondary schools.) Technical education, according to the new pro- 
posal, should (a) be adjusted to the arrangements made by the 1964 Act, 
(b) begin after the completion of the nine-year compulsory schooling, (c) pro- 
vide a variety of specializations to meet the different aptitudes and Interests 
of the students and the requirements of the Job market, and (d) be sufficiently 
flexible so that students can easily move from one type of school to another. 
On the basis of these principles, the following organizational scheme was put 
forward: 

1. First level : (a) Three-year technical f^ymnaslon (ages 12 - 15), 
following the six-year elementary school. The program of studies v;ould be . 
basically the same as that of the general gynnaslon except for the addition of 
some "elementary technical subjects." (b) Schools for technicians, following 
the technical gymnaslon and preparing mechanics, electricians, guilders, 
carpenterfi, plumbers, etc. 



33introductory Statement on the Legislative Plan ^^On Technical Education, 
reprinted in Papanoutsos, E.P. Agones kal Aabnia Yla ten Paidtia (Athens: 
Ikaros, 1965), pp. 352-353. 



ERIC 



VI - 32. 

2. Middle Level ; A three-year lyceum (ages 15-18) after graduation from 
the Rvmnasion (general or technical) and the passing of an entrance examination. 
Graduates of schools for technicians (1-^h above) would be admitted without 
examinations directly into the second class of the lyceum . This school would 
train middle-level technical foremen and "supervisors" of the first- level 
technicians. 

3. Higher Level ; Schools for sub-engineers and technical teacher- training 
schools. Admission into these schools would presuppose a school-leaving 
certificate from the ordinary lyceum . Those holding a certificate of graduation 
from a technical lyceum could be registered directly into the second class after 
special examinations. 

4. Highest Level ; The highly selective university- level Athens Polytechnic, 
preparing top-level engineers. 

Before this plan was made law, the Papandreou government fell. In 
September, 1966, the Stephanopoulos coalition government published a scheme 
"On Vocational and Technical Education" which -^s bjiaically the same as the 
1965 one. 

The legislative plan "On the Establishment of Universities" noted that 
high-level manpower was needed for the economic and the intellectual advance- 
ment of the country. There were two universities (Athens and Salonica) which 
'were overcrowded and not as easily accessible to students from the provinces. 
The plan, therefore, envisaged the creation of four new universities (in Athens, 
Crete, Patras and loannina), the Ionian Academy in Corfu to consist of two 
university-level schools (School of Fine Arts and School of Tourist Economy), 
and a branch of the Polytechnical School of the University of Salonica in 
Larissa.^^ 

3 ^Ibld. . pp. 356-359. 

Q ^^The plan on the new universities is also reprinted in Papanoutsos, 
FHjnones kal Agon ia Yi a ten Paideia , pp. 367-370. 



VI - 33* 

The Great Debate 

The reforms described above became the 8torm«*center of controversy and 
debate that have fev; parallels In the history of modern Creek education. In 
the parliament, In the press , at round table discussions, In the halls of 
academla, at teacher gatherings and religious meetings, politicians, leading 
Intellectuals, professors, teachers, business people, and parents discussed, 
at times not without vicious ad h omlnem Insinuations, the so-called '^Educational 
Reform/' Even In the theater the reforms became the butt for Jokes. Some saw 
In them a true educational renaissance; others saw a downright betrayal of long* 
cherished traditional values and a despicable pandering to the goals of ^'popular" 
fronts. A feir felt that the reforms had not gone far enough. And, as ali/ays, 
they became 'Enmeshed In party politics. Interest group animosities, and personal 
vendettas. 

It would be appropriate to begin with the School of Philosophy of the 
University of Athens. As before, the School set the tone for what we earlier 
called the conservatlve-tradtlonal position. The School discussed the govern- 
ment measures at Its meetings of March 18 and April 13, 15, and 20, 1964, soon 
after they were announced, and Issued a special memorandum on them. Considering 
the nature of the School of Philosophy, Its perceived role In modem Greek 
culture and education, and Its stand on previous episodes regarding educational 
change (the most recent one being the report of the Committee on Education) , 
its views on education and its criticisms of the reforms were not at all 
surprising. 

At the outset, the School characterized the 3ntire scheme of the govern- 
ment as "revolutionary'' and many of the ''decisions*' as totally antithetical 
to the "interests of national education and Greek paideia.*'*'' It admitted 

^ Vtmorandum of the School of Philosophy of the Universi ty of Athens on 
the Government Measures Concerning Education , reprinted from the Yearbook of 
J^ e School of Philosophy of the Univeraity of Athens , 1963-1964 (Athens, 1964), 

ERIC 5- 



VI - 34. 

that there were Inadequacies and shortcomings In secondary education, but these 
did not call for or Justify the transformation of Its very substance and spirit. 
The reforms would destroy the classical gyinnaslon , the Institutional embodiment 
of the unity of Greek paldela (ancient, medieval, and modern) w 1th Its combined 
Helleno-Chrlstlan Ideals and values and Its emphasis on man. Secondary educa- 
tion would cease to be what It Is supposed to be, namely, "encyclopedic culture' 
and Intellectual development which, of necessity, arc not related to "practical 
life". 

This short slphtlng ct secondary education would occur as a result of 
(a) the division of the traditional six-year gymnasion into two self-contained 
and independent cycles (the new gymnaslon and the lyceum) ; (b) the abolition 
of Latin and the postponement of the study of classical Greek to the second 
cycle, i.e., the lyceum ; and (c) the use of translations in the study of the 
ancients. The reforms, according to the School, lengthened popular education 
to nine years (six years of elementary and three years of the new gymnasion ) 
and shortened secondary education to three years (the new l yceum) . This was 
absolutely unacceptable; three years were insufficient for the gymnasion to 
perform its goal. (It should be noted hcie that the School uses the term 
gymnasion to refer to the traditional six-year secondary school, while the 
new lat; restricted the term to the first three years of post-elementary 
education). Elementary education is Increased at the expense of secondary; 
the so-called new g^nasl^ is devoid of any classical, hence humanistic, 
content, and, therefore, it is a continuation of elementary or popular education. 
This new arrangement, the memorandum continued , "has aroused fears that the true 
aim of the new measures is to set the goals of elementary education as the 
main and sole goals of National Education."-'^ Such fears were strengthened 

3 7ibld. , p. 6. 

O ^ ^Ibid. , p. 7. 

ERIC 



VI - 35. 

by the abolition of entrance examinations into the first cycle of secondary 
schools and by the setting up of the Pedasoslcal Institute. 

The School considered the settinp, up of the Pedagogical Institute as a 
* severe blow*' against higher education, particularly against itself, i.e., the 
School. Such an establishment » according to it, which combined theoretical 
pedagogical studies with administration, would restrict free scientific inquiry. 
Further, it would overemphasize the pedagogical aspects of the preparation of 
teachers, i.e., the "how*\ at the expense of more training in subject-matter, 
the ''what.** And it would take away one of the Important functions of the School 
of Philosophy, namely, the ^'pedagop^ical guidance of secondary school teachers. 

Continuing on its favorite theme of the unity of Greek civilization— 

ancient, medieval, and modem — and the preservation of its humanistic foundations, 

the School criticized strongly the teaching of ancient Greek literature through 

translations. Form and content, in its vietj, were inextricably bound up. 

Translations deprived classical literature of the *'divine moira,*^ i.e., its 

"educational** value. They were of necessity products of the linguistic forms 

of particular historical periods, and did not represent the universalism and 

timelessness of the ancient Greek texts. The same could be said to hold true 

40 

of Latin, which also should not have been made optional. 

Finally, the School referred to the language question and rejected the 
idea that contemporary Greek education could be based on the equivalence of the 
two linguistic forms, the demo tike and the katha r evousa . The latter should 
remain the linguistic basis of education, for, among other things, 
katharevousa is connected v;ith ''the religious, cultural and scholarly life 
of the Nation .''^^ 



39 



Ibid., pp. 8-9. 



^ Qlbid. . pp. 10-13. 
O ^ ^Ibid. , pp. 13-14. 

ERIC 



VI - 36. 

The abolition of Latin and the changes made in the teaching of classical 
Greek were taken up by the Academy of Athens, the prestigious body of leading 
Greek scholars anJ intellectuals. At special general meetings held on May 2, 
June 4, and June 9, 1964, several members of the Academy criticized the pro- 
posed measures on essentially similar grounds as the School of Philosophy. 
Among those who made statements were I. Theodorakopoulos and P. Brastiotis, 
vho had consented on earlier reform porposals (e.g., those of the Committee on 
Education), the archaeologist S. Marinatos, the writer S. Melas, the scholar- 
statesman K. Tsatsos, the natural scientist K. Choremes, and the mathematician 
J. Xanthakis who was also President of the Academy. The assembled "Academicians" 
suiroiarized their views in a letter dated June 20, 1964, and sent to Premier 
Papandreou who was also serving as Minister of Education. In the letter it 
was stated that there was unanimous agreement that (a) the abolit-lon of Latin 
vould "lower the value of the Creek gymnasion" and therefore it should not take 
place, and (b) the three-year restriction of the teaching of ancient Greek in 
the three classes of the lyceum vab "inadequate*' and all except Ch. Karouzos 
were against the exclusive teaching of ancient Greek through translations.^^ 

The main arguments in support of the maintenance of the status quo reveals 
the persistence of the conservative traditional educational ideology. Indeed 
the historian of European education is struck by what were common nineteenth 
century vler^^s conceminp the value of classical studies. Thus one reads that 
Latin is indispensable for scholarly and scientific knowledge and research, and 
that "no one can rightly he called European, if he has not been a Roman citizen," 

^^The Academy of Athens, The Teaching of Cxaasical Letters in Secondary 
Education . Mi nutes of the General Meetings 831, 832, and 833 of the Acadery 
of Athens , (Athens: Office of Publications of the Academy of Athens, 1967), 
pp. 5-6. It is Interesting that the proceedings and the letter were published 
in this form in 1967 after an extraordinary meeting of the Academy on June 7, 
1967, during which the place of classical studies in secondary education was 
again discussed. 

ERIC 



VI - 37 

and that Latin and Oreek discipline the mind and train the faculties of 
rcasoninp,. In addition , 'Latin education* \^as Justified on the grounds that 
It provided a cultural bridge between Greece and ^^estem Europe and that It was 
^^Internally connected'' with ancient 'Greek education." Brastlotls said ::hat 
the restriction of ancient Greek conflicted with the following; serious consld** 
eratlons* (a) the purely humanistic and scholarly-scientific: (b) the Greek 
school tradition; (c) the natlonal-psycboloplcal* and (d) tbe religious and 
ecclesiastical. '^satsos argued that *'the classical lanf;ua);res are, at least 
for Western man, tbe most perfect Instrument of expression/' and that they 
constitute the **cbief means of the cultivation of thinking and feeling.** Ancient 
Greek, according to him, v^as not a "foreign language** for tbe Greeks » but the 
'*root of the modem Oreel^ form.*' National and political reasons demanded that 
the Greeks maintain close links with ancient Greek civilization *'vhich is the 
chief source of the historic » that is the national conscience. '^^^ Greece, 
Theodorakopoulos averred, did not possess material resources: its treasures 
lav in its tradition which was founded on ancient learning. 

Critical comments were made by influential educational spokesmen and 
classical scholars. P.K* Georgountzos, honorary Chairman of the Supreme 
Educational Council, argued that it would be Impossible to enter **the beautiful 
world of ideas' (a phrase used in the reform plans in support of translations) 
of the ancients without a systematic study of ancient grammar and syntax and 
without study of the texts in the original. Further, such grammatical knowledge 

^ 3ibid. , pp. 34-38, 
^ ^IMd. , pp. 45-49. 
^ ^Ibld. . p. 25. 

^^Theae appeared In the following newspapers: Kathe merlne , ''^os. 15954, 
15955 (Anruct, 19fiA), and August 29, lO^iA: T*egepvrlne . August 2R, 1964: To Vntna, 
August 23, 25, 26, 27, and 29; and Kathemerlne , July 14, 1966, August 7, 8, 1966. 

ERIC 



VI • 38, 

was held to ct. Indispensable for tnasterln^ modern Greek* ^Grammar,'* according 
to OeorROuntzosy *'ls the most philosophical of subjects/' N* Kontoleon, Dean 
of the School of Philosophy of the University of Athens, and Theodorakopoulaa, 
Professor of Philosophy there, criticized the measures In separate statements 
from those that appeared In the aforementioned memorandum by the School* And 
K«D« Georgoules, th'^ classicist, continued talking about education In general 
and reform. In particular. In the same vein as before Indeed, Georgoules 
went further than many of the other critics. For he saw the entire "reform 
movement'' as part of a ' popular front* --not dissimilar In Its tactics and goals 
from communist totalitarian counterparts—to "de-hellenlze,' "de-natlonallze,^ 
and 'de-humanlze" the younger generation. The ultimate aim of the reformers, 
according to him, was to bring about a social and cultural revolution on the 
conmunlst model. 

Opposition to the reforms was vigorously carried out In Parliament. Here 
opinion was divided on party lines. Indicating once more the political sensi- 
tivity of Greek education. Leading members of E.R.F. (National Radical Union), 
the right-wing party of Opposition, whose leadership passed from Karamanles to 
Kanellopoulos, spoke strongly af^alnst all features of the Bill, e.d., the 
school reorganization, the extension of compulsory free education, the use of 
translations, the elimination of katharevousa from the elementary grades and 
the elevation of the status of the demotlke, the establishment of the Academic 
Certificate, the setting of the Pedagogical Institute, and the making of Latin 
an opt lor jI subject.^^ 

'''he views of the Oppostlon were countered by those of the members of the 
Canter Union Party. And against the critics at Athens University were ranged 

^7spo chapter V. 

^8see Bouie ton Hellbnon (Chamber of Deputies of the Greeks), Official 
Minutes of the Special Commltti^e of the Boule> According to Article 35 of the 
C onstitution (July 14, 1964, - Sept. 8, 1964, Vol* I, (Athens: National 
Anting Office, 1964). 



VI - 39. 

leading scholars from the University of Salonlca--for example^ I. Kakrld' ^> 

Andrlotesi and N. Sakellarlou — who supported the reforms* Outside the 
academic circles^ Papanoutsos* the architect of the law» defended the measures 
with his usual pungent asseverations* 

On the lanpuage question ^ opinion was also mostly divided along the same 
lines » althoup.h there was some crossing of the lines. In general » the crltlcP/ 

did not oppose the more Important role 
accorded the demotlke» but felt that the new arranp.ement would further exacer- 
bate dlglossy and create confusion amonp, the young. Characteristically most of 
the critics expressed their thoughts In the pure fom» while the supporters of 
the measures wrote In denotlke* 



ERIC 



VII- 1 

CHAPTER VII 

THE PRESeJT STRVCTURIi: OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

Governance 

By constitutional provision education In Greece Is under "the flopireine 
supervision of the state** and ' Is conducted under state expense, or by 

local municipal organizations. ^ State supervision and control are carried 
out by a highly organized and centralized bureaucracy headed by the Minister 
of National Education and Religions. The Minister Is a political figure 
appointed by the party In power, and he Is legally responsible for formulating 
and executing educational policy an the elementary and secondary school levels. 
Being a political figure he Is, uilder normal conditions, responsible to the 
Boule and to the people. In theory he Is the undisputed czar of education: 
he Introduces legislation, makes all decisions, is responsible for all 
appointments from the General Secretary (the person immediately below him) 
to the remote village teacher. In practice, however, the Minister's powers 
are circumscribed by the bureaucratic organization; and hl6 decisions by a 
naze of laws, rules, avid rr>.gulitlons, as well as by precedent and custom. 

The top educational official after the Minister is the General Secretary 
of the Ministry, who is chosen by the Minister and holds office at his pleasure. 
In the last couple of decades, most of the General Secretaries have been 
educators, some with distinguished scholarly credentials. The General Secre- 
tary deals with essentially the same matters as the Minister. 

In the performance of their tasks the Minister and the General Secretary 
are assisted by a hierarchical organization consisting of directorates and 
sections. Internal to the central organization at the Ministry, there are 
the Central Administrative Services, which constitute the Central Service, 

^ See The New Constitution of Greece (195 2) 

ERIC 



VII- 2 

and the Central Educational Counclla. The Minister presides over the Central 
Service, which la comparable to a national Board of Education, and has Juris- 
diction ov«r public and private secondary schools. Higher educational Insti- 
tutions do not come directly under the Ministry; they are largely autonomous. 

The functions of the Central Service Include preparation of drafts of 
laws (bills), directives, and regulations concerning the administration and 
operation of Intermediate districts and agencies; appointments and transfers 
of teachers and other tschool personnel; management of the budget, school 
buildings and curriculum development; and selection of textbooks. The Cen- 
tral Administrative Services i Include the General Directorates of General 
Education, Vocational Education, and Religions. Under the Gener.:l Directorate 
of General Education there are several Dlrectoratas , e.g.. Elementary Educa- 
tion, Secondary Education, Physical Education, Private Education, School 
Hygiene, and School Textbooks « while other Directorates, not falling under 
any of the above. Include those of Higher Education, Technical Services, Fine 
ts, Audlo-Vlsual Media, and Mlnlctry's Personnel. 

Other central agencies perfomlng Important educational functions are 
the National Council of Education and the Supreme or Highest Educational 
Council (SEC). The form«r Is preelded by the Minister and Its aim Is to 
advise the Minister on the getviral planning of education and Its adjustment 
to the national and economic conditions of the country. 

In 1964, I.e., just prior to Its, replacement by the Pedagogical Insti- 
tute (discussed In Ci^apter VI) » t'le Supreme Educational Council consisted 
of a total of 23 members. Fourv;een (14) of the Councillors were appointed 
by the government on a parmanent basis and previously held posts as professors, 
teachers or higher educ<4tlonal officials; 2 were elected for a two-year term 
and represented the primary and secondary school teachers; 5 were appointed 

ERIC 



VII-3 



for a chree-year term and held posts Ir. the technical, commercial, nautical 

and agricultural branches; and the remaining 2 members were appointed for a 

three-year term and came from the Inspectorate of Physical Education and the 

Inspectorate of Elementary Education. It Is of Interest to note that of the 

2 

14 permanent members of the Council, 8 were philologists' and 2 "thaolo- 
3lans.' All of them held degrees from Greek universities and had studied 
overseas, mainly In Germany. 

As noted In Chapter VI , the Papandreou government In 1964 abolished the 
Supreme Educational Council and set up the Pedagogical Institute (Law 4'»79/64). 
The Institute consisted of 19 Councilors and 11 Associate Members. It was 
presided by John Kakrldes, a distinguished classical scholar and a professor 
at the University of Salonlca, and had N. Krltlkos, a professor of mathe- 
matics at the Athens Polytecnnlc, as vice-president. Seven of the Institute 
councilors were philologists, 4 were mathematicians, 3 "educationlftts," 
2 physicisij, owe theologian, one physical educator, and one lawyer- economist. 
Of the 11 Associate Members, there were 2 philologists, 2 mathematicians, 
4 ■ educttlonists, 1 theologian, 1 economist, and 1 engineer. All but 3 of 
the Councilors and Associate Membtrs had studied overseas, ?nd 5 of the 7 
"educationists had rcceivi^d M.Ed, decrees in elementary education from the 
University of Edinburgh in Scotland. One cannot make much of the educational 
background of tb-s members of the Institute, except that there were more 
people than ever before who had studie.-l in England and the United States. 



^ Philolglst Includes specialists in literature, hlftory, philosophy, 
the classics, or generally the humanities. 

^ By educationists is meant jipeciallsts in pedagogy or educatloual 
(>8ychology. 



Vll-A 



Ihe military regime reinstated the Supreme Educational Council and, as 
already noted, dissolved the Pedagoi^lcal Institute. But only tvo of ''e new 
Councilors had served on the pre- 1964 Council* The rest of the twelve-member 
body were new appointees. Of this number In 1970: two were listed as 

philologists, 2 mathematicians, 2 physicists, 4 educatlonl5)ts, 1 theologian, 

4 

and 1 economist. Only 4 of these Councilors had studied joverseas. 

The responsibilities of the Supreme Educational Council have been 
advisory, administrative, and supervisory. It advises the Minister on prob- 
lems of education In general. Including the preparation of educational bills; 
It Is responsible for the Inspection of the Pedagogical Academies, the Aca- 
demy of Physical Education, C Dldaskalelon of Secondary Education, and the 
model schools, but not che universities; It constructs curricula, courses of 
study, and time-tables for elementary and secondary schools » and for the 
Pedagogical Academies and the Dldaskalelon; It draws up Instructions and 
terms of the writing of school text- books; and It prepares directives for 
teachers on such matters as methods of teaching, discipline and examinations. 
The Council supervises the general Inspectors; It selects (by means of com- 
petitive examinations) the elementary school Inspectors, and It Is respon- 
slble for their promotion and transfer; and It has the power to certify, 
classify, and promote tc^achers and assign them to school districts thinughout 
the country. Finally, the Council performs Judicial functions In that It 
conducts disciplinary trials^ regarding teachers. In sum. It would be 
accurate to say that the Supreme Educational Council, originally Intended to 
represent the profession. In reality controls and supervises education In 



For the composition, responsibilities and functions of the SEC under 
the present government, see Kingdom of Greece, Ministry of National Education 
and Religion, Decree Law No. 651/1970 On the Organisation and Administration 
of General Education and Its Staff Athens: National Printing Office, 1971. 
Hereafter cited as Dec ree Law No> 651/1970 . 



VII-5 

Greece. Under -^parliamentary government the decisions of the Council, although 
submitted to the Minister as ' suggestions," were almost binding upon hlra and 
had to be carried out within fifteen days unless thoy were sent back for 
further consideration. 

The Ministry exercises its supervision and control over teachers and 
schools through intermediate or peripheral" administrative services and 
councils. Under parliamentary ;-»overnment there were 11 general education 
regions for elementary educatioit, each 'headed by an inspector general, and 
150 local educational districts, each undtr an Inspector who was the chief 
administrative and supervisory officer. The Papandreou government increased 
the regions to 15 and the districts to 200, while the present government 
decreased them to 10 and 176 respectively. Each of the ten regions is super- 
vised by a Councillor of Education" who is the highest-ranking education 
official in the region. The Councillors carry out top level guidance on 
scientific and pedagogical matters." They are also 'responsible for the 
administration and supervision of primary and secondary schools, teaching and 
supervisory staff serving in each one's respective region, for the General 
Education Teachers' Training Schools as well as for their teaching staff.'' 

Adjacent to the office of each inspector general there is a Higher 
Administrative Council of Elementary Education which consists of 5 members: 
A Judge (president), the Inspector general of elementary education, the direc- 
tor of the pedagogical academy (if there is such an academy in the tova where 
i...e Council is seated), tne senior Inspector of the area, and the teacher 
who is first in the rank of seniority. There are 15, previously 11, such 



Decree Law No. 651/1970, Article 5. 



VII-6 



councils all over the country and their responsibilities include: (a) trial 
of appeals of teacher;^ wishing to transfer to Athens, Piraeus and Salonica, 

(b) promotion of teachers to the higher grades^ of their hierar :hy, and 

(c) decision on appeals of teachers for transfer within the council area* 
Further, at the seat of each county (nomos) there is an Administrative 
Council of Elementary Education consisting of a judge (president), all the 
inspectors of the county, and the highest in seniority teacher of the county 
seat. There are 51 such councils and their responsibilities are: (a) promo- 
tion of teii^hers in their areas to lower grades,** (b) transfer of teachers 
within their area and the drawing up of the first lists of those to be 
transferred to Athens, Piraeus and Salonlca, and (c) placement of the first 
appointed teachers, approval of leaves of absence, decisions on the school 
calendar, etc. 

Turning now to secondary education, the following intermediate or 
peripheral arrangements are to be found. The country is devlded into 40 
General Education Areas of Secondary Education, each headed by an inspector 
general of secondary education. These inspectors general are recruited from 
the cadre of philologists and are responsible for the administration and 
Inspect Icn of the g ymnasia in their area and the supervision of the teaching 
staff. In addition to these inspectors general, there is a number of specialist 
inspectors general (e.g., mathematicians, physicists, theologians, physical 
educators, foreign language specialists, etc.) whose function is to supervise 
corresponding specialist teachers of the gymnasia all over the coi;ntry. The 
headquarters of these Indivldrals are in Athens at the Ministry of Education. 

Adjacent to the office of each inspector r«eneral of secondary education 
there is an Administrative Council of Secondary Education consisting of 4 
members: a Judge (pr<^sld'int) . the Inspector "general of secondary education, 

o 

ERIC 



VII- 7 

the headmaster of the gymnasium , and a secondary education teacher. The 
responsibilities of the council over the gymnasium teachers are similar to 
those of the Administrative Council of Elementary Education over the elemen- 
tary school teachers. 

Elementary school principals and secondary school headmasters exercise 
teachin<>, administrative, and supervisory duties over pupils and teaching 
staff. They draw up official reports about the professional efficiency of 
the teachers, and they are the chief student disciplinarians. They cannot 
discipline teachers. The law in effect today is very detailed on all these 
matters. Thus, for example, it is required by law that the "professional 
efficiency reports' be drawn up by specially designated people called "esti- 
mators' (these are mainly the school heads); that they be prepared at the end 
of each year and submitted by the end of August at the latest; and that 
they include evaluations and grading on a scale from 1-10 on: (a) morals and 
character, "respectability and official and social conduct "; (b) ' scientific 
preparation and intellectual abilities' ; (c) teaching efficiency and 
*'knowled'>e of pedagogics; (d) ' professional integrity.' Further the law 
stipulates: 

Each of the above-mentioned items is analyzed into its more 
specific elements. One of the most eminent (Important) 
characteristics of an educator's personality should be his 
loyalty and devotion to the Greco- Christ Ian Ideals. ^ 

In addition to their administrative and other duties, the principals and 

headmasters have rather heavy teaching loads which are also specified (in 

terns of weekly hours) by lav. 



Dc rree Law No. 651/ 1970. Articl". 36. Loyalty and devotion to the Greco 
Chri?»tl?n ido/jls Is by Iftw rcjqulred of nil educatioral personnel. 



VII- 8 



Local control of education Is totally rlicn to the Greeks. According to 
a lavr passed in 1932, local school boards were to l created in each district 
to represent the local conmunity, the parents, and the school. The members 
were supposed to be elected; however, in practice, because of lack of appro- 
priate election machinery and procedures, the members of. the board are 
appointed by the political authorities. For all practical purposes, school 
boards do not participate in major educational decisions at the local level; 
they have very little power over school issues and policies. 



ERIC 



Private Education 

In addition to state-supported schools , the Constitution provides for 

the establishment and operation of p>*ivate schools. Article 16 of the 1952 

Constitution states: 

After special license of the appropriate authority, indi- 
viduals, not deprived of their political rights. • • are allowed 
to establish schools which must function according to the pro* 
visions of the Constitution and the laws of the State. 

Article 17 of the Constitution of 1968 has added: 

. . . Those who establish private schools as well as those 
who teach in them must have the moral qualities and the quali- 
fications required for civil servants, according to the law. 

Private schools come under the jurisdiction and supervision of the Minis- 
try of National Education and Religions. They include nursery and elementary 
schools, gymnasia , commercial schools, technical and vocational schools, 
which are mostly evening schools. 

All priv.'^te schools are inspected by the same Inspectors responsible 
for the state schools of the area, while in the Ministry of Education there 
is a special directorate for private education. Transfer of pupils from pri- 
vate to state schools can take place aftar special examinations. In order to 
get an authorized school-IenvlnR certificate, graduates of private gymnasia 
and other private secondary schools must sit for examinations administered by 
a state cotrimittee. 

Financing and Costs of Education 

State education is financed almost exclusively by the State whose main 
source for school support is taxation. There is a very small contribution 
from the municipalities. Until recently, secondary schooli? chn^ged a tuition 
fee but now both ^ov^Il of . ' 'C^nion are free. 

7ot:il public recurrent expenditures have been less than 10 per cent of 
total ;* iilfc rc?cv.**^^:-it '?rpferi'; tures )969 they 8.8 per cent, and in 

1971, 9.7 per cn i^ ;. Cnplthl erpf tidl^. vcs for *^'Te B.b p^r cvvt of the 



ERLC 



VII-10 

total invftsttnent budget* Before 1963, the total expenditures on education 
amounted to 7-8 per cent of the national budget* On another Index, It has 
been estimated that In 1969 recurrent and capital expenditures amounted to 
2*6 per cent of GNP. And If it Is assumed that expenditures on private edu- 
cation amounted to 30 per cent of total public, then total private and public 
expenditures in the same year (1969) amounted to 3*4 per cent of GNP. ^Theso 
are low percentages compared to other 0«E«C«D« countries and, according to a 
report by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Greece 
**i8 in the' lowest quartile of the 40 countries that the Bank has assisted in 
education.*'^ 

Organization of Schools and Curriculum 

The present organization of schools is based on Law 129/1967 and the al- 
ready mentioned Law 651/1970* The first was published in the Government 
Gazette, Mo« 163, of September 25, 1967, five months after the military took 
over the reins of government* The Junta was deter- 

mined to undo the educational reforms of the Papandreocf government and return 
to earlier forms and ideas* 

General education consists of state (public) and private primary, second- 
ary, and vocational education. Primary education includes kindergartens (ages 
3«5-5«5) and six-year elementary schools (ages 5#5-ll«5); secondary education 
consists of the gymnasion which is divided into a three-year lower (ages 
11»5-14#5) and a three-year upper cycle (ages 14.5-17«5). Admission into the 
first cycle of the gymnasion takes place after the passing of entrance exami- 
nations. Compulsory attendance extends over six years (up to age 12) and all 
types and levels cf general education are free in the state (public) schools* 

^International Bank for Reconstruction and Develoi>mrnt, Of f lce_Men>^ randum , 
July C, 1971, p. 9. 

%ingdcm of Greece, Government G azette > V^. 163, September 25, 1967* 
Hereafter cited as Law 129/1967 (in Greek) « 



VII-11 

Klnderftartens 

In the kindergarten the aim Is to facilitate the physical and psychos- 
logical development of the child through appropriate exercises and games , and 
to acquire good personal and social habits such as cleanliness , obedience, 
and order • 
Elementary Schools 

The aims of the elementary schools have been stated as: 

''(a) The instilling in the child's "soul'' love of the 
Greek fatherland, of the Orthodox Christian faith 
and the moral (ethical) life, 

(b) The acquisition of the correct (right) view of the 

world around them according to their level of understanding* 

(c) The smooth adjustment of pupils to the school environment 
and an understanding of the binding of the individual . 
with social life* • • 

(d) The acquisition of good habits, specially diligence, proper 
conduct (behavior) and sociability, 

(e) The development of their oral and written linguistic abilities • 

(f) The acquisition of reading, writing and computational skills/' 
(Law 129, Article 7). 

The subjects of the curriculum vera specified as: religion, Greek 
language (reading, writing, oral exercises, folk tales, grammar, study of 
texts in the ''national language"), history, study of the Greek environment, 
chemistry and physics with elements of hygiene, geography, arithmetic and 
geometry, civics, crafts, music and physical education* The weekly distribu- 
tion of instructional hours is indicated in Table IV, 

The objectives content, and sequence of each subject at each grade level 

9 

are spelled out in great detail, and teachers are required to abide by them« 
In addition, teachers are expected to follow certain pedagogical procedure,"}, 
e«s«, "Unified Teachlr , * (Uchi ^aia Didaskalia), 



See HSrologeion Kal Analytlkon Prograiana Hathematon Demotlkou Scholelou 1969«70 
(Timetable and Program of Studies of the Elementary School)* Didaskalike 

Homospondla tfSs Hellados, 1969 • Hereafter cited as Horologelon Programme, 

1969-70. 



TA3LE IV 



VII - 12 



PROGRAM OF bTUDISS OF Sri-IIOOM 2LS1IEIITARY SCHOOLS* I'lTll IIEEiaY HOURS 

ALLOTTED PER SUBJECT (1959-1970) 



Instructional Weekly Hours By 
Subjects Class (Grade) 





1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


5th 


6th 


It Religion 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2. Greek (Itodeni) 


9 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


3, History 


• 




2 


2 


2 


2 


4# Study of Greek Environment (rellslous, 
social, physical 9 cultural) 




6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5. Physics, Chemistry and Elements 
of Hvlene 






3 


3 


4 


4 


G • Geography 






3 


3 


2 


2 


7. Arl time tic and Geomatry 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 


G. Civics 


m 










1 


9. Handicrafts 


6/2*^v 


6/2 


4 


4 


4 


3 


10. Huslc 


3/2 


3/2 


4/2 


4/2 


4/2 


4/2 


11* Gymnastics 


3/2 


3/2 


4/2 


4/2 


4/2 


4/2 


Total Weekly Hours of Instruction 


24 


26 


32 


32 


33 


33 



*niere are some variations regarding five-room, four-room, three-room, two-room, 
and one -room schools 

•**Afternoon hours 

Source: Horologelon Kal /oialytilcon Prop,raTina Ilathematon Dcmotlkon Scholelon 
Dldaskallke Homospondla tes Hellados, 1969« 



ERLC 



VII-13 

It is clear that Groeic elementary schools arc expected to impart a speci- 
fied body Ox knoulcdse and to instil a defined set of values (social, relig- 
ious and political) 9 customs and habits of mind believed to be necessary for 
intellectual development and socialization* The general intellectual and moral 
culture of the school and the pedagogical climate are of the "traditional 
conservative and v;hat may be called the "consensus'' variety^ There is little^ 
if any, opportunity in the curriculum for inquiry » conflict, pupil participa- 
tion or free teacher-pupil interaction. The teacher's role is both "pastoral" 
and transmitter of knowledge* He is the 'Wdiator" of knowledge and culture 
that are already given. The pupil is generally perceived as a "tabula rasa", 
a piece of unformed clay to be moulded into certain prescribed forms. A few 
examples selected at random from the Program of Studies of 1969-70 (HSrologeion 
Kai Analytikon Progromma), still in force today, \;ill suffice to illustrate 
the objectives, the subject-matter details, the values, and the perception of 
the role of teachers and pupils. 

1. Greek Language 

a. Objectives 

The purpose of the teaching of the Greek language in the first and 
second grades is to enable the pupils to express clearly and 
succinctly their thoughts and feelings. • .and no cultivate love of 
reading so that xitien they finish the Elementary School they \7ill 
continue reading useful books ...In the fifth and sixth grades, pu- 
pils should be able to write legibly,, letters of uniform size... 
From the third grade on, pupils must acquire the habit of reading 
without .Tioving their lips... 

b. Subject matter 

In the first and second grades ; exercises in syllabification, 
distinction beti/oen vowels and consonants, diphthongs, accents 
and breathings, meaning of verbs, etc. 

In the fourth grade; sentences, articles, declensions of nouns 

ending in -sus, -is, -ens, -a, -aros, etc. 

^ • * * * 



ERIC 



BEST COPY rmmii 



VII-14 



Teachinr; 

In the first grade the teacher should at first use the pictures 
( cards ) of the approved prlner •••ho can use words or 

phrases taken from the 'Unified Instructlon'\^^ The use of Inl; Is not 
recommended^ The teacher should Insist that children's writing^ on the 
blackboard or In their copybooks » should be clear » of uniform slze^v^ 
bad \^ltlng habits developed early are difficult to eradicate aftervrardsj 
Teachers should be careful that stories do not arouse unduly the imagina- 
tion; they should wjt exclude stories with terrifying scenes and bad acts 
Instead stories should cultivate the morale religious^ social and noble 
Rellfxlon /.sentiments., 
a^ Subj ect Matter 

In the third grade : (1) History of the Old Testament (Patriarchs 
Abraham^ Isaac » Jacob; the history of Hoses and Jesus of Nave; Kinss 
Saoul^ David^ Solomon; the prophets; Job)^ (2) Religious songs and 
poems; (3) Prayers; (A) Geosraphy of the lands of the Old Testament • 

b. General Teachlnr; Instructions 

(1) An e:ccellent method of the successful teaching of religion^ 
especially in the third and fourth grades ^ is the teacher's vay of pre- 
senting (narrating) the materials It must express the teacher's deep 
religious feeling vhich should also be manifested in his \;hole life 
and behavior in and out of schools 

(2) It is deemed absolutely necessary that pupils should participate 
in ecclesiastical life and worship (regular church attendance^ communion^ 
participation in church choirs) •••group v/orship in school through common 
prayers before and after the lessons^ organization of religious festivals 
in school^ and in Christian and philanthropic group activities^ 

History 

a^ Specific Objectives 

(1) Transmission and acquisition (by pupils) of historical knOT;ledge 

(2) Development and cultivation of 'historical thought^t i^e.^ under 
standing of causes of historical events and generally of the process of 
historical developments 

(3) Cultivation of national conscience! the debt to the past^ the 
responsibility for the present and the creation of the future* 

(4) Tlie formation of enthusiastic and good ( % , ^ citizens ^ 
capable of enlisting themselves in the political and national conminity 
and of contributing to the p*^ ectlon of the national heritage and to 
the development of their com. y's civilization (culture) • 

b^ Subject Matter 

In the third Rrade t Ilythological traditions of the "fathers" of the 
Greeks t Hercules » Theseus » Argonauts » Trojan Uar^ the wanderings of 
Odysseus during his return to Ithaca« 

In the sixth grade : Greece under the Turks, the Greek Revolution of 
1821 t Greece as an independent nation^ the Cypriot Struggle^ the national 
danger of Cotiisunism^ the Revolution of the 21st April 1967^ (Included 
under each topic are details regarding particular events ^ kings ^ only t\io 
political leaders --Trikoupis and Venlzelos)^ 



VII-15 



c. Teaching ilethods 

(1) The teacher's method of presentation should be natural, dramatic, 
and where appropriate, "captivating", without resorting to rhetorical 
hyperboles. 

(2) Local history should be taught and visits made to historical 
sites, monuments and museums. 

(3) The planning and carrying out of a school atmosphere conducive 
to the development of heilthy national sentiments, the celebration of 
national holidays, attendance at national memorials in honor of war 
heroes . . . 

all these contribute S"atly to the national cosciousness and system of 
beliefs of: the pupils. 

Lan.'^uage ; 

.As with all previous legislation, the language question received 
attention. The new government reversed the decisions made during the 
Papanrlreou years regarding the teaching of demotilce and Katharevousa (the 
popular end pure forms). It decreed that the popular form should «t taught 
in the first three grades, vrtiile a simplified Katharevousa should be taught 
and used in the upper three elementary grades (Law 129, Article 5). The 1970 
Decree limited the teaching of the pure form to the fifth and sixth grades. 
Tltere it was stated: 

The language taught and used through the first four forms 
(grades) of Primary Education is the Ilodern Greek language as it 
Is spoken today all over Greece, cleared of localisms or idioms 
and comprehensible by the pupils of this age. 

The language taught and used through E and F forms (grades) 
is "apll Katharevousa:" a form of Ifodem Greek language in which 
the Constitution r.nd Greek Legislation are witter, but in simple 
structures, cleared of archaisms corresponding to the linguistic 
feeling of modem Greeks and comprehensible by the pupils of this 
age. (Decree Law No. 651/1970, Article 25). 



ERIC 



VII-16 



One of the major problems o£ Greece education Is the diversity of elemen- 
tary schools,. Hiese are classified uader one of four catesorles, depending 
upon the number of "rooms" or tcacheru and- upon school enrollment. The four 
types of elementary schools are: (1) Monotaxla . one-room schools t;lth one 
teacher for all classes, and with a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 40 pupils; 
(2) Dldaxla . two-room schools that have two teachers for all clasees, with a 
minimum of 41 and a maximum of 00 pupils; (3) Tritaxia . three-rooti schools 
that employ three teachers for all classes, with a minimum of 81 and a maxi- 
mum of 120 pupils; and (4) Polytaxla « four**to si::**room schools that may have 
four to six teachers for all classes vith a normal enrollment of from 121 to 
240 pupils. ^ 

A major concern of all educational reformers has been to reduce the number 
of the first category of schools (monotaxla), ijhlch constitute about 50 per cent 
of the total number* In addltlcm^ there have been attempts to reduce the drop- 
out rate and there Is evidence that these have been quite successful* Accord^' 
Ins to the statistics ^ furnished by the Committee of Education In 1958 ^ of the 
total number of students (about 180 1. 000) enuerlng the first grade of the ele- 
mentary schools 9 at least one-third did not complete the six-year course* Ho\^ 
ever^ according to the estimates In 1972 of another source^ of 100 students 
enrolled In the elementary school^ 97-90 are able to finish the corpse* 
Secondary schools i 

The alms of the lo\;er cycle of the gymnaslon v;cre stated as: 

(a) Introduction Into t\\e spirit of the Helleno-Chrlstlan 
civilization through the study of selected classical and Orthodox 
Christian texts in the original^ and of at least one classical 
vork for each "class" In translation Into simplified Katharevousa * 



-"-^CI. Tslmbouklo, Compulsory Education In Ilelatlon to the Organization 
of Education in Greece # Memorandum to the Committee on Educatlon i> January ^ 
1972, manuscript* 



ERIC 



VII-17 

(b) Through fui'ther study of the modern Grec!: lansuage, 
of selected twrks of modem Greek literature and the history 

of the Nation, to become conscious of the unbroken Intellectual 
and llnsulsdc unity and continuity of our National life and of 
the historic and civilizing mission of our Greek Nation. 

(c) Orientation tw/ard the contemporary scientific develop- 
ment, especially as regards Its application to technological and 
practical life. 

(d) Introduction Into contemporary problems In order to be- 
come good citizens and active and creative members of the Community. 

<e) Further development of the physical and Intellectual pot/ersA 
particularly critical thlnldng and Initiative . . . 

(f) Development of strong national, religious and moral be- 
liefs (convictions). 

(g) Acquisition of virtues, especially Justice, sociability, 
cooperation and truth- telling, and development of character and 
hl^ morals. 

<h) Knox7ledge of the economic and natural resource potential 
of the country. Its human resources and professional potential, ... 

(1) Preparation for studies In the upper cycle of the gvmnaslon . 
the secondary level vocational school or for professional life. 
(Lai7 129, Article C) 

The currlcul^jm of the lovrer cycle of the gvmnaslon Includes the following 
subjects; religion, Greek language and literature, a foreign language (English 
or French), history, civics, geosraphy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, voca- 
tional guidance, hygiene, gymnastics and athletics, crafts, music, and home 
economics for girls. (Lau 129, Article 8) 

The stated alms of the upper cycle of the Rvmnaslon arc an elaboration 
and further development of those of the louev cycle. Selected MOxVaoi the 
classical Greek and Orthodox Christian literature are to be studied In tiis 
original* Further: (a) Students are to develop -a wider understanding of the 
ancient Greek civilization and Its significance In laying the foundatlomof 
the contemporary TTestem European civilization; (b) They are to become con- 
scious of the "unparalleled self-sacrlf Ice and energy vhlch the Greek Nation 



ERIC 



BEST copv m^mii 

VIl-18 

haa displayed" as well as of the 'lilsh meaninc oZ Ito ^he Nation* Q. heroic 
strusgles, etc . . .;" (c) Thoy are to broaden further their Intellectual 
horizons through an understanding of "progress in the sciences and its appli- 
cation;" (d) Ihey are to become conscious of contemporary social, political 
and national problems, and good and constructive citizens; and (e) They are to 
be prepared for admission into institutions of higher learning or into "pro- 
fessional life". (Law 129, Article 9). 

The 1967 Law provided that after the fourth gymnasion class (grade 10), 
there will be diversification into two branches: (a) theoretical v/ith empha- 
sis on humanistic education in v;hich will be included Latin language and liter- 
ature, and (b) positive (scientific) with emphasis on mathematics and the posi- 
tive sciences. (Article 9). The 1970 Law provided for three' options in the 
"higher-stage day high-schools," i.e., the upper cycle. These were: (a) gener- 
al, (b) theoretical, and (c) positive (scientific). In addition, evening "high 
schools" (general or economic), economic, and maritime high schools already in 
operation were to be maintained. 

The curricul\im of all branches or options of the upper cycle includes: 
religion, ancient Gredc language and literature, history, elements of philoso- 
phy, psychology and logic, civics, mathematics, cosmography, geography, phys- 
ics and chemistry, hygiene, foreign language (English or French]^ physical 
education and athletics, technical studies, music, and home economics for 
,;irls. The weekly distribution of instructional hours in the lower and upper 
cycles of the practical and theoretical gymnasion are indicated in Tables V 
and VI. 

The school "leaving certificate of the gymnasia V7ill entitle its recipient 
to sit for the entrance examinations to institutions of higher learning. 
(Decree Lav; No. 651/1970, Article 14). 



VlI-19 



FROCK/J«l OK STUDIES OF TliJi "rH.\CTlCAL ' (SCIFNTIVIC) CYMNASION WITH 
UEE« i HOURS ALLOTEC FER SUBJECT (iS69) 



Subjects 



Lower C ycle 

Classes 
lot 2nd 3rd 



Infl fruct tonal Hours 
Upp er Cycle 
Classes 

Ath 



1. ?ellglon 

2. itodern Greek (Lang. & Lit*) 

3. Classical Creek (Ung. 6 Lit.) 

4. Hiocory 

3. Elements of Fhiloscrhy» 
Peycholcgy and iMgic 

6. Civics 

7, Vocational Orientation and 
Vocational Guidance 

C. Mathematics 

5 . Cotttuograply 
10. Gaoeraphy 
1?.. rhysicB 

12 . Riology 

1.?. Anthropology 

14, Foreign Langvagos 

Hygirac, Firr^t Aid 
1.6, Physical Elevation 

17, Handicrafts 

18. Music 

19j HoiM^Ecouomix_^^ 



Total (vnen) 
Total (women) 



2 
4 
5 



2 
2 



3 
1 
1 

J. 

I n 



2 
4 

6 
3 



1 
3 

3. 
3 
1 



■1 



I. 

1 



4 
6 

3 



1/2 
1/2 



2 
3 

1 



3 
I 
1 
I 

35 



3 



3 
1 
1 

35 
36 



5th 


6th J 


TOT^L 


2 


2 


13 


4 


4 


2* 


5 


4 


32 




2 


17 



5 



1 
2 
1 
3 
1 



36 
37 



2 
1 



7 
1 

C 
1 



3 
1 



36 

36 



4 

1-J /2 



X/2 



31 

1 

7 
24 

2 

? 

13 
2 

10 
6 
4 

j6_ 

204 

209 



Suurcti Klngdoc of Greece, ^■<}y^:^!^l^^l^.,S'^:S}i:t* IJ, 1969, P. 

ERIC 



1673 







TABl 


\ VI 














PA9CK.VH OF STUDirS 


OF THE 


"UiEORETICAL 


" ( 


CViCSICAL) 






C;?MNASICN WITH WEEKLY llOl'Pw'; 


A1.LOTTED PER SUB.1CCT (1969) 








Instructional Hours 






Lover Cycle 


Upper Cycle 






Subjects 




Classes 






Classes 








1st 


2nd 


jra 




Jun 




TOTAL 


1. 


Keliglon 


2 




2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


13 


2. 


Hodem Greek (L^ig. & Lie.) 


4 


• 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


24 


3. 


Cltealcal Greek (Lang. & Lit.) 


5 




6 


0 


7 


7 


8 


39 


4. 


IU«tory 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


18 


5. 


Eleaents of Philosophy, 




















Poychology and Logic 












2 


2 


4 


6« 


Clvlca 








1/2 






1 


1-1/2 


7. 


Vocational Orientation and 








1/2 








1/2 




Guidance 














a. 


KalhetBatics 


4 




4 




k 


4 


4 


24 


9. 


Cosoiography 








^ 






1 


1 


10. 


Geography 


2 




1 


2 


1 


1 




7 


11, 


Fhyalcs 

• 






3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


17 


12. 


Biology 








1 




^ 


1 


2 


13. 


Aathropology 






1 






1 




2 


14. 


Fojrelgn Langv^Ageo 






3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


15 


If. 


Latin (I«ang. & LltO 








0** 


3 


3 


2 


C 


16. 


Hygiene, First Aid 






1 






1 




2 


17. 


Fhyaical Education 


3 




3 


3 




3 


3 




18. 


Hat^dlctafts 


1 




1 


1 








4 


19. 


Music 


1 




1 


1 








4 


20. 


Mo»e Economics for Girls 


2 




1 


1 




• 

1 




6 


Total (men) 


2D 




7.3 


V* 


35 


26 


36 


204 


Tdtal (women) 


32 




3A 


35 


36 


37 


36 


210 


Source} Klnadom of Gicecc, Govei-nmcTit 


Gazette, 


No. 225, 


Nov. 10, 


1969, P. 1609 


ERIC 



















VII-21 



As i;lLh elementary education^ the purposes ^ content and teaching approach 
of the secondary school curriculum are prescribed In detail and are published 
In the Government Gazette. A brief dlucusalon of some of the objectives and 
the subject-matter i^ould help shed some light on the nature^ scope and func- 
tions of the Greek curriculum. There are the informational cognitive goals: 
to convey established forms of knowledge In the humanities » the social studies 
and the sciences^ and to develop Intellectual skills (ability to reason^ re- 
meuber^ and observe^ to explicate the meaning of texts i to express oneself 
clearly and precisely^ to understand and use the "scientific method''^ etc.)* 
Such subjects as ancient and modem Greeks hlstoryi and civics arc also studied 
for theiv social^ cultural^ and national valuta. They are referred to as the 
'*belief-forming" (phrSnematistika) subjects and they are expected to "social- 

(initiate) the student into the Greek national culture and to cultivate 
his "national conscience'*. 

Greeks^ like most people^ glorify and romanticize their past^ extol and 
exaggerate their achievements while paying scant attention to those of others » 
and emphasize \r;hat they believe are uniquely Greek virtues and attributes. 
Ilodem Greeks for exasqple^ is expected to contribute to an understanding and 
appreciation of the accomplishments^ virtues and sacrifices of the Greek people 
and their national heroes. Virtues include faith in "the religion of our 
fathers"^ love of family and of "pure habits and customs"^ devotion to the 
father landi hospitality ^ generosity^ initiative^ etc. In history ^ the "ut.'que 
character" and contributions of the ancient and Byzantine civilizations are 
stressed. Teachers are required^ for example i to emphasize the contributions 
of the Byzantines in the preservation of European civilization and Ohristianityi 
and in the "Christ ianizat ion" of European culture. At the same time^ they must 

11 For the curriculum of the gymnasion in force today ^ see Enhemerls tes 
KyvernSseos (Government Gazette) ^ No. 225, Athens, Nov. 10, 1969. 



VII-22 

teach about the forced conversion to Islam of the Greeks by the Ottoman Turks, 
about the Ottoman "piracies'*, conquests and reduction Into captivity of Greek 
children and adults. 

Family, religion (the Orthodox Church) and nation (ethnos) have always 
been central concepts and Institutions In the Greek socio-political and edu- 
cational culture, and hence In the socialization or "belief- format Ion" of the 
young. In the syllabi of the humanities and the social studies there are 
several references to those aspects of Greek culture. Teachers are expected 
to enphaslze their unique Greek features as well as their liqiortance In the 
life of the Individual and the viability of society. 

la the syllabi of history and civics In force today, however, there are 
some nwt elements that are In accord with the Ideolosy and orientation of the 
po8t-1967 regime. There Is reference to the significance of the "political 
unity of the nation". Teachers are expected to emphasize this and to point to 
the threat of coonunlsm, the deleterious effects of Internal political strife, 
the evils of alcoholism, gambling, the dangers of denagoguery and anarchy^ 
and finally, extol the "National Revolution of April 21, 1967." Further, 
there should be Instruction In human liberties, but also In the national 
danger of taking advantage of such liberties, and In the legitimacy of the 
state to protect freedom. Finally, the syllabus Includes an item on tha need 
to declare states of emergency because of external and internal dangers. * 



*Since this was written the military covemnent has faller and a civilian 
government under Constantine Karamanles has been formed. It is expected 
that glorified references to the coup d'etat of April 21, 1967, will be 
eliminated. 



ERIC 



VII-23 

Technical and Vocational Education 
As shovn earlier (Chps. V and VI), In the last two decades technical and 
vocational education has been a subject o£ concern, controversy, some adminis- 
trative rearrangements, but very llttlu substantive change. Yet, the rela- 
tively slow pace of reform cannot be solely attributed to government Inertia, 
nor to any paucity of plans. As Is true of this type of education In other 
countries. It must be sought In the educational attitudes or "educational cul- 
ture" of the society, the Institutionalization of such attitudes in the school 
system, the occxipatlonal and social structure, the Incentives and rewards accru- 
ing itoi\ different kinds of schooling, the eoqployment opportunities and prac- 
tices, and the rate of development. As often discussed In this study, the Greek 
educational tradition with Its emphasis on the Hellenic and Christian concep- 
tion of knowledge, values, and Intellectual development hac not been conducive 
to the growth of technical education In the schools. The educational system 
reflected and helped reinforce societal values and the Interests of Influential 
groups, e.g., the Church, the Uiilversltles, the Acadenqr oi: Athens and several 
religious and cultural organizations. To these, the Hellenic-Christian Ideal 
was coextensive uith Greek national "paldela". Further, the structure of the 
system has been such that only graduates of the gymnasia could hope to enter 
the universities, the Polvlechnelon (Polytechnic), or other "supeilor" Insti- 
tutions, and thereby higher status occupations. In the main, technical and 
vocational school graduates VTould qualify for lesser Jobs, would not be re- 
garded as well educated as the gymnasium students and would generally feel 

short-changed. A possible exception to this are those attending the "Higher 

12 

Technical/Vocational" Institutions* and the very recently established (1973-7^) 

^2*These are four-year schools follov;lng secondary education (general or 
technlcal( for sub-englneors (civil, mechanical, electrical), electronics 
technicians, and maritime uorkers. 

ERIC 



VII-24 

13 

Higher Technical Education Centers (K.A.T.E.). Yet, the Utsher Technical/ 
Vocational schools are not on the same par aa the universities, the university- 
level schools or the National Metoovlon Polytechnic In Athens, and the vast 
majority (in some specialties 100 per cent) of those admitted from 1965-66 to 
1970-71 were graduates of the gymnasia , not the middle-level (secondary) tech- 
nical schoolsl^ The relatively lo\r priority given to this form of education is 
also reflected in the fact that until the last fifteen years or so It was al- 
most exclusively in the hands of private agencies and individuals, Iftiat little 
public provision was made was the reaponaibility of ministries other than the 
Ministry of Education and Religions. Even today, the private sector accounts 
for a substantial proportion of specialties, places, and facilities. In 1972-73, 
private schools enrolled 65 per cent of students in the lower technical/ 
vocational schools and 75 per cent in the middle schools. In 1970-71, 44.5 
per cent of students in higher technical institutions were enrolled in private 
schools. 

The present organization of technical/vocational education is governed by 
the provislorsof Legislative Decrees 3971 and 5C0, passed in 1959 and 1970 re- 
spectively. There are three levels of technical/vocational schools- -loiter, 
middle (secondary), and higher— each of which consists of a variety of special- 
ties. 



"Five IC.A.T.E. openad In 1973-74, specializing in meclanical technology, fnrra 
technology, business management, paramedical services, graphic arts, etc. 

l^See Ministry of National Education and Religions, Technical /Vocational Edu- 
cation . Athens; March, 1972, p. 73 (in Greek). Hereafter cited Technical^ 
Vocational Education . 1972. 

^^From statistics provided by the Illnistry of Education, General Directorate 
of "Vocational" Education. 

^^Coiq>uted from statistics in Technical/Vocational Education . 1972, p. C2« 



VII-25 

Lower Technical /Vocational Schools 

A larce number of students In these schools are trained to be mechanics 
and electricians (29,710 out of a total of 49,361 In 1972-73). Generally the 
course is three or four years after successful completion of the elementary 
school (ages 12-14 or 15). Students are admitted to lower technical/vocational 
schools without any entrance examinations. Attendance in the public schools is 
free. In order to receive a certificate equivalent to that of public schools, 
those who finish private schools must pass examinations set up by the Ministry 
of Education and Religions. 

There has been a steady Increase in enrollments in these schools since 
1964-65. In that year, there were 31,114 student>3. By 1972-73 the number had 
risen to 49,361. As might be expected, the heaviest concentration of technical/ 
vocational students is in the Athens -Piraeus and Salonlca areas (54 per cent in 
1972-73). 

According to a report by the Illnlstry of Education in 1973, the government 
is planning ultimately tc abolish the lo\;er level of technical/vocational edu- 
cation "because the qualifications obtained from its schools are thought to be 
insufficient to a vocational career". 

twiddle Technical /Vocational Schools 

The middle- level technical and vocational schools are the "backbone" of 
Greek "vocational" education. From 1964-65 to 1972-73, enrollments in both 
public and private institutions Increased substantially from 22,602 to 58,407. 
Areas of specialization in these schools include electricians, nachanics, 
draftsmen, rural surveyors, maritime mechanics, accountants, * forcmtft, ihedical 



^^Hellenic Republic, Ministry of National Education and Religion, Report on 
Developments of Education in Greece in the Years 1971-73 to the 34th Meeting 
of the International Conference on Education of UNESCO, Athens i August, 1973, 
Hereafter cited as Report. 1972-73 . 

ERIC 



VII-26 



technicians, etc. Close to 80 per cent of students are concentrated In the 
Athens -Piraeus and Salonlca areas. 

The course of study generally is of three or four years duration (ages 
15 to 17 or 18). Admission Into these schools presupposes completion of 
lower- level technical or vocational schools, or the lower stage of the general 
schools ( Rvmr.aala) and the passing of entrance examinations* 

Higher Technical/Vocational Schools 

This level of technical/vocational education Is Intermediate between the 
middle-level schools and the university-level polytechnics. Holders of 
leaving certificates from middle-level technical/vocational schools or 
Rynnasia are admitted after passing entrance examinations. The course of 
study is four years and specialties include sub-engineers (civil, mechanical, 
electrical), electronics technicians, and maritime workers. In 1965-66 there 
were 5,690 students attending this type of higher institutions; by 1971-72, 
th^ number rose to 6,493. 

Other Technical/Vocational Schools 

In addition to the levels and types of schools described above, there 
are several other vocationally or technically-oriented institutions between 
one to three years' duration. They Include ecclesiastical schools (middle 
and higher- level), schools for social workers, nurses, midwlvcs, physio- 
therapists, hotel managers, singers (conservatories), etc* 

In 1970, Legislative Decree No. 652 authorized the establishment of five 
Higher Technical Education Centers, knovm as K.A.T.E., in Athens, Salonlca, 



VII-27 



Patras, Larissa, and Heraclelon (Crete). Like the existing higher technical 
schools, K,A«T,E, i;ere to be intermediate between the middle-level technical 
schools and the university-level polytechnics. Admission into them vould 
require the holding oZ a school-leaving certificate from a ttvnnasion or a 
middle-level technical school, and the passing of an entrance examination. 
Their purpose ^ms stated as "the education (training) of higher-level technical 
personnel in order to contribute to the development of the nationrl economy." 
Such education would include "theoretical study, training in factories (work- 
shops) and supervised on-the-job training".^"' K.A.T.E. would provide areas 
of specialization for mechanical technologists, farm technologists, paramedics, 
graphic artists, business personnel, etc. The length of study would vary from 
one to three years. 

A report by the Ministry of Education in 1973 noted that K.A.T.E. were 
to start in 1973-74. It was expected that 3,000 students would be admitted 
and that for the preliminary period 1971-73, a sum of 90,709,000 drachmas 
($3,026,300) was allotted. 



^%ingdom of Greece, Govemuent Gazette, No. 180, Athens, August 29, 1970, 
(in Greek). 



^%*» port. 1971-73 . p. 6. 



VXI -28 

Expanolon. Distribution, and Qppor * anitioa 
In Toblo VII onrollnunts arc shoim over tiue in tho various levels and 
types o£ education. It is clear that since 1954>55 primary school cnrollnonts 
have shoim relatively little increase and this is undoubtedly due to the very 
low population grov7th (less than 1 per cent annually). On the other hand, enroll- 
ments in other levels have increased substantially; at the "higher level", in- 
cluding higher technical, they have soared from 16,900 in 1954-55 to 78,000 in 
1972-73, i.e., by aliaost 500 per cent. These overall data show that since 
approxitaately 1953--59, the flow of students fron primary into secondary and from 
secondary into higher has increased dramatically. Froo this :.t can be Inferred 
that in the last fifteen years or so the social demand for education has gone 
up. In this connection, it is interesting to note that, despite the almost four- 
fold Increase of technical education, general secondary education has shown a 
relatively larger expansion in terns of numbers. This phenomenon, as Indicated 
in previous chapters, has occupied the attention of policy-makers and planners 
who have argued that, for purposes of development, there should be a greater flow 
of students into the technical and vocational schools. 

A graphic way of looking at the size and distribution of the Greek 
educational enterprise is the "education pyramid" shoim in Figure A. The 
pyrsmid was based on tho 1967-60 statistics. In general, honrever, the shape 
for today would not look marlcedly different. Among other things, this figure 
shows the relative distribution of general and technical/vocational education, 
boys and girls (generally iaaov girls than boys, particularly at the secondary 
level), and the progressively selective character of secondary and higher educa- 
tion. More recent data and estimates on this last point indicate the following: 
a. The drop-out rate in primary schools, which had always been of coftcem 
in Greece, has been substantially reduced, although not eliminated. One writer 
has estimated that the likelihood of those in the first grade of tho elementary 



ERIC 



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VII - 31 

20 

schools finishing after six years during the period 1956-69 was 95 per cent. 

However, If we compare the nuinber registered In the first grade In one year 

with those five years later, \je arrive at soroei/hat different conclusions. For 

example, in 1955-56, 172,185 students registered In the first grade; In 1960- 

61, the nuinber who graduated was 133,509, that Is 33,676 students or 22.4 

per cent less. Similarly In 1963-6A, 171,009 students were registered In the 

first grade; in 1968-69, the nuinber who graduated stood at 14«»,161, that Is 

21 

26,840, or 15.7 per cent less. 

b. In 1969-70, 162,724 students graduated from primary schools. Of this 
number, 90,100 proceeded to the first cycle of secondary general education, 
and 13,742 to lov7er vocational schools (these represent about 55 per cent 

and 8.6 per cent respectively). About 36.4 per cent (50,882) dIA not continue 

their education beyond the primary school. By contrast, of the 61,132 who had 

completed first cycle, 60,068 or about 90 per cent proceeded to the upper 

cycle. Coudnulng along these lines, we find that of the 45,7/i5 who completed 

their Rvmnasion studies, 16,273 or 35.5 per cent entered university- status 

higher institutions, and 18,724 or about per cent. Institutions of higher 

22 

learning (this category Includes university- status ins ntlons). 

Not unexpectedly, therefore, the greatest degree of selection occurs at 
the points of entry Into the secondary schools (age 12+), which also marks the 
termination of CMipulsory education, and institutions of higher learning 
(age 10+). 

c. Another way of presenting the flot-7 of students and the degree of 
•election is to be found in the estimates made by C. Tslmboukis. He has 

20x8iinboukis, Op. Clt. . p. 30. 

2^Ibld., p. 34. Also see enrollment statistics in International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development . Op. Clt. . Annex 5. 

^^Computed from statistics found in Tslmboukis, Op. Clt. . p. 47. 



VII - 32 



calculated that of 100 students entering the first grade of primary schools: 
93 finish the prinory school course 
61 enter the first cycle of secondary general education 
43 complete the three-year first-cycle and continue Into the three-year 

second cycle 
33 finish the aymnaslon 

lA- enter university- status higher Institutions 

23 

9 graduate from university-status higher Institutions. 

d. The highest drop-out rates, while at school, occur In the secondary 

schools (the frymnaslon ) . For example, In 1962-63, 72,703 students vere enrolled 

In the first class of the secondary stage (grade 3). In 1967-63, only A0,A04 

24 

students were to be found In the sixth class (grade 12), 

e. Generally there are more boys than girls enrolled at all levels of 
education; and they have higher chances of remaining In school and completing 
elementary, secondary and higher schools. 

f. IHiile almost all primary school-age children attend school, only 59 
per cent of the appropriate age group attend secondary schools (general and 
technical), and 10.3 per cent of the appropriate age group attend higher 
institutions.^^ 

At the beginning of this report (Chapter I) it vas stated that there were 
regional and other, e.g., sex, socio-economic, disparities in educational 
attainment aui distribution. More detailed statistical data on such dis- 
parities are presented belmr. 

^ ^Ibld . . p. 48. 

^ ^International Banic for Reconstruction and Development . Op. Git. . Annex 5. 
25 Ibid. , Annex 4. 

o 

ERIC 



VII ^ 33 



Taklns Groccc as a vholo, in 1971, 14.2 per cent of the population 10 
yoars of ago and over vmo Illiterate, 33.3 per cent did not conpletc olocontary 
school, 49.5 per cent completed elementary school, but only 10.0 per cent ccn- 
plcted secondary school (fwtanaslon ) . and 2.9 per cent, hlcher education. 
VJomcn*8 educational attainment, In terms of level of literacy and level of • 
education, v/as consistently lower than that of men. IJhile among men 6.3 per 
cent uore listed as Illiterate, among i7omen there ^7ere 21.7 per cent. Simi- 
larly, 20. 5 per cent of males as against 39.6 per cent of females did not com- 
plete elementary school; 55.4 per cent of males as against 43.9 per cent of 
females completed elementary school; and 4.3 per cent of men as aftulnst 1.6 
per cent of women completed higher education. Another way of presenting these 
disparities would be: Of all illlteratcc in Greece, about 70.0 per cent were 
women; of all those who completed higher education, only 27.0 per cent are 
women; and 61.4 percent of those who did not complete elementary school were 
female J . 

As to regional variations regarding the educational level of the popula- 
tion 10 years and over, the advac jgopus position of Greater Athens has always 
been noticeable; antf*8o has the "underprivileged" status of Thrace. On the 
basis of calculations made of registered students as percentage of total regional 
population, similar conclusions can be draim. For example, secondary students in 
Greater Athens, the Feloponnese and the Aegean Islands have relatively greater 
access to secondary schools, while those of Thrace have the most limited 
upportunitics. 



^^hese percentages vrere computed from: National Statistical Service of 
Greece, Rosulto of the Population and Housing: Census . 1971, Siooplo VtHboroClon, 
Vol. I, (Athens, 1973). 



o 

ERIC 



VII - 34 

Renional variations rocardlnc primary school attendance and drop-outs 
ere not ao significantly narked as those of secondary and higher education. 
In rural regions , however, there Is a disproportionately larger number of one- 
class one- teacher schools (tnonotaxla ) , and fewer private schools. Indeed, If 
one excluded the special schools for the moslem religious minorities In Thrace, 
all private schools are In the major urban areas, mostly In Athens. On several 
Indices, e.g., school facilities, successes In examinations, etc., private 
schools In Greece offer a "better" type of education. Tlius It can be Inferred, 
although we must stress the absence of empirical data, that the quality of 

27 

teaching and education In rural regions Is la;er than that In urban areas. 
In this connection, one should also mention some highly prestigious and success- 
ful private secondary schools, e.g., Athens College for Boys, Pierce College 
for Girls, also located In Athens, Anatolia College In Salonlca, and the 
Valanylannl School for Girls. 

In addition to the aforementioned variations, the distribution of educa- 
tional opportunity must be assessed on the basis of differences anx>ng socio- 
economic classes. Unfortunately, very little research has been done on this 
subject In Greece. It Is possible, hoi/evor, to make some generalizations 
that would not be a distortion of redlty. The M. R. F. Report of 1965 correctly 
noted that "the differences In educational opportunities In Greece are not so 
blatant as might be expected In a country at her stage of economic development." 
The Report continued: 

Although private schooling and study abroad are 
available only to those v7ho can afford them. It Is 
revertheless true that public primary and secondary 
schools are free, fees In the unlversltlrq are very 
la-7, and scholarships are awarded. Vlhiie Income foregone 
Is an Important factor for mnny families. It Is not 
ecpeclally so In rural areaij because of high rates 
of underemployment, and because seasonal perk labour 
demands often coincide with school holidays. 

^^Alao see lUR.P. Report, pp. 63-64. 

23ibid., p. 65. Since the above viab \nrltten all public education lo free. 

ERIC 



CHAPTER VIII 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

This level of education In Greece consists of a variety of post- 
secondary Institutions. The Greek terminology distinguishes between 
"higher" and "highest" or "supreme" education. The latter refers to 
the universities, the National Metsovlon Polytechnic, and "university- 
level" Institutions, while the former. I.e., "higher',' to post -secondary 
schools not legally enjoying university or "highest" status. It would 
be well, therefore, to examine these two categories separately. 

Highest (University-Level) E^lucatlon 

Currently there are 11 "highest" educational Institutions, four 
universities (Athens, Salonlca, Patras, loannlna), the National Metsovlon 
Polytechnic In Athens* and six "highest schools" (the Piraeus and Salonlca 
Schools of Industrial Studies, the Athens School of Agricultural and 
Earth Sciences, the School of Economic and Conmerclal Sciences, the School 
of Fine Arts, and the Pantelos School of Political Sciences). 

In 1971-73, 75,000 students attended courses in these establishments.^ 
Of these, the universities of Athens snd Salonlca enrolled 50,000, i.e., 
about 70 per cent of the total. The two "Social Science" schools (Pantelos 
and Economic and Commercial Sciences) registered 11,777 students in 1971, 
and the Polytechnic, 3,766; the recently established universities of 
Patras and loannlna, 1,220 and 1,313, respectively; and the two "Industrial 
schools, 5,408 students. 

The demand for "superior" education in recent years has been very 



Report. 1971-73 . p. 7 



VIII - 2 



high, while the available places have been rather limited. In September, 
1973, 55,000 candidates registered for the entrance examinations into 
"higher" and "highest" institutions. There were only 15,640 available 
places of which 13,500 were in university- level Institutions. The ratio 
of candidates to places ranged from 2:1 in the fields of agriculture and 
forestry to 6.A:1 in medicine and 7.4:1 in pharmacy. Even in such crowded 
fields as law and "philology", the ratios were 3.2:1 and 3.1:1 respectively. 
The Athenian daily To Vema aptly characterized the coaq>etition as a "fierce 
battle. "2 

The Univ ersiti es an d the State 

Constitutionally, the "highest" educational institutions have "legal 
independence" or are "self-administered" under the supervision of the 
State, through the Ministry of National Education and Religions. They 
are thus public establishments, supported by the State, and subject to 
public lew. Professors are civil servants. Their internal governance, 
the number of various ranks of the teaching staff (professors, instruc- 
tors, assistants, etc.) and the sy'em and texms of their appointment, 
the number of academic chairs, the system of examinations (entrance, 
yearly, and final) and grading, the student unions, the method of distri- 
buting textbooks and other teaching materials to the students, the li- 
braries, disciplinary codes, etc., are all regulated by legislative de- 
crceii. Thus, despite autonomy in internal affairs, virtually every 
aspect of activity by professors, students, and administration is sub- 
ject to government surveillance. 

lliete institutions, particularly the two older universities (Athens 
and Salonica) and the National Polytechnic, have played an important rolt 



^Te_Veni, September 2, 1973 



VIII - 3 



in the political, economic and social life of the country. They have 
been the toain agencies for the recruitment and training of a sizeable 
majority of Greek leaders, especially in the civil bureaucracy, the pro- 
fessions, public and private business corporations, the school system, 
and the Church. I4any political leaders have attended the two universi' 
ties, especially the Schools of Lav and Medicine. And, as Keith Legg has 
demonstrated, "the graduates and students of law from the two universi- 
ties have a near-monopoly of the higher civil-service positions."-' The 
Schools of Law and Medicine at Athens and Salonica have also furnished 
consistently since 1843, the largest number of ministers (during periods 
of relative stability over 50 per cent) and top leaders (during the 
periods 1910-36 and 1946-65 about 80 per cent).^ And the Theological 
School of the University of Athens "has trained most of Greece's priests, 
preachers, bishops, archbishops and teachers of religion."^ 

Professors hive sat on important policy-making commissions and served 
in the government at various high-level posts (ministers, general secre- 
taries, directors-general, etc.). Professors and students have often taken 
active parts in the political life of the nation. The politicization, 
one might say, of the Greek university dates back to the early period of 
the Othonian University (the University of Athens). Professors and stu- 
dents participated in the political xipheavals of 1843, when King Otto was 
forced to accept the first Greek Constitution and expel many of his 
Bavarian advisers, and 1862, when he was forced to abdicate. There were 
student demonstrations, protests and armed conflicts with the police in 

^eith R. Legg, Politics in Modern Greec e (Stanford, California: Stanford 
University Press, 1969), p. 282. 
nUd, p. 303 

'Sea Demetrios J. Tarrou, "Genesis, Origin, and Development of the National 
and Kapodistrian University, 1837-1936," Ph.D. Thesis, New York University, 
id 1968, p. 156. Tarrou refers to the period 1837-1936, but this generali- 
ERJC xaticn would also hold true fcr the ytcta since. 



VIII - 4 



1857, 1859 and I860. In 1857, the students protested a decision by 
A. Rangabe (a professor and at the time Minister of the Interior) to 
organise political parties they did not consider appropriate. In 1859, 
deoonstratlons began when students wearing a particular form of locally 
made straw hat. were attacked by other students wearing Imported style 
hats which were regarded as symbols of royallsm. The brawl brought In 
the police, students then uarched towards the Palace calling for the dis- 
missal of the head of the gendarmerie. The army jtepped In, stormed the 
buildings, the university was closed for seven days and the Chief of 
Police was dismissed. And In 1860, the Law School was closed for a year 
following student demonstrations against N. Kostes, a professor of cri- 
minal law.^ 

There have been numerous other episodes Involving the universities, 
the police, and the government. Suffice to mention here the bloody riots 
at the turn of the twentieth century over the language question, and thcoe 
of November, 1973, against the military regime of Colonel Papadopoulos . 
In 1901 and 1903, students and professors of the University of Athens were 
Incited and mobilized against the translation of ancient Greek texts and 
the Bible Into the popular language (demotlke) and In favor of retaining 
the pure form (katharevousa) . Ostensibly over an educational-linguistic 
problem, the riots soon acquired major political proportions. Among 
other things, they resulted In the besieging by the students of the 
palace and the demand for the dethronement of the King and Queen (George I 
and Olga) , In considerable vandalism and ultimately the overthrow o2 the 
government. In November, 1973, students at the National Polytechnic 



See Costas Papapanos, Historical Chronicle of Our Highest Education 
(Athens: Pierce College, 1970), pp. 419ff (In Greek). 



VIII - 5 



barricaded themselves Inside the school's buildings, government tanks 
smashed through the gates* fighting ensued between students and soldiers 
who stormed through, and hundreds were killed or Injured. Soon after, 
the Papadopoulos military regime was replaced by the one In power today. ^ 

Government Interference in such events has not been limited to 
sqv\elchlng riotous students or maintaining order. It has also entailed 
the dismissal of professors, the expulsion of students, sometimes their 
trial and Imprisonment, suspension of classes, and even the closing of 
the Institutions. This has made the position of professors rath'^tr pre- 
carious, especially during periods of major Internal political crisis, 
like the current one. Since 1967, professors have been and can be 
suspended. If, In the opinion of the authorities, they have engaged or 
are suspected of being engaged In activities not befitting their position, 
or simply If they do not espouse the "correct" social beliefs. This may 
mean simply opposition to or criticism of the regime. 

In this connection It would be appropriate to mention that In 1932 
a "government overseer" (epltropos) was appointed In the Universities cf 
Athens and Salonlca, an office which later was Instituted In all highest 
Institutions. This clearly restricted further the "autonomy" of these 
establishments. In 1968, the military governinent Incorporated this pre- 
vision In the Constitution, and proceeded to appoint retired military 
officers as "government overseers." (Previously they were recruited mostly 
from the ranks of professors.) The "government overseer" takes part In 
the meetings of the Senate and of the associations of the professors In 
the various schools. It can be said, therefore, that government control 

^For sore details on Incidents Involving the University of Athens In 
Greek politics during the period 1837-1936, see Demetrlos J. Tarrou, 
op.clt. . pp. 115ff 

ERIC 



VIII - 6 

over the universities and the other equivalent Institutions Is virtually 
complete. 

The National Kapodlstrlan University of Athens 

As noted earlier (Chapter II), In 1837, shortly after national 
Independence, a university was established In Athens to cap the newly 
organized national system of education. It was originally called the 
University of Otto or Othonlan University (after King Otto), and was 
modelled on the North European (German) counterparts. It Included four 
faculties (theology, philosophy, lav, medicine); the professors were 
directly appointed by the Klng,^ it admitted students with a school- lea- 
ving certificate from a public gymnaslon ; and the course of study was 
three years (shortly afterwards it was changed to four years). In 1862, 
after King Otto's dethronement, its name was changed to the "National 
University of Greece'' and in 1932 it was renamed the "National and 
Kapodlstrlan University of Athens." 

In 1882 full professors ceased to be appointed directly by the 
State, add in 1911-1912 their appointment came under the jurisdiction of 
each school. It should be remembered, however, that the decree for the 
appointment continued to be Issued by the government (through the Minister 
of National Education and Religions) and all ranks of professors continued 
to be "public eiq)loyees." Positions for the rank below that of full 
professor continued to be open to competition. 

The internal affairs of the University are administered by the 
Rector (prytanls) and the Senate (Synkletos), which consists of the 
Rector, the Vice-Rector (or Rector-Klect) , the Deans of the Schools and 
four members of the Senate (professors). The Rector is the top 



VIII - 7 



administrative officer of the University and holds office for a year. 
The Senate Is the governing body. 

When It was first established, the School (faculty) of Philosophy 
included specialization In literature (Latin and Greek), archaeology, 
history, natheiaatlcs, physics, chemistry, rh<%torlc and ethics. In 1904, 
it was sub-divided into (a) the School of Plillosophlcal Studies, History 
and "Philology," and (b) the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 
or as they are known today, the Philosophical and Physico-Mathematical 
Schools. The Philosophical School or School of Philosophy comprisees 
several departments : Philology (languages and literature) , History and 
Archaeology, Philosophy, Ancient Studies, Byzantine and I4edieval Studies, 
Modem Greek Studies, English Language and Literature (established in 1951), 
and French Language and Literature (established in 1951). The Physico- 
Mathematical School iccludes the Departments of Mathematics, Radioelec- 
tronics. Pharmacy, Physics, Chemistry and Physiognostics. Under the 
Law School there are the Departments of Law and the Department of Political 
and Economic Sciences. Finally, in 1951, the School of Dentistry acquired 
full status as a school. Thus today the total number of schools is six: 
Theology, Philosophy, Physico-Mathematics, Law, Iledicine and Dentistry. 

Until 1911 tuition at the University was free, except for certain 
fees for registration and for the diplomas. "Free education" at all levelo, 
including the university, was again introduced in 1963. The military 
government that assumed power in 1967 extended "free education" to include 
free textbooks. 

Up to 1924-25, addssion into the University was based on the suc- 
cessful completion of a public nymnasion and the acquisition of a school- 



ERIC 



VIII - a 



leaving certificate. Since then entrance examinations have been added. 

The reason given was the "incomplete general education of Che students 

in the gymnasion ." But we must consider also the increasing number of 

students who wanted to gain admission and, therefore, the need for selec- 
8 

tioa. At first all those who were successful were automatically admitted 
but later (in 1930) the number was re8i7lctf:d even further by the intro- 
duction of a numerus dausus , a practice followed in all the "highest" 
institutions. 

Entrance examinations have always been a highly sensitive and con- 
troversial issue, and changes have been made quite frequently. For 
example, in 1964, the Academic Certificate, already referred to (Chapter 
VI), was introduced, and only the holders of it could register in insti- 
tutions of "highest" education. The Academic Certificate was awarded 
after passing competitive examinations in certain subjects, held between 
September 1 and October 10 in various cities. It was of two types: one, 
in the humanities, entitling its holders to enter the Schools of 
Theology, Philosophy and Law in the universities, and the other, in the 
natural sciences and technology, allowing one to enter the Fhysico-Mathe- 
natical School, the Schools of Dentistry, Iledicine, Agriculture and Earth 
Sciences and Forestry, and the various schools of the National Polytechnic. 
For admission to all other schools the two types were considered equiva- 
lent. In 1967, the Academic Certificate was abolished and entrance 
examinations were reinstated. Except for the Schools of Medicine And 
Dentistry, the course of studieu in all other faculties is four years. 
When all requirements have been satisfied and after a successful oral 

^See Fapapanos, op.cit. . p. 398 



ERIC 



VIII - 9 



t 



exanlnatlon, a certificate (ptychlon) Is awarded on which the overall 
grade performartce and area of specialization are indicated. 

As Its name indicates, the University of Athens has been perceived 
as the national Institution cf Greece. Until the establishment of the 
University of Salonica it reigned auprene and was pivotal in the educa- 
tional, cultural, and political life of the country. Most political 
leaders, intellectuals and other elites had received their university 
training at the University of Athens. In addition, until recently, most 
secondary school teachers of literature, religion, history, clacslcs, 
languages, mathematics, and the sciences were graduates of ihla univer- 
sity. Athens controlled access to the professions, the world of letters 

o 

and the arts, and to most educarional and political leadership positions.' 
More than that, by tradition dating back to its foundation in 1837 • the 
University of Athens has assumed the role of defining the ideals of 
Greek culture (paideia). One school in particular, the School of Philo- 
sophy, has ot^en assumed the role of defining aud articulating the goals 
and content of Greek education; and it has trained a substantial percen- 
tage of educational leaders and secondary school teachers. 

In the formulation of educational policy the significance of the 
Philosophical School has been Immense. Policy-makers have often enlisted 
the cooperation of the School's professors in formulating and carrying 
through their plans of action. Professors have often been called upon 
to assume policy-making responsibilities (some, e.g., John Theodorakopoulos , 
have served as Ministers of Education), or to be on import&nt ccHmni.ssions 



^' u the significance of the University of Athens in political elite 
recruitment and in the "clientage system" in Greek politico, see Legg, 
op,cit. . pp. 278-279, 281-282, 301-305. On the University's role in other 
spheres, e.g., religion, letters, law, medicine, etc., until 1936, see 
Tarrou, op.cit. . pp. 151-189. 

ERIC 



VIII - 10 



(e.g., the Conmilttee on Education, 1937-1958). In most cases Involving 
changes In education (organization, examinations, teacK<ir training, lan- 
guage, and curriculum In general), the School of Philosophy has deliberated. 
Issued memoranda, made statements to the press, lobbied, and generally 
sought to Influcene educational policy. Its views are never taken lightly; 
they are discussed In Parliament, In scientific and literary Journals, 
In the press, by teachers' organlzatlonn, and at round-table discussions. 
Still under the Influence of German classical neo-humanlsm and the 
German educational Idealism, the School of Philosophy has been conservative 
and purist. For example. It has consistently fought against attempts to 
shorten or drastically modify the study of classics In the secondary 
schools and the pure language form (ICatharevousa) . 

In 1970, according to official statistics, the total enrollment at 
the University of Athens was 23,708 students, distributed as follows:^^ 

School ,of Theology 348 
Law School 7,688 

(a) Dept. of Law 5,318 

(b) Dept. of Political and 

Economic Sciences 2,370 

Medical School 4,815 
Dental Schocyl 1,310 
School of Philosophy 4,114 

(a) Dept. of Philology 1,484 

(b) Dept. of Hist. & Arch. 1,015 

(c) Dept. of English 1.092 

(d) Dept. of French 523 

Physlco-tlathcmatical School 5,433 

(a) Dept. of liath 2,510 

(b) Dept. of Radloelectrology 64 

(c) Pharmacy 746 

(d) Physict: 84C 

(e) Physlognostics 806 

(f) Chemistry 451 

TOTAL 23,708 



^^Kingdom of Greece, National Statistical Service of Greece, Education 
Statiatice. 1969-70; Highest Education (Athens: 1971), pp. 5, 13. 
O Hereafter cited Education Statistics, 196 9 -70-Highost 

ERIC 



VIII - 11 



In 1973 It was estimated that there were approximately 27, 000 students 
attending this xmlverslty. 

The Aristotelian University of Thessalonlke (Salonlca) 

The second major Greek university wa9 established In 1925 and was 
named the University of ThessalonlkS (Salonlca). Its organization and 
governance were similar to those of the University of Athens. Its affairs 
were administered by the Rector, the Senate, and the Rector's Council. 
In most other respects also (e.g., the appointment of professors, the 
system of examinations, the administration of student attalrs, and the 
like) It resembled the Athens prototype. 

The University of Salonlca, as originally planned, was to consist 
of five schools (faculties): Theology, Philosophy, Law (Legal and 
Economic Sciences), Physical and Mathematical Sciences, and Medicine. 
However, the Schools of Theology and Medicine did not start operating 
until 1942. Tvo other schools, the School of Agriculture and Forestry 
and the Veterinary School were added iu 1937 and 1950 respectively. In 
1955-56, a Polytlchnlcal School, equivalent to the National Metsovlon 
Polytechnic In Athens, was established as part of the University, and In 
195% & Department of Dentistry, equivalent to the Dental School In Athens, 
was added to the departments of the Medical School. 

The University of Salonlca has a greater diversity of academic units 
(schools, departments. Institutes, etc.) than Athens, The Schools of 
Agriculture and Forestry and of Veterinary Medicine have already been 
noted. In 1931, an Institute of Foreign Languages and Philology was added 
among the units of the School of Philosophy. However, the actual opera- 
tion of the Institute started later. Today It Includes departments of 



ERIC 



VIII - 12 



English, French, German and Italian. The course of study is four years, 
and graduates are entitled to appoinments in secondary schools* In 19A3) 
an Institute of Byzantine Studies was established as a branch of the Uni- 
versity* Irn purpose was stated as "the study and research in the eccle- 
siastical, philological (literary) and artistic work of the Greek lands 
and their influence on neighboring peoples* "^^ 

In 1970, 2A,59S students were registered at the University of 
Salonica, representing about 34 per cent of the total student body* Their 
distribution in the variou*^- schools and departments was as follows: 

School of Theology 365 
Law School 7,512 

(a) Dept. of Law 4*798 

(b) Dept* of Economic and 

Political Sciences 2*714 

Medical School 3,453 
Dental School 1,319 
School of Philosophy 3,658 

(a) Dept* of Philology 1,156 

(b) Dept* of Hist* & Arch* 443 

(c) Dept* of English 664 

(d) Dept* of French 345 

(e) Dept* of German 95 

(f) Dept* of Italian 29 
(S) Dept* of Philology 

(loannina Branch) 926 

Physico-Mathenatical School 3,681 

(a) Dept* of Math 1,340 

(b) Dept* of Pharmacy 437 

(c) Dept* of Physics 645 
(d> Dept* of Fhysiognostics 479 

(e) Dept* of Chemistry 347 

(f) Dept* of Math 

(loannina Branch) 433 

Veterinary School 620 
School of Agriculture and Forestry 2,133 

(a) Agriculture 1,646 

(b) Forestry 487 

Poly technical School 1,854 

(a) Civil Engineering 1,013 

(b) Architecture 519 

(c) Soil Science and Topography 322 

o . ^^See Papapanos, op*cit* . p. 299 

ERJC 



VIII - 13 



The New Universities (Patras and loannlna) 

The Idea of establishing a third university goes back a few years. 
The Conmlttee on Education (1955-1958) strongly supported It. Among other 
things. It felt that a third university was necessary to meet the Increas- 
ing demand for higher education a,uC the manpower needs ot development. 

The reform plans of the Papandreou government Included a university 
to hc: set up at Patras, the third largest Greek city. In the northern 
Peloponnese. It was envisaged to be an Institution that would emphasize 
the natural and the social sciences and would attract Greek professors 
who taught In foreign universities. A charter for the establishment of 
such a university, to be called the University of Patras, was approved 
in 196A. The organization and governance of this newer university was 
to be similar to those of Athens and Salonica. 

The charter stated that "the University Includes 'technical* schools 
and schools of other positive sciences, of economic and social sciences, 

of business organization, administration uud management, and research 

12 

institutes*'. However, when it opened in 1966, the University of Patras 
started with only a Physlco-blathematical School and 150 students. The 
school Included four departments: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and 
Biology. The duration of the course was four years. In 1967, a Polytech- 
nical School was added with one area of specialization, namely, Electrology 
(for engineers in electronics). It was to be a five-year course. 

In 1971, there were 1,220 students registered at f.he University, and 
89 members of the faculty. 

The University of loannlna was founded in 1970 as an "autonomous" 

^2 Ibid. , p. 391 



ERIC 



VIII - 14 



Institution of "highest" education, similar in governance and organization 
to the other universities. Before that (1964-1970) it was a branch of 
the University of Salonica. It consisted of a School of Philosophy and a 
Physico-Mathenatical School, both extensions of the Salonica counter- 
parts. The same schools operate today with many areas of specialization 
similar to the Schools of Philosophy in Salonica and Athens. In 1971, 
the University of loannina had 1,3'- » students and 51 members of the 
faculty. 

The national Metsovion Polytechnic (Polytechneion) 

At the outset it would be appropriate to point out that the National 
Polytechnic should not be confused with the sub-university level "poly- 
technics" found in other countries or the Greek higher technical schools 
discussed earlier. It is more like a Poly-Tcchnical University or Insti- 
tutes of Technology, such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
'n the United States, or similar Technical institutions in European 
luntries. 

The origins of the National Polytechnic as a post-secondary insti- 
tution can be traced to the "School of Industrial Arts" established in 
1887. The purpose of this school was stated as the "education of tech- 
nicians in industry and public service" and more particularly, "the 
scientific training" of civil and mechanical engineers, topographers and 
foremen. It admitted craduates of the "lyceum" and the gyanasion t 
who had passed entrance examinations. 

In 1914, this institution was given its present name, the "National 
Metsovion Polytechneion." It comprised two "highest" schools: one for 



^hbid. . pp. 138-9 



ERIC 



VIII - 15 



civil engineers, and another for mechanical engineers. A school for 
architects was added the same year, and another, for electrical and tele- 
communications engineers, was planned for the future. In the same year, 
the Polytechnic was recognized as equivalent to the University of Athens 
and was placed second In the educational hierarchy. In addition to 
being given sole charge of the training of high-level "technicians-engineers", 
It was responsible for the organization and supervision of lower technical 
education. Holders of a school-leaving certificate from a gymnaslon 
could alt for the entrance examination of the various schools. 

In 1929, the Polytechnic's functions were expanded to Include 
"theoretical and practical scientific research" In all technological and 
scientific fields. By that time also. It had developed to be more of 
a "public" Institution with a mandate by the State to guide the develop- 
ment of all technical education and to prepare the highest level tech- 
nological manpower for private and public enterprises. In 19A0, It was 
placed under the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of National Education and 
Religions. 

Currently the National Polytechnic Includes five schools: Civil 
Engineering, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Architecture, Chemical 
Engineering, and Engineering for Topographers and Rural Surveyors. In 
1970 there were 3,628 students enrolled, and their distribution was as 



follows : 

School of Civil Engineering 1,208 

School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering 900 

School of Architecture 667 

School of Chemical Engineering 438 

School of Topography and Rural Surveying 415 



ERIC 



VIII - 16 



Panteios School of Political Sciences 

The Pantelos School of Political Scltsnces, or simply Pantelos as It 
Is more cosmonly known, started out as a private Institution In 1930 under 
the name "Free School of Political, Economic and Social Sciences." Its 
purpose was "the education of high-level officials for service In the 
government, the banks and In other Institutions and the creation of 
publlc-ffllnded persons with principles, character, high Intellectual 
standards and sound knowledge." The "Educational Renaissance," the 
association which founded It, hoped that the school would contribute to 
the Intellectual, educational, and general reformation of the nation. 

In 1931, the school acquired the name "Pantelos," after Alexander 
Pantos, a wealthy Greek who had recently died In Paris. Pantos had 
stipulated In his will that upon his death his fortune should be used 
to found a school similar to the French "Ecole des Sciences Polltlques" 
of which he was a graduate. Pantos* wishes were fulfilled by naming the 
existing Free School of Political, Economic and Social Sciences after 
him. In 1936, Pantelos was recognized as an "autonnmous" Institution of 
'hlgheet" education, and In 1937, It was placed under the direct supervi- 
sion of the State. In the same yeav. It acquired Its present name, the 
Pantelos Highest School of Political Sciences. Its purpose was stated 
as: (a)"the provision of higher education and the Intellectual and national 
preparation of leaders who will be cognizant of their mission and respon- 
slbxllty for the welfare and general progress of the fatherland; (b) the 
preparation of public civil servants through the development of political, 
economic and social scientific knowledge; and (c) the post-graduate 



14 



Ibid. . p. 252 



ERIC 



VIII - 17 



(in-service) training of public servants as well >a of law graduates who 
plau to teach in the gymnasia and urban schools the elements of law and 
political economy. 

Currently, the full course at Panteios lasts for four years. In 
the fourth year, there are two areas of specialization, viz., political 
sciences and public administration. In 1971, there were 6,096 students 
registered, and 67 members of the faculty. 
School of Economic and Commercial Sciences 

This school was founded as an "autonomous" Institution of "highest" 
learning In 1920. It was called "Highest School of Commercial Studies," 
and It was "equivalent" to the University of Athens* It acquired Its 
present name in 1926. Its purpose has been the provision of higher 
theoretical and applied economic and commercial education* In 1939, it 
was placed under the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and ^^eligions* 

After the first two years of a four-year course, students may enter 
and specialize either in the Department of Economics or the Department 
of Business* In 1971, there were 5,681 students and 42 members of the 
faculty in the School* 

The Industrial Schools of Piraeus and Salonica 

*fhe Industrial School of Piraeus is an outgrowth of the "Free School 
of Industrial Studies" which was founded in 1938 with the support of 
Greek industrialists and business corporations* Its purpose was to pro- 
vide further education for leaders in industry* It was recognized as an 
institution of "highest" learning in 1958 and was renamed "Highest In- 
dustrial Schools" It was to be a professionally (vocationally) oriented 



^ ^Ibid* * pp* 302-303 

ERLC 



VIII - 18 



school for the "ecor.onlc and administrative training of leaders in busi-* 
ness, state services and public organizations."^^ In 1959 > it came under 
the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and Religions. With its 
elevation to university status, the School became less "vocationally" 
and "industrially" oriented, and more for the education of leaders in the 
civil service and the various public establishments. 

The course of study is four years. In the fourth year, students may 
specialize in Statistical Studies, Organization and Management, and 
Maritime Studies. In 1971, 3,715 students were registered, and the School's 
faculty numbered 51 members. 

The Industrial School of Salonica started out in 1948 in similar 
fashion as its counterpart in Piraeus, and followed a similar course of 
development. It was named Highest S lool of Industrial Studies in 1958. 
In 1966, it attained full status as a "highest" institution, and came under 
the Jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. Students in the School 
may specialize in Industrial Economics, Trade and Industrial Affairs. In 
1971, the School had 1,693 students and 42 members of the faculty. 
Athens School of Agriculture and Earth Sciences 

This School was founded in 1920 and came under the authority of the 
Ministry of Agriculture. Its purpose was to train high-level manpower 
in agriculture for high positions in the public agricultural enterprises 
and in the promotion of the sciences x elated to the various branches of 
agricultural production. "^^ In 1934, the School attained university 
status and in 1959, it was placed under the Ministry of Education. The 
course of study is five years. In the last year, students specialize 



^^Ibid., p. 
^ ^Ibid. . p. 192 



ERIC 



VIII - 19 



In one of the following fields; Agriculture, Agricultural Economics, 
Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, VJlnery, and Zoology. In 1971, the 
School had an enrollment of 1,125 students and a faculty of 116 members. 
The School of Fine Arts 

The precursors to this School have been the Art School established 
In 1843 and the School of Fine Arts which was placed under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Ministry of Education in 1910. Its purpose was "the theoreti- 
cal and practical education of artists."^® It acquired its present name 
and attained the status of "highest" institution in 1930. Its aims were 
broadened to include (a) the promotion of "artistic sensitivity" among 
the public, especially through art exhibits, and (b) the special educa- 
tion of school teachers of art. 

The School of Fine Arts includes departments of painting, sculpture, 
econography, interior decorating, tyoography and book design, landscape 
architecture, mosaics, and ceramics. In 1971, it had an enrollment of 
267 students and a faculty of 71 members. 

"Higher" Cllon-Universitv Level) Education 

In addition to the university- level higher institutions there arc a 
variety of post-secondary educational establishments. These are referred 
to as "higher" (ahStera) to distinguish them from the top-level schools 
(anVtata) described above. We have already described the higher tech- 
nical and vocational institutions (Ch. VII), including the recently 
established Higher Technical lUducation Centers (K.A.T.E.). Among the 



I Slbid. . p. 157 



ERIC 



VIII - 20 



rest, there Is a ^roup v/hlch, although not of university status, never- 
theless, legally comes under the :!uthorlty of 'lilshest" education. This 
group Includes the National Academy of Physical Education In Athens with 
a branch In Salonlca, t\;o Schools of Home Economics, three Schcoln for 
Kindcrsarten Teachers, a college for the In-service Training of Elementary 
School Teachers, a collese for the In-Service Tralnlnc of Secondary School 
Teachers and eight PedasoQlcal Academies (Hcraclelon, loannlna. Lamia, 
Larlsa, Crete » >^tllene9 Trlpolis, Fiorina) t 

Total enrollments In these schools in 1972-73 amounted to 3,560 
studentst Of these, 1,958 or 55 per cent were enrolled In the Pedagogical 
Academies • 

The Podacocical Academies are t\70-year teacher- training institutes 

for the preparation of elementary school teachers* The s^^^^rament 

recently has been planning to extend the period of study to three years t 

In addition to general education subjects (Greek, history, religion, 

mathematics, science, music, art, etc*) the education of the prospective 

teachers includes '^professional" courses and experiences, e.g*, 

pedagogics, educational psychology, practice teaching and organization 

19 

and administration of education* 

Finally, mention should be made of such higher educational establish- 
ments as the military schools (for naval, police, military and airforce 
officers) t 



"^On the legislation governing the pedagogical academies, see Kingdom of 
Greece, Ministry of national Education and Religions, Decree Law lib* G42, 
On the Reorr^anization of the Peda.qoRical Academies * Athens; National 
Printing Office, 1971* 



ERLC 



VIII - 21 

nr cpanslon and Onpovtunltlea 



As shoim In Table VII » the sroi/th of hi;;hcr education, in terms 
enrollments, in the last couple of decades has been quite spectacular. 
In 1954-55 there were 16,900 students registered in post •secondary insti** 
tutions (highest and higher) • Ten years later (1964-65) the number 
soared to 53,305, and government statistics for 1970-71 rhoi*; a further 
substantial increase to a total of 06,741 students. This phenomenal 
CroiJth exceeded by far all predictions and expectations* ITor example, 
in 1965, the Ilcditerranean Regional Project Report estimated that in 
order to meet projected manpoi-jer requirements enrollments had to increase 

to 46,000 in 1974, i.e«, by approximately 62 per cent above the level 

20 

of 1961. They had already increased by over 300 per cent in 1970-71. 
This overall groi/th, however, uas uneven, uith the Universities of Athens 
and Salonica shouting by far the largest Increases. It appears that en- 
rollments in the scientific and technological fields did not gro\f rela- 
tive to other fields, a point vhich, according to some, does not help in 
promoting the goals of development. Educational and economic planners 
not; realize, hot/ever, that the precise mix of schooling and development 
is more elusive than it vas felt In the 1960^ s, the decade of scientific 



Report, o£. cit., p. 167. 



VIII - 22 



planning and development. In the case of Greece, the recent Plan for 
the Lonn-Ranr.e Development of Greece (1972; In many respects echoed the 
same observations on the Inadequacies of the educational iystem, Includ- 
Inc "higher" education, as the Mediterranean Regional Project Report in 
the lOeO's. According to the Plan, higher institutions should be 
oriented to\7ards the bng-range goals it projected, and one way to do 
this would be for all students to receive a general introduction to the 
theoretical and applied sciences. In addition, all levels and types of 
education, especially higher and highest technical, needed to be ex- 
panded and improved, and a large increase in graduates from the poly- 
technics and the physico-matheriatical schools was necessary. Specifi- 
cally, the plan suggested that enrollments in higher technical schools 
caist increase from 10,000 (1971) to 120,000 students in 19C7 and In 
highest institutions from 90,000 to 170,000 students. Inanediate radical 
measures must be taken, according to this Plan, "to modernize the entire 
cducationcl system." As to "highest" education, the Plan stated: 

The institutions of highest education, especially, 
must undertake a continuing program of research into 
their changing role and must seek to adjust their struc- 
ture and functions to the neni cir etnas tances. Important 
problems which t7ill occupy "highest" education include 
the folloi7lng: curriculum planning, organization of 
teaching, quality of Instruction, cooperation betx;een 
institutions of "highest" education and the other edu- 
cational and research institutions as well as the pro- 
ductive classes, the closer relationship between the 
universities and the larger conmunity ... the ensuring 
of mobility among specialties ... In order to secure 
the preconditions for the solution of these problems 
top priority should be given to the reorganization of 
the administration of highest institutions. 



21 

Plan for the Long-Range Development of Greece . o£. clt . , p. 105, 



ERIC 



VIII - 23 

O pportunities for Higher Education 

Earlier In this chapter (p. VIII- 1) It vms ohovm that recently 
the demand for "superior'^ and '•higher" education has exceeded by far 
the supply of available plac:is« A large number of secondary school 
graduates v?ho want to continue their education are not able tc do so 
either because there are no places , or, as has happened In one field , 
because chey do not attain the minimum score required by the respective 
schools at the entrance examinations* The standards of performance are 
set by the respective lustltutions and/or schools. Tliese have generally 
been quite hl£;h and mere graduation from a qvmnaslon Is not a guarantee 
that a candidate t7lll qualify In the entrance examinations. A conse« 
quence of this has been the proliferation of privately operated post- 
Rymnaslon university-preparatory classes » called phrontlsterla > whose 
main purpose Is solely to prepare students for the university entrance 
examinations. The universities have attributed the groiith of phrontlsterla 
to the poor quality of Instruction In the secondary schools; others have 
blamed the universities for their Inflexible and unreallotlcally high 
standards re<2ulred of the graduat<»^ of ^xvmnasla . Criticisms about the 
alleged lov;erlt\g of standards in the Rvmnasla have appeared quite often 
in the last couple of decades. At the same time, ho^7ever> the great 
demand for further education, the limited places in the corresponding 
institutions and the maintenance of the same system of entrance examina- 
tions could not but have made inevitable the emergence and thriving of 
these propaidcutlc classes, namely, the phrontlsterla . In any case, it 
is widely recognized that such classes pose serious pioblems for the 
students, the r»ymnasia > the universities, and the society at large. The 



ERLC 



VIII - 24 



policy of the military government has. been ultimately to abolish the 
22 

phrontlaterla , but as ycu this has not been accomplished* 

Among other things, thf; phrontlsteria have restricted further 

selection into tertiary Institutions and have favored students t7ho 

can afford to attend theuu In particular , students from cities and 

from Toore affluent backsround have hi.d more advantaGcs* 

As in other countries, selection Into universities and othe:; 

tertiary Institutions Is ostensibly based on achievement criteria 

and examinations open to anybody. Ue l;no\7, hox/ever, that socio- 

23 

economic and other disparities In "educational participation' esdot, 
particularly at the tertiary level. One Index of such disparities for 
v;hlch data are available relates the socio-economic composition of stu- 
dents to the socio-economic distribution of the male labor force. A 
recent study by the Committee for Cclentlflc and Technical Personnel 
of O.E.C.D. GhcMS that socio-economic disparities are to be found in 
all member countries: Youths from the "upper" and 'Hnlddle" strata are 

over-represented amon^ higher education students, X7hlle youth from lo\7er 

24 

strata are under-represented* Data from Greece for the years 1959-CO 
and 1953-64 shcM that "children of farmers » workers > and service person- 
nel uerc under- represented among university students » children of traders 
and mlddle-and higher- level employees T7ere moderately over-represented » 



22 

^^See the statement by Mr. N. Gantonas, M^^nlster of Education, In 
Etcftheros Kosmos > August 25, 1973. 

^*^In this Cttse, "educational participation" means "enrollment of per- 
sons at some level of formal education, or the retention of students from 
one level of school to another." Sec Committee for Scientific and Tech- 
nical Personnel, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 
Conferences on Policies for Educational Growth, Group Disparities In 
Educational Participation ^ Background Study Wo. 4. Paris, April 1, 
1970, p. 8* Hereafter cited as O.C.E.D. Group Disparities # 

O ^^Ibld.. pp. v, 25 ff. 



ERLC 



VIII - 25 



and children of persons in the liberal professions were greatly over«* 
25 

represented/' Specif ically^ the pattern of disparities is shoxm in 
Table VIU. 

Data on father's occupation of students in highest institutions 
provided by the National Statistical Service of Greece for the year 
1961-62 and 1969-70 also shm^s that uhite*collar upper socio-economic 
groups are over- represented vjhile fanners » craftsmen^ production pro- 
cess v7orkers, and service personnel arc under- represented* For example^ 
in 1961, while the ^'professional, etc#" and "clerical, etc/' groups 
contributed only 8«6 per cent of the economically active male popula«* 
tion, they irere represented by about 24 per cent of students in highest 
institutions* On the other hand, "fanners, fisherman, etc." who made 
up 43 per cent of the male population, were represented by about 26 
per cent, while "craftsmen, production process vxorkers, ctc«««" who 
constituted about 28 per cent of the male population, were represented 
by about 10 per cent among students (see Table IX). The pattern for 
1969-70, the latest year for which data are available is shown in 
Table X « For purposes of comparison this Table also includes the 
1961-62 figures # it can be seen that certain occupational groups > e»g« 
farmers, craftsmen, sales and small businessmen have registered slight 
rises in the student representation from 1961-62 to 1969-70, while the 
btrilcing over-representation of the upper socio-economic groups (pro- 
fessional, technical, managerial and clerical) has decreased. But 
disparities still persist . Particularly noticeable is the underrepre- 
sentation of the "Rirmers, etc#" and the "Craftsmen, etc#" groups* Yet, 



25 



Ibid >, p. 33. 



ERIC 



VIII - 26 



TAULi: vm 

DISTRIBUTION OF STUDEIfTS AMD OF mL£ lABOUR FORCE 
BY SCCIO-ECONOllIC CATEGORIES, 1959-60, 1963-64.* 



Soclo-Economlc Students Male Labour Force 



CaCccorlos 


1959-60 


1963-64 


1961 


I. Liberal Professions 


13.9 


12.0 


3.4 


2. Hlchcr-Lcvcl 

tMUm0 A w y W W O 


2.5 


2.4 


1.0 


3. lUddle-Level 
Employees 


9.3 


10.2 


4.2 


4« Traders 


10.0 


10. G 


CO 


5 « Farmers 


24.5 


25.1 


48.0 


6 . Workers 


12.3 


12.2 


26.5 


7. Service Personnel 
And Armed Forces 


3.3 


3.0 


6.5 


&. Others 


24.2 


23.5 


2.4 


TOTAL 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



* Source: O.E.C.D, Group Disparities , p. 234. 



ERIC 



VIII-i7 



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ERIC 



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VIII - 28 



TABLE X 

DISTRIBUTIOII OF STUDUITTG II! HIGHEST INSTITUTI011S AlTD OF 
mm lAEOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATIOt^AL CATEGORIES, 1961-62, 1969-70. 



Father's Occupation 


Students 
1961-62 1969-70 
A B 


Economically 

Active 
Population 
1961 1971 
C D 


Selectivity 

Index 
1961 1971 
A/C B/D 


1. 


Professional, technical 
managerial, executive t 
etc. 


14.1 


12.1 


4.5 


6.3 


3.6 


1.9 


2. 


Clerical and related 


9.C 


13. C 


4.1 


7.6 


2.4 


1.0 


3. 


Sales, small business- 
men, and related 


10.6 


13.2 


7.0 


7.0 


1.4 


1.9 


4. 


Farmers, fishermen, 
and forestry 


25.3 


26.9 


40.0 




.5 


.66 


5. 


ilnlnS) quarrying 


0.0 


0.1 


-1 








6. 


Transport and 
conntunlca t Ion 


2.C 


3.6 


4.2'; 

1 








7. 


Craftsmen, production, 
process vrorkers, and 
\;orUcrs not classified 
elsewhere 


10.3 


14.6 


21.7) 


29.4 


.45 


.5 


n 


Service personnel 
and recreation 


3.2 


3.0 


6.4 


6.9 


.5 


.44 


9. 


Armed forces 




... 










10. 


Retired, disabled, 
or private Income 


10.3 


9.6 


^2.6 


2.3 






11. 


Others (occupation 
not declared) 




1.6 

1 


\ 








12. 


Occupation not 
classifiable 


0.0 


0.1 












TOTAL 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







ERIC 



VIII - 29 



this is not unconmton among rural societies* Indeed, one could say that 
quite a substantial number of students come from lo\7er socio •economic 
groups , According to the O.E.C.D. survey, for example, In 1963 the 
proportion of Greek students of "\;orlclng class" origin In higher educa- 
tion v/as higher than that of French, Dutch, Japanese, German, Spanish, 
American, Portuguese, and Danish students. 

\Je have also sought to find out vhether enrollments at the various 
"schools" or "faculties" V7ere correlated with occupational groups. There 
1g some evidence to sho\7 that sons and daughters of "farmers, fisher*- 
men, etc." are over-represented in pedagogical academies, and in theology, 
and they are the only group that significantly avoids the "polytechnics." 
Further, ve have estimated that "farmers, fishermen, etc." is the only 
occupational group with significantly less than esipected enrollments in 
medicine and dentistry. Interestingly, the same group sho\7s a signi- 
ficant over- representation in political science. Turning to the upper 
socio-economic groups, vc find that the "professional, managerial, 
executive, etc." occupational category has more students in law, medi- 
cine, dentistry and in polytechnical courses than expected, but less 
than expected in the economics and business branches. 

Another index of disparities in educational participation for 
which data are available Is regional representation. The O.E.C.D. sur- 
vey on "Group Disparities in Educational Participation" concluded that 
regional disparities were common to all of the member countries and, 
more pertinently, "contrary to some opinions, there has been no evident 
trend tm/ard narrot/ing of regional disparities during the rapid post\;ar 
expansion of education." Tlic survey added; 



^ O.E.C.D . . Qroup Disparitlcg . op. cit., p. 61. 



VIII - 30 



"..•the only ccnulne indication of contraction of 
rccional differences in participation appears in 
countries and at school levels T;here enrollment 
ratios are s^nerally hi;:;h and advantaged regions 
have already reached a near-maximum level. 

IJnrollments in "highest" institutions in Greece in 1969-70 show 

that about 56 per cent of all students were bom in the cheater Athens 

area, the Feloponnese, and Ilacedonia. But these areas are also the most 

heavily populated. According to the 1971 population census, about 60 

per cent of the entire Gree!; population live in them. Zotlmates 

relating number of students per 1,000 inhabitants sho^7 that the least 

represented region is Thrace, vjUich also registers the lo\;est educational 

level of the Greek population. Dut disparities in other regions do not 

seem to be substantial^ as sho\m belo^;: 



Recion 


Population (1971) 


Students (1969-70) 


Ho. P^r l.COO 


Greater Athens 


2,540,241 


17,222 


6.7 


Rest of Central 
Greece and Huboea 


992,077 


7,344 


7.3 


Peloponnesos 


906,512 


11,355 


11.5 


Ionian Islands 


104,443 


1,673 


0.6 


Bpirus 


310,334 


3,326 


10.5 


Ihessaly 


659,913 


5,274 


0.0 


Macedonia 


1,G50,6C4 


1 

13,409 


7.0 


Thrace 


329,502 


1,400 


4.2 


Acgian Islands 


417,313 


3,106 


7.3 


Crete 


455, S42 


4,055 


10.0 



27 



Ibid., p. Hi, 



ERIC 



VIII - 31 



Finally, one should note the disparities that C3clst In Greece on 
the basic of sex. The statistics for 1969-70 Indicate that of a total 
enrollment of 76,101 students In all "hlshost" Institutions and those 
under the Jurisdiction of the Directorate of "Highest" education (e.s* 
pedacoclcal academies, etc.) only 24,610 were women, I.e., 32.3 per cent. 
The only equitable distribution Is In the pedagogical academies, v;here 
approximately 50 per cent are women. 

Some Problems of Tertiary ISducation 

Some of the problems of Greek tertiary education are problems 
conmon to toost countries of the ^/orld, especially the developing onc". 
For example, high expansion of enrollments has not been accompanied by 
comparable expansion of facilities or teaching staff. This has resulted 
In ovcrcroi;dlng, teacher shortages. Insufficient Instructional facilities, 
particularly In the sciences and In the technical fields, and limited 
financial resources. Other problems, hot-7ever, are peculiar to Greece 
and may be called "systemic" or endemic to the Greek system. 

One set of such peculiarities stems from the relationship of 
tertiary education to the Greek state. As shoim above, universities 
nnd hlcher institutions are by constitutional provision under the direct 
supervision of the State. They are fully supported from public funds 
and their professors are civil servants. Their purported "autonomous" 
status is considerably circumscribed, and, as already noted, the State 
has always Interfered in their internal affairs. At times this has even 
Included what should be taught and \7hat the attitudes of professors 
should be on political issues, t\io areas normally assumed to lie within 
the university* s purview of academic freedom. 

ERIC 



VIII - 32 

The rolo of the Greek State in tertiary education has also con- 
tributed to the virtual absence of university-Initiated Innovations 
or experimentation. The relationship bet^roen gr«;th of central govem- 
nent Interest and bIcm pace of reform or experimentation has been found 
to obtain in other countries. But this has been particularly strong 
in Greece where universities, in particular, have been perceived to be 
closely connectad with the polity and the Interests of the nation. Any 
university reform, therefore, has had to consider wide political, social, 
and economic implications. Further, any changes involving money have to 
be approved by both the Ilinlstry of education and the Ilinlstry of 
Finance. TIils entails endless bureaucratic red tape and Innumerable 
delays, which stifle enthusiasm or initiatives for innovations. 

But the relative absence of major reforms must also be sought in 
the hierarchical structure governing the administration of the insti- 
tutions, the constituent schools, and the ''faculties" or departments. 
At the "departmental" level, for example, the professor, who is often 
the Chair holder, is the undisputed master who exercises conq^lete 
authority over all other members and rules the department like a 
feudal estate. Some professors have ruled departments for decades. 
Professor Exarchopoulos , for example, held the Chair of Pedagogy from 
the beginning of the ti^entleth century until the 1950' s. As a powerful 
meober of the prestigious School of Philosophy, he virtually controlled 
the educational climate of Greece for over forty years. Exarchopoulos 
was a follower of the rather inflexible German pedagogical tradition 
of the period, and, as noted earlier in this study (sec Chapter IV), a 
staunch supporter of the purist Greco-Christian educational culture. 



ERIC 



VIII - 33 



Another "systemic^* problem of Greek tertiary education has been the 
statutory provision that vlthln eighteen months after their appointment, 
professors are obligated to vrlte textbooks for their courses t This 
short period has had the effect of considerable plagiarism or trans la** 
tlons of foreign texts rather than any original research « Again this 
can be most sallently observed in the field of education and writings In 
educational psychology, educational philosophy, or educational socio loc;y« 

Still another endemic factor that has contributed to making Greek 
tertiary Institutions rather Inflexible and authoritarian has been the 
eplstemologlcal orientation of the University of Athens ^7hlch has In- 
fluenced the structure and orientation of most of the other universities* 
Nurtured In the German neo-humanlsm and Idealism of the nineteenth 
century, the University of Athens remained lnq>erviou8 to empirical 
science and experimental modes of scientific Inquiry* The Faculty (School) 
of Philosophy, where pedagogy was studied, and x^hlch occupied the center 
of the university, emphasized non*-experlmental approaches to Icno^^ledge 
and learning* Even today, many professors follow; the German tradition* 



ERLC 



z: - 1 



CII/.PT2r. K 
COllCLUSIOlI: 
TrADITIOIT A11D I10DERI3ITY III GREEK EDUCATION 

As fi concluding section, It vTOuld be appropriate to conment briefly 
on the Ideolo&y and policies of Greek education In the context o£ this 
report's franet^orlc, namely nodemlzatlon. 

As was stated earlier, the military regime that was established 
after April 21, 1967, vowed to "reconstruct" or "restore" the country by 
basinc it on indlsenous and lons-eherlshed "traditional" valnes, insti- 
tutions, and ideas. Accordincly* it embarked upon a systematic procram 
of "purification" of Greek institutions, which, among other things, 
entailed the proscription of what were regarded as dangerous foreign 
practices and Ideologies, and the molding of people's minds by means of 
heavy overdoses of moralistic and natilonalistic military indoctrination. 

The military government's conception o2 national rebuilding was most 
saliently apparent in its vlei-7o and policies about education. V71th their 
assumption of poi/er, the nw leaders singled out the educational reforms of 
1964-65 as an example of change that v/as inspired by doctrines that were 
inimical to Greek national viability and development. Hence, very soon 
after iu was established, the military government dismantled the so-called 
"Elcpaideutllce Iletarrythmise" (Zducatlonal Reform) and dismissed and per- 
secuted most of those who had anything to do with the reforms. All the 
key features and innovations of the 1964 Law trere eliminated, i.e., the 
Pedagogical Institute, the Academic Certificate, the use of the demotic in 
the elementary schools, the use of classical texts in translation, and all 
the nw textbooks that were tTritten in 1964-66. The selection process into 
the universities and institutions of higher learning was changed, and so 

ERIC 



IX - 2 



\;ao the administration and organisation of schools* The structural reorganl 
zatlon of the cystem and the curriculum reverted to pre-1964 patterns* 
Indeed In some respects , particularly In the content of education and In 
Its Ideological underpinnings , the military government's conception of 
education vao not fundamentally different from that of the nineteenth 
century • A rather Interestl; > conception of modernization la observed here, 
namely 9 the reconstruction of a social Institution through a revival of 
traditional norms and ideas* This has not been entirely nei*; in the annals 
of modem Greek education* As demonstrated In Chapter II, the post-* 
independence educational system v;as in part based on a revival of an older 
Greek educational culture and Ideology* At that time, hoi;ever, there was 
a greater acceptance of Uestem patterns, which v^^re uoven into ttie 
indigenous fabric and created modem Greek paldela * Uhat the consequences 
of the rather monolithic orientation of the military regime are going to 
be is difficult to predict* Certainly during the seven^^year period of 
military mle (1967* 1974) there v;as a conspicuous absence of Intellectual 
life in Greece today, and one did not observe anything that was intriguing 
or novel* 

It is important, hov;ever, to remind ourselves that change and moderni- 
zation in Greek education have been hard to come by, and our observations 
of the current situation must bo put in their proper historical perspective* 
Attempts at even modest innovations , e*g*, during the First World V/ar and 
in the mid*1960's, have not been lastingly successful* Ihey ran against 
strong resistance and once liberal governments were replaced, incipient 
changes were thro^Tn overboard* 



ERLC 



DC - 3 



The educational events and controversies of the past couple of decades 
illustrate the conflicts , dilemrnasi and ambiguities o£ a Western iSuropean 
nation inspired and sustained by an attachioent to traditional values and 
ideolociesy but currently confronted with the painful task of adjustin^^ 
its Institutions and outlook to the demands of a tnodem, technological 
civilization* Despite rapid political chance Greece has been equally 
notorious for the tenacity of traditional for:.is and ideas , and, in many 
respects 9 the recent educational events were no exception* 

Conservatism in education, the preservation of older institutions 
and values, has become synonymous v;ith the preservation of the very founda** 
tions of the modem Greek nation-state and culture* This has been most 
clearly manifested in the discussions over the lancua£;e question, the 
content of the curriculuia, and the nature, scope, and functions of the 
r;vmnasion > Reformers of these aspects of the system tiave often found 
themselves defending their vie^;s against accusations of treason against 
Greek premises, values, and ideals. 

In the contexl: of Greek national development, the persistence of 
traditionalism and conservatism in education is perhaps understandable* 
The building of modem Greece has In large part been based on former 
traditions and Ideologies and on borrox/ed Tiestem European models and con- 
cepts* Greek history has been marked by constant v;ars and over^^helming 
political upheavals. There has been little opportunity for retrenchment, 
rrsularisation, and stabilization* In a sense the process of rebirth, 
Vhich started v;ith the War of Independence in the early decades of the 
nineteenth century, has not yet been completed* Consequently, there has 
been a noticeable reluctance to abandon or transform those original insti- 
tutions, practices, and ideas which gave imf;etus to the creation of the new 



Ill 4 



natlon-ctatc. FurtUcrtiore, althouc;h It has Identified Ituelf In spirit 
and outlook vlth Uestcm European culture, Greece has not until quite 
recently, experienced the disruptions and culture Jolts oZ Industrialism 
and the accompanylnc social and technological revolution. This partly 
explains the uncertainties concerning the role o£ schools In the tech- 
no-economic development of the country as vrell as the ambivalent attitude 
toward the dilemma of technical versus general education. To be sure, all 
the proposals , plans, and policies for change have eiq>l:aslced the techno- 
cconomlc ramifications of education and the need to strengthen technical 
and vocational schooling. But despite a general and vague statement of 
Hio Idea, the measures of the last years cannot be said to have been based 
on any precise understanding of hw; schooling Is to be woven Into processes 
of social and economic change. Ilbreover, one detects a lingering ambi- 
valence concerning the value of technical and practical training over 
theoretical and cultural kno\/ledgc. 

VJhilc the reluctance tc abandon tradition mnv have a rational just5.- 
fication, since tradition can provide cultural cohesion and stability, 
nevertheless, it also reflects an entrcncliment into positions of poi'/er of 
a group of Int^tllectuals, pedagogues, and polltlcla. j ^Tith similar educa- 
tional backgrounds, similar social ideologies, and similar interests. This 
obllgarchy can easily be identified in the educa.ional bureaucracy, the 
University of Athens, the Church hierarchy, and the conservative political 
parties. Their positions on the 1964 measures speak for themselves. 

Cut equally illustrative of the persistence of a traditional approach 
is the fact that both crltlcc and reformers have viw/ed ithe reform of 
education from, a similar orientation, mostly from the narrculy pedagogical 
one. Education, a national concern, touching the lives of every individual, 

ERIC 



z: - 5 



has been altnost exclusively in the hands of "specialists," conaictinc of a 
fcir university professors and bureaucrats and some educational practitioners. 
As a popular nacazine exclaimed: "llave the specialists ever called upon 
successful industr'alists, merchants, bankers, the prasraatists, to ask them 
ho\; they perceive the man of tomorrwr, or irhat type of individual ic needed 
in today's changing vorld? ' One could also adds Have the specialists ever 
asked the ordinary man -- the peasant, the vorker, the small business man, 
the artisan — or the students themselves to express their vles/s on their 
aspirations, expectations, and preferences? 

Despite these strictures and the inadequacies of its nature, scope, 
and basis, the reform movement, particularly the 1964 policies, may well 
have turned out to be the beoinning of a silent social and pedagogical 
revolution in Greek modernisation. There V7ere indications that the acute- 
ness of some issues, for example, that of language, v;hich could previously 
shake govemncuts, dismiss eminent professors, cause public riots and 
bloodshed, and send people before the public prosecutor had been blunted. 
Other issues, such as classicism and classical humanism had been force- 
fully challenged. The very idea that education can be regarded as invest- 
ment or that educational policy must consider the techno- economic needs 
of the country was a. radical departure in Greek thinking. A ne\7 generation 
of people who had been educated in countries other than Germany or France 
or vho had been exposed to different IdeAS had reached maturity and had been 
clamoring for change* Economic de^relopment had expanded the horizons of the 
rural, peasant population, and the demand for education had increased, licare 
people were asking questions about the benefits of their children of former 
types of schooling. Others wanted equal opportunities and privileges* But 
on April 21, 1967, the array took over, and a seven-year repressive and 

ERIC 



EC - 6 



educationally sterile uilltary dictatorship vas established. It is hoped 
that with the restoration of civilian rule in July, 1974, the country vill 
soon return to parliamentary government and with it to a new educational 
revival. 



GLOSSARY 



Anotate Ekpaldeusls: Literally "highest" education or "superior" 
education which Includes the universities and other unlverslty*level 
institutions, e.g., the National Polytechnic, the Pantelos School of 
Political Sciences, etc* 

Anotera Ekpaldeusls: Literally "higher" education which Includes post- 
secondary Institutions but not universities and unlverslty-level 
establishments. 

Anthroplsmos : Humanism. 

Boule or Voule: Greek Chamber of Deputies ^ parliament. 

ChorlatSs: Villager: derogatorlly an unrefined Individual, a rustic. 

Demotlke: The popular form of the Greek language; demotic. 

Demotlklsmos: The educational and literary movement associated with 
the promotion of the popular form of the Greek language (the demotic) . 

Dldaskalelon: Teacher training school; closest Greek equivalent to the 
normal school. 

Dlglossy: Blllnguallsm; In Greece the existence of two language forms, 
the pure (katharevousa) and the popular (demotlke). 

Ekpaldeusls; Formal education; schooling. 

Eparchla: Province; district. 

Eparchlotis: One who comes from or lives In a province (district); a 
provincial; derogatorlly, an unrefined Individual or a rustic* 

Gymnaslon , plural, gymnasia ; A six-year secondary school, generally 
humanistic or classical In Its orientation; the Greek equivalent to 
the French lycee, the German Gymnasium or the English Grammar School. 

Hellenic school; A three-year secondary or "middle" school, established 
soon after the creation of the modem Greek state. 

Katharevousa: The "pure" form of the modem Greek language. 

Lykelon (lyceum); After 1929, a secondary school with a scientific 
(practical) orientation. From 1964-1967, a three-year academically 
selective upper secondary school, (grades 10-12). 

Megall Idea: Great or giand Idea; the Greek Ideology or policy which 
envisaged an expanded Greek nation-state, the successor to the Bysantlne 
Eflq[>lre, with Its center In Constantinople. 

Mese ekpaldeusls: Secondary education or schooling. 

Millet: lithe nineteenth century, a non-Iloslem rellglo-ethnlc community 
of the Ottoman Empire, e.g., Greek Orthodox millet , Jewish millet , etc. 



ERiC 



GLOSSARY (continued) 

Noil )s: An admlnxstratlve unit of local government; province* 

Paideia: Education interpreted in a broader sense than formal schooling; 
the ideals of Greek culr.ure; closest Greek equivalent to the French 
culture or the German Bildung * 

Panepistenion: University. 

Patris: Fatherland or motherland. 

Phanar: A section of the city of Istanbul where the Greek Patriarchate 
of Constantinople was located. 

Phanariote(s) : Literally a person xtho resides in the Phanar section of 
Istanbul (Constantinople); often used to refer to upper-class Greeks 
(intellectuals, merchants, etc.) who settled in mainland Greece after 
the creation of the modem Greek state. 

Philopatria: Love of fatherland. 

Phllotimo: Honor; self-esteem. 

Pistis: Faith. 

Phrontisterion: College-preparatory or propaideutic classes following 
graduation from a secondary school. 

Polytechneion: Polytechnic, technical university. 

Scholeion: School* 

Semi-gynnasion ; The lower three classes of a six-year gymnasiou * 
Stoicheiodes ekpaideusis ; Elementary education or schooling* 
Stratelat^s: General, leader of the amy* 



ERIC 



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Antonaluiki, ICalllnlki D. Greet; Sducatlont Reorganisation of the 
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Clocc* Richard and Yannopoulos, G. (eds.). Greece Under Military Rule * 
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Dimaras, C. Th. A tllstorv of Ilodem Greek Literature , translated by 
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Frledl, Ernestine. V aslltka: A Vlllar.e in Modem Greece . New York: 
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Haniotls, G. "The Situation of the Univerisltco in Greece," Minerva » 
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ICazamias, Andreas M. *'Plans and Policies for Educational Refora in 

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IxAzamiao, Andreas II. "Greece: Modemizing Secondary Education," in 

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Kazamlas, Andreas M. and Epstein, En/in H. (eds.). Sc hools in Transi- 
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Kazauias, Andreas 11, and Masslalas, Cyron G. Tradition and Change in 
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Kingdom o2 Greece, Ministry of National Education and Religion, "On 
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Kingdom of Greece, Ittnistry of N onal Education and Religion, 

"On the Organization and i^uministration of General Education 
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o 

ERIC 



1 



Klncdom of Greece, llinlstry of national Education and Rclisionc, 
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Kincdom of Greece, national Statistical Service of Greece, Statistical 
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llarcaritis, G. C. "Hishcr Education in Greece," International R cvIct? 
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