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BD 100 817 




SB 008 723 

Painter^ lorene R« 

Bole of the Sapertlsing Teacher • 

Oct 70 

10p,; Revised version of speech given at Jippalachlan 
State University extension coarse at Hudson High 
School (October 1970) 

HP-10.75 HC-$1.50 PLUS POSTiiOB 

Helping Relationship; icprogran Descriptions; republic 
Schools; Student Teaching; ^Teacher Supervision 


This speech outlines the role of the teacher 
supervisor in public schools. Kfter a review of the negative aspects 
faced by sany student teachers » recostendatlons are made for a better 
working and learning relationship between the teacher supervisor and 
the student teacher. The integrated progras at Lenoir Rhyne College 
includes the following college orientation for a supervising teacher: 
(a) reading the Supervising Teacher's Handbook^ <b) briefing at a 
dinner seetingy (e) exasining the student teacher's Guide to 
Secondary Student Teaching^ (d) conferring daily with the student 
teacher 9 (e) periodically conferring with the college supervisor, and 
(f) learning fros the experienced or certified supervising teachers 
in the school. Hays in which the supervisor can helv the student 
teacher Include: (a) observingo*help the student teacher decide what 
objectively to look for and explain why certain things happen; <b) 
participating— involve the student teacher in a variety of teaching 
activities; <c) teaching— gradually sove fros participation into the 
teaching process; <d) planning— gradually sove the student into the 
planning stage; and <e) conferring— be constructive when criticizing 
and encourage self-appraisal. It is the job of teacher supervisors to 
share the knowledge gained fros experience and to be receptive to the 
ideas of the student teacher » thereby isproving the worth of the 
teacher and student. <JCH) 


This document has II£EN R^PAO 

oucep CKACTuv k% ReceivEO f^RW 


iy, ,,r r.CS'Y AVAILABLE 

Mrs. Lorene H. Painter 
fidaoAtlon Oepartmsnt 
Lenoir Rhyne College 
Hlokory,N.O. 28601 


(Revised version of speech given to Appalachian State University extension course 
at Hudson High School — October h» 1970) 

Let us begin on a negative note by pretending for a few minutes that you are 
student teachers again. The tine Is the week before your Internship and the col- 
lege supervisor Is briefing his group about the worst to expect from supervising 
teachers. Die commentary might briefly run something like thlsi 

"NoW| students* you may find that In the press of events your arrival at 
school has been forgotten* and no one seems to know Where you are to go or what 
you are to do. Xou may soon find yourself In the desk of some blustering teenager 
who mistakes you for a transfer student. Your teacher may neglect to Introduce 
you to his classes and leave you a grinning stranger at the rear of the room. 
Your teacher may seem uaillllJig to share his classes with you* he may actually 
prove hostllSi may Ignore your presencei or may ask you to serve as an 'errand 
boy' who collects papers and checks the morning mall. As you assume classes^ 
your teacher may 'break In' to add Information or actually take the class from 
you to teach It himself 'Ids wa^;* • He may resent your presence as an additional 
burden In an already heavy schedule. Untrained as a supervisor^ he may not know 
what Is expected of him or how much training to anticipate that you have had. 
He may be fearful that you will be weak and Jeopardise his reputation as a skilled 
teacher or that you will appear too modemi too effective and make him appear 
less competent. Your teacher may have stagefrl^ti be fearful of a constant ob- 
server In his classroom. He may view you as a crutch and take advantage of you 
trying to assign you all his classes and paper load Immediately. You may be- 



conn assistant to the school janitori or your teacher may lend you to others as 
a hasty jbelpniate. » He may become very emotionally attached to you as a 'son or 
daughter substitute*. He may overprotect you — or create havoc Just to find If 
you can handle it. He may even try to make you into a carbon copy of himself.*' 

Now this paints a rather dismal picture of the public school supervising 
teacher. But unfortunately many of these charges have proven true enough in the 
past to Justify warning a student teacher — so he may at least anticipate the 
worst and plan his reaction should it occur. This N.C. certificate renewal pro- 
gram in which you are now participating in partially intended to prevent Just such 

We college supervisors have had only a handful of specifically qualified 
public school supervising teachers such as xou ^ becoming , and the number of 
M.A« Certified Classroom Supervising Teachers is too small to meet the demand. 
Presently we must sometimes assign student teachers to first or second year teach- 
ers which is undesirable to a teacher during his first year in a new school « or 
to two supervising teachers for an adequate schedule.*, sometimes two students 
to one teacher at a time. The situation has inqproved in that we can no longer 
assign a student to someone teaching out-of -field— but the fact remains that 
there is a shortage of really effective supervising teachers especially when one 
can now serve in the capacity of supervising teacher only once during a school 

The state of North Carolina promises eventually to provide enough certified 
supervising teachers and to pay them a legitimate fee for their task —but promises 
grow stale after more than ten years in this business of teacher education* This 
one-credit renewal plan in itself « however^ is encouraging— and I suppose we 
should be grateful for small favors. 

Certainly some of our teacher candidates provoke undesirable behavior from 




sapervising teachers. They really as for it or create their own problemsl Stu* 
dent teachers have individual differences i you knoW| just as do pupils and their 
classroom teachirs. Some student teachers are very immature and do not take the 
matter seriuuslyi some Are tor involved in home life or college social affairs to 
give full attention} some are proud and self -centered about beauty i brains « or 
athletic prowess} some reient even constructive criticism though they gossip on 
campus about you} and some present themselves as a lump of helpless clay for you 
to mold single-handed into a model for "Teacher oSIt the Year. " 

Most student teachers i however i are reasonably capable college seniors who 
want to become reasonably capable classroom teachers. Some are more intellectual^ 
some more personable « some more enthusiastic than others -- but an academic weed- 
ing process has occurred to hopefully eliminate the "impossibles". The teacher- 
education process has improved tremendously in both quality and quantity during 
recent years so that only those with possibilities present themselves Informed 
and willing at your classroom door. 

They will become your protegees, their performance will reflect yours* you 
will give of yourself to them} they are a^part of your claim to professional Im- 
mortalltyt It has been said that the supervising teacher is the king-pin in this 
game of teacher-education — and, oh, how true it is I "Learning by doing" is a 
golden experience I and your classroom for a while becomes the laboratory in which 
a student teacher is (1) to experiment with learning theoryi (2) to evaluate him- 
self « and (3) to develop the competence to grow on his own. 

North Carollnai as you knoW| has an approved program approach for accrediting 
its teacher-education colleges. There are published guidelines (Booklets— "N.O. 
Certification" and "N.C. Student Teaching Program") for such programs which a 
college may presume to meet in a variety of ways* Then every 5 years a committee 
appointed by the State Dept. of Public Instruction visits to investigate and hope- 


folly approve each teaoher-eduoation college on the basla of how well It Is meet- 
ing the guidelines and thus satisfying state requirements for teacher preparation. 
The guidelines include a range of course work on campus and actual laboratory ex- 
periences* College preparation that is recommended and examined periodically in- 
cludes general education in many subject areasi concentration in a majori and then 
professional education courses. 

Lenoir Rhyne is approved by the N«C* State Department and was visited recent- 
ly for the second time under its approved program approach* We are also accredit- 
ed by t.}ie National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education — which visits 
to evaluate evexy 10 years and improves greatly the reciprocity of teaching certif- 
icates granted in the various states* Our program is typical of many in N*C« and 
does include a plan of orientation for every supervising teacher — so a brief de- 
scription of our teacher-education framework roi^t be in order* 

Lenoir Rhyne sponsors an early semester of teaoher-aideship for students nho 
plan to become teachers — during which students are assigned to various Hickory 
City Schools for 3 hours per week to absorb atmosphere and engage in clerical or 
simple teaching duties* Recently several Interim courses have also been designed 
to satisfy the aideship requirements* Our actual teacher-education program is con^^ 
centrated into child development and educational psychology in the Junior year and 
courses in historioali philosophicali and sociologioal foundations as well as meth- 
ods and 8 weeks of student teaching in the senior year* We operate on a '^blook 
system*' whereby all of the senior courses and internship occur in one senior semes- 
ter tfith 6 weeks of three 7$-miRUte classes per day preceding the 8 weeks of full- 
time student teaching* You may have read in the newspaper that we have been chang- 
ing> modemieing and in^roving - we hope, our calendar and curriculum at Lenoir 
Rhyne* In 1970 when we went on a li-1-li calendar i our senoir education courses 
vera interwoven for one semester with the student teaching experience * * * some- 


thing like 3 weeks of course work, then 6 weeks of alternate days of observing in 
public schools and course work on campus^ with a concentration of k weeks of full- 
time student teaching at the close of the semester. We thought this might help the 


student teacher see more clearly the practical in^lications of his education course 
work. We reverted to our present program after difficulties in scheduling but are 
continuously planning and seeking a more effective working relationship both for 
Lenoir Rhyiie student teachers and for our public school colleagues. Our student 
teachers are usually supervised by the professors who taught them special methods 
courses — a particular advantage of the small college I 

Lenoir Rhyne supervising teachers are selected Jointly by the Lenoir Rhyne 
fidttcation Department and public school administrators within a 50 mile radius. 
Student teachers state school preferences^ are notified of assignmentSi and en* 
couraged to contact their supervising teachers early in a semester. Student teachers 
are sent to their schools to observe for two days about mid-way through their ed- 
ucation course work to gather information to make their preliminary planning for 
units to teaoh« etc.* more realistic. If you were involved^ a Supervisin g •Teacher * s 
Handbook would be sent to you at that time. Shortly after « a dinner meeting of 
siq)ervi8ing teachers with the Education Department and its student beachers would 
be held on our campus — with small group meetings after the meal and program to 
let us become acquainted and clarify policies stated in your Handbook . Each stu- 
dent has a Guide to Secondary Student Teaching manual of assiffiments to coinplete 
as his internship progresses. We encourage that his supervising teacher examine 
this workbook or lab manual which is co-ordinated with the Supervising Teachers 
Handbook * Bach student teacher submits weekly reports on his activities plus 
work samples^ prepares a schedule for each week to oomoi and is evaluated by his 
supervising teacher on a weekly report blank. 

Lesson pains are to be approved by the supervising teacher and are subject to 


exancLnatlon by the college supervisor upon request. Eaoh student teacher has pre- 
planned one unit on a topic to be taught when he has charge of a majority of class- 
es. The college supervisor observes the student teacher and confers with the su- 
pervising teacher some 3-5 times as need or circumstances may direct. The final 
grade oi^tudent teaching is determined jointly by the college supervisor and super- 
vising teacher. 

Thus normal college orientation of a supervising teacher includes (l) the 
initial reading of his Handbook . (2) briefing at the dinner meeting^ (3) examining 
the student teacher's Ouide. (U) daily conferences with the student teacher who 
has had thorou^ orientation to what is expected before he arrives, (5) and period- 
ic conferences with the college supervisor. Another important source of orientation 
wouls be the more experianced or certified (6) siqwrvising teachers in your school. 
After years of cooperation with the city and county systems of this area, we often 
enlist the aid of the same splendid supervising teachers many times. One might 
say that we have and constantly revise mentally a preferred list of supervising 
teachers which eliminates a massive orientation each year. In addition, we now 
have (7) the N.C. one-credit renewal plan which will give approximately sixteen 
contact hours through seminars, conferences, and on-campus visits for supervising 
teachers who choose even further orientation for professional growth. 

At our orientation dinner meeting last spring, a biology supervising teacher 
asked, "What do thef really expect to learn from us?" And laui^mngly I replied, 
"The Real Thing. •• they ejqpect to learn how to do it." You see — we want the 
supervising teacher to be an active part in the process of teacher-education and 
to contact us for advice, aid, or con^laint i^enever necessaiy. We could not 
operate a teacher-education program without you — you provide our laboratoxy and 
become education instructors where we leave off. You are the kg^ figure in deter- 
mining how much a student teacher will benefit from his internship. He has been 

Q told that successful student teaohliiig Involves five areas 1 observation! partld- 




patlon * actual teaching* conferences # planning * A brief word about how you can 
help with each of these t 

Observation - Suggest or help him decide idiat to objectively look for in various 
classroom situations « eacplain certain things happen « help him 
analyze and interpret what he obsrves^ suggest other activities 
when he has seen what you are doing and can no longer profit from 
observing. Later help him select other outstanding teachers to ob- 
serve when he has learned as much as he can from you. 
Participation - Arrange and involve him in a variety of teacher activities from 
ordering materials to typing guide sheets to grading papers to 
preparing bulletin board or display items to completing school re- 
cords. Keep him busy I 
Teaching • Gradually move him from participation into the teaching process 

— perhaps by making announcements firsts to explaining m assign- 
ment to the class« to managing one activity during a lesson (first 
helping you with supervised stu^y or lab« then an activity on his 
own)« then to cooperative teaching or shared teaching whan one is 
directing the lesson but ths other feels free to contribute at 
Willi to finally independent teaching with the supervising teacher 
gradually withdrawing from the scene ur>til the student teacher is 
operating smoothly alone. Sonstimss stated also as — helping in- 
dividuals« then small groups « then entire class. — a gradual in- 

Planning - Gradual responsibility for planning might follow much the same 

scheme - with the student teacher first txying to plot the olements 
of your lesson plans while he observes. Then he should btjgip. 

following your general procedures so the transition in teachers 

o and their "styles" of teaching would be gradual for the pupils in- 



Tolved* He should then be encouraged to decide hSU llS to 
teach certain topics so you may both be teaching the sans subject 
matter In different ways* Planning how Is the life-blood of suc- 
cessful teaching! The student teacher needs to learn how to adapt 
the sane material to ability levels of different classes sbA ^ttfn 
iioaudi ni b^— • and different pupils within classes. • • until finally 
he is planning for his own Independent teaching^ subject always to 
your suggestion and approval* Our program is flexible but recom- 
mends teaching one class per day the second week two classes per 
day the third week« three the fourth week ••• until a full load of 
four or five classes has been assumed. How gradually he moves 
should depend very nnoh on how quickly the student teacher develops 
visible conqpetence. 

Conferences - A professional teacher needs to learn the art of self -appraisal 

so help him fomally or informally by being constructively honest 
about his performance. Coo^llnent and encourage him« but suggest 
how he mic^t have better handled a situation. Bxpeot Inprovement 
...and remind him he Is forming habits for a professional life- 
time. Ask him to appraise himself as he grows stronger « to anal- 
yze or diagnose a teaching situation as to its sucess or lack of 
it. develop in him a growing awareness of steady self-iiiq;xrovensnt« 
You will be somewhat amazed and deeply rewarded when results show that ^ou 
are actually shaping and molding this amateur into a professionally skillful personi 
Bat there is still more you can do. He is there to learn the "whole story" about 
how to do U — more than he can observei participate in, and ^sorb in 8 weeks* 
So ten it like it is — talk with him about your over-all plans for various ooursesf 
how you began the year with your olassesi how you plan to climax or end the year^ 

prq COIY f.VAllARLF -9- 

special problems of your subject area and how to handle them* Share idiat you have 
of Instruotual materiali^ and ideas for learning activities with him* If he is from 
L«R*, he may be stuffing a metal file called an IDEA BOX and literally "brain-piok- 
ing" you while he is there. We improve the profession by sharing the best that 
each of us^ young and old, have discovered about making teaching more effective 
.** and we hope that {eu learn some things from your student teacher* The great- 
est compliment you can pay him is to continue using some of his ideas lAen he Is