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CS 500 991 

The World of AWRT: A Profile of the Hetbership o£ 

American women in Radio and Television, Inc. 

Aaerican Woaen in Radio and Television^ Inc.« 

Washington, D.C. 

74 

21p. 

Anerican Woaen in Radio and Television, Inc., 1321 
Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 
($2.00) 

MP-$0.76 HC-$1.58 PLDS POSTAGE 

♦Broadcast Industry; '^Feiales; Job Analysis; 

♦Occupational Infornation; ♦Occupational Surveys; 

professional Associations; Professional Occupations; 

Radio; Television; ♦Working Woaen 

♦Anerican wonen in Radio and Television 



ABSTRACT 

Based on a survey of 40*8 percent (1,094) of the 
■eabers of Aaerican Woaen in Radio and Television (AWRT) , this report 
dor'>:^ents woaen 's characteristics and their contributions to the 
brofidcasting field. Sections of the report provide bar graphs 
depicting: (1) the types of coopanies and agencies ahere AWRT aeabers 
work; (2) the types of jobs held by AWRT aeabers and the types of 
programs of AWRT on-the-air broadcasters; (3) salary ranges and 
increases 9 and levels oi responsibility; (4) aeabers' career status, 
education, degrees attained, educational aajor, and job continuity; 
and (5) women's status on the job and in their private lives, 
including their aarital status, husband's occupation, husband's 
incoae, children, household help, personal grooming expense, age, and 
type of housing. Also described are honors, awards, and offices 
available in the broadcast industry as well as the background and 
educational foundation of AWRT. (HOD) 



ERIC 



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THE WORLD OF I 

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US OEPAMTMCNTOPHKALTH. 
lOUCATlON 4 WKLPARK 
NATIONAL INSTlTUTt 0I» 
lOUCATlCN 

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN AE^AO 
DUCEO EXACTLY AS RECEIVE? FROM 
THE PERSON OR ORCANilATiON ORIGIN 
ATtNGtT POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS 
STATED DO NOT NECESSAAILV REPRE 
SENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
EOWCATJON POSITION OR POUCY * 



. * ■ i\ 



ERIC 



1 




A PROFILE OF THE AAEMBERSHIP <3F AAAERICAN WOMAN IN RADIO AND IBB^ INC 




The Many Faces of A.W.R.T 

Types of companies and agencies 
where A.W.R.T. members >A/ork 



Woman's Place . . . Unlimited 



4 



Types of jobs 

Types of programs of on-air members 



Income and Responsibilities 

Salary Ranges 
Salary Increases 
Levels of Responsibility 



6 



The Composite Career Broadcaster 



8 



Career Status 
Education 
Degrees Attained 
Educatior al Major 
Job Continuity 

Woman on the Job 10 

Supervisors 
Employees 

Sex Favoritism/Discrimination 
Career Advancement 

Private Life 12 

Marital Status 
Husbands' Occupation 
Husbands' Income 
Children: Number and Ages 
Household & Child Care Help 
Personal Grooming Expense 
Age 

Housing 

Honors. Awards. Offices 14 

American Women in Radio and Television 15 



Educational Foundation of A.W R.T, 



16 



A business profile off 



dedicated to their 
expanding world... 
the broadcast 
communications industry 
and its audience. 



This in-depth study of women in broadcasting is 
A.W.R.T/s membership -survey of women employed 
in creative, administrative and executive capacities. 

A comprehensive profile, this report is based on 40.8% 
(1.094) of A.W.RT/s membership responding to the 
survey, documenting their characteristics and their 
contributions to the broadcasting field. 

This study is published and distributed by American 
Women in Radio and Television. Inc.. and the Educa- 
tional Foundation of American Women in Radio and 
Television. Inc. 



4 



the many faces of 



Throughout the United States are over 2,200 on the air 
broadcasters, administrators, writers, publicists, directors, 
executives . . . women in every phase of broadcasting . , , 
the women of A.W.R.T. 

These women are integral part of an industry that 
reaches into the homes of over 98% of ah Americans*, 
As this industry expands into CATV, sophisticated uses of 
closed circuit telecasting, satellite transmission and other 
broadcast technologies, women are expanding both the 
scope and responsibility of their roles in the industry. 
Women are influencing vital broadcasting decisions and 
shaping the future of tnis growing industry. 

The typical A W.R.T. member is on-the-move, well edu- 
cated, mature and city oriented. Her business world is the 
sphere of broadcasting and its allied fields. A.W.R.T. mem- 
bers work for 

■ radio and television stations and networks 

■ community antenna television systems 

■ packagers, producers, distributers and licensers of 
filmed, taped and live programs for broadcasting 

■ sponsors, station representatives, broadcasting trade as- 
sociations 

■ advertising and public relations firms 

■ newspapers and magazines devoted to broadcasting 

■ public service reliaious. charitable and educational or- 
ganizations 

■ business and industry 

* Source for figure Naticr)al Association of Broadcasters 



39 1% 



5% Music CorporaUon 

1 3% Government Broadcasting 

9% Station Rep 

.4% Program SyncJ.cator/Di:,tribulor 

1 6% CATV 

2 1% Public TV 

1 1% Public Rad'o 

2 5% TV Network 

1 6^/0 Radio Network 

13 4% TV Station 



13 6% 



DISTRIBUTION OF A.W.R.T. MEMBERSHIP 
IN BROADCASTING AND ITS ALLIED FIELDS 



13 7% Radio Station 



87% 



9 1% 



73% 



7.0% 



3.7% 



2.6% 



1.2% 



;..J».:^> 



4.1% 



1.8% 



.4% 



.1% 



*v 



/ 



4y 



^0 



/ 



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ERIC 



5 



JOB CLASSIFICATIONS OF 
A.W.R.T. MEMBERS 



15 9% 



12 3% 



8 6% 



2.1 



--J 

I 



15 8% 



16 3% 



14 2% 



.'^ 4.4% 



;>'?2 0% 1.8% 



2.6% 



3.4% 
2.6% 



1.1 



.8% 



1 .7% 



.4% 



'^4 



13.1% 
11.8% 



8.0% 

.'I 



9 7% 



2.5% 

1 

i 



2.2% 

10 n 




1.8% 
1.1 



.8% 

a 



1^ 



7.6% 





The degree of career success possible tor women m 
broadcasting is revealed m an analysis of the |Obs and 
responsibilities of those surveyed, an analysis which also 
reflects the broad spectrum of |0t) descriptions withm the 
broadcasting industry 

Nearly 40^o of members are directly employed by radio 
and TV stations and networks. 

■ 16 3% are on air broadcasters . . . women mterviewing 
the outstanding personalities of our time . . discus- 
sing provocative top-cs with their audiences . . hosting 
children s sn reporting hard news and sports . 
serving as disc jockeys panelists or weather re- 
porters actresses and singers or on-air teachers. 

■ Others are broadcast management executives in pro- 
grammmg. sales, advertising and promotion, public 
relations and business affairs Some are station 
owners, general managers and corporate officers, 
while others hold positions m news, operations, con- 
tinuity, public affairs and research Categories range 
from engineering to film editing to merchandising and 
sales service 

Others surveyed pursue careers m broadcasting s allied 
fields such as advertising, public relations, theater and 
public service organizations 

■ Writers of shows or commercials casting directors 
and account executives . time buyers and home 
economists publicists and public relations 
specialists all devoting tfie major porlion of their 
time to the broadcasting industry 



33J% 



14 8% 



9 9% 



10 0% 




29^% 



1&3% 



er|c 



The most typical salary of those responding to A.W.R.T.'s 
survey is between $10,000 and $15,000 annually; however. 
31% earn more than this amount. 

Slightly over 50% of the members responding to the 
survey reported that their income had increased 25% or 
more during the past five years. Income has doubled dur- 
ing that time for 9.9% of the women. 



SALARY RANGES 



29 5% 



23 0% 



8.0% 



x 



20 1% 



15 4% 



/ # # # # 

i- .!?■ ^ 



^ ^ 



/ # # # 

** o* ** 
O <o »^ 



ERIC 



CURRENT INCOME IN 
COMPARISON TO INCOME 
5 YEARS AGO 



25 1% 



12.6% 



10 0% 



■'> r 



9.2% 
7?g 



■ / 



15.3% 



r- ' 



9.9% 



8.2% 



^0 



10 



The broadcasting industry is a highly 
competitive one m which women have 
attained success. This fact is indi- 
cated by an examination of the re- 
sponsibility levels of AWRT. menn- 
bers surveyed 



RESPON^^IBILITY 



13.1% 



5.8% I 



6.5% 



m 




/ «^ oV I 



' ^ ^ ^ ^ 



O o tt> 



4J> 



7 



63 2% 



EDUCATION 



34 2% 



27 3% 



113% 



6 3% 



'it 

■■-•V 



19.7% 



////// 



/ 



7/ 



19.5% 







'.*■ 














i 













^1 



CAREER STATUS 47.8% of members have always been 
in business, while 13 2% have returned \o business after 
spending time away managing their homes 

EDUCATION 81 2% of those surveyed have college de- 
grees or backgrounds with 19.7% having aitended gradu- 
ate school 

EDUCATION MAJORS. The wide 
variety of members' interests and 
professional backgrounds is 
indicated by their college majors. 



HIGHEST DEGREE 
ATTAINED 



14.4% 



1 .9% 



5% 



2) Jb 



28.5% 



20.9% 



-Til 



.«uf. 



15.3% 



13.1% 



4 



1.4% 



.8% 



/ f '^^ 



I 



8 



11 



JOB CONTINUITY AND TENURE have contributed to the 
degree of business success attained and reflect the 
interest of those surveyed »n their chosen field. The 
figures below indicate the long-term |ob stability of 
women as good employment risks 

27% have been with their present employer over 10 
years 70% have been with their present employer at least 
three years Over 75% have been n the same type of 
work for over three years 



TIME-WITH PRESENT 
EMPLOYER 



TIME IN PRESENT 
TYPE OF WORK 



22 1 % 



20 3% 



16<>% 



10 7% 



/ j 



15 1% 



10.1% 



4> 



i 



22 3% 22.2% 



20.7% 



1 1 .0% 



i 



9* 



14.2% 



7.1% 



Si* 



12 



The typical A.W.RT. member reports to a man in her work. 
The majority of those responding to the survey answered 
that they felt they had experienced neither sex favoritism 
nor sex discrimination on the job. although 23.6% consid- 
ered their sex a major deterrent to job advancement. 

Nearly one third supervise the work of at least one man, 
and over half supervise the wo''k of one or more other 
women. Two thirds of those responding had advanced in 
their naieer position in the last five years. 



■ Who it your immediate superior? 

Male 87.4% Female 12.0% 



■ How many male employees report to you? 

1- 12.3% 

2- 6.6% 

3- 2.4% 

4- 1 .6% 

5 or more— 6.1% 



■ How many female employees report to you? 

1- 19.5% 

2- 12.5% 

3- 7.9% 

4- 5 9% 

5 or more— 10.5% 



■ Have you experienced sex favoritism in the past S years? 

Yes 24.1% No 79.9% 



■ Have you experienced sex ditcrimination in tlie past 
5 years? 

Yes 36.9% No 55.65% 



■ Do you feel you are qualified for a better position than 
you now have? 

Yes 64.0% No 25.7% 



■ n yes, wliat is the maior deterrent to your advancement? 



Age 20.5% 

Insufficient education 3.4% 

Lack of opportunity 11 .6% 

Lack of training 5.3% 

Sex 23.6% 

Other 10.9% 



■ Has your position advanced in the last 5 years? 

Yes 67.6% No 27.3% 



That broadcasting offers the woman with talent, education 
and drive the possibility of a successful career is well- 
documented. ThiS survey shows that many women com- 
bine a professional career with managing a household. 

MARITAL STATUS 

45.3% are presently married. 26.5% are single. 18.8% 
divorced and 6.9% widowed. 



HUSBANDS' OCCUPATIONS These vary widely with 
nearly 70% employed in business and professional fields. 



Business & professional 69.9% 

Technical 12.3% 

Retired 6.6% 

Educational 4.5% 

Labor 4.5% 

Military 1.2% 

Agricultural 9% 



PERSONAL GROOMING EXPENSE Members feel that 
because of thei'' careers, they spend more on clothes, cos- 
metics and personal grooming than they would if they were 
not working. How much more do they spend per year be- 
cause of their business career? 



$300 or less 8.6% 

$300-5500 16.9% 

$500-5700 17.3% 

$700-$1000 .''0.3% 

$1,000 or more 31.4% 



HUSBANDS' INCOME 56 2% of members' husbands 
earn from $10,000 to $25,000 per year. 24.1% earn more 
than $25,000 

24. 1 % earn $25,000 or more 

30.1% earn $15,000-$25.000 

26.1% earn $10,000 to $15,000 

11.9% earn $7,500 to $10,000 

7.5% earn under $7,500 



CHILDREN 46.8% of A.W.R.T. s members have children. 
1 .8% have five or more. 



No. of Children 

1 14.3% 

2 16.6% 

3 10.2% 

4 4 0% 

5 8% 

6 or more . . 1 .0% 



Age of Children 

Pre-school 6.2% 

Grade School 12.1% 

High School 13.0% 

College 13.3% 

Working /Married 26.5% 



HOUSING Most members are home and apartment own- 
ers. 

Own home 50.7% 

Rent home ^-I^^o 

Own apartment 3.6% 

Rent apartment 36.3% 

Other 2.7% 



HOUSEHOLD AND CHILD CARE HELP 40 9% of those 
responding to the survey have assistance with housekeep- 
ing, and 4.5% have child care help. 



Part time maid 14.5% 

Full time maid 1P% 

Cleaning woman only 22.4% 

Cook/housekeeper 2.2% 

Part time in-home child care 4% 

Full time in-home child care 9% 

Private nursery 1 -4% 

Child care center 8% 



AGE OF MEMBERS A.W.R.T. members range in age 
from early twenties through retirement age. 



20-30 years 19.0% 

30-40 years 22.0% 

40-50 years 29.5% 

50-60 years 19.2% 

Over 60 years 6.3% 



15 



The high*level of performance of women in broadcasting 
can be measured, to some degree, by a capsule review of 
the public recognition received for professional and public 
service achievement. 



AWARDS AND HONORS^ 

■ National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences 
"Emmy". George Foster Peabody. and Ohio State Awards 
for excellence in programming 

■ Associated Press Awards for superior newscasting 

■ "Advertising Woman of the Year/' in polls conducted 
by Advertising Clubs in major cities 

■ Women in Communications awards for distinguished 
service and outstanding contributions in the field of jour- 
nalism 

■ Honorary doctorates and distinguished alumnae awards 
from major universities 

■ Citations for outstanding public service from such or- 
ganizations as 4H, Altrusa Club. Goodwill Industries, 
Business and Professional Women. American Legion 
Auxiliary. Home Economists in Business. U.S. Navy. 
National Conference of Christians and Jews Ladies 
Auxiliary of Veterans of Foreign Wars. American Cancer 
Society and the American Medical Assc elation. 



OFFICES HELD IN MAJOR ORGANIZATIONS* 

■ National Association of Broadcasters board of directors, 
C#ode Board members 

■ Directors of National Association of Educational Broad- 
casters 

■ International Radio and Television Society board of di- 
rectors 

■ Presidents and officers of state broadcasters associa- 
tions 

■ Delegates for Vt/hite House conferences 

■ Members of committees formed by governors and by 
the President of the United States 

■ Trustees of coll3ge boards 

■ Presidents of women's national newspaper and press 
associations 

Many of those surveyed appear in standard biographical 
reference books such as Who's Who in America. Who's 
Who in American Women, and other professional publica- 
tions. 

* Information compiled from independent A.W.R.T. data 



14 

17 



A.W.RJ. is a national non-profit organization founded in 
1951 



■ 10 be a medium for exchange of ideas about the com- 
munications industry and to alert members to trends and 
issues which affect it. 

■ to provide a channel through which members can exert 
influence on the development of their media. 

■ to work constructively for equal status and compensa- 
tion for women and to assist members in their profes- 
sional development. 

■ to encourage young women to enter the communica- 
tions industry and to assist them in preparing for profes- 
sional careers. 

NATIONAL AND AREA MEETINGS 

The annual national convention and seven area confer- 
ences offe' industry leaders in a variety of roles; delivering 
major addresses, participating in workshops, press confer- 
ences, rap sessions and panel discussions. 

CHAPTER MEETINGS 

Chapter meetings throughout tlie country focus attention 
on regional problems and interests of the industry. Chap- 
ters are encouraged to develop public service projects. 

PUBUCATIONS 

Through a bi-monthly newsletter. NEWS & VIEWS, mem- 
bers are kept informed of national A.W.RJ. plans and 
activities as well .as governmental decisions and latest 
industry developments. Chapter newsletters and special 
publications of A.W.R.T. give additional information about 
the communications industry. 



PUBLIC AFFAIRS 

A.W.R.T. is naturally involved in studying issues relating 
to broadcasting. Members are informed and their com- 
ments are solicited for a national position to be taken by 
A.W.R.T. based on member response. Chapter affiliation 
with state broadcasters associations and participation in 
their activities is encouraged by A.W.RJ. 

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION 

Through the national affirmative action program, chapters 
are developing local professional registries as d resource 
for the broadcast industry. Members are offered opportuni* 
ties to participate in management development workshops 
conducted under the auspices of A.W.RJ. 

APPLICATION FOR A.W.RX MEMBERSHIP 

Membership applications v«hich spell out qualifications 
for membership are available through local chapters or 
from A.W.R.T. national headquarters. 



ERLC 



18 



15 



The first of its kind to be established by a professional 
broadcasting organization, the Educational Foundation was 
incorporated with significant goals centering around great- 
er public understanding of broadcasting. Foundation proj- 
ects are focused on raising the standards in radio and 
television through the continuing education of those who 
work in these fields. 



PROJECTS 

International Broadcasters Program 
In cooperation with the United States Department of State, 
a number of English-speaking women in broadcasting 
from abroad come to the United States annually to explore 
our broadcasting systems, techniques and related profes- 
sions. These guests have come from Europe. Africa. Asia. 
South America and Iron Curtain countries. A.W.R.T. chap- 
ters are proud to host international broadcasters while the 
Foundation contributes toward their daily expenses. 

SEMINARS 

Stimulating seminars provide specific opportunities for 
A.W.R.T. members and associates to take a challenging 
look at themselves. Seminars offer personal enrichment 
through in-depth exploration of the arts, science, humani- 
ties and national and international problems. 

BROADCAST INDUSTRY FORUMS 

The Foundation sponsors unique broadcast industry for- 
ums at national and regional conventions of leading opin- 
ion-making groups. Forums alert the public to the problems 
and potential of the broadcasting industry. 



CAREER CLINICS-INTERNSHIPS 

Chapters sponsor career clinics for high school and col- 
lege students, offering them the opportunity to gain insight 
into the field of broadcasting. 

'^Careers for Women in Broadcasting" is a special A.W.R.T. 
publication which provides further job information. Chap- 
ters encourage internship progranns for college students, 
which are designed to provide a working experience for 
those who plan to enter the profession. 

INTERNATIONAL STUDY TOURS 

Professional study tours for A.W.R.T. members are ar- 
ranged in cooperation with the U.S. Departnnent of State to 
study broadcast facilities and advertising methods abroad* 

NEW PROJECTS 

The Foundation keeps pace with our changing society and 
our industry by constantly exploring new ideas and inno- 
vative programs. 

FINANi lAL SUPPORT 

Tfie Foundation is supported by the personal contributions 
of A.W.R.T. members, by A.W.R.T. Chapters* gifts and do- 
nations from business, industry and interested foundations. 



16 



-19 



This survey of women who work in the radio and television 
industry . . . "The World of A.W.RT.'' ... is a sampling of 
a total population of 2.280 members of American Women 
in Radio and Television. Inc. The responses to this survey 
were not signed; the figures were computed by The Com- 
puter and Statistical Centers of the University of South 
Carolina. 

Many totals reflect only answers received. Therefore, some 
category totals will not equal 100%. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Those A.W.R.T respondents who made this survey possi- 
ble and to 

Audrey Hunt. State Telecasting Company. Columbia. South 

Carolina (Chairman. A.W.R.T. Research) 
Elaine R. Pitts. The Sperry and Hutchinson Company, New 

York, New York (President. A.W.R.T., lnc.--1973-4) 
The Computer and Statistical Centers of the University of 

South Carolina. Columbia. South Carolina 





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OWNER 



Copyright 1974 American Women in Radio & Television. Inc. 
1321 Connecticut Avenue. N.W.,^ashington. D.C. 20036 Price: $2.00