BD 102 623
CS 500 991
The World of AWRT: A Profile of the Hetbership o£
American women in Radio and Television, Inc.
Aaerican Woaen in Radio and Television^ Inc.«
Anerican Woaen in Radio and Television, Inc., 1321
Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036
MP-$0.76 HC-$1.58 PLDS POSTAGE
♦Broadcast Industry; '^Feiales; Job Analysis;
♦Occupational Infornation; ♦Occupational Surveys;
professional Associations; Professional Occupations;
Radio; Television; ♦Working Woaen
♦Anerican wonen in Radio and Television
Based on a survey of 40*8 percent (1,094) of the
■eabers of Aaerican Woaen in Radio and Television (AWRT) , this report
dor'>:^ents woaen 's characteristics and their contributions to the
brofidcasting field. Sections of the report provide bar graphs
depicting: (1) the types of coopanies and agencies ahere AWRT aeabers
work; (2) the types of jobs held by AWRT aeabers and the types of
programs of AWRT on-the-air broadcasters; (3) salary ranges and
increases 9 and levels oi responsibility; (4) aeabers' career status,
education, degrees attained, educational aajor, and job continuity;
and (5) women's status on the job and in their private lives,
including their aarital status, husband's occupation, husband's
incoae, children, household help, personal grooming expense, age, and
type of housing. Also described are honors, awards, and offices
available in the broadcast industry as well as the background and
educational foundation of AWRT. (HOD)
THE WORLD OF I
lOUCATlON 4 WKLPARK
NATIONAL INSTlTUTt 0I»
THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN AE^AO
DUCEO EXACTLY AS RECEIVE? FROM
THE PERSON OR ORCANilATiON ORIGIN
ATtNGtT POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS
STATED DO NOT NECESSAAILV REPRE
SENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
EOWCATJON POSITION OR POUCY *
. * ■ i\
A PROFILE OF THE AAEMBERSHIP <3F AAAERICAN WOMAN IN RADIO AND IBB^ INC
The Many Faces of A.W.R.T
Types of companies and agencies
where A.W.R.T. members >A/ork
Woman's Place . . . Unlimited
Types of jobs
Types of programs of on-air members
Income and Responsibilities
Levels of Responsibility
The Composite Career Broadcaster
Educatior al Major
Woman on the Job 10
Private Life 12
Children: Number and Ages
Household & Child Care Help
Personal Grooming Expense
Honors. Awards. Offices 14
American Women in Radio and Television 15
Educational Foundation of A.W R.T,
A business profile off
dedicated to their
and its audience.
This in-depth study of women in broadcasting is
A.W.R.T/s membership -survey of women employed
in creative, administrative and executive capacities.
A comprehensive profile, this report is based on 40.8%
(1.094) of A.W.RT/s membership responding to the
survey, documenting their characteristics and their
contributions to the broadcasting field.
This study is published and distributed by American
Women in Radio and Television. Inc.. and the Educa-
tional Foundation of American Women in Radio and
the many faces of
Throughout the United States are over 2,200 on the air
broadcasters, administrators, writers, publicists, directors,
executives . . . women in every phase of broadcasting . , ,
the women of A.W.R.T.
These women are integral part of an industry that
reaches into the homes of over 98% of ah Americans*,
As this industry expands into CATV, sophisticated uses of
closed circuit telecasting, satellite transmission and other
broadcast technologies, women are expanding both the
scope and responsibility of their roles in the industry.
Women are influencing vital broadcasting decisions and
shaping the future of tnis growing industry.
The typical A W.R.T. member is on-the-move, well edu-
cated, mature and city oriented. Her business world is the
sphere of broadcasting and its allied fields. A.W.R.T. mem-
bers work for
■ radio and television stations and networks
■ community antenna television systems
■ packagers, producers, distributers and licensers of
filmed, taped and live programs for broadcasting
■ sponsors, station representatives, broadcasting trade as-
■ advertising and public relations firms
■ newspapers and magazines devoted to broadcasting
■ public service reliaious. charitable and educational or-
■ business and industry
* Source for figure Naticr)al Association of Broadcasters
5% Music CorporaUon
1 3% Government Broadcasting
9% Station Rep
.4% Program SyncJ.cator/Di:,tribulor
1 6% CATV
2 1% Public TV
1 1% Public Rad'o
2 5% TV Network
1 6^/0 Radio Network
13 4% TV Station
DISTRIBUTION OF A.W.R.T. MEMBERSHIP
IN BROADCASTING AND ITS ALLIED FIELDS
13 7% Radio Station
JOB CLASSIFICATIONS OF
;>'?2 0% 1.8%
The degree of career success possible tor women m
broadcasting is revealed m an analysis of the |Obs and
responsibilities of those surveyed, an analysis which also
reflects the broad spectrum of |0t) descriptions withm the
Nearly 40^o of members are directly employed by radio
and TV stations and networks.
■ 16 3% are on air broadcasters . . . women mterviewing
the outstanding personalities of our time . . discus-
sing provocative top-cs with their audiences . . hosting
children s sn reporting hard news and sports .
serving as disc jockeys panelists or weather re-
porters actresses and singers or on-air teachers.
■ Others are broadcast management executives in pro-
grammmg. sales, advertising and promotion, public
relations and business affairs Some are station
owners, general managers and corporate officers,
while others hold positions m news, operations, con-
tinuity, public affairs and research Categories range
from engineering to film editing to merchandising and
Others surveyed pursue careers m broadcasting s allied
fields such as advertising, public relations, theater and
public service organizations
■ Writers of shows or commercials casting directors
and account executives . time buyers and home
economists publicists and public relations
specialists all devoting tfie major porlion of their
time to the broadcasting industry
The most typical salary of those responding to A.W.R.T.'s
survey is between $10,000 and $15,000 annually; however.
31% earn more than this amount.
Slightly over 50% of the members responding to the
survey reported that their income had increased 25% or
more during the past five years. Income has doubled dur-
ing that time for 9.9% of the women.
/ # # # #
i- .!?■ ^
/ # # #
** o* **
O <o »^
CURRENT INCOME IN
COMPARISON TO INCOME
5 YEARS AGO
The broadcasting industry is a highly
competitive one m which women have
attained success. This fact is indi-
cated by an examination of the re-
sponsibility levels of AWRT. menn-
/ «^ oV I
' ^ ^ ^ ^
O o tt>
CAREER STATUS 47.8% of members have always been
in business, while 13 2% have returned \o business after
spending time away managing their homes
EDUCATION 81 2% of those surveyed have college de-
grees or backgrounds with 19.7% having aitended gradu-
EDUCATION MAJORS. The wide
variety of members' interests and
professional backgrounds is
indicated by their college majors.
/ f '^^
JOB CONTINUITY AND TENURE have contributed to the
degree of business success attained and reflect the
interest of those surveyed »n their chosen field. The
figures below indicate the long-term |ob stability of
women as good employment risks
27% have been with their present employer over 10
years 70% have been with their present employer at least
three years Over 75% have been n the same type of
work for over three years
TIME IN PRESENT
TYPE OF WORK
22 1 %
22 3% 22.2%
1 1 .0%
The typical A.W.RT. member reports to a man in her work.
The majority of those responding to the survey answered
that they felt they had experienced neither sex favoritism
nor sex discrimination on the job. although 23.6% consid-
ered their sex a major deterrent to job advancement.
Nearly one third supervise the work of at least one man,
and over half supervise the wo''k of one or more other
women. Two thirds of those responding had advanced in
their naieer position in the last five years.
■ Who it your immediate superior?
Male 87.4% Female 12.0%
■ How many male employees report to you?
4- 1 .6%
5 or more— 6.1%
■ How many female employees report to you?
4- 5 9%
5 or more— 10.5%
■ Have you experienced sex favoritism in the past S years?
Yes 24.1% No 79.9%
■ Have you experienced sex ditcrimination in tlie past
Yes 36.9% No 55.65%
■ Do you feel you are qualified for a better position than
you now have?
Yes 64.0% No 25.7%
■ n yes, wliat is the maior deterrent to your advancement?
Insufficient education 3.4%
Lack of opportunity 11 .6%
Lack of training 5.3%
■ Has your position advanced in the last 5 years?
Yes 67.6% No 27.3%
That broadcasting offers the woman with talent, education
and drive the possibility of a successful career is well-
documented. ThiS survey shows that many women com-
bine a professional career with managing a household.
45.3% are presently married. 26.5% are single. 18.8%
divorced and 6.9% widowed.
HUSBANDS' OCCUPATIONS These vary widely with
nearly 70% employed in business and professional fields.
Business & professional 69.9%
PERSONAL GROOMING EXPENSE Members feel that
because of thei'' careers, they spend more on clothes, cos-
metics and personal grooming than they would if they were
not working. How much more do they spend per year be-
cause of their business career?
$300 or less 8.6%
$1,000 or more 31.4%
HUSBANDS' INCOME 56 2% of members' husbands
earn from $10,000 to $25,000 per year. 24.1% earn more
24. 1 % earn $25,000 or more
30.1% earn $15,000-$25.000
26.1% earn $10,000 to $15,000
11.9% earn $7,500 to $10,000
7.5% earn under $7,500
CHILDREN 46.8% of A.W.R.T. s members have children.
1 .8% have five or more.
No. of Children
4 4 0%
6 or more . . 1 .0%
Age of Children
Grade School 12.1%
High School 13.0%
Working /Married 26.5%
HOUSING Most members are home and apartment own-
Own home 50.7%
Rent home ^-I^^o
Own apartment 3.6%
Rent apartment 36.3%
HOUSEHOLD AND CHILD CARE HELP 40 9% of those
responding to the survey have assistance with housekeep-
ing, and 4.5% have child care help.
Part time maid 14.5%
Full time maid 1P%
Cleaning woman only 22.4%
Part time in-home child care 4%
Full time in-home child care 9%
Private nursery 1 -4%
Child care center 8%
AGE OF MEMBERS A.W.R.T. members range in age
from early twenties through retirement age.
20-30 years 19.0%
30-40 years 22.0%
40-50 years 29.5%
50-60 years 19.2%
Over 60 years 6.3%
The high*level of performance of women in broadcasting
can be measured, to some degree, by a capsule review of
the public recognition received for professional and public
AWARDS AND HONORS^
■ National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences
"Emmy". George Foster Peabody. and Ohio State Awards
for excellence in programming
■ Associated Press Awards for superior newscasting
■ "Advertising Woman of the Year/' in polls conducted
by Advertising Clubs in major cities
■ Women in Communications awards for distinguished
service and outstanding contributions in the field of jour-
■ Honorary doctorates and distinguished alumnae awards
from major universities
■ Citations for outstanding public service from such or-
ganizations as 4H, Altrusa Club. Goodwill Industries,
Business and Professional Women. American Legion
Auxiliary. Home Economists in Business. U.S. Navy.
National Conference of Christians and Jews Ladies
Auxiliary of Veterans of Foreign Wars. American Cancer
Society and the American Medical Assc elation.
OFFICES HELD IN MAJOR ORGANIZATIONS*
■ National Association of Broadcasters board of directors,
C#ode Board members
■ Directors of National Association of Educational Broad-
■ International Radio and Television Society board of di-
■ Presidents and officers of state broadcasters associa-
■ Delegates for Vt/hite House conferences
■ Members of committees formed by governors and by
the President of the United States
■ Trustees of coll3ge boards
■ Presidents of women's national newspaper and press
Many of those surveyed appear in standard biographical
reference books such as Who's Who in America. Who's
Who in American Women, and other professional publica-
* Information compiled from independent A.W.R.T. data
A.W.RJ. is a national non-profit organization founded in
■ 10 be a medium for exchange of ideas about the com-
munications industry and to alert members to trends and
issues which affect it.
■ to provide a channel through which members can exert
influence on the development of their media.
■ to work constructively for equal status and compensa-
tion for women and to assist members in their profes-
■ to encourage young women to enter the communica-
tions industry and to assist them in preparing for profes-
NATIONAL AND AREA MEETINGS
The annual national convention and seven area confer-
ences offe' industry leaders in a variety of roles; delivering
major addresses, participating in workshops, press confer-
ences, rap sessions and panel discussions.
Chapter meetings throughout tlie country focus attention
on regional problems and interests of the industry. Chap-
ters are encouraged to develop public service projects.
Through a bi-monthly newsletter. NEWS & VIEWS, mem-
bers are kept informed of national A.W.RJ. plans and
activities as well .as governmental decisions and latest
industry developments. Chapter newsletters and special
publications of A.W.R.T. give additional information about
the communications industry.
A.W.R.T. is naturally involved in studying issues relating
to broadcasting. Members are informed and their com-
ments are solicited for a national position to be taken by
A.W.R.T. based on member response. Chapter affiliation
with state broadcasters associations and participation in
their activities is encouraged by A.W.RJ.
Through the national affirmative action program, chapters
are developing local professional registries as d resource
for the broadcast industry. Members are offered opportuni*
ties to participate in management development workshops
conducted under the auspices of A.W.RJ.
APPLICATION FOR A.W.RX MEMBERSHIP
Membership applications v«hich spell out qualifications
for membership are available through local chapters or
from A.W.R.T. national headquarters.
The first of its kind to be established by a professional
broadcasting organization, the Educational Foundation was
incorporated with significant goals centering around great-
er public understanding of broadcasting. Foundation proj-
ects are focused on raising the standards in radio and
television through the continuing education of those who
work in these fields.
International Broadcasters Program
In cooperation with the United States Department of State,
a number of English-speaking women in broadcasting
from abroad come to the United States annually to explore
our broadcasting systems, techniques and related profes-
sions. These guests have come from Europe. Africa. Asia.
South America and Iron Curtain countries. A.W.R.T. chap-
ters are proud to host international broadcasters while the
Foundation contributes toward their daily expenses.
Stimulating seminars provide specific opportunities for
A.W.R.T. members and associates to take a challenging
look at themselves. Seminars offer personal enrichment
through in-depth exploration of the arts, science, humani-
ties and national and international problems.
BROADCAST INDUSTRY FORUMS
The Foundation sponsors unique broadcast industry for-
ums at national and regional conventions of leading opin-
ion-making groups. Forums alert the public to the problems
and potential of the broadcasting industry.
Chapters sponsor career clinics for high school and col-
lege students, offering them the opportunity to gain insight
into the field of broadcasting.
'^Careers for Women in Broadcasting" is a special A.W.R.T.
publication which provides further job information. Chap-
ters encourage internship progranns for college students,
which are designed to provide a working experience for
those who plan to enter the profession.
INTERNATIONAL STUDY TOURS
Professional study tours for A.W.R.T. members are ar-
ranged in cooperation with the U.S. Departnnent of State to
study broadcast facilities and advertising methods abroad*
The Foundation keeps pace with our changing society and
our industry by constantly exploring new ideas and inno-
FINANi lAL SUPPORT
Tfie Foundation is supported by the personal contributions
of A.W.R.T. members, by A.W.R.T. Chapters* gifts and do-
nations from business, industry and interested foundations.
This survey of women who work in the radio and television
industry . . . "The World of A.W.RT.'' ... is a sampling of
a total population of 2.280 members of American Women
in Radio and Television. Inc. The responses to this survey
were not signed; the figures were computed by The Com-
puter and Statistical Centers of the University of South
Many totals reflect only answers received. Therefore, some
category totals will not equal 100%.
Those A.W.R.T respondents who made this survey possi-
ble and to
Audrey Hunt. State Telecasting Company. Columbia. South
Carolina (Chairman. A.W.R.T. Research)
Elaine R. Pitts. The Sperry and Hutchinson Company, New
York, New York (President. A.W.R.T., lnc.--1973-4)
The Computer and Statistical Centers of the University of
South Carolina. Columbia. South Carolina
PERMISSION TO REPflODuCt THIS CQf^
PtGHTED MATERIAL HAS BEEN OnANTCO Bv
American Vicxaen in Radio
& TelevisioHj Inc.
TO fcflic AND grgani'::a*ion£: oplrating
UNDER AGREEMENTS W'Th T^f national IN-
STITUTE OF CDUCAT«0N fURTHEfl fl£P«0-
DUCTION OUTSIOE ThE ERiC SYSTEM HE
OUiRES PERMISSION OF IhE COPYRIGHT
Copyright 1974 American Women in Radio & Television. Inc.
1321 Connecticut Avenue. N.W.,^ashington. D.C. 20036 Price: $2.00