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ADTHOfi' , Marsee,. Stuart E. . - * . . 

TITLE ' ihe-State'of Higher Edocation— 1976. 

'INSTITUTION . , El Canino Coll,, Torrance, Calif.; 
POB DATE ■ , Sep 76 » " ' 

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DESCRIEIOR^ Deoocratic Values; ♦Educational 'Benefits; Educational 

Opportunities; Higher Education; ♦Hegative* Attitudes; 

• ♦Post Secondary Bduccttion; ♦Public Opinion; Social 
Hotility;. Social Values 

ABSTRACT . , " ' * I 

* lax grading standards, declining test scores, 
opposition to collective bargaining legislation; the *rend- toward 
job-related majors, the end of the open adnissiccs policy at the- City 
llnivers:^ty of New York — these and other issues recently appearing in 
the nevs media reflect a.^loss of public confidence in the value of 

' higher education. This loss of conlidei^ce constitutes a break vith 
the most fundamental of American values, the fcel^^ef in the path of 
upward mobility through education. ^Xcung people have been sold tlie 
idea that the value of higher education- is principally an economic ' 
one.. They need an explanation of the true values. of the education 
experience: higher intellectual development, occupational and 
professional training, the d'^velbpaent' of research capability aAd 
objective inquiry, and'. the cultivation of the questioning mind and a 
breadth of spirit. Educators cannot be co'^mplacent as confidence^ in 
universal education declln%sr~aiid access zo higher^education^ 
diminishes^ They must retain and regenerate their belief s- in their 
ovn abilities as educators, and ^uard against weaknesses in the 
profession that give legitimate cause to questions about its < 
professionalism. (BT) 



\ 



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Stuart Marsee JHE STATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION - 1975 .H,s jriTses/ PEPPo. 

' ' '• ~ . . , OUCEO EX,frCTLY AS R ECElVEO 'FROM 

) : ' ' • '. THE PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGIN. 

•/ ■ ........ occniiorcc • ^ ' ATING IJ POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS 

TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ^ QtIIADT F MaDCCC <• STateP 00 not -necessarily REPRE- 

INFORMATION CENTER (ERfC) AND O 1 Urtr\ I Ui llrtnoCC SENT offici^lMational iNiTiTUTE OF 

USERS-OF THE ERIC SYSTEM " r>' r- ' EDUCATION PO^IJION OR POLICY 

President - El CAr4iNo College 



sD 



September 1976 



INTRODUCTION; 



00 

> 



■ Generally^ 'in my State of the College address^ I attempt -to ; 

BRING FOCUS UPON THOSE E\(£NTS OR TRENDS— EITHER LOCAL^ STATE" 
WIDE^ OR NATIONAL— THAT HAVE SIGNIFICANCE FOR HIGHER EDUCATION 
AND^^ MORE SPECIFICALLY^ FOR El CaMINO CoLLEGE. 

Today tfie- focus of my comments. will be on the too' often' stated 
: attitude -that has prevailed during the past year. tl+at is^ . 
Ti^T American youth is over-educated for the needs 'of today's 
soci ETY , "^Also7 emphas I s m uTIbe^rected'^ 

AREAS OF PUBLIC CONCERN THAT. HAVE CAST ""SHADOWS UPON THE' ' 
EFFICACY OF HIGHER EDUCATION. • " .. ' ' . 

In an ARTICLE APPEARING IN PaRENTs ' MAGA^mE^ JoHN GARDNER 

stated: "When this ... nation was founded., there was a H6ly 
Roman Emperor.- Venice, was a republic/ France was- ruled by a 
KiHGj China by an emperor., Russia by an Jempress/ Japan by a > 
SHOGUN," Great Britain was a monarchy., tempered by the barest 
beginnings of democracy, All these REGir|Es~AND scdREs OF others— 



^ 'HA^S'E PASSED INTO HISTORY. ThE ONLY GOVERNMENT AMONG TODAY'3 



world powers that stands essentially unchanged is the federal . 
Union put together in the.-1780;,s by thirteen state-s on the "east 
■COAST o*F North America.'" • * . ' 



r 



Why has-^he United' 'States survived these past -200 years wheiN aul 

-OTHERS^AVE FADED /aWAY^ It HAS;^ SURVIVED LARGELY BECAUSE THE 
AmEBLCAN' public A^P* PRIVATE' EDUtATION SYSTEM HAS FOSTERED THE 
PRINCIPLE OF LEADERSHIP BASED* UPON ABILITY AND TALENT. RATHER* 
THAN UPON^RANK AND FAMILY SfATUS, ThOMAS JeFFERSON CALLEE) FOR 
THE EDUCATION' OF. /'youth AND TALENT" WITHOUT REGARD F^OR THEIR 
SOCIAL. STATUS- AS "tHE KEYSTONE OF THE ARCH OF OUR GOVERNMENT." 

■ ; " ■ ' ^ / 

Benjamin Frankl;n v/rote that "nothing is more important for Yhe i' 

PUBLIC WEAL THAN -to" FIRM AND TRAIN UP YOUTH IN WI^DOM*)\Na VIRTUE.."". 

Even in our nation's beginning^ the belief was evident in the , ^ 
import;^nce c|f learning to a democratic society, 

By signing the land-grant college legislation in 1862, Lincoln 
.set Amej^ica 9N'"its course of higher education. Not only for the • . 

^FEW BUT FOR THE MANY, WELDINGS AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, THE SCIENCES ' 

AND OTHER. SEGMENTS^J^^ DEVELOPING SOCIETY JNTO .A NtW >KINB-QF — — 

HIGHER EDUCATION,' . v *• . ' 

' LQSS'^OF-'CQNIfinFNCF- TM THF mi LFGF • ' " - • 

One of THE INSIDIOUS REALITIES OF>THE PAST YEAR HAS BEEN THE WELL- 
PUBLICIZED QUESTIONING AS TO, WHETH^THE BENEFITS.OF HIGHER EDUCATION 
ARE NOT OUTWEIGHED' BY ITS CoItS AND. BURDEN^. SuCH R&ASONlhjG IS 

*//T " f 

LIKE SAYING, IF THE COST 'OF EDUCATION CONTINUES TO RISE, EDUCATIOH 
WILL, SOON BECOME AS EXPENSI VS^ AS IGNORANCE." 

V 

Some of the doubts appear to Be well informed and well intentioned. 
Others seem vindictive and prejudiced. Regardless of the nature 
of the • skepticism, the impact on ^public confidence must not b^ 

^'gNORED. ; The ACADEMIC COMMUNITY HAS BEEN CHALLENGED TO CONTINUE 
TO GAIN AND TO' HOLD THE PUBLIC'S CON'FIDENCE AS NEVER "BEFORE^ ' ' 



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' ' . • " y . ' ' ^ 

, I HANfE; EXPRESSED MY CONCERN BEFORE THIS GROUP MANY TIMES REGARDING 



THE '"shaky" fiscal POSITION' pF HIGHER EDUCATION. ' ThE MOST " . * 
COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL STUPY TO DATE HAS RECENTLY BEEN MADE BY * 

If , THE Nevm Jersey, Commission ..ON Fi.NANfiN"G Post, SEcomRY Education.' / 
JearLy 75% OF, ALL American. COLLEGES and universities (2^16^ 

^institutions) were surveyed AND EVAliuATED, ACCORDING TO 16 _ _ 
FINANCIA]. INEflCATORS,. EACH WAS GIVEN ONE • OF .FIVE RATINGS: HeALTHV^ 

^*Relatively Healthy^ -AvERAisEj Reutively Unhealthy and* Unhealthy* 



The news is both|good and bad. .The bad news j,s that only 25% of*'' 
• the xolleges were found to be healthy^ and nearly half (^9! 2%) 

V^ERE judged* EITHER UNHEALTHY OR RELATIVELY UNHEALTHY.' ' ' . 

■ \ ,1 ■ - • ■ 

The" GOOD news is that T4«1E public' community COLLEGES ARE IN THE 
. best" CONDITION ^ALMOST 70% IN THE HEALTHY CATEGORIES) f^OLLOWED BY 

COLLEGES (only 11,7%). • . ' ; 

At ALL Levels higher education needs positive support from every' 

AVAILABLE AVENUE--M0ST OF ALlVrOM INFORMED PEOPLE SUCH AS YOURSELVES 



Loss OF public faith in HI-GHER EDUCATION IS "NOTHING- SHORT OF A ' 

* " ♦ * _____ 

NATIONAL tragedy/' STATED AlAN PiFER.,_ PRESIDENT OF THE GaRNEGIE . <y 
CORPORATjION OF NeW_Y0RK IN THE FOllND^kTION's 1975 Attti UAL REPORT. He 
WENT 01^ TO STATE THAT IT STANDS TO REASON tliAT TpfiE INDEfrlNITE 
EXPANSION OF jTHE NUMBERS OF DEGREES AWARDED ?THROUGHOUJ THE COUfjTJRY 
WOULD SOGNER jOR LATER- BRJN8'A']5£CLINE* INf MONETARY VALUE OF THE 
DEGREE. • ' ; . , i. ' " • v 



Dr. Pifer says, one cannot blame young peopiIe for BELIEV-IN6*THAT ' 
the value 'of going* to college is principalli^ measured in economic' 

* ~ I 

TE.^Ms,- After all^, college attendance has often been sold to • 

THEM ON THIS SELFISH AND TAWDRY. RATIONALE. , • ' 

♦ • I - • 

Not- THAT- THERE SHOULDN'T BE A FINANCIAL ftSWARD FOR PERSONAL 

INVESTMENT IN HI GJ^ER .EDUCATION- BUT^ RATHEfj^ WE HAVE FAILED TO 

PROVIDE AN EXPLANATION OF THE TRUE VaIuE OF THE EDUCATION 

EXPERIENCE TO YOUNG PEOPLE, ' - • i / • ■ 

' ' I - 

Education functions imilude higher intellectual development^ ' 

OCCUPATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING/THE DEVELOPMENT OF RE"- - 

I ' • I ■> 

SEARCH CAPABILITY AND OBJECTIVE INQUIRY m%j HOPEFULLY/ THE' ' . 

'cultivation in students of 'the questioning ImINO AND A BREADTH 

— ' ' I 

OF SP.IRIT. These are the functicJns of higher .education that 

; ^-^ ^ - \ I _ ■ ' . 

HAVE MADE POSSIBLE THE CELEBRATIoj^l OF OUR BlCEWTENNIAL. ThESE 

ARE THE CONCEPTS THAT MU ST' BE SU P 

Tr I CENTENNIAL. 

SIGNS OF THE TIMES 

Writing in the Harch 20^ 1975 issiiE- of the Saturday ^eview^ 

7 

Fred M, Hechinger> a member of jUe editorial Iboard of the- 
New- York Times and former education editor or that newspaper^ 



LORTED^ IFiV^IE ARE TO^HAVE.A' 



•declared that America" is in a headlong retreat from its 

/ h 

commitment to education... This retreat oughp 

PERTINENT ISSUE IN ANY EXAMINATION OF THE C0Us1tRY*'s CONDITION IN 



TO BE THE Most ■ 



ITS Bicentennial year, At stake-^s nothing less THArl, the survival 
0F„ American/Democracy," ■ i > • .- 



• : 5 



What are. and what have been, some of the issues t'hat have 

caused' A FEELING (5F SKEPTI CI SM- ON THE PART OF THE- CITIZEN AS ONE 
.•VIEWS EDUCATIDN? ' A REVIEW OF SOME OF THE; NE WS A[jTICLES WHrCH HWE 
APPEARED DURING THeSt^ST YEAR WILL HIGHLIGHT SOME OF THE ISSUES 
THAT HAVE CAUSED, WORRY. " SOME OF THE CONCERNS ARE BEING- FACED ir^ 
•A VERY POSITIVE WAY BY COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, INCLUDING" • 

El CAmNo^ Colleg/. 'You can answer, as well as L where w.e'are • 

IN RELATlb^lSHIP TO THE FOLLOWING I SSUES HI GHLIGHTE-D IN THE PRES§': 

These quotations, which I am about to mention, are' taken' out of. 

CONTEXT, BUT THE ISSUES ARE REAL AND THEY ARE WORTHY OF XIAREFUL 
CONSIDERATION BY EVERYONE IN THI S ^THEATER . ' , 

1. U. S. News and VIqrld Report— December 1,. 1975 Page 28 ' 
■"Move Underway to Toughen Grading in Nation's Colleges." 

"A mjok ASSAULT IS BEING MOUNTED BY THE HATION's COLLEGES 
AND UNIVERSITIES AGAINST LAXITY Xk GRADING TH'AT IS SHOWERING 
' A''S AND B*'S" ON H^JNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ' UNDESERVING STUDENTS 

"On one. CAT^PUS' after "ANOTflER, EDUCATORS ARE LOOKING FOR 
WAYS OF sb FFEW I NG. STANDARDS OF CLASSROOM WORK. ReCENT 

' 'experiments in playing down the importance of grades— - 
including ith^. pass-fail idea— are being scuttled." " 

"Staff members. . .going from campus to campus. . .found a wide- 
spread DErlAND FOR HARD GRADING. SkJDENTS SAY. THEY WANT TO 
- ' KNOW WKERE|THEY STAND IN SCHOOL— AND SO DO TU^IR PARENTS... 

• GRADUATE stnOOLS NEED^RADES ^ SCREEN. . .APPLICANTS, AND 
1- - ■ '» , 

THE BUSJNESS V^ORLD ... RELIES ON , GRADES IN, HIRING COLLEGE, 

GRADUATES," " - . ' 



San Francisco Chronicle. ''Labo.1^ Toue .ciP Outlook fp.r 
PuBi^ic Employees ^Rights Bill." August 26!,. 1975 - Page 8, 

/'The political tides are runnTng^Reavily against legislation 
giving public ef-tployees the right to collective bargaining 

• • • 

AND' STRIKES, STATE OFFICIALS TOLD AN'AFL-CIO CONFERENCE. . 

•'"JhE PUBLIC must BE COWVINCfeD .THAT COLLECTIVE BARGAINING . 
won't LEAD TO FURTHER INCREASES IN PROPERTY TAXEs/' ^ 
L-IEUTENANT G0V£RNOR FIeRVIW DyMALLY BLUNTLY, TOLD^ 250. LABOR 
LEADERS, ^ °- " ■ ... ' ^ ' " ."■ " ' ' 

DyMALLY's OTHER d^ITIDISttHAS OF PUBLIC STATEMENTS BY UNION 
•LEADERS AGAINST ATTEMPTS TO ELIMINATE OUTMODED GOVERNMENT 
•AGENCIES THROUGH^ A' SO-CALLED "sUNSET LAVI." 

"You HAVE TO END ' STATEMENTS THAT SOUND LIKE TAXPAYERS EXIST * 
ONLY FOR THE BENEFIT DF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES/' HiE ADVISED;\ •" 

3tate Senator Ralph Dills (DEf^TocRjAT^ Compton)^ a leading 

SPONSOR OF. PUBLIC EMPLOYEES BARGAINING BILLSy CONCURRED THAT 
THE PROSPECTS ARE GETTING WpRSE INSTEAD OF BETTER. ' 

. He CITED A TROUBLING COUNtER-TREND IN LOCAL- LAWS THAT REQUIRE 
THE FIRING OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES THAT STRIKE^ THAT NULLI-FY ^ ' 
TERMS NEGOTIATED DURING STRIKES, ORTHAT REFER PAY AND. OTHER.' 
ISSUES TO APPROVAL BY THE'vOTEKSi^ > • ^ 

Dills. ALSO warned the public employer union leaders that 

THEY HAVE A STAKE IN COMB^ATT I NG "NO-GROWTH LEGISLATION WHICH^ 
IN STIFLING PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT^. WILL REDUCE' THE PEOPLE'S 
ABILITY TO SUPPORT PUBLIC SERVICES. I HAVE SOME THOUGHTS. ON- 
T;^IS SUBJECT TO BE SHARED WITH YOU AT "A LATB^ DATE'.- ' 



U;$. News AMD I-Iorld Report . December 15. 1§76'. "Courses 
THAT Lead TO' Jo|Bs. Takin^j. Overton, Campus.'" . ' 
"Nassiv£^shift.S-->re taking place in the career choicesSf ' 

•COLLEGE. STLfDENTS— AND THE GUIDANCE THEY-^ARE GETTING, FROrt" 
INSTITUTIONS OF.HIG^JER LEA'PNTNG;" 

"C0URSES..Ui|..Bus'lNBSS, ENGINEERING AND AgrICULTUJ^E ARE • 
BOOMING--AND STUDE_NT ^INTEREST IN TeACHER-TrAINIMG^ "BlACK • 

•Studies and. Social' Studies are falling. off sharply." * ' • 
Jhe American Ass6ci'Ation'of State Colleges indicates th^ 

FOLLOWING COURSES ARE- GAINING IN Po'^ULA-RI.TY--AcCOUNTI NG. 

Agriculture., Business- AdNinistration, Economics, Engi-neering 
Geology, Health and Medical Service^, Journalism, f^lwsic. 
ANaART. Courses losing in popularity, are Black. Stud.ies, 
Chemistry, Education, English, (^oreign^Languages, .Histo^y^ 
Literature, Mathematics and- Psychology^'--- ■ • - 
National Observer, "Th^ Era oF i TmT.s." November -29, 1975 
"The November- 29 Natjonal Observer features an interview 
with California's Jerry Brovw under the heading. of "The^ '. 
Era OF Limits." His comments oN-coNfifwii^G education 

include:. "I THINK WE OOGHT TO IMPOSE USER FEES ON THOSE ' 
ABLE TO PAY IT, It's ONE THING. TO GIVE FREE EDUCATION TO ' ' . 
PEOPLE FROM^l TO 25. if S- QUITE- ANOTHER TO SAY WE'LL 
GIVE LIFELONG EDUCATION TO PEOPLE 25 TO 80 ON EVERY SUBJECT. 
UNDER THE SUN." 

U. S. ;News: S World Report . Those Dropping Test Scores--" 
November 24,' 1975, Page 33. • ' ~ ' 

bCIENCE, MATH AND NOW WRITI^NG— IN EACH FIELD STUDENT SCORES 



ARE, DOWN.. , A SEEMIMGLV* ENDLESS PROCESSION OF POOR SCORES 

REPORTED BY .National TEsilrfG agencies is raising fresh " - • 

,D0U3T^ ABOUT THE KIND -OF^ EDUCATION UNITED STATES YOUNGSTERS 
ARE 'GETTING IN TODAY'S PUBLIC SCHOOLS. - 

Time/ "Crossroads at CUNY" - December 29. 19^75 . ^- . 

"In "RECENT; YEARS. . .City -College and the 19 other institutions 

THAT MAKE UP THE TUITION-FREE ClTY 'Un-IVERsVtY 'OF NeW YoFiK 
<CUNY) HAVE FOUND IT INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT TO KEEP -UP THEIR-* 

sTAf^ARDSj* Reason:. A 1959 ruling that o^^ei^d t-he doors of / 
THE univers;ty to any student holding 'A high school '^i'pl^a 
FROM New York City's^ schqol system> which graduates Mny 
functional illiterates "Last December the -New York Board of 
H'igher Education' voffe0 to require CUNY /\pri-IC)\nts to rass an . 

'^WTRANCE requirement— AN EIGHTH-GRADE' LEVEL 'iN BOTH READING 

■ ' ' - - . *- 
AND MATH . . „ ^ . ' , , ' 

Technically, the Board's action was taken "for econojMic 
rather than academic reasons. over the n^xt four years 
the new polrcy.will disqualify an estimated 10^000 students 

PER' YEAR. SAVIM'G NeW YorK ABOUT $15 MILLION ANNUALLY. •. JhE 
REACTION BY STUDENTS AND OTHERS WAS" FURJOUS. A "CUNY S0CI0LO~ 
GiST RELEASED A ^PORT- SHOWING THAT MOST OF THOSE BARRED WOULD 
BE MINORITY". STUDENTS. 'AuTHOR ^ALFRED KaZEN. a PROFESSOR AT 

CUNY's HiMTER College staied. "It is a. revolt against the 

MASSES. . . , ■ . , / , 

"Another C'UMY graduate. Harvard Sociologist. Nathan Glazer^ 
said; "It^seems a highly reasonable notion that a college 
fre'shman be able ■to rea« at^d write at the 'eighth-ferade level*" 



CONCLUSIOi^l: * • - • 

T-HERE ARE MANY FORCES AT WORK WHICH AFFECT PUBLIC HIGHER. EDUCATION 

IN- America. There alwaVs have- been. It would appear this; is-nc 



TIME FOR OUR COMPLACENCY REGARDING THE, IMPORTANCE OF THE PLACE OF 



TilGHER EDUCATION- -IN, THE 'AmERICAN FUTURE. We CANNOT TOLERATE* A- 
DECLINING CONFIDENCE IN .UNIVERSAL EDUCATION AND DIMl'NISHING ACCESS 
T© HI.GHtR LEARNING. ■ We MUST BE VIGILANT-AGAINST WEAKNESSES IN 
OUR PROFESSION THAT GIVE LEGITIMATE CAUSE TO' QUESTION OUR 
PROFESSIONALISM. An EROSION IN THE PATH^OF. UPWARD 'MbBItlTY 
CONSTITflTES A BREAK WITH THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF AMRICAN IDEALS, 

It would be the end of th? op(>ORfgNiTY THAT V'/as enVisjjoned BY- 
Thomas Jefferson* when he called for a new aristocracy of. talent ' 

TO REPLACE THE oLD ARISTOCRACY OF INHERITED POWER. ' ' - ' 

.. . ' . ■ ' J- ' ' 

We^MUST RETAIN AI^ID REGENERATE OUR BELIEFS IN OUR ABILITIES AS 

•EDUCATORS,. E.VEN MORE IMPORTANT^ MUST CONJIt^UE TO PERFORM AT 

SUCH A L€VEL THAT OUR PROFESSIONALISM IS. ABOVE REPROACH. .-ThE 

incentive to do so i s, elemental: - to perpetuate american" - --^ ' 
democracy! • - ^ 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIF. ^ • ^ 

LOS ANGELES 

DEC 2 9 197/: ■ 
» . ' ■ • ■ 

CLEARINGHOUSE FOR » 
JJJJNIOR COLLEGES 



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